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  1. Maternal Glycemia and Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Babies in a Population-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kerényi, Zsuzsa; Tamás, Gyula; Kivimäki, Mika; Péterfalvi, Andrea; Madarász, Eszter; Bosnyák, Zsolt; Tabák, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns, but many LGA babies are born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance. We aimed to clarify the association of maternal glycemia across the whole distribution with birth weight and risk of LGA births in mothers with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We undertook a population-based gestational diabetes screening in an urban area of Hungary in 2002–2005. All singleton pregnancies of mothers ≥18 years of age, without known diabetes or gestational diabetes (World Health Organization criteria) and data on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 22–30 weeks of gestation, were included (n = 3,787, 78.9% of the target population). LGA was determined as birth weight greater than the 90th percentile using national sex- and gestational age–specific charts. RESULTS Mean ± SD maternal age was 30 ± 4 years, BMI was 22.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2, fasting blood glucose was 4.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l, and postload glucose was 5.5 ± 1.0 mmol/l. The mean birth weight was 3,450 ± 476 g at 39.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation. There was a U-shaped association of maternal fasting glucose with birth weight (Pcurve = 0.004) and risk of having an LGA baby (lowest values between 4 and 4.5 mmol/l, Pcurve = 0.0004) with little change after adjustments for clinical characteristics. The association of postload glucose with birth weight (P = 0.03) and the risk of an LGA baby (P = 0.09) was weaker and linear. CONCLUSIONS Both low and high fasting glucose values at 22–30 weeks of gestation are associated with increased risk of an LGA newborn. We suggest that the excess risk related to low glucose reflects the increased use of nutrients by LGA fetuses that also affects the mothers' fasting glucose. PMID:19729526

  2. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants 1596 mother–child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Primary measures Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants’ responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. Results At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social–emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to <1 hour per day and the child being able to fall asleep in <30 min and sleeping through the night by age 2. Conclusions Among families where the mother has poor mental health, public health and early intervention strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work–life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2

  3. Maternal and foetal risk factor and complication with immediate outcome during hospital stay of very low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M A; Jahan, N; Dey, S K; Uddin, M F; Ahmed, S

    2012-10-01

    This prospective study was done to find out the maternal and foetal risk factors and complications during hospital stay. It was conducted in Special Care Neonatal Unit (SCANU), Department of Child Health, Bangabandhu Memorial Hospital (BBMH), University of Science and Technology Chittagong (USTC) from1st October 2001 to 30th March 2002 and cases were 35 very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. Common complications of VLBW babies of this series were frequent apnea (40%), Septicemia (25.71%), Hypothermia (17.14%), NEC (14.28%), Convulsion (11.43%), Hyper-bilirubinaemia (8.57%), Anemia (5.71%), IVH (5.71%), RDS (2.86%), HDN (2.86%), CCF (2.86%), ARF (2.86%), either alone or in combination with other clinical conditions. Newborns 62.86% male, 37.14% female & their mortality rate were 40.91% & 38.46% respectively; Preterm 88.57% & their mortality (41.93%) were higher than term babies (25.00%); AGA 62.86%, SGA 37.14% & mortality rate of AGA babies (45.46%) were higher than of SGA (30.77%) babies. The mortality rate of VLBW infants of teen age (≤ 18 years) mothers (57.14%) & high (≥ 30 years) aged mothers (50.00%) were higher than average (19-26 yrs) maternal age mothers (33.33%). Mortality rate was higher among the babies of primi (41.67%) than multiparous (36.36%), poor socioeconomic group (53.33%) than middle class (30.00%) & mothers on irregular ANC (47.83%) than regular ANC (25.00%). It has been also noted the mortality rate of home delivered babies (50.00%) higher than institutional delivered (34.78%) babies; higher in LUCS babies (46.15%) than normal vaginal delivered babies (31.58%); higher in the babies who had antenatal maternal problem (48.15%) than no maternal problems babies (12.50%); higher in the babies who had fetal distress (50.00%) and twin (46.67%) than no foetal risk factors (28.57%) during intrauterine life; higher in the babies who had problems at admission (46.67%) than no problems (35.00%); and mortality higher in twin (46.67%) than singleton

  4. Making time for well-baby care: the role of maternal employment.

    PubMed

    Hamman, Mary Kathryn

    2011-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children receive six well-baby visits between ages 1 month and 1 year, yet by age 14 months less than 10% of infants have received all six visits. Cost sharing under public and private insurance is very low. Low compliance rates despite the low cost of care suggest other factors, such as time costs, may be important. This paper examines the relationship between maternal employment and receipt of well-baby care. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey contains rich information on use of preventive care, maternal employment, and other economic and non-economic factors that may influence care decisions. Several approaches, including a proxy variable strategy and instrumental variables analysis, are used to attempt to address the potential endogeneity of maternal employment and examine the sensitivity of findings. Findings indicate mothers who work full-time take their children to 0.18 fewer visits (or 9% fewer at the mean) than those who have quit their jobs. Mothers with employer provided paid vacation leave take their children to 0.20 more visits (or 9% more at the mean) than other working mothers. Time appears to be an important factor in determining well-baby care receipt. Policies that extend paid leave to more employed women may improve compliance with preventive care recommendations.

  5. Impact of preterm birth on maternal well-being and women's perceptions of their baby: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jane; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 15 million babies were born preterm worldwide in 2010 and in England in 2014 there were 52 249 preterm births. Preterm babies are at increased risk of poor outcomes and this can put enormous strain on the family. Objective This study aimed to test the hypothesis that giving birth preterm affects maternal health, mood and well-being, and alters women's feelings and perceptions about their baby. Methods Data collected in a population-based survey of maternity care in England in 2014 were used. Women were randomly selected and asked about their pregnancy, birth and postnatal experience when their babies were about 3 months of age. Descriptive statistics were produced, and logistic regression used to estimate ORs, adjusted for key confounders. Main outcome measures—Women's self-reported postnatal health, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, women's perceptions of their baby. Results 4578 women returned completed questionnaires. Of these, 42 (0.9%) had babies born before 32 weeks' gestation and 243 (5.5%) at 32–36 weeks. Comparing the three gestational age groups, no statistically significant differences in rates of depressive symptoms measured on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were found. However, using a health problems checklist, anxiety, fatigue and flash-backs were more common in mothers of preterm babies. Overall, mothers of preterm babies had less early contact with their baby, more postnatal health problems, substantially less positive feelings towards their baby and made less use of the support options available. Conclusions Women with preterm births are at increased risk of ill-health and negative feelings about their baby in the early months after birth. They make less use of postnatal services and support than other women and this may be an area where the use of specialist services would be appropriate. PMID:27855105

  6. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.; Eisenger, K.; Brown, S.

    1995-08-28

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism, and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At age 14 months, motor and intellectual development were normal, but growth remained below the 10th centile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

  8. Effect of previous miscarriage on the maternal birth experience in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of miscarriage is related to birth experience and/or maternal fear of an adverse birth outcome for self or infant during a subsequent delivery. Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, the First Baby Study. Sample Women aged 18-35 who were expecting to deliver their first live-born infants in Pennsylvania between January 2009 and April 2011. Participants Four hundred fifty-three pregnant women who reported perinatal loss prior to 20 weeks gestation (miscarriage) in a previous pregnancy and 2401 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage were interviewed during pregnancy and again one month after their first live birth. Methods Maternal birth experience and fear of an adverse birth outcome measured via telephone interview were compared across groups. Results Maternal birth experience scores did not significantly differ between women with and without previous miscarriage. Women with a history of miscarriage reported that they feared an adverse birth outcome for themselves or their infants more frequently than women without a history of miscarriage (52.1% vs. 46.6%; p=0.033), however, this relationship was not significant after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that there is no association between miscarriage history and birth experience. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial including an in-depth examination of fear of adverse outcome during birth. However, nurses and midwives may consider using therapeutic communication techniques to ensure that women with a history of miscarriage receive strong emotional support and reassurance during birth. PMID:23772602

  9. The 2030 Problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers

    PubMed Central

    Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388

  10. Estimating conception statistics using gestational age information from NHS Numbers for Babies data.

    PubMed

    Chow, Yuan Huang; Dattani, Nirupa

    2009-01-01

    Conception statistics routinely published for England and Wales include pregnancies that result in one or more live- or stillbirths (a maternity) or an abortion. All live births are assumed to be 38 weeks gestation as information on gestation is not collected at birth registration. For the first time, gestational age information from the National Health Service (NHS) Numbers for Babies (NN4B) data has been used to re-estimate conception statistics for 2005. This shows that 72 per cent of conceptions leading to a maternity in fact have a gestati on period that differs from 38 weeks and most of these fall at either 37 or 39 weeks. The age-specific conception rates using this revised method are not significantly different to those produced using the current method.

  11. Infant Arterial Stiffness and Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy: A UK Birth Cohort (Baby VIP Study)

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Cade, Janet E.; McArdle, Harry J.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hayes, Helen E.; Ciantar, Etienne; Simpson, Nigel A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In animal studies, iron deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to increased offspring cardiovascular risk. No previous population studies have measured arterial stiffness early in life to examine its association with maternal iron status. Objective This study aimed to examine the association between maternal iron status in early pregnancy with infant brachio-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods The Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular Health and Iron in Pregnancy) study is a UK-based birth cohort which recruited 362 women after delivery from the Leeds Teaching Hospitals postnatal wards. Ferritin and transferrin receptor levels were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester. Infant brachio-femoral PWV was measured during a home visit at 2–6 weeks. Results Iron depletion (ferritin <15 µg/l) was detected in 79 (23%) women in early pregnancy. Infant PWV (mean = 6.7 m/s, SD = 1.3, n = 284) was neither associated with maternal ferritin (adjusted change per 10 µg/l = 0.02, 95% CI: −0.01, 0.1), nor with iron depletion (adjusted change = −0.2, 95% CI: −0.6, 0.2). No evidence of association was observed between maternal serum transferrin receptor level and its ratio to ferritin with infant PWV. Maternal anaemia (<11 g/dl) at <20 weeks’ gestation was associated with a 1.0-m/s increase in infant PWV (adjusted 95% CI: 0.1, 1.9). Conclusion This is the largest study to date which has assessed peripheral PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness in infants. There was no evidence of an association between markers of maternal iron status early in pregnancy and infant PWV. PMID:25790854

  12. Can Caesarean section improve child and maternal health? The case of breech babies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Wüst, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the health effects of Caesarean section (CS) for children and their mothers. We use exogenous variation in the probability of CS in a fuzzy regression discontinuity design. Using administrative Danish data, we exploit an information shock for obstetricians that sharply altered CS rates for breech babies. We find that CS decreases the child's probability of having a low APGAR score and the number of family doctor visits in the first year of life. We find no significant effects for severe neonatal morbidity or hospitalizations. While mothers are hospitalized longer after birth, we find no effects of CS for maternal post-birth complications or infections. Although the change in mode of delivery for the marginal breech babies increases direct costs, the health benefits show that CS is the safest option for these children.

  13. Baby on board: do responses to stress in the maternal brain mediate adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    Stress and adverse environmental surroundings result in suboptimal conditions in a pregnant mother such that she may experience poor pregnancy outcome including complete pregnancy failure and preterm labor. Furthermore her developing baby is at risk of adverse programming, which confers susceptibility to long term ill health. While some mechanisms at the feto-maternal interface underlying these conditions are understood, the underlying cause for their adverse adaptation is often not clear. Progesterone plays a key role at many levels, including control of neuroendocrine responses to stress, procuring the required immune balance and controlling placental and decidual function, and lack of progesterone can explain many of the unwanted consequences of stress. How stress that is perceived by the mother inhibits progesterone secretion and action is beginning to be investigated. This overview of maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress throughout pregnancy analyses how they interact to compromise progesterone secretion and precipitate undesirable effects in mother and offspring.

  14. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Necrotizing Enterocolitis-associated Infant Mortality in Preterm Babies

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Guodong; Yu, Jing; Chen, Yan; Vinturache, Angela; Pang, Yu; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the possible pregnancy-related risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)-associated deaths during infancy. Infant death due to NEC in preterm babies was identified from the US Linked Livebirth and Infant Death records between 2000 and 2004. The average number of cigarettes per day reported by the mothers who were smoking during pregnancy was classified in three categories: non-smoking, light smoking (<10 cigarettes/day) and heavy smoking (≥10 cigarettes/day). Logistic regression analyses examined the association between prenatal smoking and NEC-associated infant mortality rates with adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with non-smoking mothers, light and heavy smoking mothers have a higher risk of NEC-associated infant mortality [light smoking: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.43; heavy smoking: aOR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.12–1.52], respectively. Moreover, the association was stronger among white race (light smoking: aOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.34–2.13; heavy smoking: aOR = 1.44, 95% CI, 1.18–1.75) and female babies (light smoking: aOR = 1.31, 95% CI, 1.02–1.69; heavy smoking: aOR = 1.62, 95% CI, 1.29–2.02). Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of infant mortality due to NEC in preterm babies, especially in white race and female babies. PMID:28361963

  15. A longitudinal study on emotional dysregulation and obesity risk: From pregnancy to 3 years of age of the baby.

    PubMed

    de Campora, Gaia; Larciprete, Giovanni; Delogu, Anna Maria; Meldolesi, Cristina; Giromini, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Some recent findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and emotional regulation may play a key role in predicting the risk for obesity of the child in early ages. The current article describes a longitudinal study encompassing more than 50 women, across a time-span that currently goes from pregnancy (n = 65) to three years of age of the baby (n = 53). In a previous report on our ongoing research project, we showed that emotional regulation during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted the quality of the early, dyadic feeding interactions, at 7 months of age of the baby. The current study confirmed and extended those findings, by showing that maternal emotional dysregulation (r = .355, p = .009) and pre-pregnancy BMI (r = .389, p = .004) predicted the BMI of the child at three years of age too, with a medium to large effect size. However, neither maternal emotional regulation nor pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted infant attachment at one year of age.

  16. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  17. Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love. Birth to Age Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)…

  18. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.B.; Eisenger, K.; Brown, S.

    1994-09-01

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 14 months, motor and intellectual development appear to be normal, but growth remains below the 10th percentile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered.

  19. Disease spread in age structured populations with maternal age effects.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jessica; Garbutt, Jennie S; McNally, Luke; Little, Tom J

    2017-04-01

    Fundamental ecological processes, such as extrinsic mortality, determine population age structure. This influences disease spread when individuals of different ages differ in susceptibility or when maternal age determines offspring susceptibility. We show that Daphnia magna offspring born to young mothers are more susceptible than those born to older mothers, and consider this alongside previous observations that susceptibility declines with age in this system. We used a susceptible-infected compartmental model to investigate how age-specific susceptibility and maternal age effects on offspring susceptibility interact with demographic factors affecting disease spread. Our results show a scenario where an increase in extrinsic mortality drives an increase in transmission potential. Thus, we identify a realistic context in which age effects and maternal effects produce conditions favouring disease transmission.

  20. The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service: a decade of achievement in the health of women and babies in NSW.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elisabeth; Best, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service was established to improve the health of Aboriginal women during pregnancy and decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality for Aboriginal babies. The Service is delivered through a continuity-of-care model, where midwives and Aboriginal Health Workers collaborate to provide a high quality maternity service that is culturally sensitive, women centred, based on primary health-care principles and provided in partnership with Aboriginal people. An evaluation of the Service found that the program is achieving its goals in relation to the provision of antenatal and postnatal care and has demonstrated improvements in perinatal morbidity and mortality rates.

  1. SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHERS IN RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT WITH THEIR BABIES: IMPORTANCE OF PRE- AND POSTNATAL MATERNAL REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING

    PubMed Central

    Pajulo, Marjukka; Pyykkönen, Nina; Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Helenius, Hans; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Suchman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    A residential treatment program has been developed specifically for substance-abusing pregnant and parenting women in Finland, focusing on simultaneously supporting maternal abstinence from substances and the mother–baby relationship. The aims of the study are to explore maternal pre- and postnatal reflective functioning and its association with background factors, maternal exposure to trauma, and psychiatric symptoms, postnatal interaction, child development, and later child foster care placement. Participants were 34 mother–baby pairs living in three residential program units during the pre- to postnatal period. We employed self-report questionnaires on background, trauma history, and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory: L.R. Derogatis, 1993; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: J.L. Cox, J.M. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987; Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire: B. Van der Kolk, 2003), videotaped mother–child interactions coded for sensitivity, control, and unresponsiveness (Care Index for Infants and Toddlers: P. Crittenden, 2003); a standardized test of child development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II: N. Bayley, 1993); and semistructured interviews for maternal reflective functioning (Pregnancy Interview: A. Slade, E. Bernbach, J. Grienenberger, D.W. Levy, & A. Locker, 2002; Parent Development Interview: A. Slade et al., 2005). Pre- and postnatal maternal reflective functioning (RF) was on average low, but varied considerably across participants. Average RF increased significantly during the intervention. Increase in RF level was found to be associated with type of abused substance and maternal trauma history. Mothers who showed lower postnatal RF levels relapsed to substance use more often after completing a residential treatment period, and their children were more likely to be placed in foster care. The intensive focus on maternal RF is an important direction in the development of efficacious treatment for this very high risk

  2. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers <25 years, odds ratios of hospital admission at 18 months were 0.97 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.09], 0.92 [0.81, 1.05], 0.76 [0.65, 0.90], and 0.71 [0.51, 0.98] for mothers aged 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and >40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951

  3. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction.

  4. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    PubMed

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  5. America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

    America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

  6. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth. PMID:26795494

  7. Out of the Closet and into the Trenches: Gay Male Baby Boomers, Aging, and HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…

  8. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  9. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-01-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  10. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. The Complete and Authoritative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelov, Steven P., Ed.; Hannemann, Robert E., Ed.

    This book, prepared by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is designed to provide parents with the most accurate and up-to-date information about the health and well-being of their young children from birth through age 5. The titles of the book's 30 chapters are: (1) "Preparing for a New Baby"; (2) "Birth and the First Moments…

  11. Hispanic Baby Boomers: Health Inequities Likely to Persist in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Valentine M.; Wallace, Steven P.; Bagdasaryan, Sofya; Aranda, Maria P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As the Baby-Boom generation enters the ranks of the elderly adults over the next 4 decades, the United States will witness an unprecedented growth in racial/ethnic diversity among the older adult population. Hispanics will comprise 20% of the next generation of older adults, representing the largest minority population aged 65 years and…

  12. Paternal Age: How Does It Affect a Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with a slightly higher risk of miscarriage. Autism. Research shows a link between advanced paternal age and an increased frequency of autism. Birth defects. Although the overall risk is exceedingly ...

  13. Primiparity at very advanced maternal age (≥ 45 years).

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Segev-Zahav, Aliza; Fortinsky, Paige; Gedal-Beer, Debby; Schiff, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-06-30

    This study describes maternal and birth outcomes of primiparae aged ≥ 45. High rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were found, stressing that the personal risks and ramifications to the health system should be taken into account in establishing obstetric health policy regarding primiparity at advanced maternal age.

  14. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  15. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  16. Maternal stress or anxiety during pregnancy and the development of the baby.

    PubMed

    Glover, V

    1999-05-01

    We have recently carried out a study of 100 mothers at Queen Charlotte's Hospital, at 32 weeks' gestation, and shown that those who were most anxious had impaired blood flow through the uterine arteries. This may help to explain why the babies of very anxious mothers tend to be smaller or born earlier. We have also shown that there is a strong correlation between plasma levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the mother and in the fetus. If the pregnant mother has raised cortisol, this may have a direct effect on the development of the fetal brain, and affect the child's later responses to stress.

  17. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  18. Breastfeed Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nutrition she needs. Birth to age 6 months: Feed your baby breast milk only (no formula, ... or medicine that your doctor recommends. Ages 6 months to 12 months: Keep breastfeeding your baby. Introduce ...

  19. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Soo Hyun; Mason, John; Crum, Jennifer; Cappa, Claudia; Hotchkiss, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs) was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results 1) There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10), but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180). 2) For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group). 3) The association (adjusted) continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4) The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts) in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions The effect of low maternal age on child height

  20. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soo Hyun; Mason, John; Crum, Jennifer; Cappa, Claudia; Hotchkiss, David R

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15-24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs) was estimated in age bands of 0-11, 12-23, 24-35, 36-47, and 48-59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15-17, 18-19, and 20-24 years. Results 1) There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10), but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180). 2) For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15-17 or 15-19 years vs. the older group). 3) The association (adjusted) continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4) The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts) in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions The effect of low maternal age on child height restriction from 0 to

  1. Is it a baby? Perceived age affects brain processing of faces differently in women and men.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Zani, Alberto; Martin, Eleonora

    2011-11-01

    It is known that infant faces stimulate visual and anterior brain regions belonging to the mesocortical limbic system (orbito-frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens) as well as the fusiform gyrus during face coding, suggesting a preferential response to baby schema. In the present investigation, faces of infants, children, and adults were presented to 40 male and female right-handed university students with technological objects (and inanimate scenarios to serve as targets) in a randomly mixed fashion. EEG was recorded from 128 scalp sites. In both sexes, the N1 response to infant faces was larger than the response to adult faces; however, the baby-specific N1 response was much larger in women than in men across the left hemisphere. The anterior N2 response to infants was greater than the response to children only in women, whereas the response to children of any age was larger than the response to adults in men. LORETA identified the intracranial sources of N2 response to infants in the left fusiform gyrus (FG), as well as the uncus, cingulate, and orbito-frontal cortices. The FG, the limbic, and especially the orbito-frontal sources were much larger in women than in men. The data suggest a sex difference in the brain response to faces of different ages and in the preferential response to infants, especially with regard to activation of the mesocorticolimbic system.

  2. The Effects of Pregnancy-Adaptation Training on Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Adaptation in Pregnant Women With a History of Baby Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baghdari, Nasrin; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Azmoude, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that educating mothers can improve their adaptation to pregnancy and motherhood roles. There are also studies that have investigated the effects of certain interventions on maternal-fetal attachment. However, studies on the effects of maternal adaptation training on maternal-fetal attachment in mothers with a history of fetal or baby loss are rare. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a pregnancy adaptation training package on maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women with a history of baby loss. Patients and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 pregnant women with previous fetal or neonatal death in 2014. The women were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30). The pregnant women in the experimental group received routine prenatal education in addition to four sessions of a pregnancy adaption training package. The control group received only routine prenatal education. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Cranley’s maternal-fetal attachment scale, and a prenatal self-evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the study. The data analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results Before the intervention, there were no statistically significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of maternal-fetal attachment (P = 0.280) and adaptation to pregnancy (P = 0.883). However, following the intervention, the mean score of the maternal-fetal attachment was significantly higher in the experimental group, when compared with the control (77.57 ± 7.23 vs. 61.53 ± 2.62; P = 0.001). In addition, the mean post-intervention adaptation to pregnancy score was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (118.89 ± 8.12 vs. 126.38 ± 4.17; P = 0.001). Conclusions The pregnancy adaptation

  3. Maternal Age at First Birth and Boys' Risk for Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Loeber, Rolf; Green, Stephanie M.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2000-01-01

    Studied multigenerational links between maternal history of problem behavior, mother's age at birth of first child, and child conduct disorder in boys. Found that maternal age at first birth was associated with child's conduct disorder, and maternal history of problem behavior was also associated with early maternal age at first birth and the…

  4. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  5. Maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Bailit, Jennifer L.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Reddy, Uma M.; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor H.; Hibbard, Judith U.; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Branch, D. Ware; Burkman, Ronald; Haberman, Shoshana; Hatjis, Christos G.; Hoffman, Matthew K.; Kominiarek, Michelle; Landy, Helain J.; Learman, Lee A.; Troendle, James; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Wilkins, Isabelle; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age. STUDY DESIGN We used electronic medical records data from 10 US institutions in the Consortium on Safe Labor on 115,528 deliveries from 2002 through 2008. Deliveries were divided by labor onset type (spontaneous, elective induction, indicated induction, unlabored cesarean). Neonatal and maternal outcomes were calculated by labor onset type and gestational age. RESULTS Neonatal intensive care unit admissions and sepsis improved with each week of gestational age until 39 weeks (P < .001). After adjusting for complications, elective induction of labor was associated with a lower risk of ventilator use (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 – 0.53), sepsis (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.26 – 0.49), and neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.48 – 0.57) compared to spontaneous labor. The relative risk of hysterectomy at term was 3.21 (95% CI, 1.08 – 9.54) with elective induction, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.24 – 5.58) with indicated induction, and 6.57 (95% CI, 1.78 – 24.30) with cesarean without labor compared to spontaneous labor. CONCLUSION Some neonatal outcomes improved until 39 weeks. Babies born with elective induction are associated with better neonatal outcomes compared to spontaneous labor. Elective induction may be associated with an increased hysterectomy risk. PMID:20207242

  6. The Evaluation of the Effects of Paternal and Maternal Silent Coeliac Disease on Birthweight and Gestational Age in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Kahveci, H; Turan, MI; Cayir, A; Laloglu, F; Ertekin, V; Orbak, Z

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Coeliac disease is a chronic disease and is common all over the world. It has many other associated systemic side effects. This study investigated the effect of paternal and maternal silent coeliac disease on birthweight and gestational age in newborns. Methods: The study group consisted of 81 newborns who were hospitalized for prematurity or term-intrauterine growth retardation. The parents of premature and/or small for gestational age babies born with coeliac disease-specific antigens were investigated. Results: The differences were not statistically significant in fathers' tissue transglutaminase levels between premature appropriate gestational age, premature small gestational age and term small gestational age infants (p > 0.05), but statistically significant in mothers (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Silent coeliac disease may occur in parents, especially in mothers of preterm and small for gestational age infants, even in the absence of apparent clinical indications. PMID:25781285

  7. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    PubMed

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  8. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. Results: There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). Conclusion: In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. PMID:27759818

  9. Multicohort analysis of the maternal age effect on recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Hilary C.; Christ, Ryan; Hussin, Julie G.; O'Connell, Jared; Gordon, Scott; Mbarek, Hamdi; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; McAloney, Kerrie; Willemsen, Gonnecke; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Nicola; Montgomery, Grant W.; Navarro, Pau; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Vitart, Veronique; Wilson, James F.; Marchini, Jonathan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Donnelly, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that the number of crossovers increases with maternal age in humans, but others have found the opposite. Resolving the true effect has implications for understanding the maternal age effect on aneuploidies. Here, we revisit this question in the largest sample to date using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-chip data, comprising over 6,000 meioses from nine cohorts. We develop and fit a hierarchical model to allow for differences between cohorts and between mothers. We estimate that over 10 years, the expected number of maternal crossovers increases by 2.1% (95% credible interval (0.98%, 3.3%)). Our results are not consistent with the larger positive and negative effects previously reported in smaller cohorts. We see heterogeneity between cohorts that is likely due to chance effects in smaller samples, or possibly to confounders, emphasizing that care should be taken when interpreting results from any specific cohort about the effect of maternal age on recombination. PMID:26242864

  10. Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Čulić, Vida

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  11. Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-06-01

    We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11-18 years of age, compared to 25-29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ≥35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (≥40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications.

  12. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  13. Effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding during the first year postpartum in the First Baby Study: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Miscarriage, the unexpected loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks gestation, may have a negative effect on a mother’s perception of herself as a capable woman and on her emotional health when she is pregnant again subsequent to the miscarriage. As such, a mother with a history of miscarriage may be at greater risk for difficulties navigating the process of becoming a mother and achieving positive maternal-infant bonding with an infant born subsequent to the loss. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding after the birth of a healthy infant to test the hypothesis that women with a history of miscarriage have decreased maternal-infant bonding compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We completed secondary analysis of the First Baby Study, a longitudinal cohort study, to examine the effect of a history of miscarriage on maternal-infant bonding at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months after women experienced the birth of their first live-born baby. In a sample of 2798 women living in Pennsylvania, USA, we tested our hypothesis using linear regression analysis of Shortened Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (S-PBQ) scores, followed by longitudinal analysis using a generalized estimating equations model with repeated measures. Results We found that women with a history of miscarriage had similar S-PBQ scores as women without a history of miscarriage at each of the three postpartum time points. Likewise, longitudinal analysis revealed no difference in the pattern of maternal-infant bonding scores between women with and without a history of miscarriage. Conclusions Women in the First Baby Study with a history of miscarriage did not differ from women without a history of miscarriage in their reported level of bonding with their subsequently born infants. It is important for clinicians to recognize that even though some women may experience impaired bonding related to a history of miscarriage

  14. Age and Sex Differences in Children's Responses to Babies: Effects of Adult's Caretaking Requests and Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Phyllis W.; Goodman, Vickie

    1984-01-01

    In a double-baseline design, children were observed first after being asked to take care of a baby then after watching a male or female adult demonstrate appropriate interactions with the baby. Younger and older day care children (between 30 and 63 months old) participated. (Author/RH)

  15. New Wrinkle on Aging: Baby Steps to 2030. Aging Initiative Project 2030 Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirtz, Ron

    This policy report is intended to be a vision, a design, for certain public systems that have significant involvement with an aging population. It focuses on the central question: What can be done to build community capacity for dealing with an aging society in Minnesota? The report focuses on these three topics: (1) life-cycle…

  16. Can we define maternal age as a genetic disease?

    PubMed

    Wilding, M

    2014-01-01

    >Maternal age is strongly associated with a decrease in the probability of achieving pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Among current theories of the mechanism of this decrease is the hypothesis that a progressive degeneration of the respiratory capacity of mitochondria in eggs of women of advanced age leads to an energy deficit and consequent secondary effects on the oocyte and developing embryo. Mitochondria are uniquely inherited through the female germ line and these organelles contain DNA sequences that are independent from the genome. It is therefore possible that offspring born to females of advanced age inherit suboptimal mitochondria and that these persist throughout the life of the new being. This could in turn lead to long-term consequences for the offspring of females of advanced age such as a reduced potential lifespan in relation to the age of the mother at conception. In this review and hypothesis, we discuss the evidence relating to this theory and suggest that on this basis the maternal age effect could be classified as an inheritable genetic disease.

  17. Impact of holding the baby following stillbirth on maternal mental health and well-being: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie M; Henderson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare mental health and well-being outcomes at 3 and 9 months after the stillbirth among women who held or did not hold their baby, adjusting for demographic and clinical differences. Design Secondary analyses of data from a postal population survey. Population Women with a registered stillbirth in England in 2012. Methods 468 eligible responses were compared. Differences in demographic, clinical and care characteristics between those who held or did not hold their infant were described and adjusted for in subsequent analysis. Mental health and well-being outcomes were compared, and subgroup comparisons tested hypothesised moderating factors. Outcome Measures Self-reported depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and relationship difficulties. Results There was a 30.2% response rate to the survey. Most women saw (97%, n=434) and held (84%, n=394) their baby after stillbirth. There were some demographic differences with migrant women, women who had a multiple birth and those whose pregnancy resulted from fertility treatment being less likely to hold their baby. Women who held their stillborn baby consistently reported higher rates of mental health and relationship difficulties. After adjustment, women who held their baby had 2.12 times higher odds (95% CI 1.11 to 4.04) of reporting anxiety at 9 months and 5.33 times higher odds (95% CI 1.26 to 22.53) of reporting relationship difficulties with family. Some evidence for proposed moderators was observed with poorer mental health reported by women who had held a stillborn baby of <33 weeks’ gestation, and those pregnant at outcome assessment. Conclusions This study supports concern about the negative impact of holding the infant after stillbirth. Results are limited by the observational nature of the study, survey response rate and inability to adjust for women's baseline anxiety. Findings add important evidence to a mixed body of literature. PMID:27540097

  18. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal Ages & ...

  19. Social correlates of term small for gestational age babies in a Russian Arctic setting

    PubMed Central

    Usynina, Anna A.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Krettek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with both short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. Although social risk factors for SGA births have been studied earlier, such data are limited from Northern Russia. Objective We assessed maternal social risk factors for term SGA births based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). Design Data on term live-born singleton infants born between 2006 and 2011 in Murmansk County were obtained from the MCBR. We applied the 10th percentile for only birth weight (SGAW) or for both birth weight and birth length (SGAWL). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of independent variables on SGA males and females with adjustment for known risk factors and potential confounders. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the studied risk factors were calculated. Results The proportions of term SGAW and SGAWL births were 9.7 and 4.1%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of term SGA births among less educated, unemployed, unmarried, smoking and underweight women was higher compared with women from the reference groups. Evidence of alcohol abuse was also associated with birth of SGAWL and SGAW boys. Maternal overweight and obesity decreased the risk of SGA. Conclusions Maternal low education, unemployment, unmarried status, smoking, evidence of alcohol abuse and underweight increased the risk of term SGA births in a Russian Arctic setting. This emphasizes the importance of both social and lifestyle factors for pregnancy outcomes. Public health efforts to reduce smoking, alcohol consumption and underweight of pregnant women may therefore promote a decrease in the prevalence of SGA births. PMID:27906118

  20. Wellness engineering for better quality of life of aging baby boomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    Current health care system serving 78M aging baby-boomers is no longer sustainable, as the cost about 1/5 GDP will reach 1/4 GDT when all is retired in decades, unless the system is changed. We design a high-tech safe net to enhance the timeliness of early correct treatment execution (otherwise, causing 1/4 mortality associated with an escalating legal fee waste). We follow the common sense that "a stitch in time saves nine," and adopt the military surveillance know-how in designing early warning health management system, comprising of smart sensor pairs for point-care surveillance. However, the grand plan of affordable smart sensors hardware for households requires an ODM & OEM teaming to conduct parallel designing and sequential marketing strategy. The military software strategy combating a treacherous adversary enemy match well with point cares surveillance overcoming real world microorganism variability. Moreover, such smart military software provides self-reference change detection, not by traditional cohort ensemble average, but by individual own higher order statistics (HOS) independent component analysis (ICA), which take the advantage of known initial condition for each individual and desirable over-sampling daily dynamics. The triggering of warning follows the military algorithms comprising of Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). To further reduce the unwanted false negative rate, a benchmarked is made against the traditional cohort-ensemble baseline average & the upper & lower bounds of variance as adopted by the gatekeepers - Medical Doctors (MD) and Nurses.

  1. Evolutionary perspectives on pregnancy: maternal age at menarche and infant birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coall, David A; Chisholm, James S

    2003-11-01

    We present a novel evolutionary analysis of low birth weight (LBW). LBW is a well-known risk factor for increased infant morbidity and mortality. Its causes, however, remain obscure and there is a vital need for new approaches. Life history theory, the most dynamic branch of evolutionary ecology, provides important insights into the potential role of LBW in human reproductive strategies. Life history theory's primary rationale for LBW is the trade-off between current and future reproduction. This trade-off underlies the prediction that under conditions of environmental risk and uncertainty (experienced subjectively as psychosocial stress) it can be evolutionarily adaptive to reproduce at a young age. One component of early reproduction is early menarche. Early reproduction tends to maximise offspring quantity, but parental investment theory's assumption of a quantity-quality trade-off holds that maximizing offspring quantity reduces quality, of which LBW may be the major component. We therefore predict that women who experienced early psychosocial stress and had early menarche are more likely to produce LBW babies. Furthermore, the extension of parent-offspring conflict theory in utero suggests that the fetus will attempt to resist its mother's efforts to reduce its resources, allocating more of what it does receive to the placenta in order to extract more maternal resources to increase its own quality. We propose that LBW babies born to mothers who experience early psychosocial stress and have early menarche are more likely to have a higher placental/fetal weight ratio. We review evidence in support of these hypotheses and discuss the implications for public health.

  2. Screening gestational diabetes mellitus: The role of maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chun-Heng; Chen, Szu-Chi; Fang, Chi-Tai; Nien, Feng-Jung; Wu, En-Tzu; Lin, Shin-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective Using a specific cutoff of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to screen gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can reduce the use of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Since the prevalence of GDM increases with age, this screening method may not be appropriate in healthcare systems where women become pregnant at older ages. Therefore, we aimed to develop a screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration. Methods We included 945 pregnant women without history of GDM who received 75g OGTT to diagnose GDM in 2011. Screening algorithms using FPG with or without age were developed. Another 362 pregnant women were recruited in 2013–2015 as the validation cohort. Results Using FPG criteria alone, more GDM diagnoses were missed in women ≥35 years than in women <35 years (13.2% vs. 5.8%, p <0.001). Among GDM women ≥35 years, 63.6% had FPG <92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L). Use of the algorithm with an “age plus FPG” cutoff could reduce the use of OGTT (OGTT%) from 77.6% to 62.9%, while maintaining good sensitivity (from 91.9% to 90.2%) and specificity (from 100% to 100%). Similar reduction in OGTT% was found in the validation cohort (from 86.4% to 76.8%). In the simulation, if the percentage of women ≥35 years were 40% or more, the screening algorithm with an “age plus FPG” cutoff could further reduce OGTT% by 11.0%-18.8%. Conclusions A screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration can reduce the use of OGTT when women become pregnant at older ages. PMID:28296923

  3. Mother-child disagreement in reports of child anxiety: effects of child age and maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    Niditch, Laura A; Varela, R Enrique

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is high and the child is older, maternal report of anxiety is relatively higher, and when maternal anxiety is high and the child is younger, child report of anxiety is relatively higher. When maternal anxiety is low, the reporting discrepancy is relatively stable across age. Results may help explain previous mixed findings regarding effects of age and maternal anxiety on reporting discrepancies. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

  4. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of mood and behavioral problems at age 5: evidence for mediation by maternal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smarius, Laetitia Joanna Clara Antonia; Strieder, Thea G A; Loomans, Eva M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Gemke, Reinoud J; van Eijsden, Manon

    2017-03-01

    The onset of behavioral problems starts in early life. This study examined whether excessive infant crying (maternal ratings) is a determinant of emotional and behavioral problems at age 5-6 years. In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, a large prospective, observational, population-based multiethnic birth cohort, excessive infant crying (crying for three or more hours per 24 h day over the past week) during the 13th week after birth (range 11-25 weeks, SD 2 weeks), maternal burden of infant care and maternal aggressive behavior (either angry speaking, or physical aggression) was assessed using a questionnaire. Children's behavioral and emotional problems at the age of 5-6 were assessed by Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), by the subscale of generalized anxiety of the preschool anxiety scale (PAS), and by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Inclusion criterion was singleton birth. Exclusion criteria were preterm born babies or congenital disorders. Among 3389 children, excessive infant crying (n = 102) was associated with a twofold increased risk of the overall problem behavior, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6 [ORs between 1.75 (95 % CI 1.09-2.81) and 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30-3.46)]. This association was mediated by maternal burden of infant care (change in odds' ratio 1-17 %) and maternal aggressive behavior (change in odds' ratio 4-10 %). There was no effect modification by the child's gender or maternal parity. Excessive infant crying was not associated with general anxiety problems. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of behavioral, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6, as reported by their mother. Maternal burden of infant care partially mediates the association between excessive crying and behavioral and mood problems. Special care for mothers with a high burden of care for their excessive crying infant, notwithstanding their own good

  5. The changing face of consumption: the aging of the baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, R C

    1994-01-01

    Many marketers have called the baby-boom generation, i.e., those individuals born between 1946 and 1964, one of the most over-studied and over-defined groups of individuals that has ever hit the marketplace. While it sometimes seems as if the attitudes, lifestyles, and problems of this large generation should be known to all, accurate generalizations about the baby boom are difficult to make. It is a diverse collection of individuals whose needs continue to shape American society. The key challenge to marketers will be to recognize these differences among the generations and take advantage of the opportunities presented to them.

  6. Out of the closet and into the trenches: gay male Baby Boomers, aging, and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D

    2012-04-01

    Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their personal and social lives during the epidemic, throughout their life course, and into later years. But despite these lasting effects on an entire cohort of gay men, relevant scholarship narrowly focuses on older HIV-positive gay men using clinical, psychological, and social network approaches. It thus makes inadequate use of the life course perspective, which, by attention to timing, agency, and interdependence, can uncover the myriad interlocking and longitudinal aspects of the epidemic that affect this group. This article argues for the application of this latter approach to research into the lasting impacts of HIV/AIDS on this cohort of gay men. We examine HIV/AIDS mortality within this cohort at the epidemic's height, these deaths' concentration in urban gay communities, and the growing and increasingly diverse population of HIV-positive gay men born in the Baby Boom Years. Our conclusion suggests that a fuller examination of the role of HIV/AIDS in the lives of gay male Baby Boomers, using a life course perspective, is critical to appreciating this generation's heterogeneity and to expanding knowledge of how later life is shaped by the intersection between historical events, personal biography, and social and community ties.

  7. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  8. Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison.

    PubMed

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk.

  9. Comparative Study of the Cognitive Sequelae of School-Aged Victims of Shaken Baby Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipanicic, Annie; Nolin, Pierre; Fortin, Gilles; Gobeil, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is now recognized as being the main cause of severe traumatic brain injury in infancy. However, our understanding of the impact of this type of abuse on child development remains sketchy. The main objective of the current study was therefore to shed light on the cognitive dysfunctions that are particular to…

  10. AARP Online Portrayal of Social Security: Engaging Aging Baby Boomers through Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Michael L.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.

    2006-01-01

    Although baby boomers were not the sole focus of the American Association of Retired Persons' (AARP) website content on the issue of Social Security reform, their interests were addressed in a variety of ways. AARP provided information, position statements, a live chat forum, and message boards. Additionally, AARP had a partnership with the Rock…

  11. Early Language Stimulation of Down's Syndrome Babies: A Study on the Optimum Age To Begin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2002-01-01

    Examined the marked delay in language acquisition suffered by babies with Down Syndrome and how early treatment affects the subsequent observed development among 36 subjects in Spain. Found statistically significant differences in language acquisitions in favor of newborns, compared with 90-day-old through 18-month-old infants who experienced…

  12. Modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure: a review of epidemiological studies of maternal age, diet, and smoking.

    PubMed

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2008-06-01

    Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero exposures on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal exposures were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: smoking during pregnancy, diet, and age at childbirth. Meta-analysis suggested there was a modest association between higher offspring BP and prenatal exposure to smoke (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.62 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.05, I = 16.4%). However, the level of confounder adjustment varied between studies, which in some studies attenuated the association to the null. There was no strong evidence that any component of maternal diet during pregnancy (maternal protein, energy, calcium, and various other nutrients) influences offspring BP. The results of studies of maternal age varied and there was strong evidence of heterogeneity in the pooled analysis. The association with maternal age, if present, was modest (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.09 mm Hg/y, 95% confidence interval: -0.03 to 0.21, I = 89.8%). In sum, there is little empirical evidence that the maternal exposures reviewed program offspring BP. Other components of offspring health may be more susceptible to effects of programming in utero.

  13. Discordant twins with the smaller baby appropriate for gestational age – unusual manifestation of superfoetation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Baijal, Noopur; Sahni, Mohit; Verma, Neeraj; Kumar, Amit; Parkhe, Nittin; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2007-01-01

    Background Documentation of superfoetation is extremely rare in humans., The younger foetus has invariably been small for gestational age (estimated from the date of the last menstrual bleed) in all the cases reported in the literature. We report a case where the younger twin was of appropriate size for gestation. Case Presentation The first of twins was of 32 weeks gestation and the baby was of appropriate size and development for the gestational age. The second twin was of 36 weeks gestation. Gestational age was estimated with the New Ballard score, x-ray of the lower limbs, dental age on x-ray, and ophthalmic examination. Conclusion Bleeding on implantation of the first foetus probably helped demarcate the two pregnancies. Dental age and the New Ballard score can be used to diagnose superfoetation in discordant twins, when detailed first trimester ultra-sound data is not available. PMID:17239246

  14. The Kangaroo Program at a Brazilian maternity hospital: the preterm/low-weight babies' health-care under examination.

    PubMed

    Véras, Renata Meira; Traverso-Yépez, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The Kangaroo Program, originally developed in Colombia, was adopted as a public policy by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in 2000, in an effort to improve maternal and infant health in the country. This article aims to examine the Kangaroo Program as it is practiced and carried out at a maternity hospital in the northeastern Brazilian region. Through an institutional ethnographic approach, research demonstrates that the Kangaroo Program has been effective in saving lives and improving some of the infants' health outcomes. However, research also demonstrates that: (i) the socioeconomic profile of mothers in the Kangaroo Program, (ii) conflicting relationships between healthcare workers and users, and (iii) lack of socioeconomic and emotional support are impairing the adequate implementation of the program. Due to the low literacy level of most of these mothers, institutional power is used as a form of social control to keep mothers uninformed about the possibility of leaving the maternity wards. In a two-tier health system, this controlling behavior is part of existing social inequities, as the Kangaroo Program is a choice in the private health system but tends to be mandatory at SUS maternity hospitals across Brazil.

  15. Effects of maternal age and environment on offspring vital rates in the oleander aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Parris, Melissa A; Hunter, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    Maternal effects have the potential to affect population dynamics and evolution. To affect population dynamics, maternal effects must influence offspring vital rates (birth, death, or movement). Here, we explore the magnitude of nongenetic maternal influence on the vital rates of an insect herbivore and explore predictability of maternal effects with reference to published studies. We experimentally studied the effects of maternal age, host plant species (two Asclepias spp.), and density on offspring vital rates in Aphis nerii, the oleander aphid. Older mothers produced offspring that lived shorter lives, consistent with the "Lansing Effect." Older mothers also produced offspring that matured at a younger age. As maternal age increased, offspring mass at maturity decreased when mothers were on Asclepias syriaca. However, offspring mass was highest from intermediate aged mothers on A. viridis. The absence of maternal density effects seems to exclude maternal density as a potential source of delayed density dependence in A. nerii. Our results indicate that maternal effects have some influence on A. nerii vital rates. However, references to published studies suggest that only the Lansing Effect is a predictable response to maternal age in insects. Moreover, the magnitude of observed effects was generally low.

  16. [Maternal mortality in Spain, 1980-1992. Relationship with birth distributions according to the mother's age].

    PubMed

    Valero Juan, L F; Sáenz González, M C

    1997-11-01

    The maternal mortality evolution in Spain during the 1980-1992 period is reported. The influence of birth distribution according to maternal age is analyzed. The information was gathered from vital statistics published by Instituto Nacional de Estadística. The mortality rates have stabilized since 1985 (4.8 per 10(5) for 1992) associated with the increase in the proportion of births in women aged > or = 30 years (40.6% for 1992). Birth distributions according to maternal age account for 13.1% of the deaths observed. The predictions point to an increase in maternal mortality for the year 2000.

  17. Consumption and the constitution of age: expenditure patterns on clothing, hair and cosmetics among post-war 'baby boomers'.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Julia; Majima, Shinobu

    2014-08-01

    The article addresses debates around the changing nature of old age, using U.K. data on spending on dress and related aspects of appearance by older women to explore the potential role of consumption in the reconstitution of aged identities. Based on pseudo-cohort analysis of Family Expenditures Survey, it compares spending patterns on clothing, cosmetics and hairdressing, 1961-2011. It concludes that there is little evidence for the 'baby boomers' as a strategic or distinctive generation. There is evidence, however, for increased engagement by older women in aspects of appearance: shopping for clothes more frequently; more involved in the purchase of cosmetics; and women over 75 are now the most frequent attenders at hairdressers. The roots of these patterns, however, lie more in period than cohort effects, and in the role of producer-led developments such as mass cheap fashion and the development of anti-ageing products.

  18. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Sean G.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201

  19. Mothers’ Attitudes Toward Feeding Twin Babies in the First Six Months of Life: A Sample From Sakarya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Cinar, Nursan; Kose, Dilek; Alvur, Muge; Dogu, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Background It is stated in the literature that a mother’s breast milk is sufficient for more than one baby. Objectives This descriptive study aimed to determine whether twin babies are breastfed during their first six months of life. Materials and Methods We studied the twin birth cases in a state hospital in Sakarya, Turkey between October 2011 and March 2013. The population of the study consisted of entire mothers who had delivered twins in the maternity ward of the hospital. The sample comprised 30 twins’ mothers who agreed to participate in the study via telephone for six months. During these phone calls, they were asked how they preferred to feed their babies. The data were expressed as the mean and percentage. Results The average age of the mothers participating in the study was 30.17±5.16 years (min. 19; max. 38). The number of mothers who stated that they had no previous experience of breastfeeding twin babies and had received training to breastfeed multiple babies was 17 (56.7%). Twenty-seven (90%) of the mothers had had caesarean sections, and half of the babies were preterm. Only a few of the babies were fed breast milk for five months. During the following months, the breastfeeding regimen was as follows: 5 babies were breastfed for a month, 5 babies for 2 months, 4 babies for 3 months, 4 babies for 4 months, 2 babies for 5 months, and no babies in the sixth month. Conclusions It was found that the number of twin babies who were only breastfed in the first six months of life was low. According to the literature, a mother’s breast milk is sufficient for multiple babies. Mothers expecting twin babies should be informed about the benefits of breastfeeding and be encouraged to breastfeed. They should also receive training on this subject. PMID:28203331

  20. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  1. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  2. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n = 1717; ages 26-35, n = 1367; ages 36+, n = 313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages.

  3. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers' Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices.

    PubMed

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K

    2014-07-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age.

  4. Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child's learning and memory at age six?

    PubMed

    Gutteling, Barbara M; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50 boys, 62 girls, Age: M=6.7 years, SD=8.4 months), with the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Maternal stress levels were determined three times during pregnancy by self-report questionnaires. Furthermore, maternal saliva cortisol samples were used as a measure of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Results of hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal life events measured during the first part of pregnancy were negatively associated with the child's attention/concentration index, while controlling for overall IQ, gender, and postnatal stress. No associations were found between prenatal maternal cortisol and the offspring's learning and memory.

  5. Can Baby Hear?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Can Baby Hear? Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). Prior to this, the average age ...

  6. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  7. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets

  8. Maternal-age effect in aneuploidy: Does altered embryonic selection play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Aymé, Ségolène; Lippman-Hand, Abby

    1982-01-01

    The age of mothers of children with trisomy 21 (47,+21) is elevated no matter if the extra chromosome is of maternal or paternal origin, and it has been postulated that decreasing maternal selection against affected conceptuses with advancing age might explain this observation. Since the absence of sufficient data on 47,+21 abortuses precludes a direct test of this hypothesis, we have taken an indirect approach. Pooled data from spontaneous abortions and live births with autosomal trisomies, XXY and XXX, were examined to determine the natural history of these aneuploid conceptuses and its relation to maternal age. The results are consistent with decreasing embryonic selection in older women. PMID:6213153

  9. Smoking in pregnancy--effects on birth weight and on cyanide and thiocyanate levels in mother and baby.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, A R; Logan, R W; Willocks, J

    1977-01-01

    A total of 45 expectant mothers (20 smokers and 25 non-smokers) and their babies was studied and, after 14 smokers and 14 non-smokers had been closely matched for age, height, parity and social class, significant differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers in the birth weights of the babies and in cyanide and thiocyanate levels in maternal blood and urine.

  10. Infants & Toddlers: "Baby Moves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…

  11. The relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, C W; Conrad, B

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers whose premature infants were medically stable and hospitalized in the NICU were studied. Two hypotheses on the positive relationships between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment, and global self-esteem and maternal attachment could not be tested by correlational analyses due to the inadequate internal consistency of the How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. A significant correlation was found between maternal self-esteem and global self-esteem. Thus, maternal role influenced general self-concept in mothers. In addition, it was found that there were no significant correlations between the MSRI and demographic variables, such as: maternal age, marital status, income, and educational level. Another result indicated that increased global self-esteem was correlated (p < .05) with maternal age, income, and educational level. The results of this study provide clinical nurses to pay attention not only to caregiving skills but also to the mother's appraisal of herself as a mother and attachment behaviors.

  12. Agreement between maternal interview- and medical record-based gestational age.

    PubMed

    Hakim, R B; Tielsch, J M; See, L C

    1992-09-01

    Agreement between maternal interview- and medical record-based gestational age was assessed by using data from a case-control study of childhood strabismus. The sample consisted of 383 cases of strabismus and their age-matched controls, diagnosed between 1985 and 1986 in Baltimore, Maryland, who were under age 7 years when diagnosed. Medical record-based gestational age was derived, in order of priority, from early ultrasound examination, time from the last menstrual period, pediatric examination, and obstetric examination. The intraclass correlation coefficient, kappa, and mean difference were used to compare agreement between maternal interview- and medical record-based gestational age by maternal and pregnancy characteristics and characteristics related to study design. Overall, 86 percent of mothers were within 2 weeks of the gestational age reported in the medical record. The intraclass correlation coefficient comparing maternal and medical record-based gestational age was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.86). Agreement was positively associated with shorter length of recall, low birth order, and having a neonatal illness related to prematurity. Agreement was poor among mothers of healthy preterm infants. There was a weak positive association between recall and some sociodemographic covariates. There was greater misclassification of prematurity in the controls than in the cases. The results suggest that, in general, women recall gestational age well, which supports the use of gestational age derived from maternal interviews.

  13. Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

  14. As the Baby Boom Ages: Adult Participation in Postsecondary Education, 1960-2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knop, Sheila A.

    Focusing on national enrollment trends and projections from 1960 through 2010, this study examined two scenarios: that age-specific postsecondary participation rates will be the same in the future as they were in 1980, and secondly, that because of enrollment "catch-up" and "saturation" factors that there will be minor age-specific enrollment…

  15. Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birthweight: a multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2008-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20-45 years from Chicago, USA in 1997-2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 g to an increase of 10 g per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4% of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences.

  16. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Jiang Zheng; Byers, B.

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Choosing Safe Baby Gear

    MedlinePlus

    ... your reach, but out of your baby’s reach.Car seat: The law requires drivers to place a child in a car seat designed for the child’s age, weight, and ... can vary by state and include:Rear-facing car seats for babies up to age 2.Forward- ...

  18. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  19. The Association between Maternal Reproductive Age and Progression of Refractive Error in Urban Students in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Jin, Zi Bing; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J.; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhou, Hong Jia; Wang, Ning Li; Liang, Yuan Bo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children’ refractive error progression in Chinese urban students. Methods The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student’s refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline. Results At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4%) were reexamined. 226 students (58.5%) with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993–1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003–2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (β = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001), with more myopic refraction at baseline (β = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01), and with older maternal reproductive age (β = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01), had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04) had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found. Conclusions In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades. PMID:26421841

  20. Age and Arts Participation, with a Focus on the Baby Boom Cohort. Research Division Report #34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Richard A.; And Others

    Using data taken from the National Endowment for the Arts' Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) which were conducted in 1982 and 1992, this report looks at the effect of age on adult arts participation in seven benchmark or core art forms: classical music, opera, ballet, musicals, jazz, plays, and art museums. The report examines the…

  1. Growing with Your Baby: A Facilitator's Manual for Use with School-Age Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Patricia

    This facilitator's manual, produced by the Family Developmental Center of the Family Service Agency of San Francisco, is designed for use with groups of school-age mothers. Included are meeting-by-meeting instructions for the group leader and some curriculum materials for students. The introduction indicates that the leader should be sensitive to…

  2. Text4baby in the United States and Russia: an opportunity for understanding how mHealth affects maternal and child health.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ruth M; Dmitrieva, Elena; Frolov, Sergei; Gazmararian, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Text4baby uses new technology to deliver health messages and engage pregnant women and new mothers in healthy behaviors. The authors describe the need for carefully conducted early adopter epidemiologic evaluation and describe one such evaluation in a women, infant, and children clinic population in the United States and its proposed adaptation for use among early users of Text4baby in Russia. Collaborative efforts among countries can guide international understanding and use of best practices of this emerging technology.

  3. Maternal Size and Age Shape Offspring Size in a Live-Bearing Fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni

    PubMed Central

    Kindsvater, Holly K.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution. PMID:23139785

  4. Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of maternal exposures on gestational age and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational age or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational age. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational age among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB exposure, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero exposure to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441

  5. The impact of early age at first childbirth on maternal and infant health.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Cassandra M; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (≤ 2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ≤ 16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (<15 years or <2 years post-menarche) on infant outcomes is moderate; that is, future studies are likely to refine the estimate of effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar

  6. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis.

  7. Obstetric Complications, Neonatal Morbidity, and Indications for Cesarean Delivery by Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Julia; Reddy, Uma M.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Driggers, Rita W.; Landy, Helain J.; Laughon, S. Katherine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To delineate adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes as well as indications for cesarean delivery by maternal age in a contemporaneous large national cohort. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records from 12 centers and 203,517 (30,673 women aged 35 years or older) women with singleton gestations stratified by maternal age. Logistic regression was performed to investigate maternal and neonatal outcomes for each maternal age strata (referent group, age 25.0–29.9 years), adjusting for race, parity, body mass index, insurance, pre-existing medical conditions, substance and tobacco use, and site. Documented indications for cesarean delivery were analyzed. RESULTS Neonates born to women aged 25.0–29.9 years had the lowest risk of birth weight less than 2,500 g (7.2%; P<.001), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (11.5%; P<.001), and perinatal mortality (0.7%; P<.001). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were higher in women aged 35 years or older (cumulative rate 8.5% compared with 7.8%; 25.0–29.9 years; P<.001). Previous uterine scar was the leading indication for cesarean delivery in women aged 25.0 years or older (36.9%; P<.001). For younger women, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion (37.0% for those younger than age 20.0 years and 31.1% for those aged 20.0– 24.9-years; P<.001) and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing (28.7% for those younger than 20.0 years and 21.2% for those aged 20.0–24.9-years; P<.001) predominated as indications. Truly elective cesarean delivery rate was 20.2% for women aged 45.0 years or older (adjusted odds ratio 1.85 [99% confidence interval 1.03–3.32] compared with the referent age group of 25.0–29.9 years). CONCLUSIONS Maternal and obstetric complications differed by maternal age, as did rates of elective cesarean delivery. Women aged 25.0–29.9 years had the lowest rate of serious neonatal morbidity. PMID:24201681

  8. "My Baby & Me": Effects of an Early, Comprehensive Parenting Intervention on At-Risk Mothers and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttentag, Cathy L.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Baggett, Kathleen M.; Noria, Christine W.; Borkowski, John G.; Swank, Paul R.; Farris, Jaelyn R.; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G.; Carta, Judith J.; Warren, Steven F.; Ramey, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168…

  9. The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.

    PubMed

    Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

    2015-04-09

    Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease.

  10. Birth and motherhood: childbirth experience and mothers' perceptions of themselves and their babies.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth is a major experience in a woman's life, but the relation between childbirth experiences and later mother-infant outcomes has been understudied. This study examined the relation between mode of delivery and subjective birth experience (e.g., perception of control, social support during labor and delivery), and mothers' descriptions of their babies and their maternal self-esteem, both powerful predictors of maternal caregiving behavior. This study had three questions: (a) Do mode of delivery and subjective birth experience predict mothers' descriptions of their babies and maternal self-esteem? (b) Are the effects of mode of delivery on mothers' descriptions and maternal self-esteem mediated by subjective birth experience? (c) Does infant age moderate any of these pathways? The sample consisted of 269 mothers of full-term, healthy infants who gave birth in the year prior to the study. Mode of delivery showed a direct effect on how mothers describe their babies, but not maternal self-esteem, which was not mediated by subjective birth experience. Subjective birth experience had direct effects on both outcomes. Infant age did not moderate any of these pathways. Results point to the subjective aspects of childbirth as important components of women's experience of labor and delivery. Implications are discussed.

  11. Baby universes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 0+1 DIMENSIONS * Third Quantization of Free One-dimensional Universes * Third Quantization of Interacting One-Dimensional Universes * The Single-Universe Approximation and Dynamical Determination of Coupling Constants * The Third Quantized Uncertainty Principle * THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 3+1 DIMENSIONS * The Gauge Invariant Action * Relation to Other Formalisms * PARENT AND BABY UNIVERSES * The Hybrid Action * Baby Universe Field Operators and Spacetime Couplings * INSTANTONS-FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO QUANTUM GRAVITY * Quantum Mechanics * Quantum Field Theory * Quantum Gravity * Axionic Instantons * The Small Expansion Parameter * THE AXION MODEL AND THE INSTANTON APPROXIMATION * THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT * The Hawking-Baum Argument * Baby Universes and Coleman's Argument * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  12. In re Baby X.

    PubMed

    1980-04-23

    The Court of Appeals of Michigan affirmed a Probate Court ruling that maternal drug addiction during pregnancy may be considered grounds for the charge of child neglect when it results in withdrawal symptoms and failure to thrive in the newborn. Disclosure of the mother's drug treatment records was not precluded by considerations of confidentiality because the records sought were material to determination of the best interests of the child. Because the neglect proceedings were initiated after the baby's birth, the court's ruling did not necessitate recognition of all fetuses as persons under the state's abuse and neglect law.

  13. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-05-03

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  14. Burping Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burping Your Baby KidsHealth > For Parents > Burping Your Baby A A ... up, crankiness, and gassiness. How to Burp Your Baby When burping your baby, repeated gentle patting on ...

  15. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  16. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  17. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surveillance were screened to identify cases of maternal death (MD), NM and other SMM. Indicators of maternal morbidity and mortality were evaluated for the three age groups. Sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics, gestational and perinatal outcomes, main causes of morbidity and delays in care were also compared. Two multiple analysis models were performed, to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio for identified factors that were independently associated with the occurrence of severe maternal outcome (SMO = MNM + MD). Results Among SMM and MD cases identified, the proportion of adolescent girls and older women were 17% each. The risk of MNM or death was 25% higher among older women. Maternal near miss ratio and maternal mortality ratios increased with age, but these ratios were also higher among adolescents aged 10 to 14, although the absolute numbers were low. On multivariate analysis, younger age was not identified as an independent risk factor for SMO, while this was true for older age (PR 1.25; 1.07-1.45). Conclusions SMO was high among women below 14 years of age and increased with age in Brazilian pregnant women. PMID:24555831

  18. Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

  19. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  20. Maternal Age at Delivery Is Associated with an Epigenetic Signature in Both Newborns and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Allen J.; Xu, Zongli; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Harlid, Sophia; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Håberg, Siri E.; Nystad, Wenche; London, Stephanie J.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lie, Rolv T.; Wade, Paul A.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of older mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, childhood cancers, type 1 diabetes, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The underlying biologic mechanisms for most of these associations remain obscure. One possibility is that maternal aging may produce lasting changes in the epigenetic features of a child’s DNA. To test this, we explored the association of mothers’ age at pregnancy with methylation in her offspring, using blood samples from 890 Norwegian newborns and measuring DNA methylation at more than 450,000 CpG sites across the genome. We examined replication of a maternal-age finding in an independent group of 1062 Norwegian newborns, and then in 200 US middle-aged women. Older maternal age was significantly associated with reduced methylation at four adjacent CpGs near the 2nd exon of KLHL35 in newborns (p-values ranging from 3x10-6 to 8x10-7). These associations were replicated in the independent set of newborns, and replicated again in women 40 to 60 years after their birth. This study provides the first example of parental age permanently affecting the epigenetic profile of offspring. While the specific functions of the affected gene are unknown, this finding opens the possibility that a mother’s age at pregnancy could affect her child’s health through epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27383059

  1. Teaching Chilean mothers to massage their full-term infants: effects on maternal breast-feeding and infant weight gain at age 2 and 4 months.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Maria Sylvia Campos; Doren, Francisca Márquez; Wilson, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage on infant weight gain and exclusive maternal breast-feeding of an intervention that involved teaching mothers to massage their full-term infants. The sample included 100 healthy newborn infants who were receiving primary healthcare at 3 health centers in a low-income neighborhood of Santiago, Chile. The control group included 65 infants and the massage group included 35 infants. During their second well-child clinic visit, clinic nurses provided instruction to massage-group mothers about how to massage their infants, based on the methods of the Baby's First Massage program (http://www.babysfirstmassage.com/Scripts/default.asp). Mothers were encouraged to massage their infants for 10 to 15 minutes at least once a day, starting when their infants were 15 days old. There was no difference in the mean weights of the infants between the massage and control groups at baseline, but at age 2 months, massage group infants weighed significantly more than control-group infants. There were no weight differences between the 2 groups at age 4 months. There were no differences between the 2 groups on the incidence of exclusive maternal breast-feeding at age 2 or 4 months. The findings suggest that teaching mothers to massage their newborn infants may have a beneficial effect on the infant's early weight gain. There is a need for additional studies to evaluate the effect of maternal massage on other health and welfare outcomes for both mothers and infants.

  2. Miscarriage at advanced maternal age and the search for meaning.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Marsha; Wright, Rebecca J

    2017-03-01

    Although it has been documented that miscarriage is a common pregnancy outcome and more likely to happen among women aged 35 years and older, there is very little research on the quality of such a lived experience. This study features phenomenological interviews of 10 women aged 35 years and older. Theoretical frameworks of ambiguous loss and feminism guide the design and analysis. The salient themes suggest that women experience miscarriage from a physical, emotional, temporal, and social context that includes intense loss and grief, having a sense of otherness, a continuous search for meaning, and feelings of regret and self-blame.

  3. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

  4. Babies in waiting: why increasing the IVF age cut-off might lead to fewer wanted pregnancies in the presence of procrastination.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Despite the best of intentions, we often act at the last minute when we are faced with a deadline. A recent recommendation by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to make In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) available to women up to 42 years of age instead of 39 intends to offer more women the chance of pregnancy. Given what we know about behavioural responses to what is, in essence, a deadline, the policy could lead to procrastination and fewer wanted pregnancies. We examine how many women it would take to delay trying for a baby for this policy to result in fewer pregnancies. We take a cohort of 1000 women from age 34. If no women delay trying, the increased age on access to IVF results in 31 more pregnancies. Because of declining fertility with age, it would take only about a third of these women to delay trying for a baby until age 35 for there to be zero net benefits of increased IVF availability. If all women delayed by a year, the new policy will lead to 59 fewer pregnancies. We also estimate the implications for IVF treatment numbers as this has psychological and personal consequences. Our findings highlight how no policy sits in a behavioural vacuum and all policy decisions should consider the likely behavioural responses and incorporate them into their design and evaluation.

  5. Recombination and maternal age-dependent nondisjunction: Molecular studies of trisomy 16

    SciTech Connect

    Hassold, T.; Merrill, M.; Adkins, K.

    1995-10-01

    Trisomy 16 is the most common human trisomy, occurring in {ge} 1% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. It is thought to be completely dependent on maternal age and thus provides a useful model for studying the association of increasing maternal age and nondisjunction. We have been conducting a study to determine the parent and meiotic stage of origin of trisorny 16 and the possible association of nondisjunction and aberrant recombination. In the present report, we summarize our observations on 62 spontaneous abortions with trisomy 16. All trisomies were maternally derived, and in virtually all the error occurred at meiosis I. In studies of genetic recombination, we observed a highly significant reduction in recombination in the trisomy-generating meioses by comparison with normal female meioses. However, most cases of trisomy 16 had at least one detectable crossover between the nondisjoined chromosomes, indicating that it is reduced-and not absent-recombination that is the important predisposing factor. Additionally, our data indicate an altered distribution of crossing-over in trisomy 16, as we rarely observed crossovers in the proximal long and short arms. Thus, it may be that, at least for trisomy 16, the association between maternal age and trisomy is due to diminished recombination, particularly in the proximal regions of the chromosome. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Fatigue, depression, maternal confidence, and maternal satisfaction during the first month postpartum: A comparison of Japanese mothers by age and parity.

    PubMed

    Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Maehara, Kunie; Iwata, Hiroko; Sakajo, Akiko; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maternal confidence or satisfaction among older primiparae during the first month postpartum. The number of older Japanese primiparae has rapidly increased. Older primiparae are believed to be at high risk for puerperal morbidity. A multicentre prospective cohort study design was used. Data were examined from 2854 Japanese women who participated in a 6-month prospective cohort study conducted between May 2012 and September 2013. The women were classified into 4 groups based on maternal age and parity. All participants completed the Postnatal Accumulated Fatigue Scale, Japanese Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Postpartum Maternal Confidence Scale, and Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Primiparae in all age groups were more severely fatigued and had a higher risk of postpartum depression than multiparous mothers during the first month postpartum. Older primiparae had significantly lower scores on maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction than the other 3 groups at 1 month postpartum. These findings suggest that postpartum nursing should focus on promoting adequate sleep, providing emotional support, and fostering the process of maternal role adaptation among older Japanese primiparae, particularly during the first postpartum month.

  7. Gestational age, sex and maternal parity correlate with bone turnover in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hany; Moustafa, Mohamed F; Amer, Hanna A; Hassanein, Sahar; Keeves, Christine; Patel, Kantilal

    2005-05-01

    Factors affecting bone turnover in premature infants are not entirely clear but certainly are different from those influencing bones of adults and children. To identify fetal and maternal factors that might influence bone turnover, we prospectively studied 50 infants (30 preterm and 20 full-term) born at Ain Shams University Obstetric Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Maternal parity and medical history and infant's weight, gestational age, gender and anthropometrical measurements were recorded. Cord blood samples were collected and serum type I collagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP) was assessed as a marker for fetal bone formation. First morning urine samples were collected and pyridinoline cross-links of collagen (Pyd) were measured as an index for bone resorption. Serum PICP was higher in premature infants when compared with full-term infants (73.30 +/- 15.1 versus 64.3 +/- 14.7, p = 0.022) and was higher in male premature infants when compared with females (81.64 +/- 9.06 versus 66.0 +/- 15.7, p = 0.018). In a multiple regression model using PICP as the dependent variable and controlling for different infant and maternal conditions, PICP significantly correlated with infant gender (r = 8.26 +/- 4.1, p = 0.05) maternal parity (r = -2.106 +/- 0.99, p = 0.041) and diabetes (r = 22.488 +/- 8.73, p = 0.041). Urine Pyd tended to increase in premature infants (612 +/- 308 versus 434 +/- 146, p = 0.057) and correlated significantly with gestational age (r = -63.93 +/- 19.55, p = 0.002). Therefore, bone formation (PICP) is influenced by fetal age and gender, as well as maternal parity and diabetes. Bone resorption (Pyd) is mostly dependent on gestational age only. Further in-depth studies are needed to enrich management of this vulnerable population.

  8. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  9. Myoclonic seizures in a preterm baby: is this a presentation of venlafaxine withdrawal?

    PubMed

    Ansary, Althaf; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel; Manjunatha, Chikkanayakanahalli

    2014-04-01

    Venlafaxine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is increasingly used in pregnant women with pre-existing depression who require continued treatment. However, its in uteroeffects on the developing fetus are not clear. Herein, we report the unusual presentation of venlafaxine withdrawal in a female preterm baby of 29 weeks gestation, who presented with myoclonic seizures on her second day of life. The seizures were confirmed using amplitude-integrated electroencephalography, and other possible causes of neonatal seizures were excluded. The baby responded to treatment with phenobarbitone and phenytoin. Magnetic resonance imaging of her brain was unremarkable at corrected gestational age of 39 weeks and 2 days. On follow-up at the corrected age of five months, she was well and developing normally with no further seizures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of seizures in a preterm baby resulting from maternal venlafaxine use.

  10. The Baby Boomers’ Intergenerational Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130

  11. Light and maternal influence in the entrainment of activity circadian rhythm in infants 4-12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of light and maternal activity on early infant activity rhythm were studied in 43 healthy, maternal-infant pairs. Aims included description of infant and maternal circadian rhythm of environmental light, assessing relations among of activity and light circadian rhythm parameters, and exploring the influence of light on infant activity independent of maternal activity. Three-day light and activity records were obtained using actigraphy monitors at infant ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Circadian rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, rhythm center, and regularity were determined using cosinor and nonparametric circadian rhythm analyses (NPCRA). All maternal and infant circadian parameters for light were highly correlated. When maternal activity was controlled, the partial correlations between infant activity and light rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, and rhythm center demonstrated significant relation (r = .338 to .662) at infant age 12 weeks, suggesting entrainment. In contrast, when maternal light was controlled there was significant relation between maternal and infant activity rhythm (r = 0.470, 0.500, and 0.638 at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) suggesting the influence of maternal-infant interaction independent of photo entrainment of cycle timing over the first 12 weeks of life. Both light and maternal activity may offer avenues for shaping infant activity rhythm during early infancy.

  12. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Kato, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-01-08

    The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected.

  13. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Katoh, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-01-01

    The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected. PMID:28075338

  14. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  15. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized human oocytes is unrelated to maternal age

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Nureddin, Aida.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Racowsky, Catherine

    2004-12-04

    Purpose: To study whether maternal meiotic errors in failed-fertilized oocytes involving chromosome 1 occur at frequencies similar to those involving other autosomes, and whether their frequency is affected by maternal age. Methods: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), frequencies of aneusomy and chromatid pre-division involving chromosomes 1, 16, 18, and 21 were determined for 273 failed-fertilized oocytes. Results: The aneuploidy rate for chromosome 1 was 15.8 percent, and was neither age-dependent nor significantly different from that for chromosomes 16,18 or 21. Only chromosome 16 exhibited an age-dependent increase in aneusomy rates. The frequency of chromatid pre-division was lower for chromosome 1 than for chromosome 18 (11.9 percent vs. 25.4 percent; P=0.01), but not different from that for chromosomes 16 or 21. Conclusion: Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized oocytes is unrelated to maternal age and occurs at a frequency similar to that for chromosomes 16, 18 and 21.

  16. Sister kinetochore splitting and precocious disintegration of bivalents could explain the maternal age effect

    PubMed Central

    Zielinska, Agata P; Holubcova, Zuzana; Blayney, Martyn; Elder, Kay; Schuh, Melina

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy in human eggs is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and Down’s syndrome. Aneuploid eggs result from chromosome segregation errors when an egg develops from a progenitor cell, called an oocyte. The mechanisms that lead to an increase in aneuploidy with advanced maternal age are largely unclear. Here, we show that many sister kinetochores in human oocytes are separated and do not behave as a single functional unit during the first meiotic division. Having separated sister kinetochores allowed bivalents to rotate by 90 degrees on the spindle and increased the risk of merotelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Advanced maternal age led to an increase in sister kinetochore separation, rotated bivalents and merotelic attachments. Chromosome arm cohesion was weakened, and the fraction of bivalents that precociously dissociated into univalents was increased. Together, our data reveal multiple age-related changes in chromosome architecture that could explain why oocyte aneuploidy increases with advanced maternal age. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11389.001 PMID:26670547

  17. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  18. Extremes of maternal age and child mortality: analysis between 2000 and 2009☆

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fanciele Dinis; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Sant'Anna, Flávia Lopes; Dalmas, José Carlos; Girotto, Edmarlon

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of infant mortality at the extremes of maternal age. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional quantitative study using data from Live Birth Certificates, Death Certificates and from Child Death Investigation records in Londrina, Paraná, in the years of 2000-2009. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period , there were 176 infant deaths among mothers up to 19 years of age, and 113 deaths among mothers aged 35 years or more. The infant mortality rate among young mothers was 14.4 deaths per thousand births, compared to 12.9 deaths in the other age group. For adolescent mothers, the following conditions prevailed: lack of a stable partner (p<0.001), lack of a paid job (p<0.001), late start of prenatal care in the second trimester of pregnancy (p<0.001), fewer prenatal visits (p<0.001) and urinary tract infections (p<0.001). On the other hand, women aged 35 or more had a higher occurrence of hypertension during pregnancy (p<0.001), and of surgical delivery (p<0.001). Regarding the underlying cause of infant death, congenital anomalies prevailed in the group of older mothers (p=0.002), and external causes were predominant in the group of young mothers (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Both age groups deserve the attention of social services for maternal and child health, especially adolescent mothers, who presented a higher combination of factors deemed hazardous to the child's health. PMID:25511003

  19. Delivery of a Small for Gestational Age Infant and Greater Maternal Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Davis, Karen E.; Wilson, Peter W. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant has been associated with increased maternal risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). It is uncertain whether giving birth to SGA infant is a specific determinant of later IHD, independent of other risk factors, or a marker of general poor health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between delivery of a SGA infant and maternal risk for IHD in relation to traditional IHD risk factors. Methods and Findings Risk of maternal IHD was evaluated in a population based cross-sectional study of 6,608 women with a prior live term birth who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006), a probability sample of the U.S. population. Sequence of events was determined from age at last live birth and at diagnosis of IHD. Delivery of a SGA infant is strongly associated with greater maternal risk for IHD (age adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.8; 1.2, 2.9; p = 0.012). The association was independent of the family history of IHD, stroke, hypertension and diabetes (family history-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.9; 1.2, 3.0; p = 0.011) as well as other risk factors for IHD (risk factor-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.7; 1.1, 2.7; p = 0.025). Delivery of a SGA infant was associated with earlier onset of IHD and preceded it by a median of 30 (interquartile range: 20, 36) years. Conclusions Giving birth to a SGA infant is strongly and independently associated with IHD and a potential risk factor that precedes IHD by decades. A pregnancy that produces a SGA infant may induce long-term cardiovascular changes that increase risk for IHD. PMID:22431995

  20. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Safe Baby Products: Bathtubs Choosing Safe Baby Products: Changing Tables Choosing Safe Baby Products: Cribs Choosing Safe ...

  1. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Baby Products: Cribs Choosing Safe Baby Products: Gates Choosing Safe Baby Products: Infant Seats & Child Safety ... and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours ...

  2. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  3. Bonding with Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... is essential for a baby. Studies of newborn monkeys who were given mannequin mothers at birth showed ... soft material and provided formula to the baby monkeys, the babies were better socialized when they had ...

  4. Risk of Adverse Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes by Maternal Age: Quantifying Individual and Population Level Risk Using Routine UK Maternity Data

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Nicole; Pipi, Maria; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Doyle, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether moderately increased maternal age is associated with obstetric and neonatal outcome in a contemporary population, and to consider the possible role of co-morbidities in explaining any increased risk. Study Design Secondary analysis of routinely collected data from a large maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 51,225 singleton deliveries (≥22 weeks) occurring to women aged ≥20 between 2004 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios for the association between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcome (delivery type, postpartum haemorrhage, stillbirth, low birthweight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal unit admission), using the reference group 20–24 years. Population attributable fractions were calculated to quantify the population impact. Results We found an association between increasing maternal age and major postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml blood loss) (RR 1.36 95% CI 1.18–1.57 for age 25–29 rising to 2.41 95% CI 2.02–2.88 for age ≥40). Similar trends were observed for caesarean delivery, most notably for elective caesareans (RR 1.64 95% CI 1.36–1.96 for age 25–29 rising to 4.94 95% CI 4.09–5.96 for age ≥40). There was evidence that parity modified this association, with a higher prevalence of elective caesarean delivery in older nulliparous women. Women aged ≥35 were at increased risk of low birthweight and preterm birth. We found no evidence that the risk of stillbirth, small for gestational age, or neonatal unit admission differed by maternal age. Conclusions Our results suggest a gradual increase in the risk of caesarean delivery and postpartum haemorrhage from age 25, persisting after taking into account maternal BMI, hypertension and diabetes. The risk of low birthweight and preterm birth was elevated in women over 35. Further research is needed to understand the reasons behind the high prevalence of

  5. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy.

  6. Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Organic Baby Food: Better for Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are grown or processed without synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Feeding your baby organic baby food might limit ... her exposure to these substances. Conventional growers use pesticides to protect their crops from molds, insects and ...

  8. Schizencephaly: association with young maternal age, alcohol use, and lack of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Dies, Kira A; Bodell, Adria; Hisama, Fuki M; Guo, Chao-Yu; Barry, Brenda; Chang, Bernard S; Barkovich, A James; Walsh, Christopher A

    2013-02-01

    Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development characterized by congenital clefts extending from the pial surface to the lateral ventricle that are lined by heterotopic gray matter. The clinical presentation is variable and can include motor or cognitive impairment and epilepsy. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and can include teratogens, prenatal infection, or maternal trauma. Reported genetic causes include chromosomal aneuploidy, EMX2 mutations, and possible autosomal recessive familial cases based on recurrence in siblings. In an effort to identify risk factors for schizencephaly, we conducted a survey of 48 parents or primary caretakers of patients with schizencephaly born between 1983 and 2004. We discovered that young maternal age, lack of prenatal care, and alcohol use were all significantly associated with risk of schizencephaly. Our results suggest that there are important nongenetic, intrauterine events that predispose to schizencephaly.

  9. Parental age and unbalanced Robertsonian translocations associated with Down syndrome and Patau syndrome: comparison with maternal and paternal age effects for 47, +21 and 47, +13.

    PubMed

    Hook, E B

    1984-10-01

    Data are analysed on livebirths with trisomic syndromes associated with unbalanced Robertsonian translocations born from 1968 to 1981 and reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry. The maternal ages of reported cases were compared with those of the livebirths in the general population who were born in the same year. The number of translocations studied, the mean case-control differences in years in maternal age (and the standard errors of the mean) were respectively, as follows: D/21 mutants, n = 36, -0.1 (+/- 0.9); G/21 mutants, n = 46, +1.5 (+/-0.8); D/13 mutants, n = 16, +0.6 (+/-1.5); D/21 inherited, n = 12, -1.0 (+/-1.4); G/21 inherited, n = 3, -0.3 (+/-4.4); and D/13 inherited, n = 6, +2.1 (+/-2.4). There was little change in any category if the few cases diagnosed prenatally were included. Only the value for the G/21 mutants is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. (The results on G/21 mutants in maternal age are consistent with an earlier Japanese report of an increase of about 2 years over the control values.) The distribution of maternal ages suggests that G/21 mutants may be produced both by maternal age-independent and maternal age-dependent components. The data on D/21 mutants, however, do not indicate the negative association with maternal age reported in Japan. Differences between this study and the Japanese study in analyses of controls may explain this slight variation. But in any event both studies reveal no evidence for an increase in maternal age for unbalanced D/21 mutant or D/21 inherited translocations associated with Down syndrome. This is evidence against the hypothesis that relaxed selection during gestation, after recognition of pregnancy, accounts for the maternal age effects of 47, +21. In comparison with the results on Robertsonian translocations, the case-control differences in maternal age in years (and the standard errors of the mean) for 47, +21 for 2148 livebirths was +4.6 (+/-0.2), and for 2354 cases

  10. Relationship between maternal hypoglycaemia and small-for-gestational-age infants according to maternal weight status: a retrospective cohort study in two hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Satoshi; Uchida, Yuzo; Hirai, Mitsuo; Hirata, Shuji; Suzuki, Kohta

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and low glucose challenge test (GCT) results by maternal weight status has not been examined. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between a low GCT result and small for gestational age (SGA) by maternal weight status. Design A retrospective cohort study in 2 hospitals. Setting This study evaluated the obstetric records of women who delivered in a general community hospital and a tertiary perinatal care centre. Participants The number of women who delivered in both hospitals between January 2012 and December 2013 and underwent GCT between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation was 2140. Participants with gestational diabetes mellitus or diabetes during pregnancy, and GCT results of ≥140 mg/dL were excluded. Finally, 1860 women were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The participants were divided into low-GCT (≤90 mg/dL) and non-low-GCT groups (91–139 mg/dL). The χ2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between low GCT results and SGA by maternal weight status. Results The incidence of SGA was 11.4% (212/1860), and 17.7% (330/1860) of the women showed low GCT results. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their BMI (underweight, normal weight and obese). When the patients were analysed separately by their weight status after controlling for maternal age, pre-pregnancy maternal weight, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, pregnancy-induced hypertension, thyroid disease and difference in hospital, low GCT results were significantly associated with SGA (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.89; p=0.02) in the underweight group. Conclusions Low GCT result was associated with SGA at birth among underweight women. Examination of maternal glucose tolerance and fetal growth is necessary in future investigations. PMID:27913562

  11. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  12. Differences in eating behaviour, well-being and personality between mothers following baby-led vs. traditional weaning styles.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Baby-led weaning, where infants self-feed family foods in place of traditional spoon-feeding of purees, is continuing to grow in popularity. Evidence is emerging which suggests that the method may promote healthier eating behaviour and weight gain in children, but the research is in its infancy. One issue is the self-selecting nature of participants to the approach. Although those who follow a baby-led approach are known to have a higher education and more professional occupation, little is known about wider maternal characteristics, which might affect either adoption of or outcomes of the method. The aim of this study was to explore differences in maternal characteristics between those adopting a baby-led or traditional approach. Six hundred four mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months completed a questionnaire including a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) (anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and depression scales) and Ten Item Personality Questionnaire (TIPQ) alongside details of weaning approach (baby-led vs. traditional). Mothers who adopted a baby-led weaning style scored significantly lower on restrained eating (DEBQ), anxiety and introversion (TIPQ) and anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (BSI). Mothers who currently adopt a baby-led approach are therefore significantly different in personality, eating behaviour and well-being characteristics compared with those adopting a traditional approach. These characteristics may affect likelihood of choosing a baby-led approach or indirectly affect outcomes for infants weaned using the approach. Further research exploring baby-led weaning in a wider population sample is needed.

  13. Maternal age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D; Janerich, D T

    1990-03-01

    Data from a large case-control study of breast cancer were examined to test the hypothesis that maternal age at the birth of female offspring is related to the incidence of breast cancer in daughters. Participants were between the ages of 20 and 54 at the time of the study. Based on results for 2,492 parous women who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer and 2,687 parous controls from the general population, a 15-year increase in maternal age was found to be associated with a 29% increase in the risk of breast cancer in daughters. Adjustment for the daughter's age, her own reproductive history, and other potential confounding factors yielded an estimate of 25% for this increase in risk (95% CI, 8% to 46%). The corresponding increase among 499 nulliparous cases and 457 nulliparous controls was 7%, which was not statistically significantly different in magnitude from the increase among parous women. These findings provide evidence for perinatal influences on the subsequent incidence of breast cancer during adulthood. Although specific mechanisms cannot be inferred directly, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in the genes of the human egg or sperm play a role in the etiology of breast cancer in female offspring.

  14. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  15. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age.

  16. Maternal age in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure in childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    PubMed

    Roberts, R J; Leary, S D; Smith, G Davey; Ness, A R

    2005-11-01

    Associations between maternal age in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure (BP) at age 7(1/2) were investigated in 7623 singletons from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In models adjusted for age and sex there was an inverse relationship between maternal age and BP in children: beta = -0.06 mmHg per year of maternal age (95% CI -0.10 to -0.01, P = 0.02) for systolic BP and beta = -0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to -0.01, P = 0.02) for diastolic BP. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for confounding factors: beta = -0.02 mmHg per year of maternal age (95% CI -0.07 to 0.04, P = 0.5) for systolic BP and beta = -0.03 (95% CI -0.07 to 0.01, P = 0.2) for diastolic BP. We conclude that there is no evidence of a relationship between maternal age in pregnancy and childhood BP in this contemporary birth cohort.

  17. Associations of maternal and paternal antenatal mood with offspring anxiety disorder at age 18 years

    PubMed Central

    Capron, Lauren E.; Glover, Vivette; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Evans, Jonathan; O’Connor, Thomas G.; Stein, Alan; Murphy, Susannah E.; Ramchandani, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal antenatal depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of childhood behavioural and emotional problems in offspring; it remains unclear to what extent this is due to a maternal biological impact on foetal development. Here, we compare associations between maternal and paternal antenatal depression and anxiety with offspring anxiety disorders, thus controlling for some genetic and shared environmental factors. Methods We used data from the ALSPAC population cohort including measures of antenatal parental depression and anxiety. At 18 years, offspring completed the CIS-R interview, yielding diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Results were adjusted for confounding variables including parental postnatal depression and anxiety. Results Children of women with antenatal depression (18 weeks gestation), had an increased risk of anxiety disorders at 18 years of age (11.1% vs. 6.2%; adj. OR 1.75 (1.19, 2.58); p=0.01). Children of women with antenatal anxiety had increased risk of co-morbid anxiety and depression (adj. OR 1.39 (1.06, 1.82); p=0.02). No such associations were found with paternal antenatal depression or anxiety. Limitations There was a high attrition rate from the original cohort to the CIS-R completion at 18 years postpartum. Parental mood was only assessed together at one time point during the antenatal period. Conclusions The differences in the association between maternal and paternal mood during pregnancy and child outcomes supports the hypothesis that foetal programming may account, at least in part, for this association. We highlight the potential opportunity for preventative intervention by optimising antenatal mental health. PMID:26301478

  18. Maternal age, gravidity, and pregnancy spacing effects on spontaneous fetal mortality.

    PubMed

    Casterline, J B

    1989-01-01

    Differentials in the probability of pregnancy loss are examined using pregnancy history data from eight WFS surveys in developing countries. Multiple logistic regression equations are estimated. The probability of loss varies substantially over the reproductive career. Both higher-order pregnancies and those conceived at older ages are more likely to terminate in loss. maternal age differentials are more pronounced for lower-order pregnancies. First and second pregnancies conceived over age thirty suffer especially high levels of loss. Pregnancies conceived relatively soon after the termination of the previous pregnancy are more likely to be lost, as are pregnancies conceived after long intervals. Risk of loss is higher for women previously experiencing loss, and the effect persists beyond the pregnancy following the loss.

  19. The influence of maternal age and mating frequency on egg size and offspring performance in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W

    1993-10-01

    Maternal age influences offspring quality of many species of insects. This observed maternal age influence on offspring performance may be mediated through maternal age effects on egg size, which in turn may be directly influenced by the female's nutritional state. Thus, behaviors that influence a female's nutritional status will indirectly influence egg size, and possibly offspring life histories. Because males provide nutrients to females in their ejaculate, female mating frequency is one behavior which may influence her nutritional status, and thus the size of her eggs and the performance of her offspring. In this paper, I first quantify the influences of maternal age on egg size and offspring performance of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. I then examine whether nutrients transferred during copulation reduce the magnitude of maternal age effects on egg size and larval performance when mothers are nutrient-stressed. Egg size and egg hatchability decreased, and development time increased, with increasing maternal age. Multiple mating and adult feeding by females both resulted in increased egg size. This increase in egg size of females mated multiply did not translate into reduced development time or increased body size and egg hatchability, but did correlate with improved survivorship of offspring produced by old mothers. Thus, it appears that because the influence of mating frequency on egg size is small relative to the influence of maternal age, the influence of nutrients derived from multiple mating on offspring life history is almost undetectable (detected only as a small influence on survivorship). For C. maculatus, female multiple mating has been demonstrated to increase adult female survivorship (Fox 1993a), egg production (Credland and Wright 1989; Fox 1993a), egg size, and larval survivorship, but, contrary to the suggestion of Wasserman and Asami (1985), multiple mating had no detectable influence on offspring development time or body size.

  20. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  1. Insulin-receptor kinase is enhanced in placentas from non-insulin-dependent diabetic women with large-for-gestational-age babies.

    PubMed

    Takayama-Hasumi, S; Yoshino, H; Shimisu, M; Minei, S; Sanaka, M; Omori, Y

    1994-01-01

    The function of insulin receptor and IGF-1 receptor was investigated in placentas from 10 healthy control mothers, 8 diabetic mothers with appropriate-for-gestational-age babies (AGA group) and 9 diabetic mothers with large-for-gestational-age babies (LGA group). None of the diabetic mothers were obese before pregnancy; their blood glucose was well controlled during pregnancy and glycosylated HbA1c was 6.52 +/- 0.71% (M +/- S.E.). Insulin and IGF-1 receptors were partially purified from placentas using wheat germ agglutinin chromatography. The insulin-binding capacity was significantly increased in both the AGA and the LGA groups compared to the control, whereas the IGF-1 binding capacity was similar in the three groups. Autophosphorylation studies were performed with partially purified receptors equalized for similar binding capacity, then immunoprecipitated with anti-insulin receptor antibody or anti-IGF-1 receptor antibody. Insulin-stimulated 32P-incorporation into the insulin receptor beta-subunit was increased by 133% in the LGA group versus the control, whereas incorporation in the AGA group was equivalent to the control. Insulin-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor preparation for histone H2B phosphorylation was also significantly increased in the LGA group compared to the control. 32P-incorporation into beta-subunit IGF-1 receptor and IGF-1-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity did not show any significant differences among the three groups. The data in the present study suggest that elevated insulin receptor kinase might be involved in fetal overgrowth in diabetic mothers.

  2. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years.

  3. Effects of maternal age on teratogenicity of di-n-butyltin diacetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Noda, T; Yamano, T; Shimizu, M

    2001-10-30

    The present study was designed to assess changes in the teratogenic potency of di-n-butyltin diacetate (DBTA) with increasing maternal age in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats of 3, 7.5 or 12 months were treated orally with DBTA at 0, 7.5, 10, 15 or 22 mg/kg on day 8 of gestation. Cesarean sections were performed on day 20 of gestation. Maternal age had greater impact on litter size in the 7.5- and 12-month dams than the 3-month dams. The death of most of the fetuses of the 12-month dams made it difficult to evaluate the teratogenic potency of DBTA. In 3-month groups, fetuses with external malformation, such as cleft mandible, cleft lower lip, ankyloglossia and/or schistoglossia, which are malformations typical of DBTA, were observed at 15 and 22 mg/kg, while similar malformations were observed in 7.5-month groups at doses of 10 mg/kg and above. At 15 and 22 mg/kg, the incidences of these malformations in 7.5-month groups were similar to these from 3-month groups. In our previous studies, however, single DBTA-treatment at 10 mg/kg on day 8 of gestation has not produced such malformations from 3-month dams. The results suggest that the teratogenic potency of DBTA in 7.5-month dams may be greater than in 3-month dams.

  4. Teen Moms and Babies Benefit from Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…

  5. The impact of training non-physician clinicians in Malawi on maternal and perinatal mortality: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of the enhancing training and appropriate technologies for mothers and babies in Africa (ETATMBA) project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality in much of sub-Saharan Africa is very high whereas there has been a steady decline in over the past 60 years in Europe. Perinatal mortality is 12 times higher than maternal mortality accounting for about 7 million neonatal deaths; many of these in sub-Saharan countries. Many of these deaths are preventable. Countries, like Malawi, do not have the resources nor highly trained medical specialists using complex technologies within their healthcare system. Much of the burden falls on healthcare staff other than doctors including non-physician clinicians (NPCs) such as clinical officers, midwives and community health-workers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate a project which is training NPCs as advanced leaders by providing them with skills and knowledge in advanced neonatal and obstetric care. Training that will hopefully be cascaded to their colleagues (other NPCs, midwives, nurses). Methods/design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with the unit of randomisation being the 14 districts of central and northern Malawi (one large district was divided into two giving an overall total of 15). Eight districts will be randomly allocated the intervention. Within these eight districts 50 NPCs will be selected and will be enrolled on the training programme (the intervention). Primary outcome will be maternal and perinatal (defined as until discharge from health facility) mortality. Data will be harvested from all facilities in both intervention and control districts for the lifetime of the project (3–4 years) and comparisons made. In addition a process evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. interviews) will be undertaken to evaluate the intervention implementation. Discussion Education and training of NPCs is a key to improving healthcare for mothers and babies in countries like Malawi. Some of the challenges faced are discussed as are the potential limitations. It is hoped that the findings from this trial will

  6. Placental weight and efficiency in relation to maternal body mass index and the risk of pregnancy complications in women delivering singleton babies.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J M; Horgan, G W; Bhattacharya, S

    2012-08-01

    Herein we report placental weight and efficiency in relation to maternal BMI and the risk of pregnancy complications in 55,105 pregnancies. Adjusted placental weight increased with increasing BMI through underweight, normal, overweight, obese and morbidly obese categories and accordingly underweight women were more likely to experience placental growth restriction [OR 1.69 (95% CI 1.46-1.95)], while placental hypertrophy was more common in overweight, obese and morbidly obese groups [OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.50-1.69), OR 1.97 (95% CI 1.81-2.15) and OR 2.34 (95% CI 2.08-2.63), respectively]. In contrast the ratio of fetal to placental weight (a proxy for placental efficiency) was lower (P < 0.001) in overweight, obese and morbidly obese than in both normal and underweight women which were equivalent. Relative to the middle tertile reference group (mean 622 g), placental weight in the lower tertile (mean 484 g) was associated with a higher risk of pre-eclampsia, induced labour, spontaneous preterm delivery, stillbirth and low birth weight (P < 0.001). Conversely placental weight in the upper tertile (mean 788 g) was associated with a higher risk of caesarean section, post-term delivery and high birth weight (P < 0.001). With respect to assumed placental efficiency a ratio in the lower tertile was associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia, induced labour, caesarean section and spontaneous preterm delivery (P < 0.001) and a ratio in both the lower and higher tertiles was associated with an increased risk of low birth weight (P < 0.001). Placental efficiency was not related to the risk of stillbirth or high birth weight. No interactions between maternal BMI and placental weight tertile were detected suggesting that both abnormal BMI and placental growth are independent risk factors for a range of pregnancy complications.

  7. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    PubMed

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice.

  8. The Relationship of Maternal Age, Quickening, and Physical Symptoms of Pregnancy on the Development of Maternal-Fetal Attachment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Monographs, 95, 55-96. Lips, H. (1985). A longitudinal study of the reporting of emotional and somatic symptoms during and after pregnancy. Social ... Medicine , 21(6), 631-640. LoBiondo-Wood, G. (1985). The Progression of Pregnancy _ Symptoms in Pregnancy and the Development of Maternal-Fetal Attachment

  9. Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Rémi; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on an offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived seabird, the wandering albatross, we investigate delayed effects of parental age on offspring fitness components. We provide evidence that parental age influences offspring performance beyond the age of independence. By distinguishing maternal and paternal age effects, we demonstrate that paternal age, but not maternal age, impacts negatively post-fledging offspring performance. PMID:27053738

  10. The influence of age-related health difficulties and attitudes toward driving on driving self-regulation in the baby boomer and older adult generations.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Elizabeth G; Rahaley, Nicole; Davis, Jessica

    2017-02-26

    Our study aimed to determine how age- and disease-related difficulties were associated with attitudes and beliefs about driving self-regulation in men and women in the baby boomer and older generations. Three hundred and ninety-nine men (n=204) and women (n=195) aged between 48 and 91 years participated in a cross-sectional study of Australian drivers. Demographic characteristics and measures of driving confidence, driving difficulty and driving self-regulation; perceptions of visual, physical and cognitive capacity; and attitudes and beliefs about driving were obtained. Driving self-regulation in men and women was explained by different mechanisms. For men, self-report of visual and cognitive difficulties and poor driving confidence predicted driving self-regulation. For women, negative attitudes toward driving mediated the associations found between health-related difficulties and driving self-regulation. Barriers to driving self-regulation were not associated with the driving self-regulatory practices of men or women. Regardless of generation, women reported poorer driving confidence, greater driving difficulty and more driving self-regulation than men. We concluded that age- and disease-related difficulties are related to increasing driving self-regulation in mature men and women. These results indicate that different pathways are needed in models of driving self-regulation for men and women regardless of generational cohort.

  11. Maternal pregravid weight, age, and smoking status as risk factors for low birth weight births.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, C; Nelson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Public Health, in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitors trends in the prevalence of prenatal risk factors that are major predictors of infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW). Analyzed data from CDC are available to the department annually. During 1988, a total of 26,767 records of Illinois women giving birth were submitted to CDC. These surveillance data support the fact that women older than 30 years who smoke and enter pregnancy underweight are at greatest risk of delivering LBW babies. Overall, 13.9 percent of underweight smokers had LBW infants compared with 8 percent of underweight nonsmokers. Prevalence of LBW among underweight and smoking women older than 34 years was much higher (29.6 percent) than among those between ages 30 and 34 (15.2 percent). The prevalence of LBW decreased as the pregravid weight increased among normal weight smokers (10 percent) and overweight smokers (8.6 percent). PMID:1333619

  12. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Tint, Mya-Thway; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), subscapular skinfold (SS), and triceps skinfold (TS) were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME)) and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1) vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR); (2) seafood-and-noodles (SfN); and (3) pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB). In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD) increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS) at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity. PMID:28025503

  13. Association between maternal intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and maternal abusive behavior towards infants at 4 months of age in Japan.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse.

  14. [Maternal Predictors of Body Mass Index of Pre-school and School Age Children].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Félix, Rosario E; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Cárdenas-Villareal, Valia M; Moral de la Rubia, José; Ruvalcaba Rodríguez, María D; Hernandez-Carranco, Roandy G

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to identify maternal variables that could be used as predictors of the child's body mass index (BMI). We considered the following variables: (a) socio-demographic (age, education, occupation, marital status and family income); (b) anthropometric (BMI); and (c) upbringing strategies (monitoring and limits for eating habits, monitoring and sedentary behavior limits, discipline and control in feeding. A predictive correlational study was carried out with 537 dyads (mother-child). Children enrolled in 4 public schools (2 for pre-school children and 2 for primary school children) were selected for probabilistic, random sampling. The mothers answered the Feeding and Activity Upbringing Strategies Scale, giving socio-demographic information and the dyads' weight and height was measured. The data were analyzed for correlations and path analysis. It was found that the average age of mothers was 34.25 years (SD=6.91), with 12.40 years of education (SD=3.36), 53.3% mentioned that they were housewives and 46.7% had a paid job outside of the home; 38.5% showed pre-OB and 27.3% some degree of OB. The child's average age was 7.26 years (SD=2.46), and 3.2% showed low weight, 59.6% normal weight and 37.2% OW-0B. It was found that working outside the home, having a higher maternal BMI, less control and more discipline in feeding are variables that predict higher BMI in the child. We recommend the design of interventions to reduce and treat the child's OW-OB taking into account the predictors that were found.

  15. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane; Johnston, J. Cyne

    2014-01-01

    Baby sign language is advocated to improve children's communication development. However, the evidence to support the advantages of baby sign has been inconclusive. A systematic review was undertaken to summarize and appraise the research related to the effectiveness of symbolic gestures for typically developing, hearing infants with hearing…

  16. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood.

  17. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  18. The Relationship of Knowledge and Breastfeeding Practice to Maternal BMI.

    PubMed

    Ozenoglu, Aliye; Sokulmez Kaya, Pinar; Asal Ulus, Canan; Alakus, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of breastfeeding on maternal BMI and evaluate mothers' knowledge of infant feeding in Samsun, Turkey. A total of 289 mothers who had children ranging from 0 to 2 years of age and applied to the Family Health Centers were included in the study. The mothers filled out a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge on infant feeding. The data was evaluated using the SPSS with the descriptive statistics, the Student t-test, the chi-square test, and multiple linear regression analyses. Most of the mothers, who did never breastfeed their children, were either overweight or obese. As a result of the multiple linear regression analysis, we concluded that maternal age, number of pregnancies, time of first breastfeeding ≥ 12 hours, and early introduction of complementary foods positively affect maternal BMI. Increased maternal BMI is thought to be negatively correlated with decreased breastfeeding of babies immediately after birth.

  19. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  20. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, his or her bowel movements might become dark brown — although seemingly odd colors are possible as ... baby eats beets or might contain streaks of dark blue from blueberries. Green and orange baby poop ...

  1. Diapering Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... bebé New parents spend a lot of time changing their baby. Indeed, babies may use 10 diapers ...

  2. Your Growing Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... below predict. By the end of their first month, most babies: Make jerky, quivering arm movements Bring ... 1 Month. By the end of their third month, most babies: Raise head and chest when lying ...

  3. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... in both full-term and preterm babies. The hepatitis B vaccine deserves special mention. In most circumstances, the AAP recommends the hepatitis B vaccine at birth or before the baby is discharged ...

  4. Maternal age effects on myometrial expression of contractile proteins, uterine gene expression, and contractile activity during labor in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Matthew; Szyszka, Alexandra; Pauliat, Caroline; Clifford, Bethan; Daniel, Zoe; Cheng, Zhangrui; Wathes, Claire; McMullen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Advanced maternal age of first time pregnant mothers is associated with prolonged and dysfunctional labor and significant risk of emergency cesarean section. We investigated the influence of maternal age on myometrial contractility, expression of contractile associated proteins (CAPs), and global gene expression in the parturient uterus. Female Wistar rats either 8 (YOUNG n = 10) or 24 (OLDER n = 10) weeks old were fed laboratory chow, mated, and killed during parturition. Myometrial strips were dissected to determine contractile activity, cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TAG) content, protein expression of connexin-43 (GJA1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and caveolin 1 (CAV-1). Maternal plasma concentrations of prostaglandins PGE2, PGF2α, and progesterone were determined by RIA. Global gene expression in uterine samples was compared using Affymetrix Genechip Gene 2.0 ST arrays and Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA). Spontaneous contractility in myometrium exhibited by YOUNG rats was threefold greater than OLDER animals (P < 0.027) but maternal age had no significant effect on myometrial CAP expression, lipid profiles, or pregnancy-related hormones. OLDER myometrium increased contractile activity in response to PGF2α, phenylephrine, and carbachol, a response absent in YOUNG rats (all P < 0.002). Microarray analysis identified that maternal age affected expression of genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, lipid transport and metabolism, steroid metabolism, tissue remodeling, and smooth muscle contraction. In conclusion YOUNG laboring rat myometrium seems primed to contract maximally, whereas activity is blunted in OLDER animals and requires stimulation to meet contractile potential. Further work investigating maternal age effects on myometrial function is required with focus on lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. PMID:25876907

  5. Accuracy of the Chinese lunar calendar method to predict a baby's sex: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Dekker, Louise; Svensson, Tobias; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the accuracy of a non-invasive, inexpensive method (the Chinese lunar calendar, CLC) to predict the sex of a baby from around the time of conception, using 2,840,755 singleton births occurring in Sweden between 1973 and 2006. Maternal lunar age and month of conception were estimated, and used to predict each baby's sex, according to a published algorithm. Kappa statistics were estimated for the actual vs. the CLC-predicted sex of the baby. Overall kappa was 0.0002 [95% CI -0.0009, 0.0014]. Accuracy was not modified by year of conception, maternal age, level of education, body mass index or parity. In a validation subset of 1000 births in which we used a website-customised algorithm to estimate lunar dates, kappa was -0.02 [95% CI -0.08, 0.04]. Simulating the misuse of the method by failing to convert Gregorian dates into lunar did not change the results. We conclude that the CLC method is no better at predicting the sex of a baby than tossing a coin and advise against painting the nursery based on this method's result.

  6. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  7. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

  8. The Physics of Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemella, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Since the 2011 birth of my daughter I have been a 100% as a stay-at-home dad and 50% researcher. My ``Routine Adventures'' in the baby universe are the subject of this fun talk that presents the unique challenges of baby physics. Topics include ``Schroedinger's Baby'' and ``The Entropy of Rice.''

  9. Bringing Your Baby Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... are often overdressed for the first trip home. Dress your baby as you would dress yourself. So, if you'd be too warm ... baby probably will be, too. In warm weather, dress your baby in a T-shirt and light ...

  10. Baby Bath Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel more comfortable at bath time. Start by learning baby bath basics. There's no need to give your newborn a bath every day. Three times a week might be enough until your baby becomes more mobile. Bathing your baby too much can dry out ...

  11. The New Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, Helen

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of a South African priest and his wife who are ashamed when their daughter tells them she is going to have a baby. They refuse to have anything to do with her when she is pregnant. However, when the baby comes, everything changes and they come to accept and love the baby. Large black and white…

  12. Your Colicky Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... food moves too quickly through a baby's digestive system or is incompletely digested. Other theories are that colic is due to a baby's temperament, that some babies just take a little bit longer to get adjusted to the world, or that some have undiagnosed gastroesophageal reflux (GER) . ...

  13. Sirenomelia (Mermaid baby).

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Jamshed; Shaikh, Muhammad Ali; Saleem, Nasir; Taqvi, Syed Raees; Jehan, Yaqoot; Batool, Tayyaba; Zameer, Naima; Mirza, Farhat

    2005-11-01

    Sirenomelia is a rare anomaly that rarely occurs as an isolated lesion. Several theories have been proposed regarding the etiopathogenesis. In this communication, we report a case of sirenomelia. Our patient was referred to hospital at the age of four hours. On examination, fusion of both lower limbs with hook shaped appendage, attached distally, absent genitalia and absent anal orifice was found. Spine was deficient in sacral region. Upper torso looked normal. Baby also had frothing from mouth. Abdomen was non-distended. Feeding tube no.10 was tried to pass through mouth, which got obstructed at the level of upper esophagus that suggested oesophageal atresia. The skeletogram revealed absence of pelvic bones, sacral agenesis, absent fibulae and fracture of both femora. The patient died at the age of 12 hours.

  14. Kidney Transplant Survival Up Among Babies, Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163937.html Kidney Transplant Survival Up Among Babies, Kids Patients under age ... News) -- Survival rates for children who get kidney transplants have improved significantly over the last half-century, ...

  15. Offspring sex ratio in red-winged blackbirds is dependent on maternal age.

    PubMed

    Blank, J L; Nolan, V

    1983-10-01

    In a marsh-breeding population of red-winged blackbirds, the sex ratio of offspring that survived to leave the nest varied with maternal age. Old mothers produced an excess of male fledglings, middle-aged mothers produced almost equal proportions of males and females, and young mothers produced nearly twice as many females as males. More males than females hatched from the eggs of old mothers, whereas among newly hatched progeny of middle-aged and young mothers the sex ratio did not differ from unity. The hatching rate of eggs of old mothers was unusually low, suggesting that the biased sex ratio of their hatchlings may have been caused by more frequent death of female embryos, although other possibilities can be imagined. Starvation of nestlings after hatching also affected the sex ratio among young that left the nest. When starvation occurred, it fell principally on young produced by the last and next-to-last eggs laid in the clutch. Because old mothers allocated relatively more energy to those eggs than to earlier-laid eggs, whereas young mothers apportioned energy equally to their eggs, few nestlings of old mothers but many nestlings of young mothers starved. Most nestlings that died were male. It followed that the male bias in sex ratio of progeny of old mothers did not change between hatching and nestleaving, but the ratio among progeny of young mothers shifted after hatching to a strong bias favoring females at nest-leaving.

  16. Maternal-infant mental health: postpartum group intervention.

    PubMed

    de Camps Meschino, Diane; Philipp, Diane; Israel, Aliza; Vigod, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Dyadic interactions associated with maternal depression and anxiety may perpetuate maternal mental illness and impact infant attachment. Individual and maternal-dyadic therapies are effective but resource intensive. We assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a newly developed maternal-infant dyadic group therapy intervention. This was an open-label pilot study targeting mothers with mood or anxiety disorders, and their infants aged 6 to 12 months. We conducted three 12-week groups combining evidence-based maternal and mother-infant dyadic strategies to enhance mood, insight, parenting, and mentalizing capacity. We measured recruitment and retention rates, reasons for nonparticipation, and missed sessions. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Efficacy outcomes were the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), measured pretreatment and posttreatment. The feasibility and acceptability were excellent. There was a significant reduction in mean depressive symptom scores (t 3.31; p 0.008 sig) and a trend toward decreasing anxiety scores (t 1.96; p 0.08). The total PSI score decreased, approaching statistical significance (t 2.23; p 0.057). Enhanced insight, parenting capacity, affect regulation, and positive interaction with baby were supported with self-report surveys and interviews. This resource-efficient novel mother-baby dyadic group intervention shows excellent feasibility, acceptability, and has good preliminary efficacy results. It has the potential to improve depression, anxiety, affect regulation, parenting, and maternal mentalization.

  17. Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

  18. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  19. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  20. Effects of maternal age on embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes using testicular sperm with intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Won; Lee, Sun-Hee; Lim, Chun Kyu; Seo, Ju Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal age on fertilization, embryo quality, and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia. Methods A total of 416 ICSI cycles using testicular spermatozoa from partners with obstructive azoospermia (OA, n=301) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA, n=115) were analyzed. Female patients were divided into the following age groups: 27 to 31 years, 32 to 36 years, and 37 to 41 years. The rates of fertilization, high-quality embryos, clinical pregnancy, and delivery were compared across maternal age groups between the OA and NOA groups. Results The rates of fertilization and high-quality embryos were not significantly different among the maternal age groups. Similarly, the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates were not significantly different. The fertilization rate was significantly higher in the OA group than in the NOA group (p<0.05). Age-group analysis revealed that the fertilization and high-quality embryo rates were significantly different between the OA and NOA groups in patients aged 27 to 31 years old, but not for the other age groups. Although the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates differed between the OA and NOA groups across all age groups, significant differences were not observed. Conclusion In couples using testicular sperm from male partners with azoospermia, pregnancy and delivery outcomes were not affected by maternal age. However, women older than 37 years using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia should be advised of the increased incidence of pregnancy failure. PMID:28090461

  1. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzollo, Jean

    This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

  2. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets.

  3. Longitudinal association of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period and child obesity at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2011-10-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss strategy used. Using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, we estimated associations before and after adjusting for maternal weight-related variables including prepregnancy BMI. At 6 months postpartum, 53% mothers were trying to lose weight. At age 3 years, mean (s.d.) child BMI z-score was 0.44 (1.01) and 8.9% of children were obese. Children whose mothers were trying to lose weight at 6 months postpartum had higher BMI z-scores (0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.42)) and were more likely to be obese (3.0 (95% CI 1.6, 5.8)) at 3 years of age. Addition of maternal prepregnancy BMI to the models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations seen for BMI z-score (0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.36) and obesity (2.4 (95% CI 1.2, 4.7)). Attempting to lose weight by exercising alone was the only weight loss strategy that consistently predicted higher child BMI z-score (0.36 (95% CI 0.14, 0.58)) and odds of obesity (6.0 (95% CI 2.2, 16.5)) at age 3 years. In conclusion, we observed an association between maternal attempt to lose weight at 6 months postpartum, particularly through exercise alone, measured using a single item and child adiposity at age 3 years. This association should be thoroughly examined in future studies.

  4. Germline mosaicism does not explain the maternal age effect on trisomy.

    PubMed

    Rowsey, Ross; Kashevarova, Anna; Murdoch, Brenda; Dickenson, Carrie; Woodruff, Tracey; Cheng, Edith; Hunt, Patricia; Hassold, Terry

    2013-10-01

    A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between trisomy and increasing maternal age in humans, virtually all of which assume that the underlying mechanisms involve meiotic errors. However, recently Hultén and colleagues [Hulten et al., 2010b] proposed a provocative model-the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection Model (OMSM)-that links age-dependent trisomy 21 to pre-meiotic errors in the ovary. Specifically, they propose that nondisjunctional events occur in a proportion of germ cells as they mitotically proliferate, resulting in mosaicism for trisomy 21. Assuming that the presence of an additional chromosome 21 delays meiotic progression, these cells would be ovulated later in reproductive life, resulting in an age-dependent increase in aneuploid eggs. Because this model has important clinical implications, we initiated studies to test it. We first analyzed oocytes from two trisomy 21 fetuses, combining immunostaining with FISH to determine the likelihood of detecting the additional chromosome 21 at different stages of meiosis. The detection of trisomy was enhanced during the earliest stage of prophase (leptotene), before homologs synapsed. Accordingly, in subsequent studies we examined the chromosome content of leptotene oocytes in seven second trimester female fetuses, analyzing three chromosomes commonly associated with human trisomies (i.e., 13, 16, and 21). In contrast to the prediction of the OMSM, we found no evidence of trisomy mosaicism for any chromosome. We conclude that errors in pre-meiotic germ cells are not a major contributor to human aneuploidy and do not provide an explanation for the age-related increase in trisomic conceptions.

  5. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests.

  6. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  7. Pregnancy among the Hmong: Birthweight, Age, and Parity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, Deborah; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive factors for Hmong immigrants (mothers of 1,937 children) were compared with those of 3,776 white, non-Hispanic women. Despite a high proportion of births at high parity and advanced maternal age, Hmong women gave birth to very low birth weight babies at about the same rate as white women. (SLD)

  8. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  9. Mediational pathways connecting secondary education and age at marriage to maternal mortality: A comparison between developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Hagues, Rachel Joy; Bae, DaYoung; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown that maternal mortality rates have been improving worldwide, rates are still high across developing nations. In general, poor health of women is associated with higher maternal mortality rates in developing countries. Understanding country-level risk factors can inform intervention and prevention efforts that could bring high maternal mortality rates down. Specifically, the authors were interested in investigating whether: (1) secondary education participation (SEP) or age at marriage (AM) of women were related to maternal mortality rates, and (2) adolescent birth rate and contraceptive use (CU) acted as mediators of this association. The authors add to the literature with this current article by showing the relation of SEP and AM to maternal mortality rates globally (both directly and indirectly through mediators) and then by comparing differences between developed and developing/least developed countries. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model using country level longitudinal data from 2000 to 2010 obtained from United Nations publications, World Health Organization materials, and World Bank development reports. Findings include a significant correlation between SEP and AM for developing countries; for developed countries the relation was not significant. As well, SEP in developing countries was associated with increased CU. Women in developing countries who finish school before marriage may have important social capital gains.

  10. Beyond Autism: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study of High-Risk Children at Three Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Daniel; Young, Gregory S.; Ozonoff, Sally; Dobkins, Karen; Carter, Alice; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Landa, Rebecca J.; Charman, Tony; Stone, Wendy L.; Constantino, John N.; Hutman, Ted; Carver, Leslie J.; Bryson, Susan; Iverson, Jana M.; Strauss, Mark S.; Rogers, Sally J.; Sigman, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Objective First-degree relatives of persons with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD-related characteristics. As little is known about the early expression of these characteristics, this study characterizes the non-ASD outcomes of 3-year-old high-risk (HR) siblings of children with ASD. Method Two groups of children without ASD participated: 507 HR siblings and 324 low-risk (LR) control subjects (no known relatives with ASD). Children were enrolled at a mean age of 8 months, and outcomes were assessed at 3 years. Outcome measures were Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) calibrated severity scores, and Mullen Verbal and Non-Verbal Developmental Quotients (DQ). Results At 3 years, HR siblings without an ASD outcome exhibited higher mean ADOS severity scores and lower verbal and non-verbal DQs than LR controls. HR siblings were over-represented (21% HR versus 7% LR) in latent classes characterized by elevated ADOS severity and/or low to low-average DQs. The remaining HR siblings without ASD outcomes (79%) belonged to classes in which they were not differentially represented with respect to LR siblings. Conclusions Having removed a previously identified 18.7% of HR siblings with ASD outcomes from all analyses, HR siblings nevertheless exhibited higher mean levels of ASD severity and lower levels of developmental functioning than LR children. However, the latent class membership of four-fifths of the HR siblings was not significantly different from that of LR control subjects. One-fifth of HR siblings belonged to classes characterized by higher ASD severity and/or lower levels of developmental functioning. This empirically derived characterization of an early-emerging pattern of difficulties in a minority of 3-year-old HR siblings suggests the importance of developmental surveillance and early intervention for these children. PMID:23452686

  11. Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

  12. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  13. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  14. Moderate to severe, but not mild, maternal anemia is associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kozuki, Naoko; Lee, Anne C; Katz, Joanne

    2012-02-01

    Anemia is highly prevalent globally, estimated at 40-50% in women of reproductive age. Prior studies have produced inconclusive evidence as to the association between maternal anemia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We conducted a systematic review of the literature containing associations between maternal anemia and small for gestational age (SGA) outcomes (as a proxy for IUGR). A meta-analysis was performed to pool associations, categorized by the hemoglobin cutoffs presented by the authors. We identified 12 studies reporting associations between maternal anemia and SGA. For the meta-analysis, there were 7 associations with a hemoglobin cutoff <110 g/L, 7 with a cutoff <100 g/L, and 5 with a cutoff <90 or <80 g/L. Although the <110- and <100-g/L categories showed no significant relationship with SGA, the <90- or <80-g/L category was associated with a 53% increase in risk of the newborn being SGA [pooled OR = 1.53 (95% CI: 1.24-1.87); P < 0.001]. Moderate to severe, but not mild, maternal anemia appears to have an association with SGA outcomes, but the findings must be viewed with caution due to the great heterogeneity of the studies. Further examination should be conducted using datasets with better standardized definitions and measurements of exposure and outcome.

  15. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  16. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    PubMed

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  17. Zinc uptake by human placental microvillous membrane vesicles: effects of gestational age and maternal serum zinc levels.

    PubMed

    Vargas Zapata, C L; Trugo, N M; Donangelo, C M

    2000-02-01

    Zinc uptake by syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane vesicles (SMMV) from human placentas was characterized and the effects of maternal serum zinc levels at term and of gestational age on kinetic parameters were evaluated. Zinc uptake at pH 7.2 was rapid for the first 2 min, followed by a slower increase, approaching equilibrium after 30 min. Uptake was saturable at a zinc concentration of 30 micromol/L, higher than the upper range of the physiological serum zinc level. Kinetic analysis of uptake at 1 min in SMMV from term placenta showed similar Km values (mean: 6.9+/-0.6 micromol/L) for different levels of maternal serum zinc. However, Vmax was higher (p < 0.05) in SMMV from mothers with serum zinc lower than 7.6 micromol/L compared to those with higher serum zinc levels (35.8+/-1.6 and 26.6+/-1.6 nmol 65Zn/mg protein/min, respectively). Km values were similar in term (>37 wk of gestation) and preterm (20-25 wk of gestation) placentas, whereas Vmax was higher (p < 0.05) in the preterm (34.3+/-1.6 nmol Zn/mg protein/min) compared to term placentas from mothers with serum zinc levels above 7.6 micromol/L. These results suggest that whereas afffinity for zinc was not altered with gestational age or maternal serum zinc levels, zinc-uptake capacity in human placenta is influenced both by gestational age and by low levels of maternal serum zinc in order to ensure an adequate maternal-fetal zinc transfer.

  18. Baby Sling: Is It Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Is it safe to hold a baby in a baby sling? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. A baby sling — a one-shouldered baby ... sling's weight minimum before placing your newborn in it. Keep your baby's airways unobstructed. Make sure your ...

  19. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ∼20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ≥1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ∼30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

  20. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n = 94 dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45 min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age.

  1. Maternal age and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome in infertile couples at Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Shareef, Osama; Adam, Ishag; Rayis, Duria

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was considered as the mainstay of treatment for male infertility. Nowadays, the scope of ICSI has been widened to include other causes of infertility. There are few published data on ICSI in countries with low incomes. Aims A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad AbuAlla and Banoun Centers, Khartoum, Sudan to investigate outcomes of ICSI and to determine the parameters that might predict pregnancy success rate following ICSI. Methods The study included 191 infertile couples who underwent 296 ICSI cycles between 1st April 2013 and 31 March 2014. Results One hundred and ninety one couples (comprising 296 cycles of ICSI) were enrolled to the study. The mean (SD) number of retrieved oocytes was 9.7 (7.5).  The mean (SD) number of transferred embryos was 2.9 (1.0). Out of these, 50 (26.2%) and 40 (20.9%) had chemical and clinical pregnancy, respectively. Thirty–six couples (18.8%) and five couples (2.6%) had miscarriage and had ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Under logistic regression, younger age (OR = 0.8, 95% CI= 0.81 ─ 0.96, P = 0.004) and endometrial thickness (OR = 1.3, 95% CI= 1.07─1.60, P = 0.009) were the significant predictors for the success of ICSI in inducing pregnancy. Conclusion                 The rates of successful fertilisation and pregnancy-to-term rates in this setting depend mainly on the maternal age. PMID:27347370

  2. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress.

  3. Relationship between decreasing fertility during the post-war period and maternal age in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Mariko; Ali, Moazzam; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    This research was performed in an effort to understand the decrease in fertility that has occurred over the past few decades. The objective of the study was to analyze female fertility according to maternal age; data were based on the number of children born per mother. The records of 18-year-old college students were obtained, and the mothers of the students were categorized into age groups according to the year of their birth (1915 to 1949). The number of children born to each mother was then analyzed. The total sample size was 4078. The results showed that an increase in two-children families led to a reduction in the mean number of children per mother. While the decrease in the maternal age at the time of the birth of the last child in the family was observed, the maternal age at the time of the first birth did not increase. Thus, the reduction in fertility may not be the result of delayed motherhood. The group of mothers, who gave birth to the largest number of children, had their highest fertility rate in the twenties. In addition, their fertility rate in the thirties was almost equal to other groups, who had the same fertility level in their twenties.

  4. [Experience of the Baby Friendly Hospital initiative].

    PubMed

    Lamounier, J A

    1998-01-01

    In the study is analyzed and described the initiative called "Initiative Baby Friendly Hospitals", a program which started in Brazil, 1992. This initiative intends to support, to protect and to promote the breastfeeding as proposed in a meeting in 1990 in Florence, Italy, which was promoted by WHO and UNICEF. The basic goal of this initiative is to mobilize health professionals and hospital or maternity workers for changing their routines and conducts aiming to prevent the early wean. The health establishments are evaluated based on the "ten steps for success of breastfeeding, a group of goals created in the same meeting. In Brazil, the evaluation is coordinated by the Federal Government through the PNIAM (Programa Nacional de Incentivo ao Aleitamento Materno). A baby friendly hospital, if approved, receives from the Minister of Health, a Federal Governmental Agency (SUS) a differential payment for childbirth assistance and prenatal accompaniment, 10% and 40%, more respectively. Until 1998 year there were 103 baby friendly hospitals in Brazil, with the majority of them located in the northeast area (68.1%). However, taking in accounting the number of 5650 hospitals linked to SUS in the country, less than 2.0% are baby friendly hospitals. On the basis of the experience and according with PNIAM data the implementation of the ten steps and the incentive to breastfeeding through baby friendly hospitals have resulted in a significant increase of breastfeeding incidence and duration in Brazil.

  5. Comprehensive embryo analysis of advanced maternal age-related aneuploidies and mosaicism by short comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Rius, Mariona; Daina, Gemma; Obradors, Albert; Ramos, Laia; Velilla, Esther; Fernández, Sílvia; Martínez-Passarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2011-01-01

    The short comparative genomic hybridization (short-CGH) method was used to perform a comprehensive cytogenetic study of isolated blastomeres from advanced maternal age embryos, discarded after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), detecting aneuploidies (38.5% of which corresponded to chromosomes not screened by 9-chromosome FISH), structural aberrations (31.8%), and mosaicism (77.3%). The short-CGH method was subsequently applied in one PGS, achieving a twin pregnancy.

  6. Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia L; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific MatAb on the anti-OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti-OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

  7. Your Colicky Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... vibrating seat. The motion may have a soothing effect. Put your baby in an infant car seat in the back of the car and go for a ride. The vibration and movement of the car are often calming. Play music — some babies respond to sound as well as ...

  8. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore Fact Sheets 1 Check Out Our Latest Facebook Posts MotherToBaby 10 hours ago Keep up with ... C4eLw ... See More See Less Photo View on Facebook · Share MotherToBaby 1 day ago Are you pregnant ...

  9. Bringing Up Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespeca, Sue McCleaf

    1999-01-01

    Presents recommendations for developing sound baby collections that include selecting books that: have designs infants are attracted to, provide tactile experiences, incorporate rhymes, have rounded edges (board books), and can be cleaned (cloth books). Includes an alphabetical list of good books for babies, as well as books on planning a lapsit…

  10. Laundering Your Baby's Clothes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Laundering Your Baby's Clothes KidsHealth > For Parents > Laundering Your Baby's Clothes Print A A A ...

  11. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources

  12. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Commentary on a Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lorraine E.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    The ethos behind provision of early intervention programmes to infants and young children with additional support needs has been established for some time (e.g. Right-from-the-Start), but targeting the development of typically developing infants has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Baby sign is one of the many intervention techniques…

  13. How mothers keep their babies warm.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C J; Bell, S A; Clulow, E E; Beattie, A B

    1991-01-01

    Details of room temperature, clothing, and bedding used by night and by day and in winter and in summer were recorded for 649 babies aged 8 to 26 weeks. Room temperature at night was significantly related to outside temperature and duration of heating. Total insulation was significantly related to outside temperature and to minimum room temperature, but there was wide variation in insulation at the same room temperature. High levels of insulation for a given room temperature were found particularly at night and in winter, and were associated with the use of thick or doubled duvets and with swaddling. At least half the babies threw off some or all of their bedding at night, and at least a quarter sweated. Younger mothers and mothers in the lower social groups put more bedclothes over their babies, and the latter also kept their rooms warmer. Many mothers kept their babies warmer during infections. PMID:2039255

  14. How mothers keep their babies warm.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C J; Bell, S A; Clulow, E E; Beattie, A B

    1991-05-01

    Details of room temperature, clothing, and bedding used by night and by day and in winter and in summer were recorded for 649 babies aged 8 to 26 weeks. Room temperature at night was significantly related to outside temperature and duration of heating. Total insulation was significantly related to outside temperature and to minimum room temperature, but there was wide variation in insulation at the same room temperature. High levels of insulation for a given room temperature were found particularly at night and in winter, and were associated with the use of thick or doubled duvets and with swaddling. At least half the babies threw off some or all of their bedding at night, and at least a quarter sweated. Younger mothers and mothers in the lower social groups put more bedclothes over their babies, and the latter also kept their rooms warmer. Many mothers kept their babies warmer during infections.

  15. Temperament and Behaviour of Infants Aged 4-12 Months on Admission to a Private Mother-Baby Unit and at 1- and 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Feekery, Colin

    2004-01-01

    While infant behaviour is influenced by maternal care, infant crying and dysregulated sleep can reciprocally affect maternal mood. The temperament and behaviour of two 4-12-months-old infant cohorts admitted with their mothers to a residential parenting program were examined using behaviour charts and the Short Infant Temperament Questionnaire…

  16. Use of technology in follow-up of HIV positive pregnant women and their babies till 18 months of age- an innovation by Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society (MSACS), India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhay Shyam; Yewale, Kiran; Hegde, Asha S.; Mulik, Tejas; Bamrotiya, Manish; Yadav, Surendra; Rane, Tushar; Pardeshi, Kushalsinh; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Reddy, D.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of web-based mobile technology monitoring tool, for ensuring linkages, and tracking of HIV-exposed child until 18 months of age. Methods The ‘early infant diagnosis (EID) Follow-up System’ was designed as a tool for reminding the field level staff for follow-up of HIV-exposed babies. Using Java Swing Framework, software was developed which generates automatic advance SMS alerts regarding patient information to the Counsellor of the respective Integrated Counselling and Testing Center and district supervisor, 7 days prior to due dates. Simultaneously, system generated e-mail is sent to district program officer for monitoring and updating the line-list. Results Before the introduction of ‘EID Follow-up System’ in June 2013, only 55.9% (637/1139) of the HIV-exposed babies born were tested at 6 weeks for DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction during April 2011–March 2012. However, after its introduction, 68.4% (1117/1631) of them were tested during April 2012–March 2013. Correspondingly, the 18 months confirmatory HIV testing in eligible babies increased from 45.6% (934/2044) to 54.7%(1118/2044) during the same period. Conclusion The replicable technology driven initiative would help in strengthening the follow-up mechanisms and reach every HIV-exposed child for EID. PMID:26945142

  17. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

  18. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.

  19. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

  20. Impact of maternal age on birth outcomes: a population-based study of primiparous Brazilian women in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of maternal age at first birth on low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores at one minute and at five minutes among live births delivered to primiparous Brazilian women in the city of São Paulo. Analyses were based on 73,820 birth records from the 1998 birth cohort. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal age and each outcome variable, controlling for the following risk factors: delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Maternal ages below 20 and above 30 years were significantly associated with the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth, but no association was found between maternal ages and Apgar score, with the exception that ages 15-19 reduced the odds of a low one-minute score. Even though this result seems to be inconsistent, low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores measure different dimensions of newborn well-being, and the association of each measure with maternal age is expected to diverge.

  1. Your Baby Grows: Three to Six Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Grace C.

    This illustrated booklet on infant growth and development from 3 to 6 months of age is part of a self-instructional curriculum on parenting and child development for school-age mothers. Physical, motor, and social-emotional development of the infant are discussed, with emphasis on possible individual differences in babies. The emotional and social…

  2. Treating the "wise baby".

    PubMed

    Vida, Judith E

    2005-03-01

    In a previous examination of Ferenczi's concept of the "Wise Baby" (1996), I had noted both its applications and its limitations in the analytic treatment of an unusually intelligent adult. Ferenczi's concepts of "the origin of intellect in trauma" and of "the wise baby" have often left the indistinct impression of being interrelated phenomena. In this paper, I regard as arguable the notion that very high intelligence is pathological when it is "precocious." This return visit to the territory of the "wise baby" extends Ferenczi's ideas about the "origin" and use of the intellect to include a consideration of what may constitute effective "treatment" for those who suffer from giftedness.

  3. Early development of Negro and White babies

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Margaret; Mitchell, Susan

    1974-01-01

    Seventy-five babies, 25 English, 25 West Indian, and 25 Cypriot, all born in London, were examined at 1, 3, and 9 months of age on Gesell and Sheridan scales. The age of walking alone was measured. All the babies were term normal deliveries, weighing 2500 g or more. They were examined under identical conditions. A statistically significant acceleration in gross motor function was found in the West Indian infants at 1 month, compared with the English and Cypriot infants. The acceleration related to extension. At 3 months all three groups were at the same developmental level, and at 9 months both the English and Cypriot babies were ahead of the West Indian infants in adaptive, language, and personal-social development. No significant difference in mean age of walking between the three groups was found. PMID:4818091

  4. Effect of maternal antibodies and pig age on the antibody response after vaccination against Glässers disease.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2011-08-01

    The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the development and duration of postvaccinal antibody response against Glässer's disease were investigated. Pigs born to immune (MDA-positive) and non-immune (MDA-negative) sows were vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to three different protocols: at 1 and 4, at 2 and 5 or at 4 and 7 weeks of age. There were also two control groups for MDA-negative and MDA-positive pigs. The level of Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) specific antibodies were determined using commercial ELISA test. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against Hps were above the positive level until approximately 3 weeks of life in MDA-positive pigs. In those pigs the strongest postvaccinal humoral response was observed in piglets vaccinated at 4 and 7 weeks of age. In the remaining MDA-positive piglets only slight seroconversion was noted but levels of antibodies never exceeded values considered as positive. All MDA-negative pigs produced Hps-specific antibodies after the second vaccination. The results of the present study indicated that MDA may alter the development and duration of active postvaccinal antibody response. Age of pigs at the moment of vaccination was not associated with the significant differences in the magnitude of antibody response, however influenced the kinetics of decline of Hps-specific antibodies.

  5. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  6. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Finger Foods for Babies KidsHealth > For Parents > Finger Foods for ... will accept a new food. previous continue Finger Foods to Avoid Finger feeding is fun and rewarding ...

  7. Spitting Up in Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... The medical term for "spitting up" is gastroesophageal reflux, or reflux. It happens when milk or solid food in ... each feeding, but are fed more often.Will reflux cause problems for my baby?Spitting up is ...

  8. Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)

  9. "The Water Babies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavis, Q. D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the loss of esteem as a children's classic of "The Water Babies," discusses the literary justification for keeping it in circulation, and offers suggestions for using it in children's education. (JM)

  10. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs in babies when the pores of the sweat glands become blocked. This happens most often when the ... 2012:chap 34. Martin KL. Disorders of the sweat glands. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, ...

  11. Babies Need Tummy Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not only an ... of your baby’s normal growth. What Is Tummy Time? Tummy Time describes the times when you place ...

  12. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... textures. No longer are baby purees and mushy cereals the only things on the menu. By the ... ll still be helping out by spoon-feeding cereal and other important dietary elements. Encouraging finger feeding ...

  13. Maternal Employment, Infant Child Care and Security of Attachment at Age 12 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, L. J.; Ungerer, J. A.

    This study examined the relationship between varying patterns of maternal employment, the use of child care, and the infant's establishment of a reciprocal, responsive relationship with the mother. Parental and non-parental caregivers were located within a family system to examine attachment theory within an ecological framework. The subjects were…

  14. Functional Play at 2 Years of Age: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, David P.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Toddler toy play evolves in a predictable manner and provides a valid, nonverbal measure of cognitive function unbiased by social behaviors. Research on prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) indicates that exposure to stress in utero results in developmental deficits. We hypothesized that children exposed to high objective PNMS from a natural disaster…

  15. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  16. Breast is best for babies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander K C; Sauve, Reginald S

    2005-07-01

    Breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding. Breast milk provides almost all the necessary nutrients, growth factors and immunological components a healthy term infant needs, Other advantages of breastfeeding include reduction of incidences and severity of infections; prevention of allergies; possible enhancement of cognitive development; and prevention of obesity, hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Health gains for breastfeeding mothers include lactation amenorrhea, early involution of the uterus, enhanced bonding between the mother and the infant, and reduction in incidence of ovarian and breast cancer. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is less expensive than formula feeding. In most cases, maternal ingestion of medications and maternal infections are not contraindications to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding, however, is contraindicated in infants with galactosemia. The management of common breastfeeding issues, such as breast engorgement, sore nipples, mastitis and insufficient milk, is discussed. Breastfeeding should be initiated as soon after delivery as possible. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play in promoting and protecting breastfeeding.

  17. Breast is best for babies.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Sauve, Reginald S.

    2005-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding. Breast milk provides almost all the necessary nutrients, growth factors and immunological components a healthy term infant needs, Other advantages of breastfeeding include reduction of incidences and severity of infections; prevention of allergies; possible enhancement of cognitive development; and prevention of obesity, hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Health gains for breastfeeding mothers include lactation amenorrhea, early involution of the uterus, enhanced bonding between the mother and the infant, and reduction in incidence of ovarian and breast cancer. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is less expensive than formula feeding. In most cases, maternal ingestion of medications and maternal infections are not contraindications to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding, however, is contraindicated in infants with galactosemia. The management of common breastfeeding issues, such as breast engorgement, sore nipples, mastitis and insufficient milk, is discussed. Breastfeeding should be initiated as soon after delivery as possible. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play in promoting and protecting breastfeeding. PMID:16080672

  18. Effect of maternal age and growth on placental nutrient transport: potential mechanisms for teenagers' predisposition to small-for-gestational-age birth?

    PubMed

    Hayward, Christina E; Greenwood, Susan L; Sibley, Colin P; Baker, Philip N; Challis, John R G; Jones, Rebecca L

    2012-01-15

    Teenagers have an increased risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Young maternal age and continued skeletal growth have been implicated as causal factors. In growing adolescent sheep, impaired placental development and nutrient transfer cause reduced birth weight. In human pregnancies, SGA is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport. Maternal growth has no effect on placental morphology or cell turnover, but growing teenagers have higher birth weight:placental weight ratios than nongrowing teenagers. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporter activity would be affected by maternal age and/or growth status. Placentas from teenagers and adults were collected. Teenagers were defined as growing or nongrowing based on knee height measurements. System A amino acid transporter activity was quantified as sodium-dependent uptake of [(14)C]methylaminoisobutyric acid into placental fragments. Teenagers had lower placental system A activity than adults (P < 0.05). In adults, placental system A activity was lower in SGA infants than appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (P < 0.05). In teenagers, AGA and SGA infants had lower placental system A activity than AGA infants born to adults (P < 0.05). Placental system A activity was higher in growing teenagers than in nongrowing teenagers (P < 0.001). Placental mRNA expression of system A transporter isoforms SLC38A1 and -2 was lower in teenagers than in adults (P < 0.05) but did not differ between growing and nongrowing teenagers. There was no difference in transporter protein expression/localization between cohorts. Teenagers have inherently reduced placental transport, which may underlie their susceptibility to delivering SGA infants. Growing teenagers appear to overcome this susceptibility by stimulating the activity, but not expression, of system A transporters.

  19. The influence of maternal health literacy and child’s age on participation in social welfare programs

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T.; Bhatt, Suraj K.; Calixte, Rose E.; Cnaan, Avital

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child’s age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. Methods In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families [TANF], Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP], Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children [WIC], child care subsidy, and public housing) was self-reported at child’s birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. Results The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR= 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34–0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. Conclusions During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age. PMID:23990157

  20. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-05-15

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of < or =2 servings/week was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake.

  1. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  2. Infants & Toddlers "What's Going On? How to Hold Squriming Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…

  3. The Effects of Baby Sign Training on Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…

  4. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  5. Historical perspective on induced abortion through the ages and its links with maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Drife, James Owen

    2010-08-01

    Abortion is mentioned in ancient medical texts but the effectiveness of the methods described is doubtful. Attitudes varied from apparent disapproval by Hippocrates to open approval in Ancient Rome. In mediaeval times abortion was practised by women in secret and this continued during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite being illegal in England induced abortion became more common in Victorian times as the population grew. At the same time the link between criminal abortion and maternal mortality became increasingly clear, and if a woman died after a procedure the abortionist (sometimes a midwife) could be sentenced to death. The law was more tolerant of abortions performed by registered doctors. In the 20th century pressure grew for its legalisation. At the time of the 1967 Abortion Act, abortion was the leading cause of maternal death in the UK but within fifteen years death from illegal abortion had been abolished.

  6. The Baby Moves prospective cohort study protocol: using a smartphone application with the General Movements Assessment to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years for extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J; Kwong, A; Doyle, LW; Marschik, PB; Einspieler, C; Cheong, JLY

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infants born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g birth weight) are at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, it is challenging to predict those EP/ELBW infants destined to have long-term neurodevelopmental impairments in order to target early intervention to those in most need. The General Movements Assessment (GMA) in early infancy has high predictive validity for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. However, access to a GMA may be limited by geographical constraints and a lack of GMA-trained health professionals. Baby Moves is a smartphone application (app) developed for caregivers to video and upload their infant's general movements to be scored remotely by a certified GMA assessor. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of using the GMA via the Baby Moves app for neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born EP/ELBW. Methods and analysis This prospective cohort study will recruit infants born EP/ELBW across the state of Victoria, Australia in 2016 and 2017. A control group of normal birth weight (>2500 g birth weight), term-born (≥37 weeks' gestation) infants will also be recruited as a local reference group. Parents will video their infant's general movements at two time points between 3 and 4 months' corrected age using the Baby Moves app. Videos will be scored by certified GMA assessors and classified as normal or abnormal. Parental satisfaction using the Baby Moves app will be assessed via survey. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age includes developmental delay according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and cerebral palsy diagnosis. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committees at the Royal Children's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Monash Health and Mercy Health in Melbourne, Australia. Study findings will be

  7. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    PubMed

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines.

  8. Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.

    PubMed

    Brown, A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers.

  9. Maternal weight gain, smoking and other factors in pregnancy as predictors of infant birth-weight in Sydney women.

    PubMed

    Ash, S; Fisher, C C; Truswell, A S; Allen, J R; Irwig, L

    1989-08-01

    Two hundred and four (204) women attending a Sydney maternity hospital and their babies were followed throughout pregnancy in a study, which aimed: 1) to describe the distribution of maternal weight gain in present day Australian women and 2) to determine the effect of weight gain and other factors on birth-weight. Maternal weights and skinfold thicknesses were measured serially to give an indication of weight gain. Mean weight gain from conception to term was 14.2kg and mean birth-weight was 3,442g. Maternal predictors of birth-weight such as maternal weight gain, parity, age, education, height, public or private booking status, smoking, prepregnancy weight, and sex of the infant and gestational age were explored using simple and multiple regression analysis. Weight gain was predictive of birth-weight, each kg increase in total weight gain resulting in about a 30g increase in birthweight. Other strong predictors were gestational age, maternal smoking, sex of the infant and maternal parity. Maternal height was less strongly predictive and age and prepregnant weight were not predictive. Smoking mothers had infants who were 268g lighter than those of nonsmoking mothers. However, smokers were also younger, shorter, had less education and were more likely to book as public patients than nonsmokers. After adjusting for all other predictors, the birth-weight of infants whose mothers smoked, was still 224g less than that for nonsmoking mothers.

  10. The frequency and mutation rate of balanced autosomal rearrangements in man estimated from prenatal genetic studies for advanced maternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, D L; Weiss, L; Roberson, J R; Babu, V R

    1983-01-01

    The frequencies of balanced chromosome rearrangements were estimated from three series of advanced maternal-age prenatal genetic studies, and were compared to the frequencies that had been estimated from consecutive newborn surveys. In the maternal-age prenatal studies, the frequencies were: Robertsonian translocations, 0.11%; reciprocal translocations, 0.17%; and inversions, 0.12%. The total frequency of balanced rearrangements in the prenatal genetic studies performed with banding (0.40%, or 1 in 250) was twice that in the consecutive newborn surveys performed without banding (0.19%, or 1 in 526). The difference was limited to inversions and reciprocal translocations; the frequency of Robertsonian translocations was similar in the prenatal series and the newborn surveys. Both familial and de novo rearrangements were more common than anticipated. The de novo cases provided a mutation rate estimate of 4.3 per 10,000 gametes per generation (compared with 1.78 to 2.2 per 10,000 gametes in other surveys). These higher estimates may more reliably approximate the true mutation rate and frequencies of balanced rearrangements in the newborn population than do the newborn surveys. PMID:6837576

  11. Prevention of maternal aging-associated oocyte aneuploidy and meiotic spindle defects in mice by dietary and genetic strategies.

    PubMed

    Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Muhlhauser, Ailene; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2011-07-26

    Increased meiotic spindle abnormalities and aneuploidy in oocytes of women of advanced maternal ages lead to elevated rates of infertility, miscarriage, and trisomic conceptions. Despite the significance of the problem, strategies to sustain oocyte quality with age have remained elusive. Here we report that adult female mice maintained under 40% caloric restriction (CR) did not exhibit aging-related increases in oocyte aneuploidy, chromosomal misalignment on the metaphase plate, meiotic spindle abnormalities, or mitochondrial dysfunction (aggregation, impaired ATP production), all of which occurred in oocytes of age-matched ad libitum-fed controls. The effects of CR on oocyte quality in aging females were reproduced by deletion of the metabolic regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Thus, CR during adulthood or loss of PGC-1α function maintains female germline chromosomal stability and its proper segregation during meiosis, such that ovulated oocytes of aged female mice previously maintained on CR or lacking PGC-1α are comparable to those of young females during prime reproductive life.

  12. Baby Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  13. Notes on the Age of Maternity, Population Growth and Family Structure in the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendels, Franklin F.

    1978-01-01

    Emphasizes that the age of marriage was effective in determining the birth rate and the rate of population growth; measures the magnitude of the effects of the age of marriage; and offers some observations on the relationships between age of marriage, age of male and female fertility, and family structure. (Author)

  14. Baby, It's You: International Capital Discovers the under Threes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Well-established international entertainment firms such as Disney and Fisher-Price are joining new start-up firms such as Baby Einstein to create a 'Baby' market of products (including toys, games and videos) specifically targeted at children aged 0-3 years. Despite its novelty, the "Baby" market mirrors older markets that…

  15. Organizing the Baby Boomer Construct: An Exploration of Marketing, Social Systems, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Hilt, Michael L.; Reilly, Hugh J.

    2007-01-01

    Baby boomer trends are applied in the development of a conceptual framework that offers a social systems and cultural model for future studies. While there has been considerable recent attention paid to baby boomers, the studies lack a coherent theoretical base that would allow for more advanced and continuing research. Aging baby boomers heading…

  16. The Contribution of Maternal ADHD Symptomatology, Maternal DAT1, and Home Atmosphere to Child ADHD Symptomatology at 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith G; Zilberman-Hayun, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Berger, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Children of mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased genetic and environmental risk for ADHD. The unique and interactive contributions of a maternal dopamine receptor gene (DAT1), maternal ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive), and home atmosphere to the prediction of ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive) in 7- year-old boys (N = 96) were examined using data from a longitudinal study of familial risk for ADHD. During the first 6 months of the study, mothers and their spouses completed a questionnaire about the mother's ADHD symptoms. Home atmosphere questionnaire data were collected 4 years later. At the 7-year assessment, mothers reported on their child's ADHD symptoms. Negative home atmosphere was significantly associated with child hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms. Maternal inattentive symptoms were significantly correlated with both child symptom dimensions. Regression models, with child genotype and maternal education controlled, showed main effects for maternal inattentive symptoms, maternal DAT1 10/10 genotype, and home atmosphere in the prediction of child inattentive symptoms. Only home atmosphere predicted child hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. There was a significant home atmosphere x maternal hyperactive-impulsive symptoms interaction in the prediction of child hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Boys with higher levels of symptoms came from homes characterized by higher levels of negative atmosphere and had mothers with higher levels of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. There was also a trend (p = 0.075) for a maternal DAT1 x home atmosphere interaction. Boys with higher levels of inattentive symptoms came from homes with higher levels of negative atmosphere and had mothers with the homozygous 10/10 genotype. The maternal heterozygous 9/10 genotype did not predict child symptoms.

  17. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  18. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could…

  19. Transmission of obesity-adiposity and related disorders from the mother to the baby.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2014-01-01

    The conventional aetiological model of obesity and diabetes proposes a genetic predisposition and a precipitation by an unhealthy adult lifestyle. This hypothesis was challenged by David Barker who proposed that the intrauterine environment influences the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The original idea was based on fetal undernutrition because lower birth weight was associated with a higher risk of diabetes and heart disease. However, soon it was clear that the association was U shaped, and that the increased risk in large babies was driven by maternal obesity and diabetes. A number of human and animal studies have refined our ideas of 'fetal programming', which is now thought to be related to acquired chemical changes in DNA (methylation), histones (acetylation and other) and the role of non-coding miRNAs. Maternal nutritional disturbances are the major programming stimulus, in addition to a deranged metabolism, infections, maternal stress, extreme atmospheric temperature, etc. The first demonstration of a link between fetal 'starvation' and future ill-health was in the Dutch Hunger Winter studies. In the prospective Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, we found that small and thin Indian babies were more adipose compared to larger English babies, and their higher risk of future diabetes was reflected in higher insulin and leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations in the cord blood. This phenotype was partly related to a deranged 1-carbon metabolism due to an imbalance in vitamin B12 (low) and folate (high) nutrition, which was also related to insulin resistance in the offspring. Maternal obesity and diabetes have made an increasing contribution to childhood obesity and diabetes at a young age. This was prominently shown in Pima Indians but is now obvious in all other populations. The best window of opportunity to prevent fetal programming of NCDs is in the periconceptional period. This is the period when gametogenesis, fertilisation, implantation

  20. Maternal age as a predictive factor of pre-term birth. An epidemiological study from 1999 to 2008 in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mousiolis, A; Baroutis, G; Sindos, M; Costalos, C; Antsaklis, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of pre-term birth in women giving birth in Greece in different age groups. Data about women giving birth in Greece were retrieved from the Hellenic Vital Statistics covering the years from 1999 to 2008. Relative risk using χ(2) contingency tables was estimated among maternal age groups formed. These groups included mothers < 15 years of age, 15-19, 20-34 (used as a control group) and women > 34 (35-39, 40-44, 45-49 and ≥ 50) years of age. Relative risk of each age group was compared with mothers 20-34 years of age. A total of 1,069,413 valid births were included in the study and 72,156 of them were pre-term (6.75% of total count). Results exhibit a 'U'-shaped distribution of risk. Higher risk of pre-term birth is noted in the groups of < 15 years (Pearson χ(2) = 14.964, p < 0.001, risk = 1.569, CI = 1.249-1.970) and above 34 years of age (Pearson χ(2) = 2991.26, p < 0.001, risk = 1.572, CI = 1.546-1.597). For older women, a steep rise in the relative risk for pre-term birth was noted beyond the 40-44 years of age group. Finally, of interest is the fact that 'late' pre-terms (34-36 gestational weeks) account for most of the pre-term birth in mothers beyond 34 years of age.

  1. Baby's Head Shape: What's Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top of your baby's head where the skull bones haven't yet grown together. These spots, ... rapidly growing brain during infancy. Because your baby's skull is malleable, however, a tendency to rest the ...

  2. How Active Is Your Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal range). As your baby develops, take advantage of every opportunity to help stimulate her mind ... bathing her, or driving with her in the car, keep the conversation going. Babies love the sound ...

  3. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  4. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to have a low-birthweight baby than women who gain the right amount of weight. Having a low-birthweight baby in a previous pregnancy Risk factors in your everyday life for having a low-birthweight baby ... prescription drugs . Pregnant women who smoke are nearly twice as likely to ...

  5. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  6. Bah's Baby Brother Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapahonso, Luci

    This illustrated story, written for Native American children, stresses the importance of not drinking alcohol and taking care of oneself during pregnancy. The story centers on Bah, a young Native American girl whose mother is going to have a baby. Bah is very excited about getting a baby brother or sister and wants the baby to be healthy and…

  7. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy and breastfeeding. ¡Hablamos Español! MotherToBaby Launches New Zika Virus Educational Tools Read the Press Release Call Us ... Length of Cycles * News Pregnancy Health Experts Unveil Zika Virus Educational Tools Ahead of World Birth Defects Day ...

  8. When a Baby Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Martha Jo; And Others

    Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…

  9. No Baby Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    "No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…

  10. Baby supplies you need

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newborn care - baby supplies References Carlo WA. The newborn infant. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  11. Math: "Baby Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeb-Lundberg, Kristina

    1976-01-01

    The concept of "baby research" signifies a playful investigation that takes place at a child's initiative, carried out with freedom and joy, without specific knowledge of preconceived ideas of where it will lead. A joyous firsthand experience with Cuisenaire rods is described by a teacher who once disliked teaching mathematics.…

  12. Effect of age and maternally-derived antibody status on humoral and cellular immune responses to vaccination of pigs against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-01

    The effects of age and maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) on the immune response to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae were investigated in piglets orally vaccinated with a live E. rhusiopathiae vaccine at 6, 8 or 10 weeks of age. Seroconversion, determined by ELISA, was evident in MDA positive piglets vaccinated at 8 or 10 weeks of age and in all MDA negative vaccinates. Two weeks after vaccination in the presence of MDA, a T cell response, measured by a lymphocyte proliferation assay, was observed in 25% of piglets vaccinated at 6 weeks of age and in 100% of piglets vaccinated at 8 or 10 weeks of age. The post-vaccinal response to E. rhusiopathiae was more strongly influenced by the maternal antibody status of the piglet at the time of vaccination than the age of the piglet.

  13. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Social class, prenatal care, maternal age and parity: a study of their interrelation in six Italian centres.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, I; Boracchi, P; De Scrilli, A; Milani, S; Bertulessi, C; Zuliani, G; Bevilacqua, G; Corchia, C; Davanzo, R; Selvaggi, L

    1986-01-01

    "Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used to describe the complex structure formed by those sociodemographic variables, whose association with the occurrence of prenatal and neonatal deaths and diseases has been most frequently stressed in literature: social class, prenatal care, maternal age and parity. The study regards 41,537 women included in a multicentre survey of perinatal preventive medicine, which was carried out, between 1973 and 1979, in six Italian centres...." It is found that "in all centres there are distinct groups of women characterized by a set of unfavourable factors closely interrelated: low social class implies lower prenatal care, higher occurrence of precocious or belated childbearing and higher number of pregnancies, often unintended." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  15. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  16. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  17. Maternal Age-Specific Rates for Trisomy 21 and Common Autosomal Trisomies in Fetuses from a Single Diagnostic Center in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaruthamsophon, Kanoot; Sriplung, Hutcha; Charalsawadi, Chariyawan

    2016-01-01

    To provide maternal age-specific rates for trisomy 21 (T21) and common autosomal trisomies (including trisomies 21, 18 and 13) in fetuses. We retrospectively reviewed prenatal cytogenetic results obtained between 1990 and 2009 in Songklanagarind Hospital, a university teaching hospital, in southern Thailand. Maternal age-specific rates of T21 and common autosomal trisomies were established using different regression models, from which only the fittest models were used for the study. A total of 17,819 records were included in the statistical analysis. The fittest models for predicting rates of T21 and common autosomal trisomies were regression models with 2 parameters (Age and Age2). The rate of T21 ranged between 2.67 per 1,000 fetuses at the age of 34 and 71.06 per 1,000 at the age of 48. The rate of common autosomal trisomies ranged between 4.54 per 1,000 and 99.65 per 1,000 at the same ages. This report provides the first maternal age-specific rates for T21 and common autosomal trisomies fetuses in a Southeast Asian population and the largest case number of fetuses have ever been reported in Asians. PMID:27812158

  18. Early maternal separation impacts cognitive flexibility at the age of first independence in mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A Wren; Caporale, Natalia; Wu, Claudia; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Early life adversity is associated with increased risk for mental and physical health problems, including substance abuse. Changes in neural development caused by early life insults could cause or complicate these conditions. Maternal separation (MS) is a model of early adversity for rodents. Clear effects of MS have been shown on behavioral flexibility in rats, but studies of effects of MS on cognition in mice have been mixed. We hypothesized that previous studies focused on adult mice may have overlooked a developmental transition point when juvenile mice exhibit greater flexibility in reversal learning. Here, using a 4-choice reversal learning task we find that early MS leads to decreased flexibility in post-weaning juvenile mice, but no significant effects in adults. In a further study of voluntary ethanol consumption, we found that adult mice that had experienced MS showed greater cumulative 20% ethanol consumption in an intermittent access paradigm compared to controls. Our data confirm that the MS paradigm can reduce cognitive flexibility in mice and may enhance risk for substance abuse. We discuss possible interpretations of these data as stress-related impairment or adaptive earlier maturation in response to an adverse environment.

  19. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Glucose Level at 24-28 Gestational Weeks on Offspring's Overweight Status within 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Leng, Junhong

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relative impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks on offspring's overweight status from birth to 3 years of age in China. Methods. Health care records of 21,354 mother-child pairs were collected. The single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy BMI and glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks with 0-3-year-old offspring's overweight status were assessed. Results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of offspring's macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at the 12th month, 24th month, and 36th month were 1.12 (1.11-1.13), 1.05 (1.04-1.06), 1.07 (1.06-1.08), and 1.11 (1.10-1.12) for each 1-unit increase (km/m(2)) in maternal prepregnancy BMI and 1.13 (1.10-1.17), 1.01 (0.99-1.03), 0.99 (0.96-1.01), and 1.00 (0.97-1.02) for each 1-unit increase (mmol/L) in maternal glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks, respectively. The positive association of maternal glucose level with macrosomia at birth was similar between prepregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2)); however, the positive association of high maternal glucose level with childhood overweight was only seen among prepregnancy normal weight mothers but not among overweight mothers. Conclusions. The impact of maternal gestational hyperglycemia on offspring's overweight before 3 years of age can be modified by prepregnancy BMI.

  20. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Glucose Level at 24–28 Gestational Weeks on Offspring's Overweight Status within 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relative impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks on offspring's overweight status from birth to 3 years of age in China. Methods. Health care records of 21,354 mother-child pairs were collected. The single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy BMI and glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks with 0–3-year-old offspring's overweight status were assessed. Results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of offspring's macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at the 12th month, 24th month, and 36th month were 1.12 (1.11–1.13), 1.05 (1.04–1.06), 1.07 (1.06–1.08), and 1.11 (1.10–1.12) for each 1-unit increase (km/m2) in maternal prepregnancy BMI and 1.13 (1.10–1.17), 1.01 (0.99–1.03), 0.99 (0.96–1.01), and 1.00 (0.97–1.02) for each 1-unit increase (mmol/L) in maternal glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks, respectively. The positive association of maternal glucose level with macrosomia at birth was similar between prepregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2); however, the positive association of high maternal glucose level with childhood overweight was only seen among prepregnancy normal weight mothers but not among overweight mothers. Conclusions. The impact of maternal gestational hyperglycemia on offspring's overweight before 3 years of age can be modified by prepregnancy BMI. PMID:28251156

  1. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  2. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  3. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  4. Is prenatal childbirth preparation effective in decreasing adverse maternal and neonatal response to labor? A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Hee; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Kim, Sun Kyung; Kim, Seo Hui; Kim, Yun Ju; Han, Jung Yeol; Ahn, Hyun Kyong; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Yang, Jae Hyug; Kim, Moon Young

    2008-04-01

    Sophrology, based on a combination of Western relaxation therapy and Eastern yoga and meditation might decrease maternal stress during labor. This study aimed to evaluate whether prenatal sophrologic childbirth preparation may decrease maternal and neonatal adverse response associated with delivery. In a nested case-control study, 69 nulliparous, singleton pregnant women who underwent an educational course of sophrologic childbirth preparation were compared to 69 nulliparous, singleton, age- and gestational age-matched pregnant women who did not receive any childbirth preparation. All babies were vaginally delivered. Groups were not different (P > 0.05) in the number of neonates born with meconium-stained amniotic fluid as well as in the number of babies with Apgar score < or = 7 at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Duration of labor was not different between groups. The number of women requiring oxytocin and delivering babies with low pH blood levels tended to be lower in the group undergoing sophrologic childbirth preparation, i.e. 58.0% vs 72.5% (P = 0.07) and 1.4% vs 10.9% (P = 0.06), respectively. In conclusion, we were unable to confirm that prenatal sophrologic childbirth preparation has a definitive role in decreasing adverse maternal and fetal response to pain or in shortening labor. Prospective cohort studies with a larger sample size or randomized trials may help to clarify this gap.

  5. Novel Interpretation of Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis According to Gestational Age at the Time of Maternal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Pratlong, Francine; Albaba, Sahar; Loubersac, Julie; Picot, Marie-Christine; Pretet, Vanessa; Issert, Eric; Boulot, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    From a prospective cohort of 344 women who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, 344 amniotic fluid, 264 placenta, and 216 cord blood samples were tested for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis using the same PCR assay. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the PCR assay using amniotic fluid were 86.3% and 97.2%, respectively, and both specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Using placenta and cord blood, sensitivities were 79.5% and 21.2%, and specificities were 92% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the calculation of pretest and posttest probabilities and the use of logistic regression allowed us to obtain curves that give a dynamic interpretation of the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis according to gestational age at maternal infection, as represented by the three sample types (amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood). Two examples are cited here: for a maternal infection at 25 weeks of amenorrhea, a negative result of prenatal diagnosis allowed estimation of the probability of congenital toxoplasmosis at 5% instead of an a priori (pretest) risk estimate of 33%. For an infection at 10 weeks of amenorrhea associated with a pretest congenital toxoplasmosis risk of 7%, a positive PCR result using placenta at birth yields a risk increase to 43%, while a negative result damps down the risk to 0.02%. Thus, with a molecular diagnosis performing at a high level, and in spite of the persistence of false negatives, posttest risk curves using both negative and positive results prove highly informative, allowing a better assessment of the actual risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and finally an improved decision guide to treatment. PMID:23035201

  6. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  7. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

    2012-01-01

    We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate…

  8. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  9. Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

  10. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  11. Zinc Content in Cord Blood Is Associated with Maternal Age and Parity.

    PubMed

    Youssof, Ayman Lee; Kassim, Noor Lide Abu; Rashid, Siti Aishah; De Ley, Marc; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2017-01-01

    At childbirth (parturition), zinc (Zn) homeostasis in cord blood (CB) can be affected by a number of factors: Zn in maternal blood, parturition related stress as well as metallothionein (MT). Both Zn and stress are known inducers of MT which is primarily involved in Zn homeostasis. This study analyzed Zn concentration [Zn], in CB components and MT-2A transcription in CB mononuclear cells (MNC) in relation to primiparous and multiparous childbirth. [Zn] in CB (n = 47) plasma, erythrocytes, and MNCs were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ = 213.9 nm). The MT-2A transcription in CB-MNC was quantified using real-time PCR. Significant correlations (Pearson r) were found between: plasma-[Zn] and erythrocyte-[Zn] (p = 0.002); [Zn] and MT-2A messenger RNA (mRNA) (p = 0.000) in CB-MNC. Student's t tests showed higher levels of MT-2A mRNA and MNC-[Zn] in CB of older (≥25 years) compared to younger mothers (≤24 years) (p = 0.043 and p = 0.016, respectively). Significantly higher [Zn] was found in CB plasma (p = 0.017) and MNC (p = 0.041) of older primiparous compared to the younger primiparous and older multiparous mothers respectively. MT-2A mRNA in CB-MNC was significantly lower in CB of younger primiparous mothers compared to their older counterparts (p = 0.001). Path analysis showed that MNC-[Zn] (β = 0.83; p = 0.000) had a greater influence on MT-2A mRNA expression, compared to parity (β = -0.14; p = 0.033). Higher [Zn] in CB of primiparous mothers could be linked to higher stress during parturition, however, might be beneficial for the growth and development of the child. Together MNC-[Zn] and parity contributed ~70 % of the MT-2A transcription in CB-MNC.

  12. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism

  13. Age-related body weight constraints on prenatal and milk provisioning in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) affect allocation of maternal resources.

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, T; García, A; Carrión, D; Estevez, J A; Ceacero, F; Gaspar-López, E; Gallego, L

    2009-02-01

    Maternal phenotypic characteristics can influence key life history variables of their offspring through maternal effects. In this study, we examined how body size constraints on maternal weight in yearling and subadult compared to adult hinds (age class effects) affected prenatal (calf birth weight, calf to hind weight ratio) and postnatal (milk) provisioning of Iberian red deer calves. Age correlated with all prenatal and postnatal investment traits except calf gains, although correlations were weaker than those with maternal weight. Once the effect of linear increase in weight with age was removed from models, yearlings showed additional reductions in calf birth weight, calf gains, and milk provisioning. The low-calf birth weight might increase the risk of calf mortality during lactation, as this occurs primarily during the first day of life and is strongly related to birth weight. Yearlings showed a greater prenatal allocation of resources in terms of greater calf to hind weight ratio probably as an extra effort by yearling mothers to balance calf neonatal mortality. It might compensate young mothers to produce low-quality calves while still growing rather than waiting for the uncertain possibility of surviving to the next reproductive season.

  14. Loneliness and pregnancy in an urban Latino community: associations with maternal age and unscheduled hospital utilization.

    PubMed

    Geller, Jeffrey S

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to compare loneliness in a pregnant population to a non-pregnant control group, and to evaluate loneliness and unscheduled hospital visits during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study in a Latino urban community including 53 consecutive pregnant women in their first trimester, and 61 non-pregnant women as a control. The UCLA Loneliness Scale version 3, and demographic information was collected. A chart review after delivery determined total number of unscheduled pregnancy related hospital visits. Appropriate data analysis using t-test and regression analysis was used. Forty-eight women continued to delivery. There was no difference in mean loneliness scores between pregnant (41) and non-pregnant groups (43), or that of normal populations (41). There was a significant association between UCLA loneliness scores and total pregnancy related unscheduled hospital visits p = 0.042, beta = 0.06, r= 0.29. There was a significant association between increasing age and increasing loneliness during pregnancy p = 0.007, beta = 0.21, r= 0.36, not seen in the non-pregnant group p = 0.98. Loneliness, when controlling for age, yielded a stronger association with unscheduled hospital visits p = 0.018, beta = 0.076, and r = 0.40. The findings were that increased loneliness is associated with increased unscheduled pregnancy related hospital utilization during pregnancy. Older pregnant women had higher loneliness scores. Loneliness was more significant than age in predicting higher unscheduled hospital visits. The combination of increased loneliness and younger age predicted the highest number of unscheduled hospital visits.

  15. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy.

  16. Caring for Your Premature Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing problems, immunization, immunizations, low birth weight, neonatal intensive care unit, newborn, NICU, patient education, patient information, pediatric, preemie, premature, premature babies, prematurity, premie, respiratory syncytial ...

  17. Community Colleges Offer Baby Boomers an Encore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2007-01-01

    A 2005 MetLife Foundation/Civic Ventures New Face of Work Survey found that many baby boomers are eager to make career changes that can launch a new chapter in their working lives while they make social contribution. The survey found that 50 percent of Americans age 50 to 70 want jobs that contribute to the greater good. It found that more than 53…

  18. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  19. Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2011-11-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage.

  20. Mother-baby friendly hospital.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1996-01-01

    In Manila, the Philippines, the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital has been a maternity hospital for 75 years. It averages 90 deliveries a day. Its fees are P200-P500 for a normal delivery and P800-P2000 for a cesarean section. Patients pay what they can and pay the balance when they can. The hospital provides a safe motherhood package that encompasses teaching responsible parenthood, prenatal care, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast feeding, family planning, and child survival. In 1986, the hospital introduced innovative policies and procedures that promote, protect, and support breast feeding. It has a rooming-in policy that has saved the hospital P6.5 million so far. In the prenatal stage, hospital staff inform pregnant women that colostrum protects the newborn against infections, that suckling stimulates milk production, and that there is no basis to the claim of having insufficient breast milk. Sales representatives of milk substitutes are banned from the hospital. Staff confiscate milk bottles or formula. A lactation management team demonstrates breast feeding procedures. Mothers also receive support on the correct way of breast feeding from hospital staff, volunteers from the Catholic Women's League, consumer groups, and women lawyers. The hospital's policy is no breast milk, no discharge. This encourages mothers to motivate each other to express milk immediately after birth. The hospital has received numerous awards for its breast feeding promotion efforts. UNICEF has designated Fabella Hospital as a model of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. The hospital serves as the National Lactation Management Education Training Center. People from other developing countries have received training in lactation management here. The First Lady of the Philippines, the First Lady of the US, and the Queen of Spain have all visited the hospital. The hospital has also integrated its existing services into a women's health care center.

  1. Babies by (intelligent) design?

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mary B

    2008-01-01

    Advances in reproductive technology and genetic interventions raise questions about the possibility of using these procedures to promote the birth of children with socially advantageous conditions. In Babies by Design, Ronald M. Green supports this goal and accuses its opponents of a "status quo bias." Unfortunately, some of Green's own arguments also show a status quo bias. Moreover, although he attempts to avoid the thorny issue of the moral status of human embryos, he implicitly takes a stand on it by endorsing prenatal interventions that inevitably entail the creation and loss of some human embryos. This essay identifies these and other flaws in Green's account.

  2. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  3. Shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Altimier, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Non-accidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury. Clinical features that suggest head trauma (also known as shaken baby syndrome or shaken impact syndrome) include the triad consisting of retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Abusive head injuries are among the most common causes of serious and lethal injuries in children. These injuries may result from impact or shaking or a combination of these mechanisms. These mechanisms cause the child's head to undergo acceleration/ deceleration movements, which may create inertial movement of the brain within the cranial compartment.

  4. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  5. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  6. Meiosis and Maternal Aging: Insights from Aneuploid Oocytes and Trisomy Births

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Mary; Kalleas, Dimitrios; Cooney, Daniel; Lamb, Mahdi; Lister, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In most organisms, genome haploidization requires reciprocal DNA exchanges (crossovers) between replicated parental homologs to form bivalent chromosomes. These are resolved to their four constituent chromatids during two meiotic divisions. In female mammals, bivalents are formed during fetal life and remain intact until shortly before ovulation. Extending this period beyond ∼35 years greatly increases the risk of aneuploidy in human oocytes, resulting in a dramatic increase in infertility, miscarriage, and birth defects, most notably trisomy 21. Bivalent chromosomes are stabilized by cohesion between sister chromatids, which is mediated by the cohesin complex. In mouse oocytes, cohesin becomes depleted from chromosomes during female aging. Consistent with this, premature loss of centromeric cohesion is a major source of aneuploidy in oocytes from older women. Here, we propose a mechanistic framework to reconcile data from genetic studies on human trisomy and oocytes with recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chromosome segregation during meiosis in model organisms. PMID:25833844

  7. Meiosis and maternal aging: insights from aneuploid oocytes and trisomy births.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Mary; Kalleas, Dimitrios; Cooney, Daniel; Lamb, Mahdi; Lister, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    In most organisms, genome haploidization requires reciprocal DNA exchanges (crossovers) between replicated parental homologs to form bivalent chromosomes. These are resolved to their four constituent chromatids during two meiotic divisions. In female mammals, bivalents are formed during fetal life and remain intact until shortly before ovulation. Extending this period beyond ∼35 years greatly increases the risk of aneuploidy in human oocytes, resulting in a dramatic increase in infertility, miscarriage, and birth defects, most notably trisomy 21. Bivalent chromosomes are stabilized by cohesion between sister chromatids, which is mediated by the cohesin complex. In mouse oocytes, cohesin becomes depleted from chromosomes during female aging. Consistent with this, premature loss of centromeric cohesion is a major source of aneuploidy in oocytes from older women. Here, we propose a mechanistic framework to reconcile data from genetic studies on human trisomy and oocytes with recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chromosome segregation during meiosis in model organisms.

  8. Babies of the earthquake: follow-up study of their first 15 months.

    PubMed

    López, M I; León, N A

    1989-01-01

    This report reviews the phenomenology related to the rescue and later development of the newborn babies buried in the rubble of several collapsed maternity hospitals in Mexico City during the earthquake of September 1985. We describe the rescue process as well as the impact of this process on the community. The rescued babies' development has been followed through the first 15 months of their lives and we describe our observations. We also review the implications of the emotional burdens that these babies may bear and the possible repercussions later in their development.

  9. Maternal Age at First Delivery Is Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women: From 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeong Han; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Huh, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies demonstrated that earlier maternal age at first childbirth is correlated with a higher risk of diabetes in postmenopausal women. In this study, we evaluated whether the age at first delivery is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 4,261 postmenopausal women aged 45 years or older were analyzed using data generated from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2010). Subjects were divided into three groups according to the maternal age at first delivery as follows: ≤ 20 years (n=878), 21-25 years (n=2314), and ≥ 26 years (n=1069). Results Approximately 37% of subjects had MetS. The prevalence of MetS showed a gradual increase as maternal age at first delivery decreased (≥ 26 years = 30.9% vs. 21-25 years = 39.9% vs. ≤ 20 years = 50.8%, respectively, p < 0.001). Central obesity indices such as trunk fat mass and waist circumference were significantly higher in the group aged ≤ 20 years than other groups. After adjustments for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for predicting the presence of MetS increased gradually as first delivery age decreased (≥ 26 years vs. 21-25 years vs. ≤ 20 years: OR [95% CI] = 1 vs. 1.324 [1.118-1.567] vs. 1.641 [1.322-2.036], respectively). Among components of MetS, younger maternal age at first delivery (≤ 20 years) was significantly associated with increased waist circumference (OR [95% CI] = 1.735 [1.41-2.13]), elevated blood pressure (1.261 [1.02-1.57]), high triglyceride (1.333 [1.072-1.659]), and low HDL-cholesterol (1.335[1.084-1.643]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that younger maternal age at first delivery is independently associated with a higher risk of central obesity and MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:26010910

  10. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: using the children of twins design to test causal hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-02-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behavior. It is not clear, however, if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children of siblings and children of twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant monozygotic twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association.

  11. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

  12. The co-construction of adolescent narrative identity: narrative processing as a function of adolescent age, gender, and maternal scaffolding.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2012-03-01

    The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.

  13. Impact of sperm genome decay on Day-3 embryo chromosomal abnormalities from advanced-maternal-age patients.

    PubMed

    Kaarouch, Ismail; Bouamoud, Nouzha; Louanjli, Noureddine; Madkour, Aicha; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Sefrioui, Omar

    2015-10-01

    Infertile male patients often exhibit unconventional semen parameters, including DNA fragmentation, chromatin dispersion, and aneuploidy-collectively referred to as sperm genome decay (SGD). We investigated the correlation of SGD to embryo chromosomal abnormalities and its effect on clinical pregnancy rates in patients with advanced maternal age (AMA) (>40 years) who were undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection-preimplantation genetic screening (ICSI-PGS). Three groups were assessed: patients with AMA and male partners with normal sperm (AMA-N); AMA patients and male partners presenting with SGD (AMA-SGD); and young fertile female patients and male partners with SGD (Y-SGD). We found a significant increase in embryonic chromosomal abnormalities-polyploidy, nullisomy, mosaicism, and chaotic anomaly rates-when semen parameters are altered (76% vs. 67% and 66% in AMA-SGD vs. AMA-N and Y-SGD groups, respectively). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between SGD and aneuploidies of embryonic chromosomes 13, 16, 21, X, and Y, as well as negative clinical outcomes. Incorporation of molecular sperm analyses should therefore significantly minimize the risk of transmission of chromosomal anomalies from spermatozoa to embryos, and may provide better predictors of pregnancy than conventional sperm analyses. We also demonstrated that an ICSI-PGS program should be implemented for SGD patients in order to limit transmission of chromosomal paternal anomalies and to improve clinical outcome.

  14. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  15. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rebuffat, E

    2009-09-01

    Nearly all non accidental head injuries of children are shaken baby syndromes. The non accidental head trauma refers to a traumatic encephalopathy inflicted by an adult to a child. The syndrome combines subdural haematoma, retinal haemorrhages and absence of any external lesion. The mortality and morbidity rates of the SBS are high and the SBS is the main cause of death in hospitals handling child abuse. The incidence is not well-known and most probably underestimated. Numerous risk factors linked to the aggressor, to the victim and to the factual context have been identified. The diagnosis remains difficult to make, mainly due to the absence of reliable anamnesis in a majority of cases. It should be envisaged for all infants presenting unexplained acute encephalopathy. Imagery and ophthalmologic examination are the first examinations that are required to make such diagnosis. A cerebral RMI allowed for important progress both on the level of the diagnosis and the prognosis as well as on the level of the understanding of lesions. The physiopathogeny of this syndrome has considerably progressed in recent years which raise promising prospects for therapy. The treatment of babies with SBS requires highly competent teams including paediatric neurosurgeons but also teams specialised in child abuse which can quickly take care of the families. In view of the seriousness of the problem, several communication campaigns directed to young parents and the public have been organized recently in several countries among which Belgium.

  16. Postpartum depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity: an exploration of possible social media-based measures.

    PubMed

    Dáu, Ana Luísa B T; Callinan, Laura S; Mayes, Linda C; Smith, Megan V

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, directly observed maternal sensitivity, and the content and themes of pictures posted on a mobile application. Data on 20 participants were analyzed. Results suggested that mothers' scoring as more intrusive on the maternal sensitivity scale tended to post a higher proportion of photos of themselves interacting with their babies. An association between higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms and a lower proportion of posts of baby smiling photos was also suggested.

  17. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986–1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

  18. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-07-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort.

  19. "My Baby & Me": effects of an early, comprehensive parenting intervention on at-risk mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Guttentag, Cathy L; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Baggett, Kathleen M; Noria, Christine W; Borkowski, John G; Swank, Paul R; Farris, Jaelyn R; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G; Carta, Judith J; Warren, Steven F; Ramey, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168 adults) enrolled across 4 states, half were randomly assigned to the high-intensity (HI) home visitation coaching program (55 sessions), and half to a low-intensity (LI) condition that included monthly phone calls from a coach, printed informational materials, and community resource referrals. Videotaped observations of mother-child play were coded at 5 time points for multiple maternal and child behaviors and skills. Compared to mothers in the LI group, mothers in the HI group showed higher levels of contingent responsiveness, higher quality verbal stimulation, and more verbal scaffolding by 30 months, with higher levels of warmth and greater decreases in physical intrusiveness and negativity when their children were 24 months. By 30 months, children in the HI group showed more rapid increases and higher levels of engagement with the environment, expressive language skills, and social engagement, as well as more complex toy play and fewer problem behaviors than those in the LI group. Gains in maternal responsive behaviors mediated the effects of the intervention on child outcomes. Results were comparable for adolescent and adult mothers. A strong theoretical framework, consistent focus on maternal responsiveness, high dosage, and trusting relationships with coaches are thought to explain the positive outcomes.

  20. Clinical profile and outcomes of women admitted to a psychiatric mother-baby unit.

    PubMed

    Christl, Bettina; Reilly, Nicole; Yin, Carolyn; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the clinical profile of women admitted to a psychiatric mother-baby unit as well as change in their clinical, parenting, attachment and quality of life outcomes. Data was collected from 191 mothers through self-report measures at admission and discharge. Change was analysed in terms of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score, parenting confidence, maternal attachment to the infant and overall functioning. Psychosocial factors impacting on symptom severity and recovery were examined. Most women (64.8 %) were admitted in the first 3 months after birth with an ICD-10 unipolar depressive episode (52.3 %) or anxiety disorder (25.7 %), and 47.6 % had comorbid diagnoses. Improvement from admission to discharge was seen with large effect sizes (≥one standard deviation, i.e. μ) in terms of clinical symptoms (EPDS, μ = 1.7), parenting confidence (Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS), μ = 1.1) and attachment to their infant (Maternal Postpartum Attachment Scale (MPAS), μ = 0.9) as well as overall level of functioning (SF-14, μ = 1.9). The majority (73.3 %) recovered symptomatically, and this was associated with increasing maternal age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.129, p = 0.002) and lower levels of psychosocial risk at admission (OR = 0.963, p = 0.008). Improvement in parenting confidence was associated with increasing maternal age (OR = 1.17, p = 0.003). No predictive factors were found for improvement in maternal attachment after controlling for admission scores. In the short term, joint admission of mothers with their infants is highly beneficial in terms of clinical, functional and parenting outcomes, but follow up studies are needed to assess the longer term benefits for mother-infant dyads. The use of an observational tool to enhance our assessment of maternal-infant interaction and some measure of maternal emotional dysregulation-both important mediators of development of secure infant

  1. Twinning and Multiple Birth Rates According to Maternal Age in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Otta, Emma; Fernandes, Eloisa de S; Acquaviva, Tiziana G; Lucci, Tania K; Kiehl, Leda C; Varella, Marco A C; Segal, Nancy L; Valentova, Jaroslava V

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigates the twinning rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years 2003-2014. The data were drawn from the Brazilian Health Department database of Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos de São Paulo-SINASC (Live Births Information System of São Paulo). In general, more information is available on the incidence of twinning in developed countries than in developing ones. A total of 24,589 twin deliveries and 736 multiple deliveries were registered in 140 hospitals of São Paulo out of a total of 2,056,016 deliveries during the studied time period. The overall average rates of singleton, twin, and multiple births per 1,000 maternities (‰) were 987.43, 11.96 (dizygotic (DZ) rate was 7.15 and monozygotic (MZ) 4.42), and 0.36, respectively. We further regressed maternal age and historical time period on percentage of singleton, twin, and multiple birth rates. Our results indicated that maternal age strongly positively predicted twin and multiple birth rates, and negatively predicted singleton birth rates. The historical time period also positively, although weakly, predicted twin birth rates, and had no effect on singleton or multiple birth rates. Further, after applying Weinberg's differential method, we computed regressions separately for the estimated frequencies of DZ and MZ twin rates. DZ twinning was strongly positively predicted by maternal age and, to a smaller degree, by time period, while MZ twinning increased marginally only with higher maternal age. Factors such as increasing body mass index or air pollution can lead to the slight historical increase in DZ twinning rates. Importantly, consistent with previous cross-cultural and historical research, our results support the existence of an age-dependent physiological mechanism that leads to a strong increase in twinning and multiple births, but not singleton births, among mothers of higher age categories. From the ultimate perspective, twinning and multiple births in

  2. Family Centered Maternity Care

    PubMed Central

    Enkin, Murray W.

    1973-01-01

    Current practices of obstetrical care tend to hinder rather than facilitate family development and maturation. A program of family centred maternity care is described. Husbands are invited to prenatal visits, and are involved in intensive preparation for labor and delivery. Their presence and active participation in labor, delivery, and postpartum course are encouraged. This, along with a rooming-in policy for the baby, and the utilization of the postpartum period for an intensive training in parenthood, appears to produce a safe and satisfying obstetrical experience for the family. PMID:20468914

  3. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in

  4. Shaken baby syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, I

    2002-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is the most common cause of death or serious neurological injury resulting from child abuse. It is specific to infancy, when children have unique anatomic features. Subdural and retinal haemorrhages are markers of shaking injury. An American radiologist, John Caffey, coined the name whiplash shaken infant syndrome in 1974. It was, however, a British neurosurgeon, Guthkelch who first described shaking as the cause of subdural haemorrhage in infants. Impact was later thought to play a major part in the causation of brain damage. Recently improved neuropathology and imaging techniques have established the cause of brain injury as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive and specific method of confirming a shaking injury. Families of children with subdural haemorrhages should be thoroughly investigated by social welfare agencies. PMID:12509690

  5. When babies turn yellow

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mark Chung Wai; How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition seen in the primary care setting. Most afflicted babies have physiological jaundice and their prognosis is good. However, others have pathological jaundice, which must be detected early. High levels of serum bilirubin can also result in bilirubin encephalopathy. This article describes consultation tasks in the primary care setting with the aim of providing a guide for the safe management of neonatal jaundice. They include clinical assessment of the baby’s well-being; looking out for features that suggest pathological jaundice; assessment for the presence of high-risk features; utilising appropriate laboratory tests for monitoring; assessing the degree of jaundice to decide if the child can be safely followed up in primary care; and providing advice on primary prevention measures and allaying parental concerns. The importance of stool colour examination and its role in early detection of cholestatic jaundice is emphasised. PMID:26668403

  6. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important.

  7. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  8. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship.

  9. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  10. Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula (TEF) in a Newborn Following Maternal Antenatal Exposure to Olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Maharshi, Vikas; Banerjee, Indranil; Nagar, Pravesh; Rehan, Harmeet Singh

    2017-12-01

    There is a dearth of evidence on the safety of the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy. Olanzapine, a pregnancy category C drug, has no unequivocal evidence of harm to the fetus. Against this backdrop, we report the first case of a tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) in a newborn following maternal antenatal exposure to olanzapine. A 29-year-old woman with acute psychotic disorder had been treated with olanzapine for the last 7 years. Her first pregnancy, while taking olanzapine, resulted in a miscarriage at 4 months' gestation, following which she discontinued olanzapine. She reconceived after a few months and delivered a full-term normal child. However, due to the recurrence of psychiatric illness after her second pregnancy, she was prescribed olanzapine again, which was continued throughout her third pregnancy. The outcome of the third pregnancy was a full-term female baby with a TEF. The baby was managed surgically and discharged with satisfactory vital signs. Unfortunately, however, the baby did not survive beyond 11 months of age. Causality between antenatal maternal olanzapine exposure and TEF in the newborn was determined to be 'probable' (score +5) as per the Naranjo causality assessment scale. Greater knowledge of this potential teratogenicity caused by olanzapine is needed to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  11. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals. PMID:26014424

  12. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals.

  13. Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

  14. Maternal zinc status is associated with breast milk zinc concentration and zinc status in breastfed infants aged 4-6 months.

    PubMed

    Dumrongwongsiri, Oraporn; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chatvutinun, Suthida; Phoonlabdacha, Phanphen; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Siripinyanond, Artitaya; Thiengmanee, Usana; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk provides adequate nutrients during the first 6 months of life. However, there are some reports of zinc deficiency in breastfed infants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in infants aged 4-6 months and the associated factors. Healthy infants aged 4-6 months and their mothers were enrolled. They were classified by feeding types as breastfed (BF), formula-fed (FF), and mixed groups (MF). Data collection included demographic data, perinatal data, given diets, and anthropometric measurement. Blood from infants and lactating mothers, and breast milk samples were collected to assess plasma and breast milk zinc concentrations. From 158 infants, the prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma level below 10.7 mol/L) was 7.6%, and according to feeding groups 14.9%, 5.3%, and 2.9% in the BF, the FF, and the MF groups, respectively. Breastfed infants with zinc deficiency had significantly lower maternal zinc concentrations compared with those without zinc deficiency. There was a higher proportion of maternal zinc deficiency in zinc-deficient infants than those without zinc deficiency (66.7% vs 16.2%, p=0.02). There was a positive correlation between zinc concentrations in breast milk and plasma zinc concentrations of infants (r=0.62, p=0.01) and plasma zinc concentrations of lactating mothers (r=0.56, p=0.016). Using the regression analysis, infant zinc status was associated with maternal plasma zinc concentrations among breastfed infants. The results of this study suggest that breastfed infants aged 4-6 months may have a risk of zinc deficiency and that risk is associated with maternal zinc status and breast milk zinc concentrations.

  15. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental

  16. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    PubMed

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  17. Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Shinji; Toshimitsu, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Takayuki; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Arima, Takayasu; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Masuda, Kentaro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 1010/g vs. 1.1 × 1010/g and 2.3 × 1010/g vs. 9.7 × 109/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates. PMID:28245628

  18. Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Shinji; Toshimitsu, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Takayuki; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Arima, Takayasu; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Masuda, Kentaro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-02-26

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 10(10)/g vs. 1.1 × 10(10)/g and 2.3 × 10(10)/g vs. 9.7 × 10⁸/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates.

  19. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  20. The interplay of birthweight, DRD4 and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L.; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Background Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socio-emotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (7-repeat long-form allele or non 7-repeat short form) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study we examined possible 2- and 3-way interactions between child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Method Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele 7-Repeat. Macro-analytic and a micro-analytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20-minutes of non-feeding interaction followed by a 10-minute divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation Procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. Results Results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6 month maternal attention (frequency of

  1. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research A Healthy Mouth For Your Baby Healthy teeth are important—even ... fact sheet can help you keep your baby’s mouth healthy and give him a healthy start! 1. ...

  2. Baby Naps: Daytime Sleep Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sudden infant death syndrome: Diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/baby-naps/art-20047421 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  3. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Mian, Maha; Shah, Janki; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar

    2015-06-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs in infants as a result of the brain pushing against the skull due to severe acceleration-deceleration forces. Symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include subdural, subarachnoid, and retinal hemorrhages. MRI and ocular examinations are used to determine the extent of mental and visual damage and β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining is used to detect axonal injuries. Surgeries such as Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) evacuation surgery and the Burr hole craniotomy are used to treat Shaken Baby Syndrome; however, the prognosis is poor in many cases. Because of the severity of Shaken Baby Syndrome and its traumatic and sometimes fatal effects, it is important to educate new parents, nurses, and doctors on the syndrome in order to prevent incidents.

  4. Reflections on maternal health care within the Victorian Maternal and Child Health Service.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Leesa; Taft, Angela; Small, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Women suffer significant morbidity following childbirth and there is a lack of focussed, primary maternal health care to support them. Victorian Maternal and Child Health (MCH) nurses are ideally suited to provide additional care for women when caring for the family with a new baby. With additional training and support, MCH nurses could better fill this health demand and practice gap. This discussion paper reviews what we know about maternal morbidity, current postnatal services for women and the maternal healthcare gap, and makes recommendations for enhancing MCH nursing practice to address this deficit.

  5. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N = 647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  6. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes After Lamotrigine Use in Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis from an Urban Maternal Mental Health Centre in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Chandni; Hatters-Friedman, Susan; Moller-Olsen, Charmian; North, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for recurrence of bipolar disorder. Discontinuation of mood stabilisers during pregnancy and the postpartum period can significantly increase the risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is an anti-epileptic drug that has been approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Epilepsy literature has indicated that lamotrigine has a reassuring safety profile in pregnancy but there is little information on its effectiveness and safety in pregnant women with mental disorders. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all pregnant women who presented to an urban maternal mental health centre in Auckland, New Zealand between 2012 and 2014 and were treated with antipsychotics and/or mood stabilisers. Pregnancy outcome, obstetric and perinatal complications, congenital malformations and maternal mental health in the postnatal period were considered. Results Here, we present the outcomes in the subset of six women who were treated with lamotrigine 100–400 mg/day for the entire pregnancy. Five were diagnosed with bipolar disorder and one with major depression. Three women received additional psychotropic medication during pregnancy. No women needed psychiatric hospitalisation. All babies were live birth after 36 weeks gestation. Two babies had low birth weight and required NICU admissions. Two women required lower segment caesarean section and the other 4 were induced. A trachea-esophageal fistula was noted in one baby. Four babies who were breastfed while their mothers received uninterrupted treatment with lamotrigine, experienced no complications. Discussion This naturalistic study indicates that lamotrigine can be an effective treatment option for maintenance of bipolar illness in women of childbearing age. PMID:27738382

  7. Anthropometry of fetal growth in rural Malawi in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status

    PubMed Central

    Kalanda, B; van Buuren, S; Verhoeff, F; Brabin, B

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe fetal growth centiles in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status, using cross sectional measurements at birth. Design: A cross sectional study of pregnant women and their babies. Data on maternal socioeconomic status and current pregnancy, including HIV status and newborn anthropometry, were collected. Malaria parasitaemia was assessed in maternal peripheral and placental blood, fetal haemoglobin was measured in cord blood, and maternal HIV status was determined. Setting: Two district hospitals in rural southern Malawi, between March 1993 and July 1994. Outcome variables: Newborn weight, length, Rohrer's ponderal index. Results: Maternal HIV (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.76 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.98)) and first pregnancy (AOR 1.83 (1.10 to 3.05)) were independently associated with low weight for age. Placental or peripheral parasitaemia at delivery (AOR 1.73 (1.02 to 2.88)) and primigravidae (AOR 2.13 (1.27 to 3.59)) were independently associated with low length for age. Maternal malaria at delivery and primiparity were associated with reduced newborn weight and length but not with disproportionate growth. Maternal HIV infection was associated only with reduced birth weight. The malaria and parity effect occurred throughout gestational weeks 30–40, but the HIV effect primarily after 38 weeks gestation. Conclusion: Fetal growth retardation in weight and length commonly occurs in this highly malarious area and is present from 30 weeks gestation. A maternal HIV effect on fetal weight occurred after 38 weeks gestation. PMID:15724042

  8. Easy plane baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäykkä, Juha; Speight, Martin

    2010-12-01

    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, V=(1)/(2)ϕ32. This “easy plane” potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge Skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-Skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit Skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-Skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,…,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B≥7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.

  9. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Rohrer, T; Ahlhelm, F; Papanagiotou, P

    2009-10-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) describes the coincidence of subdural hematoma, retinal bleeding and, disadvantageous for the prognosis, diffuse brain damage caused by powerful shaking of the infant. The clinical symptoms include irritability, difficulty with drinking, somnolence, apathy, cerebral cramp attacks, apnoea, temperature regulation disorders and vomiting due to cranial pressure. Milder symptoms of SBS are often not diagnosed and the number of unregistered cases is probably much greater. The diagnosis of SBS is made through the typical symptom constellation, but the lack of retinal bleeding does not exclude the diagnosis. Normally the infants are held by the thorax or upper arms and shaken in a sagittal direction during which the head falls backwards and forwards and is stopped abruptly at each extreme position. The injurious mechanism is considered to be caused by rotational forces which force tissue layers in the brain against each other and also lead to rupture of bridging veins between the skull and the brain. The prognosis is poor and approximately 25% of infants die of SBS within days or weeks. Approximately 75% of survivors suffer from long term damage with physical handicaps, limitations in hearing, visual disturbances up to blindness and mental disorders or combinations of these conditions. Prevention is therefore the most important aspect.

  10. Impact of maternal and neonatal factors on parameters of hematopoietic potential in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Al-Deghaither, Sara Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine characteristics of laboratory parameters of hematopoietic potential in umbilical cord blood and their association with maternal and neonatal factors. Methods: This prospective analysis was performed on 206 umbilical cord blood donations (50-200 ml) from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January and September 2014. Samples were processed and analyzed for total nucleated cells (TNC’s), cluster designation (CD)45+, CD34+ counts, nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) count, and viability testing. Results: Most of the study participants (63.6%) were on their first 3 deliveries and from women with age between 17 and 30 years (80.6%). The donated volume was 50.4-192.4 ml, TNCs ranged from 500.2×106 to 9430.3 ×106 cells, and CD34+ cells ranged from 1.25×106 to 12.82×106/unit. The volume was positively affected by bigger birth weight of the baby (p<0.0001), larger placenta (p=0.001), TNCs (p<0.0001), CD34+ (p<0.0001), NRBCs (p<0.0001), and viability (p=0.002). There were no statistically significant differences between baby boys and girls for laboratory variables. Conclusion: In the selection and identification of a possible donor of umbilical cord blood, several maternal and neonatal factors should be considered, as younger maternal age, neonatal birth weight >3300 grams, larger placental size, and first or second-born babies, were shown to be associated with higher TNCs, CD34+, CD45+, NRBCs, and viability. PMID:25987113

  11. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  12. Factors Associated with Women's Antenatal Plans to Use a Baby Walker: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Collier, Jacqueline; Woods, Amanda; Wattse, Kim; Dewey, Michael; Chen, Chih-Mei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of these analyses was to explore maternal antenatal decisions about baby walker use, factors associated with these decisions and the relationship between antenatal plans to use a walker and postnatal walker use. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Mothers-to-be (n = 1174) participating in a cluster randomised…

  13. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  14. The Risky Business of Reproduction: Environmental Exposures and Associated Risks to Fertility and Healthy Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattler, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Each of the elements required to create a healthy baby--genetics, the anatomy of the male and female reproductive system, the processes by which eggs and sperm are produced, the processes by which the embryo is created and implanted, maternal health during pregnancy, and embryonic/fetal growth and development--is vulnerable to damage by…

  15. Maternal Identity Formation in a Military Sample: A Longitudinal Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-08

    described greater planning and readiness for parenting . This however does not indicate greater ease of maternal identity formation for women of middle to... Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) (Cranley, 1981 a) and What Being the Parent of a New Baby is Like scale (WPL) (Pridham & Chang, 1985). The MFAS is...sample comprised 20 high-risk primiparous adolescents . The theoretical framework for the project was based on maternal role theory. Importantly, the

  16. Do Maternal Living Arrangements Influence the Vaccination Status of Children Age 12–23 Months? A Data Analysis of Demographic Health Surveys 2010–11 from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although vaccination is an effective intervention to reduce childhood mortality and morbidity, reasons for incomplete vaccination, including maternal living arrangements, have been marginally explored. This study aims at assessing whether maternal living arrangements are associated with vaccination status of children aged 12–23 months in Zimbabwe. It also explores other variables that may be associated with having children not fully vaccinated. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the DHS-VI done in Zimbabwe in 2010–2011 (response rate 93%). Incomplete vaccination of children (outcome), was defined as not having received one dose of BCG and measles, 3 doses of polio and DPT/Pentavalent. Maternal living arrangements (main exposure), and other exposure variables were analysed. Survey logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted OR for exposures against the outcome. Results The dataset included 1,031 children aged 12–23 months. 65.8% of children were fully vaccinated. 65.7% of the mothers were married and cohabitating with a partner, 20.3% were married/partnered but living separately and 14% were not married. Maternal living arrangements were not associated with the vaccination status of children both in crude and adjusted analysis. Factors associated with poorer vaccination status of the children included: no tetanus vaccination for mothers during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.5;3.0), child living away from mother (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.2;1.8), mother’s education (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95%CI 0.4;0.9), high number of children living in the household (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.1;2.2), child age (adjusted OR = 0.7, 95%CI 0.5;0.9). Discussion Maternal living arrangements were not associated with vaccination status of Zimbabwean children. Other factors, such as the mother’s health-seeking behaviour and education were major factors associated with the children’s vaccination status. Given the

  17. Adolescent Mothers' Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmens, Donna A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the experiences of adolescent mothers with depression following the birth of their babies. A sample of 20 participants, between the ages of 16 and 18, were asked to reflect upon and describe their thoughts, feelings, and perceptions about being depressed after the birth of their babies. Implications for practice and directions for future…

  18. Babies, Music and Gender: Music Playschools in Finland as Multimodal Participatory Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Taru

    2011-01-01

    Studies of education and childhood studies in general tend to focus on the experiences and cultures of toddlers and school-age children. The experiences and cultures of babies and infants are often excluded from the scope of the studies of children. In Gilles Deleuze's (and Felix Guattari's) thinking, a child, and especially a baby or an infant,…

  19. Parental Perception of a Baby Sign Workshop on Stress and Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Baby sign language is gaining in popularity. However, research has indicated a lack of empirical research supporting its use. In addition, research suggests that baby sign training may increase stress levels in parents. Methods: Nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years; five months participated in a…

  20. Socioemotional and Behavioral Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities: The Moderating Role of Maternal Personal Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the role of maternal personal resources (mother's attachment style, coping strategies, and affect) in moderating the effects of learning disabilities (LD) on children's socioemotional and behavioral adjustment (self-rated sense of coherence, loneliness, and hope; and mother-rated child behavior checklist measures), as well as on…

  1. Maternal Perinatal Mental Health and Offspring Academic Achievement at Age 16: The Mediating Role of Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Rebecca M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Cordero, Miguel; Scerif, Gaia; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Abioye, Abu; Stein, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have…

  2. Evolution of maternal effect senescence

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton’s evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton’s age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745

  3. Telomere length change plateaus at 4 years of age in Latino children: associations with baseline length and maternal change.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Shiboski, Stephen; Heyman, Melvin B; Elwan, Deena; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres are the protective complexes at the end of chromosomes, required for genomic stability. Little is known about predictors of attrition in young children or the relationship between parental and child patterns of telomere change. Telomere length was assessed twice over one year, at 4 and at 5 years of age, in Latino preschool children (n = 77) and their mothers (n = 70) in whole blood leukocytes. Maternal and child rates of attrition during the same time period were compared in 70 mother-child pairs. More children showed lengthened telomeres over one year compared to their mothers and very few children showed attrition (2.6 %). Approximately 31 % of children and 16 % of mothers displayed lengthening over one year while 66 % of children showed maintenance in contrast with 74 % of mothers. The strongest predictor for child telomere length change was child's baseline telomere length (r = -0.61, p < 0.01). Maternal rate of change was associated with child rate of change (r = 0.33, p < 0.01). After controlling for child baseline telomere length, the relationship between child and maternal rate of change trended towards significance (Coeff = 0.20, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.43; p = 0.08). We found primarily maintenance and lengthening from 4 to 5 years of age in children, with minimal telomere attrition, indicating that most of the telomere loss happens in the first 4 years, plateauing by age 4. Lastly, we found close to 10 % of the variance in rate of change in children shared by mothers. While some of this shared variance is genetic, there are likely environmental factors that need to be further identified that impact rate of telomere length change.

  4. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Blumfield, Michelle L.; Nowson, Caryl; Hure, Alexis J.; Smith, Roger; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Collins, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP), which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E%) polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045), E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03) and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04) were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy) and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy) intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension. PMID:25919307

  5. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  6. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2007-08-01

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  7. Differential levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in women with preeclampsia delivering male and female babies.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suchitra; Dhobale, Madhavi; Dangat, Kamini; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Lalwani, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-11-01

    Maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) play a key role in fetal growth and development. This study for the first time examines the maternal and cord LCPUFA levels in preeclamptic mothers delivering male and female infants. In this study 122 normotensive control pregnant women (gestation≥37 weeks) and 90 women with preeclampsia were recruited. Results indicate lower maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels (p<0.05) in women with preeclampsia delivering male babies as compared to normotensive control women delivering male babies. Similarly, cord nervonic acid levels were lower (p<0.01) in women with preeclampsia delivering male babies as compared to normotensive control group. However, cord nervonic acid levels were comparable in women with preeclampsia and normotensive control women delivering female babies. This data suggests that male babies born to mothers with preeclampsia may be at an increased risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders as compared to female babies. Future studies need to follow up both male and female children born to mothers with preeclampsia since altered levels of LCPUFA at birth may have differential implications for the growth and development.

  8. An Analysis of the Frame-Content Theory in Babble of 9-Month-Old Babies with Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Gwendolyn; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the consonant-vowel co-occurrence patterns predicted by the Frame-Content theory in 16 nine-month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate ([plus or minus]cleft lip) and 16 age-matched non-cleft babies. Babble from these babies was phonetically transcribed and grouped according to the intrasyllabic predictions…

  9. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months: Response to Howard and Doherty-Sneddon's Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Johnston, J. Cyne; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence related to the effectiveness of baby sign language for children with typical development. This response to a Commentary on the review stresses that the primary purpose of the review was to assist caregivers and policy makers with informed decision-making related to the benefits of the…

  10. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  12. Just a Talking Book? Word Learning from Watching Baby Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Michael B.; Richert, Rebekah A.; Wartella, Ellen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between viewing an infant DVD and expressive and receptive language outcomes. Children between 12 and 15 months were randomly assigned to view "Baby Wordsworth," a DVD highlighting words around the house marketed for children beginning at 12 months of age. Viewings took place in home settings over 6 weeks.…

  13. Revisiting the Measurement of Shaken Baby Syndrome Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 10 years, over 80% of adults surveyed report some familiarity with Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) and the dangers of shaking infants younger than 2 years of age ([Dias et al., 2005] and [Russell and Britner, 2006]). Hence, in the context of SBS prevention, the question of whether caregivers knew the safety risks of shaking an infant…

  14. Maternal insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, body mass index, and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, R.; Holly, J; Soothill, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To examine the hypothesis that the maternal insulin-like growth factor system may constrain fetal growth.
METHODS—A prospective observational study of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and fetal growth was undertaken in neonates with birthweights below the 5th centile. They had been classified either as having fetal growth restriction (FGR) due to placental dysfunction (increased umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI); n = 25) or as being small for gestational age (SGA; normal umbilical artery PI, growth velocity and amniotic fluid; n = 27). Eighty nine controls had normal birthweights (5th-95th centile), umbilical artery PI, growth velocity, and amniotic fluid. IGFBP-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—Among the controls, there was no significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and birthweight after allowing for body mass index (BMI). Maternal BMI was high in FGR and after adjusting for this, IGFBP-1 was increased (109 ng/ml) compared with SGA babies (69ng/ml) and controls (57 ng/ml) and correlated with the umbilical artery PI.
CONCLUSIONS—Maternal IGFBP-1 is probably not part of normal placental function. Its increase in FGR could be the cause or consequence of impaired placental perfusion, but high IGFBP-1 concentrations might further reduce the availability of maternal IGF-I to the placenta. This could worsen placental function and so adversely affect fetal growth.
 PMID:10685983

  15. Maternal Bonding through Pregnancy and Postnatal: Findings from an Australian Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Larissa; Hutchinson, Delyse; Wilson, Judy; Burns, Lucinda; Allsop, Steve; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Jacobs, Sue; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Olsson, Craig; Mattick, Richard P

    2017-02-17

    Background Mother-infant bonding provides the foundation for secure attachment through the lifespan and organizes many facets of infant social-emotional development, including later parenting. Aims To describe maternal bonding to offspring across the pregnancy and postnatal periods, and to examine a broad range of sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of the maternal-offspring bond. Methods Data were drawn from a sample of 372 pregnant women participating in an Australian population-based longitudinal study of postnatal health and development. Participants completed maternal bonding questionnaires at each trimester and 8 weeks postnatal. Data were collected on a range of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. Results Bonding increased significantly through pregnancy, in quality and intensity. Regression analyses indicated that stronger antenatal bonding at all time points (trimesters 1 through 3) predicted stronger postnatal bonding. Older maternal age, birth mother being born in a non-English speaking country, mother not working full time, being a first-time mother, breast-feeding problems, and baby's crying behavior all predicted poorer bonding at 8 weeks postpartum. Conclusion These novel findings have important implications for pregnant women and their infant offspring, and for health care professionals working in perinatal services. Importantly, interventions to strengthen maternal-fetal bonding would be beneficial during pregnancy to enhance postnatal bonding and infant health outcomes.

  16. Small-for-gestational age and its association with maternal blood glucose, body mass index and stature: a perinatal cohort study among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632

  17. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the “finishing” phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  18. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high.

  19. Feeding intervention in cleft lip and palate babies: a practical approach to feeding efficiency and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ize-Iyamu, I N; Saheeb, B D

    2011-09-01

    Using a disposable syringe to feed 1-14-week-old babies with cleft lip and palate (CLP) was studied. 57 CLP babies were randomly divided into: syringe-fed (intervention) and cup-and-spoon-fed groups and compared with 55 normal breast- or bottle-fed babies. Differences in weight gained from birth to 6, 10 and 14 weeks were compared. Syringe-fed CLP babies fed breast milk had a significant difference in weight gain (0.7 and 0.8 kg) compared with cup-and-spoon-fed babies (0.4 kg), at 10 and 14 weeks, respectively. Normal breast-fed babies gained 0.6 and 0.7 kg. Cup-and-spoon-fed CLP babies fed artificial and breast milk gained 0.5 and 0.6 kg; syringe-fed CLP babies gained 0.6 and 1.2 kg. Normal babies gained 1.0 and 1.7 kg for the same age and food. Average feeding times were 10 ml/1.25 min for syringe-fed and 10 ml/2.08 min for cup-and-spoon-fed CLP babies at 6 weeks. 19 (100%) cup-and-spoon-fed babies exhibited spill and regurgitation at 6 weeks compared with 30 (79%) CLP syringe-fed babies (P<0.05). In both groups spill and regurgitation decreased with age. CLP babies fed with the modified method had a faster feeding time, less spill and regurgitation and gained the same weight as normal babies at 10 and 14 weeks.

  20. Maternal KIR in combination with paternal HLA-C2 regulate human birth weight.

    PubMed

    Hiby, Susan E; Apps, Richard; Chazara, Olympe; Farrell, Lydia E; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Gjessing, Håkon K; Carrington, Mary; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Human birth weight is subject to stabilizing selection; babies born too small or too large are less likely to survive. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune system genes are associated with pregnancies where the babies are ≤ 5th birth weight centile, specifically an inhibitory maternal KIR AA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. We have now analyzed maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C combinations at the opposite end of the birth weight spectrum. Mother/baby pairs (n = 1316) were genotyped for maternal KIR as well as fetal and maternal HLA-C. Presence of a maternal-activating KIR2DS1 gene was associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p = 0.005, n = 1316). Effect of KIR2DS1 was most significant in pregnancies where its ligand, HLA-C2, was paternally but not maternally inherited by a fetus (p = 0.005, odds ratio = 2.65). Thus, maternal KIR are more frequently inhibitory with small babies but activating with big babies. At both extremes of birth weight, the KIR associations occur when their HLA-C2 ligand is paternally inherited by a fetus. We conclude that the two polymorphic immune gene systems, KIR and HLA-C, contribute to successful reproduction by maintaining birth weight between two extremes with a clear role for paternal HLA.

  1. "Babies Grow a Long Time": A Preschool Project about Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Andromahi

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…

  2. Late preterm babies and the risk of neurological damage.

    PubMed

    Ramenghi, Luca A

    2015-06-29

    Late preterm infants (born between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks gestation) account for the recent striking increase in premature birth and they carry a higher vulnerability to suffer brain insults compared to term infants. These babies can develop any kind of known brain lesions including those affecting the most premature babies (i.e.an intraventricular haemorrhage) and lesions affecting more typically term babies like asphyxia and stroke. In other words there is not a specific brain lesion characterizing this gestational age group, and there is not a specific maturational landmark although "subplate neurons" are suppose to ultimate their connectivity in this period and the cortical volume is significantly increasing. In addition we should not forget the possibility that "late preterm babies" may present neurological clinical impairments in the absence of recognized morphological brain lesions even with the use of highly sophisticated MR imaging techniques. For these reasons a wider use of more sophisticated neuro radiological studies is not sufficient to better understand why some studies highlight that the risk of developmental delay or disability can reach 36% higher among late preterm infants compared with term infants. We believe we should improve also our skills to identify even those very subtle clinical signs of impairment deserving further investigations although we often admit these babies in the normal post natal nurseries where clinical observation cannot be so appropriate.

  3. Maternal and neonatal FTO rs9939609 polymorphism affect insulin sensitivity markers and lipoprotein profile at birth in appropriate-for-gestational-age term neonates.

    PubMed

    Gesteiro, Eva; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Guillén, Marisa; Corella, Dolores; Bastida, Sara

    2016-06-01

    The influence of maternal fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene polymorphism on neonatal insulin sensitivity/resistance biomarkers and lipoprotein profile has not been tested. The study aimed to assess the association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mother-neonate couples and neonatal anthropometrical measurements, insulin sensitivity/resistance, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations at birth. Fifty-three term, appropriate-for-gestational-age, Caucasian newborns together with their respective mothers participated in a cross-sectional study. Sixty-six percent of mothers and neonates carried the A allele (being AA or AT). TT mothers gained less weight during pregnancy, but non-significant maternal gene influence was found for neonatal bodyweight, body mass index, or ponderal index. Neonates from AA + AT mothers showed lower glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) but higher homeostatic model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and homocysteine than neonates whose mothers were TT. AA + AT neonates had higher insulin and HOMA-IR than TT. The genotype neonatal × maternal association was tested in the following four groups of neonates: TT neonates × TT mothers (nTT × mTT), TT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nTT × mAA + AT), AA + AT neonates × TT mothers (nAA + AT × mTT), and AA + AT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nAA + AT × mAA + AT). Non-significant interactions between neonatal and maternal alleles were found for any parameter tested. However, maternal alleles affected significantly glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and homocysteine while neonatal alleles the arylesterase activity. Most significant differences were found between nATT + AA × mTT and nATT + AA × mAA + AT. Glycemia, insulinemia, and HOMA-IR were lower, while the Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) was higher in the mAA + AT vs. mTT whose children were AA + AT. This dietary fact seems to counterbalance the potential negative effect on glucose homeostasis of

  4. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.

  5. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors.

  6. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974

  7. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... At the very least, your child will become familiar with words like "sister," "brother," and "new baby." ... as you do now. Involve your preschooler in planning for the baby . This will make him less ...

  8. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... back tickle the feet burp your baby try changing your baby's diaper or switching to the other ...

  9. Spring and Baby Poultry are Here!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Spring and Baby Poultry are Here! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  10. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transmitted Infections (STIs)" ). What should I know about breastfeeding? Breastfeeding is the best way to feed your baby. ... milk helps the baby resist diseases and allergies. Breastfeeding also is cheaper than bottle-feeding and may ...

  11. Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monument Request Information Get Involved Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby Home Grieving Families Surviving the ... Candle on For Families Who Have Experienced the Death of a Baby The numbers are staggering. Every ...

  12. Sick Baby? When to Seek Medical Attention

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health When a healthy baby gets sick, don't panic. Understand when to ... 20, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/healthy-baby/ ...

  13. Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162472.html Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee Parents should reduce ... 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to secondhand marijuana smoke take in THC, the primary psychoactive chemical ...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  19. [Maternity blues].

    PubMed

    Gonidakis, F

    2007-04-01

    Maternity blues is a transient change of mood that occurs mainly between the 1st and 10th day of puerpartum and is characterized by bursts of tears, mild depressive mood, anxiety and liability of mood. The frequency of maternity blues varies in different studies form 4% to 80%. A number of biological and psychosocial parameters have been studied in order to determine their correlation with maternity blues. The most well studied biological parameters are progesterone and cortizol although their relation with maternity blues has not yet been clearly defined. Stress and the emotional state of the woman during pregnancy as well as history of mood disorders or maternity blues in a previous birth are the psychosocial parameters that are more likely to correlate with the occurrence of maternity blues. Most of the authors suggest that information on maternity blues and reassurance of the woman are the best way to deal with maternity blues both on preventive and therapeutical basis.

  20. Childhood body mass index at 5.5 years mediates the effect of prenatal maternal stress on daughters' age at menarche: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, A; Liu, A; Jones, S L; Laplante, D P; King, S

    2017-04-01

    Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study tested whether PNMS induced by a natural disaster is either directly associated with earlier AAM, or whether there is an indirect association mediated through increased girls' body mass index (BMI) during childhood. A total of 31 girls, whose mothers were exposed to the Quebec's January 1998 ice storm during pregnancy were followed from 6 months to 5 1/2 to 5.5 years of age. Mother's stress was measured within 6 months of the storm. BMI was measured at 5.5 years, and AAM was assessed through teen's self-report at 13.5 and 15.5 years of age. Results revealed that greater BMI at 5.5 years mediated the effect of PNMS on decreasing AAM [B=-0.059, 95% confidence intervals (-0.18, -0.0035)]. The present study is the first to demonstrate that maternal experience of stressful conditions during pregnancy reduces AAM in the offspring through its effects on childhood BMI. Future research should consider the impact of AAM on other measures of reproductive ability.

  1. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 μg 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D.

  2. Your baby in the birth canal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your baby will most often settle into a position in the pelvis before labor begins. If your baby's spine runs ... will be larger as it passes through the pelvis. This makes delivery ... The best position for your baby inside your uterus at the ...

  3. Shaken Baby Syndrome. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Susan

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about shaken baby syndrome, brain damage resulting from forceful shaking of an infant or young child. Questions and answers address the following topics: what shaken baby syndrome is and other names for the condition; the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome; the incidence…

  4. Understanding How Babies Build Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    Language is a great communication system. Through language, humans can express logical reasoning, grief, happiness, wishes, descriptions, and a rich array of feelings and ideas. Every baby deserves the gift of language power! In this article, the author discusses how babies build language skills and presents activities to help babies build…

  5. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  6. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    Common cold in babies Symptoms and causes By Mayo Clinic Staff Symptoms The first indication of the common cold in a baby is often: A congested or ... or green Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include: Fever Sneezing Coughing ...

  7. Crying Baby? How to Keep Your Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... or friend, your health care provider, a local crisis intervention service or a mental health help line for support. When your crying baby can't be calmed, you might be tempted to try just about anything to get the tears to stop. It's OK to be creative — but never shake your baby. Babies have weak ...

  8. Care of the Migrant Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard

    Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,…

  9. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack surfactant, a liquid substance that allows the lungs to remain expanded. Treatment: Artificial surfactants can be used to treat these babies, along with a ventilator to help them breathe better and maintain adequate oxygen levels ... Lung Disease/Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) What It Is: BPD, ...

  10. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…

  11. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive…

  12. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    PubMed

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMI<18.5) and non-iron-taking women and in the first-born babies. The odds of having LBW newborns in older, taller, underweight, obese and irregular iron-taking women were 3.82, 4.00, 9.07, 3.50 and 2.50 times those of mid-age group, middle-height, overweight and regular iron-taking women, respectively. First-born newborns were 5.97 times more likely to be LBW compared with second-birth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  13. Cosleeping and Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Co-sleeping: This is when a parent and child sleep in close social or physical contact of each ... of the Parents' Room Experts recommend that infants sleep in their parents' ... to wait until their child is at least 6 months of age. Reviewed ...

  14. Longitudinal changes in maternal and neonatal anthropometrics: a case study of the Helsinki Birth Cohort, 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Moltchanova, E; Eriksson, J G

    2015-08-01

    Changes in anthropometrics often reflect changes in living conditions, and one's characteristics at birth may be associated with future health. The aim of this study was to investigate the secular trends in maternal and neonatal anthropometrics in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. The study participants, thus, comprised all 13,345 live births recorded in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Adult characteristics of the clinical subsample comprised of 2003 individuals, alive during 2003, were also analyzed. Linear Regression analysis with seasonal terms was applied to see whether clinically and statistically significant trends can be found in maternal age, height and body mass index (BMI) at pregnancy; gestational age, birth weight, ponderal index and sex ratio; and adult height, BMI and fat percentage. Statistically significant trends were found in maternal age and maternal BMI with abrupt changes between 1941 and 1944. Gestational age increased by an average of 0.11% per year (P<0.0001), and the proportion of premature births dropped from 7.9% in 1934 to 4.5% in 1944 (P<0.0001). In the clinical sample, a statistically significant, although small, average annual increase of 0.1% in adult heights was detected (P=0.0012 for men and P=0.0035 for women). In conclusion, although no significant changes were found in either neonatal or adult anthropometrics of babies born in Helsinki between 1934 and 1944, there were abrupt changes in the characteristics of their mothers.

  15. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  16. Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style.

  17. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jacqueline M.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S.; Platt, Robert W.; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970–2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Conclusions Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous

  18. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and intelligence quotients in the offspring at 8 years of age: Findings from the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Pearson, Rebecca M; Emmett, Pauline; Heron, Jon; Smith, Andrew D A C; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-03-02

    Dietary intake during pregnancy may influence child neurodevelopment and cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns obtained in pregnancy and intelligence quotients (IQ) among offspring at 8 years of age. Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed a food frequency questionnaire at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 12,195). Dietary patterns were obtained by cluster analysis. Three clusters best described women's diets during pregnancy: "fruit and vegetables," "meat and potatoes," and "white bread and coffee." The offspring's IQ at 8 years of age was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Models, using variables correlated to IQ data, were performed to impute missing values. Linear regression models were employed to investigate associations between the maternal clusters and IQ in childhood. Children of women who were classified in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster during pregnancy had lower average verbal (β = -1.74; p < .001 and β = -3.05; p < .001), performance (β = -1.26; p = .011 and β = -1.75; p < .001), and full-scale IQ (β = -1.74; p < .001 and β = -2.79; p < .001) at 8 years of age when compared to children of mothers in the fruit and vegetables cluster in imputed models of IQ and all confounders, after adjustment for a wide range of known confounders including maternal education. The pregnant women who were classified in the fruit and vegetables cluster had offspring with higher average IQ compared with offspring of mothers in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster.

  19. Baby Signs: How To Talk with Your Baby before Your Baby Can Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Based on research in infant sign language, this book teaches parents methods of communicating with their infants through the use of simple bodily movements that signify objects, events, and needs. Noting that communication between parent and child can flourish between 9 months and 30 months, when a baby's desire to communicate outstrips the…

  20. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation.

  1. Mothers' depressive symptoms and infant negative emotionality in the prediction of child adjustment at age 3: testing the maternal reactivity and child vulnerability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Dix, Theodore; Yan, Ni

    2014-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in how mothers' depressive symptoms affect children's early adjustment. It tested whether problematic development among children high in negative emotionality is accentuated by (a) maternal reactivity, the negative reactivity of mothers with depressive symptoms to difficult child characteristics; and (b) child vulnerability, the susceptibility of negatively emotional children to the negative parenting of mothers with depressive symptoms. Based on 1,364 participants from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, results showed that mothers' depressive symptoms predicted greater risk for adjustment problems at age 3 among children who as infants were high rather than low in negative emotionality. Increased risk was evident for behavior problems, low responsiveness, high separation distress, and low social competence. Mediational tests suggested that increased risk reflected maternal reactivity: the stronger mothers' depressive symptoms, the more they responded with negative parenting to children high in negative emotionality. The proposal that child vulnerability mediates the greater impact of mothers' depressive symptoms on negatively emotional children was verified only for separation distress. The results support the proposal that, when mothers are high in depressive symptoms, aversive characteristics of children and their behavior increasingly influence early adjustment and do so because they elicit negative parent behavior.

  2. Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Twin Pregnancy in 23 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Joshua P.; Torloni, Maria Regina; Seuc, Armando; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Widmer, Mariana; Souza, João Paulo; Merialdi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background Twin pregnancies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) pose a high risk to mothers and newborns due to inherent biological risks and scarcity of health resources. We conducted a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey dataset to analyze maternal and perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies and factors associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in twins. Methods We examined maternal and neonatal characteristics in twin deliveries in 23 LMICs and conducted multi-level logistic regression to determine the association between twins and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results 279,425 mothers gave birth to 276,187 (98.8%) singletons and 6,476 (1.2%) twins. Odds of severe adverse maternal outcomes (death, blood transfusion, ICU admission or hysterectomy) (AOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.60–2.14) and perinatal mortality (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.40–4.35) in twin pregnancies were higher, however early neonatal death (AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.95–6.62) and stillbirth (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.58–2.57) did not reach significance. Amongst twins alone, maternal age <18, poor education and antenatal care, nulliparity, vaginal bleeding, non-cephalic presentations, birth weight discordance >15%, born second, preterm birth and low birthweight were associated with perinatal mortality. Marriage and caesarean section were protective. Conclusions Twin pregnancy is a significant risk factor for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings; maternal risk and access to safe caesarean section may determine safest mode of delivery in LMICs. Improving obstetric care in twin pregnancies, particularly timely access to safe caesarean section, is required to reduce risk to mother and baby. PMID:23936446

  3. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  4. Wormholes, baby universes, and causality

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M. )

    1990-02-15

    In this paper wormholes defined on a Minkowski signature manifold are considered, both at the classical and quantum levels. It is argued that causality in quantum gravity may best be imposed by restricting the functional integral to include only causal Lorentzian spacetimes. Subject to this assumption, one can put very tight constraints on the quantum behavior of wormholes, their cousins the baby universes, and topology-changing processes in general. Even though topology-changing processes are tightly constrained, this still allows very interesting geometrical (rather than topological) effects. In particular, the laboratory construction of baby universes is {ital not} prohibited provided that the umbilical cord'' is never cut. Methods for relaxing these causality constraints are also discussed.

  5. Maternal-Fetal Attachment Differentiates Patterns of Prenatal Smoking and Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Suena H.; Bublitz, Margaret H.; Magee, Susanna R.; Salisbury, Amy; Niaura, Raymond S.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Stroud, Laura R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking cessation during pregnancy may reflect altruistic motives on behalf of the unborn baby. We test the hypothesis that pregnancy quitters have higher maternal-fetal attachment than persistent smokers, and secondarily explore how maternal-fetal attachment differs among non-smokers, pregnancy quitters, and persistent smokers. Methods Participants were 156 women in the Behavior and Mood in Babies and Mothers study who provided report of smoking throughout pregnancy via timeline follow back interviews, with salivary cotinine confirmation of reported cessation at 30 and 35 weeks gestation, and postpartum day one. Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale total and subscale scores (role-taking, differentiation of self from fetus, interaction with fetus, attributing characteristics to fetus, giving of self) were examined among non-smokers, pregnancy quitters, and persistent smokers. Results At 30 weeks, pregnancy quitters scored higher on the ‘giving of self’ subscale compared to persistent smokers (21.6 ± 2.4 versus 19.9 ± 2.9; p = .004). Maternal ‘giving of self’ also differentiated pregnancies exposed to cigarette smoking from those without exposure from 30 weeks through delivery (19.9 ± 2.9 versus 21.2 ± 2.2; p = .002). Controlling for age, income, unemployment, gravida, and father’s smoking status, ‘giving of self’ differentiated pregnancy quitters from persistent smokers [OR = 5.144; 95% C.I. 1.509 – 17.538; B (SE) = 1.638 (.626); p = .009]. Conclusions Women who reported a greater desire to maintain their personal health for the health of their fetus were more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Implications of findings for interventions and understanding mechanisms of risk are discussed. PMID:25644587

  6. Baby Fae: a beastly business.

    PubMed

    Kushner, T; Belliotti, R

    1985-12-01

    The Baby Fae experiment has highlighted the growing trend in medicine of using animal parts in the treatment of humans. This paper raises the question of the logical and moral justification for these current practices and their proposed expansion. We argue that the Cognitive Capacity Principle establishes morally justified necessary and sufficient conditions for the use of non-human animals in medical treatments and research. Some alternative sources for medical uses are explored as well as some possible programmes for their implementation.

  7. Direct versus indirect effects of social rank, maternal weight, body condition and age on milk production in Iberian red deer ( Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Estevez, Jose A; Gallego, Laureano

    2010-02-01

    Social rank in cervids and other mammals is not entirely predicted by body weight, but in most cases influences access to food directly. Milk provisioning depends on maternal weight and on daily food intake. Usually, body weight, body condition, age and social rank are inter-correlated making it very difficult to discern the relative importance of each variable to milk production. This study used path analysis to assess direct versus indirect effects of these variables on milk production of 62 Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Once the known direct effects of body weight and body condition were set as fixed, hind age and social rank did not affect milk production directly. In contrast, they exerted an indirect influence through the correlation both with hind body weight and body condition. Body weight exerted an effect on milk production nearly twice as great as that of body condition. This study shows, for the first time in a wild mammal, the relative importance of social rank, body weight, body condition and age in affecting milk production ability.

  8. Characteristics of RSV-Specific Maternal Antibodies in Plasma of Hospitalized, Acute RSV Patients under Three Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Widjaja, Ivy; Ahout, Inge M. L.; de Groot, Ronald; Guichelaar, Teun; Luytjes, Willem; de Jonge, Marien I.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Ferwerda, Gerben

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause for respiratory illness that requires hospitalization in infancy. High levels of maternal antibodies can protect against RSV infection. However, RSV-infected infants can suffer from severe disease symptoms even in the presence of high levels of RSV-specific antibodies. This study analyzes several serological characteristics to explore potential deficiencies or surpluses of antibodies that could relate to severe disease symptoms. We compare serum antibodies from hospitalized patients who suffered severe symptoms as well as uninfected infants. Disease severity markers were oxygen therapy, tachypnea, oxygen saturation, admission to the intensive care unit and duration of hospitalization. Antibodies against RSV G protein and a prefusion F epitope correlated with in vitro neutralization. Avidity of RSV-specific IgG antibodies was lower in RSV-infected infants compared to uninfected controls. Severe disease symptoms were unrelated to RSV-specific IgG antibody titers, avidity of RSV-IgG, virus neutralization capacity or titers against pre- and postfusion F or G protein ectodomains and the prefusion F antigenic site Ø. In conclusion, the detailed serological characterization did not indicate dysfunctional or epitope-skewed composition of serum antibodies in hospitalized RSV-infected infants suffering from severe disease symptoms. It remains unclear, whether specific antibody fractions could diminish disease symptoms. PMID:28135305

  9. Prevalence of MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in North Indian Mothers Having Babies with Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Utkarsh; Arora, Sadhna; Kabra, Madhulika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gulati, Sheffali; Pandey, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated possible links between polymorphisms in maternal folate metabolism genes and Down syndrome. Some of these studies show a significantly increased prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) gene (MTHFR) among mothers who have had babies with Down syndrome. This study…

  10. Associations of birth outcomes with maternal polybrominated diphenyl ethers and thyroid hormones during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Wolkin, Amy; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has linked polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure to poor birth outcomes and altered thyroid hormone levels. Objectives We examined whether maternal PBDE serum levels were associated with infant birth weight (g), head circumference (cm), birth length (cm), and birth weight percentile for gestational age. We explored the potential for a mediating role of thyroid hormone levels. Methods During 2008–2010, we recruited 140 pregnant women in their third trimester as part of a larger clinical obstetrics study known as Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby. Blood samples were collected during a routine pre-natal clinic visit. Serum was analyzed for PBDEs, phenolic metabolites, and thyroid hormones. Birth outcome information was abstracted from medical records. Results In unadjusted models, a two-fold increase in maternal BDE 153 was associated with an average decrease in head circumference of 0.32 cm (95% CI: −0.53, −0.12); however, this association was attenuated after control for maternal risk factors. BDE 47 and 99 were similarly negatively associated but with 95% confidence intervals crossing the null. Associations were unchanged in the presence of thyroid hormones. Conclusions Our data suggest a potential deleterious association between maternal PBDE levels and infant head circumference; however, confirmatory studies are needed in larger sample sizes. A mediating role of thyroid hormones was not apparent. PMID:26431883

  11. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Corrected Age For Preemies Page Content Article Body If your ...

  12. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be a rough ...

  13. The impact of the housing crash on the wealth of the baby boom cohorts.

    PubMed

    Rosnick, David; Baker, Dean

    2010-04-01

    The collapse of the housing bubble and the resulting plunge in the stock market destroyed more than $10 trillion in household wealth. The impact was especially severe for the baby boom cohorts who are at or near retirement age. This paper uses data from the Federal Reserve Board's 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to compare the wealth of the baby boomer cohorts just before the crash with projections of household wealth following the crash. These projections show that most baby boomers will be almost entirely dependent on their Social Security income after they stop working.

  14. The long term effect of age and maternally derived antibodies against foot and mouth disease on the serological response following vaccination in young dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-09-22

    In Israel, occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in dairy farms is rare. However, when FMD outbreaks occur, dairy calves are the most affected, despite routine vaccination. Contradictory findings exist regarding the effect of age and maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the serological response following vaccinations against FMD in dairy calves. Furthermore, the long term effect of FMD vaccination regimen during early life was rarely assessed. This study was conducted in order to assess both the short and long term effects. In total 44 non-vaccinated calves were divided into four groups of different age. Calves were vaccinated up to four times and 484 serum samples were collected on 11 time points in a period of 70weeks. Virus neutralizing tests were performed in order to determine the neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) against the vaccine strains (homologous serotypes): O-4625, O-Manisa, ASIA-1-Shamir and the heterologous serotype A-Turkey-20/2006. A similar NAT pattern was observed to all serotypes and therefore statistical analysis was restricted to O-4625 serotype. The MDA titer was negatively associated with the age of the calves and the MDA half-life was 22days. We demonstrated that early vaccination of calves (younger than three months) resulted in low NAT, even after four repeated vaccinations, compared with vaccination of calves older than three months. The percentage of time in which these calves had a NAT above 2.0 (log10) between the age of six months and 1.5years was significantly lower compared to older calves (older than three months). Additionally, we found that by increasing the frequency of vaccination in calves older than three months, it is possible to reach high NAT by the age of one year. Adoption of such a vaccination regimen in Israel as well as other FMD endemic countries may allow better protection against FMD in dairy calves and reduction in FMD incidence.

  15. Passive Immunoprophylaxis for the Protection of the Mother and Her Baby: Insights from In Vivo Models of Antibody Transport

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanqun; Mahmood, Iftekhar; Zhong, Lilin; Zhang, Pei

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby. Using pregnant guinea pigs, we demonstrated that biodistribution of administered IgG to the fetus increases with gestation and results in lower maternal and higher fetal antibody concentrations as pregnancy progresses. Data suggests that partition of antibody immunotherapy to the fetal compartment may contribute to a lower maternal exposure (as measured by the AUC) and a shorter mean residence time of the IgG therapeutic at the end of pregnancy compared to nonpregnant age-matched controls, irrespective of the administered dose. Our studies provide insights on the importance of selecting an efficacious dose in pregnancy that takes into account IgG biodistribution to the fetus. The use of appropriate animal models of placental transfer and infectious disease during pregnancy would facilitate pharmacokinetic modeling to derive a starting dose in clinical trials. PMID:28168206

  16. Passive Immunoprophylaxis for the Protection of the Mother and Her Baby: Insights from In Vivo Models of Antibody Transport.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanqun; Mahmood, Iftekhar; Zhong, Lilin; Zhang, Pei; Struble, Evi B

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby. Using pregnant guinea pigs, we demonstrated that biodistribution of administered IgG to the fetus increases with gestation and results in lower maternal and higher fetal antibody concentrations as pregnancy progresses. Data suggests that partition of antibody immunotherapy to the fetal compartment may contribute to a lower maternal exposure (as measured by the AUC) and a shorter mean residence time of the IgG therapeutic at the end of pregnancy compared to nonpregnant age-matched controls, irrespective of the administered dose. Our studies provide insights on the importance of selecting an efficacious dose in pregnancy that takes into account IgG biodistribution to the fetus. The use of appropriate animal models of placental transfer and infectious disease during pregnancy would facilitate pharmacokinetic modeling to derive a starting dose in clinical trials.

  17. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  18. [Justifications for formula supplementation in low-risk newborns at a Baby-Friendly Hospital].

    PubMed

    Meirelles, Cynthia de Almeida Brandão; Oliveira, Maria Inês do Couto; Mello, Rosane Reis de; Varela, Maria Angélica Bonfim; Fonseca, Vânia de Matos

    2008-09-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative recommends not giving newborn infants any food or drink other than breast milk unless medically indicated. This study investigated the prevalence and alleged reasons for giving formula supplementation to rooming-in newborns at a Baby-Friendly Hospital. Participants were 300 formula-supplemented, exclusively rooming-in newborns at a Baby-Friendly Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Reasons for formula supplementation were classified as acceptable or unacceptable in accordance with the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative guidelines. A supplementation prevalence of 33.3% was found. The main allegations were: hypogalactia/ agalactia (36.8%), conditions involving risk of hypoglicemia (21.1%), cesarean section (7.9%), stomatognathic system-related conditions (7.4%), maternal conditions (6.3%), and absence of maternal HIV serology (4.5%). Cesarean section was associated with a higher risk of supplementation (RP = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.77-2.55) as compared to vaginal delivery. Supplementation prevalence was high, and only 9% of the allegations were justified.

  19. How Do Maternal Subclinical Symptoms Influence Infant Motor Development during the First Year of Life?

    PubMed Central

    Piallini, Giulia; Brunoro, Stefania; Fenocchio, Chiara; Marini, Costanza; Simonelli, Alessandra; Biancotto, Marina; Zoia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes the mother-child dyad. Within this relationship, the presence of depression, somatization, hostility, paranoid ideation, and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered. Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of the infant's health-status, but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, feelings and intentions, in this study the quality of infants' movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes. The aim of this research was to investigate if/how maternal symptomatology may pilot infant's motor development during his/her first year of life by observing the characteristics of motor development in infants aged 0–11 months. Participants included 123 mothers and their infants (0–11 months-old). Mothers' symptomatology was screened with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), while infants were tested with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Second Edition. All dyads belonged to a non-clinical population, however, on the basis of SCL-90-R scores, the mothers' sample was divided into two groups: normative and subclinical. Descriptive, t-test, correlational analysis between PDMS-2 scores and SCL-90-R results are reported, as well as regression models results. Both positive and negative correlations were found between maternal perceived symptomatology, Somatization (SOM), Interpersonal Sensitivity (IS), Depression (DEP), Hostility (HOS), and Paranoid Ideation (PAR) and infants' motor abilities. These results were further verified by applying regression models to predict the infant's motor outcomes on the basis of babies' age and maternal status. The presence of positive symptoms in the SCL-90-R questionnaire (subclinical group) predicted good visual-motor integration and stationary competences in the babies. In particular, depressive and hostility

  20. How to prevent 'half-bastard' progeny? or An alternative for three-parent babies: two-parent babies through transplantation of sperm mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, Ger P A

    2006-01-01

    Body development and activity depend on the level of internal energy generation. Therefore, unaffected, optimally active mitochondria are indispensable in a healthy and vital body. A mutation in the DNA of the semi-autonomous mitochondria (mtDNA) may cause an inheritable insufficiency that is due to decreased energy generation needed for adequate development. Sperm mitochondria will not enter the egg cell during fusion of male and female gametocytes. Since women with mutated mtDNA will increasingly know and realize the effect of such mutation in their own body, they will more often ask for treatment to stop the effect of such inconvenient mutation in their progeny. Thus far, solutions for this problem were thought to be: (i) nucleus transplantation just after fertilization into a nucleus-free egg cell of a second healthy woman and later (ii) transplantation of healthy mitochondria from a second woman into the egg cell before fertilization. Although both transplantations create babies with three, instead of two-parents that have contributed to the genetic content, in case of the newer mitochondria transplantation technique the part of the second woman is somewhat more reduced, but still clearly present. Thus, assisted-reproduction techniques that mix egg cell mitochondria from two women may create not only 'three-parents' babies, but also fears for 'three-parents' babies, since this handling may create non-scientific problems, especially regarding emotional, ethical, religious and juridical aspects of life. Transplantation of healthy sperm mitochondria of the partner into the egg cell with insufficient mitochondria is thought to be the best solution for this problem, since it may create a 'two-parents' instead of a 'three-parents' baby. This only implies that at the moment of (successful) transplantation the biological dogma is broken that mitochondria are maternally inherited: the mitochondria of the maternal line of the woman will have been substituted by the

  1. Maternal micronutrient imbalance alters gene expression of BDNF, NGF, TrkB and CREB in the offspring brain at an adult age.

    PubMed

    Sable, Pratiksha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-05-01

    Micronutrients like folate, vitamin B12, and fatty acids which are interlinked in the one carbon cycle play a vital role in mediating epigenetic processes leading to an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Our earlier study demonstrates that a micronutrient imbalanced diet adversely affects docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and protein levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain and cognition in the offspring by 3 months of age. In this study we attempt to analyze if these effects are a consequence of a change in gene expression of these molecules. Further, we also examined the effect of either a postnatal control diet or a prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on gene expression in the cortex of the offspring. Pregnant rats were divided into control and five treatment groups at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12. Omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA+DHA) supplementation was given to vitamin B12 deficient groups. Following delivery, 8 dams from each group were shifted to control diet and remaining continued on the same treatment diet. Our results demonstrate that the imbalanced diet caused a marked reduction in the mRNA levels of BDNF, NGF, TrkB, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the maternal imbalanced diet was able to normalize the mRNA levels of all the above genes. This study demonstrates that a maternal diet imbalanced in micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) influences gene expression of neurotrophins and their signalling molecules and thereby adversely affects the brain of the offspring.

  2. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Bin; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Su, Pen-Hua; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children’s neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2–12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001–2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children’s cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ). Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children’s levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and their IQ scores (β = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; β = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites) after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children’s IQ scores. Children’s but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm

  3. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants (<1 month) has an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with using cotton wool and water (usual care). Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280), recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies) or cotton wool and water (140 babies). Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 %) babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4) vs. water 63.5 (14.2), p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4) vs. water 63.6 (14.3), p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2). No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses). Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby

  4. The influence of maternal and paternal history on stone composition and clinical course of calcium nephrolithiasis in subjects aged between 15 and 25.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Folesani, Giuseppina; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to compare the influence of maternal history of stones (MHS) and paternal history of stones (PHS) on composition of calculi and disease course in a group of patients with calcium nephrolithiasis (CN) aged between 15 and 25, the age range with the maximal influence of family history on disease expression. One-hundred thirty-five patients (68 F) with CN and one stone-forming parent were retrospectively selected from the database of our outpatient stone clinic, and categorized according to MHS or PHS. Data about stone disease course and composition of passed calculi, determined by chemical analysis or Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometry, were collected together with information on blood chemistry and 24-h urinary profile of lithogenic risk. The characteristics of disease course and stone composition were compared using logistic regression tests adjusted for age, sex, and BMI or analysis of covariance where appropriate. Patients with MHS (n = 46) had significantly higher urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and ammonium, a higher prevalence of urological treatments (57 vs 27 %, p < 0.001) and mixed calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate stone composition (69 vs 35 %, p = 0.002) than those with PHS. At multivariate logistic regression models, MHS was independently associated with urological treatments (OR 4.5, 95 %CI 1.9-10.7, p < 0.001) and the formation of calculi with mixed calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate composition (OR 5.8, 95 %CI 1.9-17.9, p = 0.002). The method of stone analysis did not affect this result. In conclusion, in subjects aged 15-25, MHS is associated with mixed calcium stones and with a higher risk for urological procedures, and should be, therefore, considered in the management of urolithiasis.

  5. Maternal Plane of Nutrition During Late-Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Steer Calf Longissimus Muscle Adipogenic MicroRNA and Target Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Loor, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate if different planes of maternal nutrition during late gestation and weaning age alter microRNA (miRNA) and target gene expression in offspring longissimus muscle (LM). Early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves (n = 30) born to cows that were grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue and red clover pastures with no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)], or supplemented with 2.3 and 9.1 kg of dried distiller's grains with solubles and soy hulls [medium and high plane of nutrition (MPN, HPN), respectively] during the last 105 ± 11 days of gestation were used. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (early weaning), 187 (normal weaning) and 354 days of age. Results indicate a role of pro-adipogenic miRNA in the control of adipogenesis in LM of NW-MPN steers between 78 and 187 days of age through upregulation of (1) miR-103 which inhibits CAV1, a protein that destabilizes INSR and leads to insulin resistance; (2) miR-143 which inhibits DLK1, a protein that inhibits adipocyte differentiation; and (3) miR-21 which impairs TGFBR2-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. Among the studied anti-adipogenic miRNA, cow plane of nutrition resulted in downregulation of miR-34a expression in MPN steers compared with HPN and LPN at 78 days of age. Data for miR-34a provided a potential sign of epigenetic regulation of LM in beef offspring due to the cow plane of nutrition during late gestation.

  6. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIAO; ZHANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All the non-invasive prenatal testing results were confirmed by amniotic fluid fetal karyotyping (the gold standard of aneuploidy test), follow-up examination by neonatologists or neonatal blood karyotyping. The sensitivity, specificity and other indicators of non-invasive DNA testing technology were calculated based on the data of 87 women of AMA. Among the 87 women of AMA, 5 were cases with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (3 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 18 and 1 case of 47, XXX). The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and 47, XXX. The present study supports that non-invasive DNA testing is a useful method of AMA screening of Down's syndrome with 100% accuracy. Therefore, it can be used as an important alternative screening method for Down's syndrome in women of AMA. PMID:27313855

  7. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women.

  8. Maternal Schooling and Children's Relative Inequalities in Developmental Outcomes: Evidence from the 1947 School Leaving Age Reform in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Duckworth, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether mothers' participation in post-compulsory education impacts on children's relative inequalities across four developmental outcomes. The empirical analysis uses information from children born in 1958 in Britain. Mothers of the 1958 British cohort were affected by the 1947 school leaving age reform, which increased…

  9. Breech Babies: What Can I Do If My Baby Is Breech?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby is breech. Your doctor will also monitor your baby's heart rate to make sure that it is normal. You ... When the procedure is completed, your doctor will monitor your baby's heart rate again. If everything is normal, you won't ...

  10. Risk factors leading to preterm births in Morocco: a prospective study at the maternity Souissi in Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Sabiri, Nargisse; Kabiri, Meryem; Razine, Rachid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eminent morbidity and mortality of preterm infants is perceived, especially in developing countries. The aim of the study is to identify the main factors involved in the occurrence of premature births in Morocco. Methods This was a descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternity Souissi in Rabat, from January 2011 to December 2011. The data were collected using interview with women in the postpartum, and via, the exploitation of obstetric and perinatal records. The data sheet was filled out for each newborn, including socio-demographic, obstetrical, maternal, childbirth and neonatal data, as well as, monitoring and surveillance of pregnancy. Results A total of 1015 births were collected. 954 were full term babies and 61 were preterms. The gestational age was between 33-34 weeks in 57.4%. Relying on Statistical analysis, many risk factors were, significantly, associated with the occurrence of prematurity, namely: low level of maternal education (p < 0.004), absence of pregnancy’ monitoring (p < 0.001), multiparity (p < 0.001), maternal chronic diseases (p < 0.001), and drug taking during pregnancy (p < 0.001). Conclusion To reduce the incidence of preterm births, reliable programs must be established, devoting all its interest, to educate the young woman in childbearing age about the appropriate ways of monitoring pregnancy, as well as, the qualitative and quantitative development of health care structures. PMID:26600920

  11. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable.

    PubMed

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J

    2008-12-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales.

  12. [Early life attachment: mother-baby relationship in Donald Winnicott's theory].

    PubMed

    Levín, Alicia Rut

    2014-01-01

    The present article refers to the maternal function in the mother-infant early bond from Donald Winnicott's psychoanalitic point of view. This author, authorized since he was a pediatrician and a psychoanalitic doctor, was capable to see the prematurity of the human baby and the affective state of the mother function before the child's birth. The needs of the newborn and his mother far from being complementary have their specificity that make necessary to consider the holding function that is expected from the mother. This work addresses the dimension of the reality as a limit and an organizer of the psychism in the early mother-baby relationship. The author works this topic from the paradigm of the building of a space that takes place in the mutual dynamic. She analyzes the illusion and disillusion function to build a possible destiny for the maternity and in the transition of the baby to the autonomy of a new person. When it's said about "the primary", it is in the sense of the time of building the psychism. A relational time, as Winnicott says, in which when we find an infant, we will always find the maternal care.

  13. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Russel M; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Amato, Stephanie M; Capone, Kimberly A; Mack, M Catherine; Telofski, Lorena S; Mays, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema). We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+) in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed. Methods Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+) before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years). Results At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes. Conclusion Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. PMID:27789967

  14. Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Blackmore, Heather L; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; McConnell, Josie M; Hargreaves, Iain P; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans.

  15. How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Your Baby Page Content ​ Baby ... spreading and to prevent further damage. How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Babies Take the following steps ...

  16. Maternal Competition in Women.

    PubMed

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  17. Maternal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Helen Y.; Englund, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

  18. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family Print A A A ... familia If you're going to have a new brother or sister, you'll want to know ...

  19. Silent Birth: Mourning a Stillborn Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringham, Jean G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Based on clinical interviews with 20 women, describes the experience of giving birth to and mourning a stillborn baby. Issues include pregnancy, delivery, seeing and touching the baby, autopsy, burial, "making memories," and mourning. Discusses the social worker's role in clinical practice and in influencing hospital procedures. (Author)

  20. Rich Responses Help Babies Learn and Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article reminds infant care teachers of the ways thoughtful interactions between adults and very young children teach babies and toddlers who they are as individuals. "When teachers take the time to respond respectfully and thoughtfully, babies and young children learn and thrive."

  1. Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…

  2. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family A A A What's ... familia If you're going to have a new brother or sister, you'll want to know ...

  3. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…

  4. Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  5. Binocular Fixation in the Newborn Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Alan M.; Findlay, John M.

    1975-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which 15 babies were presented with visual stimuli which varied in shape and distance from the eye. Results indicated that the majority of subjects binocularly fixated all three stimuli and it was concluded that the newborn baby has the basic requirements for binocular vision. (Author/GO)

  6. How to Care for Your Baby's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... can use a wet washcloth or gauze to clean your baby’s teeth and gums. Start using a soft baby toothbrush and a small dab of toothpaste that does not have fluoride in it when your baby is between 1 ...

  7. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  8. A Multifaceted Approach to Revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grgurić, Josip; Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Pavičić Bošnjak, Anita; Stanojević, Milan

    2016-08-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in Croatia in 1993. By 1998, 15 of 34 maternity facilities were designated "Baby-Friendly." Introduction of hospital bags, violating the International Code of the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, led to a standstill in the BFHI. The aim of this article is to describe the successful reintroduction of the BFHI in Croatia between 2007 and 2015. After hospital bags were abolished in 2007, UNICEF Croatia undertook an assessment of BFHI implementation. All maternity facilities were invited by UNICEF and the Ministry of Health to join the renewed BFHI. UNICEF materials were translated and training for trainers, assessors, coordinators, and hospital staff held. By June 2015, 30 of 32 (94%) maternity facilities, providing care to 89% of newborns, were Baby-Friendly. Nine maternity hospitals have been renovated and 2 new hospitals have been built. Exclusive breastfeeding rates have risen 16% at 0 to 2 months (from 51% in 2007 to 67% in 2014) and 14% at 3 to 5 months (from 32% in 2007 to 46% in 2014). Fourteen "Breastfeeding-Friendly" primary care practices have been designated, 166 breastfeeding support groups are in operation, criteria for Mother-Friendly care are being piloted in 2 maternity facilities, and "Ten Steps in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" are being introduced. The BFHI provides an excellent opportunity for revitalizing breastfeeding protection, promotion, and support in all settings. Recognition and support of the BFHI by the Croatian government was crucial for implementing the BFHI, whereas the marketing practices of the breast milk substitutes industry are an ongoing challenge.

  9. Dietary vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in newborn babies with physiological jaundice.

    PubMed

    Villalaz, R A; Toner, N; Chiswick, M L

    1981-05-01

    We studied 69 term babies aged 2-8 days who had physiological jaundice and who were fed formula A (Ostermilk Complete; vitamin E, 0.46 mg per 100 ml; polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), approximately 0.08 g per 100 ml), or formula B (Cow and Gate Premium; vitamin E, 1.0 mg per 100 ml; PUFA, approximately 0.55 g per 100 ml) or breast milk. Babies fed formula B, with the greatest vitamin E and PUFA content, had a significantly higher mean plasma vitamin E level compared with those fed formula A, even as early as the second and third day. Breast fed babies, 2-3 days old, had a lower mean plasma vitamin E level compared with formula B fed babies, thereafter vitamin E levels in breast fed babies rose. The RBCs of babies fed formula B and breast milk were significantly less susceptible to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) haemolysis compared with the RBCs of those fed formula A. Reduced susceptibility to H2O2 haemolysis in formula B fed babies was observed in those as young as 2-3 days. Susceptibility to H2O2 haemolysis did not correlate with haemoglobin concentration, plasma bilirubin nor with the reticulocyte count in babies on different feeds. We conclude that in term newborn babies the vitamin E and PUFA contents of the milk feeds influence plasma vitamin E levels and susceptibility of RBCs to H2O2 haemolysis, but do not have an important bearing on the occurrence of physiological jaundice.

  10. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We investigated the associations between breastfeeding, maternal brain response to own infant stimuli, and maternal sensitivity in the early postpartum. Methods Seventeen biological mothers of healthy infants participated in two matched groups according to feeding method – exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive formula-feeding at 2-4 weeks postpartum. fMRI scanning was conducted in the first postpartum month to examine maternal brain activation in response to her own baby's cry versus control baby-cry. Dyadic interactions between mothers and infants at 3-4 months postpartum were videotaped in the home and blindly coded for maternal sensitivity. Results In the first postpartum month, breastfeeding mothers showed greater activations in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, striatum, and amygdala while listening to their own baby-cry as compared to formula-feeding mothers. For both breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers, greater activations in the right superior frontal gyrus and amygdala were associated with higher maternal sensitivity at 3-4 months postpartum. Conclusions Results suggest links between breastfeeding and greater response to infant cues in brain regions implicated in maternal-infant bonding and empathy during the early postpartum. Such brain activations may facilitate greater maternal sensitivity as infants enter their social world. PMID:21501165

  11. Advanced maternal age causes adverse programming of mouse blastocysts leading to altered growth and impaired cardiometabolic health in post-natal life

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, M.A.; Smith, C.G.C.; Smyth, N.R.; Osmond, C.; Fleming, T.P.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does advanced maternal age (AMA) in mice affect cardiometabolic health during post-natal life in offspring derived from an assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedure? SUMMARY ANSWER Offspring derived from blastocysts collected from aged female mice displayed impaired body weight gain, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and organ allometry during post-natal life compared with offspring derived from blastocysts from young females; since all blastocysts were transferred to normalized young mothers, this effect is independent of maternal pregnancy conditions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Although studies in mice have shown that AMA can affect body weight and behaviour of offspring derived from natural reproduction, data on the effects of AMA on offspring cardiometabolic health during post-natal development are not available. Given the increasing use of ART to alleviate infertility in women of AMA, it is pivotal to develop ART–AMA models addressing the effects of maternal aging on offspring health. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Blastocysts from old (34–39 weeks) or young (8–9 weeks) C57BL/6 females mated with young CBA males (13–15 weeks) were either subjected to differential cell staining (inner cell mass and trophectoderm) or underwent embryo transfer (ET) into young MF1 surrogates (8–9 weeks) to produce young (Young-ET, 9 litters) and old (Old-ET, 10 litters) embryo-derived offspring. Offspring health monitoring was carried out for 30 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All animals were fed with standard chow. Blood pressure was measured at post-natal Weeks 9, 15 and 21, and at post-natal Week 30 a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. Two days after the GTT mice were killed for organ allometry. Blastocyst cell allocation variables were evaluated by T-test and developmental data were analysed with a multilevel random effects regression model. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The total number of cells in blastocysts from

  12. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... will help you raise a healthy baby. Topics Breastfeeding Developmental Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Parenting Tips Perchlorate in ...

  13. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  14. The role of the parents’ perception of the postpartum period and knowledge of maternal mortality in uptake of postnatal care: a qualitative exploration in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Zamawe, Collins F; Masache, Gibson C; Dube, Albert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum is the most risky period for both mothers and newborn babies. However, existing evidence suggests that utilization of postnatal care is relatively lower when compared to uptake of other similar health care services. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of parents toward the postpartum period and postnatal care in order to deepen our understanding of the maternal care-seeking practices after childbirth. Methods A descriptive qualitative study, comprising four focus group discussions with 50 parents aged between 18 and 35 years, was conducted in Malawi between January and March 2014. Only young men and women who had either given birth or fathered a baby within 12 months prior to the study were eligible to participate in this study. This was to ensure that only participants who had recent first-hand postpartum experience were included. Local leaders purposively identified all parents who met the inclusion criteria and then simple random sampling was used to select participants from this pool of parents. Data analysis followed the six steps of thematic approach developed by Braun and Clarke, and NVivo software aided the process. Findings The parents interviewed described the various factors relating to pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum periods that may possibly influence uptake of postnatal care. These factors were categorized into the following three themes: beliefs about the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality; risks associated with the pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum periods; and the importance of and barriers to postnatal care. Most participants perceived pregnancy and childbirth as the most risky periods to women, and their understanding of the causes of maternal death differed considerably from the existing evidence. In addition, segregation of mother and baby care in the clinics was identified as one of the potential barriers to postnatal care. Conclusion The study findings suggest that parents

  15. The mediated effects of maternal depression and infant temperament on maternal role.

    PubMed

    Rode, Jennifer L; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-02-01

    We examined prenatal depression, postpartum depression, and infant temperament, respectively, in a mediated process model to predict maternal role. Using a prospective, observational design, we surveyed 168 women during pregnancy and then in postpartum. Data analyses supported the contribution of each variable in an ascending fashion (ab = -0.01, SE = 0.004, 95 % CI [-0.021, -0.004]), such that infant temperament had the strongest effects (sr(2) = .124, p < .001). Further, postpartum depression was found to influence maternal role with both direct effects and indirect effects via infant temperament. These results highlighted the significant impact postpartum depression may have on maternal role. Future interventions targeting mothers experiencing or who are at risk for depression may consider tools to improve mother-baby interactions. The effects of such intervention may subsequently improve both infant temperament and maternal role evaluation.

  16. Toxicokinetics of PCDD, PCDF, and coplanar PCB congeners in Baikal seals, Pusa sibirica: age-related accumulation, maternal transfer, and hepatic sequestration.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Okajima, Yuka; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Amano, Masao; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Petrov, Evgeny A

    2004-07-01

    To assess the toxicokinetic behavior and potential toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Baikal seals, congener-specific levels and tissue distribution were evaluated in the liver and blubber, and the effects of biological factors including sex and growth were assessed. Total 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) were in the range of 210-920 pgTEQ/g fat wt (180-800 pgTEQ/g wet wt) in the blubber and 290-7800 pgTEQ/g fat wt (10-570 pgTEQ/wet wt) in the liver. Non-ortho coplanar PCB126 was the most TEQ-contributed congener accounting for 37-59% of the total TEQs in the liver. From the unique congener profiles, weak metabolic properties of Baikal seals for 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-P5CDF are suggested. Concentrations of most congeners linearly increased with age in male seals, whereas in adult females the levels revealed an age-related decline. The increasing and declining rates were congener-specific. Maternal transfer rates of 5 representative congeners from adult female to pup through lactation, which was estimated from male-female differences in the body burden, was 1.1 ngTEQ/kg/day for the first pup and decreased with every lactational epoch. The liver-blubber distribution of 1,2,3,4,7,8-H6CDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-H6CDD, PCB81, PCB126, and PCB169 was dependent on the hepatic total TEQ, indicating hepatic sequestration by induced cytochrome P450 (CYP). These results indicate that congener profile in Baikal seals is governed by complex factors including sex, tissue concentration, binding to CYP, and rates of absorption and metabolism/excretion.

  17. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners measured shortly after giving birth and subsequent risk of maternal breast cancer before age 50.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Barbara A; Terry, Mary Beth; Plumb, Marj; Cirillo, Piera M

    2012-11-01

    Discrete windows of susceptibility to toxicants have been identified for the breast, including in utero, puberty, pregnancy, and postpartum. We tested the hypothesis that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured during the early postpartum predict increased risk of maternal breast cancer diagnosed before age 50. We analyzed archived early postpartum serum samples collected from 1959 to 1967, an average of 17 years before diagnosis (mean diagnosis age 43 years) for 16 PCB congeners in a nested case-control study in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort (N = 112 cases matched to controls on birth year). We used conditional logistic regression to adjust for lipids, race, year, lactation, and body mass. We observed strong breast cancer associations with three congeners. PCB 167 was associated with a lower risk (odds ratio (OR), 75th vs. 25th percentile = 0.2, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.1, 0.8) as was PCB 187 (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1, 1.1). In contrast, PCB 203 was associated with a sixfold increased risk (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 6.3, 95 % CI 1.9, 21.7). The net association of PCB exposure, estimated by a post-hoc score, was nearly a threefold increase in risk (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1, 7.1) among women with a higher proportion of PCB 203 in relation to the sum of PCBs 167 and 187. Postpartum PCB exposure likely also represents pregnancy exposure, and may predict increased risk for early breast cancer depending on the mixture that represents internal dose. It remains unclear whether individual differences in exposure, response to exposure, or both explain risk patterns observed.

  18. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney

    2011-11-01

    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate

  19. Relations Among Maternal Racial Identity, Maternal Parenting Behavior, and Child Outcomes in Low-Income, Urban, Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.; Csizmadia, Annamaria; Thornburg, Kathy R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined maternal racial identity and its relations to maternal depression, maternal age, maternal parenting behavior, and 5-year-old children's social and cognitive outcomes. Participants included 62 African American mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Mothers completed measures on their…

  20. Follow-up study of small-for-dates babies.

    PubMed

    Fancourt, R; Campbell, S; Harvey, D; Norman, A P

    1976-06-12

    A group of small-for-dates full-term babies whose intra-uterine growth was followed by serial ultrasonic cephalometry were examined at a mean age of 4 years. Those children whose skull growth had begun to slow in utero before 34 weeks' menstrual age were more likely to have a height and weight less than the 10th centile. When the onset of growth failure had occurred before 26 weeks there was a lower developmental quotient at follow-up using the Griffiths extended scales. Prolonged slow growth in utero therefore seems to be followed by slow growth and development after birth.