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Sample records for maternal age baby

  1. Some essential elements in maternal and cord blood in relation to birth weight and gestational age of the baby.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Mehrotra, P K; Srivastava, S P; Siddiqui, M K J

    2002-05-01

    Maternal and cord blood were collected from 54 Indian women at parturition and analyzed for Zn, Cu, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the relationship between levels of these elements in mother's and infant's blood and maternal age, birth weight, and gestational age of the baby. The blood Zn level of mothers in the age group 24-28 yr was significantly higher than those of mothers in the age group of 18-23 yr (p<0.05). Similarly, mothers in the 24 to 28-yr group also had higher blood Fe level than mothers in the group 29-38 yr (p<0.05). The levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe were higher in the maternal blood and lower, but not significantly, in the cord blood of low-birth-weight babies than in those of normal-birth-weight babies. However, differences in the levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe between maternal and cord blood of the two birth-weight groups was statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the levels of the three elements in maternal or cord blood by the gestational age of the baby. A weak but significant correlation was found between the birth weight of the baby and the Fe level in the cord blood (r=0.26; p<0.05). Also, weak significant correlations were observed between gestational age of the baby and Fe (r=0.23; p<0.05) and Cu (r=0.31; p<0.05) levels in the cord blood. Although, there are many confounders of low birth weight and preterm deliveries, a diminished placental transfer of these essential elements could be one of the several etiological factors for low birth weight of newborns. PMID:12008981

  2. Maternal nutritional risk factors for small for gestational age babies in a developed country: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, E; Robinson, E; Clark, P; Becroft, D; Glavish, N; Pattison, N; Pryor, J; Thompson, J; Wild, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on the risk of delivering a baby who is small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Case-control study of 844 cases (SGA) and 870 controls (appropriate size for gestational age (AGA)). Only term (37+ completed weeks of gestation) infants were included. Retrospective food frequency questionnaires were completed at birth on the diet at the time of conception and in the last month of pregnancy. Results: At the time of conception, mothers of AGA infants ate significantly more servings of carbohydrate rich food and fruit, and were more likely to have taken folate and vitamin supplements than mothers of SGA infants. There was some evidence that mothers of AGA infants also ate more servings of dairy products, meat, and fish (0.05 < p < 0.1). However, after adjustment for maternal ethnicity, smoking, height, weight, hypertension, and occupation, fish intake (p  =  0.04), carbohydrate-rich foods (p  =  0.04), and folate supplementation (p  =  0.02) were associated with a reduced risk of SGA. In the last month of pregnancy, only iron supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (p  =  0.05) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that small variations in maternal diets within the normal range during pregnancy in developed countries are associated with differences in birth weight. PMID:15321964

  3. Maternal factors in predicting low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Hematram; Lee, Nagarajah

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal factors and low birth weight among newborns at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study where mothers were followed through from first booking till delivery. There were 666 mothers who delivered from May 2007 to March 2008. Infants' birth weight were compared with maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, fathers BMI, parity, ethnicity, per capita monthly income, and maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. A multiple logistic regressions was used to determine the relationship of maternal factors and low birth weight, while the ROC curve was constructed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the predictive model. Among the significant risk factors of low birth weight were older age (35 years and above), low pre-pregnancy BMI (<20 kg/m2), parity of 4 and above, Indian origin, economically under privileged, and low and high blood pressure. Blood pressure during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW, by using this parameter alone the risk of LBW could be predicted with a sensitivity rate of 70% and a specificity rate of 70%. The sensitivity and specificity was further improved to 80% and 75% percent respectively when other factors like maternal factors such as maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, ethnicity, and per capita monthly income were included in the analysis. PMID:23466766

  4. Developing maternal self-efficacy for feeding preterm babies in the neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Vivien; Nicol, Helen; McInnes, Rhona; Cheyne, Helen; Mactier, Helen; Callander, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    Developing maternal self-efficacy offsets negative psychological consequences of premature birth, improving maternal well-being. We investigated women's experiences in a neonatal unit (NNU) in Scotland in semistructured interviews with 19 primiparous mothers of preterm babies. We explored their experience of preterm birth and development of self-efficacy in infant feeding behaviors, identifying emergent and a priori themes. Women reported experiencing loss and biographical disruption in relation to mothering, loss of autonomy, and searching for normality after premature birth. Providing breast milk symbolized embodied contact with their baby and increased maternal confidence. They developed motivation, knowledge, and perseverance and perceived success from positive feedback, primarily from their baby and health professionals' support and encouragement. Women actively constructed opportunities to develop ownership, control, and confidence in relation to interactions with their baby. We linked sources of self-efficacy with potential behavior change techniques to be used in practice to improve maternal confidence in the NNU.

  5. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.; Eisenger, K.; Brown, S.

    1995-08-28

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism, and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At age 14 months, motor and intellectual development were normal, but growth remained below the 10th centile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

  7. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA. PMID:25946517

  8. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA.

  9. Changes in maternal attitudes toward baby bottle tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Kanellis, M J; Logan, H L; Jakobsen, J

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant number of parents whose children have baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) admit prior knowledge regarding the harmful effects of putting their children to bed with a bottle. The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM) offers a theoretical framework for better understanding why knowledge and attitude are often not predictive of behavior. The goal of this study was to use the ELM to analyze the manner in which information about BBTD is evaluated. One hundred twenty low-income women (either pregnant or with a child younger than 7 months of age) at a WIC clinic were randomly assigned to three groups: 1) 5-min audiotaped persuasive message about BBTD; 2) same audiotaped message with overheard audience response affirming the message; and 3) no intervention control group. Knowledge and attitudes about BBTD were measured before and after the experimental intervention. Participants hearing the audiotaped message also were asked to rate the expertise of the messenger and the quality of the message. Both groups hearing a taped message about BBTD showed a significant positive change in attitude and knowledge when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the attitude and knowledge of those who heard an audiotaped message accompanied by an audience response compared with those who heard the audiotaped message alone. No significant difference between the ratings of message quality or messenger expertise by group was found. It was concluded that the participants in this study processed the BBTD message primarily through the central route, that is, by careful evaluation of the issue-relevant information contained in the persuasive message.

  10. Maternal control of child feeding during the weaning period: differences between mothers following a baby-led or standard weaning approach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Lee, Michelle

    2011-11-01

    A controlling maternal feeding style has been shown to have a negative impact on child eating style and weight in children over the age of 12 months. The current study explores maternal feeding style during the period of 6-12 months when infants are introduced to complementary foods. Specifically it examines differences between mothers who choose to follow a traditional weaning approach using spoon feeding and pureés to mothers following a baby-led approach where infants are allowed to self feed foods in their solid form. Seven hundred and two mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months provided information regarding weaning approach alongside completing the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Information regarding infant weight and perceived size was also collected. Mothers following a baby-led feeding style reported significantly lower levels of restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring and concern over child weight compared to mothers following a standard weaning response. No association was seen between weaning style and infant weight or perceived size. A baby-led weaning style was associated with a maternal feeding style which is low in control. This could potentially have a positive impact upon later child weight and eating style. However due to the cross sectional nature of the study it cannot be ascertained whether baby-led weaning encourages a feeding style which is low in control to develop or whether mothers who are low in control choose to follow a baby-led weaning style.

  11. The 2030 Problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers

    PubMed Central

    Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388

  12. Executive Summary of Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    This report synthesizes evidence about innate hormonally mediated physiologic processes in women and fetuses/newborns during childbearing, and possible impacts of common maternity care practices and interventions on these processes, focusing on four hormone systems that are consequential for childbearing. Core hormonal physiology principles reveal profound interconnections between mothers and babies, among hormone systems, and from pregnancy through to the postpartum and newborn periods. Overall, consistent and coherent evidence from physiologic understandings and human and animal studies finds that the innate hormonal physiology of childbearing has significant benefits for mothers and babies. Such hormonally-mediated benefits may extend into the future through optimization of breastfeeding and maternal-infant attachment. A growing body of research finds that common maternity care interventions may disturb hormonal processes, reduce their benefits, and create new challenges. Developmental and epigenetic effects are biologically plausible but poorly studied. The perspective of hormonal physiology adds new considerations for benefit-harm assessments in maternity care, and suggests new research priorities, including consistently measuring crucial hormonally mediated outcomes that are frequently overlooked. Current understanding suggests that safely avoiding unneeded maternity care interventions would be wise, as supported by the Precautionary Principle. Promoting, supporting, and protecting physiologic childbearing, as far as safely possible in each situation, is a low-technology health and wellness approach to the care of childbearing women and their fetuses/newborns that is applicable in almost all maternity care settings. PMID:26834435

  13. Executive Summary of Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This report synthesizes evidence about innate hormonally mediated physiologic processes in women and fetuses/newborns during childbearing, and possible impacts of common maternity care practices and interventions on these processes, focusing on four hormone systems that are consequential for childbearing. Core hormonal physiology principles reveal profound interconnections between mothers and babies, among hormone systems, and from pregnancy through to the postpartum and newborn periods. Overall, consistent and coherent evidence from physiologic understandings and human and animal studies finds that the innate hormonal physiology of childbearing has significant benefits for mothers and babies. Such hormonally-mediated benefits may extend into the future through optimization of breastfeeding and maternal-infant attachment. A growing body of research finds that common maternity care interventions may disturb hormonal processes, reduce their benefits, and create new challenges. Developmental and epigenetic effects are biologically plausible but poorly studied. The perspective of hormonal physiology adds new considerations for benefit-harm assessments in maternity care, and suggests new research priorities, including consistently measuring crucial hormonally mediated outcomes that are frequently overlooked. Current understanding suggests that safely avoiding unneeded maternity care interventions would be wise, as supported by the Precautionary Principle. Promoting, supporting, and protecting physiologic childbearing, as far as safely possible in each situation, is a low-technology health and wellness approach to the care of childbearing women and their fetuses/newborns that is applicable in almost all maternity care settings. PMID:26834435

  14. A Childbirth Educator's Commentary on Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care.

    PubMed

    Amis, Debby

    2015-01-01

    Sarah Buckley's game-changing report, Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care, provides the evidence that supporting, promoting, and protecting the normal physiology of childbirth produces the best outcomes for mothers and babies. In this article, a childbirth educator recommends key points from Buckley's report that should be included in Lamaze childbirth education classes. PMID:26834436

  15. Infant Arterial Stiffness and Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy: A UK Birth Cohort (Baby VIP Study)

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Cade, Janet E.; McArdle, Harry J.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hayes, Helen E.; Ciantar, Etienne; Simpson, Nigel A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In animal studies, iron deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to increased offspring cardiovascular risk. No previous population studies have measured arterial stiffness early in life to examine its association with maternal iron status. Objective This study aimed to examine the association between maternal iron status in early pregnancy with infant brachio-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods The Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular Health and Iron in Pregnancy) study is a UK-based birth cohort which recruited 362 women after delivery from the Leeds Teaching Hospitals postnatal wards. Ferritin and transferrin receptor levels were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester. Infant brachio-femoral PWV was measured during a home visit at 2–6 weeks. Results Iron depletion (ferritin <15 µg/l) was detected in 79 (23%) women in early pregnancy. Infant PWV (mean = 6.7 m/s, SD = 1.3, n = 284) was neither associated with maternal ferritin (adjusted change per 10 µg/l = 0.02, 95% CI: −0.01, 0.1), nor with iron depletion (adjusted change = −0.2, 95% CI: −0.6, 0.2). No evidence of association was observed between maternal serum transferrin receptor level and its ratio to ferritin with infant PWV. Maternal anaemia (<11 g/dl) at <20 weeks’ gestation was associated with a 1.0-m/s increase in infant PWV (adjusted 95% CI: 0.1, 1.9). Conclusion This is the largest study to date which has assessed peripheral PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness in infants. There was no evidence of an association between markers of maternal iron status early in pregnancy and infant PWV. PMID:25790854

  16. Nutrition, sex, gestational age, and hair growth in babies.

    PubMed

    Berger, H M; King, J; Doughty, S; Wharton, B A

    1978-04-01

    Hair growth measurements are a sensitive indicator of nutrition and we have assessed their value in the perinatal period. The proportion of growing roots and their diameter were studied at birth in 114 babies and repeated 3 weeks later in 29 low birthweight babies. Intrauterine malnutrition resulted in thinner roots but the changes after birth were not related to nutrition and these measurements will not be useful in feeding studies in this period. At birth, gestational age and sex affected the hair root, and it may be important to recognise these differences if the hair root is used in biochemical screening tests. We have used a new simple technique for measuring the root diameter using an image-splitting eye-piece.

  17. A Childbirth Educator’s Commentary on Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care

    PubMed Central

    Amis, Debby

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarah Buckley’s game-changing report, Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care, provides the evidence that supporting, promoting, and protecting the normal physiology of childbirth produces the best outcomes for mothers and babies. In this article, a childbirth educator recommends key points from Buckley’s report that should be included in Lamaze childbirth education classes. PMID:26834436

  18. Baby on board: do responses to stress in the maternal brain mediate adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    Stress and adverse environmental surroundings result in suboptimal conditions in a pregnant mother such that she may experience poor pregnancy outcome including complete pregnancy failure and preterm labor. Furthermore her developing baby is at risk of adverse programming, which confers susceptibility to long term ill health. While some mechanisms at the feto-maternal interface underlying these conditions are understood, the underlying cause for their adverse adaptation is often not clear. Progesterone plays a key role at many levels, including control of neuroendocrine responses to stress, procuring the required immune balance and controlling placental and decidual function, and lack of progesterone can explain many of the unwanted consequences of stress. How stress that is perceived by the mother inhibits progesterone secretion and action is beginning to be investigated. This overview of maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress throughout pregnancy analyses how they interact to compromise progesterone secretion and precipitate undesirable effects in mother and offspring.

  19. A longitudinal study on emotional dysregulation and obesity risk: From pregnancy to 3 years of age of the baby.

    PubMed

    de Campora, Gaia; Larciprete, Giovanni; Delogu, Anna Maria; Meldolesi, Cristina; Giromini, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Some recent findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and emotional regulation may play a key role in predicting the risk for obesity of the child in early ages. The current article describes a longitudinal study encompassing more than 50 women, across a time-span that currently goes from pregnancy (n = 65) to three years of age of the baby (n = 53). In a previous report on our ongoing research project, we showed that emotional regulation during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted the quality of the early, dyadic feeding interactions, at 7 months of age of the baby. The current study confirmed and extended those findings, by showing that maternal emotional dysregulation (r = .355, p = .009) and pre-pregnancy BMI (r = .389, p = .004) predicted the BMI of the child at three years of age too, with a medium to large effect size. However, neither maternal emotional regulation nor pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted infant attachment at one year of age.

  20. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  1. Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love. Birth to Age Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)…

  2. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.B.; Eisenger, K.; Brown, S.

    1994-09-01

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 14 months, motor and intellectual development appear to be normal, but growth remains below the 10th percentile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered.

  3. SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHERS IN RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT WITH THEIR BABIES: IMPORTANCE OF PRE- AND POSTNATAL MATERNAL REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING.

    PubMed

    Pajulo, Marjukka; Pyykkönen, Nina; Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Helenius, Hans; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Suchman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    A residential treatment program has been developed specifically for substance-abusing pregnant and parenting women in Finland, focusing on simultaneously supporting maternal abstinence from substances and the mother-baby relationship. The aims of the study are to explore maternal pre- and postnatal reflective functioning and its association with background factors, maternal exposure to trauma, and psychiatric symptoms, postnatal interaction, child development, and later child foster care placement. Participants were 34 mother-baby pairs living in three residential program units during the pre- to postnatal period. We employed self-report questionnaires on background, trauma history, and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory: L.R. Derogatis, 1993; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: J.L. Cox, J.M. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987; Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire: B. Van der Kolk, 2003), videotaped mother-child interactions coded for sensitivity, control, and unresponsiveness (Care Index for Infants and Toddlers: P. Crittenden, 2003); a standardized test of child development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II: N. Bayley, 1993); and semistructured interviews for maternal reflective functioning (Pregnancy Interview: A. Slade, E. Bernbach, J. Grienenberger, D.W. Levy, & A. Locker, 2002; Parent Development Interview: A. Slade et al., 2005). Pre- and postnatal maternal reflective functioning (RF) was on average low, but varied considerably across participants. Average RF increased significantly during the intervention. Increase in RF level was found to be associated with type of abused substance and maternal trauma history. Mothers who showed lower postnatal RF levels relapsed to substance use more often after completing a residential treatment period, and their children were more likely to be placed in foster care. The intensive focus on maternal RF is an important direction in the development of efficacious treatment for this very high risk population

  4. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction.

  5. Becoming Baby-Friendly and Transforming Maternity Care in a Safety-Net Hospital on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    Eganhouse, Deborah J; Gutierrez, Leticia; Cuellar, Lorena; Velasquez, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Nurse leaders used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's survey on Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care, as well as Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative guidelines, to transform maternity care in a safety-net hospital with more than 3,500 births annually. Implementing evidence-based guidelines to support breastfeeding was essential for a vulnerable population characterized by minimal prenatal care and high rates of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and poverty. Research showing the importance of breastfeeding in protecting against these factors guided extensive changes in our maternity care model. The nursing and medical teams changed long-held practices that separated women from their newborns and observed substantial improvements in breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding rates at discharge. PMID:27520602

  6. Young maternal age and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Antônio A M; Simões, Vanda M F; Barbieri, Marco A; Bettiol, Heloisa; Lamy-Filho, Fernando; Coimbra, Liberata C; Alves, Maria T S S B

    2003-10-01

    The association between young maternal age and preterm birth (PTB) remains controversial. In some studies the association disappeared after controlling for socio-economic and reproductive factors, thus indicating that social disadvantage rather than biological factors may be the explanation. However, in other studies the association persisted after adjustment. The relation between young maternal age and PTB was studied in a city located in Brazil, an underdeveloped country, where the prevalence of teenage pregnancy was high, 29%. A systematic sampling of 2541 hospital births, stratified by hospital, was performed in São Luís, Northeast Brazil, from March 1997 to February 1998. The risks of PTB for infants born to two groups of young mothers (<18 and 18-19 years) were calculated with and without adjustment for confounding factors (family income, marital status, mode of delivery, parity, health insurance, and short maternal stature) in a logistic regression model, using mothers 25-29 years of age as the reference group. In the unadjusted analysis, the risk of PTB was higher for mothers < 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64, 3.57]. Those aged 18 or 19 years were not at a higher risk of PTB (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.58, 1.38). After adjustment, the risk of PTB for mothers < 18 years was lower but remained significant after controlling for confounding (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.11, 2.60). After performing a stratified analysis according to parity, the risk of PTB among very young primiparae (<18 years) remained significant (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.02, 3.08), whereas the risk among non-primiparous adolescents was not significantly higher than the risk among mothers in the reference group. This suggests that the association between young maternal age and PTB may have a biological basis or an artifactual explanation (errors in gestational age estimation may be more common among very young mothers) or may be due to residual confounding. PMID:14629314

  7. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    PubMed

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  8. America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

    America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

  9. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  10. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span.

  11. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  12. Out of the Closet and into the Trenches: Gay Male Baby Boomers, Aging, and HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…

  13. Hispanic Baby Boomers: Health Inequities Likely to Persist in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Valentine M.; Wallace, Steven P.; Bagdasaryan, Sofya; Aranda, Maria P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As the Baby-Boom generation enters the ranks of the elderly adults over the next 4 decades, the United States will witness an unprecedented growth in racial/ethnic diversity among the older adult population. Hispanics will comprise 20% of the next generation of older adults, representing the largest minority population aged 65 years and…

  14. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. The Complete and Authoritative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelov, Steven P., Ed.; Hannemann, Robert E., Ed.

    This book, prepared by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is designed to provide parents with the most accurate and up-to-date information about the health and well-being of their young children from birth through age 5. The titles of the book's 30 chapters are: (1) "Preparing for a New Baby"; (2) "Birth and the First Moments After"; (3) "Basic…

  15. 'Comfortable in my own skin': a new form of sexual freedom for ageing baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Rowntree, Margaret R

    2014-12-01

    'Freedom of sexual expression' is a slogan that has long been synonymous with the generation known as the baby boomers during the 1960s and 1970s. But does this catchphrase still have currency for the men and women in this cohort who are mostly now over the age of fifty? This paper explores the question by reporting on qualitative data from a multi-method Australian study about the influence of growing older on baby boomers' sexual expression. The sample comprised ten interview participants and fifty-seven Internet survey respondents, aged between 50 and 70 years. Following a theoretical perspective known as the sociology of emotions, the analysis of data reveals that baby boomers' emotional experiences range from constraining to liberating sexual expression, to a paradoxical combination of both. The article argues that while sexual freedom is still an important concept to baby boomers, there are new emotional dimensions to its expression, particularly in the form of comfort and confidence, that come with age.

  16. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p < 0.05). There was also statistically significant and augmentation of indices of body weights of children along with the age (p < 0.05). The highest morbidity rate in children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  17. Combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Naomi; Nomura, Kyoko; Kido, Michiko; Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueno, Masami; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Maternal age at first childbirth has increased in most developed countries in the past 20 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of maternal age at delivery and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This retrospective study investigated 1193 singleton dyads with vaginal-delivered at 37–42 gestational weeks during January and December in 2011 at one large “Baby-Friendly” certified hospital in Japan. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to evaluate individual and combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of EBF after adjusted for pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications, mothers' underlying illness, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, gestational week at delivery, child's sex and nurturing support from grandparents. Success rates of EBF at one month after child delivery was 69.4% in primiparous aged ≥ 35 (group A: n = 284), 73.5% in multiparous aged ≥ 35 (group B: n = 268), 74.3% in primiparous aged < 35 (group C: n = 432), and 82.3% in multiparous aged < 35 (group D: n = 209). Older maternal age and primiparous became independently associated with EBF initiation. The combined effect for successful initiation of EBF was the lowest in group A referent to group D both at discharge and at one month (odds ratio (OR) 5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0–11.9, and OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4–3.4, respectively). Primiparous mothers in late child-bearing aged 35 years or older are at the greatest risk of EBF initiation. PMID:26844198

  18. Baby Boomers and the Shifting Political Construction of Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Robert B.; Gonyea, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Employing the political construct of "target" populations, we suggest that the Boomers in old age will constitute a conceptually distinct population from that represented by either their parents or grandparents. A fourfold typology organized along the dimensions posited by Schneider and Ingram (1993) yields categorizations of target populations as…

  19. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  20. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  1. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  2. Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Hee

    2014-01-01

    3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although 3MCC deficiency was previously considered to be rare, it has been found to be one of the most common metabolic disorders in newborns after the neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced. Additionally, asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mothers have been identified due to abnormal results of unaffected baby's neonatal screening test. Some of the 3MCC-deficient mothers show symptoms such as fatigue, myopathy, or metabolic crisis with febrile illnesses. In the current study, we identified an asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mother when she showed abnormal results during a neonatal screening test of a healthy infant. PMID:25114694

  3. Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Hong, Yong Hee

    2014-07-01

    3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although 3MCC deficiency was previously considered to be rare, it has been found to be one of the most common metabolic disorders in newborns after the neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced. Additionally, asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mothers have been identified due to abnormal results of unaffected baby's neonatal screening test. Some of the 3MCC-deficient mothers show symptoms such as fatigue, myopathy, or metabolic crisis with febrile illnesses. In the current study, we identified an asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mother when she showed abnormal results during a neonatal screening test of a healthy infant.

  4. Association between Maternal Age and Meiotic Recombination for Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Neil E.; Yu, Kai; Shaffer, John; Feingold, Eleanor; Sherman, Stephanie L.

    2005-01-01

    Altered genetic recombination has been identified as the first molecular correlate of chromosome nondisjunction in both humans and model organisms. Little evidence has emerged to link maternal age—long recognized as the primary risk factor for nondisjunction—with altered recombination, although some studies have provided hints of such a relationship. To determine whether an association does exist, chromosome 21 recombination patterns were examined in 400 trisomy 21 cases of maternal meiosis I origin, grouped by maternal age. These recombination patterns were used to predict the chromosome 21 exchange patterns established during meiosis I. There was no statistically significant association between age and overall rate of exchange. The placement of meiotic exchange, however, differed significantly among the age groups. Susceptible patterns (pericentromeric and telomeric exchanges) accounted for 34% of all exchanges among the youngest class of women but only 10% of those among the oldest class. The pattern of exchanges among the oldest age group mimicked the pattern observed among normally disjoining chromosomes 21. These results suggest that the greatest risk factor for nondisjunction among younger women is the presence of a susceptible exchange pattern. We hypothesize that environmental and age-related insults accumulate in the ovary as a woman ages, leading to malsegregation of oocytes with stable exchange patterns. It is this risk, due to recombination-independent factors, that would be most influenced by increasing age, leading to the observed maternal age effect. PMID:15551222

  5. The Effects of Pregnancy-Adaptation Training on Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Adaptation in Pregnant Women With a History of Baby Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baghdari, Nasrin; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Azmoude, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that educating mothers can improve their adaptation to pregnancy and motherhood roles. There are also studies that have investigated the effects of certain interventions on maternal-fetal attachment. However, studies on the effects of maternal adaptation training on maternal-fetal attachment in mothers with a history of fetal or baby loss are rare. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a pregnancy adaptation training package on maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women with a history of baby loss. Patients and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 pregnant women with previous fetal or neonatal death in 2014. The women were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30). The pregnant women in the experimental group received routine prenatal education in addition to four sessions of a pregnancy adaption training package. The control group received only routine prenatal education. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Cranley’s maternal-fetal attachment scale, and a prenatal self-evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the study. The data analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results Before the intervention, there were no statistically significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of maternal-fetal attachment (P = 0.280) and adaptation to pregnancy (P = 0.883). However, following the intervention, the mean score of the maternal-fetal attachment was significantly higher in the experimental group, when compared with the control (77.57 ± 7.23 vs. 61.53 ± 2.62; P = 0.001). In addition, the mean post-intervention adaptation to pregnancy score was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (118.89 ± 8.12 vs. 126.38 ± 4.17; P = 0.001). Conclusions The pregnancy adaptation

  6. Maternal practices of baby feeding and hygiene in the city of Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, C

    1978-10-01

    66 mothers with children aged between 12-24 months were interviewed with a questionnaire in the industrial city of Lubhiana. The average age of the mothers ranged from 18-45 years. 66% were between 21-30; 39% had only 1 living child. 41% of the children were well nourished; were third degree malnourished. 91% were breast fed from birth. 30% mothers gave milk top feeds from birth; the additional milk was fresh buffalo (84%). The milk was boiled in 100% of cases and the water diluting the feeds was boiled in 46% cases. The water was added before the milk was boiled. 5% of mothers washed the bottle with water alone; 30% washed with an abrasive such as sand or ash. 49% never boiled the feeding bottle; 33% boiled the bottle once a day, and 18% boiled it before each feed. 23% claimed no incident or vomiting or diarrhoea, 26% admitted 1-2 incidents of vomiting or diarrhoea; 21% less than monthly bouts; 12% more than monthly bouts; and 18% admitted to weekly or more incidents of diarrhoea and vomiting. Deaths in rural India in the under age 5 group are attributed to malnutrition in 5% of cases.

  7. Current pattern of Ponderal Indices of term small-for-gestational age in a population of Nigerian babies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute a special group of neonates who may have suffered varying degrees of intrauterine insults and deprivation. Variations in birth weight, length and Ponderal Index (PI) depend on the type and degree of intrauterine insults the babies were exposed to. The objective of the study was to determine the current prevalence of term SGA births in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital and the current pattern of Ponderal Indices among term SGA in a population of Nigerian babies. Methods Subjects comprised of consecutive term singleton mother-baby pairs in the first 24 hours of life. It was a cross sectional study. The anthropometric parameters of each baby were recorded and the PI was also determined. Results Out of 1,052 live births during the study period (September to December, 2009), 825 were term, singleton babies. Five hundred and eight-one babies (70.4%) fall into the upper socio-economic classes 1 and II, 193 (23.4%) in the middle class and 51 (6.2%) were of the lower classes IV and V. None of the mothers indicated ingestion of alcohol or smoking of cigarette. Fifty-nine babies (7.2%) were small-for gestational age (SGA). Of the 59 SGA subjects, 26 (44.1%) were symmetrical SGA while 33 (55.9%) were asymmetrical SGA. There was no significant sex or socioeconomic predilection for either symmetrical or asymmetrical growth (p = 0.59, 0.73 respectively). Conclusion The findings showed that proportionality in SGA fetuses is a continuum, with the PI depending on the duration of intrauterine insult and the extent of its effects on weight and length before delivery. PMID:23875695

  8. Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Čulić, Vida

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  9. Down syndrome: parental origin, recombination, and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Culić, Vida; Brajenović-Milić, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  10. Trends in maternal age distribution and the live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales: 1938-2010.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhua; Morris, Joan K

    2013-09-01

    There have been concerns about the effects of increases in maternal age since the 1980s on the prevalence of Down's syndrome. This study examined changes in the distribution of maternal age in England and Wales from 1938 to 2010. The live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in the absence of screening and subsequent termination was estimated using the numbers of babies born in England and Wales according to maternal age and the maternal age-related risk of a birth with Down's syndrome. The proportion of women age 35 years or older at the time of giving birth reached a peak of 20% in 1945, declined to 5.5% in 1977 and rose to 20% in 2007. In the absence of screening and subsequent termination, the estimated live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome would have mirrored these changes (2.3 per 1000 births in 1945, 1.2 per 1000 in 1976 and 2.2 per 1000 in 2007). The observed live birth prevalence (recorded by the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register) was1.0 per 1000 from 1989 to 2010, due to screening and subsequent termination. In conclusion since the 1980s there has been an increase in the mean maternal age and in the expected prevalence of Down's syndrome. When put in a longer historical context the current expected live birth prevalence is similar to that in the 1940s and the observed live birth prevalence is about 54% less than expected, due to screening and subsequent termination, and has remained reasonably constant since 1989 at 1.0 per 1000 births.

  11. Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-06-01

    We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11-18 years of age, compared to 25-29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ≥35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (≥40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications.

  12. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  13. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    PubMed

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  14. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fernando César; Costa, Maria Laura; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; e Silva, João Luiz Pinto; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age), 20-34 years (control), and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age). According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings. PMID:23917654

  15. Escape from crossover interference increases with maternal age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Christopher L; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Eriksson, Nick; Hinds, David; Auton, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Recombination plays a fundamental role in meiosis, ensuring the proper segregation of chromosomes and contributing to genetic diversity by generating novel combinations of alleles. Here, we use data derived from direct-to-consumer genetic testing to investigate patterns of recombination in over 4,200 families. Our analysis reveals a number of sex differences in the distribution of recombination. We find the fraction of male events occurring within hotspots to be 4.6% higher than for females. We confirm that the recombination rate increases with maternal age, while hotspot usage decreases, with no such effects observed in males. Finally, we show that the placement of female recombination events appears to become increasingly deregulated with maternal age, with an increasing fraction of events observed within closer proximity to each other than would be expected under simple models of crossover interference. PMID:25695863

  16. Risk for childhood leukemia associated with maternal and paternal age.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Thomopoulos, Thomas P; Gialamas, Spyros P; Karalexi, Maria A; Biniaris-Georgallis, Stylianos-Iason; Kontogeorgi, Evangelia; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Petridou, Eleni T

    2015-12-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as parental age, in the pathogenesis of childhood leukemias is being intensively examined; the results of individual studies are controversial. This meta-analysis aims to quantitatively synthesize the published data on the association between parental age and risk of two major distinct childhood leukemia types in the offspring. Eligible studies were identified and pooled relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using random-effects models, separately for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Subgroup analyses were performed by study design, geographical region, adjustment factors; sensitivity analyses and meta-regression analyses were also undertaken. 77 studies (69 case-control and eight cohort) were deemed eligible. Older maternal and paternal age were associated with increased risk for childhood ALL (pooled RR = 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10; pooled RR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08, per 5 year increments, respectively). The association between maternal age and risk of childhood AML showed a U-shaped pattern, with symmetrically associated increased risk in the oldest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.06-1.43) and the youngest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.07-1.40) extremes. Lastly, only younger fathers were at increased risk of having a child with AML (pooled RR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.04-1.59). In conclusion, maternal and paternal age represents a meaningful risk factor for childhood leukemia, albeit of different effect size by leukemia subtype. Genetic and socio-economic factors may underlie the observed associations. Well-adjusted studies, scheduled by large consortia, are anticipated to satisfactorily address methodological issues, whereas the potential underlying genetic mechanisms should be elucidated by basic research studies.

  17. Impact of holding the baby following stillbirth on maternal mental health and well-being: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie M; Henderson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare mental health and well-being outcomes at 3 and 9 months after the stillbirth among women who held or did not hold their baby, adjusting for demographic and clinical differences. Design Secondary analyses of data from a postal population survey. Population Women with a registered stillbirth in England in 2012. Methods 468 eligible responses were compared. Differences in demographic, clinical and care characteristics between those who held or did not hold their infant were described and adjusted for in subsequent analysis. Mental health and well-being outcomes were compared, and subgroup comparisons tested hypothesised moderating factors. Outcome Measures Self-reported depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and relationship difficulties. Results There was a 30.2% response rate to the survey. Most women saw (97%, n=434) and held (84%, n=394) their baby after stillbirth. There were some demographic differences with migrant women, women who had a multiple birth and those whose pregnancy resulted from fertility treatment being less likely to hold their baby. Women who held their stillborn baby consistently reported higher rates of mental health and relationship difficulties. After adjustment, women who held their baby had 2.12 times higher odds (95% CI 1.11 to 4.04) of reporting anxiety at 9 months and 5.33 times higher odds (95% CI 1.26 to 22.53) of reporting relationship difficulties with family. Some evidence for proposed moderators was observed with poorer mental health reported by women who had held a stillborn baby of <33 weeks’ gestation, and those pregnant at outcome assessment. Conclusions This study supports concern about the negative impact of holding the infant after stillbirth. Results are limited by the observational nature of the study, survey response rate and inability to adjust for women's baseline anxiety. Findings add important evidence to a mixed body of literature. PMID:27540097

  18. Wellness engineering for better quality of life of aging baby boomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    Current health care system serving 78M aging baby-boomers is no longer sustainable, as the cost about 1/5 GDP will reach 1/4 GDT when all is retired in decades, unless the system is changed. We design a high-tech safe net to enhance the timeliness of early correct treatment execution (otherwise, causing 1/4 mortality associated with an escalating legal fee waste). We follow the common sense that "a stitch in time saves nine," and adopt the military surveillance know-how in designing early warning health management system, comprising of smart sensor pairs for point-care surveillance. However, the grand plan of affordable smart sensors hardware for households requires an ODM & OEM teaming to conduct parallel designing and sequential marketing strategy. The military software strategy combating a treacherous adversary enemy match well with point cares surveillance overcoming real world microorganism variability. Moreover, such smart military software provides self-reference change detection, not by traditional cohort ensemble average, but by individual own higher order statistics (HOS) independent component analysis (ICA), which take the advantage of known initial condition for each individual and desirable over-sampling daily dynamics. The triggering of warning follows the military algorithms comprising of Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). To further reduce the unwanted false negative rate, a benchmarked is made against the traditional cohort-ensemble baseline average & the upper & lower bounds of variance as adopted by the gatekeepers - Medical Doctors (MD) and Nurses.

  19. Feto-maternal heart rate ratio in pregnant bitches: effect of gestational age and maternal size.

    PubMed

    Alonge, S; Mauri, M; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C

    2016-10-01

    Few information is available on parameters that can be used to objectively assess the foetal health during canine pregnancy. To identify a reliable parameter for the evaluation of foetal well-being, the effect of pre-gestational maternal bodyweight and gestational age on foetal heart rate (FHR) and on feto-maternal heart rate ratio (FHR/MHR) was investigated. Seventeen client-owned pregnant bitches of different pre-gestational maternal bodyweight were examined by serial echo colour Doppler. Only data from 11 uncomplicated pregnancies were included in the statistical analysis. The relationship between FHR, and FHR/MHR, and independent variables was analysed by polynomial regression (p ≤ .05). The FHR and the FHR/MHR significantly fitted a multiple quadratic regression for all independent variables. They both increased from 35 to 20 days before parturition and then a decreasing pattern followed. Higher values of both parameters were observed in bitches of lowest and highest bodyweight. Patterns of FHR and FHR/MHR were similar, but the ratio better describes the effect of the independent variables on the data. Thus, the highest significance of FHR/MHR compared to FHR alone encourages the application of this ratio to evaluate foetal well-being. The equation derived by the regression analysis of FHR/MHR could be applied in clinical practice to obtain its expected values in healthy pregnancies. PMID:27440379

  20. Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J

    1999-04-01

    Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one.

  1. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Babies in Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ravi Kumar; Deo, Krishna Kumar; Neupane, Uttam; Chaudhary Bhaskar, Subhadra; Yadav, Birendra Kumar; Pokharel, Hanoon P.; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study was done to assess the maternal and sociodemographic factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Methods. An unmatched case control study was done involving 159 cases (mothers having LBW singleton babies) and 159 controls (mothers having normal birth weight singleton babies). Results. More than 50% of LBW babies were from the mothers with height ≤145 cm while only 9.43% of NBW babies were from the mothers with that height. Finally, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal height, time of first antenatal care (ANC) visit, number of ANC visits, iron supplementation, calcium supplementation, maternal education, any illness during pregnancy, and hypertension were found as the significant predictors of LBW. However, maternal blood group AB, normal maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), mother's age of 30 or more years, and starting ANC visit earlier were found to be protective for LBW. Conclusion. Study findings suggest that selectively targeted interventions such as delay age at first pregnancy, improving maternal education and nutrition, and iron and calcium supplementation can prevent LBW in Nepal. PMID:26783406

  2. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  3. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: case report

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Joke M; Schuitemaker, Nico WE; Steegers, Eric AP; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2008-01-01

    Background The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become pregnant. Gestation after oocyte-donation-IVF, however, is not without risks for the mother, especially at advanced age. Case presentation An infertile woman went abroad for oocyte-donation-IVF, since this treatment is not offered in The Netherlands after the age of 45. The first oocyte donation treatment resulted in multiple gestation, but was ended by induced abortion: the woman could not cope with the idea of being pregnant with twins. During the second pregnancy after oocyte donation, at the age of 50, she was mentally more stable. The pregnancy, again a multiple gestation, was uneventful until delivery. Immediately after delivery the woman had hypertension with nausea and vomiting. A few hours later she had an eclamptic fit. HELLP-syndrome was diagnosed. She died due to cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion In The Netherlands, the age limit for women receiving donor oocytes is 45 years and commercial oocyte donation is forbidden by law. In other countries there is no age limit, the reason why some women are going abroad to receive the treatment of their choice. Advanced age, IVF and twin pregnancy are all risk factors for pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in The Netherlands. Patient autonomy is an important ethical principle, but doctors are also bound to the principle of 'not doing harm', and do have the right to refuse medical treatment such as IVF-treatment. The discussion whether women above 50 should have children is still not closed. If the decision is made to offer this treatment to a woman at advanced age, the doctor should counsel her intensively about the risks before treatment is started. PMID:19116003

  4. Baby Your Baby with Sunscreen

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159390.html Baby Your Baby With Sunscreen For starters, apply it at least 15 minutes ... way to protect babies is to avoid direct sun exposure, especially between 10 a.m. and 2 p. ...

  5. AARP Online Portrayal of Social Security: Engaging Aging Baby Boomers through Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Michael L.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.

    2006-01-01

    Although baby boomers were not the sole focus of the American Association of Retired Persons' (AARP) website content on the issue of Social Security reform, their interests were addressed in a variety of ways. AARP provided information, position statements, a live chat forum, and message boards. Additionally, AARP had a partnership with the Rock…

  6. Early Language Stimulation of Down's Syndrome Babies: A Study on the Optimum Age To Begin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2002-01-01

    Examined the marked delay in language acquisition suffered by babies with Down Syndrome and how early treatment affects the subsequent observed development among 36 subjects in Spain. Found statistically significant differences in language acquisitions in favor of newborns, compared with 90-day-old through 18-month-old infants who experienced…

  7. Comparative Study of the Cognitive Sequelae of School-Aged Victims of Shaken Baby Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipanicic, Annie; Nolin, Pierre; Fortin, Gilles; Gobeil, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is now recognized as being the main cause of severe traumatic brain injury in infancy. However, our understanding of the impact of this type of abuse on child development remains sketchy. The main objective of the current study was therefore to shed light on the cognitive dysfunctions that are particular to…

  8. [Maternal mortality in Spain, 1980-1992. Relationship with birth distributions according to the mother's age].

    PubMed

    Valero Juan, L F; Sáenz González, M C

    1997-11-01

    The maternal mortality evolution in Spain during the 1980-1992 period is reported. The influence of birth distribution according to maternal age is analyzed. The information was gathered from vital statistics published by Instituto Nacional de Estadística. The mortality rates have stabilized since 1985 (4.8 per 10(5) for 1992) associated with the increase in the proportion of births in women aged > or = 30 years (40.6% for 1992). Birth distributions according to maternal age account for 13.1% of the deaths observed. The predictions point to an increase in maternal mortality for the year 2000.

  9. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  10. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  11. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  12. The Baby Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Darby L.; Verdeyen, Tasha B.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a project about babies undertaken by a class of children ranging in age from 2.9 years to 3.9 years old in a small Illinois town. Throughout this project, the children studied equipment and supplies needed to care for babies. They made dolls for the classroom, constructed a cradle, made observational drawings, created topic…

  13. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Sean G.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201

  14. Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature.

  15. Age, the environment and our reproductive future: bonking baby boomers and the future of sex.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R John

    2014-02-01

    There has never been a greater need for scientists trained in reproductive science. Most developed countries are witnessing unprecedented rates of recourse to assisted conception sitting cheek-by-jowl with high rates of induced abortion. This article addresses these two incongruous faces of reproductive healthcare. Every year at least 44 million abortions are performed worldwide, many under unsafe and insanitary conditions that carry a significant risk to the lives of women deprived of safe, effective methods for controlling their fertility. Although birth control is a complex issue involving myriad social and political factors, the technical vacuum in this area is significant. Through no fault of the family planning authorities, there have been no radically new methods of fertility control since the oral contraceptive pill was introduced in 1960 and even this contribution to planned parenthood has its roots in the biochemistry of the 1920s and 1930s. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry has, by and large, turned its back on fundamental research activities in this area. At present, our major investment in reproductive healthcare involves treating ever-increasing numbers of couples with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, these treatments are often delivered without critically considering the underlying causes of this condition or seriously contemplating the long-term consequences of the current enthusiasm for such therapy. Significantly, the clinical factors underpinning the commitment of couples to ART include advanced maternal age and a variety of lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, which are known to compromise the developmental potential of the oocyte and DNA integrity in spermatozoa.

  16. Age, the environment and our reproductive future: bonking baby boomers and the future of sex.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R John

    2014-02-01

    There has never been a greater need for scientists trained in reproductive science. Most developed countries are witnessing unprecedented rates of recourse to assisted conception sitting cheek-by-jowl with high rates of induced abortion. This article addresses these two incongruous faces of reproductive healthcare. Every year at least 44 million abortions are performed worldwide, many under unsafe and insanitary conditions that carry a significant risk to the lives of women deprived of safe, effective methods for controlling their fertility. Although birth control is a complex issue involving myriad social and political factors, the technical vacuum in this area is significant. Through no fault of the family planning authorities, there have been no radically new methods of fertility control since the oral contraceptive pill was introduced in 1960 and even this contribution to planned parenthood has its roots in the biochemistry of the 1920s and 1930s. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry has, by and large, turned its back on fundamental research activities in this area. At present, our major investment in reproductive healthcare involves treating ever-increasing numbers of couples with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, these treatments are often delivered without critically considering the underlying causes of this condition or seriously contemplating the long-term consequences of the current enthusiasm for such therapy. Significantly, the clinical factors underpinning the commitment of couples to ART include advanced maternal age and a variety of lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, which are known to compromise the developmental potential of the oocyte and DNA integrity in spermatozoa. PMID:24194569

  17. Maternal height and age: risk factors for cephalopelvic disproportion in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Tsu, V D

    1992-10-01

    Maternal age and stature are among several factors used to screen pregnant women for potential risk of labour complications. In a population-based case-control study in Harare, Zimbabwe, multivariate analysis was carried out to evaluate the importance of maternal age and height as risk factors for cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD). Using data abstracted from the medical records of 203 women with operative deliveries due to CPD and 299 women with normal unassisted vaginal deliveries, multiple logistic regression models were developed. Although maternal age < 18 years was not a significant risk factor in this study (perhaps because there were few women in this age group), advanced maternal age (> or = 35 years) was associated with a relative risk of 2.7 compared to women 20-34, after adjusting for other demographic and obstetric factors. Maternal height < 160 cm was associated with a twofold increased risk of CPD as compared to taller women.

  18. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  19. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  20. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n = 1717; ages 26-35, n = 1367; ages 36+, n = 313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  1. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: A longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Petras, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth; b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3,397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large U.S. urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age one, three, and five years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20–25: n=1,717; ages 26–35: n=1,367; ages 36+: n=313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the five years post-delivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20–25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20–25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  2. Consumption and the constitution of age: expenditure patterns on clothing, hair and cosmetics among post-war 'baby boomers'.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Julia; Majima, Shinobu

    2014-08-01

    The article addresses debates around the changing nature of old age, using U.K. data on spending on dress and related aspects of appearance by older women to explore the potential role of consumption in the reconstitution of aged identities. Based on pseudo-cohort analysis of Family Expenditures Survey, it compares spending patterns on clothing, cosmetics and hairdressing, 1961-2011. It concludes that there is little evidence for the 'baby boomers' as a strategic or distinctive generation. There is evidence, however, for increased engagement by older women in aspects of appearance: shopping for clothes more frequently; more involved in the purchase of cosmetics; and women over 75 are now the most frequent attenders at hairdressers. The roots of these patterns, however, lie more in period than cohort effects, and in the role of producer-led developments such as mass cheap fashion and the development of anti-ageing products.

  3. Age, period, and cohort effects on maternal mortality: a linear logit model.

    PubMed

    Tu, E J; Chuang, J L

    1983-01-01

    This analysis was aimed at disentangling the age, period, and cohort effects on the decline in maternal mortality in the 1917-77 period in New York State. New York maternal mortality rates were consistentley lower than US rates from 191-56, but fell considerably more slowly than national rates since 1957. Cohort analysis can potentially provide separate measures of age, period, and cohort effects by use of linear ligit models. Comparison of various age-period-cohort linear logit models on the logits of maternal mortality rates indicated that period and age effects are the dominant influences on maternal mortality. Cohortship did not make a significant contribution after age and period were already in the model. Age parameter results suggest that the 20-24 year age group faces the lowest maternal mortality risk, and risk increases rapidly with age after age 30 years. The infuctuation in the residuals for the 40-44 year age group is slightly higher due to the stochastic variation in diminishing small numbers of maternal deaths and pregnancies in this group. In addition, adding the period dimension after adjustment for age had a greater impact than adding the cohort dimension after adjustment for age. The implication of these findings is that, as a set, changes in temporal variables that cut across cohorts seem to be more important than those variables that distinguish cohorts.

  4. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  5. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers’ Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age. PMID:25264394

  6. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers' Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices.

    PubMed

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K

    2014-07-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age.

  7. Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2011-01-01

    Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than…

  8. The relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, C W; Conrad, B

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers whose premature infants were medically stable and hospitalized in the NICU were studied. Two hypotheses on the positive relationships between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment, and global self-esteem and maternal attachment could not be tested by correlational analyses due to the inadequate internal consistency of the How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. A significant correlation was found between maternal self-esteem and global self-esteem. Thus, maternal role influenced general self-concept in mothers. In addition, it was found that there were no significant correlations between the MSRI and demographic variables, such as: maternal age, marital status, income, and educational level. Another result indicated that increased global self-esteem was correlated (p < .05) with maternal age, income, and educational level. The results of this study provide clinical nurses to pay attention not only to caregiving skills but also to the mother's appraisal of herself as a mother and attachment behaviors.

  9. "Don't Be Such a Baby!" Competence and Age as Intersectional Co-Markers on Children's Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Anette; Heikkilä, Mia; Sundhall, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how norms about age intersect with gender and thus create social positions about incompetent and competent children. The paper also analyzes the relationship between gender, incompetence, and notions of "the baby." The theoretical framework uses concepts taken from gender theory (Butler, "Gender…

  10. Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

  11. Infants & Toddlers: "Baby Moves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…

  12. Maternal dispositional empathy and electrodermal reactivity: Interactive contributions to maternal sensitivity with toddler-aged children.

    PubMed

    Emery, Helen T; McElwain, Nancy L; Groh, Ashley M; Haydon, Katherine C; Roisman, Glenn I

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: Dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix's (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent's empathic tendencies and his or her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry vs. laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child's distress vs. nondistress). PMID:24955589

  13. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  14. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached.

  15. Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birthweight: a multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2008-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20-45 years from Chicago, USA in 1997-2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 g to an increase of 10 g per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4% of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences. PMID:18313187

  16. The Health Experiences and Development of Teen-Age Mothered Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Jeannette Doris

    Conducted from an educational sociologist's point of view, this study explores the relationship of mother's age to the development of her child. A documentary frequency technique was used to investigate four general questions: (1) Do children of younger mothers, ages 16 years and under, have health problems different from the health problems of…

  17. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Jiang Zheng; Byers, B.

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  18. The Association between Maternal Reproductive Age and Progression of Refractive Error in Urban Students in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Jin, Zi Bing; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J.; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhou, Hong Jia; Wang, Ning Li; Liang, Yuan Bo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children’ refractive error progression in Chinese urban students. Methods The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student’s refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline. Results At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4%) were reexamined. 226 students (58.5%) with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993–1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003–2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (β = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001), with more myopic refraction at baseline (β = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01), and with older maternal reproductive age (β = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01), had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04) had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found. Conclusions In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades. PMID:26421841

  19. Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD. PMID:21514691

  20. Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J

    2012-03-01

    Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD.

  1. Changes in Maternal Age in England and Wales--Implications for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Elizabeth; Morris, Joan K.

    2006-01-01

    The risk of having a pregnancy with Down syndrome increases with maternal age. The percentage of all births in England and Wales to mothers aged 35 and over increased from 9% in 1989 to 19% in 2003. A 51% increase in the numbers of pregnancies with Down syndrome has been observed over the same time period (from 954 to 1440). Due to improvements in…

  2. The Impact of Early Age at First Childbirth on Maternal and Infant Health

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Cassandra M.; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (≤2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ≤16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (<15 years or <2 years post-menarche) on infant outcomes is moderate; that is, future studies are likely to refine the estimate of effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/ setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar associations

  3. The 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Study: A Multilevel, Population-Based Study of Maternal and Infant Health in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shin M.; Wakeel, Fathima; Herman, Dena; Higgins, Chandra; Shi, Lu; Chow, Jessica; Sun, Stacy; Lu, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In order to comprehensively examine the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the University of California, Los Angeles, joined efforts to design and implement the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study. This paper aims to present the conceptual frameworks underlying the study's development, highlight the successful collaboration between a research institution and local health department, describe the distinguishing characteristics of its methodology, and discuss the study's implications for research, programs, and policies. Methods. The LAMB study utilized a multilevel, multistage cluster design with a mixed-mode methodology for data collection. Two samples were ultimately produced: the multilevel sample (n = 4,518) and the augmented final sample (n = 6,264). Results. The LAMB study allowed us to collect multilevel data on the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes. Both samples were more likely to be Hispanic, aged 20–34 years, completed at least 12 years of schooling, and spoke English. Conclusions. The LAMB study represents the successful collaboration between an academic institution and local health department and is a theoretically based research database and surveillance system that informs effective programmatic and policy interventions to improve outcomes among LAC's varied demographic groups. PMID:25580305

  4. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

  5. Maternal and paternal age are jointly associated with childhood autism in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and parental education, we found a significant (p < 0.0001) joint effect of parental ages on having children with ASD indicating an adjusted mean paternal age difference between cases and controls of [5.9 years; 95% CI (2.6, 9.1)] and a difference for maternal age of [6.5 years; 95% CI (4.0, 8.9)]. To avoid multicollinearity in logistic regression, we recommend joint modeling of parental ages as a vector of outcome variables using MGLM.

  6. Maternal chronological age, prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting of infants.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little or no association afterward; by spline regression, estimated points at which the slope of the regression line changed were 25 years for prenatal and perinatal history, 31 years for social supports, and 27 years for parenting practices. Given the expanding age range of first-time parents, these findings underscore the importance of incorporating maternal age as a factor in studies of parenting and child development. PMID:16942495

  7. Efficacy of baby-CIMT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on infants below age 12 months, with clinical signs of unilateral CP

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with unilateral brain lesions are at high risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Given the great plasticity of the young brain, possible interventions for infants at risk of unilateral CP deserve exploration. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is known to be effective for older children with unilateral CP but is not systematically used for infants. The development of CIMT for infants (baby-CIMT) is described here, as is the methodology of an RCT comparing the effects on manual ability development of baby-CIMT versus baby-massage. The main hypothesis is that infants receiving baby-CIMT will develop manual ability in the involved hand faster than will infants receiving baby-massage in the first year of life. Method and design The study will be a randomised, controlled, prospective parallel-group trial. Invited infants will be to be randomised to either the baby-CIMT or the baby-massage group if they: 1) are at risk of developing unilateral CP due to a known neonatal event affecting the brain or 2) have been referred to Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital due to asymmetric hand function. The inclusion criteria are age 3–8 months and established asymmetric hand use. Infants in both groups will receive two 6-weeks training periods separated by a 6-week pause, for 12 weeks in total of treatment. The primary outcome measure will be the new Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) for evaluating manual ability. In addition, the Parenting Sense of Competence scale and Alberta Infant Motor Scale will be used. Clinical neuroimaging will be utilized to characterise the brain lesion type. To compare outcomes between treatment groups generalised linear models will be used. Discussion The model of early intensive intervention for hand function, baby-CIMT evaluated by the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) will have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of how early intervention of upper limb function in infants at risk of

  8. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis.

  9. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

  10. Maternal diet during lactation and allergic sensitization in the offspring at age of 5.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Bright I; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Ahonen, Suvi; Kaila, Minna; Lumia, Mirka; Prasad, Marianne; Haapala, Anna-Maija; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of maternal dietary intake during lactation on allergic sensitization at the age of 5 in children carrying HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. We analyzed data for 652 consecutively born children with complete information on maternal diet and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurements who are participating in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Nutrition and allergy study. Analysis was performed using logistic regression. In models that included the significant uncorrelated dietary variables, maternal intake of butters and saturated fatty acids was associated with increased risk, while margarine was associated with a decreased risk, of sensitization to wheat allergen in the offspring. Maternal intake of potatoes, milks, and margarine and low-fat spreads were associated with decreased risk of sensitization to birch allergen. On the other hand, intake of potatoes decreased the risk, while vitamin C and eggs increased the risk, of cat allergic sensitization. Maternal intake of butters and saturated fatty acids during lactation may increase the risk, while margarines may decrease the risk, of sensitization to wheat allergen in the offspring. Maternal intake of potatoes, milks, and margarines may decrease the risk of sensitization to birch allergen. On the other hand, intake of potatoes may decrease the risk, while vitamin C and eggs may increase the risk, of cat allergic sensitization. These effects may persist regardless of maternal or parental allergic status.

  11. Infants of adolescent mothers. Maternal characteristics and developmental status at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W; Burgess, D; Morgan, L; Malpiede, D

    1984-03-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered at 1 year of age to 54 healthy infants of adolescent mothers. Information was obtained regarding maternal cognitive and emotional maturity, child-rearing attitudes, attitudes toward the infant, and psychosocial status at one year. The average Bayley Mental Scale score was 113, and the average Bayley Motor Scale score was 105. There was a negative correlation between the Bayley Mental Scale score and maternal age and education. Bayley Motor Scale scores were predictable from a combination of maternal authoritarian attitudes, abuse potential, and infant's birth weight. Although high authoritarian attitudes in mothers have been associated with poor cognitive development at later ages, they may represent an important strength in adolescent mothers during the first year. PMID:6702768

  12. New Findings for Maternal Mortality Age Patterns: Aggregated Results for 38 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Ann K.; Winfrey, William; Ross, John

    2013-01-01

    Background With recent results showing a global decline in overall maternal mortality during the last two decades and with the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals only four years away, the question of how to continue or even accelerate the decline has become more pressing. By knowing where the risk is highest as well as where the numbers of deaths are greatest, it may be possible to re-direct resources and fine-tune strategies for greater effectiveness in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We aggregate data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys that included a maternal mortality module and were conducted in 2000 or later to produce maternal mortality ratios, rates, and numbers of deaths by five year age groups, separately by residence, region, and overall mortality level. Findings The age pattern of maternal mortality is broadly similar across regions, type of place of residence, and overall level of maternal mortality. A “J” shaped curve, with markedly higher risk after age 30, is evident in all groups. We find that the excess risk among adolescents is of a much lower magnitude than is generally assumed. The oldest age groups appear to be especially resistant to change. We also find evidence of extremely elevated risk among older mothers in countries with high levels of HIV prevalence. Conclusions The largest number of deaths occurs in the age groups from 20-34, largely because those are the ages at which women are most likely to give birth so efforts directed at this group would most effectively reduce the number of deaths. Yet equity considerations suggest that efforts also be directed toward those most at risk, i.e., older women and adolescents. Because women are at risk each time they become pregnant, fulfilling the substantial unmet need for contraception is a cross-cutting strategy that can address both effectiveness and equity concerns. PMID:23613716

  13. The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.

    PubMed

    Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

    2015-04-01

    Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease.

  14. "My Baby & Me": Effects of an Early, Comprehensive Parenting Intervention on At-Risk Mothers and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttentag, Cathy L.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Baggett, Kathleen M.; Noria, Christine W.; Borkowski, John G.; Swank, Paul R.; Farris, Jaelyn R.; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G.; Carta, Judith J.; Warren, Steven F.; Ramey, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168…

  15. Birth weight and smoking during pregnancy--effect modification by maternal age.

    PubMed

    Fox, S H; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R

    1994-05-15

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an important, avoidable factor associated with low birth weight. Maternal age is also associated with variations in birth weight. Using birth certificate data from all 347,650 singleton births for which maternal age and birth weight were recorded during 1984-1988 in Washington State, this study investigated birth weight and smoking during pregnancy (yes/no) for mothers of different ages. In multiple linear regressions adjusted for race, marital status, parity, adequacy of prenatal care, and urban/rural residence, the decrement in mean birth weight associated with smoking grew steadily from 117 g for the youngest mothers (age less than 16 years) to 376 g for the oldest (age 40 years or more). Similarly, the adjusted relative risk of having a low weight birth (less than 2,500 g) for smokers compared with nonsmokers was lowest for mothers aged 16-17 years, at 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.68), and increased steadily to 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.77-3.90) for mothers aged 40 or more. This result suggests that the effect of exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy is modified by advancing maternal age. Further research using data that more precisely measure the exposure (cigarettes per day, years smoked) could help further clarify this issue and better address the public health question of whether smoking cessation programs ought to focus limited resources more selectively toward pregnant smokers in particular age groups. PMID:8178780

  16. Birth and motherhood: childbirth experience and mothers' perceptions of themselves and their babies.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth is a major experience in a woman's life, but the relation between childbirth experiences and later mother-infant outcomes has been understudied. This study examined the relation between mode of delivery and subjective birth experience (e.g., perception of control, social support during labor and delivery), and mothers' descriptions of their babies and their maternal self-esteem, both powerful predictors of maternal caregiving behavior. This study had three questions: (a) Do mode of delivery and subjective birth experience predict mothers' descriptions of their babies and maternal self-esteem? (b) Are the effects of mode of delivery on mothers' descriptions and maternal self-esteem mediated by subjective birth experience? (c) Does infant age moderate any of these pathways? The sample consisted of 269 mothers of full-term, healthy infants who gave birth in the year prior to the study. Mode of delivery showed a direct effect on how mothers describe their babies, but not maternal self-esteem, which was not mediated by subjective birth experience. Subjective birth experience had direct effects on both outcomes. Infant age did not moderate any of these pathways. Results point to the subjective aspects of childbirth as important components of women's experience of labor and delivery. Implications are discussed. PMID:25704337

  17. Birth and motherhood: childbirth experience and mothers' perceptions of themselves and their babies.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth is a major experience in a woman's life, but the relation between childbirth experiences and later mother-infant outcomes has been understudied. This study examined the relation between mode of delivery and subjective birth experience (e.g., perception of control, social support during labor and delivery), and mothers' descriptions of their babies and their maternal self-esteem, both powerful predictors of maternal caregiving behavior. This study had three questions: (a) Do mode of delivery and subjective birth experience predict mothers' descriptions of their babies and maternal self-esteem? (b) Are the effects of mode of delivery on mothers' descriptions and maternal self-esteem mediated by subjective birth experience? (c) Does infant age moderate any of these pathways? The sample consisted of 269 mothers of full-term, healthy infants who gave birth in the year prior to the study. Mode of delivery showed a direct effect on how mothers describe their babies, but not maternal self-esteem, which was not mediated by subjective birth experience. Subjective birth experience had direct effects on both outcomes. Infant age did not moderate any of these pathways. Results point to the subjective aspects of childbirth as important components of women's experience of labor and delivery. Implications are discussed.

  18. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  19. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Chad M.; Robinson, Matthew C.; Aylor, David L.; Singh, Nadia D.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  20. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  1. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. PMID:1561298

  2. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior.

  3. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  4. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  5. Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

  6. Maternal Age and Depressive Symptoms in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, depressive symptoms of 2,011 European-American, African-American, and Latina low-income mothers at approximately 14 months after birth of the child were examined. Maternal age was used as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Overall, 31.9% of mothers were classified as depressed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression…

  7. Effects of Maternal Education, Age, and Parity of Fatal Infant Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklund, Kristine; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of computerized linked birth and death record information found that maternal age and education are inversely related to infant mortality, while mother's parity is directly related. Accident mortality rate differentials by educational level were more evident for certain categories of accident (suffocation, death by fire). (Author/GC)

  8. Loyalty Conflicts and Family Relationships in Latency Age Boys: A Comparison of Joint and Maternal Custody.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Virginia M.

    1986-01-01

    Examined divorce-related emotional adjustment in boys aged 6-11 living in maternal (N=20) or joint (N=20) physical custody. Found no group differences in child-administered loyalty conflict measure. Results indicated that boys in joint custody were comfortable expressing negative and positive feelings toward parents, were not preoccupied with…

  9. Joint and Maternal Custody: The Outcome for Boys Aged 6-11 and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Virginia

    Although divorcing parents have a variety of child custody arrangements from which to choose, opinions are mixed as to which children benefit from which arrangements. To compare the adjustment of boys in joint and maternal physical custody and to investigate factors related to their adjustment, 20 joint custody families with a boy aged 6-11 and a…

  10. Maternal Age at Delivery Is Associated with an Epigenetic Signature in Both Newborns and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Allen J.; Xu, Zongli; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Harlid, Sophia; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Håberg, Siri E.; Nystad, Wenche; London, Stephanie J.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lie, Rolv T.; Wade, Paul A.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of older mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, childhood cancers, type 1 diabetes, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The underlying biologic mechanisms for most of these associations remain obscure. One possibility is that maternal aging may produce lasting changes in the epigenetic features of a child’s DNA. To test this, we explored the association of mothers’ age at pregnancy with methylation in her offspring, using blood samples from 890 Norwegian newborns and measuring DNA methylation at more than 450,000 CpG sites across the genome. We examined replication of a maternal-age finding in an independent group of 1062 Norwegian newborns, and then in 200 US middle-aged women. Older maternal age was significantly associated with reduced methylation at four adjacent CpGs near the 2nd exon of KLHL35 in newborns (p-values ranging from 3x10-6 to 8x10-7). These associations were replicated in the independent set of newborns, and replicated again in women 40 to 60 years after their birth. This study provides the first example of parental age permanently affecting the epigenetic profile of offspring. While the specific functions of the affected gene are unknown, this finding opens the possibility that a mother’s age at pregnancy could affect her child’s health through epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27383059

  11. Baby universes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 0+1 DIMENSIONS * Third Quantization of Free One-dimensional Universes * Third Quantization of Interacting One-Dimensional Universes * The Single-Universe Approximation and Dynamical Determination of Coupling Constants * The Third Quantized Uncertainty Principle * THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 3+1 DIMENSIONS * The Gauge Invariant Action * Relation to Other Formalisms * PARENT AND BABY UNIVERSES * The Hybrid Action * Baby Universe Field Operators and Spacetime Couplings * INSTANTONS-FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO QUANTUM GRAVITY * Quantum Mechanics * Quantum Field Theory * Quantum Gravity * Axionic Instantons * The Small Expansion Parameter * THE AXION MODEL AND THE INSTANTON APPROXIMATION * THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT * The Hawking-Baum Argument * Baby Universes and Coleman's Argument * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  12. Baby massage.

    PubMed

    Carr, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Having initially trained as a nurse and then a midwife, massage for me was back to hands on care. In 1992, as part of my continuing professional development, I undertook an anatomy, physiology and massage course. My aim was to acquire skills that could benefit the mothers I cared for. My journey with baby massage began when I had my first son in 1993. At that time there were no courses or sessions on baby massage available but I did adapt some of the massage techniques I had learnt during my massage course to benefit me and my son. PMID:24163920

  13. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

  14. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites. The prevalence of decayed and filled (df) surfaces of primary dentition was significantly greater for all rural than for non rural groups (P< 0.05).Children attending centers showed no significant differences based on fluoride status for the total sample or other variables. BBTD and caries prevalence increased with age. Studies are needed to identify predisposing factors among the ethnic

  15. Recombination and maternal age-dependent nondisjunction: Molecular studies of trisomy 16

    SciTech Connect

    Hassold, T.; Merrill, M.; Adkins, K.

    1995-10-01

    Trisomy 16 is the most common human trisomy, occurring in {ge} 1% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. It is thought to be completely dependent on maternal age and thus provides a useful model for studying the association of increasing maternal age and nondisjunction. We have been conducting a study to determine the parent and meiotic stage of origin of trisorny 16 and the possible association of nondisjunction and aberrant recombination. In the present report, we summarize our observations on 62 spontaneous abortions with trisomy 16. All trisomies were maternally derived, and in virtually all the error occurred at meiosis I. In studies of genetic recombination, we observed a highly significant reduction in recombination in the trisomy-generating meioses by comparison with normal female meioses. However, most cases of trisomy 16 had at least one detectable crossover between the nondisjoined chromosomes, indicating that it is reduced-and not absent-recombination that is the important predisposing factor. Additionally, our data indicate an altered distribution of crossing-over in trisomy 16, as we rarely observed crossovers in the proximal long and short arms. Thus, it may be that, at least for trisomy 16, the association between maternal age and trisomy is due to diminished recombination, particularly in the proximal regions of the chromosome. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Maternal insulin sensitivity during pregnancy predicts infant weight gain and adiposity at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill K; Odrobina, Ewa; Yin, Junlang; Hanley, Anthony J; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2010-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fetal environmental exposures impact on future development of obesity. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationships between (i) maternal insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance status in pregnancy and (ii) early infant weight gain and adiposity in the first year of life. In this prospective cohort study, 301 women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing for assessment of glucose tolerance status and insulin sensitivity (IS(OGTT)) in pregnancy. Their infants underwent anthropometric assessment at 12 months of age, including determination of weight gain in the first year of life and sum of skinfold thickness (SFT), a measure of infant adiposity. Infant weight gain and sum of SFT at 12 months did not differ according to maternal glucose tolerance status. On univariate analyses, weight gain from 0 to 12 months and sum of SFT were negatively associated with maternal IS(OGTT) during pregnancy. On multiple linear regression analysis, negative independent predictors of weight gain from 0 to 12 months were maternal IS(OGTT) during pregnancy (t = -2.73; P = 0.007), infant female gender (t = -3.16; P = 0.002), and parental education (t = -1.98; P = 0.05), whereas white ethnicity was a positive independent predictor (t = 2.68; P = 0.008). Maternal IS(OGTT) (t = -2.7; P = 0.008) and parental education (t = -2.58; P = 0.01) were independent negative predictors of sum of SFT at 12 months. Independent of maternal glucose tolerance status, maternal insulin resistance during pregnancy is associated with increased infant weight gain and adiposity over the first year of life. Further longitudinal study to evaluate obesity in this group of children will increase our understanding of the contribution of the intrauterine environment to their long-term health.

  17. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence Through Age 32 Years

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first three years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through mid-adolescence in a manner consistent with an Enduring Effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes PMID:25521785

  18. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  19. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  20. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached. PMID:23887780

  1. Maternal PUFA status and offspring allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Calder, Philip C; Hardjojo, Antony; Soh, Shu-E; Lim, Ai Lin; Fisk, Helena L; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Pan, An; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2015-03-28

    Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were assayed at 26-28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.

  2. Babies in waiting: why increasing the IVF age cut-off might lead to fewer wanted pregnancies in the presence of procrastination.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Despite the best of intentions, we often act at the last minute when we are faced with a deadline. A recent recommendation by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to make In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) available to women up to 42 years of age instead of 39 intends to offer more women the chance of pregnancy. Given what we know about behavioural responses to what is, in essence, a deadline, the policy could lead to procrastination and fewer wanted pregnancies. We examine how many women it would take to delay trying for a baby for this policy to result in fewer pregnancies. We take a cohort of 1000 women from age 34. If no women delay trying, the increased age on access to IVF results in 31 more pregnancies. Because of declining fertility with age, it would take only about a third of these women to delay trying for a baby until age 35 for there to be zero net benefits of increased IVF availability. If all women delayed by a year, the new policy will lead to 59 fewer pregnancies. We also estimate the implications for IVF treatment numbers as this has psychological and personal consequences. Our findings highlight how no policy sits in a behavioural vacuum and all policy decisions should consider the likely behavioural responses and incorporate them into their design and evaluation. PMID:25445061

  3. Babies in waiting: why increasing the IVF age cut-off might lead to fewer wanted pregnancies in the presence of procrastination.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Despite the best of intentions, we often act at the last minute when we are faced with a deadline. A recent recommendation by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to make In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) available to women up to 42 years of age instead of 39 intends to offer more women the chance of pregnancy. Given what we know about behavioural responses to what is, in essence, a deadline, the policy could lead to procrastination and fewer wanted pregnancies. We examine how many women it would take to delay trying for a baby for this policy to result in fewer pregnancies. We take a cohort of 1000 women from age 34. If no women delay trying, the increased age on access to IVF results in 31 more pregnancies. Because of declining fertility with age, it would take only about a third of these women to delay trying for a baby until age 35 for there to be zero net benefits of increased IVF availability. If all women delayed by a year, the new policy will lead to 59 fewer pregnancies. We also estimate the implications for IVF treatment numbers as this has psychological and personal consequences. Our findings highlight how no policy sits in a behavioural vacuum and all policy decisions should consider the likely behavioural responses and incorporate them into their design and evaluation.

  4. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  5. Maternal mortality in Yazd Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Ghane-Ezabadi, Marzie; Vafaienasab, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Ali; Ghasemi, Fateme; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Zanbagh, Leila; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five hundred thousand maternal deaths occur each year worldwide, many of which are in developing countries. The maternal mortality rate is a measure that demonstrates the degree of adequacy of prenatal care and of economic and social conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of pregnancy-related mortality rates in Yazd Province. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the maternal deaths related to pregnancy that were recorded in Yazd Province, Iran, from 2002 to 2011. All maternal deaths that occurred during pregnancy, during delivery, and 42 days after birth were analyzed in this study. The data were collected through a questionnaire, and both direct and indirect causes of maternal deaths were determined. Results Forty pregnancy-related deaths occurred in this period, and the maternal mortality rate was 20.8 deaths per 100,000 live births. The mean age of death in the mothers in this study was 29.17. Fifty-five percent of women of the women who died delivered their babies by cesarean section, and only 20% of them delivered their babies vaginally. Bleeding was the most common cause of maternal mortality (30%), and it was associated directly with maternal mortality. Furthermore 20% of the mothers died due to heart disease and cardiac complications, which were associated indirectly with maternal mortality. Conclusion Cesarean section and its complications were the main cause of death in many cases. Thus, providing a strategic plan to reduce the use of this procedure, educate mothers, and ensure adequate access to pre-maternal care and to care during pregnancy are the most important measures that can be taken to decrease the maternal mortality rate. PMID:27054003

  6. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N

    2012-02-21

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  7. Maternal fever at birth and non-verbal intelligence at age 9 years in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Olaf; Drescher, Johannes; Veelken, Norbert

    2003-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that characteristics of perinatal infection are associated with long-term cognitive limitations among preterm infants, we analyzed data from 294 infants (142 females, 152 males) < or = 1500 g birthweight and <37 completed weeks of gestation who were examined at age 9 years. We identified 47 children (20 females, 27 males) who had a non-verbal Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) scale standard value below 70, i.e. more than 2 SDs below the age-adjusted mean. The 247 children (122 females, 125 males) with a score > or = 70 served as control participants. Maternal nationality and education, and low gestational age were significantly associated with a K-ABC non-verbal standard value <70. Both neonatal brain damage (intraventricular hemorrhage) and long-term sequelae (cerebral palsy [CP], diagnosed at age 6 years) were significantly associated with a below-normal non-verbal K-ABC score. Maternal fever at birth was present in five cases (11%) and eight controls (3%; odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 11.4). Clinical chorioamnionitis and preterm labor and/or premature rupture of membranes (as opposed to toxemia and other initiators of preterm delivery) were also more common among cases than control participants. When adjusting for potential confounders such as gestational age, maternal education and nationality, and CP, the risk estimate for maternal fever remained unchanged (3.8, 0.97 to 14.6). We conclude that perinatal infection might indeed contribute to an increased risk for long-term cognitive deficits in preterm infants. PMID:12613769

  8. Sister kinetochore splitting and precocious disintegration of bivalents could explain the maternal age effect

    PubMed Central

    Zielinska, Agata P; Holubcova, Zuzana; Blayney, Martyn; Elder, Kay; Schuh, Melina

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy in human eggs is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and Down’s syndrome. Aneuploid eggs result from chromosome segregation errors when an egg develops from a progenitor cell, called an oocyte. The mechanisms that lead to an increase in aneuploidy with advanced maternal age are largely unclear. Here, we show that many sister kinetochores in human oocytes are separated and do not behave as a single functional unit during the first meiotic division. Having separated sister kinetochores allowed bivalents to rotate by 90 degrees on the spindle and increased the risk of merotelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Advanced maternal age led to an increase in sister kinetochore separation, rotated bivalents and merotelic attachments. Chromosome arm cohesion was weakened, and the fraction of bivalents that precociously dissociated into univalents was increased. Together, our data reveal multiple age-related changes in chromosome architecture that could explain why oocyte aneuploidy increases with advanced maternal age. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11389.001 PMID:26670547

  9. Newborn measles antibody profile in a teaching hospital: Can sex of babies determine measles IgG acquisition from their respective mothers?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Yakubu, Mava; Abdullahi, Ibrahim Bello; Pwavimbo, Ambe Jose; Mahmud, Talba Aliyu; Clapton, Difirwiti Harry

    2013-01-01

    Known sex specific differences in fetal, neonatal morbidity and mortality have been documented. Sex differences also exist in birth-weight centile with males being larger than females at birth. However, these sex differences are not fully explored when studying passive measles immunity acquired by babies from their mothers. Moreover, the mechanisms that confer these sex differences are to a large extent unknown. Therefore, this study assessed sex of babies as a determinant of measles immunoglobulin G acquisition from their respective mothers. One hundred and seventy four newborn babies were enrolled in this study. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure maternal measles antibodies (MMA) from sera collected from these babies at birth. Gestational age of the newborn babies was determined using the Nagele rule, ultrasound scan reports and the Dubowitz criteria. Sex and mean MMA of these babies was compared using the Student’s t test. Significant comparison existed between mean MMA and sex of post term babies (P = 0.000), such that post term males had higher levels of MMA than females. However, overall sex and mean MMA comparison of these babies was not significant (P = 0.977). There were more MMA in male post term babies relative to their female peers; however, overall sex comparison of MMA was not significant. Therefore, there is the need for further study.

  10. Newborn measles antibody profile in a teaching hospital: Can sex of babies determine measles IgG acquisition from their respective mothers?

    PubMed

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Yakubu, Mava; Abdullahi, Ibrahim Bello; Pwavimbo, Ambe Jose; Mahmud, Talba Aliyu; Clapton, Difirwiti Harry

    2013-03-01

    Known sex specific differences in fetal, neonatal morbidity and mortality have been documented. Sex differences also exist in birth-weight centile with males being larger than females at birth. However, these sex differences are not fully explored when studying passive measles immunity acquired by babies from their mothers. Moreover, the mechanisms that confer these sex differences are to a large extent unknown. Therefore, this study assessed sex of babies as a determinant of measles immunoglobulin G acquisition from their respective mothers. One hundred and seventy four newborn babies were enrolled in this study. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure maternal measles antibodies (MMA) from sera collected from these babies at birth. Gestational age of the newborn babies was determined using the Nagele rule, ultrasound scan reports and the Dubowitz criteria. Sex and mean MMA of these babies was compared using the Student's t test. Significant comparison existed between mean MMA and sex of post term babies (P = 0.000), such that post term males had higher levels of MMA than females. However, overall sex and mean MMA comparison of these babies was not significant (P = 0.977). There were more MMA in male post term babies relative to their female peers; however, overall sex comparison of MMA was not significant. Therefore, there is the need for further study. PMID:27625835

  11. The Baby Boomers’ Intergenerational Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130

  12. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  13. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals. PMID:26575814

  14. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals.

  15. Maternal Age, Parity, and Reproductive Outcome in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    ROOF, KATHERINE A.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.; IZARD, M. KAY; HOOK, MICHELLE; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-01

    As early as the 1970s, it was suggested that nonhuman primates may serve as models of human reproductive senescence. In the present study, the reproductive outcomes of 1,255 pregnancies in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were examined in relation to parity and its covariate, maternal age. The results show that the percentage of positive pregnancy outcomes was negatively correlated with increasing parity. In addition, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and caesarian sections (C-sections) were positively correlated with increasing parity. Maternal age, rather than parity, was found to be the most important predictor of negative birth outcome. This study supports research demonstrating reproductive decline and termination in nonhuman primates, and is the first to quantitatively account for this phenomenon in captive female chimpanzees. PMID:16229006

  16. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate.

  17. Labor and Delivery Experiences of Mothers with Suspected Large Babies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Erika R.; Declercq, Eugene R.; Belanoff, Candice; Stotland, Naomi E.; Iverson, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the prevalence of and factors associated with clinicians’ prenatal suspicion of a large baby; and to determine whether communicating fetal size concerns to patients was associated with labor and delivery interventions and outcomes. Methods We examined data from women without a prior cesarean who responded to Listening to Mothers III, a nationally representative survey of women who had given birth between July 2011 and June 2012 (n=1,960). We estimated the effect of having a suspected large baby (SLB) on the odds of six labor and delivery outcomes. Results Nearly one-third (31.2%) of women were told by their maternity care providers that their babies might be getting “quite large”; however, only 9.9% delivered a baby weighing ≥4,000 grams (19.7% among mothers with SLBs, 5.5% without). Women with SLBs had increased adjusted odds of medically-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.6), attempted self-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.7), and use of epidural analgesics (AOR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4–2.9). No differences were noted for overall cesarean rates, although women with SLBs were more likely to ask for (AOR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.8–7.6) and have planned (AOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0–4.5) cesarean deliveries. These associations were not affected by adjustment for gestational age and birthweight. Conclusion Only one in five US women who were told that their babies might be getting quite large actually delivered infants weighing ≥4,000 grams. However, the suspicion of a large baby was associated with an increase in perinatal interventions, regardless of actual fetal size. PMID:26140835

  18. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Schwabl, Hubert; Holmes, Donna; Strasser, Rosemary; Scheuerlein, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental exposure to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but the possible consequences of this early exposure in terms of aging-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones-in particular, androgens-which have documented effects on embryo growth and differentiation as well as adult behavior and physiology. Here, we report that injections of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) into yolks of freshly laid eggs of a small, seasonally breeding songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), increased survivorship in a semi-natural aviary environment. In addition, survival effects of developmental T exposure were sex-dependent, with males generally having a higher risk of death. Separate analyses for young birds in their first year of life (from hatching up to the first reproductive period the following calendar year) and in adulthood (after the first breeding season) showed similar effects. For first-year birds, mortality risk was higher during the winter than during the period after fledging; for adults, mortality risk was higher during the reproductive than the non-reproductive phase (post-breeding molt and winter). T treatment did not affect nestling body mass, but resulted in higher body mass at 3-4 months of age; T and body mass at this age interacted to influence mortality risk. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or aging over the lifespan of adult birds.

  19. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  20. Extremes of maternal age and child mortality: analysis between 2000 and 2009☆

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fanciele Dinis; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Sant'Anna, Flávia Lopes; Dalmas, José Carlos; Girotto, Edmarlon

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of infant mortality at the extremes of maternal age. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional quantitative study using data from Live Birth Certificates, Death Certificates and from Child Death Investigation records in Londrina, Paraná, in the years of 2000-2009. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period , there were 176 infant deaths among mothers up to 19 years of age, and 113 deaths among mothers aged 35 years or more. The infant mortality rate among young mothers was 14.4 deaths per thousand births, compared to 12.9 deaths in the other age group. For adolescent mothers, the following conditions prevailed: lack of a stable partner (p<0.001), lack of a paid job (p<0.001), late start of prenatal care in the second trimester of pregnancy (p<0.001), fewer prenatal visits (p<0.001) and urinary tract infections (p<0.001). On the other hand, women aged 35 or more had a higher occurrence of hypertension during pregnancy (p<0.001), and of surgical delivery (p<0.001). Regarding the underlying cause of infant death, congenital anomalies prevailed in the group of older mothers (p=0.002), and external causes were predominant in the group of young mothers (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Both age groups deserve the attention of social services for maternal and child health, especially adolescent mothers, who presented a higher combination of factors deemed hazardous to the child's health. PMID:25511003

  1. Prevalence of dominant mutations in Spain: effect of changes in maternal age distribution.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Frías, M L; Herranz, I; Salvador, J; Prieto, L; Ramos-Arroyo, M A; Rodríguez-Pinilla, E; Cordero, J F

    1988-12-01

    We studied the birth prevalence of autosomal dominant mutations in Spain and estimated how a decrease in maternal age distribution may lead to reduction in dominant mutations. The data were collected by the Estudio Colaborativo Español de Malformaciones Congénitas from April, 1976, to December, 1985. Among 553,270 liveborn infants monitored during the period, 66 infants with autosomal dominant conditions were identified. These included Apert, Crouzon, Hay-Wells, Treacher-Collins, Robinow, Stickler, Adams-Oliver, and the blepharophimosis syndromes, achondroplasia, cleidocranial dysostosis, and thanatophoric dysplasia. The overall rate of autosomal dominant conditions was 1.2 per 10,000 liveborn infants. Thirteen (20%) had an affected relative, and 52 (79%) had a negative family history. One case was excluded because of insufficient family data. The rate of autosomal dominant mutations was 0.9 per 10,000 liveborn infants, or 47 per 1 million gametes. A reduction in the maternal age distribution of mothers age 35 years and older from the current 10.8% to 4.9%, as in Atlanta, Georgia, would reduce the rate of Down syndrome in Spain by 33% and through a change in parternal age distribution may lead to a reduction in dominant mutations of about 9.6%. This suggests that a public health campaign to reduce older maternal age distribution in Spain may also lead to a reduction in dominant mutations and emphasizes the potential that a direct campaign for fathers to complete their families before age 35 years may have a small, but measurable, effect in the primary prevention of dominant mutations.

  2. Risk of Adverse Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes by Maternal Age: Quantifying Individual and Population Level Risk Using Routine UK Maternity Data

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Nicole; Pipi, Maria; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Doyle, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether moderately increased maternal age is associated with obstetric and neonatal outcome in a contemporary population, and to consider the possible role of co-morbidities in explaining any increased risk. Study Design Secondary analysis of routinely collected data from a large maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 51,225 singleton deliveries (≥22 weeks) occurring to women aged ≥20 between 2004 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios for the association between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcome (delivery type, postpartum haemorrhage, stillbirth, low birthweight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal unit admission), using the reference group 20–24 years. Population attributable fractions were calculated to quantify the population impact. Results We found an association between increasing maternal age and major postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml blood loss) (RR 1.36 95% CI 1.18–1.57 for age 25–29 rising to 2.41 95% CI 2.02–2.88 for age ≥40). Similar trends were observed for caesarean delivery, most notably for elective caesareans (RR 1.64 95% CI 1.36–1.96 for age 25–29 rising to 4.94 95% CI 4.09–5.96 for age ≥40). There was evidence that parity modified this association, with a higher prevalence of elective caesarean delivery in older nulliparous women. Women aged ≥35 were at increased risk of low birthweight and preterm birth. We found no evidence that the risk of stillbirth, small for gestational age, or neonatal unit admission differed by maternal age. Conclusions Our results suggest a gradual increase in the risk of caesarean delivery and postpartum haemorrhage from age 25, persisting after taking into account maternal BMI, hypertension and diabetes. The risk of low birthweight and preterm birth was elevated in women over 35. Further research is needed to understand the reasons behind the high prevalence of

  3. Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun Sook

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

  4. Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, T.; Dale, B.; Cohen, J.; Munné, S.

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well known clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromosomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women > or = 40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8659524

  5. Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy.

  7. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy. PMID:26016557

  8. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Mishra, R N; Mishra, O P; Bhargava, V; Prakash, A

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and fifty six babies with birth weight between 1500-2000 g and 103 full term-appropriate for gestational age (FT-AGA) babies delivered at University Hospital, District Hospital and village homes were included for a comparative study of mortality, morbidity and growth pattern. The low birth weight (LBW) babies from the three centres had similar birth weight and gestational age. Neonatal mortality rates for the LBW babies were similar at the three centres. The main cause of death were infections and aspiration with rates again being similar. Diarrhea and respiratory tract infections were common causes of morbidity. The mortality rates for the LBW babies were significantly higher as compared to FT-AGA babies irrespective of the place of delivery. The incidence of morbidities like diarrhea and respiratory infections were also higher in LBW babies. However, the differences were statistically significant mostly in the preterm group. The weight gain of all LBW babies was similar up to 3 months of age. The findings of an identical outcome for the LBW babies at village level to those managed at hospitals is an encouraging trend to increasing domiciliary care for LBW babies. PMID:8406701

  9. Babies and shots

    MedlinePlus

    Babies and vaccines; Babies and immunizations; Babies and vaccinations; Chickenpox - shots; DTaP - shots; Hepatitis A - shots; Hepatitis B - shots; Hib - shots; Haemophilus influenza - shots; Influenza - shots; Meningococcal - ...

  10. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  11. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  12. Shaken baby symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby syndrome is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can ...

  13. Placenta previa and it's relation with maternal age, gravidity and cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Hossain, G A; Islam, S M; Mahmood, S; Chakraborty, R K; Akhter, N; Sultana, S

    2004-07-01

    The placenta provides the essential connection between the mother and the developing fetus. Placental position were routinely mentioned in an ultrasound report starting from early second trimester to the end of third trimester when asked for pregnancy evaluation. The aim of this study was to see the prevalence of lower segment placenta (placenta previa) and its relations with previous cesarean section delivery, parity and maternal age. The study conducted in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound (CNMU) Mymensingh in a period from January 2001 to December 2002. About 2536 pregnant women (those included in this study) underwent ultrasound examination during pregnancy at third trimester. The prevalence of lower segment placenta was 1.34%. The highest prevalence of placenta previa (2.58%) was seen in 3rd and higher gravida group. Also the highest prevalence were seen 30 yr. and above age group in compare to below 30 yr. age group. No increased prevalence of placenta previa were seen in previous cesarean section (C / S) delivery group (0.65%) in compare to normal delivery group (1.97%). From our study it was seen that development of lower segment placenta has relation with increased number of gravidity and maternal age but no increased prevalence were seen in subjects with previously done cesarean section

  14. Fetal sex differences in human chorionic gonadotropin fluctuate by maternal race, age, weight and by gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, J. J.; Lee, M. K.; Saha, S.; Boscardin, W. J.; Apfel, A.; Currier, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are higher in women carrying female v. male fetuses; yet, the significance of this difference with respect to maternal factors, environmental exposures and neonatal outcomes is unknown. As a first step in evaluating the biologic and clinical significance of sex differences in hCG, we conducted a population-level analysis to assess its stability across subgroups. Subjects were women carrying singleton pregnancies who participated in prenatal and newborn screening programs in CA from 2009 to 2012 (1.1 million serum samples). hCG was measured in the first and second trimesters and fetal sex was determined from the neonatal record. Multivariate linear models were used to estimate hCG means in women carrying female and male fetuses. We report fluctuations in the ratios of female to male hCG by maternal factors and by gestational age. hCG was higher in the case of a female fetus by 11 and 8% in the first and second trimesters, respectively (P <0.0001). There were small (1–5%) fluctuations in the sex difference by maternal race, weight and age. The female-to-male ratio in hCG decreased from 17 to 2% in the first trimester, and then increased from 2 to 19% in the second trimester (P <0.0001). We demonstrate within a well enumerated, diverse US population that the sex difference in hCG overall is stable. Small fluctuations within population subgroups may be relevant to environmental and physiologic effects on the placenta and can be probed further using these types of data. PMID:26242396

  15. Differences in eating behaviour, well-being and personality between mothers following baby-led vs. traditional weaning styles.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Baby-led weaning, where infants self-feed family foods in place of traditional spoon-feeding of purees, is continuing to grow in popularity. Evidence is emerging which suggests that the method may promote healthier eating behaviour and weight gain in children, but the research is in its infancy. One issue is the self-selecting nature of participants to the approach. Although those who follow a baby-led approach are known to have a higher education and more professional occupation, little is known about wider maternal characteristics, which might affect either adoption of or outcomes of the method. The aim of this study was to explore differences in maternal characteristics between those adopting a baby-led or traditional approach. Six hundred four mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months completed a questionnaire including a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) (anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and depression scales) and Ten Item Personality Questionnaire (TIPQ) alongside details of weaning approach (baby-led vs. traditional). Mothers who adopted a baby-led weaning style scored significantly lower on restrained eating (DEBQ), anxiety and introversion (TIPQ) and anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (BSI). Mothers who currently adopt a baby-led approach are therefore significantly different in personality, eating behaviour and well-being characteristics compared with those adopting a traditional approach. These characteristics may affect likelihood of choosing a baby-led approach or indirectly affect outcomes for infants weaned using the approach. Further research exploring baby-led weaning in a wider population sample is needed.

  16. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  17. Who’s feeding baby? Non-maternal involvement in feeding and its association with dietary intakes among infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Heather M.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Adair, Linda S.; Hodges, Eric A.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined non-maternal involvement in feeding during the first two years of life and its association with breastfeeding duration, early introduction of complementary foods, and dietary intakes of selected foods and beverages. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads, followed from 3-18 months postpartum. Non-maternal caregivers (NMCs) were defined as persons involved in feeding an infant/toddler 50% or more of the total daily feedings. Use of any NMC and the type of NMC was tabulated for each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months). At each time point, more than half of all households reported a NMC. Fathers, grandmothers, and licensed childcare providers were the most common types of NMCs. In longitudinal models adjusted for confounding variables, NMC use was associated with a decreased likelihood of continued breastfeeding, and an increased likelihood of infants and toddlers consuming juice or whole fruit. Given the high prevalence of non-maternal involvement in feeding, interventions targeting multiple family members are warranted as they are likely to be more effective than those targeting the mother alone. PMID:23856432

  18. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age.

  19. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age. PMID:23990157

  20. Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

    2015-05-01

    Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome.

  1. Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160694.html Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies Close to 6 percent who ... yet another example of the damage that maternal Zika infection can inflict on a fetus during the ...

  2. Etiology of Down Syndrome: Evidence for Consistent Association among Altered Meiotic Recombination, Nondisjunction and Maternal Age Across Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Feingold, Eleanor; Dey, Subrata kumar

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome caused by meiotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21 in humans, is well known to be associated with advanced maternal age, but success in identifying and understanding other risk factors has been limited. Recently published work in a U.S. population suggested intriguing interactions between the maternal age effect and altered recombination patterns during meiosis, but some of the results were counter-intuitive. We have tested these hypotheses in a population sample from India, and found that essentially all of the results of the U.S. study are replicated even in our ethnically very different population. We examined meiotic recombination patterns in a total of 138 families from the eastern part of India, each with a single free trisomy 21 child. We genotyped each family with a set of STR markers using PCR and characterized the stage of origin of nondisjunction and the recombination pattern of maternal chromosome 21 during oogenesis. Our sample contains 107 maternal meiosis I errors and 31 maternal meiosis II errors and we subsequently stratified them with respect to maternal age and the number of detectable crossover events. We observed an association between meiosis I nondisjuncion and recombination in the telomeric 5.1 Mb of chromosome 21. By contrast, in meiosis II cases we observed preferential peri-centromeric exchanges covering the proximal 5.7 Mb region, with interaction between maternal age and the location of the crossover. Overall reduction of recombination irrespective of maternal age is also evident in meiosis I cases. Our findings are very consistent with previously reported data in a U.S. population and our results are the first independent confirmation of those previous reports. This not only provides much needed confirmation of previous results, but it suggests that the genetic etiology underlying the occurrence of trisomy 21 may be similar across human populations. PMID:19533770

  3. Early Mother/Baby Contact: Consequences/Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorster, de Wet

    To assess the effect of early mother-infant proximity on later stress and behavior, two studies were made which involved a sample of mother-baby pairs that was larger than samples utilized in previous studies. In Study 1, involving 300 consecutive mother-baby couples at the Maternity Hospital in Plymouth, England clinical medical officers used a…

  4. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subarna; Misra, Sujata; Nayak, Prasanta K.; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results: Large for gestational age (LGA) babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (P < 0.001). Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS) had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05). However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01). Conclusion: The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies. PMID:23087859

  5. Maternal age and in vitro culture affect mitochondrial number and function in equine oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, W Karin; Colleoni, Silvia; Galli, Cesare; Paris, Damien B B P; Colenbrander, Ben; Roelen, Bernard A J; Stout, Tom A E

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age and in vitro embryo production (IVP) predispose to pregnancy loss in horses. We investigated whether mare age and IVP were associated with alterations in mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number or function that could compromise oocyte and embryo development. Effects of mare age (<12 vs ≥12 years) on mtDNA copy number, ATP content and expression of genes involved in mitochondrial replication (mitochondrial transcription factor (TFAM), mtDNA polymerase γ subunit B (mtPOLB) and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB)), energy production (ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, mitochondrial-like (ATP-synth_F6)) and oxygen free radical scavenging (glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3)) were investigated in oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM), and in early embryos. Expression of TFAM, mtPOLB and ATP-synth-F6 declined after IVM (P<0.05). However, maternal age did not affect oocyte ATP content or expression of genes involved in mitochondrial replication or function. Day 7 embryos from mares ≥12 years had fewer mtDNA copies (P=0.01) and lower mtDNA:total DNA ratios (P<0.01) than embryos from younger mares, indicating an effect not simply due to lower cell number. Day 8 IVP embryos had similar mtDNA copy numbers to Day 7 in vivo embryos, but higher mtPOLB (P=0.013) and a tendency to reduced GPX3 expression (P=0.09). The lower mtDNA number in embryos from older mares may compromise development, but could be an effect rather than cause of developmental retardation. The general down-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial replication and function after IVM may compromise resulting embryos. PMID:25881326

  6. Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birth weight: A multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20–45 from Chicago, USA in 1997–2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 grams to an increase of 10 grams per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4 percent of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences. PMID:18313187

  7. Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Rémi; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on an offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived seabird, the wandering albatross, we investigate delayed effects of parental age on offspring fitness components. We provide evidence that parental age influences offspring performance beyond the age of independence. By distinguishing maternal and paternal age effects, we demonstrate that paternal age, but not maternal age, impacts negatively post-fledging offspring performance. PMID:27053738

  8. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  9. Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pande, C; Sarin, S K; Patra, S; Kumar, A; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Bhutia, K; Gupta, E; Mukhopadhyay, C K; Dutta, A K; Trivedi, S S

    2013-11-01

    Vertical transmission of Hepatitis B virus HBV can result in a state of chronic HBV infection and its complications. HBV vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) prevents transmission of overt infection to the babies. However, whether it also prevents occult HBV infection in babies is not known. Consecutive pregnant women of any gestation found to be HBsAg positive were followed till delivery, and their babies were included in the study. Immediately after delivery, babies were randomized to receive either HBIG or placebo in addition to recombinant HBV vaccine (at 0, 6, 10 and 14 weeks). The primary end-point of the study, assessed at 18 weeks of age, was remaining free of any HBV infection (either overt or occult) plus the development of adequate immune response to vaccine. The babies were further followed up for a median of 2 years of age to determine their eventual outcome. Risk factors for HBV transmission and for poor immune response in babies were studied. Of the 283 eligible babies, 259 were included in the trial and randomized to receive either HBIG (n=128) or placebo (n=131) in addition to recombinant HBV vaccine. Of the 222 of 259 (86%) babies who completed 18 weeks of follow-up, only 62/222 (28%) reached primary end-point. Of the remaining, 6/222 (3%) developed overt HBV infection, 142/222 (64%) developed occult HBV infection, and 12/222 (5%) had no HBV infection but had poor immune response. All 6 overt infections occurred in the placebo group (P=0.030), while occult HBV infections were more common in the HBIG group (76/106 [72%] vs. 66/116 [57%]; P=0.025). This may be due to the immune pressure of HBIG. There was no significant difference between the two groups in frequency of babies developing poor immune response or those achieving primary end-point. The final outcome of these babies at 24 months of age was as follows: overt HBV infection 4%, occult HBV infection 42%, no HBV infection but poor immune response 8% and no HBV

  10. Effect of Young Maternal Age on Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes: Results from the Tertiary Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Yılmaz, Ertuğrul; Tosun, Özgür; Kumru, Pınar; Arınkan, Arzu; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Selçuk, Selçuk; Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Arısoy, Resul; Erdoğdu, Emre; Tarhan, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young maternal age is variously defined in studies of its effect on obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. Also, pregnancy has been reported as the leading cause of death in adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of obstetrics and perinatal adverse outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: This case-control study was derived from a database of the medical records between January 2008 and December 2012. In the present study, 1374 teenage pregnancy and 1294 adult pregnancy cases were included. After restriction of analyses to singleton primiparous women, 1282 teenage pregnancy and 735 adult pregnancy cases were analyzed. Maternal age was separated into three groups: 15 and less, 16–19, and 20–34 years. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived through logistic regression models for the potential confounding factors. Results: Adolescents aged 15 years and younger had higher risks of preterm delivery, early preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death compared with women aged 20 to 34 years after adjustment for confounding factors. In addition, both groups of adolescents had higher risks for anemia and episiotomy and lower risk of cesarean delivery. The rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, chronic diseases, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were higher in the adult group. Conclusion: Younger maternal age was correlated with increased risks of preterm delivery, fetal and neonatal death and anemia. PMID:27308080

  11. Maternal age effects on myometrial expression of contractile proteins, uterine gene expression, and contractile activity during labor in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Matthew; Szyszka, Alexandra; Pauliat, Caroline; Clifford, Bethan; Daniel, Zoe; Cheng, Zhangrui; Wathes, Claire; McMullen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Advanced maternal age of first time pregnant mothers is associated with prolonged and dysfunctional labor and significant risk of emergency cesarean section. We investigated the influence of maternal age on myometrial contractility, expression of contractile associated proteins (CAPs), and global gene expression in the parturient uterus. Female Wistar rats either 8 (YOUNG n = 10) or 24 (OLDER n = 10) weeks old were fed laboratory chow, mated, and killed during parturition. Myometrial strips were dissected to determine contractile activity, cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TAG) content, protein expression of connexin-43 (GJA1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and caveolin 1 (CAV-1). Maternal plasma concentrations of prostaglandins PGE2, PGF2α, and progesterone were determined by RIA. Global gene expression in uterine samples was compared using Affymetrix Genechip Gene 2.0 ST arrays and Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA). Spontaneous contractility in myometrium exhibited by YOUNG rats was threefold greater than OLDER animals (P < 0.027) but maternal age had no significant effect on myometrial CAP expression, lipid profiles, or pregnancy-related hormones. OLDER myometrium increased contractile activity in response to PGF2α, phenylephrine, and carbachol, a response absent in YOUNG rats (all P < 0.002). Microarray analysis identified that maternal age affected expression of genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, lipid transport and metabolism, steroid metabolism, tissue remodeling, and smooth muscle contraction. In conclusion YOUNG laboring rat myometrium seems primed to contract maximally, whereas activity is blunted in OLDER animals and requires stimulation to meet contractile potential. Further work investigating maternal age effects on myometrial function is required with focus on lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. PMID:25876907

  12. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane; Johnston, J. Cyne

    2014-01-01

    Baby sign language is advocated to improve children's communication development. However, the evidence to support the advantages of baby sign has been inconclusive. A systematic review was undertaken to summarize and appraise the research related to the effectiveness of symbolic gestures for typically developing, hearing infants with hearing…

  13. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  14. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  15. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

  16. Adolescent mothers and their children: changes in maternal characteristics and child developmental and behavioral outcome at school age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W

    1996-06-01

    This study examines stability and change in characteristics of adolescent mothers from their child's infancy to school age, describes cognitive and behavioral characteristics of their children at school age, and reports on the relationship between maternal characteristics and child behavior and development at school age. Cognitive status and childrearing attitudes were assessed in 43 adolescent mothers (mean age 16.3 years) when their children were infants (Time 1) and again when children were school age (Time 2). At school age, mothers also completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist, and children were administered the Slosson Intelligence Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test. Significant correlations were obtained between maternal measures at Time 1 and Time 2, and no significant differences were observed between mean scores at Time 1 and Time 2 on any measures. Children demonstrated average intelligence, but mean achievement was almost 1 SD below average. Significantly more children had high scores than expected on scales for hyperactivity and academic disability. Except for maternal vocabulary, maternal measures obtained at Time 1 were not directly related to children's IQ or behavior problems. Maternal vocabulary and authoritarian and hostile childrearing attitudes assessed at Time 1 contributed independently to prediction of achievement test scores in a positive direction. Mothers' vocabulary at Time 2 and high or increased hostile childrearing attitudes contributed positively to prediction of child IQ. Mothers who still had high scores in authoritarian childrearing attitudes or whose scores increased had children with lower IQs. Changes in attitudes or contemporary measures of attitudes were also related to behavior problems at school age.

  17. Accuracy of the Chinese lunar calendar method to predict a baby's sex: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Dekker, Louise; Svensson, Tobias; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the accuracy of a non-invasive, inexpensive method (the Chinese lunar calendar, CLC) to predict the sex of a baby from around the time of conception, using 2,840,755 singleton births occurring in Sweden between 1973 and 2006. Maternal lunar age and month of conception were estimated, and used to predict each baby's sex, according to a published algorithm. Kappa statistics were estimated for the actual vs. the CLC-predicted sex of the baby. Overall kappa was 0.0002 [95% CI -0.0009, 0.0014]. Accuracy was not modified by year of conception, maternal age, level of education, body mass index or parity. In a validation subset of 1000 births in which we used a website-customised algorithm to estimate lunar dates, kappa was -0.02 [95% CI -0.08, 0.04]. Simulating the misuse of the method by failing to convert Gregorian dates into lunar did not change the results. We conclude that the CLC method is no better at predicting the sex of a baby than tossing a coin and advise against painting the nursery based on this method's result. PMID:20618730

  18. Accuracy of the Chinese lunar calendar method to predict a baby's sex: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Dekker, Louise; Svensson, Tobias; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the accuracy of a non-invasive, inexpensive method (the Chinese lunar calendar, CLC) to predict the sex of a baby from around the time of conception, using 2,840,755 singleton births occurring in Sweden between 1973 and 2006. Maternal lunar age and month of conception were estimated, and used to predict each baby's sex, according to a published algorithm. Kappa statistics were estimated for the actual vs. the CLC-predicted sex of the baby. Overall kappa was 0.0002 [95% CI -0.0009, 0.0014]. Accuracy was not modified by year of conception, maternal age, level of education, body mass index or parity. In a validation subset of 1000 births in which we used a website-customised algorithm to estimate lunar dates, kappa was -0.02 [95% CI -0.08, 0.04]. Simulating the misuse of the method by failing to convert Gregorian dates into lunar did not change the results. We conclude that the CLC method is no better at predicting the sex of a baby than tossing a coin and advise against painting the nursery based on this method's result.

  19. Offspring sex ratio in red-winged blackbirds is dependent on maternal age.

    PubMed

    Blank, J L; Nolan, V

    1983-10-01

    In a marsh-breeding population of red-winged blackbirds, the sex ratio of offspring that survived to leave the nest varied with maternal age. Old mothers produced an excess of male fledglings, middle-aged mothers produced almost equal proportions of males and females, and young mothers produced nearly twice as many females as males. More males than females hatched from the eggs of old mothers, whereas among newly hatched progeny of middle-aged and young mothers the sex ratio did not differ from unity. The hatching rate of eggs of old mothers was unusually low, suggesting that the biased sex ratio of their hatchlings may have been caused by more frequent death of female embryos, although other possibilities can be imagined. Starvation of nestlings after hatching also affected the sex ratio among young that left the nest. When starvation occurred, it fell principally on young produced by the last and next-to-last eggs laid in the clutch. Because old mothers allocated relatively more energy to those eggs than to earlier-laid eggs, whereas young mothers apportioned energy equally to their eggs, few nestlings of old mothers but many nestlings of young mothers starved. Most nestlings that died were male. It followed that the male bias in sex ratio of progeny of old mothers did not change between hatching and nestleaving, but the ratio among progeny of young mothers shifted after hatching to a strong bias favoring females at nest-leaving.

  20. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations For Preterm Babies Page Content Some parents of ... full-term and preterm babies. The hepatitis B vaccine deserves special mention. In most circumstances, the AAP ...

  1. Bonding with Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... middle-of-the-night feeding and diaper change reading or singing to baby giving the baby a ...

  2. Breastfeed Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips 9 of 10 sections Take Action: Vitamin D Give your baby vitamin D. Babies need vitamin D for healthy bone growth. Even if you take extra vitamin D, your breast milk won’t provide enough vitamin ...

  3. Your Colicky Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... of swallowing too much air while crying. Some theories suggest that colic happens when food moves too ... baby's digestive system or is incompletely digested. Other theories are that colic is due to a baby's ...

  4. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  5. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  6. Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

  7. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  8. Mother-baby package.

    PubMed

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  9. The Physics of Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemella, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Since the 2011 birth of my daughter I have been a 100% as a stay-at-home dad and 50% researcher. My ``Routine Adventures'' in the baby universe are the subject of this fun talk that presents the unique challenges of baby physics. Topics include ``Schroedinger's Baby'' and ``The Entropy of Rice.''

  10. Protect Yourself and Your Baby from Dengue

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent dengue virus infection during pregnancy » Use mosquito repellents with up to 50% DEET, picaridin, IR3535 or ... For babies over 2 months of age, use repellents with up to 30% DEET, picaridin or IR3535. ...

  11. Maternal Periodontitis Treatment and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 to 28 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, James S.; Lussky, Richard C.; Bada, Henrietta; Rawson, Twila; Buttross, L. Susan; Chiriboga, Claudia; DiAngelis, Anthony J.; Novak, M. John; Buchanan, William; Mitchell, Dennis A.; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some maternal infections are associated with impaired infant cognitive and motor performance. Periodontitis results in frequent bacteremia and elevated serum inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if periodontitis treatment in pregnant women affects infant cognitive, motor, or language development. METHODS: Children born to women who had participated in a previous trial were assessed between 24 and 28 months of age by using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) and the Preschool Language Scale (Fourth Edition). Information about the pregnancy, neonatal period, and home environment was obtained through chart abstractions, laboratory test results, and questionnaires. We compared infants born to women treated for periodontitis before 21 weeks' gestation (treatment group) or after delivery (controls). In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, associations between change in maternal periodontal condition during pregnancy and neurodevelopment scores were tested by using Student's t tests and linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 411 of 791 eligible mother/caregiver-child pairs participated. Thirty-seven participating children (9.0%) were born at <37 weeks' gestation. Infants in the treatment and control groups did not differ significantly for adjusted mean cognitive (90.7 vs 91.4), motor (96.8 vs 97.2), or language (92.2 vs 92.1) scores (all P > .5). Results were similar in adjusted analyses. Children of women who experienced greater improvements in periodontal health had significantly higher motor and cognitive scores (P = .01 and .02, respectively), although the effect was small (∼1-point increase for each SD increase in the periodontal measure). CONCLUSION: Nonsurgical periodontitis treatment in pregnant women was not associated with cognitive, motor, or language development in these study children. PMID:21482606

  12. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms.

  13. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  14. Windows of vulnerability: maternal separation, age, and fluoxetine on adolescent depressive-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Freund, N; Thompson, B S; Denormandie, J; Vaccarro, K; Andersen, S L

    2013-09-26

    Early exposure to stressful life events plays a significant role in adolescent depression. Clinical studies have identified a number of factors that increase the risk of depression, including sex of the subject, duration of the stressor, and genetic polymorphisms that elevate serotonin levels. In this study we used the maternal separation (MS) model to investigate to what extent these factors interacted during development to manifest in depressive-like behavior in male and female rats. The triadic model of learned helplessness parses depressive-like behavior into aspects of controllable, uncontrollable, and motivational behaviors. This model was used to investigate how the timing of MS between the ages of postnatal day (P) 2-9 and P9-16 interacted with either simultaneous vehicle (saline; 1ml/kg; i.p.) or fluoxetine (10mg/kg) exposure, which was used to enhance serotonin levels; these experiments also compared the effect of a vehicle injection during these developmental periods to a no injection control. Vehicle injections alone increased helplessness in the controllable condition in male rats when injected between P9-16 only, and did not interact further with MS. MS at both ages decreased controllability in male adolescents; females demonstrated an increase in controllability after MS. Elevated serotonin at P2-9 increased escape latencies in male and female control and MS subjects. Fluoxetine exposure at P9-16 increased helplessness in controls. Fluoxetine decreased helplessness in MS males independent of age, but increases helplessness in MS females. This study highlights the importance of age of MS (MS between P2-9 increases helplessness in males more than females), the duration of the stressor (previous results show females are effected by longer MS [P2-20], but not shorter [this study]), and that elevated serotonin increases escape latencies to a greater extent in females. PMID:23850503

  15. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  16. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331

  17. Maternal age and spine development in a rotifer: ecological implications and evolution.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, John J; McPeek, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Brachionus calyciflorus typically develops long, defensive spines only in response to a kairomone from the predatory rotifer, Asplanchna. However, in the absence of any environmental induction, females of some clones produce daughters with increasingly long spines as they age; late-born individuals can have posterolateral spines as long as those induced by Asplanchna: up to 50% or more of body length. Here, we construct a model using data from life-table and predator-prey experiments to assess how this maternal-age effect can influence the distribution of spine lengths in reproducing populations and provide defense against Asplanchna predation. When Asplanchna is absent, the frequency of individuals with late birth orders rapidly becomes extremely low; thus, any cost associated with the production of long-spined individuals is minimal. When Asplanchna is present at densities too low for spine induction, and preys selectively on individuals with no or short posterolateral spines, the frequency of long-spined individuals rapidly increases until a stable birth-order structure is reached. As a result, mortality from Asplanchna predation is greatly reduced. The pronounced and novel birth-order effect in this rotifer appears to be an effective bet-hedging strategy to limit predation by Asplanchna when its kairomone induces no or less than maximal spine development.

  18. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzollo, Jean

    This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

  19. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

    2012-01-01

    We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate "Babies,"…

  20. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  1. The enduring predictive significance of early maternal sensitivity: social and academic competence through age 32 years.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Roisman, Glenn I; Fraley, R Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through midadolescence in a manner consistent with an enduring effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social competence (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes.

  2. A baby with congenital hypothyroidism born to a hypothyroid mother who expressed undiagnosed thyroid stimulation blocking antibody

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    In adults, hypothyroidism caused by thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSB Ab) is rare, and confirmed cases are even fewer, as TSB Ab levels are rarely assayed. However, this may create problems in babies, as the transplacental passage of maternal TSB Ab can cause a rare type of hypothyroidism in the infant. Prompt levothyroxine replacement for the baby starting immediately after birth is important. We describe a congenital hypothyroid baby born to a hypothyroid mother who was not aware of the cause of her hypothyroid condition, which turned out to be associated with the expression of TSB Ab. This cause was confirmed in both the infant and mother using a series of thyroid function tests and measurements of autoantibody levels, including TSB Ab. During periodic follow-up, the TSB Ab and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers became negative in the baby at 8 months of age, but remained positive in the mother. Evaluation of hypothyroidism and its cause in mothers during pregnancy is important for both maternal and child health. PMID:27777909

  3. Maternal inflammation linearly exacerbates offspring age-related changes of spatial learning and memory, and neurobiology until senectitude.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Wei; Cao, Lei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Qi-Gang; Tong, Jing-Jing; Li, Xue-Yan; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy can elevate the risk of neurodegenerative disorders in offspring. However, how it affects age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory and changes in the neurobiological indictors in the offspring in later adulthood is still elusive. In this study, the CD-1 mice with maternal gestational inflammation due to receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS, i.p. 50 or 25μg/kg) were divided into 3-, 12-, 18-, and 22-month-old groups. The spatial learning and memory were evaluated using a six-radial arm water maze and the levels of presynaptic proteins (synaptotagmin-1 and syntaxin-1) and histone acetylation (H3K9ac and H4K8ac) in the dorsal hippocampus were detected using the immunohistochemical method. The results indicated that there were significant age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory, decreased levels of H4K8ac, H3K9ac, and syntaxin-1, and increased levels of synaptotagmin-1 in the offspring mice from 12 months old to 22 months old compared to the same-age controls. Maternal LPS treatment significantly exacerbated the offspring impairments of spatial learning and memory, the reduction of H3K9ac, H4K8ac, and syntaxin-1, and the increment of synaptotagmin-1 from 12 months old to 22 months old compared to the same-age control groups. The changes in the neurobiological indicators significantly correlated with the impairments of spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, this correlation, besides the age and LPS-treatment effects, also showed a dose-dependent effect. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation during pregnancy could exacerbate age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory, and neurobiochemical indicators in the offspring CD-1 mice from midlife to senectitude.

  4. The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market.

    PubMed

    Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N

    1989-05-01

    This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.

  5. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  6. Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

  7. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  8. Labour and Neonatal Outcome in Small for Gestational Age Babies Delivered Beyond 36+0 Weeks: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boers, K. E.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.; Scherjon, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. At present, evidence on whether these pregnancies should be managed expectantly or by induction is lacking. To get insight in current policy we analysed data of the National Dutch Perinatal Registry (PRN). Methods. We used data of all nulliparae between 2000 and 2005 with a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks, with a birth weight below the 10th percentile. We analysed two groups of pregnancies: (I) with isolated SGA and (II) with both SGA and hypertensive disorders. Onset of labour was related to route of delivery and neonatal outcome. Results. Induction was associated with a higher risk of emergency caesarean section (CS), without improvement in neonatal outcome. For women with isolated SGA the relative risk of emergency CS after induction was 2.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.1 to 2.5) and for women with both SGA and hypertensive disorders the relative risk was 2.7 (95% CI 2.3 to 3.1). Conclusion. Induction in pregnancies complicated by SGA at term is associated with a higher risk of instrumental deliveries without improvement of neonatal outcome. Prospective studies are needed to determine the best strategy in suspected IUGR at term. PMID:21490789

  9. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  10. Breast cancer risk associations with birth order and maternal age according to breast-feeding status in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L.; Hampton, John M.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and/or genetic hypotheses. Recently, studies of potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk have been considered. Methods We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of female Wisconsin residents. Cases (N=2,016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002−2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (N=1,960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. Results In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breastfed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.72−0.96). In analyses restricted to breastfed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (p-value=0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breastfed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82−1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breastfed women (OR=0.58; 95% CI 0.39−0.86 for women with ≥3 older siblings compared to first-born women) but not among non-breastfed women (OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.81−1.57). Conclusion These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breastfeeding status in infancy. PMID:18379425

  11. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A.; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M.; Paul, Ian M.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother–child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ∼20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ≥1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ∼30–35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10−8 (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10−9 to 4.1 × 10−8) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

  12. Maternal age and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome in infertile couples at Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Shareef, Osama; Adam, Ishag; Rayis, Duria

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was considered as the mainstay of treatment for male infertility. Nowadays, the scope of ICSI has been widened to include other causes of infertility. There are few published data on ICSI in countries with low incomes. Aims A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad AbuAlla and Banoun Centers, Khartoum, Sudan to investigate outcomes of ICSI and to determine the parameters that might predict pregnancy success rate following ICSI. Methods The study included 191 infertile couples who underwent 296 ICSI cycles between 1st April 2013 and 31 March 2014. Results One hundred and ninety one couples (comprising 296 cycles of ICSI) were enrolled to the study. The mean (SD) number of retrieved oocytes was 9.7 (7.5).  The mean (SD) number of transferred embryos was 2.9 (1.0). Out of these, 50 (26.2%) and 40 (20.9%) had chemical and clinical pregnancy, respectively. Thirty–six couples (18.8%) and five couples (2.6%) had miscarriage and had ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Under logistic regression, younger age (OR = 0.8, 95% CI= 0.81 ─ 0.96, P = 0.004) and endometrial thickness (OR = 1.3, 95% CI= 1.07─1.60, P = 0.009) were the significant predictors for the success of ICSI in inducing pregnancy. Conclusion                 The rates of successful fertilisation and pregnancy-to-term rates in this setting depend mainly on the maternal age. PMID:27347370

  13. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ∼20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ≥1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ∼30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

  14. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n = 94 dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45 min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age.

  15. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  16. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups.

  17. Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia L; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific MatAb on the anti-OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti-OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

  18. Maternal diet amplifies the hepatic aging trajectory of Cidea in male mice and leads to the development of fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Carr, Sarah K; Chen, Jian-Hua; Cooper, Wendy N; Constância, Miguel; Yeo, Giles S H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    The importance of the early environment on long-term heath and life span is well documented. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Male offspring from a maternal protein restriction model, in which animals are exposed to a low-protein diet while in utero and then are cross-fostered to normally fed dams, demonstrate low birth weight, catch-up growth, and reduced life span (recuperated offspring). In the current study, we used microarray analysis to identify hepatic genes that changed with age. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, α subunit-like effector A (Cidea), a transcriptional coactivator that has been implicated in lipid accumulation demonstrated one of the largest age-associated increases in expression (200-fold, P<0.001). This increase was exaggerated ∼3-fold in recuperated offspring. These demonstrated increased hepatic lipid accumulation, higher levels of transcription factors important in lipid regulation, and greater oxidative stress. In vitro analysis revealed that Cidea expression was regulated by oxidative stress and DNA methylation. These findings suggest that maternal diet modulates the age-associated changes in Cidea expression through several mechanisms. This expression affects hepatic lipid metabolism in these animals and thus provides a mechanism by which maternal diet can contribute to the metabolic health and ultimately the life span of the offspring.

  19. Maternal and early life factors of tooth emergence patterns and number of teeth at 1 and 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ntani, G; Day, P F; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M

    2015-08-01

    Various environmental factors have been associated with the timing of eruption of primary dentition, but the evidence to date comes from small studies with limited information on potential risk factors. We aimed to investigate associations between tooth emergence patterns and pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal influences. Dentition patterns were recorded at ages 1 and 2 years in 2915 children born to women in the Southampton Women's Survey from whom information had been collected on maternal factors before conception and during pregnancy. In mutually adjusted regression models we found that: children were more dentally advanced at ages 1 and 2 years if their mothers had smoked during pregnancy or they were longer at birth; mothers of children whose dental development was advanced at age 2 years tended to have poorer socioeconomic circumstances, and to have reported a slower walking speed pre-pregnancy; and children of mothers of Asian ethnicity had later tooth development than those of white mothers. The findings add to the evidence of environmental impacts on the timing of the eruption of primary dentition in indicating that maternal smoking during pregnancy, socio-economic status and physical activity (assessed by reported walking speed) may influence the child's primary dentition. Early life factors, including size at birth are also associated with dentition patterns, as is maternal ethnicity.

  20. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    PubMed Central

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  1. Small-for-Gestational-Age Births are Associated with Maternal Relationship Status: A Population-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jecca Rhea; Sanders, Lee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To examine the association between maternal relationship status during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes. Methods Observational study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women between the ages of 14 and 21. We used data from surveys of women reporting childbirth between 1979 and 2004. Relationship status was defined as relationship with an opposite-sex partner in the child's birth year. Relationship stability was defined as the consistency in relationship status in the 1 year before, of, and after the child's birth. Childbirth outcome included small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. We applied random effects logistic regression models to assess the association between relationship status and stability and childbirth outcome-adjusting for maternal race, infant sex, history of miscarriage, employment, maternal age, multiparity, cohort-entry year, household poverty status, and tobacco use. Results The study included 4439 women with 8348 live births. In fully adjusted models, term SGA infants were more commonly born to partnered women (AOR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.20-2.73) and unmarried women (AOR 1.82; CI 1.34-2.47; LRT p value 0.0001), compared to married women. SGA infants were also more commonly born in unstable relationships (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.14-2.63; LRT p value 0.01) compared to stable relationships. Conclusions for Practice Maternal relationship status and stability during pregnancy is independently associated with risk of SGA infant birth. PMID:27007984

  2. Antenatal blood pressure for prediction of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and small for gestational age babies: development and validation in two general population cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J; de Stavola, Bianca L; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M; Crozier, Sarah; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Study question Can routine antenatal blood pressure measurements between 20 and 36 weeks’ gestation contribute to the prediction of pre-eclampsia and its associated adverse outcomes? Methods This study used repeated antenatal measurements of blood pressure from 12 996 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to develop prediction models and validated these in 3005 women from the Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS). A model based on maternal early pregnancy characteristics only (BMI, height, age, parity, smoking, existing and previous gestational hypertension and diabetes, and ethnicity) plus initial mean arterial pressure was compared with a model additionally including current mean arterial pressure, a model including the deviation of current mean arterial pressure from a stratified normogram, and a model including both at different gestational ages from 20-36 weeks. Study answer and limitations The addition of blood pressure measurements from 28 weeks onwards improved prediction models compared with use of early pregnancy risk factors alone, but they contributed little to the prediction of preterm birth or small for gestational age. Though multiple imputation of missing data was used to increase the sample size and minimise selection bias, the validation sample might have been slightly underpowered as the number of cases of pre-eclampsia was just below the recommended 100. Several risk factors were self reported, potentially introducing measurement error, but this reflects how information would be obtained in clinical practice. What this study adds The addition of routinely collected blood pressure measurements from 28 weeks onwards improves predictive models for pre-eclampsia based on blood pressure in early pregnancy and other characteristics, facilitating a reduction in scheduled antenatal care. Funding, competing interests, data sharing UK Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health, and UK Medical Research Council. Other

  3. The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ≥3) and maternal age (<18 years, 18-<35 years, ≥35 years) categories were matched with each other to create exposure categories, with those who are parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years as the reference. Outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Results Nulliparous, age <18 year women, compared with women who were parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years had the highest odds of SGA (pooled adjusted OR: 1.80), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.52), neonatal mortality (pooled aOR: 2.07), and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.49). Increased odds were also noted for SGA and neonatal mortality for nulliparous/age 18-<35 years, preterm, neonatal, and infant mortality for parity ≥3/age 18-<35 years, and preterm and neonatal mortality for parity ≥3/≥35 years. Conclusions Nulliparous women <18 years of age have the highest odds of adverse neonatal outcomes. Family planning has traditionally been the least successful in addressing young age as a risk factor; a renewed focus must be placed on finding effective interventions that delay age at first birth. Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ≥3 / age ≥35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child

  4. Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESAC) detected at amniocentesis: frequency in approximately 75,000 prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses and associations with maternal and paternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E B; Cross, P K

    1987-01-01

    We analyzed rates of extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESAC) detected in prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses of amniotic fluid reported to the New York Chromosome Registry. These karyotypes include both extra unidentified structurally abnormal chromosomes (EUSAC)--often denoted as "markers"--and extra identified structurally abnormal chromosomes (EISAC). The rate of all EUSAC was 0.64/1,000 (0.32-0.40/1,000 mutant and 0.23-0.32 inherited), and that of all EISAC was 0.11/1,000 (0.07/1,000 mutant and 0.04/1,000 inherited). The rate of all ESAC was approximately 0.8/1,000-0.4-0.5/1,000 mutant and 0.3-0.4/1,000 inherited. Mean +/- SD maternal age of mutant cases was 37.5 +/- 2.9, significantly greater than the value of 35.8 years in controls. A regression analysis indicated a rate of change of the log of the rate of about +0.20 with each year of maternal age between 30 and 45 years. When paternal age was introduced, the maternal age coefficient increased to about +0.25--close to that seen for 47, +21--but the paternal age coefficient was -0.06. After being matched for maternal age and year of diagnosis, the case-control difference in paternal age for 24 mutant cases was -2.4 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.6 to -0.1 years. In a regression analysis of the effects of both parental ages on the (log) rate, the maternal age coefficient was +0.25 and the paternal age coefficient was -0.06. These results are consistent with a (weak) negative paternal age effect in the face of a strong maternal age effect. Since ESAC include a heterogeneous group of abnormalities, the maternal age and paternal age trends, if not the result of statistical fluctuation or undetected biases, may involve different types of events. Data in the literature suggest that chromosomes with de novo duplicated inversions of 15p have a strong maternal age effect (but little paternal age effect). Such chromosomes, however, do not account for the active maternal age trends seen in the data analyzed here

  5. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Commentary on a Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lorraine E.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    The ethos behind provision of early intervention programmes to infants and young children with additional support needs has been established for some time (e.g. Right-from-the-Start), but targeting the development of typically developing infants has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Baby sign is one of the many intervention techniques…

  6. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

  7. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore Fact Sheets 1 Check Out Our Latest Facebook Posts MotherToBaby 4 hours ago If you are ... part of your routine. If you... View on Facebook · Share MotherToBaby 2 days ago A powerful piece ...

  8. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources

  9. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

  10. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  11. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.

  12. Temperament and Behaviour of Infants Aged 4-12 Months on Admission to a Private Mother-Baby Unit and at 1- and 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Feekery, Colin

    2004-01-01

    While infant behaviour is influenced by maternal care, infant crying and dysregulated sleep can reciprocally affect maternal mood. The temperament and behaviour of two 4-12-months-old infant cohorts admitted with their mothers to a residential parenting program were examined using behaviour charts and the Short Infant Temperament Questionnaire…

  13. Use of technology in follow-up of HIV positive pregnant women and their babies till 18 months of age- an innovation by Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society (MSACS), India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhay Shyam; Yewale, Kiran; Hegde, Asha S.; Mulik, Tejas; Bamrotiya, Manish; Yadav, Surendra; Rane, Tushar; Pardeshi, Kushalsinh; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Reddy, D.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of web-based mobile technology monitoring tool, for ensuring linkages, and tracking of HIV-exposed child until 18 months of age. Methods The ‘early infant diagnosis (EID) Follow-up System’ was designed as a tool for reminding the field level staff for follow-up of HIV-exposed babies. Using Java Swing Framework, software was developed which generates automatic advance SMS alerts regarding patient information to the Counsellor of the respective Integrated Counselling and Testing Center and district supervisor, 7 days prior to due dates. Simultaneously, system generated e-mail is sent to district program officer for monitoring and updating the line-list. Results Before the introduction of ‘EID Follow-up System’ in June 2013, only 55.9% (637/1139) of the HIV-exposed babies born were tested at 6 weeks for DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction during April 2011–March 2012. However, after its introduction, 68.4% (1117/1631) of them were tested during April 2012–March 2013. Correspondingly, the 18 months confirmatory HIV testing in eligible babies increased from 45.6% (934/2044) to 54.7%(1118/2044) during the same period. Conclusion The replicable technology driven initiative would help in strengthening the follow-up mechanisms and reach every HIV-exposed child for EID. PMID:26945142

  14. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    PubMed

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  15. Breastfeeding, Bed-Sharing, and Maternal Cortisol.

    PubMed

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; McKinney, Chelsea O; Krohn, Julie B; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies have found that close mother-child sleep proximity helps increase rates of breastfeeding, and breastfeeding itself is linked to better maternal and infant health. In this study, we examine whether breastfeeding and infant bed-sharing are related to daily rhythms of the stress-responsive hormone cortisol. We found that bed-sharing was related to flatter diurnal cortisol slopes, and there was a marginal effect for breastfeeding to predict steeper cortisol slopes. Furthermore, mothers who breastfeed but do not bed-share had the steepest diurnal cortisol slopes, whereas mothers who bed-shared and did not breastfeed had the flattest slopes (P < .05). These results were significant after controlling for subjective sleep quality, perceived stress, depression, socioeconomic status, race, and maternal age. Findings from this study indicate that infant parenting choices recommended for infants (breastfeeding and separate sleep surfaces for babies) may also be associated with more optimal stress hormone profiles for mothers. PMID:26330120

  16. The influence of maternal age on the outcomes of pregnancies complicated by bleeding at less than 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Mbugua Gitau, Godfrey; Liversedge, Helen; Goffey, Dawn; Hawton, Annemarie; Liversedge, Neil; Taylor, Myles

    2009-01-01

    The effect of maternal age on the outcome of threatened miscarriage after ultrasound has confirmed fetal heart (FH) pulsation was assessed. At a university teaching hospital, 138 women presenting with bleeding before 12 weeks' gestation were followed up until delivery or pregnancy loss. Those with multiple or ectopic pregnancy, social termination of pregnancy, assisted conception and temporary residence were excluded. Outcome measures were pregnancy loss, fetal abnormalities, preterm delivery, low birthweight and cesarean delivery. Age over 35 years was significantly associated with reduced live-birth and increased miscarriage rates. Women over 35 years of age had higher cesarean section and pregnancy loss rates than the younger women. The combination of bleeding in early pregnancy and advanced age increases risk of pregnancy loss even after ultrasound has confirmed FH pulsation. PMID:19140048

  17. The risk of stillbirth and infant death by each additional week of expectant management stratified by maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Page, Jessica M.; Snowden, Jonathan M.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Doss, Amy; Rosenstein, Melissa G.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine fetal/infant mortality by gestational age at term stratified by maternal age. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2005 US national birth certificate data. For each week of term gestation, the risk of mortality associated with delivery was compared with composite mortality risk of expectant management. The expectant management measure included stillbirth and infant death. This expectant management risk was calculated to estimate the composite mortality risk with remaining pregnant an additional week by combining the risk of stillbirth during the additional week of pregnancy and infant death risk following delivery at the next week. Maternal age was stratified by 35 years or more compared with women younger than 35 years as well as subgroup analyses of younger than 20, 20–34, 35–39, or 40 years old or older. RESULTS The fetal/infant mortality risk of expectant management is greater than the risk of infant death at 39 weeks’ gestation in women 35 years old or older (15.2 vs 10.9 of 10,000, P < .05). In women younger than 35 years old, the risk of expectant management also exceeded that of infant death at 39 weeks (21.3 vs 18.8 of 10,000, P < .05). For women younger than 35 years old, the overall expectant management risk is influenced by higher infant death risk and does not rise significantly until 41 weeks compared with women 35 years old or older in which it increased at 40 weeks. CONCLUSION Risk varies by maternal age, and delivery at 39 weeks minimizes fetal/infant mortality for both groups, although the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater in older women. PMID:23707677

  18. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  19. Functional Play at 2 Years of Age: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, David P.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Toddler toy play evolves in a predictable manner and provides a valid, nonverbal measure of cognitive function unbiased by social behaviors. Research on prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) indicates that exposure to stress in utero results in developmental deficits. We hypothesized that children exposed to high objective PNMS from a natural disaster…

  20. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-05-15

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of < or =2 servings/week was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake.

  1. [Baby online to support the mother-baby relationship in neonatalogy].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marie-France; Biondini, Christophe; Boyer, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal separations are always harmful to the development of the parent/baby relationship. At Alès general hospital, the Bébé online scheme enables live images to be transmitted remotely and safely between maternity wards and neonatalogy, physically distant from each other. Supervised by the nursing team, it supports the attachment process by giving parents the possibility of maintainingvisual contact with their newborn.

  2. Multiple meiotic errors caused by predivision of chromatids in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilisation

    PubMed Central

    Handyside, Alan H; Montag, Markus; Magli, M Cristina; Repping, Sjoerd; Harper, Joyce; Schmutzler, Andreas; Vesela, Katerina; Gianaroli, Luca; Geraedts, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy is a major cause of pregnancy loss, abnormal pregnancy and live births following both natural conception and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and increases exponentially with maternal age in the decade preceding the menopause. Molecular genetic analysis following natural conception and spontaneous miscarriage demonstrates that trisomies arise mainly in female meiosis and particularly in the first meiotic division. Here, we studied copy number gains and losses for all chromosomes in the two by-products of female meiosis, the first and second polar bodies, and the corresponding zygotes in women of advanced maternal age undergoing IVF, using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH). Analysis of the segregation patterns underlying the copy number changes reveals that premature predivision of chromatids rather than non-disjunction of whole chromosomes causes almost all errors in the first meiotic division and unlike natural conception, over half of aneuploidies result from errors in the second meiotic division. Furthermore, most abnormal zygotes had multiple aneuploidies. These differences in the aetiology of aneuploidy in IVF compared with natural conception may indicate a role for ovarian stimulation in perturbing meiosis in ageing oocytes. PMID:22317970

  3. Breast is best for babies.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Sauve, Reginald S.

    2005-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding. Breast milk provides almost all the necessary nutrients, growth factors and immunological components a healthy term infant needs, Other advantages of breastfeeding include reduction of incidences and severity of infections; prevention of allergies; possible enhancement of cognitive development; and prevention of obesity, hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Health gains for breastfeeding mothers include lactation amenorrhea, early involution of the uterus, enhanced bonding between the mother and the infant, and reduction in incidence of ovarian and breast cancer. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is less expensive than formula feeding. In most cases, maternal ingestion of medications and maternal infections are not contraindications to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding, however, is contraindicated in infants with galactosemia. The management of common breastfeeding issues, such as breast engorgement, sore nipples, mastitis and insufficient milk, is discussed. Breastfeeding should be initiated as soon after delivery as possible. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play in promoting and protecting breastfeeding. PMID:16080672

  4. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  5. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. PMID:26458013

  6. Bringing Your Baby Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid suffocation. Chances are much better that you'll bring home a calm, contented baby if you ... by the manufacturer before the second birthday, you'll need to use a convertible seat designed for ...

  7. Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)

  8. Baby supplies you need

    MedlinePlus

    ... because some babies are sensitive to them. Vaseline (petroleum jelly): good to prevent diaper rash, and to ... 2014 Updated by: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, ...

  9. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain, the heart and lungs, are forming. The placenta grows in your uterus and supplies the baby ... like alcohol, cigarette smoke and drugs through the placenta, too. So don’t drink alcohol , smoke , use ...

  10. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  11. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... old, most babies have developed the fine motor skills — the small, precise movements — needed to pick up ... practice soon evolves into a masterful and efficient skill. Allow your child to self-feed as much ...

  12. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Shaken Baby Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  13. Baby universes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Barkley, J.; Budd, T.; Loll, R.

    2011-11-01

    The behavior of baby universes has been an important ingredient in understanding and quantifying non-critical string theory or, equivalently, models of two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity coupled to matter. Within a regularized description based on dynamical triangulations, we amend an earlier conjecture by Jain and Mathur on the scaling behavior of genus-g surfaces containing particular baby universe 'necks', and perform a non-trivial numerical check on our improved conjecture.

  14. Phonetic features by babies with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, M M; Logemann, J A; Rademaker, A W

    1994-11-01

    Twenty-three babies with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were audiotaped at regular intervals from 5 to 35 months of age. Narrow phonetic transcription of their comfort-state vocalizations and word approximations was accomplished to describe phonetic development over time and according to the nonrandomized age of palatoplasty. The babies that had earlier palatal repair produced significantly higher percentages of oral stops after 12 months of age than babies with similar clefts that had later palatal repair. No significant differences are evident, however, according to age of palatoplasty, for mean frequency use of oral fricatives up to 3 years of age. For all 23 babies, regardless of the age of palatoplasty intervention, time is an even stronger variable than age of palatoplasty for development of palatal, alveolar and velar place features, oral stops, and oral fricatives.

  15. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  16. Infants & Toddlers "What's Going On? How to Hold Squriming Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…

  17. The Effects of Baby Sign Training on Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…

  18. Maternal Risk of Breeding Failure Remained Low throughout the Demographic Transitions in Fertility and Age at First Reproduction in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghua; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s) to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood) underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero–even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies. PMID:22529952

  19. Maternal determinants of complete child immunization among children aged 12-23 months in a southern district of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola; Okoro, Anselm O

    2012-01-17

    This study was conducted to identify determinants of complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in a southern district of Nigeria. The World Health Organization cluster survey was used to evaluate immunization coverage of infants. Mothers of 525 children selected by the two-stage sampling method and interviewed using an adapted questionnaire responded. Completion of the immunization schedule was verified by an immunization card or by reported history indicating that the child had received full doses of four of the antigens included in the Nigeria routine immunization schedule. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with completion of immunization. Only 32.4% of children had completed the immunization schedule. Determinants of complete immunization status included a maternal age less than 30 years (AOR=2.26, 95% CI:1.27-4.03), availability of an immunization card at first contact (AOR=7.72, 95% CI:4.43-13.44), fewer than three children (AOR=2.22, 95% CI:11.1-4.42), completion of post secondary education (AOR=2.34, 95% CI:1.12-4.47) and maternal unemployment (AOR=1.71, 95% CI:1.01-2.89). Identifying mothers whose children are at risk of not completing the immunization schedule and educating them is an important strategy to improve antigen coverage and prevent early childhood deaths from diseases like tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles. PMID:22137878

  20. Maternal PUFA status but not prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with children's language functions at age five years in the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W; Myers, Gary J

    2012-11-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors' previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured.

  1. DNA damage-induced metaphase I arrest is mediated by the spindle assembly checkpoint and maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Marangos, Petros; Stevense, Michelle; Niaka, Konstantina; Lagoudaki, Michaela; Nabti, Ibtissem; Jessberger, Rolf; Carroll, John

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian oocytes DNA damage can cause chromosomal abnormalities that potentially lead to infertility and developmental disorders. However, there is little known about the response of oocytes to DNA damage. Here we find that oocytes with DNA damage arrest at metaphase of the first meiosis (MI). The MI arrest is induced by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) because inhibiting the SAC overrides the DNA damage-induced MI arrest. Furthermore, this MI checkpoint is compromised in oocytes from aged mice. These data lead us to propose that the SAC is a major gatekeeper preventing the progression of oocytes harbouring DNA damage. The SAC therefore acts to integrate protection against both aneuploidy and DNA damage by preventing production of abnormal mature oocytes and subsequent embryos. Finally, we suggest escaping this DNA damage checkpoint in maternal ageing may be one of the causes of increased chromosome anomalies in oocytes and embryos from older mothers. PMID:26522734

  2. DNA damage-induced metaphase I arrest is mediated by the spindle assembly checkpoint and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Marangos, Petros; Stevense, Michelle; Niaka, Konstantina; Lagoudaki, Michaela; Nabti, Ibtissem; Jessberger, Rolf; Carroll, John

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian oocytes DNA damage can cause chromosomal abnormalities that potentially lead to infertility and developmental disorders. However, there is little known about the response of oocytes to DNA damage. Here we find that oocytes with DNA damage arrest at metaphase of the first meiosis (MI). The MI arrest is induced by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) because inhibiting the SAC overrides the DNA damage-induced MI arrest. Furthermore, this MI checkpoint is compromised in oocytes from aged mice. These data lead us to propose that the SAC is a major gatekeeper preventing the progression of oocytes harbouring DNA damage. The SAC therefore acts to integrate protection against both aneuploidy and DNA damage by preventing production of abnormal mature oocytes and subsequent embryos. Finally, we suggest escaping this DNA damage checkpoint in maternal ageing may be one of the causes of increased chromosome anomalies in oocytes and embryos from older mothers. PMID:26522734

  3. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Child Psychosocial Development at 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Schieve, Laura A.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Li, Ruowei; Lind, Jennifer N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. METHODS: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children’s health and development. We examined associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child psychosocial development in 1311 mother–child pairs included in this follow-up study. Children’s development was assessed by maternal report of child psychosocial difficulties from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, past developmental diagnoses, and receipt of special needs services. RESULTS: Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, children of obese class II/III mothers (BMI >35.0) had increased odds of emotional symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–3.98), peer problems (aOR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26–3.40), total psychosocial difficulties (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24–3.77), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis (aOR 4.55; 95% CI, 1.80–11.46), autism or developmental delay diagnosis (aOR 3.13; 95% CI, 1.10–8.94), receipt of speech language therapy (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18–3.15), receipt of psychological services (aOR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09–4.73), and receipt of any special needs service (aOR 1.99; 95% CI, 1.33–2.97) compared with children of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5–24.9). Adjustment for potential causal pathway factors including pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, postpartum depression, and child’s birth weight did not substantially affect most estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Children whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy had increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes. PMID:25917989

  4. New Beginnings for mothers and babies in prison: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mothers in prison represent a high-risk parenting population. New Beginnings is an attachment-based group intervention designed specifically for mothers and babies in prison. This cluster randomized trial examined the outcomes for 88 mothers and babies participating in the New Beginnings program and 75 dyads residing in prisons where the intervention did not take place. Outcomes were measured in terms of parental reflective functioning, the quality of parent-infant interaction, maternal depression, and maternal representations. Mothers in the control group deteriorated in their level of reflective functioning and behavioral interaction with their babies over time, whereas the mothers in the intervention group did not. There were no significant group effects on levels of maternal depression or mothers' self-reported representations of their babies over time. An attachment-based intervention may mitigate some of the risks to the quality of the parent-infant relationship for these dyads.

  5. Organizing the Baby Boomer Construct: An Exploration of Marketing, Social Systems, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Hilt, Michael L.; Reilly, Hugh J.

    2007-01-01

    Baby boomer trends are applied in the development of a conceptual framework that offers a social systems and cultural model for future studies. While there has been considerable recent attention paid to baby boomers, the studies lack a coherent theoretical base that would allow for more advanced and continuing research. Aging baby boomers heading…

  6. Transmission of obesity-adiposity and related disorders from the mother to the baby.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2014-01-01

    The conventional aetiological model of obesity and diabetes proposes a genetic predisposition and a precipitation by an unhealthy adult lifestyle. This hypothesis was challenged by David Barker who proposed that the intrauterine environment influences the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The original idea was based on fetal undernutrition because lower birth weight was associated with a higher risk of diabetes and heart disease. However, soon it was clear that the association was U shaped, and that the increased risk in large babies was driven by maternal obesity and diabetes. A number of human and animal studies have refined our ideas of 'fetal programming', which is now thought to be related to acquired chemical changes in DNA (methylation), histones (acetylation and other) and the role of non-coding miRNAs. Maternal nutritional disturbances are the major programming stimulus, in addition to a deranged metabolism, infections, maternal stress, extreme atmospheric temperature, etc. The first demonstration of a link between fetal 'starvation' and future ill-health was in the Dutch Hunger Winter studies. In the prospective Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, we found that small and thin Indian babies were more adipose compared to larger English babies, and their higher risk of future diabetes was reflected in higher insulin and leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations in the cord blood. This phenotype was partly related to a deranged 1-carbon metabolism due to an imbalance in vitamin B12 (low) and folate (high) nutrition, which was also related to insulin resistance in the offspring. Maternal obesity and diabetes have made an increasing contribution to childhood obesity and diabetes at a young age. This was prominently shown in Pima Indians but is now obvious in all other populations. The best window of opportunity to prevent fetal programming of NCDs is in the periconceptional period. This is the period when gametogenesis, fertilisation, implantation

  7. Transmission of obesity-adiposity and related disorders from the mother to the baby.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2014-01-01

    The conventional aetiological model of obesity and diabetes proposes a genetic predisposition and a precipitation by an unhealthy adult lifestyle. This hypothesis was challenged by David Barker who proposed that the intrauterine environment influences the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The original idea was based on fetal undernutrition because lower birth weight was associated with a higher risk of diabetes and heart disease. However, soon it was clear that the association was U shaped, and that the increased risk in large babies was driven by maternal obesity and diabetes. A number of human and animal studies have refined our ideas of 'fetal programming', which is now thought to be related to acquired chemical changes in DNA (methylation), histones (acetylation and other) and the role of non-coding miRNAs. Maternal nutritional disturbances are the major programming stimulus, in addition to a deranged metabolism, infections, maternal stress, extreme atmospheric temperature, etc. The first demonstration of a link between fetal 'starvation' and future ill-health was in the Dutch Hunger Winter studies. In the prospective Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, we found that small and thin Indian babies were more adipose compared to larger English babies, and their higher risk of future diabetes was reflected in higher insulin and leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations in the cord blood. This phenotype was partly related to a deranged 1-carbon metabolism due to an imbalance in vitamin B12 (low) and folate (high) nutrition, which was also related to insulin resistance in the offspring. Maternal obesity and diabetes have made an increasing contribution to childhood obesity and diabetes at a young age. This was prominently shown in Pima Indians but is now obvious in all other populations. The best window of opportunity to prevent fetal programming of NCDs is in the periconceptional period. This is the period when gametogenesis, fertilisation, implantation

  8. Baby Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  9. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA.

  10. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could retire. One…

  11. When Babies Scream: Why Babies Scream and What to Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    When a baby screams, that is a signal that all is not well for the body of the baby, for her emotional well-being, and/or for the baby's relationship with the teacher. During the first year of life, infants learn that adults are in control of providing reassuring care. Adults will "make things better" when a baby's tummy feels horribly empty, when…

  12. Black/white differences in the relationship of maternal age to birthweight: a population-based test of the weathering hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, A T

    1996-02-01

    This study seeks to explore if early health deterioration ('weathering') among young adult African American women contributes to observed increases with maternal age in the black/white disparity in birth outcome. Theoretically, 'weathering' is constructed as being a physical consequence of social inequality. Thus, we also examine whether African American mothers vary in their age trajectories of poor birth outcome with respect to social class. Black or white singleton first births to Michigan residents aged 15-34 in 1989 (N = 54,888 births) are analyzed, using data drawn from linked birth and infant death certificates augmented with census-based economic information. We find among blacks, but not whites, advancing maternal age above 15 years is associated with increased odds of LBW and VLBW. Among blacks in low-income areas, the odds of LBW increase 3-fold, and of VLBW 4-fold, between maternal ages 15 and 34. The findings suggest that African American women, on average, and those residing in low-income areas, in particular, experience worsening health profiles between their teens and young adulthood, contributing to their increasing risk of LBW or VLBW with advancing maternal age and to the black-white gap in this risk. The findings suggest the importance of comprehensive prevention strategies to improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged African American women prior to pregnancy and the reduction of social inequalities that impact health.

  13. Where have all the babies gone?

    PubMed

    1992-05-15

    Critical comment is provided on the phenomena of couples postponing childbearing in Singapore. In spite of a media campaign to promote childbearing and tax incentives, women are choosing to be DINKS, couples with double incomes and no kids. Women's reasons for not having children are to enjoy more freedom and a better material life and maintain a career. Seet Ai Mee, the junior minister of community development, in 1990 spoke in a public address about women's lack of belief in marriage and the loss of independence and career prospects when children come along. Official concern is based on the rising median age of childbearing which has gone from 23.4 years in 1970 to 27.7 years in 1991. A continuing trend would put women 30 years old at the age of 1st childbearing in the year 2000. 1 of 5 women presently do not have children. 2.9% fewer babies were born in the 1st 10 months of 1991 compared with 1990. The Director of the Population Planning Unite believes that the campaign has been successful in promoting coupling, but not procreation. Examples are given of 4 women who chose not to have children. 1 was a 26-year old university graduate who was a product manager. She is married and thinks that the ad campaign is not appropriately geared to an educated population. Romance and hard sell are out of place. Another psychotherapist expressed the opinion that women wanted a house a car before having children, and later age at childbearing was desired because the desire was to a small family anyway. Freedom has a greater value over the desire for children. A 30-year old writer finds women with children boring, and later age at childbearing means greater maternal maturity. Several examples are given of women who desire an earlier start on childbearing because of the demands placed on older mothers. The director of a counseling and care center defines DINKS as educated higher income people who want a career, personal goals, travel, and other things. There should not be a

  14. Perceptions of baby talk, frequency of receiving baby talk, and self-esteem among community and nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B P; Rigby, H

    1996-03-01

    Community-living seniors (n = 113) and nursing home residents (n = 43) provided their impressions of baby-talk and neutral-talk scenarios and completed measures of functional health, need for succorance, and self-esteem. Two orthogonal dimensions were found in perceptions of baby talk: Warmth and Superiority. The personality trait of need for succorance was consistently associated with perceptions of warmth in baby talk, whereas functional health, age, and institutionalization were associated with perceptions of superiority. Significant interactions were found between perceptions of baby talk and frequency of receiving baby talk in the prediction of self-esteem, providing suggestive evidence for previously expressed concerns about potentially harmful effects of receiving baby talk on self-esteem among seniors who have negative perceptions of baby talk. However, older persons with positive perceptions of baby talk reported higher self-esteem when they frequently received baby talk, in accordance with person-environment theory. The self-esteem interaction for men occurred on the Superiority dimension, whereas the interaction for women occurred on the Warmth dimension.

  15. Effects of maternal ageing on ICSI outcomes and embryo development in relation to oocytes morphological characteristics of birefringent structures.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Cem; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Sakinci, Mehmet; Ercan, Cihangir Mutlu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphological characteristics of the older reproductive aged women's oocytes and to reveal the influence of these characteristics on intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. The oocytes of women older than 35 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. Non-invasive polarization microscopy (PolScope) examinations of mature oocytes were performed by measurement of meiotic spindles' length, area and retardance and zona pellucida thickness and retardance. Fertilization and conception competence and the correlation with the birefringent structures were assessed. Two hundred and thirteen mature oocytes from 54 women were evaluated with a PolScope. Length of the meiotic spindle was shown to be related to fertilization success of women with advanced maternal age. In conclusion, the PolScope is a useful device used to identify the oocyte quality. Quantitative measurements of meiotic spindle parameters may be valuable for the selection of high-quality oocytes that have the potential for embryo development in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory of women older than 35 years of age who are mostly poor responders.

  16. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before ... A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a baby before birth may seem ...

  17. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  18. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... because the lungs of preterm babies often lack surfactant, a liquid substance that allows the lungs to remain expanded. Treatment: Artificial surfactants can be used to treat these babies, along ...

  19. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. PMID:27004939

  1. Does induction of labor for constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetuses identified in utero reduce maternal morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of infants with a birth weight > 97th percentile for gestational age has increased over the years. Although some studies have examined the interest of inducing labor for fetuses with macrosomia suspected in utero, only a few have analyzed this suspected macrosomia according to estimated weight at each gestational age. Most studies have focused principally on neonatal rather than on maternal (and still less on perineal) outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether a policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus might reduce the occurrence of severe perineal tears; the secondary aims of this work were to assess whether this policy would reduce either recourse to cesarean delivery during labor or neonatal complications. Methods This historical cohort study (n = 3077) analyzed records from a French perinatal database. Women without diabetes and with a cephalic singleton term pregnancy were eligible for the study. We excluded medically indicated terminations of pregnancy and in utero fetal deaths. Among the pregnancies with fetuses suspected, before birth, of being large-for-gestational-age, we compared those for whom labor was induced from ≥ 37 weeks to ≤ 38 weeks+ 6 days (n = 199) to those with expectant obstetrical management (n = 2878). In this intention-to-treat analysis, results were expressed as crude and adjusted relative risks. Results The mean birth weight was 4012 g ± 421 g. The rate of perineal lesions did not differ between the two groups in either primiparas (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86-1.31) or multiparas (aRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84-1.05). Similarly, neither the cesarean rate (aRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.82-1.50) nor the risks of resuscitation in the delivery room or of death in the delivery room or in the immediate postpartum or of neonatal transfer to the NICU (aRR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) differed between the two groups. Conclusions A

  2. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  3. Bah's Baby Brother Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapahonso, Luci

    This illustrated story, written for Native American children, stresses the importance of not drinking alcohol and taking care of oneself during pregnancy. The story centers on Bah, a young Native American girl whose mother is going to have a baby. Bah is very excited about getting a baby brother or sister and wants the baby to be healthy and…

  4. Babies Need Tummy Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Printer-Friendly Email Page Skip sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not ...

  5. No Baby Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    "No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…

  6. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  7. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles. PMID:19604726

  8. The role of maternal education in the 15-year trajectory of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Tanvir; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Williams, Gail M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (U5s) is a serious public health problem in low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Improved maternal education can contribute effectively to reduce child malnutrition. We examined the long-term impact of maternal education on the risk of malnutrition in U5s and quantified the level of education required for the mothers to reduce the risk. We used pooled data from five nationwide demographic and health surveys conducted in 1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving 28 941 U5s. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the association between maternal education (no education, primary, secondary or more) and malnutrition in children, measured by stunting, underweight and wasting controlling for survey time, maternal age, maternal body mass index, maternal working status, parity, paternal education and wealth quintile. An overall improvement in maternal educational attainment was observed between 1996 and 2011. The prevalence of malnutrition although decreasing was consistently high among children of mothers with lower education compared with those of mothers with higher education. In adjusted models incorporating time effects, children of mothers with secondary or higher education were at lower risk of childhood stunting [risk ratio (RR): 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.89], underweight (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.88) and wasting (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.91) compared with children of mothers with no education. We demonstrated the importance of promoting women's education at least up to the secondary level as a means to tackle malnutrition in Bangladesh.

  9. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  10. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  11. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  12. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  13. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. PMID:12287620

  14. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions.

  15. Maternal fatness and viability of preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, A; Morley, R; Cole, T J; Bamford, M F; Boon, A; Crowle, P; Dossetor, J F B; Pearse, R

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the effect of maternal fatness on the mortality of infants born preterm up to the corrected age of 18 months 795 mother-infant pairs were studied. Maternal fatness was defined by Quetelet's index (weight/(height2)) and all infants weighed less than 1850 g at birth. In 771 mother-infant pairs maternal age, complications of pregnancy, mode of delivery, parity, social class, and the baby's sex and gestation were analysed by a logistic regression model for associations with infant mortality (but deaths from severe congenital abnormalities and those occurring during the first 48 hours after birth were excluded). In a subgroup of 284 mother-infant pairs all infant deaths except those from severe congenital abnormalities were analysed in association with the infant's birth weight and gestation and the mother's height and weight; this second analysis included another 24 infants who had died within 48 hours after birth. In the first analysis mortality overall was 7% (55/771), rising from 4% (71/173) in thin mothers (Quetelet's index <20) to 15% (6/40) in mothers with grades II and III obesity (Quetelet's index >30). After adjusting for major demographic and antenatal factors, including serious complications of pregnancy, maternal fatness was second in importance only to length of gestation in predicting death of infants born preterm. In the second analysis mortality overall was 15% (44/284), rising from 9% (5/53) in thin mothers to 47% (8/17) in mothers with grades II and III obesity. In both analyses the relative risk of death by 18 months post-term was nearly four times greater in infants born to obese mothers than in those born to thin mothers. In addition, maternal fatness was associated with reduced birth weight, whereas it is associated with macrosomia in term infants. These data differ fundamentally from those reported in full term babies of obese mothers. It is speculated that the altered metabolic milieu in obesity may reduce the ability of the fetus

  16. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  17. The assessment of combined first trimester screening in women of advanced maternal age in an Asian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sarah Weiling; Barrett, Angela Natalie; Gole, Leena; Tan, Wei Ching; Biswas, Arijit; Tan, Hak Koon; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION First trimester screening (FTS) is a validated screening tool that has been shown to achieve detection rates of 84%–90% for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. However, its effectiveness for different maternal ages has not been assessed. The present study aimed to assess the performance of FTS in an Asian population, and to compare its effectiveness in older (≥ 35 years) and younger (< 35 years) women. The potential use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) as a contingent screening test is also examined. METHODS Data on cases of FTS performed on singleton pregnancies over a six-year period was collated from two Singapore maternal centres, National University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital. Cases that had a 1:250 risk of trisomy were considered to be screen-positive. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from birth records or karyotype test results. RESULTS From 10,289 FTS cases, we obtained a sensitivity of 87.8%, a specificity of 97.6%, a false positive rate of 2.4% and a false negative rate of 0.06% for the detection of aneuploidy. The overall detection rate for trisomy 21 was 86.5%–85.7% for older women and 87.5% for younger women. The mean number of invasive tests required per case of trisomy 21 was 9.3 in younger women, 8.6 in older women and 13.5 in women with intermediate risk (1:250–1,000). CONCLUSION While the performance of FTS was similar in younger and older women, more invasive procedures were required to diagnose trisomy 21 in women with intermediate risk. It may be advantageous to offer contingent NIPT to this group of women to reduce the risk of iatrogenic fetal loss. PMID:25640099

  18. Novel Interpretation of Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis According to Gestational Age at the Time of Maternal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Pratlong, Francine; Albaba, Sahar; Loubersac, Julie; Picot, Marie-Christine; Pretet, Vanessa; Issert, Eric; Boulot, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    From a prospective cohort of 344 women who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, 344 amniotic fluid, 264 placenta, and 216 cord blood samples were tested for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis using the same PCR assay. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the PCR assay using amniotic fluid were 86.3% and 97.2%, respectively, and both specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Using placenta and cord blood, sensitivities were 79.5% and 21.2%, and specificities were 92% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the calculation of pretest and posttest probabilities and the use of logistic regression allowed us to obtain curves that give a dynamic interpretation of the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis according to gestational age at maternal infection, as represented by the three sample types (amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood). Two examples are cited here: for a maternal infection at 25 weeks of amenorrhea, a negative result of prenatal diagnosis allowed estimation of the probability of congenital toxoplasmosis at 5% instead of an a priori (pretest) risk estimate of 33%. For an infection at 10 weeks of amenorrhea associated with a pretest congenital toxoplasmosis risk of 7%, a positive PCR result using placenta at birth yields a risk increase to 43%, while a negative result damps down the risk to 0.02%. Thus, with a molecular diagnosis performing at a high level, and in spite of the persistence of false negatives, posttest risk curves using both negative and positive results prove highly informative, allowing a better assessment of the actual risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and finally an improved decision guide to treatment. PMID:23035201

  19. Is prenatal childbirth preparation effective in decreasing adverse maternal and neonatal response to labor? A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Hee; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Kim, Sun Kyung; Kim, Seo Hui; Kim, Yun Ju; Han, Jung Yeol; Ahn, Hyun Kyong; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Yang, Jae Hyug; Kim, Moon Young

    2008-04-01

    Sophrology, based on a combination of Western relaxation therapy and Eastern yoga and meditation might decrease maternal stress during labor. This study aimed to evaluate whether prenatal sophrologic childbirth preparation may decrease maternal and neonatal adverse response associated with delivery. In a nested case-control study, 69 nulliparous, singleton pregnant women who underwent an educational course of sophrologic childbirth preparation were compared to 69 nulliparous, singleton, age- and gestational age-matched pregnant women who did not receive any childbirth preparation. All babies were vaginally delivered. Groups were not different (P > 0.05) in the number of neonates born with meconium-stained amniotic fluid as well as in the number of babies with Apgar score < or = 7 at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Duration of labor was not different between groups. The number of women requiring oxytocin and delivering babies with low pH blood levels tended to be lower in the group undergoing sophrologic childbirth preparation, i.e. 58.0% vs 72.5% (P = 0.07) and 1.4% vs 10.9% (P = 0.06), respectively. In conclusion, we were unable to confirm that prenatal sophrologic childbirth preparation has a definitive role in decreasing adverse maternal and fetal response to pain or in shortening labor. Prospective cohort studies with a larger sample size or randomized trials may help to clarify this gap.

  20. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  1. Maternal obesity disturbs the postnatal development of gonocytes in the rat without impairment of testis structure at prepubertal age.

    PubMed

    Christante, Caroline Maria; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether maternal obesity (MO) affects testis development and gonocyte differentiation in the rat from 0.5 to 14.5 postnatal days. Male Wistar rats were used at 0.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 14.5 days post partum (dpp). These rats were born from obese mothers, previously fed with a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat), for 15 weeks, or normal mothers that had received a balanced murine diet (4% lipids). MO did not affect testis weight or histology at birth but changed the migratory behavior of gonocytes. The density of relocated cells was higher in MO pups at 0.5 dpp, decreased at 4.5 dpp, and differed from those of control pups, where density increased exponentially from 0.5 to 7.5 dpp. The numerical density of gonocytes within seminiferous cords did not vary in MO, in relation to control neonates, for any age considered, but the testis weight was 50% lower at 4.5 dpp. A wide variation in plasmatic testosterone and estrogen levels was observed among the groups during the first week of age and MO pups exhibited higher steroid concentrations at 4.5 dpp, in comparison with controls. At this age, higher estrogen levels of MO pups impaired the gonocyte proliferation. At 7.5 dpp, the testicular size and other parameters of gonocyte development are retrieved. In conclusion, MO and saturated lipid diets disturb gonocyte development and sexual steroid levels during the first days of life, with recovery at prepubertal age.

  2. Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

  3. Maternal Rigidity in Infancy and Level of Intelligence at School Age in Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Phillipa R.; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J.; Hegemann, Nicole; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Schoemaker, Marina M.; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Oetomo, Siddartho Bambang

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor development. At 7.5 years, intelligence was measured…

  4. IQ at Age Four in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Use and Smoking during Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses on data from 421 children indicated that mother's use of more than 1.5 ounces (approximately three drinks) of alcohol per day during pregnancy was significantly related to average IQ decrement at four years of age of almost five IQ points even after adjustment for numerous variables. Readers cautioned against using…

  5. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  6. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  7. Family resemblance for anthropometric traits. II. Assessment of maternal occupational and age effects.

    PubMed

    Salces, I; Rebato, E; San Martin, L; Rosique, J; Vinagre, A; Susanne, C

    2002-01-01

    The present study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1326 subjects (197 fathers, 466 mothers, 307 sons and 356 daughters) belonging to 488 nuclear families from the province of Biscay (Basque Country, Spain), with the purpose of estimating the degree of familial resemblance, for several anthropometric traits, by analysing the correlation coefficients between parent-offspring pairs. Height, weight, biacromial and bicrystal breadths, humerus and femur biepicondylar breadths, arm, waist and hip circumferences, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal, thigh and calf skinfolds were taken from each individual. BMI, WHR and the sum of the seven skinfolds was computed. The mother's occupation and the age of offspring were taken into account, since the combination of all these factors might have an effect on familial resemblance. The mothers were classified into housewife (HM) and working mothers (WM). The offspring were divided into prepuberal, puberal and postpuberal subgroups. Standardised residuals were used to compute father-offspring (FO) and mother-offspring (MO) relations through correlation coefficients computed by maximum likelihood. The results confirm the influence of age on the correlations, since FO correlations revealed an increasing trend in HM's children for weight and another six variables as they grew older. On the other hand, the weight change tends to decrease with age in FO correlations within the WM group. Depending on mother's occupation and children's age, the global trend in the sample results in higher correlations in the second group (WM) than in the first one (HM) for the whole age range, but specially in FO correlations before puberty, where four variables (weight, bicrystal breadth, triceps and subscapular skinfolds) yield statistically significant differences.

  8. Aloof baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We show that a suitable choice for the potential term in the two-dimensional baby Skyrme model yields solitons that have a short-range repulsion and a long-range attraction. The solitons are therefore aloof, in the sense that static multi-soliton bound states have constituents that preserve their individual identities and are sufficiently far apart that tail interactions yield small binding energies. The static multi-soliton solutions are found to have a cluster structure that is reproduced by a simple binary species particle model. In the standard three-dimensional Skyrme model of nuclei, solitons are too tightly bound and are often too symmetric, due to symmetry enhancement as solitons coalesce to form bound states. The aloof baby Skyrmion results endorse a way to resolve these issues and provides motivation for a detailed study of the related three-dimensional version of the Skyrme model.

  9. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  10. "Baby rattle" pelvis dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cormier-Daire, V; Savarirayan, R; Lachman, R S; Neidich, J A; Grace, K; Rimoin, D L; Wilcox, W R

    2001-04-15

    We report an apparently previously undescribed lethal skeletal dysplasia, clinically resembling achondrogenesis, but with distinct radiologic and chondro-osseous morphologic features. These comprise bifid distal ends of the long bones of the limbs, absent vertebral body ossification, a unique "baby rattle" pelvic configuration with tall and broad ilia, absent endochondral ossification, regions of mesenchymal cells within the resting cartilage, and abnormal mesenchymal ossification. PMID:11337746

  11. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism

  12. Advancing maternal age and trisomy screening: the practice challenges of facilitating choice and gaining consent.

    PubMed

    Birt, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies such as Trisomy 13, 18 and 21 (Patau's, Edward's and Down's syndrome respectively) is offered to all pregnant women in the first two trimesters.This article explores the varying considerations of consent for this type of screening, particularly in relation to women of advancing age who are at increased risk of carrying a pregnancy affected by a trisomy. The practical challenges or barriers of gaining valid, meaningful informed consent are discussed. PMID:26753259

  13. Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (−8.32% per annum 95% CI (−9.39% to −7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40 years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

  14. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  15. Fetal programming: maternal nutrition and role of one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan Sakerlal; Deshmukh, Urmila Shailesh

    2012-06-01

    India is world's capital for low birth weight (LBW), which is ascribed to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) rather than prematurity. An average Indian mother is short and thin and gives birth to a light and thin baby. Maternal undernutrition is thought to be a major factor in the aetiology of IUGR, and the undernutrition is usually thought to be a low macronutrient intake. The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS) showed that the Indian babies were thin but fat (more adipose) compared to European babies, and that maternal intake of micronutrient-rich foods was a strong determinant of fetal size. Two thirds of the mothers had low vitamin B(12) concentrations, folate deficiency was rare, and high circulating concentrations of homocysteine predicted IUGR. Follow up of these children revealed that higher maternal folate in pregnancy predicted higher adiposity and insulin resistance at 6 years of age. The most insulin resistant children were born to mothers who were vitamin B(12) deficient and had high folate concentrations. Thus, PMNS suggests an important role for maternal one-carbon (1C) metabolism in fetal growth and programming of diabetes risk. This could be due to the role of 1C metabolism in synthesis of nucleic acids, genomic stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene function. In addition, methionine has important role in protein synthesis. These ideas are supported by animal studies. The next logical step in India will be to improve 1C metabolism in adolescents to effect intergenerational prevention of adiposity, diabetes and other related conditions.

  16. Care of low birth weight babies in slums.

    PubMed

    Patel, R B

    1989-01-01

    We studied 289 newborn infants from birth till one year of age. Low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg) were 52.9%. Boys suffered 9.7 episodes of sickness, and girls 8.6 episodes of sickness. The mean episodes of various sicknesses, and their impact on weight gain, feeding pattern and growth pattern are discussed. Six deaths were observed, of which 4 were among the low birth weight babies. Mortality in babies born less than 2 kg was 44.4% and above 2 kg was less than 1%. PMID:2807450

  17. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy.

  18. Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2011-11-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage. PMID:20872057

  19. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  20. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  1. Barriers and facilitators to maternal communication with preadolescents about age-relevant sexual topics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kim S; Fasula, Amy M; Dittus, Patricia; Wiegand, Ryan E; Wyckoff, Sarah C; McNair, Lily

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined factors that promote parent-child discussions about sex topics. A sample of 1,066 dyads of African American mothers and their 9-12-year-old children participated completing computer-administered surveys. After controlling for all other covariates, mother's sexual communication responsiveness (i.e., knowledge, comfort, skills, and confidence) was the most consistent predictor of discussions. Mothers with higher responsiveness had significantly increased odds of discussions about abstinence, puberty, and reproduction, based on both mother and child reports. In addition, child's age, pubertal development, readiness to learn about sex, and being female were positively associated with an increase in the odds of discussions in most models. Findings indicate that encouraging parents to talk with their children early may not be sufficient to promote parent-child sex discussions. Parents also need the knowledge, comfort, skills, and confidence to communicate effectively and keep them from avoiding these often difficult and emotional conversations with their children.

  2. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

  3. Paternal Transmission of Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosome 15 Identified in Prenatal Diagnosis Due to Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruna C S; Portocarrero, Ana; Alves, Cláudia; Sampaio, André; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The detection of supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) in prenatal diagnosis is always a challenge. In this study, we report a paternally inherited case of a small SMC(15) that was identified in prenatal diagnosis due to advanced maternal age. A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation. A fetal abnormal karyotype - 47,XX,+mar - with one sSMC was detected in all metaphases. Since this sSMC was critical in the parental decision to continue or interrupt this pregnancy, we proceeded to study the fetus and their parents. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a fetal karyotype 47,XX,+mar pat.ish idic(15)(ql2)(D15Zl++,SNRPN-), in which the sSMC(15) was a paternally inherited inverted duplicated chromosome and did not contain the critical region of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes. Moreover, fetal uniparental disomy was excluded. Based on this information and normal obstetric ultrasounds, the parents decided to proceed with the pregnancy and a phenotypically normal girl was born at 39 weeks of gestation. In conclusion, the clinical effects of sSMCs need to be investigated, especially when sSMCs are encountered at prenatal diagnosis. Here, although the paternal sSMC(15) was not associated with an abnormal phenotype, its characterization allows more accurate genetic counseling for the family progeny. PMID:26523119

  4. Cerebral blood flow is diminished in asymptomatic middle-aged adults with maternal history of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Xu, Guofan; Oh, Jennifer M; Dowling, N Maritza; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Birdsill, Alex C; Palotti, Matthew; Wharton, Whitney; Hermann, Bruce P; LaRue, Asenath; Bendlin, Barbara B; Rowley, Howard A; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) provides an indication of the metabolic status of the cortex and may have utility in elucidating preclinical brain changes in persons at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related diseases. In this study, we investigated CBF in 327 well-characterized adults including patients with AD (n = 28), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 23), older cognitively normal (OCN, n = 24) adults, and asymptomatic middle-aged adults (n = 252) with and without a family history (FH) of AD. Compared with the asymptomatic cohort, AD patients displayed significant hypoperfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, and the hippocampal region. Patients with aMCI exhibited a similar but less marked pattern of hypoperfusion. Perfusion deficits within the OCN adults were primarily localized to the inferior parietal lobules. Asymptomatic participants with a maternal FH of AD showed hypoperfusion in hippocampal and parietofrontal regions compared with those without a FH of AD or those with only a paternal FH of AD. These observations persisted when gray matter volume was included as a voxel-wise covariate. Our findings suggest that having a mother with AD might confer a particular risk for AD-related cerebral hypoperfusion in midlife. In addition, they provide further support for the potential utility of arterial spin labeling for the measurement of AD-related neurometabolic dysfunction, particularly in situations where [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose imaging is infeasible or clinically contraindicated.

  5. The co-construction of adolescent narrative identity: narrative processing as a function of adolescent age, gender, and maternal scaffolding.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2012-03-01

    The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.

  6. Community Colleges Offer Baby Boomers an Encore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2007-01-01

    A 2005 MetLife Foundation/Civic Ventures New Face of Work Survey found that many baby boomers are eager to make career changes that can launch a new chapter in their working lives while they make social contribution. The survey found that 50 percent of Americans age 50 to 70 want jobs that contribute to the greater good. It found that more than 53…

  7. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    PubMed

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material.

  8. Health benefits of encore careers for baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Topiwala, Anya; Patel, Shivani; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-05-01

    Baby boomers now represent an aging population group at risk of the diseases of older age. Their relatively high education, amongst other attributes, means that they can make a significant contribution to the work force beyond the statutory retirement age. On an individual level, potential health benefits may motivate them to pursue encore careers. We review some of the evidence supporting such a trend.

  9. Maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy affects autonomic function of Peruvian children assessed at 54 months of age.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; DiPietro, Janet A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. Of these, 79 were born to mothers receiving 25 mg/d zinc in addition to 60 mg/d iron and 250 μg/d folic acid during pregnancy, and 86 were born to mothers receiving iron and folic acid only. Derived cardiac measures included heart period (HP), range, HP variability (HPV), mean square of successive differences (MSSD), and a measure of vagal tone (V). Children in the zinc supplementation group had greater HP (i.e. slower heart rate), greater range, higher time-independent (HPV) and time-dependent (MSSD) variability in HP, and higher V (P < 0.05) during baseline. Analyses conducted across the cognitive testing period revealed similar effects of prenatal zinc supplementation on cardiac patterns. Concurrent child zinc plasma concentration was also associated with longer HP, greater variability, and marginally higher range and V (P < 0.10). Differences in cardiac patterns due to prenatal zinc supplementation were detectable in children at 54 mo of age during conditions of both rest and challenge, indicating that supplementing zinc-deficient pregnant women has beneficial long-term consequences for neural development associated with autonomic regulation. PMID:21178078

  10. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  11. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  12. "My Baby & Me": effects of an early, comprehensive parenting intervention on at-risk mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Guttentag, Cathy L; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Baggett, Kathleen M; Noria, Christine W; Borkowski, John G; Swank, Paul R; Farris, Jaelyn R; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G; Carta, Judith J; Warren, Steven F; Ramey, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168 adults) enrolled across 4 states, half were randomly assigned to the high-intensity (HI) home visitation coaching program (55 sessions), and half to a low-intensity (LI) condition that included monthly phone calls from a coach, printed informational materials, and community resource referrals. Videotaped observations of mother-child play were coded at 5 time points for multiple maternal and child behaviors and skills. Compared to mothers in the LI group, mothers in the HI group showed higher levels of contingent responsiveness, higher quality verbal stimulation, and more verbal scaffolding by 30 months, with higher levels of warmth and greater decreases in physical intrusiveness and negativity when their children were 24 months. By 30 months, children in the HI group showed more rapid increases and higher levels of engagement with the environment, expressive language skills, and social engagement, as well as more complex toy play and fewer problem behaviors than those in the LI group. Gains in maternal responsive behaviors mediated the effects of the intervention on child outcomes. Results were comparable for adolescent and adult mothers. A strong theoretical framework, consistent focus on maternal responsiveness, high dosage, and trusting relationships with coaches are thought to explain the positive outcomes. PMID:24447116

  13. "My Baby & Me": effects of an early, comprehensive parenting intervention on at-risk mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Guttentag, Cathy L; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Baggett, Kathleen M; Noria, Christine W; Borkowski, John G; Swank, Paul R; Farris, Jaelyn R; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G; Carta, Judith J; Warren, Steven F; Ramey, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168 adults) enrolled across 4 states, half were randomly assigned to the high-intensity (HI) home visitation coaching program (55 sessions), and half to a low-intensity (LI) condition that included monthly phone calls from a coach, printed informational materials, and community resource referrals. Videotaped observations of mother-child play were coded at 5 time points for multiple maternal and child behaviors and skills. Compared to mothers in the LI group, mothers in the HI group showed higher levels of contingent responsiveness, higher quality verbal stimulation, and more verbal scaffolding by 30 months, with higher levels of warmth and greater decreases in physical intrusiveness and negativity when their children were 24 months. By 30 months, children in the HI group showed more rapid increases and higher levels of engagement with the environment, expressive language skills, and social engagement, as well as more complex toy play and fewer problem behaviors than those in the LI group. Gains in maternal responsive behaviors mediated the effects of the intervention on child outcomes. Results were comparable for adolescent and adult mothers. A strong theoretical framework, consistent focus on maternal responsiveness, high dosage, and trusting relationships with coaches are thought to explain the positive outcomes.

  14. Clinical profile and outcomes of women admitted to a psychiatric mother-baby unit.

    PubMed

    Christl, Bettina; Reilly, Nicole; Yin, Carolyn; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the clinical profile of women admitted to a psychiatric mother-baby unit as well as change in their clinical, parenting, attachment and quality of life outcomes. Data was collected from 191 mothers through self-report measures at admission and discharge. Change was analysed in terms of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score, parenting confidence, maternal attachment to the infant and overall functioning. Psychosocial factors impacting on symptom severity and recovery were examined. Most women (64.8 %) were admitted in the first 3 months after birth with an ICD-10 unipolar depressive episode (52.3 %) or anxiety disorder (25.7 %), and 47.6 % had comorbid diagnoses. Improvement from admission to discharge was seen with large effect sizes (≥one standard deviation, i.e. μ) in terms of clinical symptoms (EPDS, μ = 1.7), parenting confidence (Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS), μ = 1.1) and attachment to their infant (Maternal Postpartum Attachment Scale (MPAS), μ = 0.9) as well as overall level of functioning (SF-14, μ = 1.9). The majority (73.3 %) recovered symptomatically, and this was associated with increasing maternal age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.129, p = 0.002) and lower levels of psychosocial risk at admission (OR = 0.963, p = 0.008). Improvement in parenting confidence was associated with increasing maternal age (OR = 1.17, p = 0.003). No predictive factors were found for improvement in maternal attachment after controlling for admission scores. In the short term, joint admission of mothers with their infants is highly beneficial in terms of clinical, functional and parenting outcomes, but follow up studies are needed to assess the longer term benefits for mother-infant dyads. The use of an observational tool to enhance our assessment of maternal-infant interaction and some measure of maternal emotional dysregulation-both important mediators of development of secure infant

  15. Clinical profile and outcomes of women admitted to a psychiatric mother-baby unit.

    PubMed

    Christl, Bettina; Reilly, Nicole; Yin, Carolyn; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the clinical profile of women admitted to a psychiatric mother-baby unit as well as change in their clinical, parenting, attachment and quality of life outcomes. Data was collected from 191 mothers through self-report measures at admission and discharge. Change was analysed in terms of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score, parenting confidence, maternal attachment to the infant and overall functioning. Psychosocial factors impacting on symptom severity and recovery were examined. Most women (64.8 %) were admitted in the first 3 months after birth with an ICD-10 unipolar depressive episode (52.3 %) or anxiety disorder (25.7 %), and 47.6 % had comorbid diagnoses. Improvement from admission to discharge was seen with large effect sizes (≥one standard deviation, i.e. μ) in terms of clinical symptoms (EPDS, μ = 1.7), parenting confidence (Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS), μ = 1.1) and attachment to their infant (Maternal Postpartum Attachment Scale (MPAS), μ = 0.9) as well as overall level of functioning (SF-14, μ = 1.9). The majority (73.3 %) recovered symptomatically, and this was associated with increasing maternal age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.129, p = 0.002) and lower levels of psychosocial risk at admission (OR = 0.963, p = 0.008). Improvement in parenting confidence was associated with increasing maternal age (OR = 1.17, p = 0.003). No predictive factors were found for improvement in maternal attachment after controlling for admission scores. In the short term, joint admission of mothers with their infants is highly beneficial in terms of clinical, functional and parenting outcomes, but follow up studies are needed to assess the longer term benefits for mother-infant dyads. The use of an observational tool to enhance our assessment of maternal-infant interaction and some measure of maternal emotional dysregulation-both important mediators of development of secure infant

  16. Associations between maternal anthropometric characteristics and infant birth weight in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Sormeh; Ashrafzadeh, Sepideh; Hafizi, Ali; Naseh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the (1) normal ranges of anthropometric and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, homeostatic model assessment for insulin sensitivity, and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) for Iranian pregnant women and their newborns and (2) associations between maternal anthropometric and metabolic values and infants’ birth weights among Iranian women. Methods: Anthropometric and metabolic values of 163 singleton non-diabetic pregnant women in Tehran, Iran (2014) were collected before and during pregnancy and at delivery. Linear regression, multivariable regression, and Student t tests were used to evaluate correlations between birth weight and maternal variables. Results: Linear regression modeling suggested that maternal serum glucose (p = 0.2777) and age (p = 0.6752) were not associated with birth weight. Meanwhile, maternal weight and body mass index before pregnancy (p = 0.0006 and 0.0204, respectively), weight at delivery (p = 0.0036), maternal height (p = 0.0118), and gestational age (p = 0.0016) were positively associated with birth weight, while serum insulin (p = 0.0300) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (p = 0.0334) were negatively associated with infant’s birth weight. Using multivariate modeling, we identified severalconfounders: parity (multipara mothers delivered heavier babies compared to first-time mothers) explained as much as 24% of variation in birth weight (p = 0.005), maternal height explained 20.7% (p = 0.014), gestational age accounted for 19.7% (p = 0.027), and maternal body mass index explained 19.1% (p = 0.023) of the variation in the infant’s birth weight. Maternal serum insulin and infant’s sex were not observed to be associated with birth weight (p = 0.342 and 0.669, respectively) in the overall model. Conclusion: Overweight/obese women may experience higher incidence of

  17. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  18. Your baby in the birth canal

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby's head to pass through the pelvis. Internal Rotation As your baby's head descends further, the head ... rotates under and around the pubic bone. External Rotation As the baby's head is delivered, it will ...

  19. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in

  20. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and age of menarche in daughters: a study of elementary and middle school students in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bolin; Shi, Huijing; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Mengna

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in pregnancy and to examine its association with an earlier age of menarche in offspring. This retrospective study enrolled 751 students 8 to 20 years old in Shanghai selected by stratified cluster sampling. Data were obtained through structured self-administered questionnaires and physical examinations. It was found that daughters with maternal tobacco exposure experienced relatively earlier menarche and had shorter cycle lengths, although both findings were not statistically significant. The unadjusted odds ratio for prenatal tobacco smoke exposure on the relatively earlier onset of menarche was 1.84 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-3.22) compared with no exposure, and the associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for birth weight, birth length, maternal age of menarche, and present height and weight. In conclusion, our study provides limited evidence supporting the hypothesis that maternal passive smoking during pregnancy leads to an earlier age of menarche of daughters.

  1. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and age of menarche in daughters: a study of elementary and middle school students in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bolin; Shi, Huijing; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Mengna

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in pregnancy and to examine its association with an earlier age of menarche in offspring. This retrospective study enrolled 751 students 8 to 20 years old in Shanghai selected by stratified cluster sampling. Data were obtained through structured self-administered questionnaires and physical examinations. It was found that daughters with maternal tobacco exposure experienced relatively earlier menarche and had shorter cycle lengths, although both findings were not statistically significant. The unadjusted odds ratio for prenatal tobacco smoke exposure on the relatively earlier onset of menarche was 1.84 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-3.22) compared with no exposure, and the associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for birth weight, birth length, maternal age of menarche, and present height and weight. In conclusion, our study provides limited evidence supporting the hypothesis that maternal passive smoking during pregnancy leads to an earlier age of menarche of daughters. PMID:25667229

  2. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  3. Baby universes with induced gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yihong; Gao, Hongbo

    1989-12-01

    Some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. The authors prove that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential.

  4. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship.

  5. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. PMID:24784325

  6. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  7. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years.

    PubMed

    Blumfield, Michelle L; Nowson, Caryl; Hure, Alexis J; Smith, Roger; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Collins, Clare E

    2015-05-01

    The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP), which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children's Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E%) polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045), E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03) and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (β coefficient -14.14; 95% CI -27.68, -0.60; p = 0.04) were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy) and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy) intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  8. A case of shaken baby syndrome after discharge from the newborn intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jacqueline M

    2005-06-01

    Preterm infants may be at higher risk of physical abuse after hospital discharge. Nonaccidental or inflicted head neurotrauma is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in physical-abuse cases, and shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is the most common form of abuse. In the majority of the cases, parents who shake their infant do not intend to harm the infant. This article presents a report of a former preterm infant who presented to the pediatrician's office with a maternal report of an accidental fall. Shaken baby syndrome was suspected based on bilateral subdural hemorrhages of varying ages, which were inconsistent with the history provided. The differential diagnosis and systematic clinical evaluation for SBS are provided, and medical and nursing management is discussed. Patient care, advocacy, and mandatory reporting are reviewed. The newborn intensive care unit caregivers' role in preventing SBS in this high-risk population, including specific parent teaching and anticipatory guidance, is reviewed with an emphasis on teaching all caregivers about the dangers of shaking an infant.

  9. Family Centered Maternity Care

    PubMed Central

    Enkin, Murray W.

    1973-01-01

    Current practices of obstetrical care tend to hinder rather than facilitate family development and maturation. A program of family centred maternity care is described. Husbands are invited to prenatal visits, and are involved in intensive preparation for labor and delivery. Their presence and active participation in labor, delivery, and postpartum course are encouraged. This, along with a rooming-in policy for the baby, and the utilization of the postpartum period for an intensive training in parenthood, appears to produce a safe and satisfying obstetrical experience for the family. PMID:20468914

  10. Primary health care of the newborn baby.

    PubMed

    Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R

    1990-01-01

    More than 50% of infant deaths in India occur during the neonatal period. High priority therefore needs to be given to improving the survival of newborns. A large number of neonatal deaths have their origin in the perinatal period and are mainly determined by the health and nutritional status of the mother, the quality of care during pregnancy and delivery, and the immediate care of the newborn at birth. Main causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, respiratory problems, and infections, especially tetanus. Most such deaths occur among low birthweight babies. Hypothermia, undernutrition, and mismanaged breast feeding may also indirectly contribute to neonatal mortality. Community-based studies have, however, demonstrated that most neonatal mortality can be affordably prevented through primary health care. Efforts are underway to expand the health care infrastructure, but the outreach of maternal and child health care remains unsatisfactory especially in rural areas. PMID:12319228

  11. Maternal nutrient restriction in sheep: hypertension and decreased nephron number in offspring at 9 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Lang, Alvin L; Grant, Angela R; Nijland, Mark J

    2005-05-15

    Pregnant ewes were fed either a 50% nutrient-restricted (NR; n= 8) or a control 100% (C; n= 8) diet from day 28 to day 78 of gestation (dGA; term = 150 dGA). Lambs were born naturally, and fed to appetite throughout the study period. At 245 +/- 1 days postnatal age (DPNA), offspring were instrumented for blood pressure measurements, with tissue collection at 270 DPNA. Protein expression was assessed using Western blot, glomerulus number determined via acid maceration and hormone changes by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). NR lambs had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP; 89.0 +/- 6.6 versus 73.4 +/- 1.6 mmHg; P < 0.05), fewer renal glomeruli (57.8 +/- 23.8 versus 64.6 +/- 19.3 x 10(4); P < 0.05), increased expression of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the renal cortex (942 +/- 130 versus 464 +/- 60 arbitrary pixel units (apu); P < 0.03), and increased angiotensin II receptor AT2 expression in the renal medulla (63.3 +/- 12.1 versus 19.5 +/- 44.2 x 10(4) apu; P < 0.03). All data are presented as mean +/-S.E.M. The present data indicate that global maternal nutrient restriction (50%) during early to mid-gestation impairs renal nephrogenesis, increases MAP, and alters expression of AT2 and ACE without an associated change in birth weight. These data demonstrate the existence of a critical window of fetal susceptibility during early to mid-gestation that alters kidney development and blood pressure regulation in later life.

  12. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals.

  13. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe: impact of maternal age and prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Budd, Judith; Doray, Berenice; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr Melve, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Wahrendorf, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Salvador, Joaquin; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Dolk, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participated. Trisomy cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestational age and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. We present correction to 20 weeks gestational age (ie, correcting early terminations for the probability of fetal survival to 20 weeks) to allow for artefactual screening-related differences in total prevalence. Poisson regression was used. The proportion of births in the population to mothers aged 35+ years in the participating registries increased from 13% in 1990 to 19% in 2009. Total prevalence per 10000 births was 22.0 (95% CI 21.7-22.4) for trisomy 21, 5.0 (95% CI 4.8-5.1) for trisomy 18 and 2.0 (95% CI 1.9-2.2) for trisomy 13; live birth prevalence was 11.2 (95% CI 10.9-11.5) for trisomy 21, 1.04 (95% CI 0.96-1.12) for trisomy 18 and 0.48 (95% CI 0.43-0.54) for trisomy 13. There was an increase in total and total corrected prevalence of all three trisomies over time, mainly explained by increasing maternal age. Live birth prevalence remained stable over time. For trisomy 21, there was a three-fold variation in live birth prevalence between countries. The rise in maternal age has led to an increase in the number of trisomy-affected pregnancies in Europe. Live birth prevalence has remained stable overall. Differences in prenatal screening and termination between countries lead to wide variation in live birth prevalence.

  14. Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

  15. Maternal stressors during prolonged antepartum hospitalization following transfer for maternal-fetal indications.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Nora M; Monga, Manju; Kerr, Marcia; Hollier, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to identify stressors in women requiring prolonged hospitalization following maternal-fetal transfer to a tertiary care center. Using a modified version of the previously validated Antepartum Hospital Stressors Inventory (AHSI), all women transferred to our university-based maternal-fetal service between May 2000 and June 2002 and hospitalized for greater than 1 month completed a semi-structured interview. The AHSI uses Likert scales to evaluate environment, health factors, communication with health care providers, family separation, self-image, and emotional and family status issues as stressors. Nine consecutive women met inclusion criteria and all agreed to participate. Median maternal age was 27 years (range 19 to 33), and gestational age at transfer was 25 weeks (range 20 to 31). Parity ranged from 0 to 3 and educational level ranged from grade 2 to graduate degrees. The women were from Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian racial-ethnic backgrounds; all were married. Median distance from transferring hospital was 20 miles (range 10 to 275 miles). All patients reported separation from family, sleeping alone, anxiety about the pregnancy and the baby's health, boredom, and eating hospital meals as the greatest stressors. Stress was relieved in all women by ultrasounds, family members staying in the room, cable television, and internet access. Routine beauty maintenance, massage, physical therapy, and continued contact with referring physician were also cited as stress alleviators. Following maternal-fetal transfer, prolonged antepartum hospitalization is associated with stress that may be alleviated by access to the outside world via television and the internet, liberal visitation, access to health and beauty maintenance, and ongoing contact with the referring physician.

  16. Shaken baby syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, I

    2002-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is the most common cause of death or serious neurological injury resulting from child abuse. It is specific to infancy, when children have unique anatomic features. Subdural and retinal haemorrhages are markers of shaking injury. An American radiologist, John Caffey, coined the name whiplash shaken infant syndrome in 1974. It was, however, a British neurosurgeon, Guthkelch who first described shaking as the cause of subdural haemorrhage in infants. Impact was later thought to play a major part in the causation of brain damage. Recently improved neuropathology and imaging techniques have established the cause of brain injury as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive and specific method of confirming a shaking injury. Families of children with subdural haemorrhages should be thoroughly investigated by social welfare agencies. PMID:12509690

  17. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important.

  18. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important. PMID:27118366

  19. In re Baby M.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    In 1985 William Stern and Mary Beth Whitehead signed a surrogate parenting agreement which provided that Whitehead would be inseminated with Stern's semen and would surrender any resulting child to him and his wife, at which time she would be paid $10,000. Whitehead subsequently tried to keep the child, but the New Jersey Superior Court (Chancery Division/Family Part, Bergen County) awarded temporary custody of "Baby M" to the Sterns and then ruled on 31 March 1987 that the surrogacy contract was valid and that Stern should have sole custody, with Whitehead's parental rights to be terminated and Mrs. Stern given the right to adopt the child. In the current decision, the New Jersey Supreme Court upholds the awarding of custody to Mr. Stern as in the child's best interest, but holds the contract to be unenforceable and restores Whitehead's parental rights, leaving the terms of her visitation rights as noncustodial parent to be established by the trial court.

  20. Isorotating baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halavanau, A.; Shnir, Ya.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss how internal rotation with fixed angular frequency can affect the solitons in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken to the SO(2). Two particular choices of the potential term are considered, the “old” potential and the “new” double vacuum potential, We do not impose any assumptions about the symmetry on the fields. Our results confirm existence of two types of instabilities determined by the relation between the mass parameter of the potential μ and the angular frequency ω. It is shown that multi-Skyrmions in the model with old potential at some critical value of the angular frequency become unstable with respect to decay into single Skyrmion constituents.

  1. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  2. Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age: influence on time to detection of cryptorchidism (undescended testes): a Danish nationwide register study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time to detection and correction of cryptorchidism. Methods All boys born in Denmark, 1981 to 1987 or 1988 to 1994, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were identified in nationwide registers. The boys were followed for a diagnosis until their 16th birthday. The age at first diagnosis was noted and used as proxy for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function of parental socio-occupational group, county, maternal age and birth cohort by use of Poisson regression. Results Some 6,059 boys in the early and 5,947 boys in the late cohort received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism. Time to detection was independent of parental socio-occupational group and maternal age but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort. Conclusions These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in detection and correction of cryptorchidism would play a negligible role in male infertility in a life course perspective. Geographical region may have exerted some influence, especially for the oldest cohort. PMID:24581337

  3. Maternal Lipids Are as Important as Glucose for Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Smita R.; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Rao, Shobha R.; Chougule, Suresh D.; Deokar, Tukaram M.; Bhalerao, Ankush J.; Solat, Vishnu A.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between maternal circulating fuels and neonatal size and compare the relative effects of glucose and lipids. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (1993–1996) investigated the influence of maternal nutrition on fetal growth. We measured maternal body size and glucose and lipid concentrations during pregnancy and examined their relationship with birth size in full-term babies using correlation and regression techniques. RESULTS The mothers (n = 631) were young (mean age 21 years), short (mean height 151.9 cm), and thin (BMI 18.0 kg/m2) but were relatively more adipose (body fat 21.1%). Their diet was mostly vegetarian. Between 18 and 28 weeks’ gestation, fasting glucose concentrations remained stable, whereas total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations increased and HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased. The mean birth weight of the offspring was 2666 g. Total cholesterol and triglycerides at both 18 and 28 weeks and plasma glucose only at 28 weeks were associated directly with birth size. One SD higher maternal fasting glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations at 28 weeks were associated with 37, 54, and 36 g higher birth weights, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were unrelated to newborn measurements. The results were similar if preterm deliveries also were included in the analysis (total n = 700). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest an influence of maternal lipids on neonatal size in addition to the well-established effect of glucose. Further research should be directed at defining the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:23757425

  4. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes After Lamotrigine Use in Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis from an Urban Maternal Mental Health Centre in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Chandni; Hatters-Friedman, Susan; Moller-Olsen, Charmian; North, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for recurrence of bipolar disorder. Discontinuation of mood stabilisers during pregnancy and the postpartum period can significantly increase the risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is an anti-epileptic drug that has been approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Epilepsy literature has indicated that lamotrigine has a reassuring safety profile in pregnancy but there is little information on its effectiveness and safety in pregnant women with mental disorders. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all pregnant women who presented to an urban maternal mental health centre in Auckland, New Zealand between 2012 and 2014 and were treated with antipsychotics and/or mood stabilisers. Pregnancy outcome, obstetric and perinatal complications, congenital malformations and maternal mental health in the postnatal period were considered. Results Here, we present the outcomes in the subset of six women who were treated with lamotrigine 100–400 mg/day for the entire pregnancy. Five were diagnosed with bipolar disorder and one with major depression. Three women received additional psychotropic medication during pregnancy. No women needed psychiatric hospitalisation. All babies were live birth after 36 weeks gestation. Two babies had low birth weight and required NICU admissions. Two women required lower segment caesarean section and the other 4 were induced. A trachea-esophageal fistula was noted in one baby. Four babies who were breastfed while their mothers received uninterrupted treatment with lamotrigine, experienced no complications. Discussion This naturalistic study indicates that lamotrigine can be an effective treatment option for maintenance of bipolar illness in women of childbearing age.

  5. The baby killers are still at large.

    PubMed

    Power, J

    1994-08-12

    This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago. PMID:12319575

  6. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your ... Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  7. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Mian, Maha; Shah, Janki; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar

    2015-06-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs in infants as a result of the brain pushing against the skull due to severe acceleration-deceleration forces. Symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include subdural, subarachnoid, and retinal hemorrhages. MRI and ocular examinations are used to determine the extent of mental and visual damage and β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining is used to detect axonal injuries. Surgeries such as Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) evacuation surgery and the Burr hole craniotomy are used to treat Shaken Baby Syndrome; however, the prognosis is poor in many cases. Because of the severity of Shaken Baby Syndrome and its traumatic and sometimes fatal effects, it is important to educate new parents, nurses, and doctors on the syndrome in order to prevent incidents.

  8. Socioemotional and Behavioral Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities: The Moderating Role of Maternal Personal Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the role of maternal personal resources (mother's attachment style, coping strategies, and affect) in moderating the effects of learning disabilities (LD) on children's socioemotional and behavioral adjustment (self-rated sense of coherence, loneliness, and hope; and mother-rated child behavior checklist measures), as well as on…

  9. Maternal Perinatal Mental Health and Offspring Academic Achievement at Age 16: The Mediating Role of Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Rebecca M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Cordero, Miguel; Scerif, Gaia; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Abioye, Abu; Stein, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have…

  10. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    PubMed

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745

  11. Evolution of maternal effect senescence

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton’s evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton’s age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745

  12. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    PubMed

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  13. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    PubMed

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  14. The Risky Business of Reproduction: Environmental Exposures and Associated Risks to Fertility and Healthy Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattler, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Each of the elements required to create a healthy baby--genetics, the anatomy of the male and female reproductive system, the processes by which eggs and sperm are produced, the processes by which the embryo is created and implanted, maternal health during pregnancy, and embryonic/fetal growth and development--is vulnerable to damage by…

  15. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  16. Caring for You and Your Baby: From Pregnancy through the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Fairview Health Services.

    Prepared by the Maternal and Newborn Services staff at a health care system affiliated with the University of Minnesota, this book is designed as several resources in one, encompassing pregnancy, childbirth, infant care, child development, baby keepsakes, medical records, and journal-keeping. The book provides authoritative, up-to-date information…

  17. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  18. Liver transplantation in small babies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, J; Gámez, M; Santamaría, M L; Murcia, J; Díaz, M C; Camarena, C; Jara, P; Tovar, J A

    1993-08-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage liver disease with 1- and 5-year survivals approaching 90% and 70%, respectively. Survival is influenced by the recipient's age, weight, primary disease, vascular malformations, and nutritional status. Younger patients weighing less than 13 kg are considered to be a high-risk group. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of this group of patients on the overall results of our pediatric liver transplant program. From January 1986 through January 1992 we performed 76 liver transplants in 59 pediatric patients. Sixteen received a second graft and a third was required in one. Fourteen patients weighed less than 13 kg (mean, 11 kg; range, 6 to 13 kg). Their mean age was 12 months, with a range of 8 to 36 months. Indications for transplantation were: biliary atresia (9), Byler's disease (1), tyrosinemia (3), and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (1). The incidence of rejection in this group (52%) was not significantly different from that in other patients (61%). Ten episodes of acute rejection required only steroids: in one monoclonal antibodies were added. Five patients had a new graft implanted, four for hepatic artery thrombosis and one for primary liver nonfunction. Nine patients are alive (64%) with the follow-up time ranging from 2 to 56 months (mean, 31). Five patients died of multiorgan failure (3), portal vein thrombosis (1), and primary liver nonfunction (1). Four-year graft and patient survival rates were 47% and 64%, respectively. Small babies are a high-risk group in a pediatric liver transplant program.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Rates of mutant structural chromosome rearrangements in human fetuses: data from prenatal cytogenetic studies and associations with maternal age and parental mutagen exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E B; Schreinemachers, D M; Willey, A M; Cross, P K

    1983-01-01

    In 27,225 prenatal cytogenetic studies of amniotic fluid reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry and the United States Interregional Chromosome Register System, there were 61 cases with a structural chromosomal abnormality not known inherited, a rate per 1,000 of 2.24. Of these 33, 1.21 per 1,000 were known de novo and nonmosaic; consequently, the rate of events resulting from germinal mutation is highly likely to be between these two limits. The rates per 1,000 of unbalanced abnormalities were 0.59-1.29; of balanced abnormalities, 0.62-0.96; of balanced Robertsonian translocations, 0.22-0.29; and of unbalanced Robertsonian translocations, 0.07-0.11. The rates of fetuses with supernumerary markers and fragments were unexpectedly high: 0.26-0.70 per 1,000. These abnormalities were associated with increased maternal age (38.0 +/- 5.4 to 38.4 +/- 3.6 compared to 35.6 +/- 4.3 in controls), but even after adjustment for the bias to preferential study of older women, the observed rates of these supernumerary abnormalities were greater than would be expected from live-birth studies or rates estimated in all recognized conceptuses. There were trends to elevated maternal age for the group of all balanced rearrangements, and to diminished maternal age for the nonsupernumerary, non-Robertsonian unbalanced rearrangements. In 136 women studied primarily because of exposure to a putative mutagen, a de novo deletion and an inversion not known inherited were detected. The rate of abnormality in these 136, 1.47%, was significantly greater than the rate of abnormality in the remainder: 0.14%-0.22%. PMID:6823977

  20. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) Interacts with Maternal Parenting in Predicting Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility and Age Differences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Yanmiao; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Most gene-environment interaction research on depression has largely focused on negative environment and to a lesser extent on positive environment. Moreover, to date few studies have directly examined G × E at different periods in development, particularly during early adolescence. The present study addressed these issues by examining the concurrent and prospective longitudinal effects of maternal parenting, DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, and their interaction on adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of 1026 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 11.33 ± 0.47 years at T1, 50.3% girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study from age 11 to 13. Results indicated that maternal positive and negative parenting significantly concurrently predicted adolescent depressive symptoms at all three waves, whereas TaqIA polymorphism had no main effect on depressive symptoms. TaqIA polymorphism interacted with negative parenting in predicting concurrent depressive symptoms at age 11 and 12. A1 carriers were more susceptible to negative parenting compared to A2A2 homozygotes, such that adolescents carrying A1 alleles experiencing high negative parenting reported more depressive symptoms but fared better when experiencing low negative parenting. However, the interaction became nonsignificant at age 13, indicating the interaction of TaqIA polymorphism and maternal parenting may vary with development. Also, there was no G × E effect on longitudinal change in depression. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and shed light on the potential for dynamic change in gene-environment interactions over development.

  1. Both long and brief maternal separation produces persistent changes in tissue levels of brain monoamines in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Arborelius, L; Eklund, M B

    2007-03-16

    Adverse experiences early in life are associated with an increased incidence of later psychopathology including depression. Based on evidence that dysfunction of central monoaminergic systems is involved in the pathophysiology of depression, we hypothesize that early adversity could negatively affect these systems. To test this we have investigated the effects of maternal separation, which has been suggested to model early-life stress and the development of a depression-like syndrome in the rat, on brain monoaminergic systems. Since depression is more common in women and the risk of developing this disorder appears to increase with age, we have studied such effects in middle-aged female rats. Rat pups were separated for 180 min (long maternal separation; LMS) or 15 min (brief maternal separation; BMS, often referred to as neonatal handling) twice daily for 2 weeks postpartum. An animal facility-reared (AFR) group was also included. At 15 months of age tissue levels of monoamines and their metabolites in several different brain regions were analyzed. In the LMS females tissue levels of both 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were significantly increased in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid levels were also elevated in the nucleus accumbens as compared with AFR and BMS rats. In the cingulate cortex both LMS and BMS decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels, although this effect was more pronounced in the LMS rats. On the other hand, BMS decreased 5-HT, 5-HIAA, dopamine (DA) as well as NA levels in the amygdala and produced an increase in DA levels in response to acute stress in the hypothalamus, an effect not seen in AFR rats. Our results demonstrate that LMS produced persistent alterations in both serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems in brain regions that have been suggested to be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In addition, BMS affected brain monoaminergic levels mainly in the amygdala.

  2. Telomere length change plateaus at 4 years of age in Latino children: associations with baseline length and maternal change.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Shiboski, Stephen; Heyman, Melvin B; Elwan, Deena; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres are the protective complexes at the end of chromosomes, required for genomic stability. Little is known about predictors of attrition in young children or the relationship between parental and child patterns of telomere change. Telomere length was assessed twice over one year, at 4 and at 5 years of age, in Latino preschool children (n = 77) and their mothers (n = 70) in whole blood leukocytes. Maternal and child rates of attrition during the same time period were compared in 70 mother-child pairs. More children showed lengthened telomeres over one year compared to their mothers and very few children showed attrition (2.6 %). Approximately 31 % of children and 16 % of mothers displayed lengthening over one year while 66 % of children showed maintenance in contrast with 74 % of mothers. The strongest predictor for child telomere length change was child's baseline telomere length (r = -0.61, p < 0.01). Maternal rate of change was associated with child rate of change (r = 0.33, p < 0.01). After controlling for child baseline telomere length, the relationship between child and maternal rate of change trended towards significance (Coeff = 0.20, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.43; p = 0.08). We found primarily maintenance and lengthening from 4 to 5 years of age in children, with minimal telomere attrition, indicating that most of the telomere loss happens in the first 4 years, plateauing by age 4. Lastly, we found close to 10 % of the variance in rate of change in children shared by mothers. While some of this shared variance is genetic, there are likely environmental factors that need to be further identified that impact rate of telomere length change. PMID:26965507

  3. Parental Perception of a Baby Sign Workshop on Stress and Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Baby sign language is gaining in popularity. However, research has indicated a lack of empirical research supporting its use. In addition, research suggests that baby sign training may increase stress levels in parents. Methods: Nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years; five months participated in a…

  4. Adolescent Mothers' Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmens, Donna A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the experiences of adolescent mothers with depression following the birth of their babies. A sample of 20 participants, between the ages of 16 and 18, were asked to reflect upon and describe their thoughts, feelings, and perceptions about being depressed after the birth of their babies. Implications for practice and directions for future…

  5. Vocal Development of 9-Month-Old Babies with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kathy L.; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Schulte, Julie; Halter, Kelli Ann

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the prelinguistic vocal development of 30 9- month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate and age-matched peers (N=15). Fewer of the babies with cleft palate had reached the canonical babbling stage (57 percent versus 93 percent) and had smaller consonant inventories. However, syllable types and length and number of…

  6. Babies, Music and Gender: Music Playschools in Finland as Multimodal Participatory Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Taru

    2011-01-01

    Studies of education and childhood studies in general tend to focus on the experiences and cultures of toddlers and school-age children. The experiences and cultures of babies and infants are often excluded from the scope of the studies of children. In Gilles Deleuze's (and Felix Guattari's) thinking, a child, and especially a baby or an infant,…

  7. Age-related Changes in Acoustic Modifications of Mandarin Maternal Speech to Preverbal Infants and Five-Year-Old Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huei-Mei; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic-phonetic exaggeration of infant-directed speech (IDS) is well documented, but few studies address whether these features are modified with a child's age. Mandarin-speaking mothers were recorded while addressing an adult and their child at two ages (7-12 months and 5 years) to examine the acoustic-phonetic differences between IDS and child–directed speech (CDS). CDS exhibits an exaggeration pattern resembling that of IDS—expanded vowel space, longer vowels, higher pitch, and greater lexical tone differences—when compared to ADS. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the extent of acoustic exaggeration is significantly smaller in CDS than in IDS. Age-related changes in maternal speech provide some support for the hypothesis that mothers adjust their speech directed toward children as a function of the child's language ability. PMID:19232142

  8. Maternal microchimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jody; Vives-Pi, Marta; Gillespie, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Increased levels of non-inherited maternal HLA alleles have been detected in the periphery of children with type 1 diabetes and an increased frequency of maternal cells have been identified in type 1 diabetes pancreas. It is now clear that the phenotype of these cells is pancreatic,1 supporting the hypothesis that maternal cells in human pancreas are derived from multipotent maternal progenitors. Here we hypothesize how increased levels of maternal cells could play a role in islet autoimmunity. PMID:25093746

  9. Maternal age–based prenatal screening for chromosomal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Rideout, Andrea; Wilson, Brenda J.; Allanson, Judith; Blaine, Sean; Esplen, Mary Jane; Farrell, Sandra; Graham, Gail E.; MacKenzie, Jennifer; Meschino, Wendy S.; Prakash, Preeti; Shuman, Cheryl; Taylor, Sherry; Tobin, Stasey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore views of women and health care providers (HCPs) about the changing recommendations regarding maternal age–based prenatal screening. Design Mixed-methods design. Setting Ontario. Participants A sample of women who had given birth within the previous 2 years and who had attended a family medicine centre, midwifery practice, or baby and mother wellness program (n = 42); and a random sample of family physicians (n = 1600), and all Ontario obstetricians (n = 694) and midwives (n = 334) who provided prenatal care. Methods We used focus groups (FGs) to explore women's views. Content analysis was used to uncover themes and delineate meaning. To explore HCPs' views, we conducted a cross-sectional self-completion survey. Main findings All FG participants (42 women in 6 FGs) expressed the importance of individual choice of prenatal screening modality, regardless of age. They described their perception that society considers women older than 35 to be at high obstetric risk and raised concerns that change in the maternal age–related screening policy would require education. The HCP survey response rate was 40%. Results showed 24% of HCPs agreed that women of any age should be eligible for invasive diagnostic testing regardless of prenatal screening results; 15% agreed that the age for diagnostic testing should be increased to 40 years, 14% agreed that diagnostic testing should be reserved for women with positive prenatal screening results, and 45% agreed that prenatal screening should remain unchanged. Conclusion Maternity care organizations have recommended that maternal age–based prenatal screening is no longer appropriate. Informed choice is of paramount importance to women and should be part of any change. Health care providers need to be engaged in and educated about any change to screening guidelines to offer women informed choices. PMID:23341678

  10. Effects of maternal worm infections and anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy on infant motor and neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Nampijja, Margaret; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Muhangi, Lawrence; Webb, Emily L; Lewis, Charlie; Elliott, Alison M; Alcock, Katie J

    2012-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that maternal worm infections in pregnancy affect infant motor and neurocognitive development, and that anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy can reverse these effects. We used measures which examine infant motor, cognitive and executive function, including inhibition. We assessed 983 Ugandan infants aged 15 months, using locally appropriate measures within the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy. Key exposures were maternal worm infections and anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy. Effects of other health and social factors were controlled for statistically. Of the five major worm species found in the pregnant women, two had influences on the developmental measures: Maternal Mansonella perstans and Strongyloides stercoralis infections showed negative associations with the A-not B-task, and Language, respectively. Performance on other psychomotor and cognitive measures was associated with illnesses during infancy and infants' behavior during assessment, but not with maternal worm infections. There were no positive effects of maternal anthelminthic treatment on infant abilities. Mansonella perstans and Strongyloides stercoralis infection during pregnancy seem associated with impaired early executive function and language, respectively, but single-dose anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy was not beneficial. The biological mechanisms that could underlie these neurocognitive effects are discussed. PMID:23158229

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age. Methods: A total of 122 mother–child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites—mono-2-ethylhexyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalates (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP)—were measured in maternal urine collected during the third trimester of pregnancy using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Behavioral syndromes of children at 8 years of age were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations between log10-transformed creatinine-corrected phthalate concentrations and standardized scores of the CBCL were estimated using linear regression models or multinomial logistic regressions with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Externalizing problem scores were significantly higher in association with a 1-unit increase in log10-transformed creatinine-corrected concentrations of maternal MBP (β = 4.29; 95% CI: 0.59, 7.99), MEOHP (β = 3.74; 95% CI: 1.33, 6.15), and MEHP (β = 4.28 ; 95% CI: 0.03, 8.26) after adjusting for the child’s sex, intelligence, and family income. Meanwhile, MBP and MEOHP were significantly associated with Delinquent Behavior and Aggressive Behavior scores. The same pattern was found for borderline and/or clinical ranges. Conclusions: Our findings suggest positive associations between maternal DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and externalizing domain behavior problems in 8-year-old children. Citation: Lien YJ, Ku HY, Su PH, Chen SJ

  12. Small-for-gestational age and its association with maternal blood glucose, body mass index and stature: a perinatal cohort study among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632

  13. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  14. Risk assessment of medically assisted reproduction and advanced maternal ages in the development of Prader-Willi syndrome due to UPD(15)mat.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, K; Murakami, N; Fukami, M; Kagami, M; Nagai, T; Ogata, T

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that disomic oocyte-mediated uniparental disomy 15 (UPD(15)mat) is increased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). However, it remains unknown whether the increase is primarily due to MAR procedure itself or advanced maternal childbearing ages as a predisposing factor for the disomic oocyte production. To examine this matter, we studied 122 naturally conceived PWS patients (PWS-NC group) and 13 MAR-conceived patients (PWS-MAR group). The relative frequency of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat was significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group (7/13 vs 20/122, p = 0.0045), and the maternal childbearing ages were significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group [median (range), 38 (26-45) vs 30 (19-42), p = 0.0015]. However, the logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between the occurrence of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat and MAR, after adjusting for childbearing age (p = 0.25). Consistent with this, while the frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived livebirths was higher in the PWS patients than in the Japanese general population (6.4% vs 1.1%, p = 0.00018), the distribution of childbearing ages was significantly skewed to the increased ages in the PWS patients (p < 2.2 × 10(-16) ). These results argue against a positive association of MAR procedure itself with the development of UPD(15)mat. PMID:26526156

  15. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the “finishing” phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  16. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle

  17. ["Baby cradle coop slots" for abandoned (anonymous) babies: legal problems].

    PubMed

    Riedel, U

    2006-04-01

    It is illegal to propagate or offer anonymous births or to "cradle" abandoned babies in anonymous coop slots ("Babyklappen" in German). Such offers must be rescinded. Offers concerning anonymity of births are ill-suited, since they do not save life. They are unnecessary, because women and children can be assisted even if they are in dire straits, by utilising available help as offered by statutory German child and adolescent aid institutions. Those illegal offers do not solve any problems but create new difficulties and result in lifelong misery for children and parents. Offers for anonymousness create a previously non-existent demand and discredit legal help facilities. Persons assisting anonymous deliveries or recovering "baby cradle" ("Babyklappen") children are obliged to report this to the local registrar's office (in hospitals by the hospital director). Anonymous babies must be immediately reported by hospitals or institutions to local police authorities, and they should be reported to the municipal Youth Office.

  18. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  19. An Analysis of the Frame-Content Theory in Babble of 9-Month-Old Babies with Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Gwendolyn; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the consonant-vowel co-occurrence patterns predicted by the Frame-Content theory in 16 nine-month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate ([plus or minus]cleft lip) and 16 age-matched non-cleft babies. Babble from these babies was phonetically transcribed and grouped according to the intrasyllabic predictions…

  20. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.

  1. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors.

  2. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  3. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months: Response to Howard and Doherty-Sneddon's Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Johnston, J. Cyne; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence related to the effectiveness of baby sign language for children with typical development. This response to a Commentary on the review stresses that the primary purpose of the review was to assist caregivers and policy makers with informed decision-making related to the benefits of the…

  4. Revisiting the Measurement of Shaken Baby Syndrome Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 10 years, over 80% of adults surveyed report some familiarity with Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) and the dangers of shaking infants younger than 2 years of age ([Dias et al., 2005] and [Russell and Britner, 2006]). Hence, in the context of SBS prevention, the question of whether caregivers knew the safety risks of shaking an infant…

  5. Will the Retiring Baby Boomers Return to Rural Periphery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Jussi S.

    2009-01-01

    Many belonging to large post-war age cohorts in the western countries moved from rural areas to larger industrializing cities. They retire soon and can consider moving back to the childhood places. This article studies these baby boomers and the issues about their return to peripheral rural areas. The case regards one rural municipality,…

  6. Just a Talking Book? Word Learning from Watching Baby Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Michael B.; Richert, Rebekah A.; Wartella, Ellen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between viewing an infant DVD and expressive and receptive language outcomes. Children between 12 and 15 months were randomly assigned to view "Baby Wordsworth," a DVD highlighting words around the house marketed for children beginning at 12 months of age. Viewings took place in home settings over 6 weeks.…

  7. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  9. Magnetothermodynamics of BPS baby skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetothermodynamics of skyrmion type matter described by the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model at zero temperature is investigated. We prove that the BPS property of the model is preserved also for boundary conditions corresponding to an asymptotically constant magnetic field. The BPS bound and the corresponding BPS equations saturating the bound are found. Further, we show that one may introduce pressure in the gauged model by a redefinition of the superpotential. Interestingly, this is related to non-extremal type solutions in the so-called fake supersymmetry method. Finally, we compute the equation of state of magnetized BSP baby skyrmions inserted into an external constant magnetic field H and under external pressure P , i.e., V = V ( P, H), where V is the "volume" (area) occupied by the skyrmions. We show that the BPS baby skyrmions form a ferromagnetic medium.

  10. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments. PMID:15586985

  11. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 μg 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D.

  12. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

  13. Baby Boomers’ Adoption of Consumer Health Technologies: Survey on Readiness and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As they age, baby boomers (born 1946-1964) will have increasing medical needs and are likely to place large demand on health care resources. Consumer health technologies may help stem rising health care needs and costs by improving provider-to-patient communication, health monitoring, and information access and enabling self-care. Research has not explored the degree to which baby boomers are ready for, or are currently embracing, specific consumer health technologies This study explores how baby boomers’ readiness to use various technologies for health purposes compares to other segments of the adult population. Objective The goals of the study are to (1) examine what technologies baby boomers are ready to use for health purposes, (2) investigate barriers to baby boomers’ use of technology for health purposes, and (3) understand whether readiness for and barriers to baby boomers’ use of consumer health technologies differ from those of other younger and older consumers. Methods Data were collected via a survey offered to a random sample of 3000 subscribers to a large pharmacy benefit management company. Respondents had the option to complete the survey online or by completing a paper-based version of the survey. Results Data from 469 respondents (response rate 15.63%) were analyzed, including 258 baby boomers (aged 46-64 years), 72 younger (aged 18-45 years), and 139 older (age >64 years) participants. Baby boomers were found to be similar to the younger age group, but significantly more likely than the older age group to be ready to use 5 technologies for health purposes (health information websites, email, automated call centers, medical video conferencing, and texting). Baby boomers were less ready than the younger age group to adopt podcasts, kiosks, smartphones, blogs, and wikis for health care purposes. However, baby boomers were more likely than older adults to use smartphones and podcasts for health care purposes. Specific adoption

  14. Maternal-fetal conflict.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-03-01

    Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. Any situation where maternal well-being or wishes contradict fetal benefit constitutes a maternal-fetal conflict. Such situations include a broad range of possible interventions, non-interventions, and coercive influences. In such cases, the attending physician is expected to attain an attitude that involves either the respect of the woman's autonomy and right to privacy, which precludes any approach other than to accept her decision, or to modify this absolute for the beneficence of the fetus. Current ethical viewpoints range from absolute respect for maternal autonomy with no persuasion allowed, to gentle persuasion and to others which permit intervention and overriding of the woman's autonomy. Court-ordered decisions enforcing the pregnant woman to undergo a procedure in order to improve fetal outcome have been criticized as an invasion of a woman's privacy, limitation of her autonomy, and taking away of her right to informed consent. PMID:10733034

  15. Can Baby Hear?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 children born in the United States are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Research shows that early ... to this, the average age of identification for deaf and hearing impaired children was close to three ...

  16. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  17. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  18. "Babies Grow a Long Time": A Preschool Project about Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Andromahi

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…

  19. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Especially for ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  20. Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funds Request Information Get Involved Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby Home Grieving Families Surviving the ... Candle on For Families Who Have Experienced the Death of a Baby The numbers are staggering. Every ...

  1. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day). Feed your baby when they seems hungry. Signs include smacking lips, making suckling movements, and ... to feed her. This means she is very hungry. Your baby should not sleep more than 4 ...

  2. Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160211.html Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development Tiny movements help ... 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When parents watch babies sleep, they often assume that the tiny twitches they ...

  3. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth > For ... sleep sooner. continue My baby falls asleep while nursing. What can I do? Newborns often fall asleep ...

  4. Spring and Baby Poultry are Here!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Spring and Baby Poultry are Here! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  5. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jacqueline M.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S.; Platt, Robert W.; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970–2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Conclusions Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous

  6. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  12. [Maternal mortality in Argentina].

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    In Argentina, as in most countries, complications of pregnancy and delivery are important causes of mortality of fertile-age women. At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, governments agreed on the objective of promoting maternity without risk in order to reduce maternal mortality. Maternal mortality rates in many developing countries are much higher than the 10/100,000 live births in the most developed countries. Deficiencies in reporting due either to failure to report deaths or errors in the cause of death are a major impediment to study of maternal mortality. Two studies were conducted recently to provide more accurate data on maternal mortality in Argentina. A study carried out during 1987-89 was designed to measure underregistration of maternal mortality in the federal capital in 1985. Data from death registers were paired with the corresponding clinical histories. The true maternal mortality rate was found to be 91/100,000 rather than the official 50. 38% of maternal deaths rather than the previously estimated 57% were found to be due to complications of illegal abortion. The degree of underreporting in the federal capital, which has the highest proportion of hospital deliveries and most developed infrastructure, suggests that the maternal mortality rate is also much higher than official estimates in other parts of Argentina. Official estimates for 1993 showed a maternal mortality rate of 46/100,000, with very significant regional differentials. A study using the indirect sister survival method was conducted in a low income neighborhood of Zarate in 1991. 8041 persons in 1679 households were interviewed. The resulting estimate of 140/100,000 corresponded to the early 1980s.

  13. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  14. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  15. Understanding How Babies Build Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    Language is a great communication system. Through language, humans can express logical reasoning, grief, happiness, wishes, descriptions, and a rich array of feelings and ideas. Every baby deserves the gift of language power! In this article, the author discusses how babies build language skills and presents activities to help babies build…

  16. Shaken Baby Syndrome. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Susan

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about shaken baby syndrome, brain damage resulting from forceful shaking of an infant or young child. Questions and answers address the following topics: what shaken baby syndrome is and other names for the condition; the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome; the incidence…

  17. How to Care for Your Baby's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... twice a day as soon as the first tooth appears. Until your child is 1 year old, you can use a wet washcloth or gauze to clean your baby's teeth and gums. Start using a soft baby toothbrush and a small dab of toothpaste that does not have fluoride in it when your baby is between 1 ...

  18. Phonetic analyses of the speech development of babies with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, M M; Logemann, J A

    1988-04-01

    Phonetic transcription was completed of the vocalizations of 23 babies with cleft palate at 9 specified ages from 3 to 36 months of age. Frequency of occurrence was calculated for: (1) consonant place features, (2) consonant manner features, (3) stop types, (4) fricative types, (5) vowel place features, and (6) vowel height features. The data are discussed for the entire population, for those babies with greater palatal tissue for whom palatoplasty was conducted at or prior to 12 months of age and for those babies with lesser tissue for whom palatoplasty was conducted after 12 months of age. Results suggest that (1) neither group used oral place features at the rate produced by babies born with intact velopharyngeal mechanisms, but that (2) the greater tissue group exhibited somewhat higher emergence of oral stop and fricative productions.

  19. Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style. PMID:23210674

  20. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…

  1. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive toys, this…

  2. Care of the Migrant Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard

    Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,…

  3. Drug Affected Babies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This 42-item annotated bibliography, represents a comprehensive effort to gather information on the educational problems of infant children of substance-abusing parents. Extensive searches were conducted in databases in the fields of education, medicine, social sciences, and the humanities. In particular, studies on the problems of "crack babies"…

  4. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  5. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation.

  6. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation.

  7. Baby Signs: How To Talk with Your Baby before Your Baby Can Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Based on research in infant sign language, this book teaches parents methods of communicating with their infants through the use of simple bodily movements that signify objects, events, and needs. Noting that communication between parent and child can flourish between 9 months and 30 months, when a baby's desire to communicate outstrips the…

  8. Association of early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body mass index at 4 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Grzeskowiak, L E; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Morrison, J L; Clifton, V L

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring body mass index (BMI). We undertook a retrospective cohort study using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia. Among a cohort of women delivering a singleton, live-born infants between January 2000 and December 2005 (n=7658), 5961 reported not smoking during pregnancy, 297 reported quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 1400 reported continued smoking throughout pregnancy. Trained nurses measured the height and weight of the children at preschool visits in a state-wide surveillance programme. The main outcome measure was age- and sex-specific BMI z-score. At 4 to 5 years, mean (s.d.) BMI z-score was 0.40 (1.05), 0.60 (1.07) and 0.65 (1.18) in children of mothers who reported never smoking, quitting smoking and continued smoking during pregnancy, respectively. Compared with the group of non-smokers, both quitting smoking and continued smoking were associated with an increase in child BMI z-score of 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.29) and 0.21 (0.13-0.29), respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was also observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average during the second half of pregnancy and the increase in offspring BMI z-score (P<0.001). In conclusion, any maternal smoking in pregnancy, even if mothers quit, is associated with an increase in offspring BMI at 4 to 5 years of age.

  9. Maternal-Fetal Attachment Differentiates Patterns of Prenatal Smoking and Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Suena H.; Bublitz, Margaret H.; Magee, Susanna R.; Salisbury, Amy; Niaura, Raymond S.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Stroud, Laura R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking cessation during pregnancy may reflect altruistic motives on behalf of the unborn baby. We test the hypothesis that pregnancy quitters have higher maternal-fetal attachment than persistent smokers, and secondarily explore how maternal-fetal attachment differs among non-smokers, pregnancy quitters, and persistent smokers. Methods Participants were 156 women in the Behavior and Mood in Babies and Mothers study who provided report of smoking throughout pregnancy via timeline follow back interviews, with salivary cotinine confirmation of reported cessation at 30 and 35 weeks gestation, and postpartum day one. Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale total and subscale scores (role-taking, differentiation of self from fetus, interaction with fetus, attributing characteristics to fetus, giving of self) were examined among non-smokers, pregnancy quitters, and persistent smokers. Results At 30 weeks, pregnancy quitters scored higher on the ‘giving of self’ subscale compared to persistent smokers (21.6 ± 2.4 versus 19.9 ± 2.9; p = .004). Maternal ‘giving of self’ also differentiated pregnancies exposed to cigarette smoking from those without exposure from 30 weeks through delivery (19.9 ± 2.9 versus 21.2 ± 2.2; p = .002). Controlling for age, income, unemployment, gravida, and father’s smoking status, ‘giving of self’ differentiated pregnancy quitters from persistent smokers [OR = 5.144; 95% C.I. 1.509 – 17.538; B (SE) = 1.638 (.626); p = .009]. Conclusions Women who reported a greater desire to maintain their personal health for the health of their fetus were more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Implications of findings for interventions and understanding mechanisms of risk are discussed. PMID:25644587

  10. Meta-analysis of telomere length in 19,713 subjects reveals high heritability, stronger maternal inheritance and a paternal age effect.

    PubMed

    Broer, Linda; Codd, Veryan; Nyholt, Dale R; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Willemsen, Gonneke; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Geus, Eco J C; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Christopher P; Steves, Claire J; Wright, Margie J; de Craen, Anton J M; Isaacs, Aaron; Matthews, Mary; Moayyeri, Alireza; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Vink, Jacqueline M; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Martin, Nicholas G; Samani, Nilesh J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-10-01

    Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and mortality, but individual differences are also influenced by genetic factors, with previous studies reporting heritability estimates ranging from 34 to 82%. Here we investigate the heritability, mode of inheritance and the influence of parental age at birth on TL in six large, independent cohort studies with a total of 19,713 participants. The meta-analysis estimate of TL heritability was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.76) and is based on a pattern of results that is highly similar for twins and other family members. We observed a stronger mother-offspring (r=0.42; P-value=3.60 × 10(-61)) than father-offspring correlation (r=0.33; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)), and a significant positive association with paternal age at offspring birth (β=0.005; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, a significant and quite substantial correlation in TL between spouses (r=0.25; P-value=2.82 × 10(-30)) was seen, which appeared stronger in older spouse pairs (mean age ≥55 years; r=0.31; P-value=4.27 × 10(-23)) than in younger pairs (mean age<55 years; r=0.20; P-value=3.24 × 10(-10)). In summary, we find a high and very consistent heritability estimate for TL, evidence for a maternal inheritance component and a positive association with paternal age.

  11. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  12. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD. PMID:16139550

  13. Senescence of maternal effects: aging influences egg quality and rearing capacities of a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2010-04-01

    Senescence could depress prenatal and postnatal capacities of mothers to invest in offspring. Longitudinal observations on the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) revealed a quadratic effect of female age on fledgling production and cohort differences in rate of reproductive decline. By swapping clutches between females of different ages, we tested whether reproductive senescence is due to decline in egg quality or capacity to care. As laying mothers aged, egg size, ulna length of 5-day-old chicks, and ulna growth of second chicks up to age 30 days declined, and as rearing mothers aged, ulna growth and cellular mediated immune response of second chicks diminished. Oddly, senescent females (>11 years) produced more fledglings when rearing offspring of middle-aged females (8-11 years) than when rearing offspring of senescent or young females. Thus, senescence reduced egg quality and rearing capacities, and reproductive success of senescent mothers depended on prenatal effects associated with the age of the laying mother. Reproductive senescence of boobies may involve constraints on resources allocated to reproduction as well as adaptive adjustment of provision and care according to offspring value, implying that negative effects of senescence on offspring survival can be ameliorated by plasticity in postlaying or postnatal care.

  14. Senescence of maternal effects: aging influences egg quality and rearing capacities of a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2010-04-01

    Senescence could depress prenatal and postnatal capacities of mothers to invest in offspring. Longitudinal observations on the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) revealed a quadratic effect of female age on fledgling production and cohort differences in rate of reproductive decline. By swapping clutches between females of different ages, we tested whether reproductive senescence is due to decline in egg quality or capacity to care. As laying mothers aged, egg size, ulna length of 5-day-old chicks, and ulna growth of second chicks up to age 30 days declined, and as rearing mothers aged, ulna growth and cellular mediated immune response of second chicks diminished. Oddly, senescent females (>11 years) produced more fledglings when rearing offspring of middle-aged females (8-11 years) than when rearing offspring of senescent or young females. Thus, senescence reduced egg quality and rearing capacities, and reproductive success of senescent mothers depended on prenatal effects associated with the age of the laying mother. Reproductive senescence of boobies may involve constraints on resources allocated to reproduction as well as adaptive adjustment of provision and care according to offspring value, implying that negative effects of senescence on offspring survival can be ameliorated by plasticity in postlaying or postnatal care. PMID:20175680

  15. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  16. The relationship of observed maternal behavior to questionnaire measures of parenting knowledge, attitudes, and emotional state in adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Leresche, L; Strobino, D; Parks, P; Fischer, P; Smeriglio, V

    1983-02-01

    Although relationships have been found between maternal psychological characteristics and cognitive and emotional outcomes in children, the behaviors which may mediate these relationships are seldom examined. This is especially true for adolescent mothers, whose children are thought to be at high risk for adverse outcomes. In this study, adolescent mothers in two special programs completed questionnaires measuring perception of the newborn (Neonatal Perception Inventory), knowledge of influences on child development (Infant Caregiving Inventory), and emotional state (General Health Questionnaire); they were also systematically observed while interacting with their infants in a naturalistic situation. Specific maternal behaviors were found to vary with the age of the mother and of the baby. Mothers with neutral or negative perceptions of their infants touched them less than did mothers with positive perceptions. Degree of emotional disturbance was inversely related to the amount of time that the mother looked at her infant while in physical contact.

  17. Early interactive behaviours in preterm infants and their mothers: influences of maternal depressive symptomatology and neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Dellabartola, Sara; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated the quality of preterm infant-mother interactions, considering severity of birth weight (ELBW and VLBW) and maternal depression, compared to full term babies. 69 preterm infants (29 ELBW and 40 VLBW) and 80 full-term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, the quality of mother-infant interaction was evaluated through Global Rating Scales; moreover, infant level of development and maternal depression were assessed through Griffith Development Mental Scales and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results showed adequate sensitivity in preterm infants' mothers and higher involvement with their infants, compared to full term mothers, but ELBW ones exhibited an intrusive interactive pattern and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. The study underlined the relevance of paying special attention to both ELBW infants and their mothers, in order to support the parenting role and the co-construction of early interactions.

  18. The long term effect of age and maternally derived antibodies against foot and mouth disease on the serological response following vaccination in young dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-09-22

    In Israel, occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in dairy farms is rare. However, when FMD outbreaks occur, dairy calves are the most affected, despite routine vaccination. Contradictory findings exist regarding the effect of age and maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the serological response following vaccinations against FMD in dairy calves. Furthermore, the long term effect of FMD vaccination regimen during early life was rarely assessed. This study was conducted in order to assess both the short and long term effects. In total 44 non-vaccinated calves were divided into four groups of different age. Calves were vaccinated up to four times and 484 serum samples were collected on 11 time points in a period of 70weeks. Virus neutralizing tests were performed in order to determine the neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) against the vaccine strains (homologous serotypes): O-4625, O-Manisa, ASIA-1-Shamir and the heterologous serotype A-Turkey-20/2006. A similar NAT pattern was observed to all serotypes and therefore statistical analysis was restricted to O-4625 serotype. The MDA titer was negatively associated with the age of the calves and the MDA half-life was 22days. We demonstrated that early vaccination of calves (younger than three months) resulted in low NAT, even after four repeated vaccinations, compared with vaccination of calves older than three months. The percentage of time in which these calves had a NAT above 2.0 (log10) between the age of six months and 1.5years was significantly lower compared to older calves (older than three months). Additionally, we found that by increasing the frequency of vaccination in calves older than three months, it is possible to reach high NAT by the age of one year. Adoption of such a vaccination regimen in Israel as well as other FMD endemic countries may allow better protection against FMD in dairy calves and reduction in FMD incidence. PMID:27521229

  19. The long term effect of age and maternally derived antibodies against foot and mouth disease on the serological response following vaccination in young dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-09-22

    In Israel, occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in dairy farms is rare. However, when FMD outbreaks occur, dairy calves are the most affected, despite routine vaccination. Contradictory findings exist regarding the effect of age and maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the serological response following vaccinations against FMD in dairy calves. Furthermore, the long term effect of FMD vaccination regimen during early life was rarely assessed. This study was conducted in order to assess both the short and long term effects. In total 44 non-vaccinated calves were divided into four groups of different age. Calves were vaccinated up to four times and 484 serum samples were collected on 11 time points in a period of 70weeks. Virus neutralizing tests were performed in order to determine the neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) against the vaccine strains (homologous serotypes): O-4625, O-Manisa, ASIA-1-Shamir and the heterologous serotype A-Turkey-20/2006. A similar NAT pattern was observed to all serotypes and therefore statistical analysis was restricted to O-4625 serotype. The MDA titer was negatively associated with the age of the calves and the MDA half-life was 22days. We demonstrated that early vaccination of calves (younger than three months) resulted in low NAT, even after four repeated vaccinations, compared with vaccination of calves older than three months. The percentage of time in which these calves had a NAT above 2.0 (log10) between the age of six months and 1.5years was significantly lower compared to older calves (older than three months). Additionally, we found that by increasing the frequency of vaccination in calves older than three months, it is possible to reach high NAT by the age of one year. Adoption of such a vaccination regimen in Israel as well as other FMD endemic countries may allow better protection against FMD in dairy calves and reduction in FMD incidence.

  20. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  1. The Maternal Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Independent ratings of videotaped sessions in which mothers (N=60) interacted with their mentally retarded children (ages 1-3) suggested that potentially important components of maternal behavior (child orientedness/pleasure and control) may be assessed with the seven-item short form of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale. (JW)

  2. Baby universes in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-03-15

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 2} but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e{sup -N}) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  3. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui

    2016-06-01

    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children.

  4. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui

    2016-06-01

    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children. PMID:27353148

  5. Unity through Diversity: A Report on the Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Communities of Color Leadership Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes the activities of a forum held by the Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies (HMHB) Coalition on maternal and child health issues affecting communities of color. Participants highlighted their communities' problems related to infant and child health, identified critical issues that need to be addressed from each community's…

  6. Prevalence of MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in North Indian Mothers Having Babies with Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Utkarsh; Arora, Sadhna; Kabra, Madhulika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gulati, Sheffali; Pandey, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated possible links between polymorphisms in maternal folate metabolism genes and Down syndrome. Some of these studies show a significantly increased prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) gene (MTHFR) among mothers who have had babies with Down syndrome. This study…

  7. Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to children?

    PubMed

    Siener, K; Rothman, D; Farrar, J

    1997-01-01

    Baby bottle with popular soda pop and soft drink logos are on marked shelves. A descriptive study was conducted to determine their prevalence among families and to determine whether the logos could be influencing what families put in baby bottles. A convenience sample of 314 mothers (and grandmothers if they were primary caregivers) with children using baby bottles was interviewed in three California counties. The results were analyzed for significance, using the chi-square test for independence. The ethnicities and educational levels of the sample population matched the distribution of the State. Overall, 31 percent of the children drank either soda pop or Kool-Aid from baby bottles. Forty-six percent of the respondents owned a baby bottle with a soda pop logo and 17 percent owned a bottle with a Kool-Aid logo. Families who owned bottles with popular beverage logos were four times more likely to give children the respective beverage in bottles than families with "logo bottles." Populations most likely to drink these beverages were those in the black and Hispanic ethnic groups, in the youngest age-group (15-20 years of age), and those without a high school diploma. Health professionals are concerned that the logos could cause an increase in children's consumption of sweetened beverages in baby bottles and consequently an increase in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and nutritional problems. PMID:9096820

  8. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı

    2013-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.

  9. Age-related changes in prosodic features of maternal speech to prelingually deaf infants with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Xu, Huipuing

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated prosodic and structural characteristics of infant-directed speech to hearing-impaired infants as they gain hearing experience with a cochlear implant over a 12-month period of time. Mothers were recorded during a play interaction with their HI infants (N = 27, mean age 18.4 months) at 3, 6, and 12 months post-implantation. Two separate control groups of mothers with age-matched normal-hearing infants (NH-AM) (N = 21, mean age 18.1 months) and hearing experience-matched normal-hearing infants (NH-EM) (N = 24, mean age 3.1 months) were recorded at three testing sessions. Mothers produced less exaggerated pitch characteristics, a larger number of syllables per utterance, and faster speaking rate when interacting with NH-AM as compared to HI infants. Mothers also produced more syllables and demonstrated a trend suggesting faster speaking rate in speech to NH-EM relative to HI infants. Age-related modifications included decreased pitch standard deviation and increased number of syllables in speech to NH-AM infants and increased number of syllables in speech to HI and NH-EM infants across the 12-month period. These results suggest that mothers are sensitive to the hearing status of their infants and modify characteristics of infant-direct speech over time. PMID:24244108

  10. Maternal micronutrient imbalance alters gene expression of BDNF, NGF, TrkB and CREB in the offspring brain at an adult age.

    PubMed

    Sable, Pratiksha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-05-01

    Micronutrients like folate, vitamin B12, and fatty acids which are interlinked in the one carbon cycle play a vital role in mediating epigenetic processes leading to an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Our earlier study demonstrates that a micronutrient imbalanced diet adversely affects docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and protein levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain and cognition in the offspring by 3 months of age. In this study we attempt to analyze if these effects are a consequence of a change in gene expression of these molecules. Further, we also examined the effect of either a postnatal control diet or a prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on gene expression in the cortex of the offspring. Pregnant rats were divided into control and five treatment groups at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12. Omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA+DHA) supplementation was given to vitamin B12 deficient groups. Following delivery, 8 dams from each group were shifted to control diet and remaining continued on the same treatment diet. Our results demonstrate that the imbalanced diet caused a marked reduction in the mRNA levels of BDNF, NGF, TrkB, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the maternal imbalanced diet was able to normalize the mRNA levels of all the above genes. This study demonstrates that a maternal diet imbalanced in micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) influences gene expression of neurotrophins and their signalling molecules and thereby adversely affects the brain of the offspring. PMID:24462543

  11. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Bin; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Su, Pen-Hua; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Hsiung, Chao A; Wang, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children's neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2-12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001-2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children's cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ). Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children's levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and their IQ scores (β = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; β = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites) after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children's IQ scores. Children's but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings in

  12. Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB II) Scoring System in Prediction of Mortality in Premature Babies

    PubMed Central

    Ezz-Eldin, Zahraa Mohamed; Hamid, Tamer A. Abdel; Nabil, Hossam El-Din

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical Risk Index for Babies scoring system (CRIB II) score is a recently developed tool to predict initial risk of mortality amongst low birth weight babies, the utility of which is scarce in many developing countries. Objective To assess the efficiency of CRIB II score as a tool to predict the risk for neonatal mortality among the LBW babies admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at a tertiary care facility Kasr El-Aini paediatric hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Materials and Methods Prospective cohort study design where 113 neonates, admitted during the first 24 hours to the NICU of Kasr El-Aini Hospital, from November 2013 till May 2014 were included. On admission, history taking, neonatal examination, arterial blood gas analysis and variables of CRIB II score were done. Subjects were followed up from admission till discharge or death. Results Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Gestational age ranged from 25-32 weeks, the birth weight ranged from 700-1500 gm with mean of 1134.5 (± 202). CRIB II score ranged from 1-19 with a mean of 9.9 (± 4.0). The total mortality in the included cohort was 34.5% (31/113). Significant positive correlations were found between gestational age, birth weight, temperature, excess base, CRIB II score and the occurrence of mortality and with progressive increase in mortality with increasing CRIB II score (p=0.001). CRIB II score ≥ 11, gestational age ≤ 28 and birth weight ≤ 1100 were all found to be significantly associated with neonatal mortality. Area under ROC curve for CRIB II, gestational age and birth weight were found to be (0.968, 0.900 and 0.834) respectively. CRIB II score with cutoff point of ≥ 11 was the most sensitive (94.9%) with the predictive value (74.0%) and specificity (82.4%) compared to birth weight and gestational age. CRIB II score showed good calibration to predict neonatal mortality as demonstrated with Hosmer-lemeshow goodness of fit test (p= 0.952). Conclusion CRIB II score is a valid

  13. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jessica; Tan, Seang Lin; Hartshorne, Geraldine M.; McAinsh, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI) division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age. PMID:26718930

  14. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIAO; ZHANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All the non-invasive prenatal testing results were confirmed by amniotic fluid fetal karyotyping (the gold standard of aneuploidy test), follow-up examination by neonatologists or neonatal blood karyotyping. The sensitivity, specificity and other indicators of non-invasive DNA testing technology were calculated based on the data of 87 women of AMA. Among the 87 women of AMA, 5 were cases with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (3 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 18 and 1 case of 47, XXX). The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and 47, XXX. The present study supports that non-invasive DNA testing is a useful method of AMA screening of Down's syndrome with 100% accuracy. Therefore, it can be used as an important alternative screening method for Down's syndrome in women of AMA. PMID:27313855

  15. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jessica; Tan, Seang Lin; Hartshorne, Geraldine M; McAinsh, Andrew D

    2015-12-30

    The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI) division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  16. Risk factors leading to preterm births in Morocco: a prospective study at the maternity Souissi in Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Sabiri, Nargisse; Kabiri, Meryem; Razine, Rachid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eminent morbidity and mortality of preterm infants is perceived, especially in developing countries. The aim of the study is to identify the main factors involved in the occurrence of premature births in Morocco. Methods This was a descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternity Souissi in Rabat, from January 2011 to December 2011. The data were collected using interview with women in the postpartum, and via, the exploitation of obstetric and perinatal records. The data sheet was filled out for each newborn, including socio-demographic, obstetrical, maternal, childbirth and neonatal data, as well as, monitoring and surveillance of pregnancy. Results A total of 1015 births were collected. 954 were full term babies and 61 were preterms. The gestational age was between 33-34 weeks in 57.4%. Relying on Statistical analysis, many risk factors were, significantly, associated with the occurrence of prematurity, namely: low level of maternal education (p < 0.004), absence of pregnancy’ monitoring (p < 0.001), multiparity (p < 0.001), maternal chronic diseases (p < 0.001), and drug taking during pregnancy (p < 0.001). Conclusion To reduce the incidence of preterm births, reliable programs must be established, devoting all its interest, to educate the young woman in childbearing age about the appropriate ways of monitoring pregnancy, as well as, the qualitative and quantitative development of health care structures. PMID:26600920

  17. Maternal Schooling and Children's Relative Inequalities in Developmental Outcomes: Evidence from the 1947 School Leaving Age Reform in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Duckworth, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether mothers' participation in post-compulsory education impacts on children's relative inequalities across four developmental outcomes. The empirical analysis uses information from children born in 1958 in Britain. Mothers of the 1958 British cohort were affected by the 1947 school leaving age reform, which increased…

  18. How to prevent 'half-bastard' progeny? or An alternative for three-parent babies: two-parent babies through transplantation of sperm mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, Ger P A

    2006-01-01

    Body development and activity depend on the level of internal energy generation. Therefore, unaffected, optimally active mitochondria are indispensable in a healthy and vital body. A mutation in the DNA of the semi-autonomous mitochondria (mtDNA) may cause an inheritable insufficiency that is due to decreased energy generation needed for adequate development. Sperm mitochondria will not enter the egg cell during fusion of male and female gametocytes. Since women with mutated mtDNA will increasingly know and realize the effect of such mutation in their own body, they will more often ask for treatment to stop the effect of such inconvenient mutation in their progeny. Thus far, solutions for this problem were thought to be: (i) nucleus transplantation just after fertilization into a nucleus-free egg cell of a second healthy woman and later (ii) transplantation of healthy mitochondria from a second woman into the egg cell before fertilization. Although both transplantations create babies with three, instead of two-parents that have contributed to the genetic content, in case of the newer mitochondria transplantation technique the part of the second woman is somewhat more reduced, but still clearly present. Thus, assisted-reproduction techniques that mix egg cell mitochondria from two women may create not only 'three-parents' babies, but also fears for 'three-parents' babies, since this handling may create non-scientific problems, especially regarding emotional, ethical, religious and juridical aspects of life. Transplantation of healthy sperm mitochondria of the partner into the egg cell with insufficient mitochondria is thought to be the best solution for this problem, since it may create a 'two-parents' instead of a 'three-parents' baby. This only implies that at the moment of (successful) transplantation the biological dogma is broken that mitochondria are maternally inherited: the mitochondria of the maternal line of the woman will have been substituted by the

  19. Managing pregnancy in chronic kidney disease: improving outcomes for mother and baby.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Alyssa; Mohammadi, Fadak; Jesudason, Shilpanjali

    2016-01-01

    Parenthood is a central focus for women with chronic kidney disease, but raises important fears and uncertainties about risks to their own and their baby's health. Pregnancy in women with background kidney disease, women receiving dialysis, or those with a functioning kidney transplant poses a challenging clinical scenario, associated with high maternal-fetal morbidity and potential impact on maternal renal health. Improvements in care over recent decades have led to a paradigm shift with cautious optimism and growing interest regarding pregnancies in women with chronic kidney disease. In this review, we discuss obstetric and renal outcomes, and practical aspects of management of pregnancy in this complex cohort. PMID:27471410

  20. Effect of Maternal Age on the Ratio of Cleavage and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Early Developmental Stage Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    TAKEO, Shun; GOTO, Hiroya; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; MONJI, Yasunori; IWATA, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25 to 209 months were categorized based on their cleavage status. There was an overall negative relationship between the age of the cow and cleavage status, to the extent that the ratio of embryos cleaved over the 4-cell stage was greater in younger cows. The mtDNA number did not differ among the cleaved status of embryos. In the next experiment, oocytes collected from each donor cow were divided into 2 groups containing 10 oocytes each, in order to compare the mtDNA number of mature oocytes and early developmental stage embryos within individuals. Upon comparing the mtDNA number between oocytes at the M2 stage and early developmental stage 48 h post insemination, mtDNA number was found to decrease in most cows, but was found to increase in some cows. In conclusion, age affects the cleaving ability of oocytes, and very old cows (> 180 months) tend to have lower mtDNA numbers in their oocytes. The change in mtDNA number during early development varied among individual cows, although overall, it showed a tendency to decrease. PMID:23269452