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Sample records for materiel electronique utilise

  1. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 547.301... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or related materiel of all types, including military aircraft and equipment, but excludes:...

  2. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... solely for humanitarian or protective use, and related technical assistance and training; (c) Supplies...

  3. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... solely for humanitarian or protective use, and related technical assistance and training; (c) Supplies...

  4. Developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pour precipiter les defauts latents de circuits electroniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, Francois

    2003-08-01

    Le procede de deverminage, ou Environmental Stress Screening (ESS), est employe principalement dans le domaine de l'electronique pour reduire les mortalites infantiles des produits avant leur livraison. Il utilise usuellement des stimulations environnementales telles que les vibrations ou la temperature produites a l'aide d'equipements conventionnels d'essais qui sont tres couteux et difficiles a implanter. Le but de cette recherche est le developpement d'une nouvelle methode d'excitation vibratoire des plaques de circuits electroniques a moindre cout par l'emploi de l'excitation acoustique. Le projet a mene au developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pouvant etre utilise lors d'implantations du procede ESS en milieu industriel. L'utilisation de cette nouvelle technologie et des methodes novatrices de personnalisation des spectres ESS proposees dans cette these permettent la precipitation de defaillances latentes presentes dans les produits electroniques de facon efficace et securitaire et ce, a moindre cout par rapport aux technologies concurrentes. La methodologie des travaux presentes dans cette these inclus: (1) La generation acoustique des vibrations sur les circuits; (2) L'analyse modale acoustique des circuits par des methodes a reference unique et a references multiples; (3) La precipitation de defauts latents typiques des circuits electroniques; (4) Une methode d'individualisation des spectres vibratoires tenant compte des caracteristiques structurelles des circuits; (5) La presentation de la configuration de l'equipement acoustique et les resultats d'implantation du procede. Nonobstant la fabrication, l'installation et la mise en service d'un equipement en milieu industriel (depuis le mois de mai 2002), ces travaux ont permis l'obtention de trois familles de brevets et la publication de six articles de conference: trois portant sur l'analyse modale a reference unique, un portant sur l'analyse modale a references multiples, un autre portant sur la

  5. Developing a quality improvement program in materiel management.

    PubMed

    Kovar, M S

    1992-02-01

    Materiel management frequently considers itself a service organization but infrequently considers the service provided as contributing to quality patient care. Quality patient care can only be delivered if every department is delivering quality service. Materiel management's ultimate customer is the patient waiting for the supply that is to be delivered by central stores or the prosthetic device to be obtained through purchasing. Quality service is the key to success, and materiel management must be proactive and deliver quality services.

  6. Business ethics: the materiel/manufacturing perspective.

    PubMed

    Marucheck, A S; Robbins, L B

    1990-08-01

    The discussion of purchasing practices and product integrity, which have ethical implications for materiel/manufacturing management, serves to illustrate how routine decisions can have larger implications for the firm as a whole. Management needs to take a proactive role in confronting ethical issues by (1) demonstrating a corporate commitment to sound ethics in business practices, (2) providing written policies where appropriate to provide a basis for sound ethical conducts, (3) educating various functional areas to understand their responsibility in seeming unrelated ethical problems, (4) delegating authority in ethical issues where such issues are considered in decision making, and (5) fostering interfunctional communication as a means in establishing corporatewide responsibility. The basic philosophical principles of JIT serve as a blueprint for recognizing and managing ethical responsibility. The unexpected by-products of a JIT implementation may be vendor/customer good will and an excellent reputation for the firm.

  7. Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF), quarterly update. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF) purpose is to provide storage and transportation information on chemical, radioactive and ammunition items in the Army inventory. Data are taken from the Army Central Logistics Data Bank (ACLDB).

  8. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related materiel of all types, military aircraft, and equipment, but excludes: (a) Supplies and technical... flak jackets and military helmets, for use by United Nations personnel, representatives of the...

  9. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related materiel of all types, military aircraft, and equipment, but excludes: (a) Supplies and technical... flak jackets and military helmets, for use by United Nations personnel, representatives of the...

  10. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related materiel of all types, including military aircraft and equipment, but excludes: (a) Supplies and...'Ivoire to the forces of a country that is taking action solely and directly to facilitate the...

  11. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM.

  12. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM. PMID:10667941

  13. 30 CFR 1220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suitable for reuse without reconditioning: (A) Materiel transferred to the NPSL project area shall be priced at 75 percent of current Condition A price. (B) Materiel transferred from the NPSL project area... to NPSL operations as Condition A materiel, or (2) At 65 percent of current Condition A price, if...

  14. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  15. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel. 623.3 Section 623.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.3 Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel....

  16. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel. 623.3 Section 623.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.3 Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel....

  17. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  18. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  19. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 546.301 Section 546.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.301 Arms or any related...

  20. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 546.301 Section 546.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.301 Arms or any related...

  1. The cost management organization: the next step for materiel management.

    PubMed

    Schuweiler, R C

    1997-06-01

    With Materiel Management's transition over the last decade from simple logistics to analysis and cost management, it has gained recognition as a key part of the management team responsible for supplies, equipment, standards, and associated processes to identify, purchase, store, distribute, issue, and dispose of supplies and equipment. The materiel manager's job consists of putting the right product in the right place at the right time and in the right quantity at the best total delivered cost. In this context, Materiel Management has made powerful impacts to lower costs associated with: Distribution--costs have been lowered by actively adopting advanced supply channel management techniques such as primary suppliers, JIT, stockless programs, case cart/custom kit/procedure based delivery systems, modified stockless programs as well as margin management through cost plus, flat fee, or margins paid per activity. Cost of goods--lowered through aggregated purchasing in the forms of regional and national purchasing alliances and local capitation or other gain/risk share programs. Internal process costs--lowered by out-sourcing and/or integrating supplier processes and personnel into operations via partnership approaches. We have also reduced transactional costs through EDI transaction sets and the emerging use of the inter and intranet/electronic commerce, procurement cards, and evaluated receipt settlement processes. De-layering--We have lowered the operating costs of Materiel Management overhead by re-design/re-engineering, resulting in reduced management and greater front line authority. Quality--We have learned to identify and respond to customer and supplier needs by using quality improvement tools and ongoing measurement and monitoring techniques. Through this we have identified the waste of non-beneficial products and services. We have adopted supplier certification measurers to ensure quality is built into processes and outcomes. With so much already accomplished

  2. 48 CFR 208.7003-1 - Assignments under integrated materiel management (IMM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignments under integrated materiel management (IMM). 208.7003-1 Section 208.7003-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Coordinated Acquisition 208.7003-1 Assignments under integrated materiel...

  3. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures—(1) DOD activities. DOD activities will borrow Army materiel as follows: (i) Requests will be made... materiel as follows: (i) Non-DOD activities, and agencies, will send routine requests by letter 45 days... available, identify the items needed by type, model, size, capacity, caliber, etc. (I) Geographic...

  4. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures—(1) DOD activities. DOD activities will borrow Army materiel as follows: (i) Requests will be made... materiel as follows: (i) Non-DOD activities, and agencies, will send routine requests by letter 45 days... available, identify the items needed by type, model, size, capacity, caliber, etc. (I) Geographic...

  5. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures—(1) DOD activities. DOD activities will borrow Army materiel as follows: (i) Requests will be made... materiel as follows: (i) Non-DOD activities, and agencies, will send routine requests by letter 45 days... available, identify the items needed by type, model, size, capacity, caliber, etc. (I) Geographic...

  6. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    PubMed

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) C Appendix C to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) C Appendix C to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) C Appendix C to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form... ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) EC24OC91.013 EC24OC91.014 EC24OC91.015 EC24OC91.016...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form... ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) EC24OC91.013 EC24OC91.014 EC24OC91.015 EC24OC91.016...

  12. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures—(1) Policies. (i) DA elements do not program for costs related to loan of Army materiel. (ii) Loans to non-DOD Federal activities are made on the basis that there will be no extra cost to the Army. Costs that are in addition to normal Army operating expenses will be reimbursed by the...

  13. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures—(1) Policies. (i) DA elements do not program for costs related to loan of Army materiel. (ii) Loans to non-DOD Federal activities are made on the basis that there will be no extra cost to the Army. Costs that are in addition to normal Army operating expenses will be reimbursed by the...

  14. 30 CFR 220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions. 220.015 Section 220.015 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR...

  15. A methodology for the quantification of doctrine and materiel approaches in a capability-based assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangen, Steven Anthony

    Due to the complexities of modern military operations and the technologies employed on today's military systems, acquisition costs and development times are becoming increasingly large. Meanwhile, the transformation of the global security environment is driving the U.S. military's own transformation. In order to meet the required capabilities of the next generation without buying prohibitively costly new systems, it is necessary for the military to evolve across the spectrum of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). However, the methods for analyzing DOTMLPF approaches within the early acquisition phase of a capability-based assessment (CBA) are not as well established as the traditional technology design techniques. This makes it difficult for decision makers to decide if investments should be made in materiel or non-materiel solutions. This research develops an agent-based constructive simulation to quantitatively assess doctrine alongside materiel approaches. Additionally, life-cycle cost techniques are provided to enable a cost-effectiveness trade. These techniques are wrapped together in a decision-making environment that brings crucial information forward so informed and appropriate acquisition choices can be made. The methodology is tested on a future unmanned aerial vehicle design problem. Through the implementation of this quantitative methodology on the proof-of-concept study, it is shown that doctrinal changes including fleet composition, asset allocation, and patrol pattern were capable of dramatic improvements in system effectiveness at a much lower cost than the incorporation of candidate technologies. Additionally, this methodology was able to quantify the precise nature of strong doctrine-doctrine and doctrine-technology interactions which have been observed only qualitatively throughout military history. This dissertation outlines the methodology and demonstrates how potential

  16. Analysis of the Army Materiel Command radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, C.A.; Stephenson, J.D.; Young, V.I.

    1986-02-28

    This report documents an analysis of and recommendations to enhance the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) Radiation Protection Program. Data were collected from all AMC installations that participate in radiation-control activities. The data reflected radiation protection officer capabilities and specific-installation radiation sources. The analysis and subsequent recommendations assess the scope of activities performed at AMC installations, management issues related to radiation control, tasks, and responsibilities in support of radiation control, training status, and requirements to train primary and alternate radiation protection officers, and the capability of primary and alternate RPOs to operate and calibrate specific ionizing radiation-detection equipment.

  17. Materiel availability modeling and analysis for a complex army weapon system.

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, David W.; Anderson, Dennis James; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Hoffman, Matthew J.

    2010-10-01

    Materiel availability (A{sub m}) is a new US Department of Defense Key Performance Parameter (KPP) implemented through a mandatory Sustainment Metric consisting of an Availability KPP and two supporting Key System Attributes (KSAs), materiel reliability and ownership cost. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), in conjunction with several US Army organizations, developed the analytical foundation, assumptions, and brigade-level modeling approach to support lifecycle, fleet-wide A{sub m} modeling and analysis of a complex Army weapon system. Like operational availability (A{sub o}), A{sub m} is dependent on reliability, but A{sub m} is also affected by other factors that do not impact A{sub o}. The largest influences on A{sub m} are technology insertion and reset downtimes. A{sub m} is a different metric from A{sub o}. Whereas A{sub o} is an operational measure, A{sub m} is more of a programmatic measure that spans a much larger timeframe, additional sources of downtime, and additional sources of unscheduled maintenance.

  18. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  19. Etude ab initio des proprietes electroniques et optiques d'un systeme donneur-accepteur organique utilise dans les cellules photovoltaiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Arnaud

    The search for new sources of clean and renewable energy has recently been encouraged by the growing energy demand caused by the industrialization of developing countries and by population growth. In this context, the generation of electricity through the exploitation of solar energy with photovoltaic cells is particularly interesting, since this energy source is largely unused compared to its full potential. Nevertheless, large scale electricity generation with the current design of photovoltaic cells based on silicon is hindered by the large manufacturing cost of these devices. A new generation of photovoltaic cells, which includes organic photovoltaic cells that use semiconducting polymers, is under intense development in order to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. The replacement of conventional materials with conjugated polymers in photovoltaic cells opens the possibility of using large scale manufacturing processes to produce large-area devices at low cost. However, the power conversion efficiency and the lifetime of organic photovoltaic cells are currently too low for these devices to be cost effective. A better understanding of the organic photovoltaic process is therefore necessary to improve the power conversion efficiency of these devices. The operating principle of photovoltaic cells requires the charge transfer between a polymer acting as an electron donor and a molecule acting as an electron acceptor to enable the dissociation of photogenerated excitons into free charge carriers. Furthermore, to ensure that the majority of the photogenerated excitons dissociates, the active region of an organic photovoltaic cell is typically formed by a bulk heterojunction between the donor and the acceptor. Many experimental studies have shown that the power conversion efficiency of these devices, which is proportional to the product of their short-circuit current Isc with their open circuit potential Voc, is strongly governed by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction defined as the local order of the two phases and the organization of the donor-acceptor interfaces. Even though these studies have helped to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells, the relations linking the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction to their electronic and optical properties are still to be established. The objective of the research project is to computationally study the electronic and optical properties of organic bulk heterojunctions composed of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) and C60, two materials typically used in organic photovoltaic cells. In this study, the microstructure of the donor-acceptor systems can be directly controlled, which facilitates the systematic study of the influence of this parameter on the electronic and optical properties of the organic bulk heterojunctions. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the ground state geometric and electronic properties of multiple bulk heterojunction systems, while the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is used to study the optical properties of these systems. The SIESTA software package is used to study periodic systems representing perfectly crystalline materials. The results obtained in this research project show that the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells is strongly modulated by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunctions. Indeed, the size of the rrP3HT crystalline domains must be optimized to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic devices, since Voc and Isc have opposite behaviors with respect to π-stacking of the rrP3HT chains. In addition, the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells could be improved by imposing geometrical constraints in the bulk heterojunctions through manufacturing methods in order to increase the value of Voc without altering the value of Isc. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  1. Air compliance through pollution prevention at Air Force Materiel Command facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpa, R.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1999-03-19

    Options for air compliance through pollution prevention (P2) have been identified at 14 facilities of the US Air Force Materiel Command, ranging from depots with significant light industrial activity to laboratories. Previous P2 efforts concentrated on reducing hazardous and solid wastes, with any reduction in air impacts generally being a collateral benefit. This work focused on reducing air emissions and air compliance vulnerabilities. P2 options were identified in three stages. First, potentially applicable P2 options were identified from Internet and published information. Attention was given to identifying the types of sources to which an option could be applied, the option's state of development, and constraints that could limit its application. Traditional P2 options involving technology or equipment changes and material substitution were considered. In addition, newer approaches based on administrative ''controls'' were considered. These included inserting P2 into operating permits in exchange for administrative relief, privatization, derating boilers, and reducing an installation's potential to emit and compliance vulnerability by separating sources not under the Air Force's ''common control.'' Next, criteria and toxic emissions inventories by source category were prepared from inventory data supplied by facilities. The major problems at this stage were differences in the levels of detail provided by facilities and in the categories used by different installations. Emitting categories were matched to P2 option categories to identify candidate options. Candidates were screened to account for local regulations and technical information about sources in the inventories. When possible, emission reductions were estimated to help facility personnel prioritize options. Some options identified are being actively pursued by facilities to determine their site-specific feasibility. Although much work has been done to implement material substitution programs, this

  2. Uptake of munitions materiels (TNT, RDX) by crop plants and potential interactions of nitrogen nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.; Mitchell, W.

    1995-12-31

    Munitions materiel such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and their combustion/decomposition products can accumulate/cycle in terrestrial environs. High soil organic matter and fertility have been previously shown to negatively correlate with both TNT or RDX uptake in plants such as grass, wheat, and bean. The present study was therefore conducted using low fertility soil to assess uptake and distribution patterns of C-radiolabelled TNT and RDX (15 and 30 {micro}g/g) within corn (Zea mays), spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), carrot (Daucus carota), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown to maturity in growth chambers. Uptake by the plants at maturity (90- to 120-days) ranged from 1.8 to 2.7% of total amended {sup 14}C-TNT for carrots and corn respectively and 17 to 33% of total amended {sup 14}C-RDX for corn and carrots respectively. Distribution patterns of total radiolabel indicate that the TNT-derived label was primarily retained within the roots (60 to 85%) while the RDX-derived label was distributed to the shoots (85 to 97%). Less than 0.01 {micro}g/g dry wt. TNT was found in all analyzed shoot tissues with > 90% of the TNT-derived radiolabel in the form of polar metabolites. Concentrations of RDX in shoot tissues of corn exceeded 180 {micro}g/g dry wt. Alfalfa grown in unfertilized, fertilized (NO{sub 3}), or unfertilized-inoculated (Rhizobia) soil exhibited a 70 to 100% increase in dry wt. after 45 days in the TNT-amended (15 {micro}g/g) fertilized and unfertilized-inoculated plants versus the controls. A potential TNT/nitrogen interaction will be discussed.

  3. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  4. Model of US Army Materiel Command (AMC) energy consumption. Volume 1. Development of monthly energy-consumption equations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwinski, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes the development of equations to relate monthly energy consumption at U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) installations to weather and process parameters. Equations were developed using multiple linear regression analysis for the Armament Munitions and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) and Depot Systems Command (DESCOM) major subcommands of AMC. Multiple regression analysis is the process of fitting a curve to a set of data points. This technique, commonly known as least-squares curve fitting, is based on minimizing the sum of the squares of the errors between the data and the fitted equation. Once the regression analysis is performed, it is possible to generate confidence limits about the fitted equation. For example, the 95% confidence limits determine the range of data values that will fall within the limits 95% of the time. The confidence limits are useful in making statistically valid statements about the meaning of future observations. Accuracies of both the individual and the command-level equations are described, and examples for calculating confidence limits of the equations are given. Results in using the equations to predict AMCCOM and DESCOM total energy consumption indicate they provide a useful tool for managing AMC energy use. Lumped data regression was used to analyze energy-consumption data for AMCCOM, and the efforts are now under way to apply it to DESCOM data.

  5. Standard operating procedure for air quality stationary source management at Air Force installations in the Air Force Materiel Command

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.M.; Ryckman, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    To sustain compliance and avoid future enforcement actions associated with air quality stationary sources and to provide installation commanders with a certification process for Title V permitting, and Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Stationary Source Management has been developed. The SOP consists of two major sections: Stationary Source Planning and Administration, and Stationary Source Operations These two main sections are further subdivided into twelve subsections which delineate requirements (e.g. maintaining inventories, applying for and maintaining permits, keeping records, reporting and certifying compliance) and assign ownership of processes and responsibilities (e.g. appointing a manager/alternate for each identified stationary air source). In addition, the SOP suggests training that should be provided from operator to commander levels to ensure that all personnel involved with a stationary air source are aware of their responsibilities. Implementation of the SOP should provide for the essential control necessary for installation commanders to eliminate stationary air source non-compliance and to certify compliance in accordance with the Title V Operating Permit requirements. This paper will discuss: the background and purpose for the SOPs content, the twelve subsections of the SOP, the success of implementation at various installations, the relevance or the recommended training, the success of negotiating with various labor unions for SOP implementation and the success of the SOP in reference to its intended purpose.

  6. Etude des defauts microscopiques et des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques du compose neodyme cerium oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Pierre

    La presente these, qui combine des mesures de diffusion Raman, de transmission infrarouge, de conductivite hyperfrequence et d'interferometrie ultrasonore sur les composes Nd 2-xCexCuO 4, traite des defauts d'oxygene, ainsi que des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques de ces materiaux. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus sont correles avec plusieurs donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature. D'abord, la caracterisation des modes Raman et des niveaux d'energie de champ cristallin de l'ion Nd3+ au moyen de techniques optiques, en fonction du dopage en cerium et du contenu en oxygene, permettent de conclure a la presence de defauts lies a une non-stoechiometrie en oxygene dans ces composes. En effet, des excitations de champ cristallin assignees a des ions Nd3+ en sites irreguliers sont observees, en plus des bandes d'absorption associees aux ions Nd3+ en site regulier, dans les spectres correspondant aux multiplets 4I11/2, 4I13/2 et 4I 15/2 de l'ion Nd3+. Les resultats experimentaux indiquent que, contrairement a la croyance largement repandue, les oxygenes apicaux, bien que presents dans les echantillons dopes, ne sont pas enleves lors du processus de reduction des echantillons necessaire pour faire apparaitre la supraconductivite dans cette famille de cuprates. Au contraire, des lacunes d'oxygene, dont le type varie en fonction du dopage, sont creees lors de ce processus. En particulier, il est montre dans ce travail que la reduction des echantillons dopes de maniere optimale conduit a la creation de lacunes d'oxygene dans les plans CuO2. Les consequences de telles lacunes sont largement discutees. En outre, il est suggere que de telles lacunes sont responsables de la perte de l'ordre antiferromagnetique a longue portee des ions Cu2+. Finalement, l'interaction d'echange anisotrope Nd3+-Cu 2+ dans le compose nondope est caracterisee au moyen de la transmission infrarouge sous champ magnetique. L'eclatement des doublets de Kramers mesure

  7. Detection of theophylline utilising portable electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiancheng; Randviir, Edward P; Banks, Craig E

    2014-04-21

    The electrochemical oxidation of theophylline (TP) is investigated utilising screen-printed electrodes. Through thorough investigation of pH, we propose a reaction mechanism, finding that the oxidation of TP is stable over a wide pH range, in particular under acidic conditions. Conversely under alkaline conditions, theophylline fouls the electrode surface. The screen-printed carbon sensors are applied towards the electroanalytical sensing of TP with a remarkable amount of success in aqueous solution at physiological pH. The screen-printed sensors have been shown to be applicable to the detection of TP at unharmful, medicinally relevant (55-110 μM), and toxic concentrations in aqueous media at physiological pH. Thus this work presents a proof-of-concept approach towards TP detection utilising sensors commonly implemented in point-of-care applications.

  8. Utilisation of magnets to enhance gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-12-25

    Methods to assess, access and treat pathology within the gastrointestinal tract continue to evolve with video endoscopy replacing radiology as the gold standard. Whilst endoscope technology develops further with the advent of newer higher resolution chips, an array of adjuncts has been developed to enhance endoscopy in other ways; most notable is the use of magnets. Magnets are utilised in many areas, ranging from endoscopic training, lesion resection, aiding manoeuvrability of capsule endoscopes, to assisting in easy placement of tubes for nutritional feeding. Some of these are still at an experimental stage, whilst others are being increasingly incorporated in our everyday practice.

  9. Men, masculine identities, and health care utilisation.

    PubMed

    Noone, Jack H; Stephens, Christine

    2008-07-01

    Seeking medical help early is critical for recovery, yet evidence indicates that men do not utilise general practitioner services as often as women. This paper draws on Connell's (1995) theory of hegemonic masculinity to critically examine how men's under-utilisation of medical services may be influenced by the social construction of masculine identities. Interviews with seven older rural men about their help-seeking behaviour, used a movie extract and hypothetical scenarios to stimulate discussion. Transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis, which showed that in this particular social context, the men faced a dilemma when identifying with two conflicting subject positions: the virtuous regular health care user, and the masculine infrequent user of health care services. They solved this dilemma by positioning women as frequent and trivial users of health care and themselves as legitimate users of health care. By using biomedical and morality discourses in this way the men could maintain a masculine identity whilst also identifying as virtuous users of health care services. These results support the utility of hegemonic masculinity as a theoretical basis for examining the construction and maintenance of gendered identities by highlighting the complexity of multiple masculine identities.

  10. Fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information: une approche nanodamascene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick

    Les transistors mono-electroniques (SETs) sont des dispositifs ayant un grand potentiel d'applications, comme la detection de charge ultra-sensible, la logique a basse consommation de puissance, la memoire ou la metrologie. De plus, la possibilite de pieger un seul electron et de manipuler son etat de spin pourrait permettre des applications en informatique quantique. Le silicium est un materiau interessant pour fabriquer l'ilot d'un SET. Son gap semi-conducteur permet le fonctionnement du dispositif dans le regime a un seul electron ou trou et pourrait permettre d'etendre la plage d'operation du SET en temperature en augmentant l'energie d'addition du diamant central de la valeur du gap. En outre, le silicium beneficie de plus de quarante annees d'expertise en microfabrication et d'une compatibilite avec la technologie metal--oxyde--semi-conducteur complementaire (CMOS). Cependant, la fabrication de ces dispositifs fait face a de serieuses limitations a cause de la taille nanometrique requise pour l'ilot. A ce jour, les procedes de fabrication proposes permettant l'operation a la temperature ambiante sont trop peu reproductibles pour permettre des applications a grande echelle. Dans ce memoire de maitrise, la fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium (Si-SETs) pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information est realisee avec un procede nanodamascene. Le polissage chimico-mecanique (CMP) est introduit comme etape clef de la fabrication du transistor, permettant le controle au nanometre pres (nanodamascene) de l'epaisseur du transistor. Cet outil permet la fabrication de dispositifs ayant une geometrie auparavant impossible a realiser et ouvre la porte a l'innovation technologique. De plus, un procede de gravure du silicium par plasma a couplage inductif (ICP) est developpe pour permettre la fabrication de nanostructures de silicium sur une nanotopographie alliant le nano et le 3D. Les Si-SETs fabriques sont caracterises a basse

  11. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    PubMed

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. PMID:19362462

  12. Perspectives and visions on CO2 capture and utilisation.

    PubMed

    North, M; Styring, P

    2015-01-01

    This article summarises and contextualises the debates which occurred during the Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Faraday Discussion meeting. The utilisation of carbon dioxide is discussed in terms of both conversion to fuel, with a potential impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and conversion to chemicals with a potential impact on sustainability. PMID:26527125

  13. Perspectives and visions on CO2 capture and utilisation.

    PubMed

    North, M; Styring, P

    2015-01-01

    This article summarises and contextualises the debates which occurred during the Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Faraday Discussion meeting. The utilisation of carbon dioxide is discussed in terms of both conversion to fuel, with a potential impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and conversion to chemicals with a potential impact on sustainability.

  14. Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Roger

    Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process

  15. Integrated nuclear data utilisation system for innovative reactors.

    PubMed

    Yamano, N; Hasegawa, A; Kato, K; Igashira, M

    2005-01-01

    A five-year research and development project on an integrated nuclear data utilisation system was initiated in 2002, for developing innovative nuclear energy systems such as accelerator-driven systems. The integrated nuclear data utilisation system will be constructed as a modular code system, which consists of two sub-systems: the nuclear data search and plotting sub-system, and the nuclear data processing and utilisation sub-system. The system will be operated with a graphical user interface in order to enable easy utilisation through the Internet by both nuclear design engineers and nuclear data evaluators. This paper presents an overview of the integrated nuclear data utilisation system, describes the development of a prototype system to examine the operability of the user interface and discusses specifications of the two sub-systems. PMID:16381697

  16. Integrated nuclear data utilisation system for innovative reactors.

    PubMed

    Yamano, N; Hasegawa, A; Kato, K; Igashira, M

    2005-01-01

    A five-year research and development project on an integrated nuclear data utilisation system was initiated in 2002, for developing innovative nuclear energy systems such as accelerator-driven systems. The integrated nuclear data utilisation system will be constructed as a modular code system, which consists of two sub-systems: the nuclear data search and plotting sub-system, and the nuclear data processing and utilisation sub-system. The system will be operated with a graphical user interface in order to enable easy utilisation through the Internet by both nuclear design engineers and nuclear data evaluators. This paper presents an overview of the integrated nuclear data utilisation system, describes the development of a prototype system to examine the operability of the user interface and discusses specifications of the two sub-systems.

  17. Appropriateness versus efficiency: the economics of utilisation review.

    PubMed

    Coast, J

    1996-04-01

    The aim of routine utilisation review is to identify patients who are inappropriately placed in an acute unit and who could be alternatively treated in a lower technology facility. Utilisation review was designed as a means of cost control in the USA. but problems with rising emergency admissions and consequent acute bed shortages in the UK have led to a substantial and growing interest in the concept of appropriateness and in the development of utilisation review instruments. Appropriate care is not necessarily the same as efficient care, however, and inappropriate care could potentially be more cost-effective than the alternative. This will depend on, first, whether the design of utilisation review instruments is such that they will encourage efficiency, and second. whether efficiency objectives would be met by the application of utilisation review in the context of the UK health care system. The first issue is discussed in relation to the effectiveness of alternative forms of care. The second is discussed in relation to the potential for reductions in cost, the issue of institutional resistance in the UK, and the validity of utilisation review instruments. The paper concludes that the potential impact of utilisation review on technical efficiency in the UK is ambiguous and questions its purpose in the National Health Service.

  18. Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

    1984-02-01

    In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

  19. Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2006-04-15

    During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D90=16.21+/-0.20 microm) is finer than the CCRs (D90=19.72+/-0.18 microm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6}and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2 Fe2O3SO3 x 5 H2O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO2}, mullite {3 Al2O3 x 2 SiO2} and hematite {Fe2O3}. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26+/-0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498+/-0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66+/-0.18%), sulphur (12.23+/-0.2%) and zinc (8.243+/-0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon (27.41+/-0.74%), aluminium (15.167+/-0.376%) and iron (4

  20. Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2006-04-15

    During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D90=16.21+/-0.20 microm) is finer than the CCRs (D90=19.72+/-0.18 microm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6}and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2 Fe2O3SO3 x 5 H2O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO2}, mullite {3 Al2O3 x 2 SiO2} and hematite {Fe2O3}. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26+/-0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498+/-0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66+/-0.18%), sulphur (12.23+/-0.2%) and zinc (8.243+/-0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon (27.41+/-0.74%), aluminium (15.167+/-0.376%) and iron (4

  1. Factors influencing the utilisation of health services by rural men.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Dermot; Lower, Tony

    2002-01-01

    This research identified the barriers and enablers that influence the utilisation of health services by rural men in the Midwest region of Western Australia. The methodology was based on participatory action research, including qualitative assessments to determine the issues for a larger quantitative study. Four variables were identified as predictors for the use of health services: those who attended for preventive reasons; those not affected by seasonal work; men who thought a medical telephone line was not important; and those who did not consider privacy an important issue. Modification of health service delivery to men could potentially enhance appropriate utilisation of health services in rural areas.

  2. Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

  3. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  4. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. PMID:26164776

  5. Redirecting Under-Utilised Computer Laboratories into Cluster Computing Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John S.; Spenneman, Dirk H. R.; Cornforth, David

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide administrators at an Australian university with data on the feasibility of redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories facilities into a distributed high performance computing facility. Design/methodology/approach: The individual log-in records for each computer located in the computer laboratories at the university were…

  6. Synthesis, characterisation and microbial utilisation of amorphous polysugars from lactose.

    PubMed

    Daines, Alison M; Smart, Zlatka; Sims, Ian M; Tannock, Gerald W; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2015-03-01

    The melt polymerisations of glucose, galactose, xylose and fucose with citric acid, and mixtures of sugars therein are reported. Characterisation of the citric-acid catalysed reaction products indicated similar degrees of branched polymerisation but differences in the overall molecular weight of the polymers produced. The dairy by-product lactose could not be polymerised in a similar fashion but was shown to be readily hydrolysed using microwave radiation and a polymer generated from the melt condensation of the resultant glucose and galactose monosaccharides. A preliminary assessment of the bifido-bacterial utilisation of the lactose-derived polymerised products demonstrated a significantly different growth profile compared to commercially utilised galactooligosaccharides (GOS). PMID:25498629

  7. The European Space Agency standard for space packet utilisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Parkes, A.; Pidgeon, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the ESA concept for the use of CCSDS defined Telemetry and Telecommand Packets at the application level. These Packets are used to monitor and control remotely a space born application. This concept is defined in a Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS) which should become applicable for all ESA missions using Packets. The production of this standard is under the responsibility of an ESA standardization group called 'COES'.

  8. Healthcare Utilisation and Empowerment Among Women in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora A; Bradley, Elizabeth; Harris, Benjamin; Johnson, Billy; Hansen, Nathan B

    2014-01-01

    Background Many efforts have been undertaken to improve access to healthcare services in low-income settings; nevertheless, underutilisation persists. Women’s lack of empowerment may be a central reason for underutilisation, but empirical literature establishing this relationship is sparse. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey. Our sample included all non-pregnant women who were currently married or living with a partner (N=3925 unweighted). We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the associations between constructs derived from the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) and healthcare utilisation. Results Two-thirds of women (65.6%) had been to a healthcare facility for herself or her children in the past 12 months. Constructs from the three major theoretical structures were associated with healthcare utilisation. Women with no education, compared with women with some education, were less likely to have been to a healthcare facility (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.93) as were women who had experienced sexual abuse (OR=0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.95) and women who were married (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.88). Women in higher wealth quintiles, compared with women in the next lower wealth quintile, and women with more decision-making power had greater odds of having been to a healthcare facility (OR=1.22; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.36 and OR=1.10; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20; respectively). Conclusions Strong associations exist between healthcare utilisation and empowerment among women in Liberia, and gender imbalances are prevalent. This fundamental issue likely needs to be addressed before large-scale improvement in health service utilisation can be expected. PMID:23929617

  9. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity

  10. Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in

  11. Self-Assembled Hydrogels Utilising Polymer-Nanoparticle Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Eric A.; Tibbitt, Mark W.; Webber, Matthew J.; Mattix, Bradley A.; Veiseh, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Mouldable hydrogels that flow upon applied stress and rapidly self-heal are increasingly utilised as they afford minimally invasive delivery and conformal application. Here we report a new paradigm for the fabrication of self-assembled hydrogels with shear-thinning and self-healing properties employing rationally engineered polymer-nanoparticle interactions. Biopolymer derivatives are linked together by selective adsorption to nanoparticles. The transient and reversible interactions between biopolymers and nanoparticles enable flow under applied shear stress, followed by rapid self-healing when the stress is relaxed. We develop a physical description of polymer-nanoparticle gel formation that is utilised to design biocompatible gels for minimally-invasive drug delivery. Owing to the hierarchical structure of the gel, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs can be entrapped and delivered with differential release profiles, both in vitro and in vivo. The work introduces a facile and generalizable class of mouldable hydrogels amenable to a range of biomedical and industrial applications. PMID:25695516

  12. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    PubMed

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  13. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    PubMed

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus. PMID:26403793

  14. Folic acid utilisation related to sulfa drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bayly, A M; Berglez, J M; Patel, O; Castelli, L A; Hankins, E G; Coloe, P; Hopkins Sibley, C; Macreadie, I G

    2001-11-13

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants deficient in folate synthesis have been constructed and employed to study the utilisation of exogenous folates in yeast. One mutant specifically lacked dihydropteroate synthase while the second lacked dihydrofolate synthase. Exogenous folinic acid restored optimal growth to both strains. Folic acid did not generally rescue growth but spontaneous isolates capable of utilising folic acid were selected. The folic acid synthesis pathway in the folate utilising isolates was restored via transformation with FOL1 or FOL3 expression plasmids and transformants were tested for resistance to sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The presence of elevated levels of folic acid led to greatly reduced SMX sensitivity regardless of whether strains were folate utilisers or not.

  15. Technologies for the utilisation of biogenic waste in the bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    A brief review has been done of technologies involved in the exploitation of biogenic wastes, in order to provide an introduction to the subject from the technological perspective. Biogenic waste materials and biomass have historically been utilised for thousands of years, but a new conversation is emerging on the role of these materials in modern bioeconomies. Due to the nature of the products and commodities now required, a modern bioeconomy is not simply a rerun of former ones. This new dialogue needs to help us understand how technologies for managing and processing biogenic wastes--both established and novel--should be deployed and integrated (or not) to meet the requirements of the sustainability, closed-loop and resource-security agendas that evidently sit behind the bioeconomy aspirations now being voiced in many countries and regions of the world.

  16. Technologies for the utilisation of biogenic waste in the bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    A brief review has been done of technologies involved in the exploitation of biogenic wastes, in order to provide an introduction to the subject from the technological perspective. Biogenic waste materials and biomass have historically been utilised for thousands of years, but a new conversation is emerging on the role of these materials in modern bioeconomies. Due to the nature of the products and commodities now required, a modern bioeconomy is not simply a rerun of former ones. This new dialogue needs to help us understand how technologies for managing and processing biogenic wastes--both established and novel--should be deployed and integrated (or not) to meet the requirements of the sustainability, closed-loop and resource-security agendas that evidently sit behind the bioeconomy aspirations now being voiced in many countries and regions of the world. PMID:26769498

  17. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For diffuse UV exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than 60° and 50° respectively can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-330 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of damaging UVA observed in full sun.

  18. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  19. Utilisation of rheumatology care services in Germany: the case of physical therapy and self-help groups

    PubMed Central

    Thieme, Holm; Borgetto, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Physical Therapy (PT) and self-help groups (SHG) are important components of health care in rheumatic diseases. The utilisation of PT and SHG by patients with rheumatic diseases may be influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence on PT and SHG utilisation of patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. We systematically searched the MEDLINE-database for studies that evaluated the utilisation and factors that possibly influence the utilisation of PT and SHG. Eight studies were found for PT-utilisation and one for SHG-utilisation. Between 25 and 59 percent of patients with rheumatic diseases received PT services. Several individual and contextual factors that may influence the utilisation could be identified. In conclusion, evidence exists for wide variations in the utilisation of PT services and an underuse of such services among patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. By contrast, little evidence exists on the utilisation of SHG. PMID:23133502

  20. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  1. Biological carbon dioxide utilisation in food waste anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Y Bajón; Green, K; Schuler, K; Soares, A; Vale, P; Alibardi, L; Cartmell, E

    2015-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment of anaerobic digesters (AD) was previously identified as a potential on-site carbon revalorisation strategy. This study addresses the lack of studies investigating this concept in up-scaled units and the need to understand the mechanisms of exogenous CO2 utilisation. Two pilot-scale ADs treating food waste were monitored for 225 days, with the test unit being periodically injected with CO2 using a bubble column. The test AD maintained a CH4 production rate of 0.56 ± 0.13 m(3) CH4·(kg VS(fed) d)(-1) and a CH4 concentration in biogas of 68% even when dissolved CO2 levels were increased by a 3 fold over the control unit. An additional uptake of 0.55 kg of exogenous CO2 was achieved in the test AD during the trial period. A 2.5 fold increase in hydrogen (H2) concentration was observed and attributed to CO2 dissolution and to an alteration of the acidogenesis and acetogenesis pathways. A hypothesis for conversion of exogenous CO2 has been proposed, which requires validation by microbial community analysis.

  2. Eye care services utilisation among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed A; Ibraheem, Anifat B; Owonikoko, Musliudeen; Tijani, Aramide; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; AbdSalam, Soliu

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and sixty-five pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal clinic of LAUTECH teaching hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and April 2014 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were obtained. Respondents were also asked: if they had had their eye examined by an eye specialist during the index pregnancy, frequencies of visit to eye care centers and indications for their visitation. A history of previous eye examination by eye care specialist/visit to eye clinic was considered as eye care utilisation. Selection of eligible subjects who consented to participate in the study was done using simple random technique. Logistic regression model was used to control sociodemographic and obstetric factors in order to determine independent covariate factor influencing the use of eye care services. Among the population studied, only 46 (32%) had eye examination during the index pregnancy. Level of education and occupational status of the respondents were found to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). There is a need for a policy that will encourage regular eye care services usage during pregnancy. PMID:27012975

  3. Utilising multimedia for training merchant mariners as paramedics.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S

    2000-01-01

    MERMAID is a telemedicine project with global reach and a 24-hour, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model is not limited to medical diagnostics but it encompasses all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications are considered while the full range of network choices is explored in terms of the cost/performance tradeoffs inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in its life cycle. MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialty care best suited to each particular case. Finally, the development of programme modules for training and education of the seafarers in the use of the MERMAID medical communications system is given top priority as such modules constitute the firmest basis for the promotion of proper practice of telemedicine at sea. PMID:11010337

  4. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  5. Biological carbon dioxide utilisation in food waste anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Y Bajón; Green, K; Schuler, K; Soares, A; Vale, P; Alibardi, L; Cartmell, E

    2015-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment of anaerobic digesters (AD) was previously identified as a potential on-site carbon revalorisation strategy. This study addresses the lack of studies investigating this concept in up-scaled units and the need to understand the mechanisms of exogenous CO2 utilisation. Two pilot-scale ADs treating food waste were monitored for 225 days, with the test unit being periodically injected with CO2 using a bubble column. The test AD maintained a CH4 production rate of 0.56 ± 0.13 m(3) CH4·(kg VS(fed) d)(-1) and a CH4 concentration in biogas of 68% even when dissolved CO2 levels were increased by a 3 fold over the control unit. An additional uptake of 0.55 kg of exogenous CO2 was achieved in the test AD during the trial period. A 2.5 fold increase in hydrogen (H2) concentration was observed and attributed to CO2 dissolution and to an alteration of the acidogenesis and acetogenesis pathways. A hypothesis for conversion of exogenous CO2 has been proposed, which requires validation by microbial community analysis. PMID:26143589

  6. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters. PMID:24903247

  7. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Objective While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. Design We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we managed and analysed the data, using QSR NVivo 10 software and the directed content analysis method. Setting We interviewed participants at Japan Clubs and their offices. Participants 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, and 8 medical services providers. Results We identified health beliefs, medical symptoms and health insurance as the 3 most important themes, respectively, representing the 3 dimensions within the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model. Additionally, language barriers, voluntary health repatriation to Japan and psychological support were unique themes that influence healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees. Conclusions The healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be partially explained by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, together with some factors that were unique findings to this study. Healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be improved by alleviating negative health beliefs through awareness programmes for Japanese retirees about the healthcare systems and cultural aspects of medical care in Malaysia. PMID:27006344

  8. Time trends in statin utilisation and coronary mortality in Western European countries

    PubMed Central

    Vancheri, Federico; Backlund, Lars; Strender, Lars-Erik; Godman, Brian; Wettermark, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relation between statin utilisation and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in populations with different levels of coronary risk, and whether the relation changes over time. Design Ecological study using national databases of dispensed medicines and mortality rates. Setting Western European countries with similar public health systems. Main outcome measures Population CHD mortality rates (rate/100 000) as a proxy for population coronary risk level, and statin utilisation expressed as Defined Daily Dose per one Thousand Inhabitants per Day (DDD/TID), in each country, for each year between 2000 and 2012. Spearman's correlation coefficients between CHD mortality and statin utilisation were calculated. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relation between changes in CHD mortality and statin utilisation over the years. Results 12 countries were included in the study. There was a wide range of CHD mortality reduction between the years 2000 and 2012 (from 25.9% in Italy to 57.9% in Denmark) and statin utilisation increase (from 121% in Belgium to 1263% in Denmark). No statistically significant relations were found between CHD mortality rates and statin utilisation, nor between changes in CHD and changes in statin utilisation in the countries over the years 2000 and 2012. Conclusions Among the Western European countries studied, the large increase in statin utilisation between 2000 and 2012 was not associated with CHD mortality, nor with its rate of change over the years. Factors different from the individual coronary risk, such as population ageing, health authority programmes, guidelines, media attention and pharmaceutical industry marketing, may have influenced the large increase in statin utilisation. These need to be re-examined with a greater emphasis on prevention strategies. PMID:27029774

  9. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease.

  10. Heterotrophic utilisation of biochemical compounds in Antarctic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölter, M.; Dawson, R.

    The heterotrophic utilisation of amino acids and carbohydrates (mono- and disaccharides) was investigated November-December 1980 on water samples taken from the Falkland Islands to the ice-edge of the Weddell Sea and Bransfield Strait. The uptake of 14C-labelled compounds and their respiration was measured with consideration of the natural concentration of the substrates which were measured directly by high performance liquid chromatography with fluoresencent detection. All incubations were carried out at in situ temperatures with trace amounts of labelled compounds without kinetic approach. The results show wide variations in microbial activity and actual substrate concentration which may be related to the physiological state and biomass of phytoplankton standing stock, dominated by Phaeocystis sp. and Thalassiosira sp. Microbial activities and biomass production were found to be comparable with others areas, e.g. the Baltic Sea. The composition of the dissolved and particulate matter in terms of amino acids, proteins, sugars and polysaccharides show many differences to other ecosystems. High levels of bound amino acids (dissolved proteins) often exceeding mg levels were found, particularly in waters with high chlorophyll contents (up to 30 μg·1 -1) where the plankton populations' physiological state was poor. Analysis of filtered particulate matter after water extraction and exhaustive hydrolysis showed that healthy plankton cells produced large quantities of high energy nitrogen compounds centred around glutamine and its degradation products. These products could be found in the free-pool of amino acids, only traces following the breakdown of planktonic organisms. A storage of proteinaceous matter seems to be characteristics feature of the Antarctic ecosystem.

  11. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease. PMID:25194821

  12. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  13. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  14. Structural Insight into the Clostridium difficile Ethanolamine Utilisation Microcompartment

    PubMed Central

    Faulds-Pain, Alexandra; Lewis, Richard J.; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial microcompartments form a protective proteinaceous barrier around metabolic enzymes that process unstable or toxic chemical intermediates. The genome of the virulent, multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile 630 strain contains an operon, eut, encoding a bacterial microcompartment with genes for the breakdown of ethanolamine and its utilisation as a source of reduced nitrogen and carbon. The C. difficile eut operon displays regulatory genetic elements and protein encoding regions in common with homologous loci found in the genomes of other bacteria, including the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis. The crystal structures of two microcompartment shell proteins, CD1908 and CD1918, and an uncharacterised protein with potential enzymatic activity, CD1925, were determined by X-ray crystallography. CD1908 and CD1918 display the same protein fold, though the order of secondary structure elements is permuted in CD1908 and this protein displays an N-terminal β-strand extension. These proteins form hexamers with molecules related by crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry. The structure of CD1925 has a cupin β-barrel fold and a putative active site that is distinct from the metal-ion dependent catalytic cupins. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy of Escherichia coli over-expressing eut proteins indicates that CD1918 is capable of self-association into arrays, suggesting an organisational role for CD1918 in the formation of this microcompartment. The work presented provides the basis for further study of the architecture and function of the C. difficile eut microcompartment, its role in metabolism and the wider consequences of intestinal colonisation and virulence in this pathogen. PMID:23144756

  15. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  16. Utilisation of acute hospitals by age and sex in Australia, 1985.

    PubMed

    Mathers, C D; Moore, G

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the utilisation rates of acute care (short-stay) hospitals, by age and sex, for the Australian population. Separation and bed-day rates per 1000 persons for public, Repatriation and private hospitals in 1985 have been estimated by age group, for each sex, in each State and Territory in Australia. The Australian Base Grant, negotiated between the Commonwealth, States and Territories in the new Medicare Agreements, distributes funds for the care and treatment of Medicare patients in public hospitals. The national bed-day utilisation rates reported in this article, have been used as the basis for population weights to allocate these funds. This paper presents the data and methods used to derive these weights, and examines the differences between them and the actual State and Territory utilisation patterns in 1985. The impact of population ageing on the overall utilisation rates for acute hospitals in Australia is examined.

  17. A roadmap for the exploration and utilisation of lunar resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.

    2003-04-01

    Exploration and in-situ utilisation of lunar resources are major steps to be followed prior to the establishment of any permanent lunar (or planetary) outpost. Among potential resources in our natural satellite, lunar oxygen can be considered as one of the most readily available and of critical importance, both as a propellant and in life-support systems. A wide variety of methods have been proposed for oxygen extraction from the lunar regolith. The feasibility of such procedures is evaluated on the basis of minimisation of materials transportation from Earth, energy requirements and processing simplicity. From an exploration point of view, detailed mapping of materials with an engineering interest constrains the implementation (location and timing) of oxygen extraction technologies on the lunar surface. Global coverage with ESA's SMART-1 D-CIXS X-ray, and complementary mineralogical data from the SIR infrared spectrometres will provide information of outmost interest for the identification of resources through analysis of Fe, Al, Si, Mg (and possibly other elements that may be identified under favourable solar conditions). Laboratory studies of lunar samples show significant bulk compositional differences between regolith samples, pristine rocks (e.g. basalts, anorthosites) and pyroclastic deposits. Their Si-normalised Fe/Al and Mg/Al signatures allow positive identification of each class of materials from an orbital platform equipped with an X-ray apparatus. High-Ti mare basalts also show a specific Fe/Al ratio and, consequently, DCIXS data can complement the results from Lunar Prospector's gamma-ray spectrometre to map ilmenite-rich materials. In the mid- term, lunar materials (especially the fine-grained regolith) may be used as well for in-situ construction of infrastructures that aid the implementation of and operations in a permanent lunar outpost. In this paper, a review of available technologies for lunar material processing is also presented. Finally, it

  18. Expenditure and resource utilisation for cervical screening in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that women aged 18–69 years are screened with conventional cytology every 2 years. Publicly funded HPV vaccination was introduced in 2007, and partly as a consequence, a renewal of the screening program that includes a review of screening recommendations has recently been announced. This study aimed to provide a baseline for such a review by quantifying screening program resource utilisation and costs in 2010. Methods A detailed model of current cervical screening practice in Australia was constructed and we used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry to model age-specific compliance with screening and follow-up. We applied model-derived rate estimates to the 2010 Australian female population to calculate costs and numbers of colposcopies, biopsies, treatments for precancer and cervical cancers in that year, assuming that the numbers of these procedures were not yet substantially impacted by vaccination. Results The total cost of the screening program in 2010 (excluding administrative program overheads) was estimated to be A$194.8M. We estimated that a total of 1.7 million primary screening smears costing $96.7M were conducted, a further 188,900 smears costing $10.9M were conducted to follow-up low grade abnormalities, 70,900 colposcopy and 34,100 histological evaluations together costing $21.2M were conducted, and about 18,900 treatments for precancerous lesions were performed (including retreatments), associated with a cost of $45.5M for treatment and post-treatment follow-up. We also estimated that $20.5M was spent on work-up and treatment for approximately 761 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. Overall, an estimated $23 was spent in 2010 for each adult woman in Australia on cervical screening program-related activities. Conclusions Approximately half of the total cost of the screening program is spent on delivery of primary screening tests; but the

  19. Professional Service Utilisation among Patients with Severe Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Generally, patients with serious mental disorders (SMD) are frequent users of services who generate high care-related costs. Current reforms aim to increase service integration and primary care for improved patient care and health-care efficiency. This article identifies and compares variables associated with the use by patients with SMD of services offered by psychiatrists, case managers, and general practitioners (GPs). It also compares frequent and infrequent service use. Method One hundred forty patients with SMD from five regions in Quebec, Canada, were interviewed on their use of services in the previous year. Patients were also required to complete a questionnaire on needs-assessment. In addition, data were collected from clinical records. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Most patients used services from psychiatrists and case managers, but no more than half consulted GPs. Most patients were followed at least by two professionals, chiefly psychiatrists and case managers. Care access, continuity of care, and total help received were the most important variables associated with the different types of professional consultation. These variables were also associated with frequent use of professional service, as compared with infrequent service use. In all, enabling factors rather than need factors were the core predictors of frequency of service utilisation by patients with SMD. Conclusion This study reveals that health care system organisation and professional practice - rather than patient need profiles - are the core predictors of professional consultation by patients with SMD. The homogeneity of our study population, i.e. mainly users with schizophrenia, recently discharged from hospital, may partly account for these results. Our findings also underscored the limited involvement of GPs in this patient population's care. As comorbidity is often associated with serious mental disorders, closer follow-up by GPs

  20. Utilisation of aromatic organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources by Lipomyces starkeyi CBS 1807.

    PubMed

    Linder, Tomas

    2016-10-01

    Aromatic organosulfur compounds that contain aryl carbon-sulfur bonds are rare in nature but occur frequently in industrial processes and products. The utilisation of aryl sulfur compounds as a sulfur source has not been described previously among the budding yeasts (phylum Ascomycota, sub-phylum Saccharomycotina). A total of 31 strains representing 30 species and 28 genera of the budding yeasts were assayed for utilisation of benzene sulfonate as source of sulfur. Lipomyces starkeyi CBS 1807 was the only strain in this screen that was able to utilise benzene sulfonate as a sulfur source. Further study of L. starkeyi demonstrated that it could also utilise methyl phenyl sulfoxide, 1-naphthalene sulfonate, 2-naphthalene sulfonate, 1-anthraquinone sulfonate and 2-anthraquinone sulfonate as sulfur sources but not diphenylsulfone. This study represents the first reported case of the utilisation of sulfonated naphthalenes and anthraquinones as sulfur sources by a fungus. However, it should be stressed that the remaining 30 strains in this study were not assayed for the utilisation of these additional aryl sulfur compounds as sulfur sources. The present study highlights the potential of L. starkeyi and related species as a source of novel enzyme activities with possible applications in chemical manufacturing, disposal of xenobiotics and bioremediation.

  1. The experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people from culturally and linguistically diverse groups are underrepresented in residential aged care but overrepresented in community aged care in Australia. However, little is known about culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia because previous studies mainly focused on the majority cultural group. Experiences of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups who are eligible to utilise dementia services in Australia are needed in order to optimize the utilisation of dementia services for these caregivers. Methods The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of family caregivers from Chinese, Greek, Italian and Vietnamese groups in utilising dementia services. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret the experiences of the participants. Focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data collection was conducted over a six month period in 2011. In total, 46 family caregivers who were caring for 39 persons with dementia participated. Results Four themes were revealed: (1) negotiating services for the person with dementia; (2) the impact of acculturation on service utilisation; (3) the characteristics of satisfactory services; and (4) negative experiences in utilising services. The present study revealed that the participation of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups in planning and managing dementia services ranged markedly from limited participation to full participation. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups need to be fully prepared so they can participate in the utilisation of dementia services available to them in Australia. PMID:24148155

  2. Determinants of postnatal service utilisation among mothers in rural settings of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Precious William C; Rattanapan, Cheerawit; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine significant predictors for the utilisation of postnatal service among mothers. A total of 295 postnatal mothers were enrolled in a cross-sectional study design undertaken in six health facilities of Lilongwe District using two-stage cluster sampling with a response rate of 100%. The data were collected by interview from December 2012 to January 2013 using a structured questionnaire. The result showed that over half of the mothers (56.6%) utilised postnatal service within 6 weeks after delivery. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant determinants of utilisation of postnatal service among mothers. After adjusting for confounding factors, utilisation of an alternative local source of care in home after delivery [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 7.77, 95% CI: 4.14-14.58], women's perception on performance of health workforce during delivery and postnatal service (aOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 3.09-13.94), health education before hospital discharge of postnatal mothers (aOR: 4.08, 95% CI: 2.11-7.92), place of delivery (aOR: 4.32, 95% CI: 1.32-14.12), family income (aOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.03-3.46) and the occurrence of no complications during delivery (aOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50) were significantly associated with the utilisation of postnatal service. Hence, this study suggests that improved health workforce performance coupled with effective health education may increase the utilisation of postnatal service. Furthermore, the utilisation of postnatal service may also be increased through reducing home deliveries, delivery complications and the use of alternative local care at home after delivery. Integration of postnatal service in outreach clinics might also assist through reducing the cost of accessing postnatal service among mothers.

  3. Impact of continuous Medical Aid utilisation on healthcare utilisation: unique insight using the 2008–2012 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Na Rae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although there has been considerable discussion about the social safety net, few studies related to effect of duration of continuous receipt of Medical Aid on healthcare utilisation have been conducted. Therefore, we investigate whether the duration of receiving Medical Aid affected medical care utilisation. Setting Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study conducted from 2008 to 2012. Participants We included 11 783 samples. Interventions Estimating changes in their healthcare utilisation during specific time intervals (1, 2 and ≥3 years) after they switched from National Health Insurance to Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Number of outpatient visits. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.0.051-fold higher (p value: 0.434) among those who were Medical Aid beneficiaries for a continuous period of 1 year, 0.0.267-fold higher (p value: 0.000) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 2 years, and 0.0.562-fold higher (p value:<0.0001) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 3 years than it was among those who were beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Conclusions Our results reflect an association between the number of consecutive years of receiving Medical Aid and number of outpatient visits. Since duration of dependence is correlated with reduced exit rates, limits on length of benefits should be considered to strengthen the incentive to return to work. PMID:27053265

  4. Rural/urban differences in the association between deprivation and healthcare utilisation.

    PubMed

    Gilthorpe, Mark S; Wilson, Richard C

    2003-12-01

    Whilst associations between inequalities in healthcare utilisation and socio-economic deprivation are well established in the UK it is argued that deprivation indices, such as the Townsend index, remain insensitive to rural/urban differences. This study examines how Townsend and its components differ in their association with healthcare utilisation across the rural/urban spectrum of a large health region. Our research was carried out in the West Midlands National Health Service region (population 5.3 million), comprising of a similar geographical population diversity to that of the United Kingdom (UK) using Hospital Episode Statistics (1994/5-1998/9) and 1991 census socio-demographic data. Retrospective multilevel multivariate models compare three ward-level healthcare utilisation measures (standardised episode-, admission-, and bed-rates) in relation to the Townsend index of material deprivation, its components, and four rural/urban characteristics (population density, population potential, electoral ward area and perimeter size). The associations between outcomes and Townsend were generally not attenuated by the rural/urban characteristics. The constituent component of car-ownership was similarly unperturbed, whereas population potential significantly perturbed the home-ownership model and overcrowding was significantly perturbed by all four rural/urban characteristics considered. A deprivation index may encapsulate different meanings to that of its components when used to assess variations in healthcare utilisation. Constituent components may yield considerable perturbation in relation to healthcare utilisation across the rural/urban spectrum, whilst the composite measure does not. In particular, and contrary to anecdotal opinion, car-ownership and unemployment (as recorded in the 1991 UK census) exhibited a stable relationship across different rural/urban areas with respect to healthcare utilisation. PMID:14512237

  5. Adolescents' utilisation of psychiatric care, neighbourhoods and neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivert, Anna-Karin; Torstensson Levander, Marie; Merlo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents have become a major public health issue, and it is therefore important to increase knowledge on the contextual determinants of adolescent mental health. One such determinant is the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood. The present study has two central objectives, (i) to examine if neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated to individual variations in utilisation of psychiatric care in a Swedish context, and (ii) to investigate if neighbourhood boundaries are a valid construct for identifying contexts that influence individual variations in psychiatric care utilization. Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Scania (LOMAS) database. The study population consists of all boys and girls aged 13-18 years (N=18,417), who were living in the city of Malmö, Sweden, in 2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the probability of psychiatric care utilisation. The results from the study indicate that the neighbourhood of residence had little influence on psychiatric care utilisation. Although we initially found a variation between neighbourhoods, this general contextual effect was very small (i.e. 1.6%). The initial conclusive association between the neighbourhood level of disadvantage and psychiatric care utilisation (specific contextual effect) disappeared following adjustment for individual and family level variables. Our results suggest the neighbourhoods in Malmö (at least measured in terms of SAMS-areas), do not provide accurate information for discriminating adolescents utilisation of psychiatric care. The SAMS-areas appears to be an inappropriate construct of the social environment that influences adolescent utilisation of psychiatric care. Therefore, public health interventions should be directed to the whole city rather than to specific neighbourhoods. However, since geographical, social or cultural contexts may be important for our understanding of

  6. Trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department in Taiwan: a 5-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sung-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Shun; Lin, Meng-Yu; Hsu, Chiann-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; How, Chorng-Kuang; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Jeffrey Che-Hung; Wu, Yu-Hui; Chang, Yan-Zin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department (ED) and changes in clinical imaging practice and patients' disposition. Setting A hospital-based retrospective observational study of a public 1520-bed referral medical centre in Taiwan. Participants Adult ED visits (aged ≥18 years) during 2009–2013, with or without receiving CT, were enrolled as the study participants. Main outcome measures For all enrolled ED visits, we retrospectively analysed: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) triage categories, (3) whether CT was performed and the type of CT scan, (4) further ED disposition, (5) ED cost and (6) ED length of stay. Results In all, 269 239 adult ED visits (148 613 male patients and 120 626 female patients) were collected during the 5-year study period, comprising 38 609 CT scans. CT utilisation increased from 11.10% in 2009 to 17.70% in 2013 (trend test, p<0.001). Four in 5 types of CT scan (head, chest, abdomen and miscellaneous) were increasingly utilised during the study period. Also, CT was increasingly ordered annually in all age groups. Although ED CT utilisation rates increased markedly, the annual ED visits did not actually increase. Moreover, the subsequent admission rate, after receiving ED CT, declined (59.9% in 2009 to 48.2% in 2013). Conclusions ED CT utilisation rates increased significantly during 2009–2013. Emergency physicians may be using CT for non-emergent studies in the ED. Further investigation is needed to determine whether increasing CT utilisation is efficient and cost-effective. PMID:27279477

  7. Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests

  8. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  9. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  10. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  11. An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Manach, G.; Monnez, J-P.; Freeman, M.J.; Newell, A.; Brushwood, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Collins, C.; Scholes, N.; Hamilton, P.J.; Beeley, P.A.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

  12. Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, B I; Wu, Z; Hemminki, E

    2011-01-01

    Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to 2003, after a prenatal care intervention in Anhui County, China, with a response rate of 97%. Prenatal care utilisation was categorised using the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index. Logistic regression was used to study the association between prenatal care utilisation and infant care practices. Mothers' uptake of breastfeeding, introduction of milk formula, cereal/porridge, meat and uptake of any immunisation were found to be in accordance with national recommendations. Intermediate prenatal care uptake was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of cereal/porridge. Inadequate care was positively associated with never breastfeeding, early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge, and early start of work after delivery. Initiation to prenatal care after the third month was positively associated with early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge. Having no prenatal care was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of milk formula. Mothers' uptake of infant care practices in this population was largely in accordance with national recommendations. Women with less than adequate utilisation of prenatal care and those who had initiated prenatal care late were less likely to follow recommendations on infant care.

  13. Utilisation of Local Inputs in the Funding and Administration of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discussed how, why and who is in charge of administering and funding schools in Nigeria. The author utilised the relevant statistical approach which examined and discussed various political and historical trends affecting education. Besides this, relevant documented statistical data were used to both buttress and substantiate related…

  14. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  15. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  16. Coping and health service utilisation in a UK study of paediatric sickle cell pain

    PubMed Central

    Anie, K; Steptoe, A; Ball, S; Dick, M; Smalling, B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess sickle cell pain and coping in children and to examine the relation between these factors and the utilisation of health services. Methods: Cross sectional study involving 67 children with sickle cell disease attending three London hospitals. Interviews and questionnaires involved measures of pain, health service utilisation, and coping responses (measured with the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), revised for children with sickle cell disease). Medical data on complications, haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and foetal haemoglobin (HbF) percentage were also collected. Results: Pain accounted for about 24% of hospital service use, independent of age, sex, number of with sickle cell disease complications, and Hb levels. However, 42% of patients had not utilised hospital services in the past 12 months. Three higher order factors emerged from analysis of the CSQ (active coping, affective coping, passive adherence coping). Pain severity was predicted by passive adherence coping, while utilisation of hospital services was predicted by active coping. Conclusions: Sickle cell disease in children involves severe recurrent pain leading to hospitalisation in some cases. Psychological coping patterns are relevant to both pain experience, and the use of acute hospital services. It is likely that children would benefit from community based interventions that incorporate both medical and psychological assessments. PMID:11970920

  17. Long-term care and hospital utilisation by older people: an analysis of substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Forder, Julien

    2009-11-01

    Older people are intensive users of hospital and long-term care services. This paper explores the extent to which these services are substitutes. A small area analysis was used with both care home and (tariff cost-weighted) hospital utilisation for older people aggregated to electoral wards in England.Health and social-care structural equations were specified using a theoretical model. The estimation accounted for the skewed and censored nature of the data. For health utilisation, both a fixed effects instrumental variables GMM model and a generalised estimating equations (GEE) model were fitted, the later on a log dependent variable with predicted values of social care utilisation used to account for endogeneity (bootstrapping was used to derive standard errors). In addition to a GMM model, the social-care estimation used both two-part and tobit models (also with predicted health utilisation and bootstrapping).The results indicate that for each additional pound1 spent on care homes, hospital expenditure falls by pound0.35. Also, pound1 additional hospital spend corresponds to just over pound0.35 reduction on care home spend. With these cost substitution effects offsetting, a transfer of resources to care homes is efficient if the resultant outcome gain is greater than the outcome loss from reduced hospital use.

  18. Structured problem solving for materiel managers.

    PubMed

    Samelson, Q B

    1998-05-01

    A structured approach to problem solving and solution documentation is one of the keys to continuous improvement. Without it, it is quite possible to solve the wrong problem, to solve the right problem in the wrong way, or (maybe worst of all) to solve the same problem over and over again. Companies that have figured out how to solve the right problems in the right way, once and for all, will ultimately move forward much faster than their competitors.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of 2,5-dihydrochorismate analogues as inhibitors of the chorismate-utilising enzymes.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard J; Bulloch, Esther M M; Toscano, Miguel M; Jones, Michelle A; Kerbarh, Olivier; Abell, Chris

    2009-06-01

    A library of 2,5-dihydrochorismate analogues were designed as inhibitors of the chorismate-utilising enzymes including anthranilate synthase, isochorismate synthase, salicylate synthase and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase. The inhibitors were synthesised in seven or eight steps from shikimic acid, sourced from star anise. The compounds exhibited moderate but differential inhibition against the four chorismate-utilising enzymes.

  20. Antenatal Care Utilisation and Content between Low-Risk and High-Risk Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation

  1. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region.

  2. Utilising copper screen-printed electrodes (CuSPE) for the electroanalytical sensing of sulfide.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhawana; Bernalte, Elena; Smith, Jamie P; Foster, Christopher W; Linton, Patricia E; Sawant, Shilpa N; Banks, Craig E

    2016-02-21

    A mediatorless sulfide electrochemical sensing platform utilising a novel nanocopper-oxide screen-printed electrodes (CuSPE) is reported for the first time. The state-of-the-art screen-printed electrochemical sensors demonstrate their capability to quantify sulfide within both the presence and absence of an array of interferents with good levels of sensitivity and repeatability. The direct sensing (using linear sweep voltammetry) of sulfide utilising the CuSPEs provides a mediatorless approach for the detection of sulfide, yielding useful analytical signatures that can be successfully quantified. The proposed novel protocol using the CuSPEs is successfully applied to the sensing of sulfide within drinking water exhibiting a high level of recovery.

  3. Pella vilya: Near earth objects—Planetary defence through the regulation of resource utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2010-07-01

    Reactions to near earth objects (NEOs) in the past decade have run the gamut from expectations of Armageddon-type scenarios to Eureka moments of revolutionary scientific ideas. Concerns over the potentially devastating effects of an unmitigated collision jostle with forecasts of untold economic returns from the utilisation of NEO resources. Drawing from recent analogies and examples from the field of international environmental law, this paper proposes the development of a legal framework for the regulation of NEO resource utilisation. The proposed legal framework also includes a mechanism to ensure the political will and economic investment necessary for technological advances in planetary defence. By twinning the threats and opportunities presented by NEOs, this paper also analyses the position of theme-specific space law development in the overall legal framework of space exploration and traffic management.

  4. Systeme Optique de Transformations de Coordonnees et Son Utilisation EN Reconnaissance de Formes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselin, Daniel

    La foramtion optique des transformations de coordonnees (TC) polaire et log-polaire a un grand potentiel en reconnaissance invariante sous rotation et changement d'echelle en temps reel. Cependant, jusqu'ici, la faible qualite des transformations obtenues et le probleme d'enroulement ont empeche toute utilisation pratique. A l'aide d'hologrammes a facettes generes par ordinateur, nous etudierons donc la generation optique de TC de qualite en utilisant des facettes de tailles variables tandis que, en juxtaposant deux TC, nous reduirons de facon appreciable l'effet d'enroulement. Suite a ces ameliorations, nos experiences demontreront la possibilite d'une reconnaissance invariante en rotation et en echelle d'objets simples, seule l'etape de la classification etant supportee numeriquement. Nous etudierons egalement les effets, sur l'onde reconstruite, de la resolution limitee du modulateur supportant l'hologramme, les principales conclusions ayant ete experimentalement confirmees.

  5. A rapid appraisal of access to and utilisation of psychotropic medicines in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A major aspect of providing mental healthcare is access to and use of psychotropic medications. Bihar is a state in northeast India with limited mental healthcare provision; consequently access to and utilisation of psychotropic medications are likely to be limited. However, to date there has been no research assessing the situation. This study therefore aims to analyse the psychotropic medications management cycle (selection, procurement, distribution and use), and identify the barriers to access and utilisation, and their underlying causes. Method A rapid appraisal method was used in which primary and secondary data sources were collected and analysed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-two stakeholders and twenty-one service users from the government, non-governmental organisation (NGO) and private sectors. The qualitative data collected was analysed using a comparative thematic approach. The research was supported by the NGOs BasicNeeds and Nav Bharat Jagriti Kendra. Results Availability, distance and cost were the main barriers to access and utilisation. At the medical college hospital level a lack of supply appears to be due to a discrepancy between orders made by the hospital and medications supplied by the manufacturers. At the primary health centre and district hospital level the main barrier is a cycle between lack of demand for treatments for mental illness by doctors and patients. Conclusion Further investigation and monitoring is necessary to ensure the availability of psychotropic medications at the medical college hospital level. In addition, implementation of the District Mental Health Programme is likely to address the access and utilisation barriers due to its potential to break the current cycle of lack of demand. PMID:25053976

  6. Utilisation of health care system by chronic pain patients who applied for disability pensions.

    PubMed

    Højsted, J; Alban, A; Hagild, K; Eriksen, J

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how economic compensation for disability (disability pensions) to chronic pain patients affected their utilisation of health care services. The study was carried out as a register investigation. Inclusion of 144 study patients was based on records from 1989 and 1990 of the Rehabilitation and Pension Board in the Municipality of Copenhagen. Only patients of Danish origin with chronic non-malignant pain were included. The study period was divided into three: Subperiod 1: The year preceding the submission of the application for a disability pension. Subperiod 2: The period from the submission of the application to the decision was made. Subperiod 3: The year following the final decision of the health authorities. The patients were divided into 4 Subgroups according to whether disability pensions was awarded or rejected, or whether the patients accepted or appealed the decision. Based on number and charges of visits to the GPs the total costs of care in the primary sector were calculated. By means of number of bed days, visits to outpatients clinics, operations, blood samples, and various investigations, the total costs of hospital care were calculated. We found that application for a disability pension in chronic pain patients significantly influenced the health care utilisation. Chronic pain patients had a significantly lower health care utilisation after receiving a disability pension than before the pension was awarded. Chronic pain patients who did not get a disability pension and those who were not satisfied with the level of the pension awarded, maintained their health care utilisation after the decision. The mean health care use by the patients who appealed the level of the pension was three times higher than the mean health care use by the patients who accepted the level of the pension awarded. The study may indicate that lack of or insufficient economic compensation from the social system in chronic pain patients

  7. Milk utilisation patterns in the low-input production systems in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mapekula, Monde; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the utilisation patterns of milk assists in designing appropriate dairy development schemes in rural communities. The objective of the study was to determine milk utilisation patterns in different smallholder farming systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of recording sheets to 130 randomly selected households in Alice, Fort Beaufort and Queenstown districts. Amounts of milk produced per household ranged from 9 to 21 l per household per day. Milk consumption/household/day was similar among the three districts. Milk consumption in the early lactation doubled the amount consumed in late lactation (P < 0.05). Milk in the communal areas was largely utilised as fresh or sour milk. Fresh milk was mostly used in tea/coffee or to make porridge for children. Sour milk was consumed with thick boiled maize meal. Fort Beaufort (10.2 +/- 1.37 l/day) had the highest sour milk sales whilst Queenstown had the highest fresh milk sales (9.7 +/- 5.57 l/day). It was concluded that quantities of milk consumed or sold as fresh or sour were generally low and varied across smallholder farming systems.

  8. Utilisation of a community-based health facility in a low-income urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asuzu, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare is established to ensure that people have access to health services through facilities located in their community. However, utilisation of health facilities in Nigeria remains low in many communities. Aim To assess the utilisation of community-based health facility (CBHF) amongst adults in Ibadan, Nigeria Settings A low-income community in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a simple random sampling technique to select one adult per household in all 586 houses in the community. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and utilisation of the CBHF. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and association testing using the Chi-square test at p = 0.05. Results The mean age of the respondents was 46.5 ± 16.0 years; 46.0% were men and 81.0% married; 26% had no formal education and 38.0% had secondary-level education and above; traders constituted 52.0% of the sample; and 85.2% were of low socioeconomic standing; 90% had patronised the CBHF. The main reasons for non-utilisation were preference for general hospitals (13.8%) and self-medication (12.1%). Respondents who had secondary education and above, were in a higher socioeconomic class, who had good knowledge of the facility and were satisfied with care, utilised the CBHF three months significantly more than their counterparts prior to the study (p < 0.05). However, only satisfaction with care was found to be a significant predictor of utilisation of the CBHF. Conclusion The utilisation of the CBHF amongst adults in the study setting is high, driven mostly by satisfaction with the care received previously. Self-medication, promoted by uncontrolled access to drugs through pharmacies and patent medicine stores, threatens this high utilisation. PMID:26245600

  9. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

  10. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  11. L’utilisation d’objets comme outils: un développement continu

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Le débat autour des origines développementales de la capacité humaine à utiliser des outils de manière souple reste ouvert. Alors que l’approche dominante se focalise sur un changement qualitatif cognitif vers la fin de la première année, la théorie perception-action fournit des indices importants sur la manière dont les comportements exploratoires plus précoces des nourrissons jettent les bases pour l’émergence de cette capacité. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont les tentatives des nourrissons de mettre en rapport les objets et les surfaces leur permettent d’apprendre comment les objets peuvent servir d’extension de la main et fournissent l’occasion d’exercer des actions qui seront recrutées plus tard pour l’utilisation d’outils. Dans ce contexte, nous discutons des études comportementales et cinématiques portant sur la manipulation d’objets, qui montrent que les nourrissons font interagir les objets et les surfaces avec discernement et que leur contrôle de la frappe (banging) augmente au cours de leur première année. En conclusion, une perspective perception-action suggère que l’utilisation d’outils émerge de manière plus continue au cours du développement que ce qui a été traditionnellement envisagé. PMID:24511151

  12. The utilisation of the MUST nutritional screening tool on vascular surgical wards

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Nilanjana; Rodrigues, Jeremy; Bothamley, Lydia; Altaf, Nishath; Awad, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Whilst malnutrition is prevalent in approximately 40% of general surgical patients, the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional screening practices amongst vascular patients remain unknown. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) is recommended for risk screening and provides 3 scores for risk classification: 0=low risk, 1=intermediate risk, 2=high risk. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the use of MUST on vascular wards. This prospective study was undertaken in a tertiary referral vascular unit in the UK. Patient demographics, utilisation of MUST by nursing staff (N-MUST) and referral to nutritional support teams (NST) were studied. When MUST was not completed by nursing staff, the study team (S-MUST) performed it. Fifty-three patients, median (interquartile range, IQR) age 67 (59-75) years were initially studied. For N-MUST: Overall MUST score was recorded in 18/25 (72%) patients, of whom 1 (4%) scored 2, whilst the remainder scored 0. For S-MUST: Overall MUST scores were recorded in 28 patients, MUST=0 in 75% and ≥2 in 21%. An educational session on use of MUST was delivered to nursing staff, as well as a Trust-wide educational initiative to improve assessment of nutritional status and, after a 2-month period, the study was repeated. The second cohort comprised forty-two patients, median (IQR) age 72 (64–79) years. For N-MUST: Overall MUST score was recorded in 37/40 (93%) patients, of whom 3 (8%) scored ≥2. For S-MUST: Overall MUST scores were recorded in 2 patients, MUST = 0 in 67% and ≥2 in 33%. Despite the ease of use of MUST, it was under-utilised on vascular wards. However, following provision of a dedicated educational programme to ward nursing staff, utilisation of MUST for risk scoring patients on admission increased to over 90%. PMID:26734198

  13. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure

  14. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, T. J.

    1993-03-01

    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  15. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  16. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    PubMed

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications.

  17. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    PubMed

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications. PMID:25455844

  18. Access and utilisation of maternity care for disabled women who experience domestic abuse: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data were analysed to identify: the factors that facilitate or compromise access to care; the consequences of inadequate care for pregnant women’s health and wellbeing; and the effectiveness of existing strategies for improvement. Results Findings indicate that a mental health diagnosis, poor relationships with health professionals and environmental barriers can compromise women’s utilisation of maternity services. Domestic abuse can both compromise, and catalyse, access to services and social support is a positive factor when accessing care. Delayed and inadequate care has adverse effects on women’s physical and psychological health, however further research is required to fully explore the nature and extent of these consequences. Only one study identified strategies currently being used to improve access to services for disabled women experiencing abuse. Conclusions Based upon the barriers and facilitators identified within the review, we suggest that future strategies for improvement should focus on: understanding women’s reasons for accessing care; fostering positive relationships; being women-centred; promoting environmental accessibility; and improving the strength of the evidence base. PMID:25029907

  19. Synthesis and utilisation of folate by yoghurt starter cultures and probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, R G; Martinez, N R; Playne, M J

    2003-02-15

    Thirty-two bacterial isolates from species commonly used in yoghurts and fermented milks were examined for their ability to synthesise or utilise folate during fermentation of skim milk. The organisms examined included the traditional yoghurt starter cultures, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, and probiotic lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterococcus faecium. Folate was synthesised by S. thermophilus, bifidobacteria, and E. faecium. S. thermophilus was the dominant producer, elevating folate levels in skim milk from 11.5 ng g(-1) to between 40 and 50 ng g(-1). Generally, lactobacilli depleted the available folate in the skim milk. Fermentations with mixed cultures showed that folate production and utilisation by the cultures was additive. Fermentations using a combination of Bifidobacterium animalis and S. thermophilus resulted in a six-fold increase in folate concentration. Although increased folate levels in yoghurts and fermented milks are possible through judicious selection of inoculum species, the folate levels remain relatively low in terms of recommended daily allowance. PMID:12423923

  20. Health insurance and healthcare utilisation for Shenzhen residents: a tale of registrants and migrants?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Shenzhen’s rapid growth and urbanisation has attracted a large, mobile, migrant working population. This article explores health protection through the means of social health insurance between migrants and registrants and their point of access to healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Shenzhen, with a random sample of 793 registered and 750 non-registered residents. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were applied to analyse the association between health insurance coverage with Hukou registration status and healthcare utilisation. Results Amongst 1543 respondents, 43.1% of non-registered residents were uninsured. Being non-registered strongly predicted for no insurance (OR = 5.00; CI 3.53,7.07) and have purchased additional/ private insurance (OR = 2.99; CI 1.66,5.37). Migrants who self-reported chronic health conditions were also more likely to utilise health services in general (OR = 2.77; CI 1.18,6.52). Conclusions Inadequate health insurance coverage for migrants as observed in Shenzhen remains a challenge for the Chinese health reform. Our results suggest that the current insurance system must seek to include migrants in order to achieve universal coverage and improved health protection for its population. PMID:23061720

  1. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    PubMed

    Leuven, R S E W; Willems, F H G

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environmental benefits, these secondary building materials contain various metals that may leach into river water. A leaching model was used to predict annual emissions of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Under the current utilisation and model assumptions, the contribution of secondary building materials to metal pollution in Dutch surface waters is expected to be relatively low compared to other sources (less than 0.1% and 0.2% in the years 2000 and 2025, respectively). However, continued and widespread large-scale applications of secondary building materials will increase pollutant leaching and may require further cuts to be made in emissions from other sources to meet emission reduction targets and water quality standards. It is recommended to validate available leaching models under various field conditions. Complete registration of secondary building materials will be required to improve input data for leaching models.

  2. Allele Mining Strategies: Principles and Utilisation for Blast Resistance Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ashkani, Sadegh; Yusop, Mohd Rafii; Shabanimofrad, Mahmoodreza; Azady, Amin; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Azizi, Parisa; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Allele mining is a promising way to dissect naturally occurring allelic variants of candidate genes with essential agronomic qualities. With the identification, isolation and characterisation of blast resistance genes in rice, it is now possible to dissect the actual allelic variants of these genes within an array of rice cultivars via allele mining. Multiple alleles from the complex locus serve as a reservoir of variation to generate functional genes. The routine sequence exchange is one of the main mechanisms of R gene evolution and development. Allele mining for resistance genes can be an important method to identify additional resistance alleles and new haplotypes along with the development of allele-specific markers for use in marker-assisted selection. Allele mining can be visualised as a vital link between effective utilisation of genetic and genomic resources in genomics-driven modern plant breeding. This review studies the actual concepts and potential of mining approaches for the discovery of alleles and their utilisation for blast resistance genes in rice. The details provided here will be important to provide the rice breeder with a worthwhile introduction to allele mining and its methodology for breakthrough discovery of fresh alleles hidden in hereditary diversity, which is vital for crop improvement.

  3. Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ≥90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

  4. What accounts for the regional differences in the utilisation of hospitals in Germany?

    PubMed

    Augurzky, Boris; Kopetsch, Thomas; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2013-08-01

    There are huge regional variations in the utilisation of hospital services in Germany. In 2007 and 2008 the states of Hamburg and Baden-Württemberg had on average just under 38 % fewer hospitalisations per capita than Saxony-Anhalt. We use data from the DRG statistics aggregated at the county level in combination with numerous other data sources (e.g. INKAR Database, accounting data from the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KBV), Federal Medical Registry, Germany Hospital Directory, population structure per county) to establish the proportion of the observed regional differences that can be explained at county and state levels. Overall we are able to account for 73 % of the variation at state level in terms of observable factors. By far the most important reason for the regional variation in the utilisation of in-patient services is differences in medical needs. Differences in the supply of medical services and the substitutability of outpatient and inpatient treatment are also relevant, but to a lesser extent.

  5. Drug Utilisation Study in a Tertiary Care Center: Recommendations for Improving Hospital Drug Dispensing Policies

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R.; Singh, I.; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

  6. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides.

  7. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  8. Environmental-benign utilisation of fly ash as low-cost adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Wu, Hongwei

    2006-08-25

    Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. that is found in abundance in the world. In recent years, utilisation of fly ash has gained much attention in public and industry, which will help reduce the environmental burden and enhance economic benefit. In this paper, the technical feasibility of utilisation of fly ash as a low-cost adsorbent for various adsorption processes for removal of pollutants in air and water systems has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon or zeolites, a lot of researches have been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NO(x), SO(x), organic compounds, and mercury in air, and cations, anions, dyes and other organic matters in waters. It is recognised that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for removal of various pollutants. Chemical treatment of fly ash will make conversion of fly ash into a more efficient adsorbent for gas and water cleaning. Investigations also revealed that unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in adsorption capacity. Directions for future research are also discussed.

  9. The utilisation of two detectors for the determination of water in honey using headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-15

    A headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method was developed for the determination of water content in honey. This method was shown to work with five different honey varieties which had a range of water from 14-16%. It also utilised two different detectors, the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and the barrier discharge ionisation detector (BID). This method needs no heating pretreatment step as in the current leading method, (i.e. the measurement of refractive index). The solvent-free procedure negates the possibility of solvent-compound interactions as well as solubility limitations, as is common with Karl Fischer titrations. It was also apparent that the classic loss on drying method consistently and substantially produced results that were lower than the correct values. This approach is shown to be rapid, with an analysis time of 4 min when using the TCD detector and under 3 min when utilising the BID detector. HSGC is feasible for the determination of water due to the new PEG-linked geminal dicationic ionic-liquid-coated GC capillary column. In addition it provides accurate and precise determinations of the water content in honey. When using the sensitive BID detector, other trace volatile compounds are observed as well. PMID:27006209

  10. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM) and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM) in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9%) for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6%) and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions. PMID:23289751

  11. Re-thinking the relationship between long-term condition self-management education and the utilisation of health services.

    PubMed

    Gately, Claire; Rogers, Anne; Sanders, Caroline

    2007-09-01

    Encouraging self-management has been viewed as one means of reducing health service utilisation and contributing to improved demand management. However, the processes and imputed relationship between self-management education skills and health service contact are poorly understood. This paper reports on data from an embedded qualitative study which ran alongside a randomised controlled trial in England designed to test the clinical and cost effectiveness of a self-care support policy which found no statistically significant reductions in health service utilisation. Drawing on concepts from the sociology of chronic illness, analyses suggest that the biographical and social context relevant to individuals' experience of living with a long-term condition, history of health service utilisation, and relationships with health professionals are relevant to understanding the impact of self-management education and related policies aimed at bringing about changes in service use. Our study suggests that future health policy assumptions about utilisation in the context of chronic disease management and self-care support polices may benefit by acknowledging the complex, contextual and recursive nature of health service utilisation operating in the life worlds of patients' experience of living with a long-term condition.

  12. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  13. The use of secure anonymised data linkage to determine changes in healthcare utilisation following severe open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Page, Piers R J; Trickett, Ryan W; Rahman, Shakeel M; Walters, Angharad; Pinder, Leila M; Brooks, Caroline J; Hutchings, Hayley; Pallister, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Severe open fractures of the lower limbs are complex injuries requiring expert multidisciplinary management in appropriate orthoplastic centres. This study aimed to assess the impact of open fractures on healthcare utilisation and test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation between the year before and year after injury, and that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation in the year post-injury between patients admitted directly to an orthoplastic centre in keeping with the joint BOA/BAPRAS standards and those having initial surgery elsewhere. This retrospective cohort study utilising secure anonymised information linkage (SAIL), a novel databank of anonymised nationally pooled health records, recruited patients over 18 years of age sustaining severe open lower limb fractures managed primarily or secondarily at our centre and who had data available in the SAIL databank. 101 patients met inclusion criteria and 90 of these had records in the SAIL databank. The number of days in hospital, number of primary care attendances, number of outpatient attendances and number of emergency department attendances in the years prior and subsequent to injury were recorded. Patients sustaining open fractures had significantly different healthcare utilisation in the year after injury when compared with the year before, in terms of days spent in hospital (23.42 vs. 1.70, p=0.000), outpatient attendances (11.98 vs. 1.05, p=0.000), primary care attendances (29.48 vs. 11.99, p=0.000) and emergency department presentations (0.2 vs. 0.01, p=0.025). Patients admitted directly to orthoplastic centres had significantly fewer operations (1.78 vs. 3.31) and GP attendances (23.6 vs. 33.52) than those transferred in subsequent to initial management in other units. There is a significant increase in healthcare utilisation after open tibial fracture. Adherence to national standards minimises the impact of this on both patients and health services.

  14. How can qualitative research be utilised in the NHS when re-designing and commissioning services?

    PubMed

    Barker, Karen L

    2015-02-01

    Patient experience is acknowledged as a key quality metric of healthcare quality and can be used to identify problems with healthcare delivery, to drive quality improvements and to inform commissioning of services that promote patient choice. In this article, the contribution of qualitative research studies to inform the redesign and patient-focussed commissioning of services is considered, illustrated with particular reference to elective orthopaedic surgical services. To fully embrace the concept of patient and public involvement (PPI) and to embed it in service delivery, health service design and informing commissioners to purchase healthcare that truly meets patient need and expectations, qualitative research has an increasingly important role to play. Through well-conducted qualitative research exploring patients' experiences, their knowledge and experiences of conditions can be utilised for the benefit of others and the impact of the patient voice truly heard when designing and commissioning healthcare services.

  15. The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarolkar, P.B.; Pitale, U.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

  16. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  17. Human papilloma virus strain detection utilising custom-designed oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Duncan; Platt, Mark; Javad, Farzad; Day, Philip J R

    2011-01-01

    Within the past 15 years, the utilisation of microarray technology for the detection of specific pathogen strains has increased rapidly. Presently, it is possible to simply purchase a pre-manufactured "off the shelf " oligonucleotide microarray bearing a wide variety of known signature DNA sequences previously identified in the organism being studied. Consequently, a hybridisation analysis may be used to pinpoint which strain/s is present in any given clinical sample. However, there exists a problem if the study necessitates the identification of novel sequences which are not represented in commercially available microarray chips. Ideally, such investigations require an in situ oligonucleotide microarray platform with the capacity to synthesise microarrays bearing probe sequences designed solely by the researcher. This chapter will focus on the employment of the Combimatrix® B3 CustomArray™ for the synthesis of reusable, bespoke microarrays for the purpose of discerning multiple Human Papilloma Virus strains. PMID:20938834

  18. Coupled oscillators utilised as gait rhythm generators of a two-legged walking machine.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, T

    1996-03-01

    The gait of current two-legged walking machines differs from that of humans, although the kinematic structures of these machines' legs frequently imitate human limbs. This paper presents a method of generating the trajectories of hip and knee joint angles resulting in a gait pattern similar to that of a human. For this purpose the solutions of coupled van der Pol oscillator equations are utilised. There is much evidence that these equations can be treated as a good model of the central pattern generator generating functional (also locomotional) rhythms in living creatures. The oscillator equations are solved by numerical integration. The method of changing the type of gait by changing appropriate parameter values in the oscillator equations is presented (change of velocity and trajectory of leg-ends). The results obtained enable enhanced control of two-legged walking systems by including gait pattern generators which will assume a similar role to that of biological generators.

  19. Inter-comparison of safety culture within selected practices in Ghana utilising ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Schandorf, C; Darko, E O; Boadu, M; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, A R; Gyekye, P K; Kpeglo, D O

    2010-12-01

    The safety culture of selected practices and facilities in Ghana utilising radiation sources or radiation emitting devices has been assessed using a performance indicator, which provided status information on management and operating staff commitment to safety. The questionnaire was based on the following broad areas: general safety considerations, safety policy at the facility level, safety practices at the facility level, definition of responsibility, staff training, safety of the physical structure of the facility and the emergency plans. The analysis showed that the percentage levels of commitment to safety for the respective practices are as follows: conventional radiography, 23.3-90.0%; research reactor, 73.3%; gamma irradiation facility, 53.3%; radiotherapy, 76.7%; X-ray scanner, 80.0%; gamma scanner, 76.7%; industrial radiography 86.7% and nuclear density practice, 78%. None of the practices or facilities was able to satisfy all the requirements that will ensure a 100% level of safety culture.

  20. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions

  1. Health care utilisation amongst Shenzhen migrant workers: does being insured make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background As one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the Pearl River Delta of South China, Shenzhen attracts millions of migrant workers annually. The objectives of this study were to compare health needs, self-reported health and healthcare utilisation of insured and uninsured migrant workers in Shenzhen, China, where a new health insurance scheme targeting at migrant workers was initiated. Methods A cross-sectional survey using multi-staged sampling was conducted to collect data from migrant factory workers. Statistical tests included logistic regression analysis were used. Results Among 4634 subjects (96.54%) who responded to the survey, 55.11% were uninsured. Disease patterns were similar irrespective of insurance status. The uninsured were more likely to be female, single, younger and less educated unskilled labourers with a lower monthly income compared with the insured. Out of 1136 who reported illness in the previous two weeks, 62.15% did not visit a doctor. Of the 296 who were referred for inpatient care, 48.65% did not attend because of inability to pay. Amongst those who reported sickness, 548 were insured and 588 were uninsured. Those that were insured, and had easier access to care were more likely to make doctor visits than those who were uninsured. Conclusion Health care utilisation patterns differ between insured and uninsured workers and insurance status appears to be a significant factor. The health insurance system is inequitably distributed amongst migrant workers. Younger less educated women who are paid less are more likely to be uninsured and therefore to pay out of pocket for their care. For greater equity this group need to be included in the insurance schemes as they develop. PMID:19930580

  2. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8%) reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25%) of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%), private clinics (50%), hospital (27%) and health centres (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary. PMID:21501473

  3. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  4. Utilisation of chemical signals by inquiline wasps in entering their host figs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ding; Yang, Da-Rong

    2013-10-01

    The fig tree, Ficus curtipes, hosts an obligate pollinating wasp, an undescribed Eupristina sp., but can also be pollinated by two inquiline (living in the burrow, nest, gall, or other habitation of another animal) wasps, Diaziella yangi and an undescribed Lipothymus sp. The two inquilines are unable to independently induce galls and depend on the galls induced by the obligate pollinator for reproduction and, therefore, normally enter receptive F. curtipes figs colonised by the obligate pollinators. However, sometimes the inquilines also enter figs that are not colonised by the pollinators, despite consequent reproductive failure. It is still unknown which signal(s) the inquilines use in entering the colonised and non-colonised figs. We conducted behavioural experiments to investigate several possible signals utilised by the inquilines in entering their host receptive figs. Our investigation showed that both inquiline species enter the receptive F. curtipes figs in response to the body odours of the obligate wasps and one of the main compounds emitted by the figs, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The compound was not found in the pollinator body odours, suggesting that the two inquiline wasps can utilise two signals to enter their host figs, which is significant for the evolution of the fig-fig wasp system. These inquilines could evolve to become mutualists of the figs if they evolve the ability to independently gall fig flowers; there is, however, another possibility that a monoecious Ficus species hosting such inquilines may evolve into a dioecious one if these inquilines cannot evolve the above-mentioned ability. Additionally, this finding provides evidence for the evolution of chemical communication between plants and insects.

  5. Experiences in the Dissemination and Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Research Findings from Three Southern African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, Luckson M.; Mtetwa, David; Kasanda, Choshi

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination and utilisation of research knowledge produced at universities has been debated in recent times. Recent changes and developments at universities suggest an entrepreneurial model of academic research production in which universities have the responsibility not only to carry out research and teaching but also to disseminate…

  6. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  7. Patients’ subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation: the study protocol of a qualitative comparative study between Norway and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Flick, Uwe; Bærheim, Anders; Lichte, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background In Germany, utilisation of ambulatory healthcare services is high compared with other countries: While a study based on the process data of German statutory health insurances showed an average of 17.1 physician-patient-contacts per year, the comparable figure for Norway is about five. The usual models of healthcare utilisation, such as Rosenstock's Health Belief Model and Andersen's Behavioural Model, cannot explain these differences adequately. Organisational factors of the healthcare system, such as gatekeeping, do not explain the magnitude of the differences. Our hypothesis is that patients’ subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation play a major role in explaining different healthcare utilisation behaviour in different countries. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore these subjective concepts comparatively, between Germany and Norway. Methods/design With that aim in mind, we chose a comparative qualitative study design. In Norway and Germany, we are going to interview 20 patients each with qualitative episodic interviews. In addition, we are going to conduct participant observation in four German and four Norwegian primary care practices. The data will be analysed by thematic coding. Using selected categories, we are going to conduct comparative case and group analyses. Ethics and dissemination The study adheres to the Declaration of Helsinki. All interviewees will sign informed consent forms and all patients will be observed during consultation. Strict rules for data security will apply. Developed theory and policy implications are going to be disseminated by a workshop, presentations for experts and laypersons and publications. PMID:23794555

  8. Impediments to Effective Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology Tools in Selected Universities in the North-Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impediments to effective use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in Nigerian universities. Series of research conducted on the factors militating against computerisation indicated that, there were impediments to effective utilisation of ICT tools in most developing countries. In the light of this, the…

  9. Effect of gas composition and gas utilisation on the dynamic response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weydahl, Helge; Møller-Holst, Steffen; Børresen, Børre

    The transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was measured for various cathode gas compositions and gas utilisations (fraction of supplied reactant gas which is consumed in the fuel cell reaction). For a PEMFC operated on pure hydrogen and oxygen, the cell voltage response to current steps was fast, with response times in the range 0.01-1 s, depending on the applied current. For a PEMFC supplied with air as cathode gas, an additional relaxation process related to oxygen transport caused a slower response (approximately 0.1-2 s depending on the applied current). Response curves up to approximately 0.01 s were apparently unaffected by gas composition and utilisation and were most likely dominated by capacitive discharge of the double layer and reaction with surplus oxygen residing in the cathode. The utilisation of hydrogen had only a minor effect on the response curves, while the utilisation of air severely influenced the PEMFC dynamics. Results suggested that air flow rates should be high to obtain rapid PEMFC response.

  10. Are cognitive impairment and depressive mood associated with increased service utilisation in community-dwelling elderly people?

    PubMed

    Roelands, Marc; Van Oyen, Herman; Depoorter, AnneMarie; Baro, Franz; Van Oost, Paulette

    2003-01-01

    The healthcare and social services utilisation of elderly people with mental disorders has not been sufficiently described, although such knowledge could indicate directions for preventive and curative interventions, and suggest unmet service needs. The aim of the present study was to examine cognitive impairment and depressive mood as correlates of specific healthcare and social services utilisation of community-dwelling elderly people. A randomly selected population sample of 1134 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over living in a defined area were interviewed at home. Cognitive impairment was measured by the Mini Mental State Examination and depressive mood by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies -- Depression scale. Cognitive impairment and depressive mood were related to the number of home care services used, and to the utilisaton of every specific healthcare and social service. After controlling for confounding variables (i.e. age, sex, education, co-residence and disabilities), service utilisation was still predicted by depressive mood, but not by cognitive impairment. Interventions to prevent and cure depressive mood should be considered to decrease the service needs of community-dwelling elderly people. Unmet service needs are suggested since cognitive impairment does not result in increased service utilisation.

  11. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  12. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation: evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Setting and participants We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, which included 2987 women who provided information on maternal health insurance status. Primary outcomes Utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Statistical analyses Multivariable logistic regression was applied to determine the independent association between maternal health insurance and utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Results After adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric factors, we observed that among insured women the likelihood of having antenatal care increased by 96% (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.52; p value<0.001) and of skilled delivery by 129% (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.92 to 2.74; p value<0.001), while postnatal care among insured women increased by 61% (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.21; p value<0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated that maternal health insurance status plays a significant role in the uptake of the maternal, neonatal and child health continuum of care service. PMID:26993621

  13. Utilisation and Impact of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Database (TEEAL) on Library Services in a Nigerian University of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwole, A. A.; Sowole, A. O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the utilisation of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Library database (TEEAL) at the University of Agriculture Library, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection was by questionnaire following a purposive sampling technique. A total of 104 out 150 (69.3 per cent) responses were received and…

  14. Formal home-care utilisation by older adults in Ireland: evidence from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Catriona M; Whelan, Brendan J; Normand, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a population-based estimate of the utilisation of publicly financed formal home care by older adults in Ireland and to identify the principal characteristics of those utilising formal home care. Data were collected through computer-aided personal interviews from a representative sample of community living older adults in Ireland. The interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 as part of the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). The study is cross-sectional in design and limited to participants aged 65 years and older (n = 3507). Results reveal that 8.2% (95% CI 7.1%-9.3%) of participants utilised publicly financed formal home care in the form of home help and/or personal care. Key determinants of formal home-care utilisation were Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) difficulty (Adj OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.3), older age (Adj OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-4.8) and living alone (Adj OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.8). Almost half of those utilising formal care did not self-report an Activity of Daily Living (ADL) difficulty or an IADL difficulty. Government policy aims to reduce the need for long-term residential care by providing formal home care for older adults with low to moderate levels of dependency. This requires an increasing emphasis on personal care provision in the home. No evidence was found in this study to suggest that a shift in emphasis from formal domestic to personal care is taking place in Ireland. The absence of standardised assessment and eligibility criteria are deemed to be barriers to reorientation of the system. From a health services perspective, the current situation is not sustainable into the future and requires a focused policy response.

  15. Formal home-care utilisation by older adults in Ireland: evidence from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Catriona M; Whelan, Brendan J; Normand, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a population-based estimate of the utilisation of publicly financed formal home care by older adults in Ireland and to identify the principal characteristics of those utilising formal home care. Data were collected through computer-aided personal interviews from a representative sample of community living older adults in Ireland. The interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 as part of the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). The study is cross-sectional in design and limited to participants aged 65 years and older (n = 3507). Results reveal that 8.2% (95% CI 7.1%-9.3%) of participants utilised publicly financed formal home care in the form of home help and/or personal care. Key determinants of formal home-care utilisation were Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) difficulty (Adj OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.3), older age (Adj OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-4.8) and living alone (Adj OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.8). Almost half of those utilising formal care did not self-report an Activity of Daily Living (ADL) difficulty or an IADL difficulty. Government policy aims to reduce the need for long-term residential care by providing formal home care for older adults with low to moderate levels of dependency. This requires an increasing emphasis on personal care provision in the home. No evidence was found in this study to suggest that a shift in emphasis from formal domestic to personal care is taking place in Ireland. The absence of standardised assessment and eligibility criteria are deemed to be barriers to reorientation of the system. From a health services perspective, the current situation is not sustainable into the future and requires a focused policy response. PMID:25442330

  16. In their own words: qualitative study of high-utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dwamena, Francesca C; Lyles, Judith S; Frankel, Richard M; Smith, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Background High utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) often frustrate their primary care providers. Studies that elucidate the attitudes of these patients may help to increase understanding and improve confidence of clinicians who care for them. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze perceptions and lived experiences of high utilising primary care patients with MUS. Methods A purposive sample of 19 high utilising primary care patients for whom at least 50% (69.6% in this sample) of visits for two years could not be explained medically, were encouraged to talk spontaneously about themselves and answer semi-structured questions. Verbatim transcripts of interviews were analyzed using an iterative consensus building process. Results Patients with MUS almost universally described current and/or past family dysfunction and were subjected to excessive testing and ineffective empirical treatments. Three distinct groups emerged from the data. 1) Some patients, who had achieved a significant degree of psychological insight and had success in life, primarily sought explanations for their symptoms. 2) Patients who had less psychological insight were more disabled by their symptoms and felt strongly entitled to be excused from normal social obligations. Typically, these patients primarily sought symptom relief, legitimization, and support. 3) Patients who expressed worry about missed diagnoses demanded excessive care and complained when their demands were resisted. Conclusion High utilising primary care patients are a heterogeneous group with similar experiences and different perceptions, behaviours and needs. Recognizing these differences may be critical to effective treatment and reduction in utilisation. PMID:19772582

  17. Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Visvikis, D; Ell, P J

    2003-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has now gained a place in the management of patients with cancer, including those with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Restaging studies and those addressing the monitoring of response to treatment are especially in focus. Most of the knowledge gained has been achieved with dedicated BGO-based PET technology, but there are a number of developments that will impact on the use of this metabolic imaging technique in the investigation of patients with lymphoma. The challenges ahead are determined by the need for high-quality whole-body imaging associated with increased patient throughput and the need to investigate the role of new labelled ligands. The latter are likely to yield new insights into tumour cell characterisation, tumour behaviour and tumour outcome assessment. The study of new radiolabelled ligands will impose further demands for rapid dynamic data acquisition and accurate tracer quantification. Current and future developments in PET technology range from the use of new detector materials to different detector geometries and data acquisition modes. The search for alternatives to BGO scintillation materials for PET has led to the development of PET instruments utilising new crystals such as LSO and GSO. The use of these new detectors and the increased sensitivity achieved with 3D data acquisitions represent the most significant current developments in the field. With the increasing demands imposed on the clinical utilisation of PET, issues such as study cost and patient throughput will emerge as significant future factors. As a consequence, low-cost units are being offered by the manufacturers through the utilisation of gamma camera-based SPET systems for PET coincidence imaging. Unfortunately, clinical studies in lymphoma and other cancers have already demonstrated the limitations of this technology, with 20% of lesions <15 mm in size escaping detection. On the other hand, the recent development of combined

  18. Comparisons of pastoralists perceptions about rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abule, E; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2005-04-01

    Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu-Fantale and the Afar ethnic group living in Awash-Fantale) on the usage of the existing rangeland resources, and their views on constraints and possible solutions. Data were collected from 90 Oromo and 55 Afar households. Despite the difference in ethnicity both of these groups share common problems. They derive their main income from the sale of animals and animal products, but with the difference that milk products rank first in the case of the Afar and last in the case of the Oromo. Both pastoral groups depend heavily on native grasses for animal feed and to a lesser extent on woody plants as a source of browse. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that the condition of the rangelands is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, droughts and increases in the human population. Availability of water is also regarded as a problem, mainly by the Oromo. Migration is the first measure taken to solve shortages of livestock feed, but many of the pastoralists replied that migration is an undesirable practise which is mostly done out of necessity. Because of the limited resources most respondents of both groups still prefer communal land tenure where resources are shared. It is concluded that the problems facing the pastoralists in the Middle Awash Valley have been created over many years and the solutions will also require time. With the current approach of the communal grazing systems, sustainable utilisation of the rangeland ecosystem is not possible. Solutions to the poor condition of the existing rangelands will require a definite commitment and full participation not only of the pastoralists, but also of

  19. Atherogenic, fibrotic and glucose utilising actions of glucokinase activators on vascular endothelium and smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical interventions for diabetes aim to control glycaemia and to prevent the development of complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Some anti-hyperglycaemic drugs have been found to have adverse cardiovascular effects in their own right, limiting their therapeutic role. Glucokinase activity in the pancreas is critical in enhancing insulin release in response to hyperglycaemia. Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are novel agents for diabetes which act by enhancing the formation of glucose-6-phosphate leading to increased insulin production and subsequent suppression of blood glucose. Little, however, is known about the direct effects of GKAs on cardiovascular cells. Methods The effect of the GKAs RO28-1675 and Compound A on glucose utilisation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and rat MIN6 was observed by culturing the cells at high and low glucose concentration in the presence and absence of the GKAs and measuring glucose consumption. The effect of RO28-1675 at various concentrations on glucose-dependent signalling in BAEC was observed by measuring Smad2 phosphorylation by Western blotting. The effect of RO28-1675 on TGF-β stimulated proteoglycan synthesis was measured by 35S-SO4 incorporation and assessment of proteoglycan size by SDS-PAGE. The effects of RO28-1675 on TGF-β mediated Smad2C phosphorylation in BAEC was observed by measurement of pSmad2C levels. The direct actions of RO28-1675 on vascular reactivity were observed by measuring arteriole tone and lumen diameter. Results GKAs were demonstrated to increase glucose utilisation in pancreatic but not endothelial cells. Glucose-activated Smad2 phosphorylation was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of RO28-1675. No effect of RO28-1675 was observed on TGF-β stimulated proteoglycan production. RO28-1675 caused a modest dilation in arteriole but not contractile sensitivity. Conclusions GKA RO28-1675 did not increase glucose consumption in endothelial cells

  20. Influence of phenolic substrates utilised by yeast Trichosporon cutaneum on the degradation kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gerginova, Maria; Zlateva, Plamena; Peneva, Nadejda; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2014-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of different phenolic substrates utilised by Trichosporon cutaneum R57 was studied. The following compounds were used as substrates: phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, 3-nitrophenol, 2,6-dinitrophenol, 3-chloro phenol and p-cresol. The specific degradation rates (Qs) were described by a Haldane kinetic model. The unknown model parameters were estimated using the mathematical optimisation procedure for direct search. The results obtained demonstrated that Qs varied greatly in the experiments carried out. The level of biodegradability depended on the different structure and toxicity of compounds used as carbon substrates. The highest Qs values were observed for less toxic hydroxylated phenols (0.77–0.85 h−1), while the most toxic chlorinated phenols were characterised with the lowest Qs values (0.224 h−1). The results obtained with different concentrations of resorcinol (from 0.2 to 0.8 g L−1) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (from 0.2 to 0.7 g L−1) demonstrated a growing inhibitory effect directly correlating with the extended time necessary for complete degradation of both compounds. PMID:26692781

  1. A mathematical model of microbial folate biosynthesis and utilisation: implications for antifolate development.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sora, J Enrique; Mc Auley, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    The metabolic biochemistry of folate biosynthesis and utilisation has evolved into a complex network of reactions. Although this complexity represents challenges to the field of folate research it has also provided a renewed source for antimetabolite targets. A range of improved folate chemotherapy continues to be developed and applied particularly to cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, new or better antifolates against infectious diseases remain much more elusive. In this paper we describe the assembly of a generic deterministic mathematical model of microbial folate metabolism. Our aim is to explore how a mathematical model could be used to explore the dynamics of this inherently complex set of biochemical reactions. Using the model it was found that: (1) a particular small set of folate intermediates are overrepresented, (2) inhibitory profiles can be quantified by the level of key folate products, (3) using the model to scan for the most effective combinatorial inhibitions of folate enzymes we identified specific targets which could complement current antifolates, and (4) the model substantiates the case for a substrate cycle in the folinic acid biosynthesis reaction. Our model is coded in the systems biology markup language and has been deposited in the BioModels Database (MODEL1511020000), this makes it accessible to the community as a whole. PMID:26794619

  2. Utilisation of CryoSat-2 SAR altimeter in operational ice charting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, E.; Similä, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present methods to utilise CryoSat-2 (CS-2) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode data in operational ice charting. We compare CS-2 data qualitatively to SAR mosaics over the Barents and Kara seas. Furthermore, we compare the CS-2 to archived operational ice charts. We present distributions of four CS-2 waveform parameters for different ice types as presented in the ice charts. We go on to present an automatic classification method for CS-2 data which, after training with operational ice charts, is capable of determining open ocean from ice with a hit rate of > 90 %. The training data are dynamically updated every 5 days using the most recent 15 days of CS-2 data and operative ice charts. This helps the adaption of the classifier to the evolving ice/snow conditions throughout winter. The classifier is also capable of detecting three different ice classes (thin and thick first-year ice as well as old ice) with success rates good enough for the output to be usable to support operational ice charting. Finally, we present a near-real-time CS-2 product just plotting the waveform characteristics and conclude that even such a simple product is usable for some of the needs of ice charting.

  3. Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Gstrauntaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2010-10-15

    Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

  4. Differential utilisation of health facilities and services for childbirth in Peninsula Malaysia--the ethnic factor.

    PubMed

    Arhsat, H; Tan Boon Ann; Tey Nai Peng

    1985-12-01

    The ethnic factor in the differential utilization of the health facilities in Peninsular Malaysia is examined. Data from the Malaysian Population and Family Survey 1984/85 show that about 45% of the births were delivered in the government hospitals, 15% in the private hospitals/clinics and the remaining 40% were delivered at home. Utilisation of these facilities varies greatly by ethnicity. The Malays have the greatest tendency to choose home delivery (60%), as opposed to institutional delivery (40%). Although urbanization and better socioeconomic conditions have led to an increase in institutional delivery, social customs continue to exert an influence on their behavior in favor of home delivery. Almost all Chinese babies are delivered in hospitals or clinics, with those from the higher social class showing a tendency to resort to the use of private hospitals/clinics for delivery. Indians were the most frequent users of government hospital across nearly all the social strata. While institutional deliveries were all attended by trained personnel, about 71% of the home deliveries were attended by government midwives and 24% by village midwives or other untrained persons, and only 5% were delivered by a doctor or a nurse.

  5. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system.

  6. Space resource utilisation: a novel indicator to quantify species competitive ability for light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Li, Junyong; Guo, Zhi; Du, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    Species richness and productivity are two fundamental aspects of ecosystems. As a result, the relationship between species richness and productivity has been widely studied. A series of fertilisation experiments in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau were performed to study the relationship between species richness and productivity. In this paper, we present a novel indicator, i.e., space resource utilisation (SRU), which is calculated by a volume formula (Vi  =  hi · Si; hi = plant height of species i, Si = quadrat area × percent cover of species i). SRU more fully reflected species competitive ability for light in both horizontal and vertical dimensions compared with plant height and cover. We used this novel indicator to investigate the effects of SRU on the changes in species richness and productivity following fertilisation. We found that the SRU of the community was correlated with increasing productivity and decreasing species richness following fertilisation and was a better predictor of species richness than productivity. The changes in SRU following fertilisation vary among species. These results demonstrate that SRU can be a more useful tool in explaining plant biodiversity loss and predicting the fate of different species than each of height, cover and productivity. PMID:26593068

  7. High throughput screening of lead utilising disposable screen printed shallow recessed microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sebastian J; Kadara, Rashid O; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2010-01-01

    The cathodic stripping voltammetry of lead at disposable screen printed shallow recessed microelectrode arrays has been developed for the first time. The array comprises 6 microdiscs which have radii of 116 (+/-6) microns which are recessed by 4 microns and are separated by 2500 microns from their nearest neighbour in a hexagonal arrangement. The electroanalytical determination of lead was explored in 0.1 M nitric acid and found that using a 120 s deposition time, a detection limit of 3 microM is feasible which is not possible utilising a screen printed graphite macro-electrode. The sensitivity of this analytical protocol can be tailored by varying the deposition time and it is found that increasing this to 320 s facilitates a limit of detection of 39 nM. This methodology is shown to be feasible for the portable and economical screening of lead in river water samples at the levels indicated by the EC Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EEC).

  8. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ≥18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753-10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869-13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309-1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  9. Carbon dioxide utilisation of Dunaliella tertiolecta for carbon bio-mitigation in a semicontinuous photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Damien J; Brennan, Liam; Everard, Colm D; McDonnell, Kevin P

    2014-04-01

    Bio-fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2) by microalgae has been recognised as an attractive approach to offset anthropogenic emissions. Biological carbon mitigation is the process whereby autotrophic organisms, such as microalgae, convert CO2 into organic carbon and O2 through photosynthesis; this process through respiration produces biomass. In this study Dunaliella tertiolecta was cultivated in a semicontinuous culture to investigate the carbon mitigation rate of the system. The algae were produced in 1.2-L Roux bottles with a working volume of 1 L while semicontinuous production commenced on day 4 of cultivation when the carbon mitigation rate was found to be at a maximum for D. tertiolecta. The reduction in CO2 between input and output gases was monitored to predict carbon fixation rates while biomass production and microalgal carbon content are used to calculate the actual carbon mitigation potential of D. tertiolecta. A renewal rate of 45 % of flask volume was utilised to maintain the culture in exponential growth with an average daily productivity of 0.07 g L(-1) day(-1). The results showed that 0.74 g L(-1) of biomass could be achieved after 7 days of semicontinuous production while a total carbon mitigation of 0.37 g L(-1) was achieved. This represented an increase of 0.18 g L(-1) in carbon mitigation rate compared to batch production of D. tertiolecta over the same cultivation period.

  10. Glucose utilisation during status epilepticus in an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Arida, Ricardo Mario; Priel, Margareth Rose; Calderazzo, Lineu; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2002-06-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency and it is associated to brain damage. 2-deoxy-[14C] glucose (2-DG) procedure has been used to measure the alterations in the functional activity of the brain induced by various pharmacological and toxicological agents. The aim of this study was to determine which changes occur in the seizure anatomic substrates during the SE induced by pilocarpine (PILO) using [14C]-2 deoxyglucose functional mapping technique. Wistar male adult rats were submitted to SE PILO-induced for 6h and received [14C] 2-deoxyglucose injection via jugular vein 45 min before the 6th hour of SE. The control animals were submitted to all procedures but received saline and not pilocarpine. Brain sections were prepared and exposed X-ray film about seven days. The optical density of each region was obtained using a solid state digital analyser. The analysis revealed that 14C-2DG utilisation was pronounced in the SE rats on the areas corresponding to the hippocampal formation (+50.6%), caudate-putamen (+30.6%), frontoparietal cortex (+32.2%), amygdala (+31.7%), entorrinal cortex (+28.2%), thalamic nucleus (+93.5%), pre-tectal area (+50.1%) and substantia nigra (+50.3%) when compared to control. Our results suggest that the different activation levels of the distinct structures may be particularly important for understanding triggering and spreading mechanisms underlying epileptic activity during status epilepticus.

  11. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ≥18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753–10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869–13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309–1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  12. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  13. Space resource utilisation: a novel indicator to quantify species competitive ability for light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Li, Junyong; Guo, Zhi; Du, Guozhen

    2015-11-23

    Species richness and productivity are two fundamental aspects of ecosystems. As a result, the relationship between species richness and productivity has been widely studied. A series of fertilisation experiments in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau were performed to study the relationship between species richness and productivity. In this paper, we present a novel indicator, i.e., space resource utilisation (SRU), which is calculated by a volume formula (V(i)  =  h(i) · S(i); h(i) = plant height of species i, S(i) = quadrat area × percent cover of species i). SRU more fully reflected species competitive ability for light in both horizontal and vertical dimensions compared with plant height and cover. We used this novel indicator to investigate the effects of SRU on the changes in species richness and productivity following fertilisation. We found that the SRU of the community was correlated with increasing productivity and decreasing species richness following fertilisation and was a better predictor of species richness than productivity. The changes in SRU following fertilisation vary among species. These results demonstrate that SRU can be a more useful tool in explaining plant biodiversity loss and predicting the fate of different species than each of height, cover and productivity.

  14. High-throughput genotyping of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) utilising diversity arrays technology (DArT).

    PubMed

    Howard, E L; Whittock, S P; Jakše, J; Carling, J; Matthews, P D; Probasco, G; Henning, J A; Darby, P; Cerenak, A; Javornik, B; Kilian, A; Koutoulis, A

    2011-05-01

    Implementation of molecular methods in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) breeding is dependent on the availability of sizeable numbers of polymorphic markers and a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation. However, use of molecular marker technology is limited due to expense, time inefficiency, laborious methodology and dependence on DNA sequence information. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) is a high-throughput cost-effective method for the discovery of large numbers of quality polymorphic markers without reliance on DNA sequence information. This study is the first to utilise DArT for hop genotyping, identifying 730 polymorphic markers from 92 hop accessions. The marker quality was high and similar to the quality of DArT markers previously generated for other species; although percentage polymorphism and polymorphism information content (PIC) were lower than in previous studies deploying other marker systems in hop. Genetic relationships in hop illustrated by DArT in this study coincide with knowledge generated using alternate methods. Several statistical analyses separated the hop accessions into genetically differentiated North American and European groupings, with hybrids between the two groups clearly distinguishable. Levels of genetic diversity were similar in the North American and European groups, but higher in the hybrid group. The markers produced from this time and cost-efficient genotyping tool will be a valuable resource for numerous applications in hop breeding and genetics studies, such as mapping, marker-assisted selection, genetic identity testing, guidance in the maintenance of genetic diversity and the directed breeding of superior cultivars. PMID:21243330

  15. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    PubMed

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  16. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  17. Learning preferences of first year nursing and midwifery students: utilising VARK.

    PubMed

    James, Santhamma; D'Amore, Angelo; Thomas, Theda

    2011-05-01

    The diversity of first year students is increasing with new schemes promoting access to higher education courses. It is important to assess the learning styles of students in order to cater for their differing learning needs. The aim of this study was to profile first year nursing/midwifery students at two campuses of Australian Catholic University, to investigate their learning preferences and the effect demographic background has on these preferences. We designed a survey to collect demographic data and incorporated the VARK (visual, aural, read-write and kinaesthetic) questionnaire to investigate the students' preferred learning modes. The kinaesthetic score of our students was the highest (7.34 ± 2.67), significantly differing from the other three modes (p<0.001). Demographic factors such as gender and age group did not influence mean scores of each sensory modality. The predominant preference was quadmodal utilising all four learning styles. The distribution of students preferring to learn by unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal styles varied between demographic groupings. The rural students had significantly higher visual and kinaesthetic scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Students attending the rural campus had higher visual and read-write scores. Visual and aural scores were significantly lower for students from non-English speaking backgrounds. These findings have significant teaching and research implications. PMID:20826044

  18. Investigation of Matlab® as platform in navigation and control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle utilising an omnivision sensor.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-08-25

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed.

  19. A simple solution to the problem of effective utilisation of the target material for pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzanyan, A. S.; Kuzanyan, A. A.; Petrosyan, V. A.; Pilosyan, S. Kh; Grasiuk, A. Z.

    2013-12-01

    The factors determining the efficiency of the target material utilisation for pulsed laser deposition of films are considered. The target volume is calculated, which is evaporated in the ablation process by the focused laser radiation having a rectangular form. The new device is suggested and developed for obtaining thin films by the method of laser deposition, which is specific in the employment of a simple optical system mounted outside a deposition chamber that comprises two lenses and the diaphragm and focuses the laser beam onto a target in the form of a sector-like spot. Thin films of CuO and YBaCuO were deposited with this device. Several deposition cycles revealed that the target material is consumed uniformly from the entire surface of the target. A maximal spread of the target thickness was not greater than +/-2% both prior to deposition and after it. The device designed provides a high coefficient of the target material utilisation efficiency.

  20. Investigation of Matlab® as Platform in Navigation and Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Utilising an Omnivision Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed. PMID:25157548

  1. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity. PMID:10518916

  2. Income-based disparities in health care utilisation under universal health coverage in Brazil, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Cataife, Guido; Courtemanche, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Since Brazil's adoption of universal health care in 1988, the country's health care system has consisted of a mix of private providers and free public providers. We test whether income-based disparities in medical visits and medications remain in Brazil despite universal coverage using a nationally representative sample of over 48,000 households. Additional income is associated with less public sector utilisation and more private sector utilisation, both using simple correlations and regressions controlling for household characteristics and local area fixed effects. Importantly, the increase in private care use is greater than the drop in public care use. Also, income and unmet medical needs are negatively associated. These results suggest that access limitations remain for low-income households despite the availability of free public care.

  3. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

  4. The Effect of Urban Basic Medical Insurance on Health Service Utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: A Comparison of Two Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Results Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p<0.10), whilst the significant effect on hospitalisation was evident in the CEM method (p<0.10). The effect of URBMI was limited in that although being insured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Conclusion Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services. PMID:24740282

  5. Direct costs of glaucoma and severity of the disease: a multinational long term study of resource utilisation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, C E; Walt, J G; Kelly, S P; Hommer, A H; Bron, A M; Denis, P; Nordmann, J-P; Renard, J-P; Bayer, A; Grehn, F; Pfeiffer, N; Cedrone, C; Gandolfi, S; Orzalesi, N; Nucci, C; Rossetti, L; Azuara-Blanco, A; Bagnis, A; Hitchings, R; Salmon, J F; Bricola, G; Buchholz, P M; Kotak, S V; Katz, L M; Siegartel, L R; Doyle, J J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Resource utilisation and direct costs associated with glaucoma progression in Europe are unknown. As population progressively ages, the economic impact of the disease will increase. Methods: From a total of 1655 consecutive cases, the records of 194 patients were selected and stratified by disease severity. Record selection was based on diagnoses of primary open angle glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, ocular hypertension, or normal tension glaucoma; 5 years minimum follow up were required. Glaucoma severity was assessed using a six stage glaucoma staging system based on static threshold visual field parameters. Resource utilisation data were abstracted from the charts and unit costs were applied to estimate direct costs to the payer. Resource utilisation and estimated direct cost of treatment, per person year, were calculated. Results: A statistically significant increasing linear trend (p = 0.018) in direct cost as disease severity worsened was demonstrated. The direct cost of treatment increased by an estimated €86 for each incremental step ranging from €455 per person year for stage 0 to €969 per person year for stage 4 disease. Medication costs ranged from 42% to 56% of total direct cost for all stages of disease. Conclusions: These results demonstrate for the first time in Europe that resource utilisation and direct medical costs of glaucoma management increase with worsening disease severity. Based on these findings, managing glaucoma and effectively delaying disease progression would be expected to significantly reduce the economic burden of this disease. These data are relevant to general practitioners and healthcare administrators who have a direct influence on the distribution of resources. PMID:16170109

  6. Effects of drug price reduction and prescribing restrictions on expenditures and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ki-Bong; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Sohee; Kim, Tae Hyun; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the quantitative effects of the drug price reduction on pharmaceutical expenditures and the new guidelines to restrict prescribing on drug utilisation for antihypertensive drugs. Design We used an interrupted time series design with the National patient sample data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea. Methods 54 295 participants who were with primary hypertension from the National patient sample data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service were included. The study period was from March 2011 to December 2013. The dependent variables were antihypertensive drug costs, antihypertensive drug cost per prescribing day, daily drug utilisation, average number of drugs per month, percentage of original drugs per prescription, drug overutilisation and prohibited combinations. Segmented regression analysis was used. Results The drug price reduction reduced expenditure (US$−1.51, −10.2%), and the new guidelines reduced expenditures even more (US$−2.13; −16.2%). These policies saved US$4.22 (28%) of antihypertensive drug costs per patient in December 2013 compared to March 2012. Drug price reduction policy was introduced in April 2012. We established the policy effect by comparing it before (March 2012) with after(21 months later-December 2012). The effects of the guidelines decreased expenditures, daily drug utilisation and the average number of drugs per month more than did the drug price reduction. Conclusions Both policies saved money. The guidelines were more effective over time and had fewer side effects such as increasing daily drug utilisation and number of drugs than the effects of drug price reduction. PMID:26179644

  7. Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000–2012): a time-series and benchmarking study

    PubMed Central

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited data exist on the status of access to diabetes medicines in LMICs. We assessed the utilisation and affordability of diabetes medicines in Iran as a middle-income country. Design We used a retrospective time-series design (2000–2012) and assessed national diabetes medicines’ utilisation using pharmaceuticals wholesale data. Methods We calculated defined daily dose consumptions per population days (DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day; DIDs) indicator. Findings were benchmarked with data from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We also employed Drug Utilization-90% (DU-90) method to compare DU-90s with the Essential Medicines List published by the WHO. We measured affordability using number of minimum daily wage required to purchase a treatment course for 1 month. Results Diabetes medicines’ consumption increased from 4.47 to 33.54 DIDs. The benchmarking showed that medicines’ utilisation in Iran in 2011 was only 54% of the median DIDs of 22 OECD countries. Oral hypoglycaemic agents consisted over 80% of use throughout the study period. Regular and isophane insulin (NPH), glibenclamide, metformin and gliclazide were the DU-90 drugs in 2012. Metformin, glibenclamide and regular/NPH insulin combination therapy were affordable throughout the study period (∼0.4, ∼0.1, ∼0.3 of minimum daily wage, respectively). While the affordability of novel insulin preparations improved over time, they were still unaffordable in 2012. Conclusions The utilisation of diabetes medicines was relatively low, perhaps due to underdiagnosis and inadequate management of patients with diabetes. This had occurred despite affordability of essential diabetes medicines in Iran. Appropriate policies are required to address the underutilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran. PMID:25324322

  8. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  9. Health care utilisation of prematurely born, preschool children related to hospitalisation for RSV infection

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, A; Alexander, J; Burgess, S; Bytham, J; Chetcuti, P; Hagan, J; Lenney, W; Melville, S; Shaw, N; Boorman, J; Coles, S; Turner, J; Pang, F

    2004-01-01

    Background: In prematurely born infants with chronic lung disease (CLD), RSV hospitalisation is associated with increased health service utilisation and costs in the first two years after birth. Aims: To determine whether RSV hospitalisation in the first two years was associated with chronic respiratory morbidity during the preschool years in prematurely born children who had had CLD. Methods: Retrospective review of readmissions, outpatient attendances, and community care in years 2–4 and, at age 5 years, assessment of the children's respiratory status and their health related quality of life. Comparison was made of the results of children who had had at least one hospitalisation in the first two years after birth for RSV infection (RSV group) to those of the rest of the cohort. Participants were 190 of an original cohort of 235 infants with CLD and a median gestational age 27 (range 22–33) weeks. Results: The 33 children in the RSV group, compared to the rest of the cohort, had a greater duration of hospital stay and more outpatient appointments. The RSV group had required more prescriptions for all treatments and respiratory medications, and more had used an inhaler. The cost of care of the RSV group was higher (median £2630 [€4000, US$4800], range £124–18 091 versus £1360 [€2500, US$3000], range £5–18 929) and their health related quality of life was lower. Conclusion: In prematurely born children who had developed CLD, RSV hospitalisation in the first two years was associated with chronic respiratory morbidity and increased cost of care. PMID:15210503

  10. Reference-based pricing schemes: effect on pharmaceutical expenditure, resource utilisation and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ioannides-Demos, Lisa L; Ibrahim, Joseph E; McNeil, John J

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising more rapidly than the general inflation rate in most advanced countries. One strategy that has been introduced to control pharmaceutical costs is reference-based pricing (RBP). Its potential is restricted to those specific segments of the drug market where several drugs (and/or their generic forms) exist without substantial evidence that any particular agent is superior. Three broad approaches have been adopted. These involve the aggregation of drugs into generic groups, related drug groups (e.g. ACE inhibitors) or drugs grouped by therapeutic indication (e.g. antihypertensives). For each drug group, a single reimbursement level or reference price is set. Drugs above the reference price require part or total payment by the patient. The experience with RBP ranges from over 10 years in Germany (involving all levels of RBP) to the more recent implementation of RBP for related drug groups in Australia. This review summarises the current state of knowledge on RBP from the published experiences in the countries where RBP has been adopted. The published systematic reviews of RBP from the countries that have implemented it suggest that RBP has been successful at temporarily capping drug prices for the RBP drug groups and achieving short term cost savings. However, other factors influencing total pharmaceutical expenditure have often occurred simultaneously and make it difficult to isolate specific effects of RBP. Further investigation is required before any valid conclusions can be drawn about the net effect of RBP on healthcare costs. RBP has withstood the initial legal challenges of pharmaceutical companies and the criticisms of some clinicians. Where the reference price is based on the lowest priced drug(s) in the group, RBP appears to be one of the few strategies likely to be effective at encouraging doctors to use the least expensive agents as first-line therapy and utilise more expensive agents in those who experience side effects

  11. Healthcare Resource Utilisation Associated with Herpes Zoster in a Prospective Cohort of Older Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Surendra; Newall, Anthony T.; MacIntyre, C. Raina; Heywood, Anita E.; McIntyre, Peter; Banks, Emily; Liu, Bette

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common condition that increases in incidence with older age but vaccines are available to prevent the disease. However, there are limited data estimating the health system burden attributable to herpes zoster by age. Methods In this study, we quantified excess healthcare resource usage associated with HZ during the acute/sub-acute period of disease (21days before to 90 days after onset) in 5952 cases and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and prior healthcare resource usage. Estimates were adjusted for potential confounders in multivariable regression models. Using population-based estimates of HZ incidence, we calculated the age-specific excess number of health service usage events attributable to HZ in the population. Results Per HZ case, there was an average of 0.06 (95% CI 0.04–0.08) excess hospitalisations, 1.61 (95% CI 1.51–1.69) excess general practitioner visits, 1.96 (95% CI 1.86–2.15) excess prescriptions filled and 0.11 (95% CI 0.09–0.13) excess emergency department visits. The average number of healthcare resource use events, and the estimated excess per 100,000 population increased with increasing age but were similar for men and women, except for higher rates of hospitalisation in men. The excess annual HZ associated burden of hospitalisations was highest in adults ≥80 years (N = 2244, 95%CI 1719–2767); GP visits was highest in those 60–69 years (N = 50567, 95%CI 39958–61105), prescriptions and ED visits were highest in 70–79 years (N = 50524, 95%CI 40634–60471 and N = 2891, 95%CI 2319–3449 respectively). Conclusions This study provides important data to establish the healthcare utilisation associated with HZ against which detailed cost-effectiveness analyses of HZ immunisation in older adults can be conducted. PMID:27483007

  12. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m-2 s-1) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36–60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  13. Can silicon isotopes be used to assess anthropogenic impacts and nutrient utilisation in Lake Baikal, Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G. E. A.; Panizzo, V. N.; Mackay, A. W.; Roberts, S.; Vologina, E.; Horstwood, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Silicon isotope geochemistry (28Si, 29Si, 30Si) represents a growing field in Earth Sciences providing information to constrain and understand biogeochemical cycling on land and in oceans. Here we present records of δ30Si (30Si/28Si) from the Lake Baikal drainage basin in central Siberia to understand silicon cycling through the dominant river tributaries and into Lake Baikal itself, the world's deepest and most voluminous lake containing one fifth of all freshwater not stored in glaciers and ice caps.Waters were collected along an upstream transect for the five dominant Lake Baikal inflows as well as from the Selenga Delta which account for >50% of the annual riverine flow to the lake. Samples for dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations and silicon isotopic signatures (δ30SiDSi) were filtered and acidified in the field with isotopic analyses conducted on a Neptune + Multi-Collector ICP-MS using wet plasma mode with Mg doping of samples and standard-sample-standard bracketing. Analytical reproducibility is 0.11‰ (2σ) and blanks are <1% of signal intensity. The DSi concentration of all river inflow samples varies from c. 2.5-6.3 ppm, which contrasts with concentrations of < 1ppm from the Angara River, the lake's only outflow. Combined with river δ30SiDSi values of c. + 0.94 to +1.52‰ and lake water and outflow values of c. +2.50‰, the results show significant (up to 60%) biological utilisation of silicon entering the lake.With the Lake Baikal having been designated a World Heritage Site since 1996, due to its high level of biological endemicity, the work in combination with sediment cores from the lake provides an insight into the transportation and fate of silicon in the basin and an assessment of how climate change and expanding anthropogenic activities in the region including urbanisation, deforestation, agriculture and mining have impacted biogeochemical cycling.

  14. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Top, Y

    2015-01-01

    The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system. PMID:25453314

  15. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Top, Y

    2015-01-01

    The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system.

  16. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  17. Utilising reinforcement learning to develop strategies for driving auditory neural implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geoffrey W.; Zambetta, Fabio; Li, Xiaodong; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In this paper we propose a novel application of reinforcement learning to the area of auditory neural stimulation. We aim to develop a simulation environment which is based off real neurological responses to auditory and electrical stimulation in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) of an animal model. Using this simulator we implement closed loop reinforcement learning algorithms to determine which methods are most effective at learning effective acoustic neural stimulation strategies. Approach. By recording a comprehensive set of acoustic frequency presentations and neural responses from a set of animals we created a large database of neural responses to acoustic stimulation. Extensive electrical stimulation in the CN and the recording of neural responses in the IC provides a mapping of how the auditory system responds to electrical stimuli. The combined dataset is used as the foundation for the simulator, which is used to implement and test learning algorithms. Main results. Reinforcement learning, utilising a modified n-Armed Bandit solution, is implemented to demonstrate the model’s function. We show the ability to effectively learn stimulation patterns which mimic the cochlea’s ability to covert acoustic frequencies to neural activity. Time taken to learn effective replication using neural stimulation takes less than 20 min under continuous testing. Significance. These results show the utility of reinforcement learning in the field of neural stimulation. These results can be coupled with existing sound processing technologies to develop new auditory prosthetics that are adaptable to the recipients current auditory pathway. The same process can theoretically be abstracted to other sensory and motor systems to develop similar electrical replication of neural signals.

  18. Increased utilisation of PEPFAR-supported laboratory services by non-HIV patents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McNairy, Margaret L.; Gwynn, Charon; Rabkin, Miriam; Antelman, Gretchen; Wu, Yingfeng; Alemayehu, Bereket; Lim, Travis; Imtiaz, Rubina; Mosha, Fausta; Mwasekaga, Michael; Othman, Asha A.; Justman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown to what extent the non-HIV population utilises laboratories supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Objectives We aimed to describe the number and proportion of laboratory tests performed in 2009 and 2011 for patients referred from HIV and non-HIV services (NHSs) in a convenience sample collected from 127 laboratories supported by PEPFAR in Tanzania. We then compared changes in the proportions of tests performed for patients referred from NHSs in 2009 vs 2011. Methods Haematology, chemistry, tuberculosis and syphilis test data were collected from available laboratory registers. Referral sources, including HIV services, NHSs, or lack of a documented referral source, were recorded. A generalised linear mixed model reported the odds that a test was from a NHS. Results A total of 94 132 tests from 94 laboratories in 2009 and 157 343 tests from 101 laboratories in 2011 were recorded. Half of all tests lacked a documented referral source. Tests from NHSs constituted 42% (66 084) of all tests in 2011, compared with 31% (29 181) in 2009. A test in 2011 was twice as likely to have been referred from a NHS as in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio: 2.0 [95% confidence interval: 2.0–2.1]). Conclusion Between 2009 and 2011, the number and proportion of tests from NHSs increased across all types of test. This finding may reflect increased documentation of NHS referrals or that the laboratory scale-up originally intended to service the HIV-positive population in Tanzania may be associated with a ‘spillover effect’ amongst the general population. PMID:26962475

  19. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  20. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT) in rural Indian medical institute

    PubMed Central

    BHAISARE, ROSHAN; KAMBLE, BHAVNA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue.  To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B.  For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter.  At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture.  It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts, PMID:27382583

  1. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA.

  2. Analysis of regulation of pentose utilisation in Aspergillus niger reveals evolutionary adaptations in Eurotiales

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, E.; Visser, L.; Nijssen, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wösten, H.A.B.; de Vries, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergilli are commonly found in soil and on decaying plant material. D-xylose and L-arabinose are highly abundant components of plant biomass. They are released from polysaccharides by fungi using a set of extracellular enzymes and subsequently converted intracellularly through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP). In this study, the L-arabinose responsive transcriptional activator (AraR) is identified in Aspergillus niger and was shown to control the L-arabinose catabolic pathway as well as expression of genes encoding extracellular L-arabinose releasing enzymes. AraR interacts with the D-xylose-responsive transcriptional activator XlnR in the regulation of the pentose catabolic pathway, but not with respect to release of L-arabinose and D-xylose. AraR was only identified in the Eurotiales, more specifically in the family Trichocomaceae and appears to have originated from a gene duplication event (from XlnR) after this order or family split from the other filamentous ascomycetes. XlnR is present in all filamentous ascomycetes with the exception of members of the Onygenales. Since the Onygenales and Eurotiales are both part of the subclass Eurotiomycetidae, this indicates that strong adaptation of the regulation of pentose utilisation has occurred at this evolutionary node. In Eurotiales a unique two-component regulatory system for pentose release and metabolism has evolved, while the regulatory system was lost in the Onygenales. The observed evolutionary changes (in Eurotiomycetidae) mainly affect the regulatory system as in contrast, homologues for most genes of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway are present in all the filamentous fungi, irrespective of the presence of XlnR and/or AraR. PMID:21892241

  3. Impact of health insurance status changes on healthcare utilisation patterns: a longitudinal cohort study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Jang, Sung-In; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study examined medical care utilisation by health insurance status changes. Setting The Korean Welfare Panel Study (KoWePs) was used. Participants This study analysed 14 267 participants at baseline (2006). Interventions The individuals were categorised into four health insurance status groups: continuous health insurance, change from health insurance to Medical Aid, change from Medical Aid to health insurance, or continuous Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Three dependent variables were also analysed: days spent in hospital; number of outpatient visits; and hospitalisations per year. Longitudinal data analysis was used to determine whether changes in health insurance status were associated with healthcare utilisation. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.1.363 times higher (p<0.0001) in the continuous Medical Aid than in the continuous health insurance group. The number of hospitalisations per year was 1.560 times higher (p<0.001) in new Medical Aid and −0.636 times lower (p<0.001) in new health insurance than in continuous health insurance group. The number of days spent in hospital per year was −0.567 times lower (p=0.021) in the new health insurance than in the continuous health insurance group. Conclusions Health insurance beneficiaries with a coverage level lower than Medical Aid showed lower healthcare utilisation, as measured by the number of hospitalisations and days spent in hospital per year. PMID:27036140

  4. Phytase effects on the efficiency of utilisation and blood concentrations of phosphorus and calcium in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Hempel, R; Wendt, P

    2006-06-01

    1. The objective was to study the effects of a supplementation of a 6-phytase derived from the Peniophora lycii gene in the White Pekin duck. 2. In two balance studies, low-phosphorus (P) diets consisting mainly of maize, solvent extracted soybean meal and solvent extracted sunflower meal were supplemented with phytase up to concentrations of 1500 U/kg (Study 1) or 2000 U/kg (Study 2). Each diet (phytase level) was fed to 8 to 10 individually penned ducks. The intake and excretion of each animal was measured for 5 consecutive days when ducks were in their third week of life. Responses were described by nonlinear regression. 3. Although the basal diets from the two studies were similar in ingredient composition, efficiencies of P utilisation (P accretion/P intake x 100) for the unsupplemented basal diets were 39% in Study 1 and 30% in Study 2. Phytase supplementation significantly improved P utilisation up to levels of about 55% in both studies. A plateau in P utilisation with an increase in phytase supplementation was achieved in Study 2, but not in Study 1. The enzyme was more efficient in Study 2 than in Study 1 at low rates of supplementation. Utilisation of calcium (Ca) was significantly improved by phytase supplementation. Accretions of P and Ca increased at a constant ratio. 4. In a 5-week growth study, diets with an intentionally marginal P level were used. Diets were fed either unsupplemented or supplemented with 1000 or 10,000 U/kg of phytase. Eight pens of 10 sex-separated ducks each (4 pens per sex) were allocated to each dietary treatment. 5. Phytase significantly improved the growth of ducks of both sexes between d 1 and 21, but not between d 22 and 35. Feed conversion rate was not affected by treatment. Blood serum phosphate concentrations, but not calcium, were significantly increased by phytase supplementation. Blood concentrations of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase remained unaffected while alanine aminotransferase

  5. Mise à jour sur l’utilisation clinique de la buprénorphine

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs μ des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs κ des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

  6. Utilisation and Off-Label Prescriptions of Respiratory Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H.; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ≤18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374–575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378–527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (−97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n = 67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n = 18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining

  7. Silages containing buckwheat and chicory: quality, digestibility and nitrogen utilisation by lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2012-02-01

    The suitability of silages containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) for the nutrition of dairy cows was determined. Buckwheat and chicory were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multilorum), and a pure ryegrass culture served as a control forage. Swards were harvested 55 d after sowing and were ensiled after wilting, without additives in small round bales. Finally, buckwheat and chicory made up the dietary dry matter (DM) proportions of 0.46 and 0.34, respectively. Concentrates were restricted to 2 kg/d. Diets were fed to 3 x 6 late-lactating cows for 15 d at ad libitum access. During the collection period (days 10-15) amounts of feed intake and faeces, urine and milk were recorded and samples were taken. Ensilability was good for buckwheat and ryegrass swards, but was so less for the chicory sward, which was rich in total ash. The buckwheat silage was rich in acid detergent fibre (445 g/kg DM) and lignin (75.7 g/kg DM) and contained less crude protein (135 g/kg DM) and ether extract (15.8 g/kg DM) than the other silages. Consistent with that, the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and fibre were lowest when feeding this silage. The potassium concentrations in the chicory and ryegrass silages were high (61 g/ kg) and lower in buckwheat (47 g/kg). No significant treatment effects on intake, body weight, milk yield or milk composition as well as plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids occurred. Being lowest in nitrogen (N) content, the buckwheat silage resulted in the lowest urine N losses and the most efficient N utilisation for milk protein synthesis, but this at cost of body N retention. The results show that silages containing buckwheat and chicory may be used as components of the forage part of dairy cows' diets even though they were found to have a lower feeding value than ryegrass silage.

  8. Utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine content for broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Reddy, V

    2001-07-01

    1. The relative utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine (F) content was studied in commercial broilers (5 to 40 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). The phosphorus (P) sources tested were bonemeal (BM), low fluorine (LFRP) and high fluorine (HFRP) rock phosphates and a commercial mineral mixture (CMM). The P sources were incorporated in broiler and layer diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) on a P basis. 2. The F contents of diets based on BM, LFRP, CMM and HFRP were 53, 365, 622 and 1383 mg/kg in the broiler experiment and 34, 242, 437 and 967 mg/kg in the layer experiment, respectively. F was not detected in DCP based diets. 3. In broilers, body weight gain, food intake, gain: food, P retention and serum inorganic P content on P sources (BM and LFRP) containing F up to 365 mg/kg diet were similar to those on DCP. Body weight gain, food intake, serum calcium and inorganic P contents and retention of P were depressed in groups fed on CMM and HFRP, which may have been due to the toxic effects of F (622 and 1383 mg/kg) present in diets based on these P sources. 4. Bone ash and its P content were not affected by feeding diets containing F up to 1383 mg/kg from various P sources. The amount of F deposited in tibia increased significantly with increases in dietary F concentration. 5. In layers, egg production and food intake were not affected by F up to 437 mg/kg in diets containing BM, LFRP or CMM as the sole source of supplemental P. Egg production and food intake were depressed significantly in layers given the diet containing 967 mg F/kg from HFRP. 6. Egg mass: food, egg weight, shell quality (shell thickness and shell weight) and serum calcium and inorganic P levels were not affected by F up to 967 mg/kg in diets containing different P sources. 7. It may be concluded that the performance of broilers and layers was not affected by feeding various P supplements with dietary levels of F up to 365 and 437 mg

  9. The ingestion of protein with a maltodextrin and fructose beverage on substrate utilisation and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Michael D; Roberts, Justin D; Kass, Lindsy S; Tarpey, Richard J; Roberts, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated the ingestion of maltodextrin, fructose, and protein on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (CHOEXO) and exercise performance. Seven trained cyclists and (or) triathletes (maximal oxygen consumption, 59.20 ± 9.00 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 3 exercise trials that consisted of 150 min of cycling at 50% maximal power output (160 ± 11 W), followed by a 60-km time trial. One of 3 beverages were randomly assigned during each trial and consumed at 15-min intervals: (i) 0.84 g · min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.52 g · min(-1) fructose + 0.34 g · min(-1) protein (MD+F+P); (ii) 1.10 g · min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.60 g · min(-1) fructose (MD+F); or (iii) 1.70 g · min(-1) maltodextrin (MD). CHO(EXO) and fuel utilisation were assessed via measurement of expired air (13)C content and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Mean total CHO oxidation (CHOTOT) rates were 2.35 ± 0.18, 2.76 ± 0.08, and 2.61 ± 0.17 g · min(-1) with MD, MD+F, and MD+F+P, respectively, although not significantly different. Peak CHO(EXO) rates with MD+F were significantly greater by 41.4% (p = 0.001) and 45.4% (p = 0.0001) compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively (1.57 ± 0.22 g · min(-1), 1.11 ± 0.08 g · min(-1), and 1.08 ± 0.11 g · min(-1), respectively). Performance times were 2.2% and 5.0% faster with MD+F compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively; however, they were not statistically significant. Ingestion of an MD-fructose-protein commercial sports beverage significantly reduced peak and mean CHO(EXO) rates compared with MD+F, but did not significantly influence CHOTOT. The addition of protein to an MD+F beverage did not enhance performance times.

  10. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p

  11. Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Burroway, Rebekah; Reed, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Examine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work. Design Data came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Descriptive statistics compared characteristics of programme aware and unaware FSWs and from among the aware, to characterise active program users. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with programme exposure. Results Between Rounds 1 and 2, programme awareness increased from 41.8% to 69.6% of respondents, and active utilisation (among those who were aware) increased from 49.2% to 61.0%. Street-based FSWs were under-represented and brothel-based FSWs overrepresented in both groups and rounds. Geographic proximity and literacy were associated with programme awareness but not utilisation. The most important factor associated with both forms of intervention exposure across rounds was willingness to be identified in public as a FSWs (OR 2.2–4.8). Conclusion Public visibility is a critical component of CMIs. Such interventions should develop strategies for involving FSWs that allow them to remain invisible, while also working to reduce the threat associated with public visibility. In contexts where sex work occurs in multiple venues, it is important to develop CMIs that include and address the needs of FSWs working in them all. PMID:20167735

  12. Health Care Utilisation and Transitions between Health Care Settings in the Last 6 Months of Life in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Caroline; Signorell, Andri; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Many efforts are undertaken in Switzerland to enable older and/or chronically ill patients to stay home longer at the end-of-life. One of the consequences might be an increased need for hospitalisations at the end-of-life, which goes along with burdensome transitions for patients and higher health care costs for the society. Aim We aimed to examine the health care utilisation in the last six months of life, including transitions between health care settings, in a Swiss adult population. Methods The study population consisted of 11'310 decedents of 2014 who were insured at the Helsana Group, the leading health insurance in Switzerland. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the health care utilisation by age group, taking into account individual and regional factors. Zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of transitions. Results Mean age was 78.1 in men and 83.8 in women. In the last six months of life, 94.7% of the decedents had at least one consultation; 61.6% were hospitalised at least once, with a mean length of stay of 28.3 days; and nursing home stays were seen in 47.4% of the decedents. Over the same time period, 64.5% were transferred at least once, and 12.9% experienced at least one burdensome transition. Main predictors for transitions were age, sex and chronic conditions. A high density of home care nurses was associated with a decrease, whereas a high density of ambulatory care physicians was associated with an increase in the number of transitions. Conclusions Health care utilisation was high in the last six months of life and a considerable number of decedents were being transferred. Advance care planning might prevent patients from numerous and particularly from burdensome transitions. PMID:27598939

  13. Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Elangovan, A V; Mandal, A B; Tyagi, P K; Bhanja, S K; Dash, B B

    2007-04-01

    1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters. 2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments were a maize-soy based standard broiler diet (control, RS(0)) and eight test diets formulated by incorporating either raw red sorghum (RS(25), RS(50), RS(75), RS(100)) or reconstituted red sorghum (RS(25)(R), RS(50)(R), RS(75)(R), RS(100)(R)) replacing 25, 50, 75 or 100% of maize from the control diet. 3. The tannin content was reduced from 23 to 16 g/kg in reconstituted red sorghum. 4. Utilisations of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention were similar in all the dietary groups. 5. The cell-mediated immune response measured as footpad index (FPI) value of birds given raw red sorghum was significantly higher than in control and reconstituted red sorghum groups. Similarly, comparatively better humoral response measured as HA titre value was observed in raw red sorghum based groups than in reconstituted ones. 6. Plasma albumin, globulin, protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and uric acid levels did not differ significantly due to dietary treatments. 7. Mild histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney tissues of birds given raw red sorghum. 8. From the present study, it is concluded that (1) the reconstitution of high tannin red sorghum resulted in about 30% reduction in its tannin concentration; (2) the feeding of reconstituted sorghum based diets to broiler chickens did not exert any appreciable influence on nutrient utilisation, blood biochemicals and enzymes and gross pathological changes; and (3) the birds fed on raw red sorghum exhibited higher immuno-responsiveness in comparison to their reconstituted counterparts.

  14. Correlations of siblings' and mothers' utilisation of primary and hospital health care: a record linkage study in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alison M; de Klerk, Nick; Pritchard, Douglas; Firth, Martin; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2006-03-01

    A relationship between maternal and child use of general practitioners (GPs) has been shown to exist for some time, however, the reasons for this relationship are not clear and the extent to which this relationship extends to tertiary care is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the utilisation of health care by siblings and mothers over a 14 year period. A retrospective cohort study of 756 mothers and their 1494 children up to age 14 years was conducted in three general practices in Western Australia. Medicare claims and hospital morbidity records for 1984-1997 were linked using deterministic and probabilistic matching. Generalised Estimating Equations and correlations were used to examine the relationships between the utilisation of primary and hospital health care by family members. Significant correlations were found between hospital admissions of all participants and their GP visits, specialist visits, pathology and diagnostic imaging combined and hospital length of stay. There was a strong association between siblings' use of GPs. A child's rate of GP attendance increased with that of its mother. There was a weak but significant relationship between siblings' use of hospitals, and a child's hospital admission rate increased with that of its mother. It is concluded that there is a strong relationship between siblings' use of GPs and a weaker but still significant association between the hospital admissions of siblings. As expected, there were strong associations between mother and child visits to GPs. There was also an association between a mother's use of hospital and that of her children. This finding reduces the plausibility that the relationships found between utilisation of health care by siblings and mothers can be explained entirely by behavioural factors, and suggests the presence of intergenerational correlation of morbidity.

  15. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  16. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  17. Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

  18. Distance and utilisation of out-of-hours services in a Norwegian urban/rural district: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long travel distances limit the utilisation of health services. We wanted to examine the relationship between the utilisation of a Norwegian out-of-hours service and the distance from the municipality population centroid to the associated casualty clinic. Methods All first contacts from ten municipalities in Arendal out-of-hours district were registered from 2007 through 2011. The main outcomes were contact and consultation rates for each municipality for each year. The associations between main outcomes and distance from the population centroid of the participating municipalities to the casualty clinic and were examined by linear regression. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were included in multivariate linear regression. Secondary endpoints include association between distance and rates of different first actions taken and priority grades assessed by triage nurses. Age and gender specific subgroup analyses were performed. Results 141 342 contacts were included in the analyses. Increasing distance was associated with marked lower rates of all contact types except telephone consultations by doctor. Moving 43 kilometres away from the casualty clinic led to a 50 per cent drop in the rate of face-to-face consultations with a doctor. Availability of primary care doctors and education level contributed to a limited extent to the variance in consultation rate. The rates of all priority grades decreased significantly with increasing distance. The rate of acute events was reduced by 22 per cent when moving 50 kilometres away. The proportion of patients above 66 years increased with increasing distance, while the proportion of 13- to 19 year olds decreased. The proportion of female patients decreased with increasing distance. Conclusions The results confirm that increasing distance is associated with lower utilisation of out-of-hours services, even for the most acute cases. Extremely long distances might compromise patient safety. This must be taken into

  19. Multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation among high-cost patients in the US Veterans Affairs Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Zulman, Donna M; Pal Chee, Christine; Wagner, Todd H; Yoon, Jean; Cohen, Danielle M; Holmes, Tyson H; Ritchie, Christine; Asch, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation patterns among the highest cost patients in a large, integrated healthcare system. Design In this retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients in the U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, we aggregated costs of individuals’ outpatient and inpatient care, pharmacy services and VA-sponsored contract care received in 2010. We assessed chronic condition prevalence, multimorbidity as measured by comorbidity count, and multisystem multimorbidity (number of body systems affected by chronic conditions) among the 5% highest cost patients. Using multivariate regression, we examined the association between multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation and costs, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, homelessness and health insurance status. Setting USA VA Health Care System. Participants 5.2 million VA patients. Measures Annual total costs; absolute and share of costs generated through outpatient, inpatient, pharmacy and VA-sponsored contract care; number of visits to primary, specialty and mental healthcare; number of emergency department visits and hospitalisations. Results The 5% highest cost patients (n=261 699) accounted for 47% of total VA costs. Approximately two-thirds of these patients had chronic conditions affecting ≥3 body systems. Patients with cancer and schizophrenia were less likely to have documented comorbid conditions than other high-cost patients. Multimorbidity was generally associated with greater outpatient and inpatient utilisation. However, increased multisystem multimorbidity was associated with a higher outpatient share of total costs (1.6 percentage points per affected body system, p<0.01) but a lower inpatient share of total costs (−0.6 percentage points per affected body system, p<0.01). Conclusions Multisystem multimorbidity is common among high-cost VA patients. While some patients might benefit from disease

  20. Utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services in the early medical response to major incidents: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Anne Siri; Fattah, Sabina; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review identifies, describes and appraises the literature describing the utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the early medical response to major incidents. Setting Early prehospital phase of a major incident. Design Systematic literature review performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Bibsys Ask, Norart, Svemed and UpToDate were searched using phrases that combined HEMS and ‘major incidents’ to identify when and how HEMS was utilised. The identified studies were subjected to data extraction and appraisal. Results The database search identified 4948 articles. Based on the title and abstract, the full text of 96 articles was obtained; of these, 37 articles were included in the review, and an additional five were identified by searching the reference lists of the 37 articles. HEMS was used to transport medical and rescue personnel to the incident and to transport patients to the hospital, especially when the infrastructure was damaged. Insufficient air traffic control, weather conditions, inadequate landing sites and failing communication were described as challenging in some incidents. Conclusions HEMS was used mainly for patient treatment and to transport patients, personnel and equipment in the early medical management of major incidents, but the optimal utilisation of this specialised resource remains unclear. This review identified operational areas with improvement potential. A lack of systematic indexing, heterogeneous data reporting and weak methodological design, complicated the identification and comparison of incidents, and more systematic reporting is needed. Trial registration number CRD42013004473. PMID:26861938

  1. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A.; Burgert, Clara R.; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew SEK; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. Methods We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Results Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19–0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61–0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45–0.75). Conclusions Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all

  2. Utilisation of Healthcare and Associated Services in Huntington’s disease: a data mining study

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Monica; Al-Madfai, Dr. Hasan; Kenkre, Joyce; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Bentivoglio, AnnaRita; Rosser, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with Huntington’s disease (HD) often require tailored healthcare and support packages that develop as the disease progresses. The Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) gathers retrospective information on service utilization. This study investigated the use of formal services and informal care as measured by the CSRI and explored associations between informal care, disease severity and functional ability as measured by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS) and functional scales. Methods: All monitored longitudinal data from annual clinical assessments of UHDRS-TMS and functional assessments and CSRI collected under the auspices of the European Huntington’s Disease Network (EHDN) REGISTRY study between the years 2004 and 2009 were utilised in the analyses. Disease severity was reflected by UHDRS-TMS. Functional ability was measured using the UHDRS functional scales. CSRI data were analysed according to percentage use of individual formal services and total estimated hours per week of informal care. Regression analyses were conducted to identify any associations between disease severity, functional ability and hours of informal care. Results: 451 HD patients (212 female; 239 male) completed one visit; 105 patients (54 females; 51 males) completed two visits and 47 patients (20 females; 27 males) completed three visits in total over the 5 year period. The mean time between visits was 1.2 years. At visit one, 74% of the participants reported being in receipt of at least one formal hospital-based service in the previous six months, and 89% reported receipt of formal primary and community care services. In contrast, at the third visit, 62% of people had used hospital based services and 94% formal community based services in the previous six months. Fifty % of individuals required some form of informal care in the home at visit 1; this increased to 68% at visits 2 and 3. The mean (SD) estimated weekly total

  3. The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

  4. Acceptance and utilisation of the Incident Command System in first response and allied disciplines: an Ohio study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Russell J

    2011-10-01

    In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, an effort was made to establish a common and uniform command structure for use by the nation's first responder organisations, as well as those disciplines generally expected to assist first responders during a major incident or disaster. The result was the issuance of the National Incident Management System1 or NIMS by the US Department of Homeland Security in 2004. Included in the NIMS document was an embracing of the Incident Command System or ICS, long utilised in the fire service for the effective management of emergency response. The NIMS doctrine also identified certain allied disciplines that needed to adopt this new system for responding to major events. Some of these disciplines included specialised first response units, such as, bomb squads and hazardous materials teams. Other partner disciplines not usually associated with emergency response to include public health and public works were also included. This study will attempt to look at a single component of NIMS, specifically the Incident Command System, and measure its acceptance and utilisation by first responder organisations and selected allied disciplines in the state of Ohio. This is particularly important at this time since the US government is being forced to reduce budgets significantly and determine which laudable policies and programmes will be cut.

  5. Maltose and maltotriose utilisation by group I strains of the hybrid lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Ruohonen, Laura; Gibson, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Brewer's wort is a challenging environment for yeast as it contains predominantly α-glucoside sugars. There exist two subgroups of the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus which differ in sugar utilisation. We performed wort fermentations and compared representative strains from both groups with respect to their ability to transport and ferment maltose and maltotriose. Additionally, we mapped the transporters MALx1, AGT1, MPHx and MTT1 by Southern blotting. Contrary to previous observations, group I comprises a diverse set of strains, with varying ability to transport and ferment maltotriose. Of the eight group I strains, three efficiently utilised maltotriose, a property enabled by the presence of transmembrane transporters SeAGT1 and MTT1 A58, a variant of the group I type strain (CBS1513) performed particularly well, taking up maltotriose at a higher rate than maltose and retaining significant transport activity at temperatures as low as 0°C. Analysis of transporter distribution in this strain revealed an increased copy number of the MTT1 gene, which encodes the only permease known with higher affinity for maltotriose than maltose and low temperature dependence for transport. We propose that much of the variation in lager yeast fermentation behaviour is determined by the presence or absence of specific transmembrane transporters. PMID:27364826

  6. Utilisation of health services and geography: deconstructing regional differences in barriers to facility-based delivery in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Andrew; Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-03-01

    While established that geographical inaccessibility is a key barrier to the utilisation of health services, it remains unknown whether disparities are driven only by limited access to these services, or are also attributable to health behaviour. Significant disparities exist in health outcomes and the coverage of many critical health services between the mountains region of Nepal and the rest of the country, yet the principal factors driving these regional disparities are not well understood. Using national representative data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the extent to which observable factors explain the overall differences in the utilisation of maternal health services. We apply nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca-type decomposition methods to quantify the effect that differences in measurable characteristics have on the regional coverage gap in facility-based delivery. The mean coverage of facility-based deliveries was 18.6 and 36.3 % in the mountains region and the rest of Nepal, respectively. Between 54.8 and 74.1 % of the regional coverage gap was explained by differences in observed characteristics. Factors influencing health behaviours (proxied by mothers' education, TV viewership and tobacco use, and household wealth) and subjective distance to the health facility were the major factors, contributing between 52.9 and 62.5 % of the disparity. Mothers' birth history was also noteworthy. Policies simultaneously addressing access and health behaviours appear necessary to achieve greater coverage and better health outcomes for women and children in isolated areas.

  7. Discovery, utilisation and analysis of credible threats for 2×2 incomplete information games in the Theory of Moves framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jolie; Sen, Sandip

    2014-04-01

    Steven Brams's [(1994). Theory of moves. Cambridge University Press] Theory of Moves (TOM) is an alternative to traditional game theoretic treatment of real-life interactions, in which players choose strategies based on analysis of future moves and counter-moves that arise if game play commences at a specified start state and either player can choose to move first. In repeated play, players using TOM rationality arrive at nonmyopic equilibria. One advantage of TOM is its ability to model scenarios in which power asymmetries exist between players. In particular, threat power, i.e. the ability of one player to threaten and sustain immediate, globally disadvantageous outcomes to force a desirable result long term, can be utilised to induce Pareto optimal states in games such as Prisoner's Dilemma which result in Pareto-dominated outcomes using traditional methods. Unfortunately, prior work on TOM is limited by an assumption of complete information. This paper presents a mechanism that can be used by a player to utilise threat power when playing a strict, ordinal 2×2 game under incomplete information. We also analyse the benefits of threat power and support in this analysis with empirical evidence.

  8. A simple solution to the problem of effective utilisation of the target material for pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzanyan, A S; Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Pilosyan, S Kh; Grasiuk, A Z

    2013-12-31

    The factors determining the efficiency of the target material utilisation for pulsed laser deposition of films are considered. The target volume is calculated, which is evaporated in the ablation process by the focused laser radiation having a rectangular form. The new device is suggested and developed for obtaining thin films by the method of laser deposition, which is specific in the employment of a simple optical system mounted outside a deposition chamber that comprises two lenses and the diaphragm and focuses the laser beam onto a target in the form of a sector-like spot. Thin films of CuO and YBaCuO were deposited with this device. Several deposition cycles revealed that the target material is consumed uniformly from the entire surface of the target. A maximal spread of the target thickness was not greater than ±2% both prior to deposition and after it. The device designed provides a high coefficient of the target material utilisation efficiency. (laser deposition of thin films)

  9. Materiel, Methodes, Techniques et Technologie (Materials, Methods, Techniques, and Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Jane M.

    This presentation attempts to describe the current situation of French language instruction in the United States. As far as materials are concerned, there is a general tendency to emphasize communicative skills. Less attention is paid to literature, and more to the day-to-day activities of young French or Canadian people. Textbooks are generally…

  10. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flak jackets and military helmets, for use by United Nations personnel, representatives of the media... movements of military equipment and supplies into the Darfur region by the United States or that...

  11. MRP (materiel requirements planning) II: successful implementation the hard way.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, S C

    1994-05-01

    Many manufacturing companies embark on MRP II implementation projects as a method for improvement. In spite of an increasing body of knowledge regarding successful implementations, companies continue to attempt new approaches. This article reviews an actual implementation, featuring some of the mistakes made and the efforts required to still achieve "Class A" performance levels. PMID:10134151

  12. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use by units of the army and police of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, provided that said units..., of the état-major intégré of the Armed Forces or of the National Police of the Democratic Republic...

  13. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use by units of the army and police of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, provided that said units..., of the état-major intégré of the Armed Forces or of the National Police of the Democratic Republic...

  14. The path to successful MRP (materiel requirements planning) package selection.

    PubMed

    Hollander, N; Mirlocca, N

    1994-05-01

    The vendor demonstration is usually nothing more than a glorified sales presentation and is of little value in judging how close a fit a software package is to your company's requirements. In order to turn the demonstration from a sales pitch into a tool for determining if the package meets your requirements, you must take control of the demonstration. The way to take control is to tell the vendor exactly what you expect to see during the demonstration and that the package will be judged on whether it is shown to meet each of your requirements. The way to tell the vendor what you want to see is by use of a "script." By using a scripted demonstration, the presentation becomes a tool in the selection process. PMID:10134149

  15. Heat recovery at Army Materiel Command (AMC) facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, E.T.; Caron, R.N.; Fitzgerald, K.F.; Joncich, D.M.

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this work is to: Identify opportunities for using waste-energy-recovery technologies at AMC sites. Approach: Two AMC sites were selected for study based on a review of documents describing their energy-use patterns. A preliminary list of heat recovery applications suitable for more-detailed analyses was compiled for each site during initial visits. Next, more-comprehensive process-energy studies were conducted at the two plants to determine actual operating conditions of the processes showing most promise for successful heat recovery applications. Cost estimates were developed for all systems to ensure that the economics would be favorable enough to warrant installation; this analysis considered the first cost of all major components, installation, and annual operation and maintenance (OandM) costs.

  16. Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane by carbon dioxide: a medium-temperature thermochemical process for carbon dioxide utilisation.

    PubMed

    Du, X; Yao, B; Gonzalez-Cortes, S; Kuznetsov, V L; AlMegren, Hamid; Xiao, T; Edwards, P P

    2015-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 is an attractive catalytic route for C3H6 production. In studying the various possibilities to utilise CO2 to convert hydrocarbons using the sustainable energy source of solar thermal energy, thermodynamic calculations were carried out for the dehydrogenation of C3H8 using CO2for the process operating in the temperature range of 300-500 °C. Importantly, the results highlight the enhanced potential of C3H8 as compared to its lighter and heavier homologues (C2H6 and C4H10, respectively). To be utilised in this CO2 utilisation reaction the Gibbs free energy (ΔrGθm) of each reaction in the modelled, complete reacting system of the dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 also indicate that further cracking of C3H6 will affect the ultimate yield and selectivity of the final products. In a parallel experimental study, catalytic tests of the dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 over 5 wt%-Cr2O3/ZrO2 catalysts operating at 500 °C, atmospheric pressure, and for various C3H8 partial pressures and various overall GHSV (Gas Hourly Space Velocity) values. The results showed that an increase in the C3H8 partial pressure produced an inhibition of C3H8 conversion but, importantly, a promising enhancement of C3H6 selectivity. This phenomenon can be attributed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst between the generated C3H6 and inactivated C3H8, which inhibits any further cracking effect on C3H6 to produce by-products. As a comparison, the increase of the overall GHSV can also decrease the C3H8 conversion to a similar extent, but the further cracking of C3H6 cannot be limited. PMID:26392020

  17. Dietary Prebiotics and Probiotics Influence the Growth Performance, Feed Utilisation, and Body Indices of Snakehead (Channa striata) Fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Munir, Mohammad Bodrul; Hashim, Roshada; Abdul Manaf, Mohammad Suhaimee; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2016-08-01

    This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0.01% Lactobacillus acidophilus [LBA] powder) and a control (unsupplemented) diet; there were three replicates for each treatment. All diets contained 40% crude protein and 12% crude lipid. Fish were fed to satiation three times daily. No mortalities were recorded during Phase 1; however, 14% mortality was documented in the control and prebiotic-amended fish during Phase 2. At the end of Phase 1, growth performance and feed utilisation were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the LBA-treated fish, followed by live yeast treatment, compared with all other diets tested. The performance of fish on the three prebiotic diets were not significantly different from one another but was significantly higher than the control diet. During Phase 2 (the post-feeding phase), fish growth continued until the 6th week for the probiotic-based diets but levelled off after four weeks for the fish fed the prebiotic diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher in all treatments during the post-feeding period. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ significantly among the tested diets. The visceral somatic index (VSI) and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) were highest in the LBA-based diet and the control diet, respectively. The body indices were significantly different (p<0.05) between Phases 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that probiotic-based diets have a more positive influence on the growth, feed utilisation, and

  18. Differences between mono-generic and mixed diatom silicon isotope compositions trace present and past nutrient utilisation off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, Kristin; Ehlert, Claudia; Grasse, Patricia; Crosta, Xavier; Fleury, Sophie; Frank, Martin; Schneider, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    In this study we combine for the first time silicon (Si) isotope compositions of small mixed diatom species (δ30SibSiO2) and of large handpicked mono-generic (i.e. genus = Coscinodiscus) diatom samples (δ30SiCoscino) with diatom assemblages extracted from marine sediments in the Peruvian upwelling region in order to constrain present and past silicate utilisation. The extension of a previous core-top data set from the Peruvian shelf demonstrates that δ30SiCoscino values record near-complete Si utilisation, as these are similar to the isotopic composition of the subsurface source waters feeding the upwelling. In contrast, the δ30SibSiO2 of small mixed diatom species increase southward along the shelf as well as towards the shore. We attribute highest δ30SibSiO2 values partly to transient iron limitation but primarily to the gradual increase of Si isotope fractionation within the seasonal diatom succession, which are mainly recorded by small diatom species during intense bloom events. In contrast, lower δ30SibSiO2 values are related to initial Si isotope utilisation during periods of weak upwelling, when low Si(OH)4 concentrations do not permit intense blooms and small diatom species record substantially lower δ30Si signatures. As such, we propose that the intensity of the upwelling can be deduced from the offset between δ30SibSiO2 and δ30SiCoscino (Δ30Sicoscino-bSiO2), which is low for strong upwelling conditions and high for prevailing weak upwelling. We apply the information extracted from surface sediments to generate a record of the present-day main upwelling region covering the past 17,700 years and find that this location has also been characterized by a persistent offset (Δ30Sicoscino-bSiO2). By comparison with the diatom assemblages we show that the coastal upwelling system changed markedly between weak and strong upwelling conditions. In addition, our model calculations to quantify species-specific Si isotope fractionation effects based on the

  19. Dietary Prebiotics and Probiotics Influence the Growth Performance, Feed Utilisation, and Body Indices of Snakehead (Channa striata) Fingerlings

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Mohammad Bodrul; Hashim, Roshada; Abdul Manaf, Mohammad Suhaimee; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0.01% Lactobacillus acidophilus [LBA] powder) and a control (unsupplemented) diet; there were three replicates for each treatment. All diets contained 40% crude protein and 12% crude lipid. Fish were fed to satiation three times daily. No mortalities were recorded during Phase 1; however, 14% mortality was documented in the control and prebiotic-amended fish during Phase 2. At the end of Phase 1, growth performance and feed utilisation were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the LBA-treated fish, followed by live yeast treatment, compared with all other diets tested. The performance of fish on the three prebiotic diets were not significantly different from one another but was significantly higher than the control diet. During Phase 2 (the post-feeding phase), fish growth continued until the 6th week for the probiotic-based diets but levelled off after four weeks for the fish fed the prebiotic diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher in all treatments during the post-feeding period. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ significantly among the tested diets. The visceral somatic index (VSI) and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) were highest in the LBA-based diet and the control diet, respectively. The body indices were significantly different (p<0.05) between Phases 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that probiotic-based diets have a more positive influence on the growth, feed utilisation, and

  20. Dietary Prebiotics and Probiotics Influence the Growth Performance, Feed Utilisation, and Body Indices of Snakehead (Channa striata) Fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Munir, Mohammad Bodrul; Hashim, Roshada; Abdul Manaf, Mohammad Suhaimee; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2016-08-01

    This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0.01% Lactobacillus acidophilus [LBA] powder) and a control (unsupplemented) diet; there were three replicates for each treatment. All diets contained 40% crude protein and 12% crude lipid. Fish were fed to satiation three times daily. No mortalities were recorded during Phase 1; however, 14% mortality was documented in the control and prebiotic-amended fish during Phase 2. At the end of Phase 1, growth performance and feed utilisation were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the LBA-treated fish, followed by live yeast treatment, compared with all other diets tested. The performance of fish on the three prebiotic diets were not significantly different from one another but was significantly higher than the control diet. During Phase 2 (the post-feeding phase), fish growth continued until the 6th week for the probiotic-based diets but levelled off after four weeks for the fish fed the prebiotic diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher in all treatments during the post-feeding period. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ significantly among the tested diets. The visceral somatic index (VSI) and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) were highest in the LBA-based diet and the control diet, respectively. The body indices were significantly different (p<0.05) between Phases 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that probiotic-based diets have a more positive influence on the growth, feed utilisation, and

  1. Dietary Prebiotics and Probiotics Influence the Growth Performance, Feed Utilisation, and Body Indices of Snakehead (Channa striata) Fingerlings

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Mohammad Bodrul; Hashim, Roshada; Abdul Manaf, Mohammad Suhaimee; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0.01% Lactobacillus acidophilus [LBA] powder) and a control (unsupplemented) diet; there were three replicates for each treatment. All diets contained 40% crude protein and 12% crude lipid. Fish were fed to satiation three times daily. No mortalities were recorded during Phase 1; however, 14% mortality was documented in the control and prebiotic-amended fish during Phase 2. At the end of Phase 1, growth performance and feed utilisation were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the LBA-treated fish, followed by live yeast treatment, compared with all other diets tested. The performance of fish on the three prebiotic diets were not significantly different from one another but was significantly higher than the control diet. During Phase 2 (the post-feeding phase), fish growth continued until the 6th week for the probiotic-based diets but levelled off after four weeks for the fish fed the prebiotic diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher in all treatments during the post-feeding period. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ significantly among the tested diets. The visceral somatic index (VSI) and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) were highest in the LBA-based diet and the control diet, respectively. The body indices were significantly different (p<0.05) between Phases 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that probiotic-based diets have a more positive influence on the growth, feed utilisation, and

  2. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  3. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  4. Understanding where policies and decisions can go wrong: utilising a 360 analysis model as a proactive reputation management strategy.

    PubMed

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    An organisation's reputation is its most relevant asset. The perceptions of the various audiences with which an organisation interacts both directly and indirectly can enhance or destroy that reputation. Due to the critical role these audiences play in an organisation's reputation, they should be actively considered as a part of an organisation's reputation management strategy. This paper introduces the 360 analysis model, which considers the benefits, detriments and potential fallout in regard to different audiences when creating policy or making important organisational decisions. The model's goal is to foster well-considered policy and decisions that proactively protect an organisation's reputation. The model is also designed to be used as a research construct that can be utilised in the expansion of the reputation management literature in regard to heterogeneity and dynamics within and across audiences that can have an impact on an organisation's reputation.

  5. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  6. Understanding where policies and decisions can go wrong: utilising a 360 analysis model as a proactive reputation management strategy.

    PubMed

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    An organisation's reputation is its most relevant asset. The perceptions of the various audiences with which an organisation interacts both directly and indirectly can enhance or destroy that reputation. Due to the critical role these audiences play in an organisation's reputation, they should be actively considered as a part of an organisation's reputation management strategy. This paper introduces the 360 analysis model, which considers the benefits, detriments and potential fallout in regard to different audiences when creating policy or making important organisational decisions. The model's goal is to foster well-considered policy and decisions that proactively protect an organisation's reputation. The model is also designed to be used as a research construct that can be utilised in the expansion of the reputation management literature in regard to heterogeneity and dynamics within and across audiences that can have an impact on an organisation's reputation. PMID:24854733

  7. Income-related inequity in healthcare utilisation among individuals with cardiovascular disease in England-accounting for vertical inequity.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    Economic analyses of equity which focus solely on horizontal inequity offer a partial assessment of socioeconomic inequity in healthcare use. We analyse income-related inequity in cardiovascular disease-related healthcare utilisation by individuals reporting cardiovascular disease in England, including both horizontal and vertical aspects. For the analysis of vertical inequity, we use target groups to estimate the appropriate relationship between healthcare needs and use. We find that including vertical inequity considerations may lead us to draw different conclusions about the nature and extent of income-related inequity. After accounting for vertical inequity in addition to horizontal inequity, there is no longer evidence of inequity favouring the poor for nurse visits, whereas there is some evidence that doctor visits and inpatient stays are concentrated among richer individuals. The estimates of income-related inequity for outpatient visits, electrocardiography tests and heart surgery become even more pro-rich when accounting for vertical inequity.

  8. Effect of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Foster, Michele; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Haynes, Michele; O'Flaherty, Martin; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    Allied health services benefit the management of many chronic diseases. The effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services has not yet been established despite health insurance frequently being identified as a factor promoting utilisation of medical and hospital services among people with chronic disease. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease. Medline (Ovid Medline 1948 to Present with Daily Update), EMBASE (1980 to 1 April 2011), CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to 12 April 2011 inclusive. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental trials, quantitative observational studies and included people with one or more chronic diseases using allied health services and health insurance. A full-text review was performed independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were conducted. One hundred and fifty-eight citations were retrieved and seven articles were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled odds ratio (95% CI) of having insurance (versus no insurance) on the utilisation of allied health services among people with chronic disease was 1.33 (1.16-1.52; P<0.001). There was a significant effect of insurance on the utilisation of non-physiotherapy services, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 4.80 (1.46-15.79; P=0.01) but having insurance compared with insurance of a lesser coverage was not significantly associated with an increase in physiotherapy utilisation, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 1.53 (0.81-2.91; P=0.19). The presence of co-morbidity or functional limitation and higher levels of education increased utilisation whereas gender, race, marital status and income had a limited and variable effect, according to the study population. The review was limited by the considerable

  9. Effect of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Foster, Michele; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Haynes, Michele; O'Flaherty, Martin; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    Allied health services benefit the management of many chronic diseases. The effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services has not yet been established despite health insurance frequently being identified as a factor promoting utilisation of medical and hospital services among people with chronic disease. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease. Medline (Ovid Medline 1948 to Present with Daily Update), EMBASE (1980 to 1 April 2011), CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to 12 April 2011 inclusive. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental trials, quantitative observational studies and included people with one or more chronic diseases using allied health services and health insurance. A full-text review was performed independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were conducted. One hundred and fifty-eight citations were retrieved and seven articles were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled odds ratio (95% CI) of having insurance (versus no insurance) on the utilisation of allied health services among people with chronic disease was 1.33 (1.16-1.52; P<0.001). There was a significant effect of insurance on the utilisation of non-physiotherapy services, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 4.80 (1.46-15.79; P=0.01) but having insurance compared with insurance of a lesser coverage was not significantly associated with an increase in physiotherapy utilisation, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 1.53 (0.81-2.91; P=0.19). The presence of co-morbidity or functional limitation and higher levels of education increased utilisation whereas gender, race, marital status and income had a limited and variable effect, according to the study population. The review was limited by the considerable

  10. A new caffeine biosynthetic pathway in tea leaves: utilisation of adenosine released from the S-adenosyl-L-methionine cycle.

    PubMed

    Koshiishi, C; Kato, A; Yama, S; Crozier, A; Ashihara, H

    2001-06-15

    The four-step caffeine biosynthetic pathway includes three methylation steps that utilise S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. In the process SAM is converted to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) which in turn is hydrolysed to L-homocysteine and adenosine. Significant amounts of radioactivity from [methyl-(14)C]methionine and [methyl-(14)C]SAM were incorporated into theobromine and caffeine in young tea leaf segments, and very high SAH hydrolase activity was found in cell-free extracts from young tea leaves. Substantial amounts of radioactivity from [adenosyl-(14)C]SAH were also recovered as theobromine and caffeine in tea leaf segments, indicating that adenosine derived from SAH is utilised for the synthesis of the purine ring of caffeine. From the profiles of activity of related enzymes in tea leaf extracts, it is proposed that the major route from SAM to caffeine is a SAM-->SAH-->adenosine-->adenine-->AMP-->IMP-->XMP-->xanthosine-->7-methylxanthosine-->7-methylxanthine-->theobromine-->caffeine pathway. In addition, direct adenosine kinase-catalysed formation of AMP from adenosine may participate as an alternative minor route. The activity of two of the three N-methyltransferase activities involved in caffeine biosynthesis and part of the activities of SAH hydrolase, adenosine nucleosidase, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and adenosine kinase were located in tea chloroplasts. In contrast, no detectable activity of SAM synthetase was associated with the purified chloroplast fraction. This is a first demonstration that the purine skeleton of caffeine is synthesised from adenosine released from the SAM cycle.

  11. Utilisation and cost of professional care and assistance according to disability of patients with multiple sclerosis in Flanders (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Carton, H; Loos, R; Pacolet, J; Versieck, K; Vlietinck, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the utilisation of medical services and social (community) assistance in patients with multiple sclerosis of different disability and to calculate the direct healthcare costs to society.
METHODS—(1) One hundred and eighty four patients with multiple sclerosis were classified into four grades of disability according to a simplified Kurzke disability status scale. (2) Patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire containing questions on their sociodemographic status, the use of inpatient and outpatient medical services and pharmaceutical products during the previous year, the use of social assistance, and the purchase of prosthetics and charges for house adaptations during the previous five years. (3) Data were also prospectively collected by means of four week diary annotations of all medical and social acts and their duration.
RESULTS—After correction for the disability distribution the yearly costs for the 5500 patients with multiple sclerosis in Flanders was estimated to be ECU 13 106 000 for ambulatory care including rehabilitation and district nursing and ECU 3 234 000 for pharmaceutical products. To these direct medical costs ECU 3 491 000 for social assistance and ECU 4 938 000 for prosthetics and adaptations should be added. The yearly costs for admissions to hospital including permanent residence in an institution and pharmacy was ECU 26 581 000 . Home nursing and long term or permanent residence in an institution of the most severely disabled, 17% of the multiple sclerosis population, are responsible for 50% of the total direct healthcare costs and care for the 6.5% institutionalised patients accounts for 23%. Direct costs for medical care and social assistance for patients with multiple sclerosis, who account for about 0.1% of the total population, amounts to 1% of the total healthcare budget in Flanders.
CONCLUSION—This information on utilisation of medical services and social assistance can be used for good

  12. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  13. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  14. Comparison of a spatial approach with the multilevel approach for investigating place effects on health: the example of healthcare utilisation in France

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, B.; Merlo, J.; Chauvin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: Most studies of place effects on health have followed the multilevel analytical approach that investigates geographical variations of health phenomena by fragmenting space into arbitrary areas. This study examined whether analysing geographical variations across continuous space with spatial modelling techniques and contextual indicators that capture space as a continuous dimension surrounding individual residences provided more relevant information on the spatial distribution of outcomes. Healthcare utilisation in France was taken as an illustrative example in comparing the spatial approach with the multilevel approach. Design: Multilevel and spatial analyses of cross sectional data. Participants: 10 955 beneficiaries of the three principal national health insurance funds, surveyed in 1998 and 2000 on continental France. Main results: Multilevel models showed significant geographical variations in healthcare utilisation. However, the Moran's I statistic showed spatial autocorrelation unaccounted for by multilevel models. Modelling the correlation between people as a decreasing function of the spatial distance between them, spatial mixed models gave information not only on the magnitude, but also on the scale of spatial variations, and provided more accurate standard errors for risk factors effects. The socioeconomic level of the residential context and the supply of physicians were independently associated with healthcare utilisation. Place indicators better explained spatial variations in healthcare utilisation when measured across continuous space, rather than within administrative areas. Conclusions: The kind of conceptualisation of space during analysis influences the understanding of place effects on health. In many contextual studies, viewing space as a continuum may yield more relevant information on the spatial distribution of outcomes. PMID:15911650

  15. The Effect of Children's Rights Training on Primary School Students' Utilisation and Knowledge Level about Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the…

  16. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  17. Articulating Injustice: An Exploration of Young People's Experiences of Participation in a Conflict Transformation Programme That Utilises the Arts as a Form of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on a study that explores young people's engagement with the Art: a Resource for Reconciliation Over the World (ARROW) programme. The programme utilises the arts to promote critical dialogue amongst young people growing up in divided communities around the world. Dialogue has been criticised for its inability to tackle…

  18. Association between secure patient–clinician email and clinical services utilisation in a US integrated health system: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Di; Palen, Ted E; Tsai, Joanne; McLeod, Melanie; Garrido, Terhilda; Qian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between secure patient–clinician email use and clinical services utilisation over time. Design Retrospective cohort study between July 2010 and December 2013. Controlling for a utilisation surge around first secure email use, we analysed difference of differences between propensity score-matched groups of secure patient–clinician email users and non-users for utilisation 1–12 months before and 7–18 months after first email (users) or a randomly assigned index date (non-users). Setting US integrated healthcare delivery system. Participants 9345 adults with first secure email use between July 2011 and July 2012 and continuous enrolment for ≥30 months and 9345 adults without secure email use between July 2010 and July 2012 matched to users on demographics, health status, and baseline utilisation. Primary Outcome Measures Rates of office visits, patient-initiated phone calls, scheduled telephone visits, after-hours clinic visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalisations. Results After controlling for multiple factors, no statistically significant differences in utilisation between secure email users and non-users occurred. Utilisation transiently increased by 88–237% around first email use. Annual rates of patient-initiated phone calls decreased among secure email users, 0.2 fewer calls per person (95% CI −0.3 to −0.1), from a mean of 4.1 calls per person 1–12 months before first use to a mean of 3.8 calls per person 7–18 months after first use. Rates of patient-initiated phone calls also decreased among non-users, 0.1 fewer calls per person (95% CI −0.2 to 0.0), from a mean of 4.2 calls per person 1–12 months before the index date to mean of 4.1 calls per person 7–18 months after the index date. Conclusions Compared with non-users, patient use of secure email with clinicians was not associated with statistically significant differences in clinical services utilisation 7–18

  19. Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eadie, Chris; Favis-Mortlock, David

    2010-05-01

    The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that small differences in the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel), Type 2, and Type 3 can lead to large differences in the predicted return period. Indeed this divergence increases as the return period becomes larger: a finding which has obvious implications for fluvial management. Despite this, in many studies which fit a frequency-magnitude distribution to fluvial discharge data, the choice of distribution appears driven by regional convention, or even by some other apparently arbitrary factor. Benson (1968) analysed data for ten US stations, and compared the fit using the log-normal, gamma, Gumbel, log-Gumbel, Hazen and log-Pearson type 3 distributions. On the basis of this study alone, the standard approach to flow frequency estimation in the USA became the fitting of a log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution (US Water Resources Council, 1982). While several other countries have adopted a similar approach, usage of the LP3 distribution is not geographically universal. Hydrologists in the United Kingdom conventionally utilise a fitted generalised logistic distribution for flow frequency estimation (Robson and Reed, 1999) while Chinese hydrologists utilise the log-normal distribution (Singh, 2002). Choice of fitted distribution is obviously crucial, since selecting one distribution rather than another will change the estimated probabilities of future droughts and floods, particularly the largest and rarest events. Malamud et al. (1996) showed that a flood of equivalent size to that experienced on the Mississippi in 1993 has a recurrence interval on the order of 100 years when a power

  20. L’utilisation du prémélange de monensin chez les vaches laitières : un suivi simple et essentiel pour s’assurer d’une utilisation adéquate

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; Baril, Jean; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Le prémélange de monensin est utilisé fréquemment sur les fermes laitières canadiennes. L’ingrédient actif de ce produit est le monensin sodique. Bien que son utilisation chez les vaches laitières soit sécuritaire, des cas de surdose ont été rapportés à la suite de consommation de niveaux de monensin plus élevés que ceux recommandés. Un suivi hebdomadaire du pourcentage de matières grasses du réservoir de lait de la ferme devrait être fait de routine suite à la livraison d’aliment médicamenteux contenant du monensin pour détecter rapidement les situations de surdose. L’observation d’une baisse soudaine de la consommation volontaire de matière sèche et l’apparition de diarrhée dans un troupeau sont d’autres signes cliniques de surdose de monensin. Une détection rapide de ces cas permettra de corriger la situation. PMID:19721781

  1. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p < 0.05) plasma level of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3) and lower concentration of thyroxin hormone were detected. No significant differences in levels of insulin, hydroxyproline, plasma and urine creatinine, total protein and albumin between high and low RFI groups were found. Blood metabolites showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at initial and final stages of study in both groups. At final stage of study, RFI showed negative correlations with growth hormone, IGF-1, T3, urine creatinine and albumin. Low RFI buffalo calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism. PMID:27666680

  2. Sn-2-monoacylglycerol, not glycerol, is preferentially utilised for triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestine.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Anthony; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundell, Kristina; Olsen, Rolf Erik

    2007-01-01

    Pathways of lipid resynthesis in the intestine of fish are relatively unknown. Various reports have suggested the existence of both sn-1,3-specific (pancreatic) and non-specific (bile salt-activated) lipase activity operating on dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) in the intestinal lumen of fish during digestion. Thus, sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and glycerol, respective hydrolytic products of each lipase, are absorbed and utilised for glycerolipid synthesis in enterocytes via two alternative routes: monoacylglycerol (MAG) and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) pathways. Despite different precursors, both pathways converge at the production of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) where TAG or phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis can occur. To elucidate the relative activities of MAG and G3P pathways in Atlantic salmon enterocytes, intestinal segments were mounted in Ussing chambers where equimolar mixtures of sn-2-oleoyl-[1,2,3-(3)H]glycerol (2-MAG) and [(14)C(U)]glycerol, plus unlabelled 16:0 and 18:2n-6 as exogenous fatty acid sources, were delivered in bile salt-containing Ringer solution to the mucosa. The MAG pathway predominated, over the G3P pathway, synthesizing ca. 95% of total TAG and ca. 80% of total PC after a 3 h incubation period at 10 degrees C. Further, the 1,2-DAG branch point into TAG or PC was polarised towards TAG synthesis (6:1) via the MAG pathway but more evenly distributed between TAG and PC (1:1) via the G3P pathway. Effect of long-chain saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesized TAG/PC ratio was assessed by individually exchanging 16:0, 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6, for 16:0+18:2n-6, in mucosal solutions. TAG synthesis was influenced considerably more than PC synthesis, via either pathway, by exogenous fatty acids utilised. 18:1n-9 significantly stimulated TAG synthesis via the MAG pathway yielding a TAG/PC ratio of 12:1. Alternatively, 18:2n-6 stimulated TAG synthesis the most via the G3P pathway (TAG/PC=4:1). 16:0 significantly

  3. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Melba; Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A.

    2012-02-15

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  4. Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Egert, Markus; Bassett, Shalome A.; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health. PMID:25816158

  5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy versus cyclic voltammetry for the electroanalytical sensing of capsaicin utilising screen printed carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Randviir, Edward P; Metters, Jonathan P; Stainton, John; Banks, Craig E

    2013-05-21

    Screen printed carbon nanotube electrodes (SPEs) are explored as electroanalytical sensing platforms for the detection of capsaicin in both synthetic capsaicin solutions and capsaicin extracted from chillies and chilli sauces utilising both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It is found that the technique which is most applicable to the electroanalytical detection of capsaicin depends upon the analyte concentration: for the case of low capsaicin concentrations, CV is a more appropriate method as capsaicin exhibits characteristic voltammetric waves of peak heights relevant to the capsaicin concentration; but for the case of high capsaicin concentrations where the voltammetric waves merge and migrate out of the potential window, EIS is shown to be a more appropriate technique, owing to the observed linear increases in R(ct) with increasing concentration. Furthermore, we explore different types of screen printed carbon nanotube electrodes, namely single- and multi- walled carbon nanotubes, finding that they are technique-specific: for the case of low capsaicin concentrations, single-walled carbon nanotube SPEs are preferable (SW-SPE); yet for the case of EIS at high capsaicin concentrations, multi-walled carbon nanotube SPEs (MW-SPE) are preferred, based upon analytical responses. The analytical performance of CV and EIS is applied to the sensing of capsaicin in grown chillies and chilli sauces and is critically compared to 'gold standard' HPLC analysis.

  6. Does spatial location matter? Traditional therapy utilisation among the general population in a Ghanaian rural and urban setting.

    PubMed

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Asante, Felix; Segbefia, Alexander Yao; Abass, Kabila; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah; Eshun, Gabriel; Adjei, Prince Osei-Wusu

    2015-06-01

    Despite the recognition for rising consumption rate of traditional medicine (TRM) in health and spatio-medical literature in the global scale, the impact of location in traditional therapy use has been explored least in Ghana. This paper analysed the role of spatial variation in TRM use in Kumasi Metropolis and Sekyere South District of Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional and place-based survey was conducted in a representative sample (N=324) selected through systematic random sampling technique. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were espoused as the main research instruments. Data were analysed with Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests from the Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) version 17.0. The study found that over 86% reported TRM use. Whilst majority (59.1%) of the respondents had used TRM two or more times within the last 12 months, biologically-based therapies and energy healing were common forms of TRM accessed. Although, the use of TRM did not vary (p>0.05), knowledge about TRM, modalities of TRM and the sources of TRM differed significantly across geographically demarcated rural and urban splits (p<0.005). The study advances our understanding of the spatial dimensions as regards TRM utilisation.

  7. Enterovirus71 (EV71) Utilise Host microRNAs to Mediate Host Immune System Enhancing Survival during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection. PMID:25047717

  8. Enterovirus71 (EV71) utilise host microRNAs to mediate host immune system enhancing survival during infection.

    PubMed

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection.

  9. Health care utilisation and attitudes towards health care in subjects reporting environmental annoyance from electricity and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Eek, Frida; Merlo, Juan; Gerdtham, Ulf; Lithman, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT). Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604) and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group.

  10. Are racist attitudes related to experiences of racial discrimination? Within sample testing utilising nationally representative survey data.

    PubMed

    Habtegiorgis, Amanuel E; Paradies, Yin C; Dunn, Kevin M

    2014-09-01

    Although the relationship between an individual's racist attitudes and discriminatory behaviours has been widely studied, the association between racist attitudes among perpetrators and experiences of racism among targets has been under-examined. Based on data from the 2001-8 Australian Challenging Racism Project survey, this paper details a novel method to investigate the link between racist attitudes and experiences of discrimination utilising two separate models linked by nomination of cultural or ethnic groups who do not fit into Australian society (i.e., out-groups). Those identified as out-groups were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than those who were not nominated as out-groups. Overall, out-group nomination by those with racist attitudes strongly predict experiences of discrimination among these same target out-groups, OR=2.2, F(6, 12,348)=78.61, p<.001. Racist attitudes are related to racist behaviours among perpetrators that are, in turn, related to experiences of racial discrimination among targets. This study demonstrates that attitudes not only affect majority group behaviour but also drive the resulting experiences of discrimination for minority group members.

  11. Detection of sialic acid-utilising bacteria in a caecal community batch culture using RNA-based stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Young, Wayne; Egert, Markus; Bassett, Shalome A; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-03-25

    Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health.

  12. Body weight changes and outpatient medical care utilisation: Results of the MONICA/KORA cohorts S3/F3 and S4/F4

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenstetter, Silke B.; Menn, Petra; Holle, Rolf; Mielck, Andreas; Meisinger, Christa; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effects of body weight maintenance, gain, and loss on health care utilisation in terms of outpatient visits to different kinds of physicians in the general adult population. Methods: Self-reported utilisation data were collected within two population-based cohorts (baseline surveys: MONICA-S3 1994/95 and KORA-S4 1999/2001; follow-ups: KORA-F3 2004/05 and KORA-F4 2006/08) in the region of Augsburg, Germany, and were pooled for present purposes. N=5,147 adults (complete cases) aged 25 to 64 years at baseline participated. Number of visits to general practitioners (GPs), internists, and other specialists as well as the total number of physician visits at follow-up were compared across 10 groups defined by body mass index (BMI) category maintenance or change. Body weight and height were measured anthropometrically. Hierarchical generalized linear regression analyses with negative binomial distribution adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), survey, and the need factors incident diabetes and first cancer between baseline and follow-up were conducted. Results: In fully adjusted models, compared to the group of participants that maintained normal weight from baseline to follow-up, the following groups had significantly higher GP utilisation rates: weight gain from normal weight (+36%), weight loss from preobesity (+39%), maintained preobesity (+34%), weight gain after preobesity (+43%), maintained moderate obesity (+48%), weight gain from moderate obesity (+107%), weight loss from severe obesity (+114%), and maintained severe obesity (+83%). Regarding internists, those maintaining moderate obesity reported +107% more visits; those with weight gain from moderate obesity reported +91%. The latter group also had +41% more consultations with other physicians. Across all physicians, mean number of visits were estimated at 7.8 per year for maintained normal weight, 9 for maintained preobesity, 11 for maintained moderate obesity, and 12 for

  13. The potential and limitations of utilising head impact injury models to assess the likelihood of significant head injury in infants after a fall.

    PubMed

    Cory, C Z; Jones, M D; James, D S; Leadbeatter, S; Nokes, L D

    2001-12-01

    The use of engineering principles in assessing head injury scenarios is of increasing significance in investigations into suspected child abuse. A fall scenario is often given as the history for a head injury to an infant. This paper addresses the basic engineering principles and factors to be considered when calculating the severity of a head impact after free-fall. The application of head injury models (HIMs) to ascertain the forces involved in childhood head injuries from impact is also discussed. Previous studies including Duhaime et al. [J. Neurosurg. 66 (1987) 409] and Nokes et al. [Forensic Sci. Int. 79 (1995) 85] have utilised HIMs for this purpose: this paper reviews those models most widely documented.The HIM currently considered the 'state-of-the-art' is the head injury criterion (HIC) and it is suggested that this model should be utilised for assessing head impact injury in child abuse cases where appropriate.

  14. Relative bio-availability and utilisation of phosphatic fertilisers as sources of phosphorus in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Ramasubba Reddy, V

    2003-03-01

    1. Different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg diet) were given to broilers (8 to 42 d of age) to establish regressions between dietary NPP concentration and body weight gain and tibia ash content. Second and third experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of utilisation of different phosphatic fertilisers [ammonium phosphate (AP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), single super phosphate (SSP), NPK (17:17:17, NPK) and NP (28:28:0, NPK)] in commercial broilers (8 to 42 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). 2. Phosphatic fertilisers were incorporated both in broiler (10 g calcium and 4.5 g NPP/kg) and layer (35 g calcium and 3.5 g NPP/kg) diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) in toto. 3. The logarithmic curves obtained for predicting the body weight gain and tibia ash content at different levels of NPP used in experiment 1 were Y = 156.27 + 2,468.8 logX (r2= 0.958) and Y = 530.82 + 144.26 log X (r2 = 0.916), respectively. 4. Body weight gain and food intake in broilers given APP- or NP-supplemented diets were comparable to these in the DCP-fed group. Feeding of NPK, AP or SSP resulted in significant depression in weight gain and food intake and high excreta moisture content. Food/gain, Ca and P contents in tibia ash and serum were not influenced by the use of phosphatic fertilisers as P sources in broiler diets. 5. Tibia ash content in broilers fed on diets containing fertilisers was either similar to or significantly higher than that in the DCP-fed group. Broilers on AP or SSP retained more P and had higher tibia ash content than those on DCP. AP, SSP or NPK caused degenerative and necrotic changes in liver, kidney and intestine of broilers. 6. Relative bio-availability of P from APP or NP was better for body weight gain than AP, SSP or NPK, while the reverse was true for bone calcification. 7. APP and NP gave hen-d egg production similar to that of DCP-fed layers. Food intake was significantly reduced

  15. Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: Changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006–2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n = 162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p < 0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

  16. Sociodemographic and health behavioural factors associated with access to and utilisation of eye care in Korea: Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Choi, Moonjung; Yoon, Jin Sook; Kim, Sung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the sociodemographic and health behavioural factors associated with access to and utilisation of eye care in Korea. Design Nationwide cross-sectional study Methods 25 752 Koreans over the age of 30 were assessed from a national representative survey. We analysed independent variables of self-reporting eye clinic visits through multivariable analyses of sociodemographic factors. The time since the last visit to an eye clinic was used to assess access to and utilisation of eye care. Results Of the 25 752 respondents, 8237 (32.0%) visited an eye clinic in the past year, 11 028 (42.8%) were seen more than 1 year ago, while 6487 (25.2%) had never seen an ophthalmologist. Eye clinic utilisation was statistically associated with older age, female sex, higher household income, higher education levels, living in an urban area, and having comorbidities including diabetes and hypertension. Middle-aged men between 30 and 49 years were found to be less likely to receive eye care compared to the rest of the population, and the proportion that did plummeted after the financial crisis of 2007. Conclusions There is a substantial sociodemographic disparity in eye care utilisation in Korea, and men with low financial income and education level are especially at risk. Use of eye care among middle-aged men has decreased since the global financial crisis that began in 2007, and therefore healthcare policies and public interventions should be targeted at vulnerable groups to promote access to medical care. PMID:26185177

  17. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  18. Impact of health centre availability on utilisation of maternity care and pregnancy outcome in a rural area of Haryana.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Singh, M M; Kaur, M

    1997-08-01

    Six hundred married women of 15-45 years age group were interviewed in 4 villages of the district Ambala in Haryana. Impact of health centre (HC) availability on the knowledge, opinion and practices related to maternity care and pregnancy outcome was assessed after adjusting the effect of socio-economic status. Except 17 women (2.8%), everyone knew at least one correct purpose of antenatal care (ANC) and 98.2% women had contacted health staff for ANC. However, knowledge of the respondents about the components of ANC was found to be poor in study villages. Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) conducted delivery in 76.1% cases in sub-centre (SC), 75.6% in villages without a HC compared to 49.8% in primary health centre (PHC) village. However, preference for TBAs in PHC village was 14.9%, in SC village 33.5%, and in villages without HC 36.3% (p < 0.001). Among respondents having better awareness about ANC components, preference and utilisation of modern delivery attendants was found to be higher. For maternity illnesses, consultation rate of government functionaries was 67.9% in PHC village, 52.2% in SC village and 55.8% in villages without a HC. Perinatal mortality rate of 76.0/1000 births in villages without HC was not significantly different from the rate of 87.4/1000 in SC village but rate of 38.9/1000 in the PHC village was significantly lower (p < 0.01). Awareness and availability of modern maternity services were found to have significant influence on the health seeking behaviour and pregnancy outcome.

  19. Economic Activities, Illness Pattern and Utilisation of Health Care Facilities in the Rural Population of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The study was undertaken among the rural and black communities of the Uthungulu health district of the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Method A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study was conducted. A multi-stage sampling strategy was adopted to obtain a representative sample of the communities. Results The mean age of the population was 27 years and majority was female (54%). Among the adult population only 30% were educated, 19% were engaged in some form of economic activities while 9% were in the formal employment sector. The average monthly income per household was R1 301 (95% CI, R1 283; R1 308). The illnesses were reported by 27% of the total population over a period of one month. Notably higher rates of female individuals (29%) were sick compared to males (24%, p < 0.001). The rates of illnesses among adult females (39%) were also significantly higher than among males (31%, p < 0.009). Most of them (69%) attended primary health care (PHC) clinics for medical services, while 67% reported chronic conditions. Age (OR = 1.4), gender (OR = 0.711), education (OR = 0.64) and economic activities (OR = 1.9) were found to be associated with being ill or not. Conclusion The rural black communities are underdeveloped and deprived, which results in higher prevalence of illnesses; however, the utilisation of PHC facilities is comparatively higher than in the rest of the province and other parts of the country. Interventions to improve community health care services among the deprived population should be focused through public health strategies such as all-encompassing PHC that includes health promotion, education and basic essential amenities.

  20. A framework for the analysis of the security of supply of utilising carbon dioxide as a chemical feedstock.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Eric S; Ng, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in catalysts have enhanced the potential for the utilisation of carbon dioxide as a chemical feedstock. Using the appropriate energy efficient catalyst enables a range of chemical pathways leading to desirable products. In doing so, CO2 provides an economically and environmentally beneficial source of C1 feedstock, while improving the issues relating to security of supply that are associated with fossil-based feedstocks. However, the dependence on catalysts brings other supply chains into consideration, supply chains that may also have security of supply issues. The choice of chemical pathways for specific products will therefore entail an assessment not only of economic factors but also the security of supply issues for the catalysts. This is a multi-criteria decision making problem. In this paper, we present a modified 4A framework based on the framework suggested by the Asian Pacific Energy Research centre for macro-economic applications. The 4A methodology is named after the criteria used to compare alternatives: availability, acceptability, applicability and affordability. We have adapted this framework for the consideration of alternative chemical reaction processes using a micro-economic outlook. Data from a number of sources were collected and used to quantify each of the 4A criteria. A graphical representation of the assessments is used to support the decision maker in comparing alternatives. The framework not only allows for the comparison of processes but also highlights current limitations in the CCU processes. The framework presented can be used by a variety of stakeholders, including regulators, investors, and process industries, with the aim of identifying promising routes within a broader multi-criteria decision making process. PMID:26534861

  1. Insights into the Dekkera bruxellensis genomic landscape: comparative genomics reveals variations in ploidy and nutrient utilisation potential amongst wine isolates.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Anthony R; Zeppel, Ryan; Chambers, Paul J; Curtin, Chris D

    2014-02-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is a major contaminant of industrial fermentations, such as those used for the production of biofuel and wine, where it outlasts and, under some conditions, outcompetes the major industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to investigate the level of inter-strain variation that is present within this economically important species, the genomes of four diverse D. bruxellensis isolates were compared. While each of the four strains was shown to contain a core diploid genome, which is clearly sufficient for survival, two of the four isolates have a third haploid complement of chromosomes. The sequences of these additional haploid genomes were both highly divergent from those comprising the diploid core and divergent between the two triploid strains. Similar to examples in the Saccharomyces spp. clade, where some allotriploids have arisen on the basis of enhanced ability to survive a range of environmental conditions, it is likely these strains are products of two independent hybridisation events that may have involved multiple species or distinct sub-species of Dekkera. Interestingly these triploid strains represent the vast majority (92%) of isolates from across the Australian wine industry, suggesting that the additional set of chromosomes may confer a selective advantage in winery environments that has resulted in these hybrid strains all-but replacing their diploid counterparts in Australian winery settings. In addition to the apparent inter-specific hybridisation events, chromosomal aberrations such as strain-specific insertions and deletions and loss-of-heterozygosity by gene conversion were also commonplace. While these events are likely to have affected many phenotypes across these strains, we have been able to link a specific deletion to the inability to utilise nitrate by some strains of D. bruxellensis, a phenotype that may have direct impacts in the ability for these strains to compete with S. cerevisiae. PMID:24550744

  2. Utilisation de la mélatonine pour le sommeil chez les enfants en bonne santé

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Irvin; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Une maman a amené son garçon de 12 ans me consulter à mon bureau. Elle s’inquiète, car il a de la difficulté à s’endormir presque tous les soirs. Elle travaille par quarts et elle prend elle-même de la mélatonine pour l’aider à s’endormir. Elle m’a demandé si son garçon pouvait aussi prendre de la mélatonine. Quels sont les recommandations et les éléments à considérer avant d’utiliser la mélatonine chez les enfants et les adolescents en bonne santé? Réponse L’insomnie est rapportée chez jusqu’à un quart des enfants en bonne santé et chez les trois quarts des enfants atteints d’une affection psychiatrique ou neurodéveloppementale, ce qui entraîne des conséquences négatives. Pour les enfants atteints du syndrome de retard de phase du sommeil, la mélatonine pourrait s’avérer utile lorsque jumelée à une évaluation de l’insomnie et à un suivi régulier. La mélatonine pourrait être envisagée pour des enfants sans diagnostic d’insomnie qui ont une bonne hygiène du sommeil. Bien qu’elle semble sans danger, il n’existe pas de données probantes en faveur de l’emploi systématique de la mélatonine chez les enfants en bonne santé.

  3. A systematic review of the predictors of health service utilisation by adults with mental disorders in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Conal D; Baldwin, David S; Hopfe, Maren; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify variables that predict health service utilisation (HSU) by adults with mental disorders in the UK, and to determine the evidence level for these predictors. Design A narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed studies published after the year 2000. The search was conducted using four databases (ie, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus with full text, MEDLINE and EMBASE) and completed on 25 March 2014. Setting The majority of included studies were set in health services across primary, secondary, specialist and inpatient care. Some studies used data from household and postal surveys. Participants Included were UK-based studies that predicted HSU by adults with mental disorders. Participants had a range of mental disorders including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and dementia. Primary outcome A wide range of HSU outcomes were examined, including general practitioner (GP) contacts, medication usage, psychiatrist contacts, psychotherapy attendances, inpatient days, accident and emergency admissions and ‘total HSU’. Results Taking into account study quality, 28 studies identified a range of variables with good preliminary evidence supporting their ability to predict HSU. Of these variables, comorbidity, personality disorder, age (heterogeneous age ranges), neurotic symptoms, female gender, a marital status of divorced, separated or widowed, non-white ethnicity, high previous HSU and activities of daily living, were associated with increased HSU. Moreover, good preliminary evidence was found for associations of accessing a primary care psychological treatment service and medication use with decreased HSU. Conclusions The findings can inform decisions about which variables might be used to derive mental health clusters in ‘payment by results’ systems in the UK. The findings also support the need to investigate whether combining broad diagnoses with care pathways is an effective method for mental health

  4. Utilisation of glycogen, ATP and arginine phosphate in exercise and recovery in terrestrial red crabs, Gecarcoidea natalis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Stephen; Adamczewska, Agnieszka M

    2002-11-01

    Intermittent locomotion by terrestrial crustaceans may under specific circumstances increase walking distance and may allow partial re-oxidization of anaerobic products, and replenishment of ATP and arginine phosphate. The Christmas Island red crab G. natalis undertakes a substantial breeding migration each year. The leg muscles of G. natalis subjected to bouts of 2.5 min walking and 2.5 min rest were severely anaerobic. Adenylate energy charge and the large arginine phosphate stores were greatly reduced. Walking for 4 min with pauses of only 1 min exacerbated the anaerobiosis and utilised 50% of the endogenous muscle glycogen. Post-exercise, the adenylate energy charge recovered before the arginine phosphate charge and a large and persistent hyperglycaemia accompanied the restoration of glycogen. Arginine phosphate functioned as a large, longer term, energy reservoir-almost as part of the adenylate pool. Gluconeogenesis is yet to be generally substantiated in decapod crustaceans but G. natalis appears to remove lactate slowly and to reincorporate exogenous glucose into muscle glycogen in the same time frame as lactate removal from the haemolymph. The 4:1 exercise/pause regimen facilitated access to energy stores and increased walking distance, and it allowed L-lactate and H(+) efflux from the muscle during pausing. These responses are similar to those of G. natalis in the field, except during the migration when walking was entirely aerobic. Determinations of adenylate, fuel and arginine phosphate reserves and usage during the migration are required together with more detailed behavioral analysis to resolve the dichotomy in metabolic response.

  5. Utilisation of a cryptic non-canonical donor splice site of the gene encoding PARAFIBROMIN is associated with familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, K; Cavaco, B; Bowl, M; Harding, B; Young, A; Thakker, R

    2005-01-01

    More than 99% of all splice sites conform to consensus sequences that usually include the invariant dinucleotides gt and ag at the 5' and 3' ends of the introns, respectively. We report on the utilisation of a non-consensus (non-canonical) donor splice site within exon 1 of the HRPT2 gene in familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). HRPT2 mutations are more frequently associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT). Patients with FIHP were identified to have a donor splice site mutation, IVS1+1 g→a, and the consequences of this for RNA processing were investigated. The mutant mRNA lacked 30 bp and DNA sequence analysis revealed this to result from utilisation of an alternative cryptic non-canonical donor splice site (gaatgt) in exon 1 together with the normally occurring acceptor splice site in intron 1. Translation of this mutant mRNA predicted the in-frame loss of 10 amino acids in the encoded protein, termed PARAFIBROMIN. Thus, these FIHP patients are utilising a ga-ag splice site pair, which until recently was considered to be incompatible with splicing but is now known to occur as a rare (<0.02%) normal splicing variant. PMID:16061557

  6. Lactate and the GPR81 receptor in metabolic regulation: implications for adipose tissue function and fatty acid utilisation by muscle during exercise.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Kieron; Trayhurn, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Lactate is increasingly recognised to be more than a simple end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue are considered to be the main sites of lactate production and release. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a specific G-protein coupled receptor for lactate, GPR81, which is expressed primarily in adipose tissue, and also in muscle. Lactate inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue by mediating, through GPR81, the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. A high proportion (50 % or more) of the glucose utilised by white adipose tissue is converted to lactate and lactate production by the tissue increases markedly in obesity; this is likely to reflect a switch towards anaerobic metabolism with the development of hypoxia in the tissue. During exercise, there is a shift in fuel utilisation by muscle from lipid to carbohydrate, but this does not appear to be a result of the inhibition of lipolysis in the main adipose tissue depots by muscle-derived lactate. It is suggested instead that a putative autocrine lactate loop in myocytes may regulate fuel utilisation by muscle during exercise, operating via a muscle GPR81 receptor. In addition to being an important substrate, lactate is a key signal in metabolic regulation.

  7. Factors associated with non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in Timor-Leste: evidence from the 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Timor-Leste is a young developing country in Asia. Most of its infrastructure was destroyed after a long armed conflict for independence. Despite recent expansion of health facilities and investment in healthcare, maternal mortality remains high with most mothers still giving birth at home. This study investigated factors affecting the non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in the aftermath of the independence conflict. Methods The Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 was the latest two-stage national survey, which used validated questionnaires to obtain information from 26 clusters derived from 13 districts of the country. Factors influencing non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, accounting for the cluster sampling and sample weight of the survey. Results Of the total 5986 participants included in the study, 4472 (74.8%) did not deliver their last child at a health facility. Lack of education for the mother (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 2.66) and her partner (OR: 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), low household wealth status (OR: 5.20; 95% CI 3.93 to 6.90), and rural residence (OR: 2.83; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), were associated with increased likelihood of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth. Working mothers (OR: 1.55; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.81), who had high parity (OR: 1.78; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.32) and did not attend antenatal care service (OR: 4.68; 95% CI 2.65 to 8.28) were also vulnerable for not delivering at a health facility. Conversely, the prevalence of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth reduced with increasing number of service components received during antenatal care visits (OR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). Conclusions Only a quarter of Timorese women delivered at a health facility. In order to reduce maternal mortality, future interventions should target disadvantaged

  8. Grassland systems of red meat production: integration between biodiversity, plant nutrient utilisation, greenhouse gas emissions and meat nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Dawson, L E R; O'Kiely, P; Moloney, A P; Vipond, J E; Wylie, A R G; Carson, A F; Hyslop, J

    2011-08-01

    swards with a high proportion of clover and high-sugar grasses. Relative to feeding conserved forage or concentrates, grazing fresh grass not only reduces GHG emissions but also enhances the fatty acid composition of meat in terms of consumer health. It is possible to influence biodiversity, nutrient utilisation, GHG emissions and the nutritional quality of meat in grass-based systems, but each of these parameters is intrinsically linked and should not be considered in isolation. Interactions between these parameters must be considered carefully when policies are being developed, in order to ensure that strategies designed to achieve positive gains in one category do not lead to a negative impact in another. Some win-win outcomes are identified.

  9. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (P<0·0001) than healthy udders. The relationship between UST and CMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; P<0·001), and UST was linearly increased as the CMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; P<0·001]. Additionally, high correlations were obtained between UST and SCC score (r=0·75; P<0·001) and the relationship between UST and SCC was fitted best to a logarithmic equation [UST, °C=33·39+0·88×Log (SCC, ×103 cells/ml), R 2=0·61, P<0·001]. The cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for UST were 35·15 °C, 0·90, 0·98, and 0·95, respectively, when subclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for

  10. Effect of Removing Direct Payment for Health Care on Utilisation and Health Outcomes in Ghanaian Children: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ansah, Evelyn Korkor; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Asiamah, Sabina; Dzordzordzi, Vivian; Biantey, Kingsley; Dickson, Kakra; Gyapong, John Owusu; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Greenwood, Brian M; Mills, Anne; Whitty, Christopher J. M

    2009-01-01

    Background Delays in accessing care for malaria and other diseases can lead to disease progression, and user fees are a known barrier to accessing health care. Governments are introducing free health care to improve health outcomes. Free health care affects treatment seeking, and it is therefore assumed to lead to improved health outcomes, but there is no direct trial evidence of the impact of removing out-of-pocket payments on health outcomes in developing countries. This trial was designed to test the impact of free health care on health outcomes directly. Methods and Findings 2,194 households containing 2,592 Ghanaian children under 5 y old were randomised into a prepayment scheme allowing free primary care including drugs, or to a control group whose families paid user fees for health care (normal practice); 165 children whose families had previously paid to enrol in the prepayment scheme formed an observational arm. The primary outcome was moderate anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] < 8 g/dl); major secondary outcomes were health care utilisation, severe anaemia, and mortality. At baseline the randomised groups were similar. Introducing free primary health care altered the health care seeking behaviour of households; those randomised to the intervention arm used formal health care more and nonformal care less than the control group. Introducing free primary health care did not lead to any measurable difference in any health outcome. The primary outcome of moderate anaemia was detected in 37 (3.1%) children in the control and 36 children (3.2%) in the intervention arm (adjusted odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.66–1.67). There were four deaths in the control and five in the intervention group. Mean Hb concentration, severe anaemia, parasite prevalence, and anthropometric measurements were similar in each group. Families who previously self-enrolled in the prepayment scheme were significantly less poor, had better health measures, and used services more

  11. Without gaps - 3D photo-reconstruction of gully headcuts by combined utilisation of UAV and close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, Claudia; Karrasch, Pierre; Eltner, Anette

    2015-04-01

    Gully erosion is a worldwide phenomenon causing permanent degradation of fertile land. Especially in the Mediterranean, gullies contribute to high soil loss rates which necessitate multi-temporal and high resolution monitoring. Gullies naturally exhibit complex surface morphologies and hence are difficult to measure. Images acquired airborne or terrestrial are possible data sources for digital gully modelling due to availing of photogrammetric methods to achieve 3D models. In this regard unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) allow for low cost, flexible and frequent areal gully monitoring, but exhibit limitations as a result of the birds-eye view - i.e. at steep sidewalls and overhanging areas. Terrestrial images offer advantages at local assessments and can be obtained spontaneously as needed. However, images acquired from ground are not able to ensure areal coverage. To integrate the advantages of both data sources and to overcome the above mentioned limitations, this study introduces a methodological approach of combined utilisation of nadir UAV data and oblique terrestrial images for 3D photo reconstruction. Two gully headcuts in Andalusia (Spain) are analysed to confirm the suitability of the synergetic data usage. The results show that the UAV model of the gully, generated from images from flying heights of 15 m, implies inconsistency of data at slope gradients of 50 to 60 °. To eliminate these gaps additional terrestrial images can be integrated, which are geo-referenced solely using information of the already calculated 3D model and orthophoto from the UAV images. Referencing errors of the terrestrial point clouds are fixed by applying fine registration. The final merged digital gully model reveals a resolution of 0.5 cm and an accuracy of 1 cm. Concluding, high density point clouds based on the fusion of UAV and terrestrial image data show a significant improvement of 3D photo-reconstruction of two gully headcuts compared to detached processing of single data

  12. Utilisation de la Fibre a Deux Coeurs Non-Lineaire dans les Lasers EN Fibre et Lignes de Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essiambre, Rene-Jean

    L'utilisation des proprietes non-lineaires de la fibre optique a deux coeurs identiques constitue l'objet de cette etude numerique. Les effets non-lineaires dans les fibres optiques ainsi que la theorie des modes couples sont abordes pour decrire le comportement de la fibre a deux coeurs non-lineaire. On a d'abord analyse les proprietes de transmission d'une telle fibre autour de la puissance critique lorsqu'elle est recouplee a elle-meme dans une configuration Sagnac pour differentes valeurs de dispersion. Nous avons observe des effets simultanes de compression et de filtrage non-lineaire des impulsions injectees. On a ensuite considere configuration de laser en fibre incluant une fibre a deux coeurs comme element passif de synchronisation modale adjoint a un mileu amplificateur externe ayant une largeur de gain finie. On a demontre qu'il etait possible de generer ainsi des solitons fondamentaux de puissance variable et ce, avec tres peu d'ondes dispersives. Ces solitons possedent un spectre qui est de l'ordre de grandeur de la largeur du milieu de gain du laser et ils ne sont amplifies que faiblement a chaque passage. La combinaison d'une fibre a deux coeurs et d'un milieu de gain de largeur de bande finie peut egalement etre utilisee pour controler certains effets non-lineaires d'ordre superieur comme l'auto -glissement en frequence du soliton (diffusion Raman intra -impulsion) qui deplace le spectre d'un soliton vers les basses frequences. Pour une certaine plage de parametres on obtient une stabilisation periodique du deplacement en frequence du soliton. La zone de stabilite correspondant a une longueur de fibre de l'ordre de quelques kilometres et a une duree de soliton d'environ deux a cinq picosecondes. Un tel dispositif semble bien adapte pour la transmission d'information par solitons sur de longues distances dans un nouveau regime d'operation. Enfin, tout au long de l'ouvrage, on retrouve des analyses reliees a des systemes deja existants et on situe les

  13. Utilisation of Blood Components in Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis with Regard to Diagnosis-Related Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H.; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background More blood components are required in cardiac surgery than in most other medical disciplines. The overall blood demand may increase as a function of the total number of cardiothoracic and vascular surgical interventions and their level of complexity, and also when considering the demographic ageing. Awareness has grown with respect to adverse events, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation by allogeneic blood supply, which can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, programmes of patient blood management (PBM) have been implemented to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions and to standardise the indication of blood transfusions more strictly with aim to improve patients' overall outcomes. Methods A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilisation of blood components in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) was performed over a 4-year period. Based on a medical reporting system of all medical disciplines, which was established as part of a PBM initiative, all transfused patients in cardiac surgery and their blood components were identified in a diagnosis- and medical procedure-related system, which allows the precise allocation of blood consumption to interventional procedures in cardiac surgery, such as coronary or valve surgery. Results This retrospective single centre study included all in-patients in cardiac surgery at the UKM from 2009 to 2012, corresponding to a total of 1,405-1,644 cases per year. A blood supply was provided for 55.6-61.9% of the cardiac surgery patients, whereas approximately 9% of all in-patients at the UKM required blood transfusions. Most of the blood units were applied during cardiac valve surgery and during coronary surgery. Further surgical activities with considerable use of blood components included thoracic surgery, aortic surgery, heart transplantations and the use of artificial hearts. Under the measures of PBM in 2012 a noticeable decrease in the number of

  14. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species.

    PubMed

    Schrama, J W; Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Heinsbroek, L T N; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (k(gDE)). Furthermore, literature data on k(gDE) across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient composition. A total of twelve groups of fish were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two diets ('fat' v. 'starch') and two feeding levels ('low' v. 'high'). In the 'fat'-diet, 125 g fish oil and in the 'starch'-diet 300 g maize starch were added to 875 g of an identical basal mixture. Fish were fed restrictively one of two ration levels ('low' or 'high') for estimating k(gDE). Nutrient digestibility, N and energy balances were measured. For estimating k(gDE), data of the present study were combined with previous data of Nile tilapia fed similar diets to satiation. The type of NPE affected k(gDE) (0.561 and 0.663 with the 'starch' and 'fat'-diets, respectively; P < 0.001). Across fish species, literature values of k(gDE) range from 0.31 to 0.82. Variability in k(gDE) was related to dietary macronutrient composition, the trophic level of the fish species and the composition of growth (fat:protein gain ratio). The across-species comparison suggested that the relationships of k(gDE) with trophic level and with growth composition were predominantly induced by dietary macronutrient composition. Reported k(gDE) values increased linearly with increasing dietary fat content and decreasing dietary carbohydrate content. In contrast, k(gDE) related curvilinearly to dietary crude protein content. In conclusion, energy utilisation for growth is influenced by dietary macronutrient composition.

  15. Effects of Pre-Natal Vitamin D Supplementation with Partial Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency on Early Life Healthcare Utilisation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Chris; Shaheen, Seif O.; Martineau, Adrian; Cross, Louise; Robinson, Stephen; Warner, John O.; Devine, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background Some observational studies have suggested that higher prenatal Vitamin D intake may be associated with improved health outcomes in childhood. However there have been mixed results in this area with some negative studies, especially for effects on atopic and respiratory outcomes. We examined the effect of prenatal Vitamin D on healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life. Methods In an ethnically stratified randomised controlled trial conducted at St Mary’s Hospital London, 180 women at 27 weeks gestation were allocated to no Vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery, or a single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol. Participants were randomised in blocks of 15 using computer-generated numbers and investigators were blinded to group assignment. Supplementation increased maternal and cord blood 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations, but levels remained lower than current recommendations. Primary health economic outcome was overall cost of unscheduled healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life as documented in the child’s electronic health record. Secondary outcomes included cost attributable to: primary and secondary healthcare visits, respiratory and atopic complaints, cost in years 1, 2 and 3 of life and cost and frequency of prescribed medication. All costs were calculated as pounds sterling. Differences between groups were analysed using unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, and analysis of variance for adjusted analyses. Results We assessed 99/180 (55%) complete electronic health records, control (n = 31), daily (n = 36) and bolus (n = 32). We found no difference in total healthcare utilisation costs between the control and daily (mean difference in costs in pounds sterling 1.02, 95%CI -1.60, 1.65; adjusted 1.07, 95%CI -1.62, 1.86) or control and bolus groups (mean difference -1.58, 95%CI -2.63, 1.06; adjusted –1.40, 95%CI -2.45, 1.24). There were no adverse effects of supplementation reported during the trial

  16. An ARXPS and ERXPS study of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids: utilising a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Rebecca K; Delorme, Astrid E; Smith, Emily F; Licence, Peter

    2016-02-17

    A series of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids have been probed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source. The capability of the Ag Lα' X-ray source for ionic liquid analysis is confirmed alongside the characterisation of previously undetected high energy core photoelectron emissions. Additionally, the utilisation of the Ag Lα' X-ray source as a depth profiling technique (ERXPS) to investigate the structure of the ionic liquid/vacuum interface has been demonstrated, with comparison made to angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS).

  17. Effects of demand-side financing on utilisation, experiences and outcomes of maternity care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Demand-side financing, where funds for specific services are channelled through, or to, prospective users, is now employed in health and education sectors in many low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review aimed to critically examine the evidence on application of this approach to promote maternal health in these settings. Five modes were considered: unconditional cash transfers, conditional cash transfers, short-term payments to offset costs of accessing maternity services, vouchers for maternity services, and vouchers for merit goods. We sought to assess the effects of these interventions on utilisation of maternity services and on maternal health outcomes and infant health, the situation of underprivileged women and the healthcare system. Methods The protocol aimed for collection and synthesis of a broad range of evidence from quantitative, qualitative and economic studies. Nineteen health and social policy databases, seven unpublished research databases and 27 websites were searched; with additional searches of Indian journals and websites. Studies were included if they examined demand-side financing interventions to increase consumption of services or goods intended to impact on maternal health, and met relevant quality criteria. Quality assessment, data extraction and analysis used Joanna Briggs Institute standardised tools and software. Outcomes of interest included maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, service utilisation, factors required for successful implementation, recipient and provider experiences, ethical issues, and cost-effectiveness. Findings on Effectiveness, Feasibility, Appropriateness and Meaningfulness were presented by narrative synthesis. Results Thirty-three quantitative studies, 46 qualitative studies, and four economic studies from 17 countries met the inclusion criteria. Evidence on unconditional cash transfers was scanty. Other demand-side financing modes were found to increase utilisation of maternal

  18. Early primary care physician contact and health service utilisation in a large sample of recently released ex-prisoners in Australia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold-Reed, Diane; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Lennox, Nick; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between ex-prisoner primary care physician contact within 1 month of prison release and health service utilisation in the 6 months following release. Design A cohort from the Passports study with a mean follow-up of 219 (±44) days postrelease. Associations were assessed using a multivariate Andersen-Gill model, controlling for a range of other factors. Setting Face-to-face, baseline interviews were conducted in a sample of prisoners within 6 weeks of expected release from seven prisons in Queensland, Australia, from 2008 to 2010, with telephone follow-up interviews 1, 3 and 6 months postrelease. Participants From an original population-based sample of 1325 sentenced adult (≥18 years) prisoners, 478 participants were excluded due to not being released from prison during follow-up (n=7, 0.5%), loss to follow-up (n=257, 19.4%), or lacking exposure data (n=214, 16.2%). A total of 847 (63.9%) participants were included in the analyses. Exposure Primary care physician contact within 1 month of follow-up as a dichotomous measure. Main outcome measures Adjusted time-to-event hazard rates for hospital, mental health, alcohol and other drug and subsequent primary care physician service utilisations assessed as multiple failure time-interval data. Results Primary care physician contact prevalence within 1 month of follow-up was 46.5%. One-month primary care physician contact was positively associated with hospital (adjusted HR (AHR)=2.07; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.09), mental health (AHR=1.65; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19), alcohol and other drug (AHR=1.48; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) and subsequent primary care physician service utilisation (AHR=1.47; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.72) over 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Engagement with primary care physician services soon after prison release increases health service utilisation during the critical community transition period for ex-prisoners. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical

  19. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania: A comparison of public and non-public facilities using quality, equity, and trust dimensions.

    PubMed

    Shayo, Elizabeth H; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Momburi, Romanus; Olsen, Øystein E; Byskov, Jens; Makundi, Emmanuel A; Kamuzora, Peter; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents, 1157 and 679 respondents sought healthcare services on their last visit at public or non-public health facilities, respectively. While 45.5% rated the quality of services to be good in both types of facilities, reported medicine shortages were more pronounced among those who visited public rather than non-public health facilities (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4, 2.1). Respondents who visited public facilities were 4.9 times less likely than those who visited non-public facilities to emphasise the influence of cost in accessing and utilising health care (OR = 4.9, CI 3.9-6.1). A significant difference was also found in the provider-client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used by the majority of the population, while strengthening private-public partnerships to harmonise healthcare costs.

  20. How to revise and utilise the cephalogram for craniofacial dysostosis--modification of the porion and the McNamara line.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Ikkei; Nakajima, Hideo; Ogata, Hisao; Nakajima, Tatsuo; Sakamoto, Teruo; Ishii, Takenobu

    2010-09-01

    McNamara line analysis is often utilised in orthognathic surgery and is particularly useful in that it can easily express the extent of maxillo-mandibular deformity quantitatively. However, in craniofacial dysostosis (CFD), the location of the porion (PR) is sometimes displaced inferiorly. The McNamara line depends on the Frankfurt horizontal plane (FH plane), and hence, its deviation is often extremely distorted in CFD. The objective of this study was to enable more correct reflection of deformities of CFD patients on lateral cephalogram analysis. The lateral cephalograms of 152 Asian individuals were involved. angle basion(BA).orbitale(Or).PR, angle BA. nasion(NA).PR, and the distance from BA to PR on the BA-NA plane were measured and each standard range was established. Using these ranges, modified PR (mPR) is supposed to lie within a fairly small area. Second, we utilised mPR in the practice of McNamara line analysis in CFD patients. In both cases in the present study, it was confirmed that modified McNamara line analysis can express the deformities more precisely than conventinal analysis, as far as the maxillo-mandibular relationship is concerned. However, particularly in Case 2, both the cranio-maxillary and cranio-mandibular relationships were not entirely consistent with the lateral profile appearance even on modified McNamara line analysis.

  1. Good Practice Chaplaincy: An Exploratory Study Identifying the Appropriate Skills, Attitudes and Practices for the Selection, Training and Utilisation of Chaplains.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century. PMID:25371346

  2. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Michael J.; Clarke, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) ingestion on substrate utilisation, mood state, RPE, and exercise affect. Ten males (mean age ± S.D. = 26 ± 6 years) completed two 30-minute cycling trials at an intensity of 70% of V˙O2max⁡ following ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 body mass of R. rosea or placebo using a double-blind, crossover design. During exercise, heart rate and RPE were recorded. Participants completed measures of mood state and exercise affect before and after exercise. Expired air samples were taken during exercise to determine substrate utilisation. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that RPE was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise versus placebo (P = 0.003). Perceptions of arousal (P = 0.05) and pleasure were significantly higher after exercise with R. rosea compared to placebo (P = 0.003). Mood state scores for vigor were also higher in R. rosea condition compared to placebo (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in energy expenditure, carbohydrate, or fat oxidation between conditions (P > 0.05). Ingestion of R. rosea favourably influenced RPE and exercise affect without changes in energy expenditure or substrate utilization during 30-minute submaximal cycling performance. PMID:26464892

  3. Good Practice Chaplaincy: An Exploratory Study Identifying the Appropriate Skills, Attitudes and Practices for the Selection, Training and Utilisation of Chaplains.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century.

  4. 'Sometimes they fail to keep their faith in us': community health worker perceptions of structural barriers to quality of care and community utilisation of services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Puett, Chloe; Alderman, Harold; Sadler, Kate; Coates, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) have strong potential to extend health and nutrition services to underserved populations. However, CHWs face complex challenges when working within weak health systems and among communities with limited abilities to access and utilise CHW services. It is crucial to understand these challenges to improve programme support mechanisms. This study describes the results of qualitative investigations into CHW perceptions of barriers to quality of care among two groups of workers implementing community case management of acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea and severe acute malnutrition in southern Bangladesh. We explored systemic barriers to service delivery, pertaining to communities and health systems, which limited the usefulness and effectiveness of CHW services. Focus group discussions (n = 10) were conducted in March 2010. Discussions were analysed for themes related to CHWs' work challenges. Findings highlight several perceived barriers to effective service provision, including community poverty constraining uptake of recommended practices, irregular supplies of medicine from the health facility and poor quality of care for CHW referrals sent there. This study further documents interactions between demand-side and supply-side constraints including the influence of health system resource constraints on community trust in CHW services, and the influence of community resource constraints on the utilisation and effectiveness of CHW services. By documenting service delivery challenges from the perspective of the frontline workers themselves, this article contributes evidence to help identify appropriate support mechanisms for these workers, in order to develop scalable and sustainable CHW programmes in countries with under-resourced public health care infrastructure.

  5. Utilisation D'un Modulateur de Phase Optique pour Realiser L'asservissement de la Frequence D'un Laser a Semi-Conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Marc

    Cet ouvrage porte sur l'utilisation d'un modulateur de phase optique dans une boucle permettant d'asservir la frequence d'un laser a semi-conducteurs a une reference de frequence optique, en l'occurrence une vapeur atomique de rubidium 87. Nous y etudions principalement les mecanismes de generation du signal d'erreur. Un montage experimental est d'abord presente et la caracterisation complete du modulateur de phase est effectuee. Nous analysons ensuite les proprietes statiques du signal d'erreur dans le cas ou le signal applique au modulateur est periodique. Nous discutons de l'influence de parametres tels que la frequence et l'indice de modulation et la presence d'un effet Fabry -Perot accompagnant la modulation de phase. Enfin, nous montrons aussi qu'il est possible d'obtenir un signal d'erreur lorsque le signal de modulation est une sequence binaire aleatoire plutot qu'un signal periodique. Cela permet entre autres d'utiliser le meme modulateur de phase pour les fins de transmission et d'asservissement.

  6. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  7. Impact of Noncommunicable Disease Multimorbidity on Healthcare Utilisation and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Middle-Income Countries: Cross Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Tayu; Hamid, Fozia; Pati, Sanghamitra; Atun, Rifat; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs) has grown rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where populations are ageing, with rising prevalence of multimorbidity (more than two co-existing chronic conditions) that will significantly increase pressure on already stretched health systems. We assess the impact of NCD multimorbidity on healthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in six middle-income countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Methods Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from adult participants (>18 years) in the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) 2007–2010. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic correlates of multimorbidity. Association between the number of NCDs and healthcare utilisation as well as out-of-pocket spending was assessed using logistic, negative binominal and log-linear models. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity in the adult population varied from 3∙9% in Ghana to 33∙6% in Russia. Number of visits to doctors in primary and secondary care rose substantially for persons with increasing numbers of co-existing NCDs. Multimorbidity was associated with more outpatient visits in China (coefficient for number of NCD = 0∙56, 95% CI = 0∙46, 0∙66), a higher likelihood of being hospitalised in India (AOR = 1∙59, 95% CI = 1∙45, 1∙75), higher out-of-pocket expenditures for outpatient visits in India and China, and higher expenditures for hospital visits in Russia. Medicines constituted the largest proportion of out-of-pocket expenditures in persons with multimorbidity (88∙3% for outpatient, 55∙9% for inpatient visit in China) in most countries. Conclusion Multimorbidity is associated with higher levels of healthcare utilisation and greater financial burden for individuals in middle-income countries. Our study supports the WHO call for universal health insurance and health service coverage in LMICs, particularly for

  8. Evaluation d'une approche pedagogique respectant les facons d'apprendre des filles en sciences et en TIC en 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirette-Pitre, Nicole T.

    2009-07-01

    ) l'evaluation de l'effet du materiel en fonction de diverses variables reliees a l'interet et au sentiment d'auto-efficacite des filles en sciences et en TIC. Cette recherche s'est inscrite dans un paradigme pragmatique de recherche. Le pragmatisme a guide nos choix en ce qui a trait au modele de recherche et des techniques utilisees. Cette recherche a associe a la fois des techniques qualitatives et quantitatives, particulierement en ce qui concerne la collecte et l'analyse de donnees. Les donnees recueillies dans la premiere etape de l'evaluation de l'utilisabilite et de la convivialite du materiel par les enseignantes et les enseignants de sciences et les filles ont revele que le materiel concu est tres utilisable et convivial. Toutefois quelques petites ameliorations seront apportees a une version subsequente afin de faciliter davantage la navigation. Quant a l'evaluation des effets du materiel concu sur les variables reliees au sentiment d'auto-efficacite et aux interets lors de l'etape quasi experimentale, nos donnees qualitatives ont indique que ce materiel a eu des effets positifs sur le sentiment d'auto-efficacite et sur les interets des filles qui l'ont utilise. Toutefois, nos donnees quantitatives n'ont pas permis d'inferer un lien causal direct entre l'utilisation du materiel et l'augmentation du sentiment d'auto-efficacite et des interets des filles en sciences et en TIC. A la lumiere des resultats obtenus, nous avons conclu que le materiel a eu les effets escomptes. Donc, nous recommandons la creation et l'utilisation de materiel de ce genre dans toutes les classes de sciences de la 6e annee a la 12e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick.

  9. A comparison of the Greenland Ice-Core and IntCal timescales through the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion, utilising new 14c data from Tenaghi Philippon, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Richard A.; Hardiman, Mark; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Pross, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 10Be and 14C, share a common production signal, with their formation in the Earth's upper atmosphere modulated by changes to the geomagnetic field, as well as variations in the intensity of the solar wind. Here, we present 54 new 14C measurements from a terrestrial fen peat core extracted from the classical site of Tenaghi Philippon, NE Greece, contiguously spanning the time period between ~48,000 and 39,000 cal. BP. Utilising the most pronounced cosmogenic production peak of the last 100,000 years - that associated with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion circa 41,000 years ago - we exploit this common production signal, comparing Greenland 10Be with our Tenaghi Philippon 14C record, thereby providing a means to assess the concordance between the radiocarbon (IntCal) and Greenland ice-core (GICC05) timescales themselves for this, the oldest portion of the radiocarbon technique.

  10. Génération d'un supercontinumm utilisant le doublage et le triplage de fréquence dans une fibre microstructurée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesvigne, C.; Tombelaine, V.; Grossard, L.; Leproux, P.; Blondy, J. M.; Auguste, J. L.; Roy, P.; Couderc, V.; Huss, G.; Pioger, P. H.

    2006-10-01

    Nous présentons une nouvelle méthode permettant de générer un supercontinuum ultra large entre 240 et 1800 nm. Ce principe utilise une source de pompage unique à 1064 nm injectée dans une fibre optique microstructurée fortement non linéaire et biréfringente à profil innovant. L'élargissement spectral est engendré par des effets d'instabilités modulationnelles en fort régime de dispersion normale. L'initiation de ce phénomène est réalisée grâce à un doublage et un triplage de la longueur d'onde de pompe directement dans la fibre.

  11. A survey of accessibility and utilisation of chiropractic services for wheelchair-users in the United Kingdom: What are the issues?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background People with physical disabilities experience barriers to healthcare across all services despite a legal and moral obligation to the contrary. Complementary medicine is considered as supplementary to conventional care and integration of these approaches is essential to achieve optimal care. This paper explores the utilisation of chiropractic services and practitioner experiences of treating wheelchair-users which appears under-reported. Methods A 20 item questionnaire was posted to 250 randomly selected chiropractors registered with the General Chiropractic Council. Follow-up questionnaires were sent 7 days after the initial return date. Quantitative data were subjected to frequency analysis. Results The response rate was 64% (n = 161). The majority (66%) of chiropractors had been in practice less than 10 years and were practice owners (50%). Fifty-two percent of chiropractors sampled had treated a patient in a wheelchair in the previous 5 years. The majority (87%) had treated between 1 and 5 such patients. Patients with multiple sclerosis, stroke and cerebral palsy most commonly presented for treatment. The majority of patients' presenting complaint was musculoskeletal in origin, primarily for pain control. Only 13% of respondents worked in a fully accessible clinic. Impracticality of alterations was the most common reason for inaccessibility. Conclusions Wheelchair-users seem to be an underserved patient group in relation to chiropractic services. Chiropractic management is primarily utilised for pain control in patients with physical disabilities in which mobility may be improved or maintained. Co-management of wheelchair-users with GPs appears to be desirable in order to achieve optimal patient care however more research is required regarding the efficacy of chiropractic treatment for a range of disabling conditions. Physical access was identified as a key barrier to accessing care. PMID:21914167

  12. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  13. Patients Presenting to the Emergency Unit with Gynaecological Lower Abdominal Pain, with and without Pathological Clinical Findings – Service Utilisation, Pain History, Implications

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.; Wowro, E.; Möckel, M.; Kentenich, H.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the utilisation of emergency gynaecological services, although lower abdominal pain (LAP) is one of the most common symptoms prompting emergency presentation. Although such pain may be caused by potentially life-threatening gynaecological diseases, very often no clinical cause is found. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of emergency presentations in order to enable quicker identification of real emergencies in routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Standardised, so-called first aid cards of 1066 consecutive patients with LAP presenting acutely to one emergency unit were analysed in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Results: Over one third of cases did not constitute actual medical emergencies on objective criteria, with investigations yielding “no pathological findings”. Parameters were identified that more often lead to hospital admission, e.g. palpation of a mass/resistance or at least one pathological ultrasound finding. In addition, it was found that symptoms of longer duration (average 8 days), and not only acute LAP, were also often experienced by patients as emergencies. Conclusion: A diagnosis of “no pathological findings”, which was common in our study, suggests a subjective experience of an emergency from the patientʼs point of view, although the possibility of unrecognised pathology has to be borne in mind. Apart from functional disorders, the origins of symptoms may include psychosomatic causes and psychosocial problems, which cannot be further defined in the emergency care setting. Also, the phenomenon of increased utilisation of emergency services parallel to the assumed opening hours of routine outpatient care facilities must be seen in a critical light. PMID:27681519

  14. Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9 ± 0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P < 0.01) the total DM, OM and CP intake and improved (P < 0.01) the daily body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Lambs in T2, T3 and T4 gained weight at the rate of 22.7, 21.9 and 14.1 g/day, respectively, while lambs on the control diet lost weight at a rate of -24.9 g/day. Supplementation also improved (P < 0.01) the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and NDF of the total diet. It was concluded that supplementation of E. coracana straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs.

  15. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.

    PubMed

    Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8 MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods.

  16. Patients Presenting to the Emergency Unit with Gynaecological Lower Abdominal Pain, with and without Pathological Clinical Findings – Service Utilisation, Pain History, Implications

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.; Wowro, E.; Möckel, M.; Kentenich, H.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the utilisation of emergency gynaecological services, although lower abdominal pain (LAP) is one of the most common symptoms prompting emergency presentation. Although such pain may be caused by potentially life-threatening gynaecological diseases, very often no clinical cause is found. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of emergency presentations in order to enable quicker identification of real emergencies in routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Standardised, so-called first aid cards of 1066 consecutive patients with LAP presenting acutely to one emergency unit were analysed in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Results: Over one third of cases did not constitute actual medical emergencies on objective criteria, with investigations yielding “no pathological findings”. Parameters were identified that more often lead to hospital admission, e.g. palpation of a mass/resistance or at least one pathological ultrasound finding. In addition, it was found that symptoms of longer duration (average 8 days), and not only acute LAP, were also often experienced by patients as emergencies. Conclusion: A diagnosis of “no pathological findings”, which was common in our study, suggests a subjective experience of an emergency from the patientʼs point of view, although the possibility of unrecognised pathology has to be borne in mind. Apart from functional disorders, the origins of symptoms may include psychosomatic causes and psychosocial problems, which cannot be further defined in the emergency care setting. Also, the phenomenon of increased utilisation of emergency services parallel to the assumed opening hours of routine outpatient care facilities must be seen in a critical light.

  17. Utilisation of a thoracic oncology database to capture radiological and pathological images for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Carey, George B; Kazantsev, Stephanie; Surati, Mosmi; Rolle, Cleo E; Kanteti, Archana; Sadiq, Ahad; Bahroos, Neil; Raumann, Brigitte; Madduri, Ravi; Dave, Paul; Starkey, Adam; Hensing, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N; Vokes, Everett E; Vigneswaran, Wickii; Armato, Samuel G; Kindler, Hedy L; Salgia, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Objective An area of need in cancer informatics is the ability to store images in a comprehensive database as part of translational cancer research. To meet this need, we have implemented a novel tandem database infrastructure that facilitates image storage and utilisation. Background We had previously implemented the Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project (TOPDP) database for our translational cancer research needs. While useful for many research endeavours, it is unable to store images, hence our need to implement an imaging database which could communicate easily with the TOPDP database. Methods The Thoracic Oncology Research Program (TORP) imaging database was designed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform, which was developed by Vanderbilt University. To demonstrate proof of principle and evaluate utility, we performed a retrospective investigation into tumour response for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients treated at the University of Chicago Medical Center with either of two analogous chemotherapy regimens and consented to at least one of two UCMC IRB protocols, 9571 and 13473A. Results A cohort of 22 MPM patients was identified using clinical data in the TOPDP database. After measurements were acquired, two representative CT images and 0–35 histological images per patient were successfully stored in the TORP database, along with clinical and demographic data. Discussion We implemented the TORP imaging database to be used in conjunction with our comprehensive TOPDP database. While it requires an additional effort to use two databases, our database infrastructure facilitates more comprehensive translational research. Conclusions The investigation described herein demonstrates the successful implementation of this novel tandem imaging database infrastructure, as well as the potential utility of investigations enabled by it. The data model presented here can be utilised as the basis for further development of other larger

  18. Impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of neck and upper extremities on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain

    PubMed Central

    IJzelenberg, W; Burdorf, A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the presence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities among industrial workers with low back pain, and to examine whether it has an impact on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 505 industrial workers (response 86%). Results: The 12 month prevalence of low back pain was 50%. Among subjects with low back pain the 12 month prevalence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities was 68%. Among workers with low back pain, subjects with high pain intensity or disabling low back pain were more likely to have musculoskeletal co-morbidity. In comparison to the subjects who report back pain only, subjects with co-morbidity showed worse general health and health related quality of life. No impact of upper extremity co-morbidity was found on healthcare utilisation, and sickness absence due to low back pain. Conclusions: This study provides no evidence that musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities influences the choice to seek care or take sick leave due to low back pain among industrial manual workers. For occupational health practitioners the finding of a high co-morbidity is important to consider when implementing workplace interventions aimed at the reduction of specific musculoskeletal complaints, since the controls for one musculoskeletal complaint may impact adversely on another musculoskeletal complaint. Researchers who perform low back pain intervention studies using generic health measures, should take into account the impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity on these measures. PMID:15377765

  19. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit – A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    PubMed Central

    ÓhAiseadha, Coilín; Mannix, Mai; Saunders, Jean; Philip, Roy K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources. Methods: We used a questionnaire based on the paediatric appropriateness evaluation protocol (PAEP), modified and validated for use in the United Kingdom, to prospectively gather data regarding reasons for admission and for ongoing care after 2 days, from case records for all inpatients during 11 days in February (winter) and 7 days in May–June (summer). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to explore associations between failure to meet PAEP criteria and patient attributes including age, gender, admission outside of office hours, arrival by ambulance, and private health insurance. Inpatient bed occupancy and day ward activity were also scrutinised. Results: Mean bed occupancy was 84.1%. In all, 12/355 (3.4%, 95% CI: 1.5%–5.3%) of children failed to meet PAEP admission criteria, and 27/189 (14.3%, 95% CI: 9.3%–19.3%) who were still inpatients after 2 days failed to meet criteria for ongoing care. 35/355 (9.9%, 95% CI: 6.8%–13.0%) of admissions fulfilled only the PAEP criterion for intravenous medications or fluid replacement. A logistic regression model constructed by forward selection identified a significant association between failure to meet PAEP criteria for ongoing care 2 days after admission and admission during office hours (08.00–17.59) (P = .020), and a marginally significant association between this outcome and arrival by ambulance (P = .054). Conclusion: At a mean bed occupancy of 84.1%, an Irish RPU can achieve 96.6% appropriate admissions

  20. The experience of palliative patients and their families of a family meeting utilised as an instrument for spiritual and psychosocial care: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study explores the experience of palliative patients and their family members of a family meeting model, utilised as an instrument for the provision of spiritual and psychosocial care. In doing so the study embraces a broad understanding of spirituality which may or may not include formal religious practice and a concept of psychosocial care that includes: social and emotional well-being, communication, self esteem, mental health and adaptation to illness. The meeting of spiritual and psychosocial needs is considered to be an important aspect of palliative care. Methods This qualitative study, philosophically underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology, investigates the participatory experience of palliative care patients and their significant family members of such a family meeting. People registered with two large metropolitan palliative care services, who met selection criteria, were referred by medical staff. Twelve of the 66 referred took part in family meetings which also included significant others invited by the patient. A total of 36 family members participated. The number of participants of individual family meetings ranged from two to eleven. After the family meeting every participant was invited to take part in an individual in-depth interview about their experience of the meeting. Forty seven interviews were conducted. These were audio recorded and transcribed. Results Data analysis, utilising Ricoeur's theory of interpretation, revealed seven main themes: personal experience of the meeting, personal outcomes, observation of others' experience, observation of experience and outcomes for the family unit, meeting facilitation, how it could have been different and general applicability of the family meeting. Throughout these themes were numerous references to aspects of the web of relationships which describe the concept of spirituality as it is defined for the purpose of this study. Conclusions The findings indicate the potential of the type

  1. Utilisation of Blood Components in Trauma Surgery: A Single-Centre, Retrospective Analysis before and after the Implementation of an Educative PBM Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Kösters, Clemens; Franz, Dominik; Buddendick, Hubert; Borowski, Matthias; Juhra, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Sibrowski, Walter; Raschke, Michael J.; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our single-centre retrospective study presented here is to further analyse the utilisation of allogeneic blood components within a 5-year observation period (2009-2013) in trauma surgery (15,457 patients) under the measures of an educational patient blood management (PBM) initiative. Methods After the implementation of the PBM initiative in January 2012, the Institute of Transfusion Medicine und Transplantation Immunology educates surgeons and nurses at the Department of Trauma Surgery to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions. A standardised reporting system was used to document the utilisation of blood components carefully for the most frequent diagnoses and surgical interventions in trauma surgery. These measures served as basis for the implementation of an interdisciplinary systematic exchange of information to foster decision-making processes in favour of patient blood management. Results Since January 2012, the proportion of patients who received a transfusion as well as the number of transfused red blood cell (RBC) (7.3%/6.4%; p = 0.02), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) (1.7%/1.3%; p < 0.05) and platelet (PLT) (1.0%/0.5%; p < 0.001) units were reduced as a result of our PBM initiative. However, among the transfused patients, the number of administered RBC, FFP and PLT units did not decrease significantly. Overall, patients who did not receive transfusions were younger than transfused patients (p = 0.001). The subgroup with the highest probability of blood transfusion administered included patients with intensive care and long-term ventilation (before/after implementation of PBM: RBC 81.5%/75.9%; FFP 33.3%/20.4%; PLT 24.1%/13.0%). Only a total of 60 patients of 531 patients suffering multiple traumas were massively transfused (before/after implementation of PBM: RBC 55.6%/49.8%; FFP 28.4%/20.4%; PLT 17.6%/8.9%). Conclusion According to our educational PBM initiative, at least the proportion of trauma patients who received allogeneic blood

  2. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  3. Effect of concentrate crude protein level on grass silage intake, milk yield and nutrient utilisation by dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, T; Tesfa, A Tsehai; Tuori, M; Yrjänen, S; Syrjälä-Qvist, L

    2002-06-01

    Twenty-one multiparous dairy cows were fed concentrates containing three levels (119, 154 and 191 g/kg DM) of crude protein (CP) during the first ten weeks of lactation. Part of the grain and molassed sugar beat pulp was substituted with 0% (RSM0), 15% (RSM15) or 30% (RSM30) repeseed meal. Wilted grass silage was fed ad libitum after calving. The average response between RSM0 and RSM15 was +1.66 kg milk/d per percentage unit change in concentrate CP content. No further response occurred between RSM15 and RSM30. The positive effect of RSM inclusion was seen throughout the experimental period and was associated with increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased plasma insulin concentration one week after calving, and higher efficiency of metabolisable energy utilisation for milk production. Digestibility of the diet remained unaffected. Milk and plasma urea tended to increase with RSM30 indicating excessive supply of rumen degradable protein. Because of the limited potential of cows to compensate for a deficit in feed protein supply by mobilising tissue protein, a substantial milk yield response can be achieved with a moderate level of protein supplementation during early lactation.

  4. Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p < 0.01) for the biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers.

  5. Utilising DualEELS to probe the nanoscale mechanisms of the corrosion of Zircaloy-4 in 350 °C pressurised water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annand, Kirsty J.; MacLaren, Ian; Gass, Mhairi

    2015-10-01

    Characterisation of materials utilised for fuel cladding in nuclear reactors prior to service is integral in order to understand corrosion mechanisms which would take place in reactor. Zircaloy-4 is one such material of choice for nuclear fuel containment in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). In particular, the metal-oxide interface has been a predominant focus of previous research, however, due to the complex oxidation process of zirconium cladding, there is still no clear understanding of what is present at the interface. Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and Dual Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (DualEELS), we have studied the corrosion of this material under conditions similar to those that could be encountered in service. It is shown that under all conditions, whether during faster oxidation in the early stages, slow growth just prior to the transition to a new growth regime, or in the faster growth that happens after this transition, the surface of the metal below the scale is loaded with oxygen up to around 33 at%. Approaching transition, in conditions of slow growth and slow oxygen supply, an additional metastable suboxide is apparent with a thickness of tens of nm. By studying changes in both chemical composition and dielectric function of the material at the oxide scale - metal interface with nanometre resolution, quantitative mapping could be achieved, clearly showing that this is a suboxide composition of ZrO and a Zr oxidation state close to +2.

  6. Social work practice in the donation of human tissue for transplantation: utilising social work values and competencies to achieve effective outcomes for transplant patients and donor families.

    PubMed

    Forbe-Smith, Lyndall; Haire, Mary; Doneley, Mary

    2002-01-01

    In Queensland, Australia, senior social workers have pioneered the coordination of tissue donation at coronial autopsies, seeking consent for the donation of heart valve, bone and eye tissue after sudden deaths which have been reported to the coroner. The urgent need for tissue for transplantation is balanced with the counselling, information and practical needs of potential donor families in their shock and grief. Social work assessment, advocacy, liaison, counselling, crisis intervention and particularly communication skills have been utilised, both as an integral component of obtaining informed consent and in working with families' experience of grief and loss in sudden, traumatic bereavement. This tissue donation program, over a period of eight years, has maximised the availability of tissue with its high donation rates, while upholding the rights and needs of potential donor families through provision of an effective social work service. The paper will reflect upon key social work knowledge and processes which have respected the subjective experience of client and worker while working within a medical model.

  7. 'If you feel that nobody wants you you'll withdraw into your own': Gypsies/Travellers, networks and healthcare utilisation.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Ruston, Annmarie

    2013-11-01

    Gypsies and Travellers are the unhealthiest group in British society, suffering from higher levels of physical and mental illness, lower life expectancy and with low levels of healthcare utilisation. They also continue to experience the highest level of prejudice and discrimination in society. While studies indicate that social networks play an important role in shaping health beliefs and the response to symptoms, evidence on the influence of networks on health is unclear and contradictory. This article draws on social network theory and research into the relation between discrimination and health to critically examine how networks mediate between collective experiences of racism and health-related behavior. Qualitative interviews with 39 adult Gypsies and Travellers were conducted in the South-East of England to explore the wider structural and institutional context and the influence those contexts play in shaping health beliefs and decisions whether to access formal health services. The findings indicate that the influence networks play in shaping health behaviour is dependent on the particular social context of the group and its status in relation to wider social structures, making generalization problematic.

  8. The removal of sulphate from mine water by precipitation as ettringite and the utilisation of the precipitate as a sorbent for arsenate removal.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate sulphate removal from mine water by precipitation as ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O) and the utilisation of the precipitate as a sorbent for arsenate removal. The mine water sulphate concentration was reduced by 85-90% from the initial 1400 mg/L during ettringite precipitation depending on the treatment method. The precipitation conditions were also simulated with MINEQL + software, and the computational results were compared with the experimental results. The precipitated solids were characterised with X-ray diffraction and a scanning electron microscope. The precipitated solids were tested as sorbents for arsenate removal from the model solution. The arsenic(V) model solution concentration reduced 86-96% from the initial 1.5 mg/L with a 1 g/L sorbent dosage. The effect of initial arsenate concentration on the sorption of arsenate on the precipitate was studied and Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich sorption isotherm models were fitted to the experimental data. The maximum arsenate sorption capacity (qm = 11.2 ± 4.7 mg/g) of the precipitate was obtained from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. The results indicate that the precipitate produced during sulphate removal from mine water by precipitation as ettringite could be further used as a sorbent for arsenate removal.

  9. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

  10. Bactériophages et phagothérapie: utilisation de virus naturels pour traiter les infections bactériennes

    PubMed Central

    Ravat, F.; Jault, P.; Gabard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’utilisation des bactériophages, prédateurs naturels des bactéries, est une technique pionnière efficace de lutte contre les infections bactériennes. Tombée dans l’oubli depuis un demi-siècle du coté occidental de l’ex-rideau de fer, elle fait toujours partie de l’arsenal thérapeutique des pays de l’ex-Europe de l’Est, au point de constituer une arme de choix dans la politique de santé publique de ces pays. l’émergence de bactéries multirésistantes et le risque de revenir à l’ère pré-antibiotique ont fait ressortir la phagothérapie de l’oubli injuste auquel elle avait été confinée. la biologie et la place du bactériophage dans la nature sont décrites ici. les tenants et les aboutissants de la phagothérapie et les conditions de son retour sur le devant de la scène sont explicitées. PMID:26668557

  11. Learning styles of first-year undergraduate nursing and midwifery students: a cross-sectional survey utilising the Kolb Learning Style Inventory.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Angelo; James, Santhamma; Mitchell, Eleanor K L

    2012-07-01

    It is important that educators understand their students' learning styles. In this study we investigate the learning styles of first-year undergraduate nursing and midwifery university students and whether these learning styles are influenced by student demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey including demographic questions and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory was utilised. There was a 78% response rate (n=345). The majority of first-year students investigated in this study were divergers (29.5%), followed by assimilators (28.8%), accommodators (23.9%) and convergers (17.9%). Female students had a higher reflective observation (RO) score than male students (p=0.0078). Those with English as first language showed a higher active experimentation score (p=0.0543) and a lower concrete experience (CE) score (p=0.0038). Australian citizens and permanent residents had a higher RO score (p=0.0560) and a lower CE score (p=0.0100) than migrants and international students. Nursing/arts students had a higher abstract conceptualisation (AC) score than nursing students (p=0.0013). Students enrolled in 4-5 subject units had a higher AC score than those enrolled in 1-2 units (p=0.0244). Nursing and midwifery students are mainly of the diverger and assimilating learning styles. Some student demographic characteristics show a significant influence on learning styles. This study has teaching and research implications. PMID:21889237

  12. Learning styles of first-year undergraduate nursing and midwifery students: a cross-sectional survey utilising the Kolb Learning Style Inventory.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Angelo; James, Santhamma; Mitchell, Eleanor K L

    2012-07-01

    It is important that educators understand their students' learning styles. In this study we investigate the learning styles of first-year undergraduate nursing and midwifery university students and whether these learning styles are influenced by student demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey including demographic questions and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory was utilised. There was a 78% response rate (n=345). The majority of first-year students investigated in this study were divergers (29.5%), followed by assimilators (28.8%), accommodators (23.9%) and convergers (17.9%). Female students had a higher reflective observation (RO) score than male students (p=0.0078). Those with English as first language showed a higher active experimentation score (p=0.0543) and a lower concrete experience (CE) score (p=0.0038). Australian citizens and permanent residents had a higher RO score (p=0.0560) and a lower CE score (p=0.0100) than migrants and international students. Nursing/arts students had a higher abstract conceptualisation (AC) score than nursing students (p=0.0013). Students enrolled in 4-5 subject units had a higher AC score than those enrolled in 1-2 units (p=0.0244). Nursing and midwifery students are mainly of the diverger and assimilating learning styles. Some student demographic characteristics show a significant influence on learning styles. This study has teaching and research implications.

  13. Seasonal changes in light and temperature affect the balance between light harvesting and light utilisation components of photosynthesis in an evergreen understory shrub.

    PubMed

    Muller, Onno; Hikosaka, Kouki; Hirose, Tadaki

    2005-05-01

    In a temperate climate, evergreen species in the understory are exposed to large changes in photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and temperature over the year. We determined the photosynthetic traits of leaves of an evergreen understory shrub Aucuba japonica at three sites at monthly intervals: understorys of a deciduous forest; an evergreen forest; and a gap in a mixed forest. This set up enabled us to separate the effects of seasonal change in PPFD and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation under natural conditions. The effects of PPFD and temperature were analysed by simple and multiple regression analyses. The amounts of light utilisation components (LU), represented by nitrogen and rubisco contents per area, were higher in winter, when temperature was low and PPFD was high. The LU relative to the amount of light harvesting components (LH), represented by chlorophyll a/b and rubisco/chlorophyll ratios, and the inverse of chlorophyll/nitrogen ratio were also higher in winter. We quantified the effects of PPFD and temperature on the LU and LH components. Across sites PPFD had stronger effects than air temperature, while within a site temperature had stronger effects on photosynthetic acclimation. We concluded that the photosynthetic apparatus is strongly affected by the prevailing PPFD at the time of leaf development. Within a given light regime, however, plants acclimated by increasing LU relative to LH primarily in response to temperature and to a lesser extent to PPFD.

  14. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  15. Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of δ13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest δ13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during

  16. Effect of Paying for Performance on Utilisation, Quality, and User Costs of Health Services in Tanzania: A Controlled Before and After Study

    PubMed Central

    Binyaruka, Peter; Patouillard, Edith; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Greco, Giulia; Maestad, Ottar; Borghi, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite widespread implementation across Africa, there is limited evidence of the effect of payment for performance (P4P) schemes in low income countries on the coverage of quality services and affordability, consistent with universal health coverage objectives. We examined the effect of a government P4P scheme on utilisation, quality, and user costs of health services in Tanzania. Methods We evaluated the effects of a P4P scheme on utilisation of all maternal and child immunization services targeted by the scheme, and non-targeted general outpatient service use. We also evaluated effects on patient satisfaction with care and clinical content of antenatal care, and user costs. The evaluation was done in 150 facilities across all 7 intervention districts and 4 comparison districts with two rounds of data collection over 13-months in January 2012 and February 2013. We sampled 3000 households of women who had delivered in the 12 months prior to interview; 1500 patients attending health facilities for targeted and non-targeted services at each round of data collection. Difference-in-difference regression analysis was employed. Findings We estimated a significant positive effect on two out of eight targeted indicators. There was an 8.2% (95% CI: 3.6% to 12.8%) increase in coverage of institutional deliveries among women in the intervention area, and a 10.3% (95% CI: 4.4% to 16.1%) increase in the provision of anti-malarials during pregnancy. Use of non-targeted services reduced at dispensaries by 57.5 visits per month among children under five (95% CI: -110.2 to -4.9) and by 90.8 visits per month for those aged over five (95% CI: -156.5 to -25.2). There was no evidence of an effect of P4P on patient experience of care for targeted services. There was a 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) increase in the patient satisfaction score for non-targeted services. P4P was associated with a 5.0% reduction in those paying out of pocket for deliveries (95% CI: -9.3% to -0

  17. Mode of oral iron administration and the amount of iron habitually consumed do not affect iron absorption, systemic iron utilisation or zinc absorption in iron-sufficient infants: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Domellöf, Magnus; Hernell, Olle; Hurrell, Richard F; Lind, Torbjörn; Lönnerdal, Bo; Zeder, Christophe; Egli, Ines M

    2016-09-01

    Different metabolic pathways of supplemental and fortification Fe, or inhibition of Zn absorption by Fe, may explain adverse effects of supplemental Fe in Fe-sufficient infants. We determined whether the mode of oral Fe administration or the amount habitually consumed affects Fe absorption and systemic Fe utilisation in infants, and assessed the effects of these interventions on Zn absorption, Fe and Zn status, and growth. Fe-sufficient 6-month-old infants (n 72) were randomly assigned to receive 6·6 mg Fe/d from a high-Fe formula, 1·3 mg Fe/d from a low-Fe formula or 6·6 mg Fe/d from Fe drops and a formula with no added Fe for 45 d. Fractional Fe absorption, Fe utilisation and fractional Zn absorption were measured with oral (57Fe and 67Zn) and intravenous (58Fe and 70Zn) isotopes. Fe and Zn status, infection and growth were measured. At 45 d, Hb was 6·3 g/l higher in the high-Fe formula group compared with the Fe drops group, whereas serum ferritin was 34 and 35 % higher, respectively, and serum transferrin 0·1 g/l lower in the high-Fe formula and Fe drops groups compared with the low-Fe formula group (all P<0·05). No intervention effects were observed on Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, other Fe status indices, plasma Zn or growth. We concluded that neither supplemental or fortification Fe nor the amount of Fe habitually consumed altered Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, Zn status or growth in Fe-sufficient infants. Consumption of low-Fe formula as the only source of Fe was insufficient to maintain Fe stores.

  18. Mode of oral iron administration and the amount of iron habitually consumed do not affect iron absorption, systemic iron utilisation or zinc absorption in iron-sufficient infants: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Domellöf, Magnus; Hernell, Olle; Hurrell, Richard F; Lind, Torbjörn; Lönnerdal, Bo; Zeder, Christophe; Egli, Ines M

    2016-09-01

    Different metabolic pathways of supplemental and fortification Fe, or inhibition of Zn absorption by Fe, may explain adverse effects of supplemental Fe in Fe-sufficient infants. We determined whether the mode of oral Fe administration or the amount habitually consumed affects Fe absorption and systemic Fe utilisation in infants, and assessed the effects of these interventions on Zn absorption, Fe and Zn status, and growth. Fe-sufficient 6-month-old infants (n 72) were randomly assigned to receive 6·6 mg Fe/d from a high-Fe formula, 1·3 mg Fe/d from a low-Fe formula or 6·6 mg Fe/d from Fe drops and a formula with no added Fe for 45 d. Fractional Fe absorption, Fe utilisation and fractional Zn absorption were measured with oral (57Fe and 67Zn) and intravenous (58Fe and 70Zn) isotopes. Fe and Zn status, infection and growth were measured. At 45 d, Hb was 6·3 g/l higher in the high-Fe formula group compared with the Fe drops group, whereas serum ferritin was 34 and 35 % higher, respectively, and serum transferrin 0·1 g/l lower in the high-Fe formula and Fe drops groups compared with the low-Fe formula group (all P<0·05). No intervention effects were observed on Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, other Fe status indices, plasma Zn or growth. We concluded that neither supplemental or fortification Fe nor the amount of Fe habitually consumed altered Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, Zn status or growth in Fe-sufficient infants. Consumption of low-Fe formula as the only source of Fe was insufficient to maintain Fe stores. PMID:27546308

  19. Impact of the dual defence system of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) on performance, nutrient utilisation and feeding choice behaviour of Amata mogadorensis larvae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Gehring, René; Müller, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Iridoid glycosides are plant defence compounds with potentially detrimental effects on non-adapted herbivores. Some plant species possess β-glucosidases that hydrolyse iridoid glycosides and thereby release protein-denaturing aglycones. To test the hypothesis that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidases form a dual defence system, we used Plantago lanceolata and a polyphagous caterpillar species. To analyse the impact of leaf-age dependent differences in iridoid glycoside concentrations and β-glucosidase activities on insect performance, old or young leaves were freeze-dried and incorporated into artificial diets or were provided freshly to the larvae. We determined larval consumption rates and the amounts of assimilated nitrogen. Furthermore, we quantified β-glucosidase activities in artificial diets and fresh leaves and the amount of iridoid glycosides that larvae feeding on fresh leaves ingested and excreted. Compared to fresh leaves, caterpillars grew faster on artificial diets, on which larval weight gain correlated positively to the absorbed amount of nitrogen. When feeding fresh young leaves, larvae even lost weight and excreted only minute proportions of the ingested iridoid glycosides intact with the faeces, indicating that the hydrolysis of these compounds might have interfered with nitrogen assimilation and impaired larval growth. To disentangle physiological effects from deterrent effects of iridoid glycosides, we performed dual choice feeding assays. Young leaves, their methanolic extracts and pure catalpol reduced larval feeding in comparison to the respective controls, while aucubin had no effect on larval consumption. We conclude that the dual defence system of P. lanceolata consisting of iridoid glycosides and β-glucosidases interferes with the nutrient utilisation via the hydrolysis of iridoid glycosides and also mediates larval feeding behaviour in a concentration- and substance-specific manner. PMID:26306994

  20. Demographic profile and extent of healthcare resource utilisation of patients with severe traumatic brain injury: still a major public health problem

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Jing Zhong; Yang, Yun Rui Jasmine; Lee, Qian Yi Ruth; Cao, Kelly; Chong, Chin Ted

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Trauma is the fifth principal cause of death in Singapore, with traumatic brain injury (TBI) being the leading specific subordinate cause. METHODS This study was an eight-year retrospective review of the demographic profiles of patients with severe TBI who were admitted to the neurointensive care unit (NICU) of the National Neuroscience Institute at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, between 2004 and 2011. RESULTS A total of 780 TBI patients were admitted during the study period; 365 (46.8%) patients sustained severe TBI (i.e. Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8), with the majority (75.3%) being male. The ages of patients with severe TBI ranged from 14–93 years, with a bimodal preponderance in young adults (i.e. 21–40 years) and elderly persons (i.e. > 60 years). Motor vehicle accidents (48.8%) and falls (42.5%) were the main mechanisms of injury. Invasive line monitoring was frequently employed; invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring and central venous pressure monitoring were used in 81.6% and 60.0% of the patients, respectively, while intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement was required in 47.4% of the patients. The use of tiered therapy to control ICP (e.g. sedation, osmotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, moderate hyperventilation and barbiturate-induced coma) converged with international practices. CONCLUSION The high-risk groups for severe TBI were young adults and elderly persons involved in motor vehicle accidents and falls, respectively. In the NICU, the care of patients with severe TBI requires heavy utilisation of resources. The healthcare burden of these patients extends beyond the acute critical care phase. PMID:26768061

  1. Utilising an LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker approach to assess mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Petchkongkaew, Awanwee; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). Sixty first-morning urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers who live in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces (Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Samutprakarn and Samutsakorn). Urine samples were analysed by a LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker method following a so-called 'dilute and shoot' approach. Results generally indicated low mycotoxin exposures in most individuals through the determination of the four biomarkers that were detected in urine samples, i.e. aflatoxin M₁, ochratoxin A (OTA), as well as the deoxynivalenol (DON) metabolites DON-3-glucuronide and DON-15-glucuronide in 10 of 60 individuals. The maximum concentrations were used to estimate the daily intake confirming that none of the individuals exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON (maximum 26% of TDI) or OTA (maximum 22% of TDI). However, the maximum exposure of aflatoxin B₁, estimated to be 0.91 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹, should raise some concerns and suggests further studies utilising a more sensitive method. Low exposure to Fusarium toxins was also confirmed by the absence of zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol and zearalenone-14-glucuronide as well as T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and free DON. This is the first multi-mycotoxin biomarker study performed in Southeast Asia. PMID:25268629

  2. Effect of dietary monensin inclusion on performance, nutrient utilisation, rumen volatile fatty acid concentration and blood status of West African dwarf bucks fed with basal diets of forages.

    PubMed

    Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Oduguwa, Oluseyi Olutosin; Aina, Ayobami Bukola Joseph

    2012-06-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary monensin on performance, nutrient utilisation, rumen volatile fatty acid and blood status in West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed with basal diets of forages. Four concentrate supplements were formulated to include 0 (MO), 15 (M15), 30 (M30) and 45 (M45) mg monensin/kg dry matter. Twenty-four WAD bucks (7.3 ± 1.20 kg initial body weight, aged 9-12 months) were randomly allotted to four experimental diets in a completely randomised design for 90 days, six animals per diet. Results indicated that animals fed M15, M30 and M45 diets had lower (P < 0.01) dry matter and water intake than those fed M0 diet. Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre intakes by the bucks followed similar trend. Animals on M15, M30 and M45 had better (P < 0.001) feed and protein efficiency ratio than those fed M0 diet. Rumen pH and total volatile fatty acid concentration were maintained (P > 0.05) while monensin decreased (P < 0.001) acetate/propionate ratio. Blood glucose increased (P < 0.001) from 59.1 mg/dl in animals on M0 diet to 67.8, 66.0 and 66.3 mg/dl in animals on M15, M30 and M45 diets. Overall, there were no variations among animals on M15, M30 and M45 diets. It is concluded that feeding monensin at 15 to 45 mg/kg DM of supplemental concentrate diets to West African dwarf bucks could be effective in improving feed and protein efficiency, manipulating the rumen for increased propionate production and increasing blood glucose levels.

  3. Effect of niacin supplementation on digestibility, nitrogen utilisation and milk and blood variables in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Döll, Susanne; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine if a niacin supplementation of 6 g/d to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate negative effects of a rumen nitrogen balance (RNB) deficit. A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows were successively assigned to one of three diets consisting of 10 kg maize silage (dry matter [DM] basis) and 7 kg DM concentrate: Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP and a RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals and, finally, Diet NA (n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. Samples of milk were taken on two consecutive days, blood samples were taken on one day pre- and post-feeding and faeces and urine were collected completely over five consecutive days. The negative RNB reduced milk and blood urea content and apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Also N excretion with urine, the total N excreted with urine and faeces and the N balance were reduced when the RNB was negative. Supplementation of niacin elevated plasma glucose concentration after feeding and the N balance increased. Supplementing the diet with a negative RNB with niacin led to a more efficient use of dietary N thereby avoiding the negative effects of the negative RNB on the digestibility of DM, OM and NDF. PMID:22724166

  4. Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co

  5. Estimation of the real population and its impact on the utilisation of healthcare services in Mediterranean resort regions: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Milla, Emilio; Pons, Sergi Mari; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Gallofre, Anna; Jurado, Enrique Navarro; Ales, Marco A Navarro; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto; Fernandez-Nieto, Fidel; Cerda, Joan C March; Carrasco, Manuel; Martin, Lydia; Cano, Damian Lopez; Gutierrez, Gonzalo E; Macías, Rafael Cortes; Garcia-Ruiz, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    Background The demographic structure has a significant influence on the use of healthcare services, as does the size of the population denominators. Very few studies have been published on methods for estimating the real population such as tourist resorts. The lack of information about these problems means there is a corresponding lack of information about the behaviour of populational denominators (the floating population or tourist load) and the effect of this on the use of healthcare services. The objectives of the study were: a) To determine the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ratio, per person per day, among populations of known size; b) to estimate, by means of this ratio, the real population in an area where tourist numbers are very significant; and c) to determine the impact on the utilisation of hospital emergency healthcare services of the registered population, in comparison to the non-resident population, in two areas where tourist numbers are very significant. Methods An ecological study design was employed. We analysed the Healthcare Districts of the Costa del Sol and the island of Menorca. Both are Spanish territories in the Mediterranean region. Results In the two areas analysed, the correlation coefficient between the MSW ratio and admissions to hospital emergency departments exceeded 0.9, with p < 0.001. On the basis of MSW generation ratios, obtained for a control zone and also measured in neighbouring countries, we estimated the real population. For the summer months, when tourist activity is greatest and demand for emergency healthcare at hospitals is highest, this value was found to be double that of the registered population. Conclusion The MSW indicator, which is both ecological and indirect, can be used to estimate the real population in areas where population levels vary significantly during the year. This parameter is of interest in planning and dimensioning the provision of healthcare services. PMID:17266744

  6. Resource utilisation and direct costs in patients with recently diagnosed fibromyalgia who are offered one of three different interventions in a randomised pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Kroese, Mariëlle; Creemers, An; Landewé, Robert; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the course of costs over a 2-year period in a cohort of recently diagnosed fibromyalgia (FM) patients receiving different treatment strategies. Following the diagnosis, patients were randomly assigned to a multidisciplinary programme (MD), aerobic exercise (AE) or usual care (UC) without being aware of alternative interventions. Time between diagnosis and start of treatment varied between patients. Resource utilisation, health care costs and costs for patients and families were collected through cost diaries. Mixed linear model analyses (MLM) examined the course of costs over time. Linear regression was used to explore predictors of health care costs in the post-intervention period. Two hundred three participants, 90 % women, mean (SD) age 41.7 (9.8) years, were included in the cohort. Intervention costs per patient varied from €864 to 1392 for MD and were €121 for AE. Health care costs (excluding intervention costs) decreased after diagnosis, but before the intervention in each group, and increased again afterwards to the level close to the diagnostic phase. In contrast, patient and family costs slightly increased over time in all groups without initial decrease immediately after diagnosis. Annualised health care costs post-intervention varied between €1872 and 2310 per patient and were predicted by worse functioning and high health care costs at diagnosis. In patients with FM, health care costs decreased following the diagnosis by a rheumatologist. Offering patients a specific intervention after diagnosis incurred substantial costs while having only marginal effects on costs. PMID:26409883

  7. Utilisation of pH stacking in conjunction with a highly absorbing chromophore, 5-aminofluorescein, to improve the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis for carbohydrate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Hilder, Emily F; Breadmore, Michael C

    2008-07-18

    This study explores the use of pH stacking in conjunction with 5-aminofluorescein as a derivatization agent for the sensitive analysis of simple sugars such as glucose, lactose and maltotriose by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The derivatization agent was selected on the basis of its extremely high molar absorptivity, its compatibility with a 488nm light-emitting diode (LED) and the fact that it has two ionizable groups making it compatible with on-line stacking using a dynamic pH junction. The influence of both acetic and formic acids at concentrations of 0.19, 0.019 and 0.0019molL(-1) were investigated with regard to both derivatization efficiency and the ability to stack using a dynamic pH junction. Superior sensitivity and resolution was obtained in formic acid over acetic acid. Substantially lower peaks were obtained with 0.19molL(-1) formic acid when compared to 0.019 and 0.0019molL(-1) concentrations, which was confirmed by computer simulation studies to be due to the inadequate movement of the pH boundary for stacking. Further simulation studies combined with experimental data showed the separation with the best resolution and greatest sensitivity when the carbohydrates were derivatized with the 0.095molL(-1) formic acid. Utilisation of stacking via dynamic pH junction mode in conjunction with LED detection enabled efficiencies of 150,000 plates and detection limits in the order of 8.5x10(-8)molL(-1) for simple sugars such as glucose, lactose and maltotriose hydrate. The current system also demonstrates a 515 times improvement in sensitivity when compared to using a normal deuterium lamp, and 16 times improvement over other systems using LEDs.

  8. Genomic and metagenomic surveys of hydrogenase distribution indicate H2 is a widely utilised energy source for microbial growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Greening, Chris; Biswas, Ambarish; Carere, Carlo R; Jackson, Colin J; Taylor, Matthew C; Stott, Matthew B; Cook, Gregory M; Morales, Sergio E

    2016-03-01

    Recent physiological and ecological studies have challenged the long-held belief that microbial metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2) is a niche process. To gain a broader insight into the importance of microbial H2 metabolism, we comprehensively surveyed the genomic and metagenomic distribution of hydrogenases, the reversible enzymes that catalyse the oxidation and evolution of H2. The protein sequences of 3286 non-redundant putative hydrogenases were curated from publicly available databases. These metalloenzymes were classified into multiple groups based on (1) amino acid sequence phylogeny, (2) metal-binding motifs, (3) predicted genetic organisation and (4) reported biochemical characteristics. Four groups (22 subgroups) of [NiFe]-hydrogenase, three groups (6 subtypes) of [FeFe]-hydrogenases and a small group of [Fe]-hydrogenases were identified. We predict that this hydrogenase diversity supports H2-based respiration, fermentation and carbon fixation processes in both oxic and anoxic environments, in addition to various H2-sensing, electron-bifurcation and energy-conversion mechanisms. Hydrogenase-encoding genes were identified in 51 bacterial and archaeal phyla, suggesting strong pressure for both vertical and lateral acquisition. Furthermore, hydrogenase genes could be recovered from diverse terrestrial, aquatic and host-associated metagenomes in varying proportions, indicating a broad ecological distribution and utilisation. Oxygen content (pO2) appears to be a central factor driving the phylum- and ecosystem-level distribution of these genes. In addition to compounding evidence that H2 was the first electron donor for life, our analysis suggests that the great diversification of hydrogenases has enabled H2 metabolism to sustain the growth or survival of microorganisms in a wide range of ecosystems to the present day. This work also provides a comprehensive expanded system for classifying hydrogenases and identifies new prospects for investigating H2

  9. A perspective of stepwise utilisation of Bayer red mud: Step two--Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfang; Chai, Wencui; Han, Guihong; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Jiongtian

    2016-04-15

    The extraction and recovery of Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation, as one of the critical steps, was proposed for the stepwise utilization of red mud. The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined by factorial design. The leaching thermodynamics, kinetics of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+), and the mechanism of selectively Fe(3+) removal using [Hbet][Tf2N] as precipitating reagent were discussed. The extracting of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+) in concentrated H2SO4 is controlled by diffusion reactions, depending mainly upon leaching time and temperature. The maximum extracting efficiency of Ti(4+) is approximately 92.3%, whereas Al(3+) and Fe(3+) leaching are respectively 75.8% and 84.2%. [Hbet][Tf2N], as a precipitating reagent, operates through a coordination mechanism in flotation. The pH value is the key factor influencing the flotation recovery of Ti(4+), whereas the dosage of precipitating reagent is that for Al(3+) recovery. The maximum flotation recovery of Ti(4+) is 92.7%, whereas the maximum Al(3+) recovery is 93.5%. The total recovery rate for extracting and recovering titanium is 85.5%. The liquor with Ti(4+) of 15.5g/L, Al(3+) of 30.4g/L and Fe(3+) of 0.48g/L was obtained for the following hydrolysis step in the integrated process for red mud utilisation. PMID:26799223

  10. Generalised anxiety disorder symptoms and utilisation of health care services. A cross-sectional study from the “Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort”

    PubMed Central

    Kujanpää, Tero; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha; Timonen, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the utilization of health care services of people who tested positive for GAD compared to those who tested negative. Setting A cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Subjects A total of 10,282 members followed from birth in a longitudinal study were asked to participate in a follow-up survey at the age of 46. As part of this survey they filled in questionnaries concerning health care utilization and their illness history as well as the GAD-7 screening tool. Althogether 5,480 cohort members responded to the questionnaries. Main outcome measures Number of visits in different health care services among people who tested positive for GAD with the GAD-7 screening tool compared to those who tested negative. Results People who tested positive for GAD had 112% more total health care visits, 74% more total physician visits, 115% more visits to health centres, 133% more health centre physician visits, 160% more visits to secondary care, and 775% more mental health care visits than those who tested negative. Conclusion People with GAD symptoms utilize health care services more than other people. Key PointsGeneralised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common but poorly identified mental health problem in primary care.People who tested positive for GAD utilise more health care services than those who tested negative.About 58% of people who tested positive for GAD had visited their primary care physician during the past year.Only 29% of people who tested positive for GAD had used mental health services during the past year. PMID:27054674

  11. Effect of telehealth on hospital utilisation and mortality in routine clinical practice: a matched control cohort study in an early adopter site

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Ariti, Cono; Fisher, Elizabeth; Bardsley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    likelihood of an emergency admission or death because of unobserved baseline differences between patient groups. Conclusions Telehealth was not associated with a reduction in secondary care utilisation. PMID:26842270

  12. Effect of niacin supplementation on digestibility, nitrogen utilisation and milk and blood variables in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Döll, Susanne; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine if a niacin supplementation of 6 g/d to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate negative effects of a rumen nitrogen balance (RNB) deficit. A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows were successively assigned to one of three diets consisting of 10 kg maize silage (dry matter [DM] basis) and 7 kg DM concentrate: Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP and a RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals and, finally, Diet NA (n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. Samples of milk were taken on two consecutive days, blood samples were taken on one day pre- and post-feeding and faeces and urine were collected completely over five consecutive days. The negative RNB reduced milk and blood urea content and apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Also N excretion with urine, the total N excreted with urine and faeces and the N balance were reduced when the RNB was negative. Supplementation of niacin elevated plasma glucose concentration after feeding and the N balance increased. Supplementing the diet with a negative RNB with niacin led to a more efficient use of dietary N thereby avoiding the negative effects of the negative RNB on the digestibility of DM, OM and NDF.

  13. Health care utilisation in India.

    PubMed

    Duggal, R

    1994-02-01

    India has a plurality of health care systems as well as different systems of medicine. The government and local administrations provide public health care in hospitals and clinics. Public health care in rural areas is concentrated on prevention and promotion services to the detriment of curative services. The rural primary health centers are woefully underutilized because they fail to provide their clients with the desired amount of attention and medication and because they have inconvenient locations and long waiting times. Public hospitals provide 60% of all hospitalizations, while the private sector provides 75% of all routine care. The private sector is composed of an equal number of qualified doctors and unqualified practitioners, with a greater ratio of unqualified to qualified existing in less developed states. In rural areas, qualified doctors are clustered in areas where government services are available. With a population barely able to meet its nutritional needs, India needs universalization of health care provision to assure equity in health care access and availability instead of a large number of doctors who are profiting from the sicknesses of the poor. PMID:12288588

  14. Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Péron, A; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, V

    2011-02-01

    1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. 2. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and whole wheat [WW]; 100 and 200 g/kg WW replacing GW during starter [1 to 21 d] and finisher [22 to 35 d] diets respectively) and two levels of EO inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet). All dietary treatments were supplemented with 2000 xylanase units/kg feed. Broiler starter and finisher diets based on wheat and soybean meal were formulated and each diet fed ad libitum to 6 pens of 8 male broilers. 3. During the trial period (1-35 d), wheat form had no significant effect on weight gain or feed intake. However, WW inclusion tended (P = 0.06) to improve feed per gain. Essential oil supplementation significantly improved weight gain in both diets, but the improvements were greater in the GW diet as indicated by a significant wheat form × EO interaction. 4. Main effects of wheat form and EO on the relative weight, length and digesta content of various segments of the digestive tract were not significant. Significant interactions, however, were found for relative gizzard and caecal weights. Essential oil supplementation significantly increased the relative gizzard weight and lowered relative caecal weight in birds fed on the GW based diet, but had no effect in those fed on the WW based diet. 5. Whole wheat inclusion and EO supplementation significantly improved apparent ileal nitrogen digestibility. Apparent ileal digestible energy was not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. 6. Ileal microbiota profiling, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, showed that the ileal microbiota composition was influenced by feed form. The mean numbers of

  15. The positive impact of the early-feeding of a plant-based diet on its future acceptance and utilisation in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Inge; Borchert, Peter; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N; Schrama, Johan W; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Quillet, Edwige; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swim-up fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish) or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish). After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge). Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P = 0.002) and 30% higher feed intake (P = 0.005) in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families). Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P = 0.003). We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P<0.001), but the nutritional history effect was consistent for all three families (no interaction effect, P>0.05). In summary, our study shows that an early short-term exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Retrieving the availability of light in the ocean utilising spectral signatures of vibrational Raman scattering in hyper-spectral satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinter, T.; Rozanov, V. V.; Burrows, J. P.; Bracher, A.

    2015-05-01

    The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to determine the number of photons available in the ocean water, which is expressed by the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0. Radiative transfer simulations with the SCIATRAN fully coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer model (RTM) show clearly the relationship of E0 with the strength of the VRS signal measured at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Taking advantage of VRS structures in hyper-spectral satellite measurements, a retrieval technique to derive E0 in the wavelength region from 390 to 444.5 nm was developed. This approach uses the weighting function differential optical absorption spectroscopy (WF-DOAS) technique, applied to TOA radiances, measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Based on the approach of Vountas et al. (2007), where the DOAS method was used to fit modelled spectra of VRS, the method was improved by using the weighting function of VRS (VRS-WF) in the DOAS fit. This was combined with a look-up table (LUT) technique, where the E0 value was obtained for each VRS satellite fit directly. The VRS-WF and the LUT were derived from calculations with the SCIATRAN RTM (Rozanov et al., 2014). RTM simulations for different chlorophyll a concentrations and illumination conditions clearly show that low fit factors of VRS retrieval results correspond to low amounts of light in the water column and vice versa. Exemplarily, 1 month of SCIAMACHY data were processed and a global map of the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0 was retrieved. Spectral structures of VRS were clearly identified in the radiance measurements of

  17. Retrieving the availability of light in the ocean utilising spectral signatures of Vibrational Raman Scattering in hyper-spectral satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinter, T.; Rozanov, V. V.; Burrows, J. P.; Bracher, A.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to determine the amount of photons available in the ocean water, which is expressed by the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0. Radiative transfer simulations with the fully coupled ocean-atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) SCIATRAN show clearly the relationship of E0 to the strength of the VRS signal measured at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Taking advantage of VRS structures in hyper-spectral satellite measurements a retrieval technique to derive E0 in the wavelength region from 390 to 444.5 nm was developed. This approach uses the Weighting Function Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WF-DOAS) technique, applied to TOA radiances, measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Based on the approach of Vountas et al. (2007), where the DOAS method was used to fit modelled spectra of VRS, the method was improved by using the weighting function of VRS (VRS-WF) in the DOAS fit. This was combined with a look-up table (LUT) technique, where the E0 value was obtained for each VRS satellite fit directly. The VRS-WF and the LUT were derived from calculations with the RTM SCIATRAN (Rozanov et al., 2014). RTM simulations for different chlorophyll a concentrations and illumination conditions clearly show, that low fit factors of VRS retrieval results correspond to low amounts of light in the water column and vice versa. Exemplary, one month of SCIAMACHY data were processed and

  18. Adaptations of hepatic amino acid uptake and net utilisation contributes to nitrogen economy or waste in lambs fed nitrogen- or energy-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Kraft, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Durand, D; Rémond, D; Jardé, T; Bequette, B; Savary-Auzeloux, I

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the effect of relative changes in dietary nitrogen (N) and energy supply and the subsequent variations in net portal appearance (NPA) of nitrogenous and energy nutrients on the net amino acid (AA) uptake by the liver and net N supply to the peripheral tissues. Six lambs were catheterised across the splanchnic tissues and received, in a replicated Latin square, one of three dietary treatments. The diets were formulated to either match the requirements of N and energy (C), or supply only 0.8 of the N requirement (LN) or 0.8 of the energy requirement (LE). Net fluxes of AA and urea-N were measured across the portal-drained viscera, and estimation of arterial hepatic flow allowed the estimation of hepatic fluxes. Catheters were implanted into the portal and hepatic veins as well as in the abdominal aorta for the measurement of AA fluxes. Animals fed the LN diet showed more efficient N retention (0.59 of digested N) than did the C and LE diet (0.50 and 0.33, respectively; P < 0.001). The NPA of total AA-N for the LN diet was only 0.60 of the value measured for the control (C) diet (P < 0.01). Despite this, the total estimated AA-N net splanchnic fluxes were not significantly different across the three diets (3.3, 1.9 and 2.6 g total AA-N/day for C, LN and LE, respectively, P = 0.52). Thus, different metabolic regulations must have taken place across the liver between the three experimental diets. A combination of decreased net uptake of total AA-N by the liver of animals in the LN diet (0.61 of the C diet; P = 0.002) and reduced urinary urea-N production (0.52 of the C diet; P = 0.001) spared AA from catabolism in the LN diet relative to the other two diets. For the LE diet, the urinary urea-N output was 1.3 times the value of the C diet (P = 0.01). This may relate to an increased catabolism of AA by the muscle and/or, to a lesser extent, to an increased utilisation of AA for gluconeogenesis in the liver. These effects may explain the reduced whole body

  19. Morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation in HIV-infected children following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Côte d’Ivoire, 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, S.; Essanin, J.B; Aka, E.A; Messou, E.; Amorissani-Folquet, M.; Rondeau, V.; Ciaranello, A.; Leroy, V.

    2013-01-01

    Background We describe severe morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU) among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Methods All HIV-infected children enrolled in an HIV-care programme (2004–2009) were eligible from ART initiation until database closeout, death, ART interruption, or loss to follow-up. We calculated incidence density rates (IR) per 100 child-years (CY) for severe morbidity, HCRU (outpatient and inpatient care), and associated factors using frailty models with a Weibull distribution. Results Of 332 children with median age 5.7 years and median follow-up 2.5 years, 65.4% were severely immunodeficient by WHO criteria and all received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. We recorded 464 clinical events in 228 children; the overall IR was 57.6/100 CY (95%CI: 52.1–62.5). Severe morbidity was more frequent in children on protease inhibitor-based ART compared to those on other regimens (aHR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.35–2.47) and those moderately/severely immunodeficient compared to those not (aHR: 1.57; 95%CI: 1.13–2.18 and aHR: 2.53, 95%CI: 1.81–3.55 respectively). Of the 464 events, 371 (80%) led to outpatient care (IR: 45.6/100CY) and 164 (35%) to inpatient care (IR: 20.2/100CY). In adjusted analyses, outpatient care was significantly less frequent in children >10 years compared to children <2 years (aHR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.31–0.78) and in those living furthest from clinic compared to those living closest (aHR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.47–0.90). Both inpatient and outpatient HCRU were negatively associated with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Conclusion Despite ART, HIV-infected children still require substantial utilization of healthcare services. PMID:24525473

  20. Influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2010-10-01

    1. The influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets was examined up to 21 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two grain types (maize and wheat) and three conditioning temperatures (60°C, 75°C and 90°C). Broiler starter diets, each based on one grain (maize or wheat), were formulated and pelleted at the three temperatures. 2. Increasing conditioning temperature decreased the body-weight gain and feed intake in wheat-based diets, but birds fed on maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C had higher body-weight gain and feed intake than those fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C. Increasing conditioning temperature increased feed per body-weight gain in both grain-type diets but improved pellet durability index (PDI) only in wheat-based diets; PDI was unaffected in maize-based diets. 3. In wheat-based diets, increasing conditioning temperature decreased the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. Ileal nitrogen digestibility of maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C was higher than at 75°C. Starch digestibility was unaffected by conditioning temperature in maize-based diets. No effect of conditioning temperature was found for apparent metabolisable energy (AME). Increasing conditioning temperature decreased digestible protein and AME intakes in wheat-based diets but, in maize-based diets, birds fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C had lower digestible protein and AME intakes compared to those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C. 4. Small intestine was longer in birds fed on diets conditioned at 75°C and 90°C compared with those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C. 5. Overall, the data suggest that while the effects of conditioning temperature on body-weight gain and feed intake of broilers to 21 d of age differed depending on the grain type, feed per body-weight gain

  1. 30 CFR 1220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dispositions. 1220.015 Section 1220.015 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT... transferred, the cost of reconditioning shall be borne by the receiving party....

  2. Les materiels didactiques pour l'education en matiere de population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerien, Jean

    1993-03-01

    The materials developed to promote Population Education are indispensable since teachers have not been prepared to deliver this new type of teaching, using active methods and stressing the acquisition of attitudes rather than knowledge. Early teaching materials gave Population Education a doctrinaire image, focusing on sexual education. More recently, the priority target for the materials has become better defined: rather than trying to convince teachers, attempts are made to discover their needs in order to develop tools that will help them. A rapid survey of Population Education teaching materials, using five representative examples, illustrates their evolution. The quest for an unassailable scientific corpus of Population Education is found in the examples of lessons put forward by the Regional Programme in Asia, in which 25 States are participating. Moreover, Population Education no longer focuses only on demographic knowledge: the dynamics of population change have effects on numerous aspects of the quality of life. In the 1980s, research started by CRESALC resulted in pilot materials of great originality, using discussion, simulation, the media, games, enquiry, etc., which stimulate the active participation of pupils. But in the vast majority of cases, the contents and objectives of Population Education remain integrated into the various subjects of the curriculum.

  3. MRP (materiel requirements planning) II education: a team-building experience.

    PubMed

    Iemmolo, G R

    1994-05-01

    Conestoga Wood Specialties, a leader in the woodworking industry, is constantly striving for continuous improvement in manufacturing and service. Recently, the company embarked on a major MRP II education effort that served as a framework for team building. This team building concept has carried over into other aspects related to the business, such as the formalization of the sales and operations planning meeting. At Conestoga Wood, it is recognized that successful team building is necessary to achieve and maintain world-class performance.

  4. 48 CFR 208.7003-1 - Assignments under integrated materiel management (IMM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (IMM). (a) Acquire all items assigned for IMM from the IMM manager except— (1) Items purchased under... requiring activity must send one copy of the contract and a statement of the emergency to the IMM manager; (2) Items for which the IMM manager assigns a supply system code for local purchase or...

  5. Environnement et elaboration de materiel pedagogique (The Environment and the Elaboration of Instructional Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capelle, Marie-Jose; Archard-Bayle, Guy

    1982-01-01

    Describes the method and the instructional materials entitled "Contacts," which were developed specifically for Nigeria. The discussion covers the use of audiovisual supplementary material, the essentially African sociocultural reference of the text, the methodology peculiar to the Nigeria plurilingual situation, and the goals for both teachers…

  6. US Army Medical Materiel development activity, 1987 annual report. Progress report, 1 January-31 December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, C.E.

    1988-05-06

    Information relating to accomplishments in military medicine in three areas is presented. The Project Management Support Division (PMSD) provides centralized administrative, financial management, contracting, and logistical support to the Project Managers and staff. The Biological Systems Project Management Division manages the development and acquisition of biological products to prevent casualties or loss of soldier effectiveness due to disease. These diseases may be naturally acquired (close contact, unsanitary conditions, contaminated environment, biting insects), or delivered deliberately (aerosols). Product Officers exploit domestic and foreign medical technology to remedy deficiencies identified by the Combat Developer and monitor research projects for their application to disease protective measures. The Pharmaceutical Systems Project Management Division centrally manages the development and the initial production of pharmaceutical products (antidotes and drugs), related drug delivery systems (autoinjectors and transdermal patches), and decontamination products. These products are fielded as preventive, protective, and therapeutic modalities for use against chemical and biological warfare threats, certain endemic diseases, and the treatment of combat casualties. The Applied Medical Systems Project Management Division is a multidisciplinary team with broad mission responsibilities to centrally manage the development and initial production of applied medical products, related diagnostic equipment, optical corrective devices for protective masks, and pesticide delivery systems.

  7. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  8. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  9. Structure electronique de nanorubans de graphene avec des contacts metalliques: Une etude ab initio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Chloe

    Graphene, a graphite monolayer presenting novel exciting properties, has attracted much attention recently in the scientific community as well as in the high-technology industry. In electronics, nanoribbons -- narrow strips of graphene which happen to be semiconducting-- could possibly allow further miniaturization of electronic devices such as transistors because of their atomic thickness. On the other hand, once making devices, the problem of metallic contacts, which can have critical impact at the nanoscopic scale, cannot be evaded. For example, metal induced gap states may short-circuit very short devices. With this in mind, the interaction of gold, palladium and titanium contacts with finite size graphene nanoribbons has been studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. This theoretical approach made it possible to study separately and then conjugate four important aspects of the metal-ribbon interaction: bonding, charge transfer, electrostatics and metal induced gap states. Another goal of this project was to study size effects related to the ribbons' dimensions and to estimate the minimal channel length necessary for a device to operate as expected without the unwanted effect of induced gap states. Aside from the high precision achieved, these calculations stand out from earlier studies because they take into account finite size effects which often prevail in small ribbons. Using this model for the metal-nanoribbon junction, it was shown that, as for two-dimensional graphene, the bonding between a ribbon and a metal can be of two types depending on the electronic configuration of the metal. In the first case, physisorption, weak bonding resulting in a large separation distance between ribbon and electrode, is illustrated by the gold contact. On the other hand, titanium, because of its high density of states at the Fermi level, binds more strongly with graphene nanoribbons. This chemisorption is characterized by strong hybridization between the metal and the ribbon's orbitals. This leads to the apparition of intense evanescent gap states in the ribbon. As for palladium, it represents an intermediate case showing some but not as much hybridization. For all three metals, right under the contact, we observe a net decrease of electron density in the ribbon in favour of the contact. Effectively, any kind of bonding is generally associated with charge transfer necessary to balance the work function difference. As expected, a metal with a large work function such as gold and palladium tends to attract electrons. However, this behaviour is surprising from titane whose work function is much smaller. This can only be explained by considering the large hybridization of the ribbon's orbitals. Moreover, the charge transfer is not restricted to the area under the contact as an evanescent charge can also be observed in the channel. This charge results from the occupation of metal induced gap states and its sign depends on the position of the charge neutrality point. The calculations presented don't take into account the effect of temperature. Nevertheless, the position of the Fermi level relative to the ribbon's bands suggests that at non-zero temperature, gold and palladium would p dope the graphene nanoribbons while titanium would have the opposite effect. The charge redistribution in the junction generates a molecular-sized dipole which is responsible for the slowly varying three-dimensional potential profile, a particularity of low dimensional systems. A potential barrier thus appears at the interface and controls band curvature in the device, but it can also constitute an obstacle to efficient charge injection. The intimate relation between the titanium contact and the ribbons seems to maximize screening and reduce considerably the height of the barrier, which could turn out to be beneficial. Finally, metal induced gap states slowly decaying in the channel have been observed directly in graphene nanoribbons for the first time. Their characteristic evanescent shape is clearly distinguishable. The extent of the gap states was measured to be on the order of a nanometer. It depends mostly on the ribbon's bandgap which varies both with its length and width. The bandgap, which can easily be measured experimentally, could thus be a useful tool to predict the penetration of gap states, a must-have information in order to limit the undesired effect of gap states since it sets for a device the minimal channel length (˜1-2 nm). In summary, these theoretical results could be used as a guideline in the conception of electronic devices made of graphene nanoribbons in which doping and potential profile need to be optimized while making sure that metal induced gap states do not compromise normal operation.

  10. Health care resource utilisation in primary care prior to and after a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: a retrospective, matched case–control study in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined medical resource utilisation patterns in the United Kingdom (UK) prior to and following Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis. Methods A patient cohort aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed AD between January 2008 and December 2010 was identified through the UK’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with a continuous record in the CPRD (formerly the General Practice Research Database [GPRD]) for both the 3 years prior to, and the 1 year following, AD diagnosis were eligible for inclusion. A control cohort was identified by matching general older adult (GOA) patients to patients with AD based on year of birth, gender, region, and Charlson Comorbidity Index at a ratio of 2:1. Medical resource utilisation was calculated in 6-month intervals over the 4-year study period. Comparisons between AD and GOA control cohorts were conducted using conditional logistic regression for patient characteristics and a generalised linear model for resource utilisation. Results Data for the AD cohort (N = 3,896) and matched GOA control cohort (N = 7,792) were extracted from the CPRD. The groups were 65% female and the AD cohort had a mean age of 79.9 years (standard deviation 6.5 years) at the date of diagnosis. Over the entire study period, the AD cohort had a significantly higher mean primary care consultation rate than the GOA cohort (p < .0001). While the GOA cohort primary care consultation rate gradually increased over the 4-year period (ranging from 5 to 7 consultations per 6-month period), increases were more pronounced in the AD cohort (ranging from 6 to 11 consultations per 6-month period, peaking during the 6-month periods immediately prior to and post diagnosis). The AD cohort also had a higher overall specialty referral rate than the GOA cohort over the 4-year period (37% vs. 25%, respectively; p < .0001); the largest difference was during the 6 months immediately prior to AD diagnosis (17% vs. 5

  11. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices

  12. Effect of offering dairy cows diets differing in phosphorus concentration over four successive lactations: 2. Health, fertility, bone phosphorus reserves and nutrient utilisation.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C P; McCoy, M A; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J

    2010-04-01

    This experiment examined the long-term effects of offering diets containing low levels of dietary phosphorus (P) on dairy cow health, fertility and bone composition, and the effect of dietary P level on nutrient utilisation. One hundred winter-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either 'high' or 'low' levels of dietary P over a 4-year period. Rations offered during the winter included grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM, respectively) and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P winter diets, respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P summer diets, respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations from 1 to 4, respectively. Neither the incidence of lameness or mastitis, or milk somatic cell count, were affected by dietary P level (P > 0.05), while none of the fertility parameters recorded in any of lactations from 1 to 4 was affected by the dietary P level (P > 0.05). Dietary P level had no effect on the specific gravity, ash or calcium content of rib cortical bone cores (n = 78 cows), while the P content of cortical bone (g/kg fresh, g/kg DM and mg/ml fresh bone) was lower with cows offered low P diets (P < 0.05). Dietary P level had no significant effect on the digestibility of either the DM

  13. Utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement de santé

    PubMed Central

    Brisseau, Lionel; Bussières, Jean-François; Lebel, Denis; Atkinson, Suzanne; Robinette, Louise; Fortin, Sylvie; Lemay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Il existe peu de données sur les conséquences de l’utilisation des cabinets automatisés décentralisés (CAD) en établissements de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive de la conformité des pratiques par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées dans le cadre de l’implantation de CAD. L’objectif principal de l’étude est d’évaluer la conformité globale et celle de chaque processus du circuit du médicament. L’étude se déroule au sein du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère–enfant de 500 lits. À partir des lignes directrices portant sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD de l’Institute for Safe Medication Practice (aux États-Unis) (2008) et de son outil d’autoévaluation (2009), nous avons évalué la conformité de la pratique à 30 jours et à 120 jours après l’implantation. Résultats : Nous avons procédé de novembre 2009 à avril 2010 à l’implantation de sept stations de CAD au sein du CHU Sainte-Justine. Le profil de conformité est passé de 66 % à 74 % de janvier à avril 2010. Pour chaque processus relatif à l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD, nous présentons une brève description des critères ainsi que les éléments de non-conformité liés à la technologie ou aux aspects organisationnels. Pour chaque élément de non-conformité, nous avons déterminé les actions requises auprès du fabricant afin de modifier l’équipement (c. à .d. aspects technologiques) et auprès de l’établissement afin de modifier les modalités d’utilisation (aspects organisationnels) en précisant le ou les processus impliqués. Conclusion : Cette étude décrit la conformité des pratiques au CHU Sainte-Justine par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées par l’Institute for Safe Medication Practices. L’utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement peut

  14. Déterminants de l'utilisation des méthodes contraceptives dans la zone de santé Mumbunda à Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Matungulu, Charles Matungulu; Kandolo, Simon Ilunga; Mukengeshayi, Abel Ntambue; Nkola, Angèle Musau; Mpoyi, Dorcas Ilunga; Mumba, Sylvie Katanga; Kabamba, Julie Ndayi; Cowgill, Karen; Kaj, Françoise Malonga

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Augmenter la prévalence contraceptive s'incarne dans les objectifs des tous les acteurs des programmes qui visent de réduire la mortalité maternelle et infantile, d'améliorer la santé reproductive des adolescents, de lutter contre le VIH/SIDA et les infections sexuellement transmissible (IST), de promouvoir le bien-être familial et de ralentir la croissance démographique. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence contraceptive moderne et identifier les facteurs qui sont liés à l'utilisation des méthodes contraceptives dans la zone de santé de Mumbunda. Méthodes Une étude transversale à visé analytique a été effectuée auprès des femmes âgées de 15 à 49 ans en union maritale, de Mai à Juin 2014. Grâce à un questionnaire pré testé et validé, nous avons récolté les données par interview sur les caractéristiques sociodémographiques, obstétricales ainsi que sur la pratique contraceptive. Le logiciel SPSS version 21 nous a permis d'analyser les données. Résultats Au total 500 femmes ont été incluses dans cette étude dont l’âge moyen était de 27,9±6,1 ans. La prévalence contraceptive moderne était de 27,6%. L'attitude (ORa= 4,79; IC95%: 1,59-14,43; p<0,001), le niveau de connaissance des méthodes contraceptives (ORa=1,87; IC95%: 1,22-2,87; p<0,001), le soutien du conjoint (ORa=1,87; IC95%: 1,22-2,87; p<0,001) étaient significativement associés à l'utilisation des méthodes contraceptives modernes. Conclusion Tout effort d'augmentation de la prévalence contraceptive devrait cibler l'attitude, le niveau de connaissance de méthodes et le soutien du conjoint afin d'optimiser l'utilisation de la contraception moderne dans la zone de santé (ZS) Mumbunda. PMID:26977237

  15. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il

  16. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  17. Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Louis Philippe

    Suite a l'extraordinaire explosion de l'informatique de la derniere decennie, la science et la technologie des materiaux ont pris un essor extraordinaire. Par exemple, il est devenu crucial de concevoir des materiaux a haut degre de purete. Ce besoin a fortement motive le developpement de methodes d'analyse de solides. Traditionnellement, la methode adoptee est l'analyse par torche ICP, mais pour de nombreuses raisons, dont la lenteur de cette methode, la communaute scientifique oeuvrant en chimie analytique recherche des techniques d'analyse de solides directes, rapides et plus sensibles. Parmi les voies possibles, on trouve les methodes basees sur la pulverisation par plasma. Dans ce contexte, nous avons etudie la possibilite et la pertinence d'utiliser un magnetoplasma entretenu par une onde de surface pour pulveriser des solides dans le but de les analyser. Nos travaux portent principalement sur l'etude du comportement du plasma lors de la pulverisation. Nous avons montre que la pulverisation affecte la decharge de diverses facons. En premier lieu, la concentration d'especes provenant du materiau pulverise dans le plasma augmente avec la tension de polarisation. De plus, la concentration d'especes pulverisees diminue lorsque la pression croit, possiblement a cause du redepot. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible de pulveriser des solides isolants en exploitant le phenomene d'autopolarisation du a l'application d'une tension RF. Nous avons aussi etudie l'effet de la pulverisation sur la temperature et la densite electronique. Ainsi, lors de la pulverisation de metaux tels que le cuivre, la temperature electronique diminue lorsque la tension de polarisation augmente. Ceci est attribuable a l'augmentation de la densite d'especes metalliques neutres facilement ionisables par impact electronique. Nous avons aussi note que la densite electronique augmente avec la concentration d'especes metalliques dans le plasma, ce qui resulte d'un meilleur bilan de

  18. Effect of a national requirement to introduce named accountable general practitioners for patients aged 75 or older in England: regression discontinuity analysis of general practice utilisation and continuity of care

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Isaac; Lloyd, Therese; Steventon, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of introducing named accountable general practitioners (GPs) for patients aged 75 years on patterns of general practice utilisation, including continuity of care. Design Regression discontinuity design applied to data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the treatment effect for compliers aged 75. Setting 200 general practices in England. Participants 255 469 patients aged between 65 and 85, after excluding those aged 75. Intervention From April 2014, general practices in England were required to offer patients aged 75 or over a named accountable GP. This study compared having named accountable GPs for patients aged just over 75 with usual care provided for patients just under 75. Outcomes Number of contacts (face-to-face or telephone) with GPs, longitudinal continuity of care (usual provider of care, or UPC, index), number of referrals to specialist care and numbers of common diagnostic tests. Outcomes were measured over 9 months following assignment to a named accountable GP and for a comparable period for those unassigned. Results The proportion of patients with a named accountable GP increased from 3.5% to 79.8% at age 75. No statistically significant effects were detected for continuity of care (estimated treatment effect 0.00, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.02) or the number of GP contacts per person (estimated treatment effect −0.11, 95% CI −0.31 to 0.09) over 9 months. No significant change was seen in the number of referrals, blood pressure or HbA1c diagnostic tests per person. A statistically significant treatment effect of −0.05 cholesterol tests per person (95% CI −0.07 to −0.02) was estimated; however, sensitivity analysis indicated that this effect predated the introduction of named accountable GPs. Conclusions Continuity of care is valued by patients, but the named accountable GP initiative did not improve continuity of care or change patterns of GP utilisation in the first 9 months of the

  19. Impact of universal health coverage on urban–rural inequity in psychiatric service utilisation for patients with first admission for psychosis: a 10-year nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Pei-Chun; Huang, Ling-Ya; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Tung, Yu-Chi; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chen, Wei J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the disparities in psychiatric service utilisation over a 10-year period for patients with first admission for psychosis in relation to urban–rural residence following the implementation of universal health coverage in Taiwan. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, which has a population coverage rate of over 99% and contains all medical claim records of a nationwide cohort of patients with at least one psychiatric admission between 1996 and 2007. Participants 69 690 patients aged 15–59 years with first admission between 1998 and 2007 for any psychotic disorder. Main exposure measure Patients’ urban–rural residence at first admissions. Main outcome measures Absolute and relative inequality indexes of the following quality indicators after discharge from the first admission: all-cause psychiatric readmission at 2 and 4 years, dropout of psychiatric outpatient service at 30 days, and emergency department (ED) treat-and-release encounter at 30 days. Results Between 1998 and 2007, the 4-year readmission rate decreased from 65% to 58%, the 30-day dropout rate decreased from 18% to 15%, and the 30-day ED encounter rate increased from 8% to 10%. Risk of readmission has significantly decreased in rural and urban patients, but at a slower speed for the rural patients (p=0.026). The adjusted HR of readmission in rural versus urban patients has increased from 1.00 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.04) in 1998–2000 to 1.08 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) in 2005–2007, indicating a mild widening of the urban–rural gap. Urban–rural differences in 30-day dropout and ED encounter rates have been stationary over time. Conclusions The universal health coverage in Taiwan did not narrow urban–rural inequity of psychiatric service utilisation in patients with psychosis. Therefore, other policy interventions on resource allocation, service delivery and quality of care are needed to improve

  20. Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged > 21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in

  1. Etude comparative des complications liées à l'utilisation du cathéter veineux périphérique avec et sans système clos à bouchon hépariné

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying Chun; Seydou, Togo; Sadio, Yéna; Liang, Tu Zheng; Ge, jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'utilisation correcte du système clos à bouchon hépariné sur les cathéters périphériques pendant les perfusions est une pratique courante dans les pays développés et aussi dans plusieurs pays en développement selon un consensus international établi. Nous comparons les résultats de la formation de thrombus et de l'infection liées au cathéter veineux périphérique chez les patients ayant bénéficié de perfusion avec système clos à bouchon hépariné (groupe expérimentale) et ceux qui ont été perfusé sans bouchon hépariné (groupe témoin). Méthodes Nous avons colligé 100 patients hospitalisés pendant la période de Juillet 2014 à Décembre 2014 dans le service d'hospitalisation de chirurgie thoracique de l'hôpital du Mali qui ont été repartis en 2 groupes de 50 patients chacun pour une analyse comparative. L'observation du thrombus dans la lumière du cathéter est effectuée puis enregistré et tous les cathéters ont été repris pour réalisation de culture bactérienne au laboratoire dans les 2 groupes. Résultats Dans le groupe témoin, il existe un thrombus dans la lumière du cathéter dans 36 cas (72%) et l'examen de culture bactérienne était positif dans 90%. Tandis que dans le groupe expérimental on retrouve 3 cas (6%) de thrombose du cathéter et on note une absence de germe dans l'examen bactériologique. Conclusion L'utilisation correcte du système clos à bouchon hépariné lors des perfusions peut réduire et prévenir de façon significative les complications liées au cathéter notamment l'occlusion par thrombus, leur migration et la survenue de l'infection. PMID:26600900

  2. Transmission Sur Fibres Optiques Dans Un Systeme D'Archivage Et De Communication D'Images Pour Des Applications Medicales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Gilles; Bonnard, Rene

    1984-03-01

    Dans l'hOpital, le besoin d'un reseau de communication electronique ne cesse de crottre au fur et a mesure de la numerisation des images. Ce reseau local a pour but de relier quelques sources d'images telles la radiologie numerique, la tomodensitometrie, la resonance magnetique nucleaire, l'echographie ultraso-nore etc..., a un systme d'archivage. Des consoles de visualisation interacti-ves peuvent etre utilisees dans les salles d'examens, les bureaux des medecins et les services de soins. Dans un tel systme, trois caracteristiques princi-pales doivent etre prises en compte le debit, la longueur du cable et le nombre de connexions. - Le debit est tr?)s important, en effet, un temps de reponse maxima de quel-ques secondes doit etre garanti pour des images de plusieurs millions d'ele-ments binaires. - La distance entre connexions peut etre de quelques km dans certains grands hopitaux. - Le nombre de connexions au reseau ne depasse jamais quelques dizaines car les sources d'images et les unites de traitement representent des materiels importants, par ailleurs les consoles de visualisation simples peuvent etre groupees en grappe. Toutes ces conditions sont remplies par les transmissions sur fibres optiques. Selon la topologie et la methode d'accNs, deux solutions peuvent etre envisa-gees : - Anneau actif - Etoile active ou passive Enfin, les developpements de Thomson-CSF en composants pour transmissions optiques pour les grands reseaux de tel4distribution nous apportent un support technologique et une production de masse qui diminuera les collts du materiel.

  3. Prévalence de l'utilisation des anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens chez les femmes enceintes à Lubumbashi (République Démocratique du Congo)

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Shamashanga, Laurent Kwete; Mwaba, Jean-Jacques Mulubwa; Kasongo, Christian Busambwa; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    Malgré l'importance de leurs effets secondaires sur la femme enceinte et le fœtus, les anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) continuent à être largement utilisés par les femmes enceintes. Leur rapport bénéfice-risque n'est pas toujours bien évalué en pratique courante. L'objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer l'usage des AINS chez la femme enceinte, de discuter les risques potentiels encourus aussi bien par la mère que par le fœtus, et enfin d'en tirer des recommandations éventuelles à la femme enceinte. Du 22 août au 11 septembre 2012, une enquête a été menée auprès de 145 femmes enceintes suivies en consultation prénatale à l'Hôpital Sendwe. Un formulaire reprenant les informations sur les AINS consommés a été remis à chacune d'elle. Les résultats montrent que 75% des femmes interrogées reconnaissent avoir consommé des AINS surtout en automédication et principalement pendant les deux derniers trimestres de la grossesse pour soulager des douleurs d'origines diverses. Cette étude montre que des efforts restent encore à déployer à Lubumbashi afin de combattre l'utilisation des AINS surtout en automédication chez la femme enceinte. PMID:25419270

  4. Progrès récents dans l'utilisation de la Chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse pour la détermination des propriétés acide-base des surfaces solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papirer, E.; Brendlé, E.

    1998-01-01

    Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is a method well suited for the study of divided solids, but also of fibres. In this paper, the principles of IGC, its advantages such as ease and rapidity of measurement, but also limitations due essentially to the energetic heterogeneity of the solid surfaces are discussed. Finally, a new procedure allowing to estimate the acidity and basicity of the surface involving topology concepts of the molecules used to probe the surface is presented. Experimental results of the Laboratory, but also results extracted from the literature concerning silica, titanium dioxide, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene) fibers, are taken to verify the proposed method. La chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse (CGI) s'avère comme une méthode de choix pour l'étude des solides divisés, mais aussi de fibres. Après avoir rappelé quelques principes de base de la CGI, les avantages de la méthode comme la facilité de mise en oeuvre, sa rapidité..., nous soulignerons ses limites qui sont essentiellement à attribuer à l'hétérogénéité énergétique des surfaces solides. Finalement, nous décrirons une nouvelle approche de l'acidité et de la basicité de surface grâce à l'utilisation des concepts de topologie des molécules employées pour sonder la surface. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus au Laboratoire, mais aussi tirés de la littérature et concernant la silice, l'oxyde de titane, la poly(méthacrylate de méthyle) et les fibres de poly(éthylène), permettent d'illustrer la pertinence de la méthode proposée.

  5. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  6. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  7. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  8. Waste stream utilisation for sustainable viticulture.

    PubMed

    Agnew, R H; Mundy, D C; Spiers, T M; Greven, M M

    2005-01-01

    Field trials were established at four vineyards in January 1999 to evaluate the effects of four mulch mixtures on different soil and plant parameters. Mulches were made from wine industry and other commercially available plant and animal wastes. Soil, grape petioles, grape leaves and grape juice were analysed over three seasons. The mulches applied released considerable quantities of nutrients, which were available for use by the grapevines. Generally, the type of mulch used had little impact on the parameters that were measured and the greatest differences occurred between non-mulched and mulch treatments. Soil pH showed an increase at three of the four sites after application of mulch. Soil phosphorus increased moderately at one site and substantially at the other three sites in the first year and soil potassium levels increased dramatically at all sites in the first year. After the application of mulches in 1999 the petiole nitrate levels increased dramatically at all sites, however there were no differences in the second year. In the third year petiole nitrate levels were again high indicating that the differences between years was probably largely attributable to differences in rainfall received among the three seasons. Petiole potassium levels also increased after the application of mulch, however the increase was nowhere near as large as the increase in soil potassium. The use of mulch increased leaf nitrogen and potassium levels but not phosphorus levels. The use of mulch did increase juice potassium, however there was greater seasonal and site variation than variation due to the effect of mulch.

  9. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  10. Possibilities and limitations of wind energy utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feustel, J.

    1981-10-01

    The existing wind resource, the most favorable locations, applications, and designs of windpowered generators are reviewed, along with descriptions of current and historic wind turbines and lines of research. Coastal regions, plains, hill summits, and mountains with funneling regions are noted to have the highest annual wind averages, with energy densities exceeding the annual solar insolation at average wind speeds of 5-7.9 m/sec. Applications for utility-grade power production, for irrigation, for mechanical heat production, and for pumped storage in water towers or reservoirs are mentioned, as well as electrical power production in remote areas and for hydrogen production by electrolysis. Power coefficients are discussed, with attention given to the German Growian 3 MW machine. It is shown that the least economically sound wind turbines, the machines with outputs below 100 kW, can vie with diesel plant economics in a good wind regime if the wind turbine operates for 15 yr.

  11. Teachers and Productive Pedagogies: Contextualising, Conceptualising, Utilising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Hayes, Debra; Mills, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Improving students' outcomes from schooling requires schools to be learning organisations, where both students and teachers are engaged in learning. As such, knowledge and talk about pedagogy need to be at the core of the professional culture of schools. This article argues that this will require the valuing of teachers' work, that is, their…

  12. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  13. Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

    2004-03-01

    The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate. The microbial studies of biodegradation process revealed following peculiarities: gradual quantitative increasing of Lactobacillus sp. (from 10 3 to 10 5 colony forming units (CFU) per ml), activation of Clostridia sp. (from 10 2 to 10 4 CFU/ml) and elimination of aerobic conventional pathogens ( Enterobacteriaceae sp., Protea sp., staphylococci). The obtained results allow to evaluate effectiveness of proposed technology and to determine the leading role of lactobacilli and clostridia in process of natural wastes biodegradation. Our further investigations shall further be concentrated on creation of artificial inoculi for launching of food wastes biodegradation. These inoculi will include active and adapted strains of clostridia and lactobacilli.

  14. Utilisation of chitinous materials in pigment adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, San-Lang; Chen, Yan-Cheng; Yen, Yue-Horng; Liang, Tzu-Wen

    2012-12-01

    The effect of adding the cells of four lactobacilli to a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium on prodigiosin (PG) production by Serratia marcescens TKU011 is examined. The best increase in PG productivity was shown by strain TKU012. Among the samples of strain TKU012 and the chitinous materials of cicada casting powder (CCP), shrimp shell powder (SSP), squid pen powder (SPP), α-chitin, and β-chitin, TKU012 cells displayed the best adsorption rate (84%) for PG, followed by CCP, SSP, SPP, α-chitin, and β-chitin. As for the water-soluble food colourants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4), SPP and SSP had better adsorptive powers than pure chitin preparations, strain TKU012, and CCP. Treatment with organic solvents, hot alkali, or proteases (papain, bromelain) diminished the adsorption rates of the biosorbents.

  15. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (TNT, RDX) in soil and plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bean, R.M.; McVeety, B.D.

    1989-08-01

    The objective of these investigations was to elucidate the environmental behavior and fate of trinitrotoluene (TNT). Emphasis was placed on those chemical transformations occurring in soils and in plant tissues following uptake and on the probable impact of these chemical transformations on the food chain. Analytical methodology was developed to fractionate and characterize both TNT and TNT-derived residues in soil and plant matrices. The procedures developed in this program extend prior art, through the use of matrix-specific extraction and fractionation schemes followed by classical HPLC separations. Methods showed good recovery and reproducibility. 30 refs., 35 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Etude des etats electroniques en champ magnetique dans le niveau de Landau N=0 de la tricouche ABC de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondeau, Maxime

    Dans cet ouvrage nous etudions les phases du gaz d'electrons bidimensionnel dans la tricouche de graphene en empilement ABC. En partant du modele des liaisons fortes et en faisant l'approximation du continuum autour des vallees K +, K-, nous obtenons un modele effectif a deux bandes qui permet de decrire la physique de basse energie des electrons en champ magnetique dans cette structure. Ce modele contient trois orbitales degenerees dans le niveau de Landau N = O. Ce dernier est donc 12N φ, fois degeneres en incluant les degres de liberte de spin et de vallee. En ajoutant l'interaction de Coulomb au systeme et en considerant seulement les remplissages v = -5, -4, -4, 5 afin d'avoir un systeme a trois niveaux, nous etudions le diagramme de phase du gaz d'electrons en fonction d'un biais electrique entre les couches externes. Nous trouvons une phase d'onde de densite de charge bidimensionnelle (ODC2D) comme etat fondamental du systeme. Cette ODC2D se nomme cristal dans ce memoire et nous derivons ses proprietes de transports et ses modes collectifs. Nous discutons egalement du caractere topologique de ce cristal. Notre etude englobe aussi les phases liquides avec ou sans coherence orbitale. Nous concluons notre memoire par l'etude de quelques signatures experimentales des phases du gaz d'electrons dans la tricouche.

  17. Etude theorique des proprietes electroniques et optiques des super-reseaux de silicium/bioxyde de silicium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Pierre

    The observation of intense luminescence in Si/SiO2 superlattices has opened up new vistas in theoretical research, with a view to fabricate Si-based devices suitable for optoelectronic applications. Crystalline silicon has an indirect energy gap that makes this material less competitive compared to other luminescent materials. The fabrication of silicon-based luminescent materials would thus provide multiple applications in the future. Three achievements are presented in this work. (a) Several Si/SiO2 superlattice models have been constructed and studied within a first-principles framework in order to evaluate their structural, electronic and optical properties. The first two models are derived from crystalline phases of silicon and silicon dioxide. From these models, the interfaces are shown to play a significant role on their optical properties. New structurally-relaxed models have thus been constructed in order to satisfy more closely the interface topology and evaluate accurately the confinement effects on their optical properties. (b) Direct bandgaps are obtained in the structurally-relaxed models. Their absorption coefficient has been calculated (by applying the Fermi Golden rule) and compared to that of bulk Si, giving a clear demonstration of the enhanced absorption (and emission) properties of Si confined systems, compared to bulk Si. A blueshift with increased confinement has been confirmed. Furthermore, the precise role of suboxide Si atoms at the interfaces has been investigated. These suboxides are shown to have two main effects: (i) increase slightly the energy gap; (ii) reduce the dispersion in the band structure near the Fermi level. (c) A direct application of the Slater transition state theory applied to crystalline silicon has been performed and compared to X-Ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy measurements. The Slater transition state theory constitutes a subset of the density functional theory for ensembles. Very good agreement between this theory and the experiment is obtained. This type of calculations has been applied to the Si/SiO2 superlattices in order to estimate and characterize the electronic properties of the confined region in the conduction bands.

  18. Analyse des proprietes electroniques de supraconducteurs a l'aide de la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Simon

    In this thesis, the electronic structure of different kinds of superconductors is explored with the density functional theory. A brief explanation of this theory is done in the introduction. The Hubbard model is also presented as it can be used to solve shortcomings of the theory in some materials such as cuprates. The blend of the two theories is the DFT+U which is used to describe materials with strongly correlated electrons. Afterward, a paper describing the electron-phonon coupling in the superconductor NbC1- xNx is presented. Results from this work show the role of the Fermi surface in the electron pairing mechanism leading to superconductivity. Based on these results, a model is developed explaining how the critical temperature is influenced by the change in frequency of the vibration modes. Then, quantum oscillation results based on a detailed analysis of Fermi surfaces, allowing a direct comparison with experimental data, are presented within two papers. The first one is about a material in the iron pnictide family, the LaFe2P2. Our calculations show that the Fermi surface of this material is different from the superconducting doped BaFe2As2 which explains why this material shows no sign of superconductivity. The second paper is about the heavy fermion system YbCoIn5. To do this, a new efficient method to calculate de Haas-van Alphen frequencies is developed. Finally, a paper on superconducting YBa2Cu3O6.5 is presented. Using DFT+U, the role of various magnetic orders on the Fermi surface are studied. The results allow a better understanding of the measured quantum oscillations in this material.

  19. Etude par microscopie electronique d'un alliage aluminium-cuivre a 1.3% atomique obtenu par implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartraud, M.; Guillot, J.; Templier, C.; Louzolo, P.

    1985-01-01

    An Al-Cu alloy of 1.3 at% is obtained by implantation of Cu ions in thin foils of aluminium. The purpose of the electron-microscope study is to determine the ageing reactions of this alloy as compared with those occuring in the quenched solid solution. It has been shown that the implantation temperature is an essential parameter in the unmixing process. After a 77 K implantation 8 months of ageing at 20°C are necessary to obtain the first stages of unmixing characterized by the formation of Guinier-Prestion I zones (GP(I) zones), whereas after an implantation at room-temperature, the θ″ phase is directly observed. The behaviour of the solid solution obtained at 77 K is similar to the conventional Al-Cu solid solution. On the contrary, during the implantation at room-temperature, the unmixing is already started and this fact can be explained on account of an enhanced diffusion.

  20. Expanding access to high-cost medicines through the E2 access program in Thailand: effects on utilisation, health outcomes and cost using an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Lu, Christine Y; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Objective In 2008, the Thai government introduced the ‘high-cost medicines E2 access program’ as a part of the National List of Essential Medicines to increase patient access to medicines, improve clinical outcomes and make medicines more affordable. Our objective was to examine whether the ‘high-cost medicines E2 access program’ achieved its goals. Design Interrupted time-series design study. Setting 3 tertiary hospitals in different regions of Thailand, January 2006 to December 2012. Participants Patients with target acute and chronic disease diagnoses who newly met E2 program criteria for selected study medicines. Intervention High-cost medicines E2 access program. Main outcomes measures Level and trend changes over time in the proportions of eligible patients who received the indicated E2 medicines and who improved clinically, as well as in costs of treatment. Results A total of 2024 patients were included in utilisation analyses and 1375 patients with selected acute diseases contributed to analyses of clinical outcome. After 1 year of the E2 program implementation, the percentage of eligible patients receiving the indicated E2 program medicines increased significantly (relative change 12.7% (95% CI 4.4% to 21.0%), especially among those insured by the government's universal coverage scheme (relative change 19.9% (95% CI 9.5% to 30.5%)). The increase in the proportion of clinically improved patients with acute conditions was not significant (relative change 6.2% (95% CI −1.9% to 15.1%)). Quarterly healthcare costs per patient dropped significantly (relative change −13.5% (95% CI −26.9% to −1.7%)). Conclusions In the study hospitals, the E2 access program seems to have facilitated patient access to specialty medicines, may have contributed to improved health outcomes, and decreased treatment costs. Routine monitoring is needed to assess effects of expanding the programme, including effects on quality of care and financial sustainability. PMID

  1. Problématique de l'utilisation des Moustiquaires Imprégnées d'insecticide à Longue Durée (MILD) chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Cilundika Mulenga; Odile, Nyota Nsenga; Numbi, Oscar Luboya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le paludisme est une maladie parasitaire à transmission vectorielle qui constitue un problème majeur de santé publique dans les pays tropicaux, particulièrement les pays de l'Afrique Subsaharienne. La présente étude avait pour objectif d'identifier le niveau d'utilisation de la MILD chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans dans la zone de santé de Mumbunda. Méthodes L’étude, de type transversal, a été mené du 25 au 27 octobre 2013 et a porté sur un échantillon de 410 ménages tirés au hasard et ayant au moins un enfant de moins de 5 ans. Résultats Parmi les ménages qui avaient déclaré possédaient la MILD 13,1% (n=54) des répondant avaient déclaré les utilisé chez les enfants de moins de 5ans et 80,2% pour tout le monde. Dans 22,0% des cas, les répondants ont évoqué le manque d'argent comme motif de la non possession de la MILD. Les répondants savaient déclarer à 79,8% avoir utilisé la MILD pour se protéger contre la malaria et à 66,3% pour se protéger contre les piqures des moustiques. La MILD a été étalée à l'ombre pendant 24h avant d’être utilisée pour la première fois par 77,9% des ménages. Les répondants avaient déclaré à 15,3% (n=63) avoir reçu les conseils par les médias pour l'usage de la moustiquaire. Et le personnel médical était la source la plus importante pour expliquer le mode d'emploi de la MILD pour 51,2% des ménages. Conclusion La réussite pour faire reculer le paludisme doit nécessairement passer par la prévention, le suivi et l’évaluation de l'utilisation des moustiquaires imprégnées au niveau de la zone de santé de Mumbunda. PMID:27222690

  2. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (Tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Environmental fate and behavior of tetryl

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of the present studies was to elucidate the environmental behavior and fate of 2,4,6trintrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl) in the soil/plant system in three different types of soils incubated for 60 days. No tetryl was detectable after 11 days; most of the radiolabel was associated with non-extractable soil components and four transformation products appeared rapidly, of which two were identified as N-methyl-2,4,6-trintroaniline and N-methyl-aminodinitroaniline isomer. Short-term hydroponic studies indicated no significant difference in uptake rates for the three plant species employed. Kinetic studies indicated that plants have a high affinity and capacity for absorbing tetryl. Partitioning patterns indicated that the root is the major accumulation site for tetryl. Chemical fractionation and analyses of tissues showed rapid metabolism of tetryl in tissues of all species, which proceeded toward more polar metabolic products. Plant maturity studies indicated significant differences in the total relative uptake of tetryl by all three plant species based on soil type.

  3. Champs morphogenetiques mis en evidence par l'etude au microscope electronique a balayage des soies au niveau des pattes d'abeilles (apoidea, megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Pasteels, J M; Pasteels, J J

    1973-01-01

    The hairs covering the legs of several species of female megachilid bees are arranged in imbricated fields. At the boundaries of these fields, either the hairs show a morphology intermediate between those of the contiguous fields, or there is a narrow strip with an irregular mosaïc of several hair types. It is suggested that: 1. The structure of the hairs may be determined by the territory in which the trichogenous cell is located. 2. Some morphogenetic fields are bidimensional and cross the segmentary boundaries. The name 'regional fields' is proposed for them. 3. The regional fields may be modulated within each segment into which they extend.

  4. ETUDE AU MICROSCOPE ELECTRONIQUE DES TRANSFORMATIONS NUCLEAIRES DE E. COLI K12 S ET K12 S (λ26) APRES IRRADIATION AUX RAYONS ULTRAVIOLETS ET AUX RAYONS X

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Antoinette

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear transformations induced in E. coli K12S and K12S(λ26) by ultraviolet radiations and x-rays have been studied with ultrathin sections in the electron microscope. The nucleoplasm keeps its normal aspect during "fragmentation" and during "condensation" of the nucleus into the "vesicular" form. Serial sections show that the "fragmented" nucleus consists in reality of only one very tortuous vacuole. No difference either in the shape or in the fine structure of the nucleus could be observed between the lysogenic strain and the non-lysogenic strain. A high concentration of NaCl has a "condensation" effect on the fragmented nuclei and decreases the induction rate. PMID:13745076

  5. Etude par microscopie electronique a balayage de l'endommagement par fatigue du cuivre apres implantation de divers elements (de He à Xe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J.; Violan, P.; Fayoux, C.

    1983-05-01

    The effect of ion implantation of the surface fatigue damage in polycrystalline copper has been studied. Several elements were employed, from He to Xe, which induce different defect structures. Implanted and non-implanted specimens were cycled up to rupture in tension-compression conditions under two cyclic stress levels. Fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature in laboratory air or in vacuum. Fatigue life is only modified on the He-implanted specimen cycled at the lower stress level; other implanted specimens do not show measurable changes in the fatigue lives. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the effect of the implantations of the cyclic slip behaviour at the specimens surface. While Al or Cu implantations induce no changes and Xe implantation has a small effect, on the other hand, the implantation of He, B, C, N, O or Ar causes a strong inhibition of slip bands at the specimen surface. This inhibition is correlated with the nonsolubility of the elements in thermodynamic equilibrium conditions.

  6. An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.D.

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

  7. Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitshwarelo, Bopelo

    2011-01-01

    Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific…

  8. Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaëtan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Considérons un système quantique constitué de deux sous-systèmes : on dit qu'il est dans un état intriqué s'il existe des corrélations quantiques entre les états de ces derniers. La compréhension et la mise en œuvre d'états intriqués ont de nombreuses applications (métrologie quantique, étude des systèmes fortement corrélés, traitement quantique de l'information, etc.) et constituent le contexte général de ce travail de thèse. Plus en détail, nous démontrons la réalisation d'un état intriqué de deux atomes neutres piégés indépendamment. Pour cela, nous exploitons le phénomène de blocage de Rydberg : lorsqu'on essaie d'exciter simultanément deux atomes séparés de quelques micromètres vers un état de Rydberg donné, la forte interaction entre atomes de Rydberg peut empêcher cette excitation simultanée. Dans ce cas, seul un des deux atomes est excité et l'on génère ainsi des corrélations quantiques entre les états des deux atomes, c'est-à-dire de l'intrication. Dans notre expérience, deux atomes de 87Rb dans l'état fondamental 5S1/2 sont piégés chacun dans une pince optique microscopique, à une distance relative de 4 micromètres. En réalisant des transitions entre l'état 5S1/2 et l'état de Rydberg 58D3/2 par des transitions à deux photons, nous obtenons un état intriqué des deux atomes dans les sous-niveaux |5S1/2, f = 1, mf = 1> et |5S1/2, f = 2, mf = 2>. Afin de quantifier l'intrication, nous mesurons la fidélité par rapport à l'état-cible en réalisant des transitions Raman entre ces deux sous-niveaux. La fidélité des paires d'atomes présentes à la fin de l'expérience est supérieure à la valeur seuil de 0,5, ce qui prouve la création d'un état intriqué.

  9. Adaptive dynamic FBG interrogation utilising erbium-doped fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, R. N.; Read, I.; MacPherson, W. N.

    2013-04-01

    A dynamic fibre Bragg grating interrogation scheme is investigated using two-wave mixing in erbium-doped fibre, capable of adapting to quasistatic strain and temperature drifts. An interference pattern set up in the erbium-doped fibre creates, due to the photorefractive effect, a dynamic grating capable of wavelength demodulating the FBG signal. The presence of a dynamic grating was verified and then dynamic strain signals from a fibre stretcher were measured. The adaptive nature of the technique was successfully demonstrated by heating the FBG while it underwent dynamic straining leading to detection unlike an alternative arrayed waveguide grating system which simultaneously failed detection. Two gratings were then wavelength division multiplexed with the signal grating receiving approximately 30dB greater signal showing that there was little cross talk in the system.

  10. Utilising social media contents for flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Dransch, Doris; Fohringer, Joachim; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available during and shortly after a disaster. An information source which should be explored in a more efficient way is eyewitness accounts via social media. This research presents a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in the case of floods. It uses quantitative data that are estimated from photos extracted from social media posts and their integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, areas affected by a flood, for example, can be determined quickly. Key challenges are to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information, and to interpret and integrate the posts into mapping procedures in a timely manner. We present a methodology and a tool ("PostDistiller") to filter geo-located posts from social media services which include links to photos and to further explore this spatial distributed contextualized in situ information for inundation mapping. The June 2013 flood in Dresden is used as an application case study in which we evaluate the utilization of this approach and compare the resulting spatial flood patterns and inundation depths to 'traditional' data sources and mapping approaches like water level observations and remote sensing flood masks. The outcomes of the application case are encouraging. Strengths of the proposed procedure are that information for the estimation of inundation depth is rapidly available, particularly in urban areas where it is of high interest and of great value because alternative information sources like remote sensing data analysis do not perform very well. The uncertainty of derived inundation depth data and the uncontrollable availability of the information sources are major threats to the utility of the approach.

  11. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

  12. Six Key Topics for Automated Assessment Utilisation and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiners, Torsten; Dreher, Carl; Dreher, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Automated assessment technologies have been used in education for decades (e.g., computerised multiple choice tests). In contrast, Automated Essay Grading (AEG) technologies: have existed for decades; are "good in theory" (e.g., as accurate as humans, temporally and financially efficient, and can enhance formative feedback), and yet; are…

  13. Utilising eduroam[TM] Architecture in Building Wireless Community Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhtanen, Karri; Vatiainen, Heikki; Keski-Kasari, Sami; Harju, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: eduroam[TM] has already been proved to be a scalable, secure and feasible way for universities and research institutions to connect their wireless networks into a WLAN roaming community, but the advantages of eduroam[TM] have not yet been fully discovered in the wireless community networks aimed at regular consumers. This aim of this…

  14. Silica Waste Utilisation Phase II - Preliminary Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    A second phase of laboratory testing is being performed on waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico. The main objective is to produce mixes of various combinations of hydrated lime, portland cement, and plastic fibers with the waste silica from disposal ponds to determine their suitability for use as insulating bricks in low cost housing. Silica-cement mixtures appear to have the highest flexural strength and resistance to weathering. Silica-lime mixtures appear to have the best insulating properties (lowest thermal conductivity). The addition of plastic fibers to the silica-lime mixture appears to improve both strength and weather resistance. Work is still in progress and will be completed in 1996 with the construction of various test walls in the Mexicali, Mexico area.

  15. The ESA standard for telemetry and telecommand packet utilisation: PUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    ESA has developed standards for packet telemetry and telecommand, which are derived from the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). These standards are now mandatory for future ESA programs as well as for many programs currently under development. However, while these packet standards address the end-to-end transfer of telemetry and telecommand data between applications on the ground and Application Processes on-board, they leave open the internal structure or content of the packets. This paper presents the ESA Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) which addresses this very subject and, as such, serves to extend and complement the ESA packet standards. The goal of the PUS is to be applicable to future ESA missions in all application areas (Telecommunications, Science, Earth Resources, microgravity, etc.). The production of the PUS falls under the responsibility of the ESA Committee for Operations and EGSE Standards (COES).

  16. The resource utilisation of medically unexplained physical symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kimberley; Johnson, Malcolm H; Harris, Julie; Sundram, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: As patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms may present frequently to hospital settings and receive potentially unnecessary investigations and treatments, we aimed to assess the frequency and type of medically unexplained physical symptoms presentations to clinical services and estimate the associated direct healthcare costs. Methods: This study was undertaken at the largest district health board in New Zealand. All patients with a diagnosed presentation of medically unexplained physical symptoms in 2013 were identified using the district health board’s clinical coding system. The clinical records (medical and psychiatric) of 49 patients were examined in detail to extricate all medically unexplained physical symptoms–related secondary care activity within 6 months before or after their medically unexplained physical symptoms presentation. Standardised national costing methodology was used to calculate the associated healthcare costs. Results: In all, 49% of patients attended hospital settings at least twice during 2013. The majority of presentations were for neurological or respiratory concerns. The total cost for the sample was GBP89,636 (median: GBP1,221). Costs were most significant in the areas of inpatient admissions and emergency care. Conclusion: Medically unexplained physical symptoms result in frequent presentations to hospital settings. The costs incurred are substantial and comparable to the costs of chronic medical conditions with identifiable pathology. Improving recognition and management of medically unexplained physical symptoms has potential to offer more appropriate and cost-effective healthcare outcomes.

  17. Counselling Services Utilisation in a Malaysia Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin-Fah, Benjamin Chan; Sok-Foon, Yeoh; Migin, Melissa W.

    2016-01-01

    University can be an exciting yet challenging transition for students. Many universities provide counselling services to students who need it during their tertiary studies but many students tend to avoid counselling. This study was conducted to identify the counselling service experience among undergraduate students. The emphasis was on the past…

  18. Performance of biofuel processes utilising separate lignin and carbohydrate processing.

    PubMed

    Melin, Kristian; Kohl, Thomas; Koskinen, Jukka; Hurme, Markku

    2015-09-01

    Novel biofuel pathways with increased product yields are evaluated against conventional lignocellulosic biofuel production processes: methanol or methane production via gasification and ethanol production via steam-explosion pre-treatment. The novel processes studied are ethanol production combined with methanol production by gasification, hydrocarbon fuel production with additional hydrogen produced from lignin residue gasification, methanol or methane synthesis using synthesis gas from lignin residue gasification and additional hydrogen obtained by aqueous phase reforming in synthesis gas production. The material and energy balances of the processes were calculated by Aspen flow sheet models and add on excel calculations applicable at the conceptual design stage to evaluate the pre-feasibility of the alternatives. The processes were compared using the following criteria: energy efficiency from biomass to products, primary energy efficiency, GHG reduction potential and economy (expressed as net present value: NPV). Several novel biorefinery concepts gave higher energy yields, GHG reduction potential and NPV. PMID:26056782

  19. Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas utilisation in Oman.

    PubMed

    Abushammala, Mohammed Fm; Qazi, Wajeeha A; Azam, Mohammed-Hasham; Mehmood, Umais A; Al-Mufragi, Ghithaa A; Alrawahi, Noor-Alhuda

    2016-08-01

    Municipal solid waste disposed in landfill sites decomposes under anaerobic conditions and produces so-called landfill-gas, which contains 30%-40% of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50%-60% of methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2 Therefore, migration of landfill-gas from landfills to the surrounding environment can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine municipal solid waste generation in Oman over the years 1971-2030, to quantify annual CH4 emissions inventory that resulted from this waste over the same period of time, and to determine the economic and environmental benefits of capturing the CH4 gas for energy production. It is found that cumulative municipal solid waste landfilled in Oman reaches 3089 Giga gram (Gg) in the year 2030, of which approximately 85 Gg of CH4 emissions are produced in the year 2030. The study also found that capturing CH4 emissions between the years 2016 and 2030 could attract revenues of up to US$333 million and US$291 million from the carbon reduction and electricity generation, simultaneously. It is concluded that CH4 emissions from solid waste in Oman increases enormously with time, and capture of this gas for energy production could provide a sustainable waste management solution in Oman.

  20. Performance of biofuel processes utilising separate lignin and carbohydrate processing.

    PubMed

    Melin, Kristian; Kohl, Thomas; Koskinen, Jukka; Hurme, Markku

    2015-09-01

    Novel biofuel pathways with increased product yields are evaluated against conventional lignocellulosic biofuel production processes: methanol or methane production via gasification and ethanol production via steam-explosion pre-treatment. The novel processes studied are ethanol production combined with methanol production by gasification, hydrocarbon fuel production with additional hydrogen produced from lignin residue gasification, methanol or methane synthesis using synthesis gas from lignin residue gasification and additional hydrogen obtained by aqueous phase reforming in synthesis gas production. The material and energy balances of the processes were calculated by Aspen flow sheet models and add on excel calculations applicable at the conceptual design stage to evaluate the pre-feasibility of the alternatives. The processes were compared using the following criteria: energy efficiency from biomass to products, primary energy efficiency, GHG reduction potential and economy (expressed as net present value: NPV). Several novel biorefinery concepts gave higher energy yields, GHG reduction potential and NPV.

  1. Optical scattering in muscle tissue and its utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Pavel; Prokopyeva, Elena; Tománek, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes optical scattering properties of muscle t issue, special traits, and the difficulties its composition causes. The pH of tissue and angle of the myofibrils relative to the incident light used as a probe changes the results of measurements. Distribution of colagen, as well as other substances that can be found in muscle tissue, also affect the outcome of any attempt to examine the sample via the means of optical analysis. Measurement results and scattering models are compared in effectiveness of characterization of the non-linear optical system that is muscle tissue for both medical use and food quality control, depending on the properties and composition of the tested sample.

  2. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents.

  3. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  4. Diagnostic testing during pregnancy: a descriptive analysis of utilisation data.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, R L; Bell, S M; Rob, M I; Taylor, P T

    1994-12-01

    To describe patterns of diagnostic testing during the antenatal period and to assess the potential benefit of using Medicare claims data in monitoring testing practice, we examined the matched claims data (with identifying details removed) on approximately 10,000 women having a confinement for which a Medicare benefit was claimed between 1 July and 30 September 1990. The results showed that almost all the women included in the study sample had an ultrasound and blood group and antibody examination. A smaller proportion had serological tests for syphilis (77 per cent), rubella (51 per cent) and hepatitis B carriage (73 per cent). Two-thirds had urine microscopy and culture, and under half (40 per cent) had serum alpha-fetoprotein estimation. Few (18 per cent) had a claim processed for microscopy and culture of a genital swab and fewer than 8 per cent claimed for any other pathology tests. There were differences in the proportions having tests, depending on whether the clinician managing the confinement was a specialist obstetrician or a general practitioner, and depending on geographic area and age group. While the data do not represent all women having a confinement in New South Wales, the selective use of antenatal diagnostic tests found in this study is of considerable public health importance and analysis of claims data can provide useful information for health professionals. PMID:7536479

  5. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, H Randall; Radloff, Sarah E; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  6. Managing the herbage utilisation and intake by cattle grazing rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To be able to predict the performance of grazing cattle in extensive rangeland environments, herbage intake is paramount because it quantifies energy intake and performance. Nutrient demand of the animals is the major driver of herbage intake and characteristics of the sward dictate how this demand...

  7. Advances in understanding and utilising ELM control in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, I. T.; de la Luna, E.; Lang, P. T.; Liang, Y.; Alper, B.; Denner, P.; Frigione, D.; Garzotti, L.; Ham, C. J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Jachmich, S.; Kocsis, G.; Lennholm, M.; Lupelli, I.; Rimini, F. G.; Sips, A. C. C.; Contributors, JET

    2016-01-01

    Edge localised mode (ELM) control may be essential to develop ITER scenarios with a reasonable lifetime of divertor components, whilst ELM pacing may be essential to develop stationary ITER scenarios with a tungsten divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have mitigated ELMs in high collisionality plasmas in JET. The efficacy of RMPs in mitigating the ELMs is found to depend on plasma shaping, with the change in magnetic boundary achieved when non-axisymmetric fields are applied facilitating access to small ELM regimes. The understanding of ELM pacing by vertical kicks or pellets has also been improved in a range of pedestal conditions in JET ({{T}\\text{ped}}=0.7 -1.3 keV) encompassing the ITER-expected domain ({β\\text{N}}=1.4 -2.4, H 98(y, 2)  =  0.8-1.2, {{f}\\text{GW}}˜ 0.7 ). ELM triggering is reliable provided the perturbation is above a threshold which depends on pedestal parameters. ELM triggering is achieved even in the first 10% of the natural ELM cycle suggesting no inherent maximum frequency. At high normalised pressure, the peeling-ballooning modes are stabilised as predicted by ELITE, necessitating a larger perturbation from either kicks or pellets in order to trigger ELMs. Both kicks and pellets have been used to pace ELMs for tungsten flushing. This has allowed stationary plasma conditions with low gas injection in plasmas where the natural ELM frequency is such that it would normally preclude stationary conditions.

  8. Improving utilisation of dental services by understanding cultural difference.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J A

    1993-10-01

    There is considerable health and medical research and anecdotal evidence showing that members of different cultural groups and people from lower socio-economic status and/or disadvantaged ethnic minority groups are prone to increased morbidity and early mortality. It is also clear that similar patterns are found in terms of dental health status and dental health morbidity. New Zealand data from the Second International Collaborative Study (ICSII) clearly illustrate that poorer health status overall and poorer dental health status are experienced by certain sections and groups within the population. Data from these studies suggest that members of lower socio-economic status groups, different ethnic groups and those with different cultural affiliations experience different health status and use the health services at differential rates. Some of the factors that appear to influence this are clearly related to cultural beliefs and attitudes. Future efforts by the New Zealand health services and in particular by the New Zealand dental health services to redress the situation need to be based on a clear understanding of the many factors that limit the availability and uptake of preventive and dental health care services by high risk groups. Understanding cultural difference is a key requirement.

  9. The resource utilisation of medically unexplained physical symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kimberley; Johnson, Malcolm H; Harris, Julie; Sundram, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: As patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms may present frequently to hospital settings and receive potentially unnecessary investigations and treatments, we aimed to assess the frequency and type of medically unexplained physical symptoms presentations to clinical services and estimate the associated direct healthcare costs. Methods: This study was undertaken at the largest district health board in New Zealand. All patients with a diagnosed presentation of medically unexplained physical symptoms in 2013 were identified using the district health board’s clinical coding system. The clinical records (medical and psychiatric) of 49 patients were examined in detail to extricate all medically unexplained physical symptoms–related secondary care activity within 6 months before or after their medically unexplained physical symptoms presentation. Standardised national costing methodology was used to calculate the associated healthcare costs. Results: In all, 49% of patients attended hospital settings at least twice during 2013. The majority of presentations were for neurological or respiratory concerns. The total cost for the sample was GBP89,636 (median: GBP1,221). Costs were most significant in the areas of inpatient admissions and emergency care. Conclusion: Medically unexplained physical symptoms result in frequent presentations to hospital settings. The costs incurred are substantial and comparable to the costs of chronic medical conditions with identifiable pathology. Improving recognition and management of medically unexplained physical symptoms has potential to offer more appropriate and cost-effective healthcare outcomes. PMID:27635250

  10. Progressing the utilisation of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Trent, Ronald J; Cheong, Pak Leng; Chua, Eng Wee; Kennedy, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    Understanding human genetic variation and how it impacts on gene function is a major focus in genomic-based research. Translation of this knowledge into clinical care is exemplified by pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. The identification of particular gene variants that might influence drug uptake, metabolism, distribution or excretion promises a more effective personalised medicine approach in choosing the right drug or its dose for any particular individual. Adverse drug responses can then be avoided or mitigated. An understanding of germline or acquired (somatic) DNA mutations can also be used to identify drugs that are more likely to be therapeutically beneficial. This represents an area of growing interest in the treatment of cancer.

  11. Utilising polyphenols for the clinical management of Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Sherry, Leighann; Rajendran, Ranjith; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ramage, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    Polyphenols (PPs) are secondary metabolites abundant in plant-derived foods. They are reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity that may offer an alternative to existing antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal potential of PPs against Candida albicans biofilms that are commonly recalcitrant to antifungal therapy. The antifungal activity of 14 PPs was assessed in terms of planktonic and sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (PMICs and SMICs, respectively) against various C. albicans clinical isolates. The most active PPs were further tested for their effect on C. albicans adhesion and biofilm growth using standard biomass assays, microscopy and quantitative gene expression. Of the 14 PPs tested, 7 were effective inhibitors of planktonic growth, of which pyrogallol (PYG) was the most effective (PMIC₅₀=78 μg/mL), followed by curcumin (CUR) (PMIC₅₀=100 μg/mL) and pyrocatechol (PMIC₅₀=625 μg/mL). Both PYG and CUR displayed activity against C. albicans biofilms (SMIC₅₀=40 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL, respectively), although they did not disrupt the biofilm or directly affect the cellular structure. Overall, CUR displayed superior biofilm activity, significantly inhibiting initial cell adhesion following pre-coating (P<0.01), biofilm growth (P<0.05) and gene expression (P<0.05). This inhibitory effect diminished with prolonged CUR exposure, although it still inhibited by 50% after 4h adhesion. Overall, CUR exhibited positive antibiofilm properties that could be used at the basis for development of similar molecules, although further cellular and in vivo studies are required to explore its precise mechanism of action. PMID:25104135

  12. Synthesis and utilisation of graphene for fabrication of electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the most recent contributions in the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of graphene to the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future prospects. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving graphene sensors have been reported ever since the first design of graphene electrochemical biosensor. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of graphene allow it to act as an "electron wire" between the redox centres of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make it a very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Graphene promotes the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, haemoglobin, biomolecules such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:25281124

  13. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

  14. Rapid discrimination of maggots utilising ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Claire L; Hands, James R; Fullwood, Leanne M; Smith, Judith A; Baker, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Entomological evidence is used in forensic investigations to indicate time since death. The species and age of maggots or flies that are present at the scene can be used when estimating how much time has passed since death. Current methods that are used to identify species and developmental stage of larvae and fly samples are highly subjective, costly and often time consuming processes and require the expertise of an entomologist or species identification via DNA analysis. The use of vibrational spectroscopy, as an alternative identification method, would allow for a quicker, cheaper and less subjective technique and would allow entomological evidence to be used more commonly in the forensic process. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) as a rapid tool for differentiating between various species of larvae, such as those commonly found at crime scenes. The proposed regime would provide a rapid and valuable tool resulting in reduced time for both species identification and life cycle determination, particularly in forensic situations.

  15. [Utilisation of community health centres in Koulikoro region, Mali].

    PubMed

    Sidibé, T; Sangho, H; Doumbia, S; Coulibaly, L; Kéïta, H D

    2008-01-01

    In Mali since the adoption of community health center (CSCOM) politics, their number knew a progression remarkable: 370 in 1998 and 660 in the end of 2003. Concerning the health staff, the ratio always remained per capita weak in relation to the international norms. In 2001 for the first level of health center, the quantum was: 1 physician for 14,612 inhabitants (norm being of 1/10,000); 1 nurse for 13,989 inhabitants (WHO norm being of 1/10,000). In spite of the well stocked efforts, the foreseen objectives are far from being reached. For example, the used rate of curative consultation was of 0.19 new contact/year/inhabitant. The foreseen objective is of 0.50. Our survey had as objectives to study the reasons of CSCOM's under frequenting, to identify the reasons and to propose some recommendations to improve the situation. We conducted a cross-sectional study that had taken place in Banamba and Dioïla in the Koulikoro's region in April 19 to May 8, 2004. Interview have been performed with the head of CSCOM, the CSCOM's staff, the persons responsible of community health association (ASACO), the mothers residing in the areas at least six months and having a child less than 5 years and the community leaders. We found that women in Banamba (89%) frequented the CSCOM more that those of Dioïla (60%). The reasons of the CSCOM's under frequenting are especially bound to the staff's instability, the geographical accessibility, to poverty and to the insufficiency of information. We recommend to the different actors to inform and to sensitize the population on the importance of the CSCOM's activities, to the state to take the staff's part in charge to improve their stability, in the ASACO to establish the contracts of work with the staff. PMID:19617149

  16. Utilising Collaborative Forms of Educational Action Research: Some Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the value of collaborative forms of educational action research in higher education and the difficulties involved in implementing such forms of research. It is argued that educational action research represents an opportunity for improving teaching and learning and developing the knowledge and skills of those participating…

  17. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  18. Utilisation of biochar and superabsorbent polymers for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Ekebafe, M O; Ekebafe, L O; Maliki, M

    2013-01-01

    The application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and/or biochars to stressed lands offer solutions to several critical ecological, energy and economic challenges posed by degraded lands due to human activities. These substances are like, 'artificial humus' as they are hydrophilic and contain carboxylic groups (SAPs) which enable them to bind cations and water and sequester carbon from air to reverse global warming (biochars). Several research studies using these substances point to their ability to increase the plant-available water in the soil which enables the plants to survive longer with water shortage, increase soil fertility and agricultural yields, improve soil structure, aeration and water penetration, reduce use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, reduce nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil, reduce nitrate and farm chemicals leaching into watersheds, convert green and brown wastes into valuable resources, and reduce the evapotranspiration rate of the plants. SAPs and biochars induce a significantly higher growth rate in plants; they bind heavy metals and mitigate their action on plants as well as mitigate the effects of salinity. This paper reviews what is known about these claims and considers the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processess. The intention is not just to summarise the current knowledge but also to identify gaps that require further research.

  19. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. PMID:26060198

  20. Résection endoscopique des polypes colorectaux pédiculés en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé: une alternative a la polypectomie conventionnelle? A propos d'une série de cas

    PubMed Central

    Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Modjo, Gabriel; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap

    2014-01-01

    L'intérêt de l'endoscopie dans la résection des polypes colorectaux a été rapporté dans plusieurs études. Les techniques de résection endoscopique sont multiples et maîtrisées dans les pays occidentaux. La technique de mucosectomie endoscopique et celle de la pose d'une anse largable en nylon (endoloop) ont élargi le champ des lésions résécables par endoscopie. Toutefois, malgré cette évolution, la vulgarisation de la polypectomie n'est pas effective. En Afrique subsaharienne, la prise en charge de ces polypes de grande taille nécessite souvent une intervention chirurgicale à ciel ouvert ou une évacuation sanitaire onéreuse dans un pays en Occident. Nous rapportons une nouvelle approche de polypectomie endoscopique des polypes pédiculés colorectaux, en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé 2/0. Les polypes pédiculés étaient situés soit au niveau du sigmoïde soit au rectum. Après avoir passé le lasso autour du pédicule, le n'ud du lasso est serré autour de celui-ci pour strangulation. En moyenne 6 jours après la procédure, le polype est récupéré dans les selles. Une colonoscopie de contrôle est nécessaire pour confirmer la résection du polype. Cette technique peu coûteuse et accessible, devrait être vulgarisée dans les pays en voie de développement avec des plateaux techniques pauvres. Elle a ses limites et ses inconvénients qui doivent être connus de l'opérateur. PMID:25360198

  1. 32 CFR 623.4 - Accounting procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.4 Accounting procedures. (a) Loan document format. (1) When the lending accountable... number and shipping document number. (b) Shipment of loaned materiel. (1) Loaned Army materiel will...

  2. 32 CFR 623.4 - Accounting procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.4 Accounting procedures. (a) Loan document format. (1) When the lending accountable... number and shipping document number. (b) Shipment of loaned materiel. (1) Loaned Army materiel will...

  3. Francais de base. Programme de 9 ans, materiel didactique: 4e, 5e et 6e annees (Core French. Nine-Year Study Program, Instructional Materials: 4th, 5th and 6th Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.

    Official instructional materials for the first three years (grades 4-6) of the Manitoba Department of Education's core French language program consist of units in geography, weather and calendars, holidays, and music designed for each of the three instructional levels. The units on geography focus on Manitoba and Canada. Units on the calendar and…

  4. Le contexte du materiel pedagogique dans l'anglais de specialite. Etude sur les themes tires de l'environnement (The Context of Instructional Materials for ESP. A Study of Themes Drawn from the Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ray

    1981-01-01

    Challenges the idea that ESP courses should be based strictly on instructional materials taken from the relevant professional context. Accordingly recommends a multidisciplinary themes approach as illustrated in the detailed description of the methods and materials used in a course offered by the University of Aston (Birmingham). Societe Nouvelle…

  5. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Preliminary evaluation of TNT-polar metabolites in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated.

  6. Francais de base. Programme de 9 ans, materiel didactique: 7e, 8e et 9e annees (Core French. Nine-Year Study Program, Instructional Materials: 7th, 8th and 9th Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.

    Official instructional materials for the second three years (grades 7-9) of the Manitoba Department of Education's core French language program are presented. These materials, intended for teachers, consist of units of instruction for each year, which contain notes for the teacher, suggestions for class activities, materials for student use, and…

  7. Essais d'application d'un cadre de reference pragmatique a la realisation de materiels d'apprentissage du francais langue etrangere (Attempts to Apply a Pragmatic Framework to Materials Development for French as a Foreign Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richterich, Rene

    1977-01-01

    New needs in foreign language teaching call for new approaches to teaching methods and materials. This article illustrates how a pragmatic reference framework, involving speech acts and communication situations, can be used to choose or develop learning materials, specifically for French as second language. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  8. La conception et le role des materiels pedagogiques dans l'enseignement des langues secondes (The Conception and Role of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Second Languages). CILA Bulletin, No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redard, F., Ed.; And Others

    This special issue concerns the content, function, and form of instructional materials dealing with second language instruction. The following articles appear: (1) "Deliberate Semantics--an 'Interventionist' Approach to Second Language Teaching Methodology," by A.P.R. Howatt; (2) "Sprechakte und Sprachunterricht (Speech Acts and Language…

  9. Transition de phase quantique de type verrouillage-deverrouillage dans les canaux lineaires coherents des phases en rayures dans les doubles puits quantiques sous champ magnetique perpendiculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faribault, Alexandre

    On peut creer un gaz electronique bidimensionnel en utilisant le potentiel de confinement d'une couche mince d'un semiconducteur dans un substrat fait d'une autre semiconducteur de gap plus eleve. L'ajout d'un champ magnetique perpendiculaire au plan de confinement modifie de facon drastique les proprietes du gaz electronique. Pour des densites et des valeurs du champ magnetique adequatement choisies, on obtient un etat fondamental en onde de densite de charge. Dans un systeme compose de deux de ces gaz bidimensionnels suffisamment rapproches l'un de l'autre, on prevoit theoriquement l'existence d'un etat fondamental compose d'une onde de densite de charge dans chacun des puits et d'une serie de regions lineaires ou l'on a une delocalisation coherente des electrons entre les deux puits. Dans cette these, on etudie le comportement a temperature nulle de cet etat fondamental en rayures coherentes. L'etude numerique des modes collectifs de ces phases laisse croire qu'un deverrouillage des canaux coherents est envisageable dans ce systeme. Afin d'etudier cette possibilite, nous construisons d'abord un modele effectif de canaux quasi-unidimensionnels couples qui permettent de reproduire correctement les excitations collectives a basse energie de la phase en rayures coherentes du double puits quantique. Dans un systeme de coordonnees adequatement choisi, ces excitations peuvent etre decrites par des ondes de pseudospin. Les parametres de ce modele effectif simple peuvent etre extraits des calculs des fonctions de reponse realises dans l'approximation Hartree-Fock dependante du temps (appelee aussi Generalized Random Phase Approximation). On constate l'efficacite de ce modele a decrire la dynamique basse energie du systeme pour une certaine plage de distances inter-puits. En retirant de ce modele les contributions a l'hamiltonien provenant des couplages de type Josephson entre les canaux, on obtient alors un systeme ou les canaux sont deverrouilles. Un traitement en

  10. Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Charles

    Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.

  11. L'effet des deformations plastiques severes sur les proprietes d'hydruration du magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Julien

    Le travail de recherche effectue durant mon projet de maitrise en physique a l'Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres dans les laboratoires de l'Institut de Recherche sur l'Hydrogene etait de comparer l'effet du laminage a froid de la poudre de MgH2 avec celui du broyage mecanique. Nous avons etudie cette nouvelle technique en utilisant un laminoir vertical concu specialement pour laminer de la poudre. Nous avons lamine la poudre de MgH2 5, 25, 50 et 100 fois. La comparaison de la morphologie de la poudre de MgH 2 telle que recu du manufacturier et broye mecaniquement pendant 30 minutes avec celle de la poudre laminee ete faite a l'aide d'un microscope electronique a balayage. Nous avons par la suite mesure les proprietes de sorption d'hydrogene grace un appareil PCT de type Sievert. Nous avons aussi determine la structure cristalline par diffraction de rayons X. A partir de ces resultats, nous avons constate que le nombre optimal de laminages est de cinq et a les caracteristiques d'absorption/desorption d'hydrogene similaires a un broyage mecanique de 30 minutes. Nous avons aussi utilise les courbes de cinetiques d'absorption et de desorption d'hydrogene pour calculer l'etape limitative dans les reactions de sorption des echantillons lamines. Comme cinq laminages se font en environ 10 secondes, on voit que le laminage a froid est une technique plus interessante industriellement que le broyage mecanique a cause de l'important gain en temps et en energie.

  12. Modelisation de photodetecteurs a base de matrices de diodes avalanche monophotoniques pour tomographie d'emission par positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeil Therrien, Audrey

    La tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP) est un outil precieux en recherche preclinique et pour le diagnostic medical. Cette technique permet d'obtenir une image quantitative de fonctions metaboliques specifiques par la detection de photons d'annihilation. La detection des ces photons se fait a l'aide de deux composantes. D'abord, un scintillateur convertit l'energie du photon 511 keV en photons du spectre visible. Ensuite, un photodetecteur convertit l'energie lumineuse en signal electrique. Recemment, les photodiodes avalanche monophotoniques (PAMP) disposees en matrice suscitent beaucoup d'interet pour la TEP. Ces matrices forment des detecteurs sensibles, robustes, compacts et avec une resolution en temps hors pair. Ces qualites en font un photodetecteur prometteur pour la TEP, mais il faut optimiser les parametres de la matrice et de l'electronique de lecture afin d'atteindre les performances optimales pour la TEP. L'optimisation de la matrice devient rapidement une operation difficile, car les differents parametres interagissent de maniere complexe avec les processus d'avalanche et de generation de bruit. Enfin, l'electronique de lecture pour les matrices de PAMP demeure encore rudimentaire et il serait profitable d'analyser differentes strategies de lecture. Pour repondre a cette question, la solution la plus economique est d'utiliser un simulateur pour converger vers la configuration donnant les meilleures performances. Les travaux de ce memoire presentent le developpement d'un tel simulateur. Celui-ci modelise le comportement d'une matrice de PAMP en se basant sur les equations de physique des semiconducteurs et des modeles probabilistes. Il inclut les trois principales sources de bruit, soit le bruit thermique, les declenchements intempestifs correles et la diaphonie optique. Le simulateur permet aussi de tester et de comparer de nouvelles approches pour l'electronique de lecture plus adaptees a ce type de detecteur. Au final, le simulateur vise a

  13. 31 CFR 595.317 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  14. 31 CFR 543.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  15. 31 CFR 595.317 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  16. 31 CFR 547.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or any other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  17. 31 CFR 549.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  18. 31 CFR 588.312 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  19. 31 CFR 537.327 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  20. 31 CFR 543.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  1. 31 CFR 542.304 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  2. 31 CFR 548.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  3. 31 CFR 548.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  4. 31 CFR 547.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or any other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  5. 31 CFR 548.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  6. 31 CFR 549.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  7. 31 CFR 588.312 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  8. 31 CFR 594.317 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  9. 31 CFR 594.317 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  10. 31 CFR 594.317 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  11. 31 CFR 543.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  12. 31 CFR 588.312 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  13. 31 CFR 588.312 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  14. 31 CFR 594.317 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  15. 31 CFR 549.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  16. 31 CFR 549.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives; false..., formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions....

  17. 31 CFR 594.317 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other transmission of value; weapons or related materiel; chemical or biological agents; explosives..., diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other...

  18. Utiliser la Dimension Europeenne Pour Faire Sortir l'Ecole de ses Murs ou "Extra Muros."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champollion, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Five European institutions devoted to principal training developed the Comenius project "Extra Muros" between 1996-99. Its objectives were understanding the importance of educative action outside the school in order to provide equal opportunity to all students, as well as to promote the awareness of Europe among schools. The project facilitates…

  19. Utilising the `3P-model' to Characterise the Discipline of Didactics of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè

    In our research within didactics of science, we have been exploring contributions of the so called cognitive models from contemporary philosophy of science. We have used these philosophical frameworks on different levels. As an outcome, we have formulated a model of didactics of science according to which this discipline adapts and transforms theoretical contributions from different scholarly fields. In this paper, we concentrate on this description of didactics of science, which we have called the 3P-model (i.e., philosophy + psychology + pedagogy). This model of the internal functioning of the discipline may be useful to make innovations in science curriculum design and re-conceptualise the role of science teachers as professionals. We see didactics of science as a set of interrelated activities, performed by different individuals, and ranging from theoretical production to practice of science education at school. We find the concept of technoscience suitable to account for this diversity of goals. According to this concept, scientific disciplines are identified both with generation of knowledge and with active intervention on the world. Within current didactics of science, we recognise several kinds of research, having goals more or less directed to practical intervention in science education.

  20. Developpement et utilisation de sources de plasma pour steriliser des instruments medicaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, Jerome

    Advances in plasma sterilization of medical devices (MDs) are dependent upon both the development of plasma sources adapted to the processing of these MDs, and upon the understanding of the inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms. The main objectives of this thesis were, on the one hand, to develop plasma sources that are spatially uniform and that have a low gas temperature (< 50°C) and, on the other hand, the identification and optimization of biocidal agents (e.g. UV radiation) in their plasmas. In the course of this work, we have designed and developed three types of electromagnetic field applicators to sustain plasma. The first was a network of distributed antennas on the outside of the dielectric discharge-vessel, which possessed multiple high-frequency (HF) input ports fed by a waveguide-based power divider. This distributed source concept was soon abandoned in favour of two other plasma source designs, since the latter ones provided immediate advantages for biomedical sterilization, and also in terms of energy efficiency and frequency bandwidth (e.g. near-constant input impedance). These two plasma sources are based on planar transmission line designs where the plasma is part of the transmission line: the first allows one to sterilize the inner surfaces (lumen) of thermally sensitive dielectric tubes (e.g. cardiac catheters), while the other enables one to immerse three-dimensional objects within the plasma (e.g. forceps). Two types of microorganisms were used to test the performances to identify and to optimise the biocidal agents of the plasma sources that we have developed namely, sedimented bacterial spores from a suspension of Bacillus atrophaeus and vegetative Staphylococcus aureus bacteria embedded in a biofilm matrix. Inactivation of these microorganisms in our plasma sterilizers results through irradiation. This sterilization process is rapid (a few minutes), non-toxic (it does not require venting), and it affects thermally sensitive polymers relatively little (no erosion was detected). Keywords: high-frequency (HF) plasma sources, input impedance, planar transmission lines, sterilization, bacterial spores, biofilm, thermally sensitive medical devices (MDs).