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Sample records for maternal serum triglycerides

  1. Study on Association of Maternal Serum Triglyceride with Pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Manna, F N; Khanam, N N; Chowdhury, K A; Das, S N; Kabir, M A; Zubyra, S J; Rahman, R; Akhter, K

    2015-07-01

    Till now pre-eclampsia is a disease of multiple theories. This case control study was carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital and Dhaka Medical College Hospital, from January 2006 to December 2007 to determine the association of maternal serum triglyceride with pre-eclampsia. Ninety pregnant women were studied, among them 45 patients were pre-eclamptic and served as case and 45 normal healthy pregnant women served as control. Estimation of serum triglyceride levels of all study patients was done with the help of enzymatic method. The mean (± SD) systolic blood pressure was 152.4 ± 19.8 mmHg in study group and 112.0 ± 8.9 mmHg in control group (p<0.05). Similarly the mean (± SD) diastolic blood pressure was 103.1 ± 12.2 mmHg in case group and 75.5 ± 6.6 mmHg in control group (p<0.05). Serum triglyceride level was more than the normal reference value in pre-eclamptic group. The mean (± SD) serum triglyceride level was 242.9 ± 36.8 mg/dl in case group and 184.6 ± 12.5mg/dl in control group. Statistically the difference was significant (p<0.05). The level of serum triglyceride positively correlated with the rise of blood pressure and degree of albuminuria. Thus serum triglyceride level increase in pre-eclampsia and the level correlate with the severity of the disease.

  2. Relationship of maternal grain intake and serum triglyceride levels with infant birth weight: Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J-Y; Choi, H I; Kim, H; Jang, W; Ha, E-H; Park, C; Chang, N

    2015-06-01

    Maternal serum triglyceride (TG) level is known to be associated with neonatal birth weight. Although Koreans traditionally consume relatively high amounts of grain and grain products, mainly in the form of white rice, and the consumption is positively associated with serum TG levels, no study has investigated the relationship between dietary grain intake, serum TG levels and neonatal birth weight in pregnant women. This study was conducted to identify the association between infant birth weight and maternal intake of grain, as well as serum TG levels. Subjects were 1011 pregnant women at 12-28 weeks' gestational age and their offspring. Maternal serum TG levels, dietary intake and infant birth weight were measured. Serum TG levels were positively related to neonatal birth weight both at mid-pregnancy (P=0.0015) and at late pregnancy (P<0.0001). Such an association only existed in subjects with the highest tertile of grain intake at mid-pregnancy (P=0.0055) but was observed in all tertiles at late pregnancy (1st P=0.0186, 2nd P=0.0146, 3rd P=0.0099). The relationship between maternal TG levels and infant birth weight may depend on dietary grain intake and stages of pregnancy in Korean pregnant women.

  3. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Boullart, A C I; de Graaf, J; Stalenhoef, A F

    2012-05-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (patho)physiology of triglycerides is described, including the definition and a short summary of the primary and secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we will give an overview of the published epidemiological studies concerning hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease to support the view that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are an independently associated risk factor. Finally, treatment strategies and treatment targets are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal serum screening.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Maternal serum screening (MSS) measures three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, from which the risk of fetal Down syndrome or open neural tube defect is calculated. Initially, 8% of women will have positive results. I present a protocol for investigating these women. Family physicians should be informed about MSS so they can give their patients information and guidance. PMID:7524838

  5. Systematic error of serum triglyceride measurements during three decades and the effect of fasting on serum triglycerides in population studies.

    PubMed

    Sundvall, Jouko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Hakala, Samu; Leiviskä, Jaana; Alfthan, Georg

    2008-11-01

    An uncontrolled systematic error in serum biomarkers may be a serious problem when comparing their trends both within and between populations. The aim of the study was to assess which factors are responsible for systematic errors in the measurement of serum triglycerides (Tg) and the effect of fasting on serum triglycerides in Finnish population surveys. Data on precision and accuracy during 30 years for serum triglycerides were documented from participation in 492 rounds of five different external quality assessment (EQA) programs. Data on fasting and health status from questionnaires were combined from three population surveys comprising 27,131 participants. The mean annual accuracy (bias) of the Tg methods from all EQAs during 1978-2007 was -1.54% (95% CI -2.25, -0.83). The mean relative change in triglyceride concentration per fasting hour was -3.7% (95% CI -4.2, -3.1) in all subjects. A minimum serum Tg concentration was seen in men and women who had fasted for at least 8 and 7 h, respectively. The mean bias in serum Tg analyses has been very small throughout the 30-year period. Fasting has a considerable effect on triglyceride levels, but they can be converted either to fasting or non-fasting levels using specific factors.

  6. Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

  7. Increasing insulin resistance accentuates the effect of triglyceride-associated loci on serum triglycerides during 5 years.

    PubMed

    Justesen, Johanne M; Andersson, Ehm A; Allin, Kristine H; Sandholt, Camilla H; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan; Jørgensen, Marit E; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Grarup, Niels

    2016-12-01

    Blood concentrations of triglycerides are influenced by genetic factors as well as a number of environmental factors, including adiposity and glucose homeostasis. The aim was to investigate the association between a serum triglyceride weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and changes in fasting serum triglyceride level over 5 years and to test whether the effect of the wGRS was modified by 5 year changes of adiposity, insulin resistance, and lifestyle factors. A total of 3,474 nondiabetic individuals from the Danish Inter99 cohort participated in both the baseline and 5 year follow-up physical examinations and had information on the wGRS comprising 39 genetic variants. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, and baseline serum triglyceride, the wGRS was associated with increased serum triglyceride levels over 5 years [per allele effect = 1.3% (1.0-1.6%); P = 1.0 × 10(-17)]. This triglyceride-increasing effect of the wGRS interacted with changes in insulin resistance (Pinteraction = 1.5 × 10(-6)). This interaction indicated that the effect of the wGRS was stronger in individuals who became more insulin resistant over 5 years. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased genetic risk load is associated with a larger increase in fasting serum triglyceride levels in nondiabetic individuals during 5 years of follow-up. This effect of the wGRS is accentuated by increasing insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Serum triglycerides and risk for death in Stage 3 and Stage 4 chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Schold, Jesse D.; Arrigain, Susana; Thomas, George; Jolly, Stacey E.; Poggio, Emilio D.; Schreiber, Martin J.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Nally, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Background An elevated triglyceride level is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population. The associations between serum triglyceride and all-cause mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear. Methods Patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15–59 mL/min/1.73 m2) who had serum triglycerides measured prior to being classified as CKD were included. We examined the associations of serum triglyceride levels with all-cause mortality among 25 641 Stage 3 and Stage 4 CKD patients using Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Results In the Cox model, after adjusting for relevant covariates including other lipid parameters, serum triglyceride level 150–199 mg/dL was not associated with death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.92–1.10] relative to serum triglyceride <150 mg/dL while serum triglyceride ≥200 mg/dL was associated with a 11% increased hazard for death (95% CI 1.01–1.22). Age modified the association between serum triglyceride levels ≥200 mg/dL and mortality with patients <65 years having a 38% higher hazard for death (95% CI 1.15–1.65) and ≥65 years with no increased risk for death (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88–1.08, P for interaction <0.001). When serum triglycerides were examined as a continuous log-transformed variable, similar associations with mortality were noted. Conclusions Serum triglyceride ≥200 mg/dL was independently associated with all-cause mortality in Stage 3 and Stage 4 CKD patients aged <65 years but not among patients of age ≥65 years. Future studies should confirm these findings and examine the mechanisms that may explain these associations. PMID:22553369

  9. Serum triglycerides and risk for death in Stage 3 and Stage 4 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Thomas, George; Jolly, Stacey E; Poggio, Emilio D; Schreiber, Martin J; Sarnak, Mark J; Nally, Joseph V

    2012-08-01

    An elevated triglyceride level is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population. The associations between serum triglyceride and all-cause mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear. Patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) who had serum triglycerides measured prior to being classified as CKD were included. We examined the associations of serum triglyceride levels with all-cause mortality among 25 641 Stage 3 and Stage 4 CKD patients using Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. In the Cox model, after adjusting for relevant covariates including other lipid parameters, serum triglyceride level 150-199 mg/dL was not associated with death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.92-1.10] relative to serum triglyceride <150 mg/dL while serum triglyceride ≥ 200 mg/dL was associated with a 11% increased hazard for death (95% CI 1.01-1.22). Age modified the association between serum triglyceride levels ≥ 200 mg/dL and mortality with patients <65 years having a 38% higher hazard for death (95% CI 1.15-1.65) and ≥ 65 years with no increased risk for death (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88-1.08, P for interaction <0.001). When serum triglycerides were examined as a continuous log-transformed variable, similar associations with mortality were noted. Serum triglyceride ≥ 200 mg/dL was independently associated with all-cause mortality in Stage 3 and Stage 4 CKD patients aged <65 years but not among patients of age ≥ 65 years. Future studies should confirm these findings and examine the mechanisms that may explain these associations.

  10. Nearly lethal resuscitated suicide attempters have no low serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    To verify the hypothesis that suicide attempts are associated with lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels of patients with mood disorders, 26 patients with mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) were admitted after a medically serious suicide attempt to the emergency department and then hospitalized in the psychiatric unit of the Sant' Andrea Hospital (Rome, Italy). Controls were 87 patients who had not made a recent suicide attempt. Attempters and nonattempters did not differ in the levels of serum cholesterol or triglycerides. Indeed, attempters had nonsignificantly higher serum levels of cholesterol and lower serum levels of triglycerides. The use of biologic indicators such as levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the prediction of suicide risk in mood disorders was not fully supported from this small sample.

  11. Serum Triglyceride Levels and Cardiovascular Disease Events in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Seon Ha; Jo, Min-Woo; Hwang, Jenie Yoonoo; Bae, Sung Jin; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol; Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia, especially elevated levels of LDL-cholesterol, is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the role of triglycerides in CVD risk remains controversial. We enrolled 86,476 individuals who had undergone a general health checkup at Asan Medical Center between January 2007 and June 2011. After exclusion criteria were applied to the total cohort, 76,434 participants were included. CVD events and death were gathered from the nationwide health insurance claims database and death certificates using ICD-10 codes. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of the higher triglyceride group were significantly increased: 1.52 (95% CI: 1.27-1.82) for major CVD events, 1.53 (95% CI: 1.24-1.88) for major ischemic heart disease events, and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.37-1.63) for overall CVD events. After adjustment for multiple risk factors including HDL-cholesterol, ORs for overall CVD events were significantly increased in the higher triglyceride group. When the analysis was stratified according to BMI, hypertension, and glycemic status at baseline, age- and sex-adjusted ORs for the outcomes were significantly increased in the higher triglyceride group with nonobese, normotensive, or nondiabetic subjects. Hypertriglyceridemia is independently associated with an increased risk for CVD, especially in nonobese, normotensive, or nondiabetic individuals. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between total serum calcium level and blood lipids in male subjects (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.

  13. Association of postprandial serum triglyceride concentration and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in overweight and obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Groen, S J; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Rand, J S

    2012-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been proposed to contribute to the risk of developing pancreatitis in dogs. To determine associations between postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations or pancreatic disease. Thirty-five client-owned overweight (n = 25) or obese (n = 10) dogs weighing >10 kg. Healthy dogs were prospectively recruited for a cross-sectional study. Serum triglyceride concentrations were measured before and hourly for 12 hours after a meal. Fasting cPLI and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations were assayed. Cut-off values for hypertriglyceridemia were set a priori for fasting (≥ 88, ≥ 177, ≥ 354, ≥ 885 mg/dL) and peak postprandial (≥ 133, ≥ 442, ≥ 885 mg/dL) triglyceride concentrations. The association between hypertriglyceridemia and high cPLI concentrations was assessed by exact logistic regression. Follow-up was performed 4 years later to determine the incidence of pancreatic disease. Eight dogs had peak postprandial triglycerides >442 mg/dL and 3 dogs had fasting serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L. Odds of high cPLI concentrations were 16.7 times higher in dogs with peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL relative to other dogs (P < .001). Fasting triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with cPLI concentrations. None of the dogs with high triglyceride concentrations and one of the dogs with low fasting and peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations developed clinically important pancreatic disease. Overweight and obese dogs with peak serum postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL after a standard meal are more likely to have serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L, but did not develop clinically important pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood.

  15. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P < 0.05), while women had significantly higher small VLDL-cholesterol levels than men (P < 0.001). Women had significantly higher large LDL- and large and medium HDL-cholesterol levels than men (P < 0.001). Men had significantly higher chylomicron (CM), large and medium VLDL-, and small LDL-triglyceride levels than women (P < 0.001). Women had significantly higher very large and large HDL-triglyceride levels than men (P < 0.01). Postmenopausal women had significantly higher CM, all VLDL, and large, medium and small LDL-cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P < 0.001). Our data document important gender and menopausal status differences in cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mendelian randomization provides no evidence for a causal role of serum urate in increasing serum triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Humaira; Hughes, Kim; Flynn, Tanya J; Merriman, Tony R

    2014-12-01

    Triglycerides and their lipoprotein transport molecules are risk factors for heart disease. Observational studies have associated elevated levels of serum urate (SU) with triglycerides and risk of heart disease. However, owing to unmeasured confounding, observational studies do not provide insight into the causal relationship between SU and triglyceride. The aim of this study was to test for a causal role of SU in increasing triglyceride using Mendelian randomization that accounts for unmeasured confounding. Subjects were of European ancestry from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (n=5237) and Framingham heart (n=2971) studies. Mendelian randomization by the 2-stage least squares regression method was done with SU as the exposure, a uric acid transporter genetic risk score as instrumental variable, and triglyceride as the outcome. In ordinary linear regression, SU was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (β=2.69 mmol/L change in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU). However, Mendelian randomization-based estimation showed no evidence for a direct causal association of SU with triglyceride concentration-there was a nonsignificant 1.01 mmol/L decrease in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU attributable to the genetic risk score (P=0.21). The reverse analysis using a triglyceride genetic risk score provided evidence of a causal role for triglyceride in raising urate in men (P(Corrected)=0.018). These data provide no evidence for a causal role for SU in raising triglyceride levels, consistent with a previous Mendelian randomization report of no association between SU and ischemic heart disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Triglycerides and total serum cholesterol in rotator cuff tears: do they matter?

    PubMed

    Longo, U G; Franceschi, F; Spiezia, F; Forriol, F; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the serum triglycerides and total serum cholesterol levels in patients with rotator cuff tear were determined. Frequency-matched case-control study. Setting University teaching hospital. 240 individuals who were operated on at our institution were included in the study. 120 patients (45 men and 75 women; mean age 64.86 years, range 40 to 83 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear were included in group 1. 120 patients (45 men and 75 women; mean age 63.91 years, range 38 to 78 years) who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy for a meniscal tear and had no evidence of shoulder pathology were included in group 2 (control group). These patients were frequency-matched by age (within 3 years) and sex with patients of group 1. Measurement of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. When comparing the two groups, there was no difference either in serum triglyceride concentration or total serum cholesterol concentration. There appears to be no association between serum triglyceride concentration and total serum cholesterol concentration in rotator cuff tears.

  18. Optimal Fasting Time before Measurement of Serum Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pongsuthana, Surapun; Tivatunsakul, Naris

    2016-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a major public health problem. Elevated triglyceride levels are a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Food intake interferes with the measurement of serum triglyceride levels, and in previous studies, fasting for 12 hours was recommended before blood sampling. In real-world practice, long fasting times cause patient discomfort and poor compliance, and the present study was, therefore, designed to determine the appropriate fasting time prior to measuring serum triglyceride levels. To determine the appropriate fasting time before measuring serum triglyceride levels. This was a pilot study performed using healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 30 years old from November 2013 to December 2013 at Rajavithi Hospital. The first blood sample was measured in the morning after fasting over 12 hours. The subjects then took their regular breakfast, after which they fasted for 8 hours. Blood samples were taken 6 and 8 hours later and sent to the laboratory for measurement of serum triglyceride levels. 40 volunteers, of whom 25 were female, were enrolled. Their mean age was 25.9 ± 2.81 years old, and their mean weight, height, and body mass index were 61.5 ± 12.5 kg, 167.2 ± 8.3 cm and 21.84 ± 3.1 kg/m2, respectively. Mean fasting serum triglyceride level at 12 hours was 80.23 ± 36.33 mg/dl, at 6 hours it was 110.65 ± 73.45 mg/dl, and at 8 hours it was 75.62 ± 46.81 mg/dl. The group fasting for 12 hours had significantly lower serum triglyceride levels than the group fasting for 6 hours (p-value = 0.003), but no significant difference was found between the group fasting for 12 hours and the one fasting for 8 hours (p-value = 0.493). The present study showed no significant difference in triglyceride levels in patients who had fasted or 8 hours and those who had done so for 12 hours. Fasting for only 8 hours before measurement of serum triglyceride may be sufficient.

  19. Serum Triglyceride Level: A Predictor of Complications and Outcomes in Acute Pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Tariq, Hassan; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Peralta, Richard; Abbas, Naeem; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Thet, Phyo; Zaw, Tin; Hui, Shirley; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study serum triglyceride level as a predictor of complications and outcomes in acute pancreatitis. Methods. In this retrospective observational study, 582 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, who had serum triglyceride levels measured within the first 24 hours, were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of patients with a triglyceride level ≥2.26 mmol/L (group 2) and the control group consisted of triglyceride level of <2.26 mmol/L (group 1). We collected data for baseline demographics, laboratory values, incidence of complications (local and systemic), admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), ICU length of stay, length of total hospital stay, and death in the two groups. Results. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L was found to be an independent predictor of developing altered mental status (p: 0.004), pancreatic necrosis (p: 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (p: 0001), systemic Inflammatory response syndrome (p: 0.001), acute kidney injury (p: 0.001), hospital length of stay (LOS) (p: 0.002), admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (p: 0.002), and ICU LOS (p: 0.003). Conclusion. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L on admission in acute pancreatitis is an independent predictor of developing local and systemic complications, hospital LOS, admission to ICU, and ICU LOS.

  20. Measurement of triglycerides concentration in human serum using near-infrared transmission spectroscopy and interval PLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Furong; Yu, Jianhui; Li, Shiping

    2011-11-01

    In order to measurement of Triglycerides in human serum with reagent-less using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Interval partial least square (iPLS) was proposed as an effective variable selection approach for multivariate calibration. For this purpose, an independent sample set was employed to evaluate the prediction ability of the resulting model. The spectrum was split into different interval. Then, the informative region of Triglycerides (1654-1746nm), in which the PLS model has a low RMSEP with 0.157mmol/L and a high R with 0.967, is selected with 18 intervals. The results show that the informative region of Triglycerides can be obtained by iPLS and applied to design the simpler reagent-less NIR instruments for inexpensive Triglycerides measurement in future.

  1. A maternal serum screen for trisomy 18: an extension of maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Staples, A J; Robertson, E F; Ranieri, E; Ryall, R G; Haan, E A

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of extending second-trimester maternal blood screening for Down syndrome so as to include screening for trisomy 18 was examined using stored maternal serum samples collected for neural tube-defect screening. There were 12 samples from trisomy 18 pregnancies and 390 controls. The median maternal serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein, free alpha-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin, free beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin, intact human chorionic gonadotrophin, total estriol, unconjugated estriol, estradiol, human placental lactogen, and progesterone were lowered in those pregnancies affected by trisomy 18 when compared with unaffected pregnancies matched for racial origin, maternal age, gestational age, and sample-storage duration. At an estimated odds risk of 1:400, 83.3% of affected pregnancies were detected using an algorithm which combines the maternal age-related risk with the maternal serum concentrations of unconjugated estriol, free alpha-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin, free beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin, estradiol, and human placental lactogen. The associated false-positive rate was 2.6%. At high risk odds of 1:10, the detection rate was 58.3%, with an associated false-positive rate of 0.3%. beta-Subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin and unconjugated estriol were the most powerful discriminators. It is possible to incorporate into existing Down syndrome screening programs an algorithm for detecting trisomy 18 with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:1833973

  2. Determinants of maternal triglycerides in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Helen L; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Jones, Lee; O'Rourke, Peter; Lust, Karin; Gatford, Kathryn L; De Blasio, Miles J; Coat, Suzette; Owens, Julie A; Hague, William M; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie; Rowan, Janet

    2013-07-01

    Factors associated with increasing maternal triglyceride concentrations in late pregnancy include gestational age, obesity, preeclampsia, and altered glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of women in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) trial, maternal plasma triglycerides increased more between enrollment (30 weeks) and 36 weeks in those treated with metformin compared with insulin. The aim of this study was to explain this finding by examining factors potentially related to triglycerides in these women. Of the 733 women randomized to metformin or insulin in the MiG trial, 432 (219 metformin and 213 insulin) had fasting plasma triglycerides measured at enrollment and at 36 weeks. Factors associated with maternal triglycerides were assessed using general linear modeling. Mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 2.43 (95% CI 2.35-2.51) mmol/L at enrollment. Triglycerides were higher at 36 weeks in women randomized to metformin (2.94 [2.80-3.08] mmol/L; +23.13% [18.72-27.53%]) than insulin (2.65 [2.54-2.77] mmol/L, P = 0.002; +14.36% [10.91-17.82%], P = 0.002). At 36 weeks, triglycerides were associated with HbA1c (P = 0.03), ethnicity (P = 0.001), and treatment allocation (P = 0.005). In insulin-treated women, 36-week triglycerides were associated with 36-week HbA1c (P = 0.02), and in metformin-treated women, they were related to ethnicity. At 36 weeks, maternal triglycerides were related to glucose control in women treated with insulin and ethnicity in women treated with metformin. Whether there are ethnicity-related dietary changes or differences in metformin response that alter the relationship between glucose control and triglycerides requires further study.

  3. Determinants of Maternal Triglycerides in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Helen L.; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Jones, Lee; O’Rourke, Peter; Lust, Karin; Gatford, Kathryn L.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Coat, Suzette; Owens, Julie A.; Hague, William M.; McIntyre, H. David; Callaway, Leonie; Rowan, Janet

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Factors associated with increasing maternal triglyceride concentrations in late pregnancy include gestational age, obesity, preeclampsia, and altered glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of women in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) trial, maternal plasma triglycerides increased more between enrollment (30 weeks) and 36 weeks in those treated with metformin compared with insulin. The aim of this study was to explain this finding by examining factors potentially related to triglycerides in these women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Of the 733 women randomized to metformin or insulin in the MiG trial, 432 (219 metformin and 213 insulin) had fasting plasma triglycerides measured at enrollment and at 36 weeks. Factors associated with maternal triglycerides were assessed using general linear modeling. RESULTS Mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 2.43 (95% CI 2.35–2.51) mmol/L at enrollment. Triglycerides were higher at 36 weeks in women randomized to metformin (2.94 [2.80–3.08] mmol/L; +23.13% [18.72–27.53%]) than insulin (2.65 [2.54–2.77] mmol/L, P = 0.002; +14.36% [10.91–17.82%], P = 0.002). At 36 weeks, triglycerides were associated with HbA1c (P = 0.03), ethnicity (P = 0.001), and treatment allocation (P = 0.005). In insulin-treated women, 36-week triglycerides were associated with 36-week HbA1c (P = 0.02), and in metformin-treated women, they were related to ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS At 36 weeks, maternal triglycerides were related to glucose control in women treated with insulin and ethnicity in women treated with metformin. Whether there are ethnicity-related dietary changes or differences in metformin response that alter the relationship between glucose control and triglycerides requires further study. PMID:23393209

  4. Comparison of FTIR-ATR and Raman spectroscopy in determination of VLDL triglycerides in blood serum with PLS regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleszko, Adam; Hartwich, Jadwiga; Wójtowicz, Anna; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena; Huras, Hubert; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia, related with triglyceride (TG) in plasma above 1.7 mmol/L is one of the cardiovascular risk factors. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are the main TG carriers. Despite being time consuming, demanding well-qualified staff and expensive instrumentation, ultracentrifugation technique still remains the gold standard for the VLDL isolation. Therefore faster and simpler method of VLDL-TG determination is needed. Vibrational spectroscopy, including FT-IR and Raman, is widely used technique in lipid and protein research. The aim of this study was assessment of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with the isolation step omitted. TG concentration in serum and in ultracentrifugated VLDL fractions from 32 patients were measured with reference colorimetric method. FT-IR and Raman spectra of VLDL and serum samples were acquired. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for calibration and leave-one-out cross validation. Our results confirmed possibility of reagent-free determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Quantitative VLDL testing by FT-IR and/or Raman spectroscopy applied directly to maternal serum seems to be promising screening test to identify women with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and patient friendly method of choice based on ease of performance, accuracy and efficiency.

  5. Serum triglycerides and cancer risk in the metabolic syndrome and cancer (Me-Can) collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Borena, Wegene; Stocks, Tanja; Jonsson, Håkan; Strohmaier, Susanne; Nagel, Gabriele; Bjørge, Tone; Manjer, Jonas; Hallmans, Göran; Selmer, Randi; Almquist, Martin; Häggström, Christel; Engeland, Anders; Tretli, Steinar; Concin, Hans; Strasak, Alexander; Stattin, Pär; Ulmer, Hanno

    2011-02-01

    To assess the association between serum triglyceride levels and cancer risk. The metabolic syndrome and cancer project (Me-Can) includes cohorts from Norway, Austria, and Sweden; the current study included data on 257,585 men and 256,512 women. The mean age at study entry was 43.8 years for men and 44.2 years for women. The mean follow-up time was 13.4 years (SD = 8.5) for men and 11.9 years (SD = 7.2) for women. Excluding the first year of follow-up, 23,060 men and 15,686 women were diagnosed with cancer. Cox regression models were used to calculate relative risk (RR) of cancer for triglyceride levels in quintiles and as a continuous variable. RRs were corrected for random error by use of regression dilution ratio. Relative risk for top quintile versus bottom quintile of triglycerides of overall cancer was 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.06-1.26) in men and 1.15 (1.05-1.27) in women. For specific cancers, significant increases for top quintile versus bottom quintile of triglycerides among men were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory tract, the kidney, melanoma and thyroid and among women, for respiratory, cervical, and non-melanoma skin cancers. Data from our study provided evidence for a possible role of serum triglycerides in cancer development.

  6. Association between maternal and umbilical cord serum dipeptidyl peptidase IV in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Deng, Songqing; Xu, Yun; Yang, Juan; Geng, Huizhen; Wang, Zilian

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal and umbilical cord serum dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) concentrations in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and to evaluate a potential correlation between neonatal anthropometry and cord serum DPP4 concentration. Twenty-eight GDM and 25 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) pregnant women were recruited into the present study. Maternal and umbilical cord serum DPP4 concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Maternal and neonatal clinical data, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were recorded and measured for analysis. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between maternal and umbilical cord serum DPP4 concentrations (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.804, P < 0.001; partial correlation coefficient r' = 0.884, P < 0.001). No significant difference was seen when comparing DPP4 concentrations for the GDM and NGT groups' maternal serum (P = 0.498), or their umbilical cord serum (P = 0.449). No statistically significant correlations were observed between umbilical cord serum DPP4 concentration and the presence of neonatal anthropometry or metabolic factors. Umbilical cord serum DPP4 concentration is associated with maternal DPP4 concentration, but is not related to neonatal anthropometry or metabolic factors. No significant difference was observed between the GDM and NGT groups in maternal or cord serum DPP4 concentrations. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Maternal serum lipids during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the influence of prepregnancy BMI.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vinod K; Trudeau, Sheri; Perni, Uma

    2011-07-01

    Maternal obesity may be associated with metabolic factors that affect the intrauterine environment, fetal growth, and the offspring's long-term risk for chronic disease. Among these factors, maternal serum lipids play a particularly important role. Our objective was to estimate the influence of variation in maternal serum lipid levels on variation in infant birth weight (BW) in overweight/obese and normal weight women. In a prospective cohort of 143 gravidas, we measured maternal serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks gestation. Effects of maternal serum lipid levels on infant BW adjusted for gestational age at delivery (aBW) were analyzed using linear regression models. In analyses stratified by maternal prepregnancy BMI categorized as normal (≤25.0 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obese (>25.0 kg/m(2)), we found a significant (P < 0.05) inverse association between aBW and HDL-C at all time points starting at 10 weeks gestation in overweight/obese women. No significant effect was found in normal weight women. In contrast, increased maternal serum TG was significantly associated with increased aBW only for normal weight women at 10-14 and 22-26 weeks gestation. Variation in aBW is not associated with variation in maternal serum TC or LDL-C for either stratum at any time point. We postulate that such differences may be involved in the "physiological programming" that influences later risk of chronic disease in the infants of overweight/obese mothers.

  8. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum triglycerides, but not cholesterol or leptin, are decreased in suicide attempters with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    da Graça Cantarelli, Maria; Nardin, Patrícia; Buffon, Andréia; Eidt, Murilo Castilhos; Antônio Godoy, Luiz; Fernandes, Brisa S; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Many peripheral biomarkers, including low cholesterol and its fractions, have been examined to identify suicidal behavior. Herein, we assessed serum lipid profile and some proteins putatively associated with suicidal behavior in subjects with mood disorder (bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) with a recent suicide attempt and with no lifetime history of suicide attempts. Fifty subjects had presented an episode of attempted suicide during the last 15 days, and 36 subjects had no history of any suicide attempt. We measured total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides as well as serum leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100B and C-reactive protein (CRP). Individuals that had attempted suicide presented decreased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. After adjusting for these confounders, we found that triglycerides were decreased in attempted suicide subjects. We found no differences among total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL or leptin, S100B, CRP and BDNF. This is a cross-sectional study, and we cannot therefore assess whether a decrease in triglycerides caused a mood episode with suicidal ideation that led to a suicide attempt or if the presence of a mood episode originated a loss of appetite and consequent loss of weight, therefore decreasing triglyceride levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that lower levels of cholesterol are associated with suicidal behavior in a mood disorder sample. However, our data support the idea that adiposity is differentiated in these patients (reduced BMI, waist circumference and serum triglycerides), which could lead to an altered communication between the adipose tissue and brain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Raul J; Barengo, Noel; Haapala, Irja; Tavella, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. Total blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were determined. Average total blood cholesterol levels of the women who participated in the present study were higher (209 mg/dl) than those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program, while triglyceride values remained within the normal range (124 mg/dl). Total blood cholesterol levels increased with age. Bread, biscuits and cakes were consumed on a daily basis by 98% of the participants and dairy products by 92%, these being mainly full-fat. Meat and fast food intake were very high (96% and 100% respectively). Vegetable and fish intakes were higher among the more educated women. Mayonnaise (58%) and butter (43%) are popular as food dressings and bread spreads respectively, and sunflower oil was the most commonly used for cooking by 94% of the participants. Women with low educational levels (less than 7 years) had higher nutritional risk scores, and thus unhealthier dietary habits than those with more years of formal education. No statistically significant association was found between food groups and cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

  11. HDL-cholesterol subfractions in healthy males: relation to serum triglyceride levels and age.

    PubMed

    Ferns, G A; Robinson, D; Stocks, J; Bevan, E; Williams, P; Galton, D J

    1986-09-01

    The relationship between plasma HDL-cholesterol subfractions (HDL2 and HDL3), measured using a differential precipitation method, and serum triglycerides, was studied in 402 healthy Caucasian males attending a health screening centre in London. Mean values for HDL2 and HDL3 were 0.42 +/- 0.24 mmol/L and 0.81 +/- 0.15 mmol/L respectively. HDL2 was found to show a stronger negative correlation with serum triglyceride and a stronger positive correlation with total HDL than HDL3. HDL2 also showed a stronger correlation with age than either total HDL or HDL3. Mean levels of HDL2 were 20% higher in subjects over 55 years of age compared with those who were less than 55 years of age. Reference values of HDL2 and HDL3 are presented for different age ranges.

  12. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Lunde, Marianne Sylvana Haug; Haug, Anna

    2013-06-25

    Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, p<0.01. Rats ingesting ammonium chloride as compared with sodium bicarbonate responded with increased desaturase indexes, increased serum triglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid.

  13. Serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol from SHR after evening primrose oil and other polyunsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Hoffmann, P; Beitz, J; Förster, W; Wirth, M; Gödicke, W

    1986-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed diets enriched with evening primrose (EPO), sunflower (SO) and linseed oils (LO) as well as palm kernel fat (PKF), the latter being deficient in polyunsarated fatty acids (PUFA). In SHR fed EPO serum triglycerides were lowest and HDL1 cholesterol was highest as compared to the other groups of animals. Total cholesterol was not different. The data suggest that - as with blood pressure - serum lipids and lipoproteins might be influenced most effectively by EPO in comparison to other polyunsaturated fats.

  14. PPARα L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males

    PubMed Central

    Uthurralt, Julieta; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Bradbury, Meg; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Devaney, Joseph; Harmon, Brennan; Reeves, Erica K; Brandoli, Cinzia; Hansen, Barbara C; Seip, Richard L; Thompson, Paul D; Price, Thomas B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Gordon, Paul M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2007-01-01

    Background Of the five sub-phenotypes defining metabolic syndrome, all are known to have strong genetic components (typically 50–80% of population variation). Studies defining genetic predispositions have typically focused on older populations with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the study of younger populations would mitigate many confounding variables, and allow us to better define genetic predisposition loci for metabolic syndrome. Methods We studied 610 young adult volunteers (average age 24 yrs) for metabolic syndrome markers, and volumetric MRI of upper arm muscle, bone, and fat pre- and post-unilateral resistance training. Results We found the PPARα L162V polymorphism to be a strong determinant of serum triglyceride levels in young White males, where carriers of the V allele showed 78% increase in triglycerides relative to L homozygotes (LL = 116 ± 11 mg/dL, LV = 208 ± 30 mg/dL; p = 0.004). Men with the V allele showed lower HDL (LL = 42 ± 1 mg/dL, LV = 34 ± 2 mg/dL; p = 0.001), but women did not. Subcutaneous fat volume was higher in males carrying the V allele, however, exercise training increased fat volume of the untrained arm in V carriers, while LL genotypes significantly decreased in fat volume (LL = -1,707 ± 21 mm3, LV = 17,617 ± 58 mm3 ; p = 0.002), indicating a systemic effect of the V allele on adiposity after unilateral training. Our study suggests that the primary effect of PPARα L162V is on serum triglycerides, with downstream effects on adiposity and response to training. Conclusion Our results on association of PPARα and triglycerides in males showed a much larger effect of the V allele than previously reported in older and less healthy populations. Specifically, we showed the V allele to increase triglycerides by 78% (p = 0.004), and this single polymorphism accounted for 3.8% of all variation in serum triglycerides in males (p = 0.0037). PMID:17705849

  15. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir; Kok, Wim Th; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2009-11-03

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  16. Effects of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride on serum lipid and insulin levels in man.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Grant, D B; Fosbrooke, A S; Segall, M M; Lloyd, J K

    1968-09-01

    Analysis of serum free fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography showed high proportions (27-57%) of octanoic acid for up to 4 hr after the ingestion of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride (approximately 1 g/kg body weight) in four volunteers. The effects of a medium-chain triglyceride load on the concentrations of plasma free long-chain fatty acids, plasma glucose, serum insulin, and serum triglyceride were observed and compared with the effects of a glucose load. A rapid fall in the free long-chain fatty acids followed both loads but only a small rise in serum insulin was observed after medium-chain triglyceride. The fall in free long-chain fatty acids following ingestion of medium-chain triglyceride cannot therefore be caused mainly by the release of insulin and may be due to a direct action on adipose tissue. No medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the serum triglyceride after ingestion of medium-chain triglyceride, but there was a small but significant increase in the percentage of hexadecenoic acid in this fraction.

  17. Plasma exchange treatment for acute hyperlipidemic pancreatitis with falsely low levels of serum triglycerides - a case report.

    PubMed

    Markota, A; Knehtl, M; Sinkovic, A; Ekart, R; Hojs, R; Bevc, S

    2014-10-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a well-recognized cause of acute pancreatitis. We present a patient with acute hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis. At presentation serum triglycerides were severely elevated (104 mmol/l) and were decreasing the next day (11 mmol/l). However, based on increasing levels of serum lipase, worsening respiratory failure and evidently lipemic serum, we decided to perform plasma exchange, and patient's condition improved dramatically. Repeated laboratory test of the serum obtained before the first plasma exchange revealed that the actual value of serum triglycerides was 57 mmol/l. A clinically-driven decision is crucial when treating patients with hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis as the serum triglyceride levels can be falsely low.

  18. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P < 0.0001) levels of hepcidin, CRP and IL-6 than NC. Hepcidin in dialysis patients is significantly related to age (r = 0.373, P = 0.012), serum triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P < 0.0001). In multiple regression analysis, hepcidin correlated independently with triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P < 0.0001). Elevated levels of hepcidin in patients with CKD on dialysis may be related to the occurrence of high triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated.

  19. Potato pulps lowered the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Ito, Yusaku; Han, Kyu-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Topping, David L; Bird, Anthony R; Noda, Takahiro; Chiji, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2006-12-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that retrograded starch, a kind of resistant starch, of beans reduced serum lipid levels in rats. In this study, we examined whether retrograded starch in potato pulps could reduce serum lipid concentrations. Rats were given diets containing 15 g of retrograded starch in potato pulps from the Benimaru potato (BM) or Hokkaikogane potato (HK) in a 100 g diet for 4 wk. At the 4th week, the total cholesterol level in the serum in the BM group and serum triglyceride (TG) level in the HK group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In the BM group, the contents of fecal bile acids were significantly higher than those in the control group. On the other hand, in the HK group, the hepatic mRNA level of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly lower than that in the control group. The FAS mRNA level correlated with the mRNA level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), a regulator of expression of FAS, positively. These results suggested that BM pulp promoted the excretion of bile acids, which resulted in a low concentration of serum cholesterol. On the other hand, HK pulp inhibited the synthesis of fatty acids at the mRNA levels of FAS and SREBP-1c, which might lead to a reduction of the serum TG level.

  20. Correlation of CRP, fasting serum triglycerides and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Firdous, Samar

    2014-05-01

    To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). A comparative cross-sectional study. Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chi-square test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value ² 0.05 was taken as significant. Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not only linked to hypertriglyceridemia but vascular inflammation among pre-obese and obese

  1. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  2. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Methods Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. Results After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, p<0.01. Conclusions Rats ingesting ammonium chloride as compared with sodium bicarbonate responded with increased desaturase indexes, increased serum triglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid. PMID:23800210

  3. Pharmacological concentrations of biotin reduce serum triglycerides and the expression of lipogenic genes.

    PubMed

    Larrieta, Elena; Velasco, Fidel; Vital, Paz; López-Aceves, Teresita; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, María Luisa; Rojas, Alberto; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2010-10-10

    Besides its role as a carboxylase prosthetic group, biotin regulates gene expression and has a wide repertoire of effects on systemic processes. Several studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin reduce hypertriglyceridemia. The molecular mechanisms by which pharmacological concentrations of biotin affect lipid metabolism are largely unknown. The present study analyzed the effects of pharmacological doses of biotin on triglyceridemia, insulin sensitivity and on mRNA expression of various lipogenic genes. Three-week-old male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a biotin-control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1.76 or 97.7mg of free biotin/kg diet, respectively) over a period of eight weeks. Serum triglyceride concentrations, insulin and glucose tolerance and mRNA abundance of various lipogenic genes were investigated. The biotin-supplemented group showed 35% less serum triglycerides than control mice. In the liver, we found a significant (P<0.05) reduction of mRNA levels of SREBP1-c, glucose transporter-2, phosphofructokinase-1, pyruvate kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, while glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression increased. No changes in glucokinase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, FoxO1 or PPAR-gamma expression were observed. In adipose tissue, we found a decreased expression of SREBP1c, glucose-6-phosphate deshydrogenase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, phosphofructokinase-1 and PPAR-gamma, but no changes in FoxO1 expression. Moreover, the group fed a biotin-supplemented diet showed a significant decrease in adipose tissue weight. No differences in insulin sensitivity or serum insulin concentrations were observed between groups. Our results indicate that pharmacological concentrations of biotin decrease serum tryglyceride concentrations and lipogenic gene expression in liver and adipose tissues. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in the azuki juice group (p<0.05) and tended to be decreased in the CA juice group (p = 0.055). Triglyceride concentrations in the azuki and CA juice groups decreased by 0.170 mmol/liter (15.4%) and 0.159 mmol/liter (17.9%), respectively (p<0.05). The azuki and CA juice used in this study inhibited pancreatic lipase activity 29.2% and 56.9%, respectively, in vitro. Lipid peroxide changes, based on ANCOVA with the initial level and α-tocopherol changes as covariates, did not differ among the three groups. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol concentrations did not change. Thus, azuki bean juice intake, as a traditional Kampo prescription, might be beneficial for preventing hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:18648655

  5. Azuki bean juice lowers serum triglyceride concentrations in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-07-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in the azuki juice group (p<0.05) and tended to be decreased in the CA juice group (p = 0.055). Triglyceride concentrations in the azuki and CA juice groups decreased by 0.170 mmol/liter (15.4%) and 0.159 mmol/liter (17.9%), respectively (p<0.05). The azuki and CA juice used in this study inhibited pancreatic lipase activity 29.2% and 56.9%, respectively, in vitro. Lipid peroxide changes, based on ANCOVA with the initial level and alpha-tocopherol changes as covariates, did not differ among the three groups. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol concentrations did not change. Thus, azuki bean juice intake, as a traditional Kampo prescription, might be beneficial for preventing hypertriglyceridemia.

  6. Positive family history of coronary atherosclerosis and serum triglycerides may predict repeated coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Mennander, Ari; Angervuori, Tuula; Huhtala, Heini; Karhunen, Pekka; Tarkka, Matti; Kuukasjärvi, Pekka

    2005-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk factor profile of patients in need of repeated coronary artery bypass surgery (redo CABG) seldom differ from patients having only single coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of positive family history for coronary artery disease in respect to redo CABG vs CABG in a case-control setting. One hundred and eighty four patients undergoing redo CABG between 1990-1998 were identified from the computed registry of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery in Tampere University Hospital. One hundred and eighty four age, gender and operation date matched patients with CABG were selected for control. According to chi-square analysis, positive family history for coronary artery disease was more common in Study group, 60.4% versus 49.5% (p<0.05). Preoperative systolic blood pressure was 135.5+/-1.4 mmHg versus 133.5+/-1.5 mmHg (ns), preoperative diastolic blood pressure was 81.2+/-0.8 mmHg versus 82.8+/-0.9 mmHg (ns), serum total cholesterol was 5.8+/-0.1 mmol/L versus 6.6+/-1.2 mmol/L and preoperative blood glucose was 5.6+/-0.2 mmol/L versus 5.3+/-0.2 mmol/L (ns) in Controls and Study group, respectively. However, serum triglyceride level was significantly higher in Study group 2.8+/-0.2 mmol/L versus 2.0+/-0.1 mmol/L (p<0.000). In regression analysis, only positive family history (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.1-5.1; p<0,02) and high serum triglyceride level (>or=2 mmol/L, OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2-2.2; p<0,02) were independent predictors for redo CABG. According to this study, positive family history for coronary atherosclerosis at the presence of high serum triglyceride level is significantly predicting the need for future redo CABG as compared with age, gender and operation time matched controls of CABG.

  7. Maternal insulin resistance, triglycerides and cord blood insulin in relation to post-natal weight trajectories and body composition in the offspring up to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Brunner, S; Schmid, D; Hüttinger, K; Much, D; Heimberg, E; Sedlmeier, E-M; Brüderl, M; Kratzsch, J; Bader, B L; Amann-Gassner, U; Hauner, H

    2013-12-01

    The intrauterine metabolic environment might have a programming effect on offspring body composition. We aimed to explore associations of maternal variables of glucose and lipid metabolism during pregnancy, as well as cord blood insulin, with infant growth and body composition up to 2 years post-partum. Data of pregnant women and their infants came from a randomized controlled trial designed to investigate the impact of nutritional fatty acids on adipose tissue development in the offspring. Of the 208 pregnant women enrolled, 118 infants were examined at 2 years. In the present analysis, maternal fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides measured during pregnancy, as well as insulin in umbilical cord plasma, were related to infant growth and body composition assessed by skinfold thickness measurements and abdominal ultrasonography up to 2 years of age. Maternal homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance at the 32nd week of gestation was significantly inversely associated with infant lean body mass at birth, whereas the change in serum triglycerides during pregnancy was positively associated with ponderal index at 4 months, but not at later time points. Cord plasma insulin correlated positively with birthweight and neonatal fat mass and was inversely associated with body weight gain up to 2 years after multiple adjustments. Subsequent stratification by gender revealed that this relationship with weight gain was stronger, and significant only in girls. Cord blood insulin is inversely associated with subsequent infant weight gain up to 2 years and this seems to be more pronounced in girls. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  8. Short-term cooling increases serum triglycerides and small high-density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Geerte; Nahon, Kimberly J; Bakker, Leontine E H; Norkauer, Sabine S C; Dinnes, Donna L M; Kockx, Maaike; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Drettwan, Diana; Reifel-Miller, Anne; Coskun, Tamer; Pagel, Philipp; Romijn, Fred P H T M; Cobbaert, Christa M; Jazet, Ingrid M; Martinez, Laurent O; Kritharides, Leonard; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N

    Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men. Body mass index-matched young, lean men were exposed to a personalized cooling protocol for 2 hours. Before and after cooling, serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids and lipoprotein composition by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL was measured using [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded ABCA1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Short-term cooling increased serum levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Cooling increased the concentration of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles accompanied by increased mean size of VLDL particles. In addition, cooling enhanced the concentration of small LDL and small HDL particles as well as the cholesterol levels within these particles. The increase in small HDL was accompanied by increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in vitro. Our data show that short-term cooling increases the concentration of large VLDL particles and increases the generation of small LDL and HDL particles. We interpret that cooling increases VLDL production and turnover, which results in formation of surface remnants that form small HDL particles that attract cellular cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum thyroid hormone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and protein concentrations in normal horses: association with topical dexamethasone usage.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Getu; Allersmeier, Maren; Schusser, Gerald F; Ungemach, Fritz R

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if topical application of dexamethasone affected the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine T(3) and thyroxine T(4)), glucose, triglycerides, total protein and insulin in normal horses. Ten horses were treated twice daily for 10 days with 50 g dexamethasone using an ointment formulation. Thyroid hormones and insulin were assayed using standard radioimmunoassay methods, while glucose, triglycerides and total protein were determined using a standard enzymatic method and the Biuret reaction, respectively. An increase in serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations was accompanied by 2-6-fold increases in serum insulin concentrations, but there was no change in serum total protein concentration. Insulin secretion increased with concomitant hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. A non-significant decline in T(4) secretion was noted. Serum T(3) and T(4) concentrations declined continuously below baseline values from 48 h. Glucose and insulin levels returned to baseline values 3 days after treatment withdrawal, whereas triglycerides reverted to baseline by 7 days. In contrast, baseline values of serum T(3) and T(4) were not reached by 20 days following drug withdrawal. The results indicated that topical administration of dexamethasone affected thyroid function and physiological metabolic functions, which may have implications for potential doping cases in racing horses.

  10. Interaction between serum uric acid and triglycerides in relation to blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Teng, F; Zhu, R; Zou, C; Xue, Y; Yang, M; Song, H; Liang, J

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and blood pressure, and to assess their joint effects on obesity, fasting glucose and lipids. The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in Xuzhou, Jiangsu province of China (2009). Blood pressure, body mass index, fasting glucose, lipids and SUA were measured. After excluding individuals with fasting glucose greater than 7 mmol l(-1), a total of 8415 subjects with biomarkers available were included in the present study. Blood pressure increased with elevated SUA levels, after adjusting for age and sex. Further adjustment for fasting glucose, lipids and alcohol consumption did not change the increasing trend. The associations between uric acid and hypertension were most evident in those with highest quintiles of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In addition, the associations were significant in both men and women, and we found significant interactions between uric acid status and age on hypertension. When the joint effects were examined, we found an additive effect of triglycerides and uric acid levels on diastolic blood pressure (DBP). There was significant association between SUA and hypertension, independent of other metabolic risk factors. HDL-C levels may modify the associations between uric acid and hypertension. The effects of triglycerides and uric acid levels on DBP were additive.

  11. Association between baseline serum glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol, and prostate cancer risk categories.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Rhonda; Møller, Henrik; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars; Stattin, Pår; Malmstrom, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Robinson, David; Jungner, Ingmar; Hemelrijck, Mieke Van

    2016-06-01

    Lifestyle-related risk factors such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia have been associated with several cancers. However, studies exploring their link with prostate cancer (PCa) clinicopathological characteristics are sparse and inconclusive. Here, we investigated the associations between serum metabolic markers and PCa clinicopathological characteristics. The study comprised 14,294 men from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) cohort who were diagnosed with PCa between 1996 and 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate the relation between glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol and PCa risk categories, PSA, Gleason score, and T-stage. Mean age at time of PCa diagnosis was 69 years. Men with glucose levels >6.9 mmol/L tend to have PSA<4 μg/L, while those with glucose levels of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L had a greater odds of PSA>20 μg/L compared to PSA 4.0-9.9 μg/L. Hypertriglyceridemia was also positively associated with PSA>20 μg/L. Hyperglycemic men had a greater odds of intermediate- and high-grade PCa and advanced stage or metastatic PCa. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemia was positively associated with high-grade PCa. There was also a trend toward an increased odds of intermediate risk localized PCa and advanced stage PCa among men with hypertriglyceridemia. Total cholesterol did not have any statistically significant association with any of the outcomes studied. Our findings suggest that high serum levels of glucose and triglycerides may influence PCa aggressiveness and severity. Further investigation on the role of markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in influencing PCa aggressiveness and severity is needed as this may help define important targets for intervention.

  12. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  13. Serum Amino Acid Profiles in Childhood Predict Triglyceride Level in Adulthood: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study in Girls.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Petri; Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Xiao; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2016-05-01

    Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are associated with high risk of developing dyslipidemia and type II diabetes in adults. This study aimed to examine whether serum amino acid profiles associate with triglyceride concentrations during pubertal growth and predict hypertriglyceridemia in early adulthood. This was a 7.5-year longitudinal study. The study was conducted at the Health Science Laboratory, University of Jyväskylä. A total of 396 nondiabetic Finnish girls aged 11.2 ± 0.8 years at the baseline participated in the study. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and triglyceride by enzymatic photometric methods; and amino acids by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum leucine and isoleucine correlated significantly with future triglyceride, independent of baseline triglyceride level (P < .05 for all). In early adulthood (at the age of 18 years), these amino acids were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia, whereas fat mass and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not. Leucine was the strongest determinant discriminating subjects with hypertriglyceridemia from those with normal triglyceride level (area under the curve, 0.822; 95% confidence interval, 0.740-0.903; P = .000001). Serum leucine and isoleucine were associated with future serum triglyceride levels in girls during pubertal growth and predicted hypertriglyceridemia in early adulthood. Therefore, these amino acid indices may serve as biomarkers to identify individuals at high risk for developing hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease later in life. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role these amino acids play in the lipid metabolism.

  14. Association between Maternal Serum Perfluoroalkyl Substances during Pregnancy and Maternal and Cord Thyroid Hormones: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Walter J.; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Tseng, Ying-Chih; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic compounds that are widely used in industry and are often detectable in humans. In pregnant rats and their pups, PFASs can interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In humans, maternal thyroid hormones supply the fetus throughout pregnancy, and thyroid hormones play a critical role in fetal growth and neurodevelopment. Objectives: We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and thyroid hormone status in pregnant women and neonates. Methods: In a study of environmental exposure and health in Taiwan, we measured serum concentrations of nine PFASs and four thyroid hormones for 285 pregnant women in their third trimester, and also measured cord serum thyroid hormones for 116 neonates. Associations between maternal PFASs and maternal and cord thyroid hormones were examined in multiple linear regression models. Results: Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid concentrations were positively associated with maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Pregnant women with higher levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) had lower free thyroxine (T4) and total T4 levels. For example, we estimated that maternal free T4 levels decreased 0.019 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.028, –0.009) with each nanogram per milliliter increase in maternal PFNA. Finally, maternal PFNA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA levels were associated with lower cord total triiodothyronine (T3) and total T4 levels, and maternal perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA) was associated with lower cord total T3. Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure to some PFASs during pregnancy may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis in pregnant women and fetuses. Citation: Wang Y, Rogan WJ, Chen PC, Lien GW, Chen HY, Tseng YC, Longnecker MP, Wang SL. 2014. Association between maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and maternal and cord thyroid hormones: Taiwan Maternal and

  15. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is independently associated with pediatric NAFLD and fasting triglyceride level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ching; Yang, Yao-Jong

    2013-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is identified as a major liver disease in children. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of pediatric NAFLD and the correlation between serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and metabolic characteristics in children. A total of 748 schoolchildren, ages 6 to 12 years, were enrolled in 2009. The body weight and height were measured in the morning before intake. Laboratory tests included overnight fasting serum lipids, insulin, liver enzymes, and RBP4 levels. Hepatic steatosis was determined by ultrasound in 219 volunteers. The rates of NAFLD were 3% in the normal-weight, 25% in the overweight, and 76% in the obese children. Twenty (22%) of obese children had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. In children with NAFLD, younger age and higher body mass index (BMI), insulin/homeostasis model of assessment, and male sex rate were associated with abnormal liver function. Stepwise increments in BMI, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment, and ALT were found in children with normal livers to simple steatosis, and to steatosis with abnormal ALT. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that serum RBP4 levels (P = 0.048), ALT (P = 0.048), and BMI (P < 0.001) were independently predictors of pediatric NAFLD. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only serum triglycerides levels were positively related to RBP4 levels (P < 0.001). Higher RBP4 and ALT levels as well as BMI are independently associated with pediatric NAFLD in Taiwan. In addition, an increment in RBP4 levels was positively correlated to hypertriglyceridemia in children.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide reduces serum triglyceride by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Yu, Chengyuan; Pan, Zhenwei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yun, Fengxiang; Zhao, Hongwei; Yan, Sen; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Dingyu; Ding, Xue; Liu, Guangzhong; Li, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xuezhu; Liu, Zhaorui; Li, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in liver triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Inhibition of autophagy could reduce the clearance of TG in the liver. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent stimulator of autophagic flux. Recent studies showed H2S is protective against hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and noalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while the mechanism remains to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that H2S reduces serum TG level and ameliorates NAFLD by stimulating liver autophagic flux by the AMPK-mTOR pathway. The level of serum H2S in patients with HTG was lower than that of control subjects. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, H2S donor) markedly reduced serum TG levels of male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which was abolished by coadministration of chloroquine (CQ), an inhibitor of autophagic flux. In HFD mice, administration of NaSH increased the LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and decreased the p62 protein level. Meanwhile, NaSH increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and thus reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR in a Western blot study. In cultured LO2 cells, high-fat treatment reduced the ratio of LC3BII to LC3BI and the phosphorylation of AMPK, which were reversed by the coadministration of NaSH. Knockdown of AMPK by siRNA in LO2 cells blocked the autophagic enhancing effects of NaSH. The same qualitative effect was observed in AMPKα2(-/-) mice. These results for the first time demonstrated that H2S could reduce serum TG level and ameliorate NAFLD by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

  17. Melanocortin-4 receptor rs17782313 polymorphisms are associated with serum triglycerides in older Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Gao, Qinghan; Gao, Xianghui; Tao, Xiujuan; Cai, Huizhen; Fan, Yanna; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Lin; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor) gene polymorphisms have been associated with serum triglycerides (TG) in Caucasians and Japanese, but no reports are available Chinese. The purpose of this study was to find whether there was an association of rs17782313 polymorphisms at the MC4R gene with serum TG in elderly Chinese. 2,012 over 40 years participated in a cross-sectional study in which their body mass index (BMI), TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms were determined. For women, carriers of the T/T genotype had significantly lower serum TG than those with C/C genotype (p=0.006). Carriers of the C/C genotype of this polymorphisms exhibited significantly lower fasting HDL-C levels compared with T/T and T/C genotypes (p=0.025), and increased glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (p=0.043), but no change in blood pressure. Higher serum TG in carriers of the C/C genotype of MC4R gene remained stable after adjustment for age, smoking, drinking, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and three or more components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) by multivariable linear regression (p=0.01) in women. The carriers of the C/C genotype of MC4R gene showed significantly greater odds ratio for TG than T/C and T/T genotypes, even when adjusted for age, smoking, drinking, BMI and WC in women. The rs17782313 C/C genotype is associated with higher TG levels in older Chinese women.

  18. Determination of serum triglyceride by enzyme electrode using covalently immobilized enzyme on egg shell membrane.

    PubMed

    Narang, Jagriti; Minakshi; Bhambi, Manu; Pundir, C S

    2010-12-01

    A mixture of commercial lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase was co-immobilized onto egg shell membrane through covalent coupling. A method is described for fabrication of a triglyceride (TG) biosensor using egg shell membrane bound enzymes. The biosensor measured current, i.e. flow of electrons generated from H(2)O(2), maximally when polarized at 0.4V. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10 sec at pH 7.0 and 35°C. The current was in proportion to concentration of TG in the range 0.56-2.25 mM. An amperometric method was developed for determination of TG employing this enzyme electrode. The minimum detection limit of the method was 0.28 mM. The analytic recovery of added TG was 95.00% and 96.50%. Within batch and between batch coefficients of variations (CV) were <2.14% and <3.48% respectively. A good correlation (r=0.985) was obtained between serum TG level by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present method. Serum substances such as urea, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid had no interference. The enzyme electrode was used 200 times over a period of 70 days without any considerable loss of activity, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 3,446 children from a biracial community: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, R R; Srinivasan, S R; Webber, L S; Berenson, G R

    1976-08-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 3,446 (91% of population) children, ages 5-14 years, were determined in a biracial community (Bogalusa, Louisiana) as part of a program investigating the early natural history of atherosclerosis. Black children had significantly higher mean levels of serum cholesterol than white children (170 mg/dl vs 162 mg/dl, P less than 0.0001). On the other hand, significantly lower levels of triglycerides were found in blacks than in whites (61 mg/dl vs 73 mg/dl, P less than 0.0001). Girls had higher levels of triglycerides than boys in both races (blacks, 64 mg/dl vs 59 mg/dl, P less than 0.001; whites, 77 mg/dl vs 69 mg/dl, P less than 0.001). The racial differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were even more apparent at the 95th percentile. The serum cholesterol level remained relatively constant in all children until ages 11 and 12 years, after which a slight reduction occurred. This reduction was more pronounced in boys than in girls. In contrast, a significant increase in the level of triglycerides with age was observed in all children except black girls, the increasing slope being most pronounced in white girls.

  20. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition-induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Fetal arthrogryposis and maternal serum antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Paola; Clover, Linda; Wallerstein, Robert; Stewart, Helen; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Dean, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2006-08-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital (AMC) describes multiple joint contractures resulting from lack of movement in utero. Antibodies directed at the fetal isoform of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) have been reported in a small number of asymptomatic mothers of AMC babies. We examined sera from 179 mothers of AMC babies and 20 parous and non-parous controls to look for antibodies to AChR or undefined muscle or neuronal proteins. We found positive AChR antibodies in only three sera (1.5%) from asymptomatic AMC mothers. However, there was reactivity with muscle or with neuronal antigens in 33% of the sera, and reactivity to undefined neuronal antigens was more common in sera from mothers of AMC babies with CNS involvement (p=0.001) than those without. The offspring of mothers with AChR antibodies may benefit from treatment during pregnancy. Other maternal antibodies require further study, but these observations add to the emerging literature on maternal antibodies associated with developmental intrauterine disorders.

  2. Maternal serum screening and psychosocial attachment to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Karen L; Turriff-Jonasson, Shelley I

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether maternal serum screening (MSS) is associated with lower maternal attachment to pregnancy. One hundred one pregnant women identified as at risk for fetal anomaly due to advanced maternal age completed a survey targeting their decisions regarding prenatal testing and their psychological attachment to their pregnancy. Of these women, 38 opted for no prenatal testing, 32 underwent MSS, and 31 had amniocentesis in their current pregnancy. The results indicate that, throughout their pregnancy, the women who underwent MSS reported lower bonding levels as compared with those who chose either amniocentesis or no testing procedures. The results suggest that MSS may disrupt the developmental trajectory of the maternal-fetal bond even after favorable results are known. This may be due in part to the fact that the probabilistic nature of MSS results creates feelings of confusion rather than reassurance for many women following receipt of favorable results.

  3. Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal undernutrition leads to elevated hepatic triglycerides in male rat offspring due to increased expression of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Fen; Zhu, Jian-Fang; Liang, Li; Shen, Zheng; Wang, Ying-Min

    2016-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) at birth increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which encompasses various symptoms including hypertriglyceridemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may lead to alterations in hepatic triglyceride content and the gene expression levels of hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in SGA male offspring. The present study focused on the male offspring in order to prevent confounding factors, such as estrus cycle and hormone profile. Female Sprague Dawley rats were arbitrarily assigned to receive an ad libitum chow diet or 50% food restricted diet from pregnancy day 1 until parturition. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to measure the gene expression levels of hepatic LPL at day 1 and upon completion of the third week of age. Chromatin immunoprecipitation quantified the binding activity of liver X receptor‑α (LXR‑α) gene to the LXR response elements (LXRE) on LPL promoter and LPL epigenetic characteristics. At 3 weeks of age, SGA male offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of hepatic triglycerides, which was concomitant with increased expression levels of LPL. Since LPL is regulated by LXR‑α, the expression levels of LXR‑α were detected in appropriate for gestational age and SGA male offspring. Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy led to an increase in the hepatic expression levels of LXR‑α, and enriched binding to the putative LXR response elements in the LPL promoter regions in 3‑week‑old male offspring. In addition, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [H3 lysine (K)9 and H3K14] was detected surrounding the LPL promoter. The results of the present study indicated that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may lead to an increase in hepatic triglycerides, via alterations in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the LPL gene.

  5. Alteration of maternal serum irisin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ulku Mete; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Sezgin, Hacer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare serum irisin concentrations in pregnant women with and without ges-tational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study was performed at the Tertiary Care Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecol-ogy, between January 2014 and April 2014. A total of 45 pregnant women with GDM (diabetes group) and 41 BMI- and age-matched healthy pregnant women (control group) were recruited. Maternal serum irisin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit at 24-28 weeks of gestation. An association between maternal serum irisin lev-els and metabolic parameters was analyzed. Body mass index, serum levels of glucose, insulin and irisin were tested and analyzed in the study group and controls. Pregnant women with GDM had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.001), first-hour OGTT glucose (p = 0.001), second-hour OGTT glucose (p = 0.001), and fasting insulin (p = 0.045) levels as compared to controls. Serum irisin levels were 1.04 ± 0.3 and 1.3 ± 0.2 in pregnant women with GDM and healthy pregnant controls, respectively (p = 0.001). Correlation analysis between irisin levels and anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with gestational diabetes revealed that none of the investigated parameters correlated with serum irisin level. Our results suggest that serum irisin levels might be introduced as a novel marker for GDM, with decreased levels of irisin being indicative of GDM.

  6. Joint analyses model for total cholesterol and triglyceride in human serum with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lijun; Lyu, Ning; Chen, Jiemei; Pan, Tao; Yu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The development of a small, dedicated near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer has promising potential applications, such as for joint analyses of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in human serum for preventing and treating hyperlipidemia of a large population. The appropriate wavelength selection is a key technology for developing such a spectrometer. For this reason, a novel wavelength selection method, named the equidistant combination partial least squares (EC-PLS), was applied to the wavelength selection for the NIR analyses of TC and TG in human serum. A rigorous process based on the various divisions of calibration and prediction sets was performed to achieve modeling optimization with stability. By applying EC-PLS, a model set was developed, which consists of various models that were equivalent to the optimal model. The joint analyses model of the two indicators was further selected with only 50 wavelengths. The random validation samples excluded from the modeling process were used to validate the selected model. The root-mean-square errors, correlation coefficients and ratio of performance to deviation for the prediction were 0.197 mmol L- 1, 0.985 and 5.6 for TC, and 0.101 mmol L- 1, 0.992 and 8.0 for TG, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hyperlipidemia were 96.2% and 98.0%. These findings indicate high prediction accuracy and low model complexity. The proposed wavelength selection provided valuable references for the designing of a small, dedicated spectrometer for hyperlipidemia. The methodological framework and optimization algorithm are universal, such that they can be applied to other fields.

  7. [Study on the mass-screening of after-meal serum triglyceride concentration].

    PubMed

    Sakate, Seiji; Megumi, Chieko; Kobayashi, Masatsugu; Murata, Kazuhiro; Sakagami, Kiyonobu; Kimura, Takashi

    2003-09-01

    The serum triglyceride concentration (TG) tested in health checks after meals cannot properly sort out hypertriglyceridemia with reference to the upper normal limit of fasting TG (150 mg/dl) set by the Japan Arteriosclerosis Society, because TG goes up considerably after a meal. In our survey of a large number of health check examinees (free of abnormal biochemical data other than TG and diseases under medical treatment), the mean (M) of fasting TG + 2 standard deviations (SD) was close to 150 mg/dl. When the screening level was set at M + 2SD for each time span after a meal, the ratio of the screened was distributed between 19.9 and 21.8%, which was close to 23.5%, the ratio of the screened on fasting. Accordingly, the nearest round number ending with zero for the first digit is suggested to be of practical use for the screening level of after-meal TG. The average TG in females was definitely lower than that of males, though proportionately increasing with age. The ratio of the screened among females aged between 20 and 49 was 5.3% on fasting and 3.2-5.8% for after-meal time spans, and that of the screened aged in their fifties was 11.3% and 8.2-12.9% respectively.

  8. Serum Triglyceride Lowering Effect of Cilnidipine in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prakash; Das, Arijit; Chandra, Satish; Gari, Manju; Keshri, U. S. P.; Kumari, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies have established the relationship between hypertension and dyslipidemia. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are one of the first-line drugs for newly diagnosed patients with essential hypertension. Cilnidipine as a newer CCB acting by blocking both L- and N-type calcium channels possesses additional beneficial effects apart from lowering blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cilnidipine in patients with essential hypertension with borderline dyslipidemia and its effects on lipid profile. Methods Out of 45 enrolled patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, only 37 completed the study. Cilnidipine was started at 10 mg/day, and then adjusted to 5 - 20 mg/day to achieve the target blood pressure. Results After 12 weeks of study, patients showed significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean BP, heart rate and serum triglyceride level from baseline values (P < 0.00). Conclusion In clinical setting where both hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia exist, cilnidipine can be a promising drug of choice. PMID:28197288

  9. Maternal Serum Leptin During Pregnancy and Infant Birth Weight: the Influence of Maternal Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Misra, V. K.; Straughen, J. K.; Trudeau, S.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether the distinct metabolic patterns found in obese and non-obese pregnant women may have different effects on the growing fetus. Our objective was to estimate the influence of longitudinal variation in maternal serum leptin levels on variation in infant birth weight in overweight/obese versus normal weight women. In a prospective cohort of 286 gravidas, we measured maternal weight and serum leptin levels at 6–10,10–14,16–20, 22–26, and 32–36 weeks gestation. Effects of leptin levels on infant birth weight adjusted for gestational age at delivery (aBW) were analyzed using a linear regression model that accounted for the relationship of time-varying predictors to the log transformed leptin concentrations. Overweight/obese and normal weight gravidas exhibit different relationships of aBW to maternal serum leptin and its rate of change across pregnancy. For normal weight women, aBW is not associated with either the magnitude of the logarithm of the leptin concentration nor with its rate of change in either the first or second half of pregnancy. Conversely, for overweight/obese women, we find that an increase in the rate of change in maternal serum leptin in the second half of pregnancy is significantly associated with a decrease in aBW. We find that this effect is distinct from that of maternal weight. Differences in the effect of maternal serum leptin on fetal growth between overweight/obese and normal weight women suggest metabolic and physiologic heterogeneity between these groups. Such differences may be involved in the long-term physiologic effects of the obese intrauterine environment on the health of the offspring. PMID:23784911

  10. Maternal serum leptin during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the influence of maternal overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vinod K; Straughen, Jennifer K; Trudeau, Sheri

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have examined whether the distinct metabolic patterns found in obese and nonobese pregnant women have different effects on the growing fetus. Our objective was to estimate the influence of longitudinal variation in maternal serum leptin levels on variation in infant birth weight in overweight/obese versus normal-weight women. In a prospective cohort of 286 gravidas, maternal weight and serum leptin levels at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks gestation were measured. Effects of leptin levels on infant birth weight adjusted for gestational age at delivery (aBW) were analyzed using a linear regression model that accounted for the relationship of time-varying predictors to the log-transformed leptin concentrations. Different relationships of aBW to maternal serum leptin and its rate of change across pregnancy were exhibited by overweight/obese and normal-weight gravidas. For normal-weight women, aBW is not associated with either the magnitude of the logarithm of the leptin concentration or with its rate of change in either the first or second half of pregnancy. Conversely, for overweight/obese women, an increase in the rate of change in maternal serum leptin in the second half of pregnancy is significantly associated with a decrease in aBW. This effect is distinct from that of maternal weight. Differences in the effect of maternal serum leptin on fetal growth between overweight/ obese and normal-weight women suggest metabolic and physiologic heterogeneity between these groups. Such differences may be involved in the long-term physiologic effects of the obese intrauterine environment on the health of the offspring. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  11. A prospective cohort study on risk of acute pancreatitis related to serum triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Björn; Appelros, Stefan; Regnér, Sara; Manjer, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    To investigate risk for acute pancreatitis related to moderately elevated triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose. This was a prospective cohort study in Malmö, Sweden of 33,346 subjects investigated 1974-1992 and followed until December 31, 2006. Baseline investigation included a self-administered questionnaire and analysis of serum triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose. Cases of acute pancreatitis (n = 277, median time since baseline investigation 15.6 years) were identified in diagnosis registries and validated retrospectively. Attacks were classified as obstructive or non obstructive (alcohol or non alcohol related). Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for acute pancreatitis related to relevant risk factors, adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Triglycerides were associated with overall, non obstructive and non obstructive non alcohol related acute pancreatitis with adjusted HRs of 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.36), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.06-2.43) and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.11-1.62) per 1 mmol/l increment, respectively. Corresponding HRs for forth versus first quartile of triglycerides were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.21), 1.60 (95% CI, 1.60-1.01-1.35) and 2.07 (95% CI, 1.13-3.79). Triglycerides were not associated with obstructive acute pancreatitis and there were no associations between glucose or cholesterol and the risk of acute pancreatitis. We found an association between prediagnostic levels of triglycerides and risk for acute pancreatitis. This association was most pronounced in the non obstructive non alcohol related group. Our findings suggest that triglycerides may be a more important risk factor for acute pancreatitis than what has previously been estimated. Copyright © 2012 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Organochlorine pesticide levels in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, and milk from inhabitants of Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Aguirre, A A; Infanzon, R M; Silva, C S; Siliceo, J

    2001-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their persistence, accumulate in food chains and cause elevated contamination in human beings. These residues bioconcentrate in lipid-rich tissues according to the equilibrium pattern of internal transport and lipid tissue content. The analyses of maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, colostrum, and mature milk indicate circulation of these compounds through all compartments of the maternal body, including their crossover of the placental barrier. The greatest residue levels found correspond to DDTs, with highest levels determined in colostrum (5.71 mg/kg of DDT total), followed by adipose tissue with 5.66 mg/kg and in mature milk with 4.70 mg/kg. Among DDTs, pp'DDE is the most predominant compound. The paired analyses of organochlorine pesticide residue levels between mother blood serum and umbilical blood serum demonstrate significant correlation and their transfer from mother to fetus through the placenta. The paired analyses of adipose tissue and colostrum and mature milk contamination levels indicate a high degree of coherence, principally of DDT, in the body and lactation as a decontamination means.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Shift Work on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Objectives: Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. Results: The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the “Healthy Heart project” at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company. PMID:25763276

  15. Maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Romano, Megan E; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Webster, Glenys M; Eliot, Melissa N; Howard, Cynthia R; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect breast development and decrease duration of breastfeeding, thus interfering with the health benefits of breastfeeding. We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and breastfeeding duration. We measured PFAS concentrations in maternal serum collected during pregnancy in 2003-2006. After delivery, women (n=336) completed standardized breastfeeding surveys every 3 months until ending breastfeeding or 36 months postpartum. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for ending any breastfeeding within 3-6 months postpartum by Poisson regression, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum concentration had 1.77 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 3 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 2.54; p-trend=0.003) and 1.41 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 6 months (95%CI: 1.06, 1.87; p-trend=0.038), compared with women in the first quartile. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid serum concentration had a marginally increased risk of discontinuing any breastfeeding by 3 months (RR=1.32; 95%CI: 0.97, 1.79; p-trend=0.065). Maternal serum PFOA concentrations were inversely related to duration of any breastfeeding in this cohort, even after controlling for prior breastfeeding. These findings suggest that PFOA exposure may adversely affect breastfeeding duration and highlight the need to consider the potential adverse effects of maternal environmental chemical exposure on breastfeeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Megan E.; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Webster, Glenys M.; Eliot, Melissa N.; Howard, Cynthia R.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect breast development and decrease duration of breastfeeding, thus interfering with the health benefits of breastfeeding. We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and breastfeeding duration. Methods We measured PFAS concentrations in maternal serum collected during pregnancy in 2003–2006. After delivery, women (n=336) completed standardized breastfeeding surveys every 3 months until ending breastfeeding or 36 months postpartum. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for ending any breastfeeding within 3 or 6 months postpartum by Poisson regression, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Results Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum concentration had 1.77 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 3 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 2.54; p-trend=0.003) and 1.41 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 6 months (95%CI: 1.06, 1.87; p-trend=0.038), compared with women in the first quartile. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid serum concentration had a marginally increased risk of discontinuing any breastfeeding by 3 months (RR=1.32; 95%CI: 0.97, 1.79; p-trend=0.065). Conclusions Maternal serum PFOA concentrations were inversely related to duration of any breastfeeding in this cohort, even after controlling for prior breastfeeding. These findings suggest that PFOA exposure may adversely affect breastfeeding duration and highlight the need to consider the potential adverse effects of maternal environmental chemical exposure on breastfeeding. PMID:27179585

  17. Higher levels of serum triglyceride and dietary carbohydrate intake are associated with smaller LDL particle size in healthy Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Chung, Hye Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influencing factors that characterize low density lipoprotein (LDL) phenotype and the levels of LDL particle size in healthy Korean women. In 57 healthy Korean women (mean age, 57.4 ± 13.1 yrs), anthropometric and biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles and LDL particle size were measured. Dietary intake was estimated by a developed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The study subjects were divided into two groups: LDL phenotype A (mean size: 269.7Å, n = 44) and LDL phenotype B (mean size: 248.2Å, n = 13). Basic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The phenotype B group had a higher body mass index, higher serum levels of triglyceride, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo)B, and apoCIII but lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and LDL particle size than those of the phenotype A group. LDL particle size was negatively correlated with serum levels of triglyceride (r = -0.732, P < 0.001), total-cholesterol, apoB, and apoCIII, as well as carbohydrate intake (%En) and positively correlated with serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 and fat intake (%En). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that carbohydrate intake (%En) and serum triglyceride levels were the primary factors influencing LDL particle size (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.577). This result confirmed that LDL particle size was closely correlated with circulating triglycerides and demonstrated that particle size is significantly associated with dietary carbohydrate in Korean women. PMID:22586500

  18. Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adults.

    PubMed

    Oelrich, B; Dewell, A; Gardner, C D

    2013-04-01

    The well-established triglyceride (TG) lowering effect of fish oil is accompanied by an increase in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Less is known about the differential impact on LDL particle distribution - the smaller particles being associated with a greater risk for atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults. This was a secondary analysis from a double-blind, parallel design, placebo controlled trial with 42 adults that experienced significant TG lowering and modest increases in total LDL-C concentrations after 12 weeks of 4 g/d EPA + DHA. Reduction in serum TG concentrations (mean ± SEM) was -26 ± 4% (-0.81 ± 10.12 mmol/L), p < 0.0001. Total LDL-C concentration increased by 13 ± 3% (+0.31 ± 0.08 mmol/L), p < 0.0001. The 12-week changes in concentrations of LDL1, LDL2, LDL3 and LDL4 were +0.06 ± 0.02 mmol/L [+2.2 ± 0.7 mg/dL], +0.07 ± 0.03 mmol/L [+2.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL], +0.16 ± 0.05 mmol/L [+6.3 ± 1.8 mg/dL], and +0.04 ± 0.04 mmol/L [+1.4 ± 1.7 mg/dL], respectively (+20 ± 5%, +64 ± 13%, +26 ± 6%, and +17 ± 9%), p < 0.05 for all but LDL4. Changes in LDL phenotype patterns A, B and A/B were negligible and not statistically significant. In this population of hypertriglyceridemic adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35–69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  20. Association of maternal serum homocysteine concentration levels in late stage of pregnancy with preterm births: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiantao; Gao, Fei; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Bao, Junjie; Gu, Xiaoqiong; Long, Yan; Liu, Fei; Cai, Minmin; Liu, Haiying

    2017-08-11

    To investigate the relationship between maternal serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels in the late stage of pregnancy and preterm birth. Other relevant biochemical parameters were measured to establish the normal reference interval of serum Hcy in both women in the late stage of pregnancy and neonates. The nested case-control study included 300 singleton pregnant women with preterm births between June 2013 and May 2015 and their premature delivered babies as a preterm group. Blood sample within three days before delivery was collected. Simultaneously, 300 healthy pregnant women admitted during the same time, and singleton mature neonates who had gestational week-matched blood sample were age-matched as a control group. Maternal serum levels of Hcy, total triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), uric acid (UA), free fatty acids (FAA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were all higher in the preterm group than in the control group except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Serum levels of Hcy, TC, LDL-C, UA, FAA and SOD were higher in prematurely delivered neonates than in the control group except for HDL-C. The body weight of prematurely delivered neonates was negatively correlated with the maternal serum levels of Hcy and UA before delivery. Higher maternal serum Hcy levels were associated with preterm birth and neonatal body weight. Elevated maternal serum levels of Hcy might serve as a biomarker for preterm birth prediction.

  1. Fetal macrosomia related to maternal poorly controlled type 1 diabetes strongly impairs serum lipoprotein concentrations and composition

    PubMed Central

    Merzouk, H; Bouchenak, M; Loukidi, B; Madani, S; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To determine the effects of fetal macrosomia related to maternal type 1 diabetes on the lipid transport system. Methods—Serum lipoprotein concentrations and composition and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity were investigated in macrosomic newborns (mean birth weight, 4650 g; SEM, 90) and their mothers with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, in appropriate for gestational age newborns (mean birth weight, 3616 g; SEM, 68) and their mothers with well controlled type 1 diabetes, and macrosomic (mean birth weight, 4555 g; SEM, 86) or appropriate for gestational age (mean birth weight, 3290 g; SEM, 45) newborns and their healthy mothers. Results—In mothers with well controlled type 1 diabetes, serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoproteins were comparable with those of healthy mothers. Similarly, in their infants, these parameters did not differ from those of appropriate for gestational age newborns. Serum triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) triglyceride concentrations were higher, whereas serum apo A-I and HDL3 concentrations were lower in mothers with diabetes and poor glycaemic control than in healthy mothers. Their macrosomic newborns had higher concentrations in all serum lipids and lipoproteins, with high apo A-I and apo B100 values compared with appropriate for gestational age newborns. In macrosomic infants of healthy mothers, there were no significant differences in lipoprotein profiles compared with those of appropriate for gestational age infants. LCAT activity was similar in both groups of mothers and newborns. Conclusion—Poorly controlled maternal type 1 diabetes and fetal macrosomia were associated with lipoprotein abnormalities. Macrosomic lipoprotein profiles related to poor metabolic control of type 1 diabetes appear to have implications for later metabolic diseases. Key Words: apolipoproteins • lipids • lipoproteins • lecithin

  2. HLA-G antigen and parturition: maternal serum, fetal serum and amniotic fluid levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hackmon, Rinat; Hallak, Mordechai; Krup, Margalit; Weitzman, Dahlia; Sheiner, Eyal; Kaplan, Boris; Weinstein, Yacob

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether soluble HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) concentrations in maternal serum and in amniotic fluid are lower at term than in the second trimester. In this prospective study amniotic fluid and maternal serum samples were aspirated from 21 pregnant women during genetic amniocentesis at 16-20 weeks' gestation, and from 19 women undergoing a cesarean section at term. In the latter group arterial umbilical cord blood was aspirated as well. sHLA-G1 levels were determined using ELISA assay. This assay included the anti-HLA-G monoclonal antibodies 87G and 16G1, both as capture antibodies and horseradish-peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-human beta(2)-microglobulin antibodies, as the detection antibody. The relative concentrations of sHLA-G1 were measured from the absorbancy of the blue product at 650 nm. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. sHLA-G1 levels in amniotic fluid were significantly lower at term than in the second trimester (0.160 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.272 +/- 0.150 OD units; p < 0.05). Levels of sHLA-G1 in maternal serum declined toward term, but the difference from the second trimester was not statistically significant (0.266 +/- 0.157 vs. 0.205 +/- 0.120 OD units; p = 0.193). There was a strong correlation of sHLA-G1 concentrations between cord serum and maternal serum (R(2) = 0.79; p < 0.001), but not between cord serum and amniotic fluid (R(2) = 0.00004) or amniotic fluid and maternal serum (R(2) = 0.02). sHLA-G1 antigen expression is higher in amniotic fluid than in maternal-fetal compartments and significantly decreases toward term. We speculate that the declining amniotic fluid sHLA-G1 levels may stimulate a maternal immunological response against the fetus and contribute to the initiation of parturition. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in naïve animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pannuto, Marilena; Favaro, Angela; Caregaro, Lorenza; Castaldo, Eloisa; Zanetti, Tatiana; Maj, Mario

    2005-04-30

    Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17beta-estradiol and thyroid hormones in 75 bulimic women and 64 age-matched healthy females after an overnight fast. Compared with healthy women, bulimic patients exhibited significantly enhanced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but similar values of glucose, 17beta-estradiol, FT3 and FT4. No significant differences emerged in these variables between patients with or without comorbid depression, borderline personality disorder or lifetime anorexia nervosa. Circulating cholesterol was positively correlated to the patients' drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, enteroceptive awareness and impulse regulation sub-item scores of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. These findings confirm that BN is associated with increased levels of serum lipids. This alteration may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain psychopathological characteristics of BN and cannot be explained by the co-occurrence of other psychiatric disorders.

  5. Kidney triglyceride accumulation in the fasted mouse is dependent upon serum free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scerbo, Diego; Son, Ni-Huiping; Sirwi, Alaa; Zeng, Lixia; Sas, Kelli M; Cifarelli, Vincenza; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Huggins, Lesley-Ann; Gumaste, Namrata; Hu, Yunying; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abumrad, Nada A; Kershaw, Erin E; Hussain, M Mahmood; Susztak, Katalin; Goldberg, Ira J

    2017-04-12

    Lipid accumulation is a pathological feature of every type of kidney injury. Despite this striking histological feature, physiological accumulation of lipids in the kidney is poorly understood. We studied whether the accumulation of lipids in the fasted kidney are derived from lipoproteins or non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). With overnight fasting, kidneys accumulated triglyceride but had reduced levels of ceramide and glycosphingolipid species. Fasting led to a nearly 5-fold increase in kidney uptake of plasma [14C]oleic acid. Increasing circulating NEFAs using a beta adrenergic receptor agonist caused a 15-fold greater accumulation of lipid in the kidney, while mice with reduced NEFAs due to adipose tissue deficiency of adipose triglyceride lipase had reduced triglycerides. Cd36 mRNA increased 2-fold, and Angptl4, an LpL inhibitor, increased 10-fold. Fasting-induced kidney lipid accumulation was not affected by inhibition of LpL with poloxamer 407 or by use of mice with induced genetic LpL deletion. Despite the increase in CD36 expression with fasting, genetic loss of CD36 did not alter fatty acid uptake or triglyceride accumulation. Our data demonstrate that fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the kidney correlates with the plasma concentrations of NEFAs, but is not due to uptake of lipoprotein lipids and does not involve the fatty acid transporter CD36.

  6. Human lactation: maternal transfer of dietary triglycerides labeled with stable isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hachey, D.L.; Thomas, M.R.; Emken, E.A.; Garza, C.; Brown-Booth, L.; Adlof, R.O.; Klein, P.D.

    1987-10-01

    A stable isotope tracer method was utilized to measure quantitatively the secretion of diet-derived fatty acids (FA) into human milk. A mixture of (/sup 2/H6)tripalmitin, (/sup 2/H18)-triolein, and (/sup 2/H12)trilinolein was administered to three healthy, lactating women 22 to 30 years of age. Milk and blood samples were collected sequentially for 72 hr. The FA composition and concentration of total plasma, lipoprotein, and milk triglycerides were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and the isotopic enrichment was determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). There were no statistically significant differences in mammary secretion of the individual fats, either by a single individual or between subjects. The mean secretion of fat by one breast was 5.11 +/- 1.26% of the dose (CV = 25%). There was a significant 6.0-hr delay between peak occurrence of the tracer in plasma and its occurrence in milk. The lipids are transported to the mammary gland primarily by the chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein triglycerides.

  7. Genetic APOC3 mutation, serum triglyceride concentrations, and coronary heart disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent decades have witnessed an increased awareness of the importance of lowering triglyceride concentrations in conjunction with lowering LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to achieve optimal reduction of the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Historically, LDL-C was the only target of pharmacologic ther...

  8. Platelet adhesiveness, plasma free fatty acids, and serum triglycerides in kwashiorkor

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, M.; Aref, M. K.; Mahmoud, S.; Abdel-Malek, A. T.; Guirgis, F. K.; Moghazy, M.; Abdel-Hay, M. M.

    1974-01-01

    The concentrations of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides were studied in 15 cases of kwashiorkor and in 14 normal controls in relation to the degree of platelet adhesiveness. A significant rise in the level of free fatty acids was found which correlated with a significant increase in platelet adhesiveness in these cases. PMID:4853675

  9. Apolipoprotein C-I genotype and serum levels of triglycerides, C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Bob; Gigante, Bruna; Mehlig, Kirsten; Bergsten, Alicia; Leander, Karin; de Faire, Ulf; Lissner, Lauren; Thelle, Dag S; Carlsson, Lena M S

    2010-12-01

    Apolipoprotein C-I (apoCI) is implicated in lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, both important risk factors for human heart disease. However, most findings come from in vitro or animal studies, whereas data on human apoCI are sparse. To elucidate the role of apoCI in human disease, we analyzed a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the apoCI gene in relation to blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), coronary artery disease (CAD), and myocardial infarction (MI). Rs11568822 is a 4-base pair insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism, and the Ins allele leads to a higher transcription in vitro compared with the Del allele. This polymorphism was analyzed in the Intergene study, a case-control study for CAD (N = 1236), and the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a case-control study for MI (N = 2774). Subjects homozygous for the Ins genotype had significantly higher serum levels of triglycerides (P = .01 and P = .006) and lower serum levels of CRP (P = .02 and P < .0001) compared with all other subjects in both studies. Similar results were obtained when analyzing only the controls of both studies (P = .002 and P = .0002, triglycerides; P = .002 and P < .0001, CRP). However, apoCI was not associated with CAD or MI. In conclusion, our data show that apoCI genotype is associated with serum levels of triglycerides and CRP, confirming the role of apoCI in lipid metabolism and suggesting that it also influences inflammation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Maternal serum IgA in intrauterine fetal growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Briese, V; Straube, W

    1983-01-01

    The problem was to prove the significance of IgA estimations in maternal serum samples with regard to the diagnosis and the monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth retardation. IgA was estimated in serum samples from two groups of patients. The first was formed from 62 serum samples of 14 primi- and multiparae delivered from new-borns with a birth weight below the 10th centile. The second was the control group. 82 serum samples from 18 gravidae were available. The IgA estimations were carried out by means of single radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini and co-workers. The IgA values of the two groups were different considering that linear regression model was used; negative correlation between IgA and pregnancy weeks in group with retarded new-borns (y = -151,78 X + 7579,8; r = -0,39) and positive correlation of these parameters in control group (y = 73,59 X -429,38; r = 0,26). It could be that IgA is an additional parameter within placental function tests of the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

  11. Airborne Precursors Predict Maternal Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Makey, Colleen M; Webster, Thomas F; Martin, Jonathan W; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Webster, Glenys M

    2017-07-05

    Human exposure to persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), can occur directly from contaminated food, water, air, and dust. However, precursors to PFAAs (PreFAAs), such as dipolyfluoroalkyl phosphates (diPAPs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctyl sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), which can be biotransformed to PFAAs, may also be a source of exposure. PFAAs were analyzed in 50 maternal sera samples collected in 2007-2008 from participants in Vancouver, Canada, while PFAAs and PreFAAs were measured in matching samples of residential bedroom air collected by passive sampler and in sieved vacuum dust (<150 μm). Concentrations of PreFAAs were higher than for PFAAs in air and dust. Positive associations were discovered between airborne 10:2 FTOH and serum PFOA and PFNA and between airborne MeFOSE and serum PFOS. On average, serum PFOS concentrations were 2.3 ng/mL (95%CI: 0.40, 4.3) higher in participants with airborne MeFOSE concentrations in the highest tertile relative to the lowest tertile. Among all PFAAs, only PFNA in air and vacuum dust predicted serum PFNA. Results suggest that airborne PFAA precursors were a source of PFOA, PFNA, and PFOS exposure in this population.

  12. Preterm birth in relation to maternal organochlorine serum levels.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, Laura; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Cebrián, Mariano E; Uribe, Marisela; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the associations of serum levels of p,pacute;-DDE and two other persistent organochlorine pesticides, beta-HCH and HCB, in relation to preterm birth. During 1995 we performed a case-cohort study and 233 mothers were recruited at three large maternity hospitals in Mexico City. Serum levels were obtained shortly after delivery. A non-significant increased risk of preterm birth in relation to serum p,p'-DDE levels was observed. There was also a suggestion of an increased risk of preterm birth among women in the highest tertile of beta-HCH (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI = 0.94-3.66, p value for test of trend p = 0.08) compared with the lowest tertile. No association was found between HCB serum levels and preterm births. These findings suggest that p,pacute;-DDE and other organochlorine pesticides may pose a risk to preterm birth in countries that continue to use such insecticides for malaria control.

  13. Effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice with and without the influence of fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Dong, Hang; Guo, Bao-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Schisandrin B, an active ingredient isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in mice. In the present study, the effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice without and with the influence of fenofibrate were investigated. Parameters on hepatic index (the ratio of liver weight to body weight × 100) were also analyzed. Mice were intragastrically treated with schisandrin B at a single dose of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 g/kg, without or with fenofibrate pretreatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 4 days, p.o.). Twenty-four hours after schisandrin B treatment, serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were measured. Schisandrin B treatment dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels as well as hepatic index in mice. In contrast, hepatic total cholesterol levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in schisandrin B-treated mice. Data obtained from effective kinetics analysis indicated that the action of schisandrin B on serum triglyceride had a higher specificity than those on hepatic total cholesterol and hepatic index. While fenofibrate pretreatment inhibited the schisandrin B-induced elevation in serum triglyceride levels, it completely abrogated the elevation of hepatic triglyceride levels in schisandrin B-treated mice. The combined treatment with schisandrin B and fenofibrate decreased hepatic total cholesterol level and increased the hepatic index in an additive or semi-additive manner, respectively. In conclusion, the results of effective kinetics analysis indicated that the schisandrin B-induced hypertriglyceridemia was competitively inhibited by fenofibrate. Schisandrin B may offer the prospect of setting up a mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver for screening triglyceride-lowering drug candidates.

  14. Low Serum Triglyceride Levels as Predictors of Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kozdag, Guliz; Ertas, Gokhan; Emre, Ender; Akay, Yasar; Celikyurt, Umut; Sahin, Tayfun; Gorur, Gozde; Karauzum, Kurtulus; Yilmaz, Irem; Ural, Dilek; Sarsekeyeva, Mira

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the influence of sex differences on predictors of cardiac mortality rates in chronic heart failure might enable us to lengthen lifetimes and to improve lives. This study describes the influence of sex on cardiovascular mortality rates among chronic heart failure patients. From January 2003 through December 2009, we evaluated 637 consecutive patients (409 men and 228 women) with chronic heart failure, who ranged in age from 18 through 94 years (mean age, 64 ± 13 yr) and ranged in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class from II through IV. The mean follow-up period was 38 ± 15 months, the mean age was 64 ± 13 years, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.27 ±0.11. By the end of the study, both sexes had similar cardiovascular mortality rates (36% men vs 37% women, P=0.559). In Cox regression analysis, NYHA functional class, triglyceride level, and history of coronary artery disease were independent predictors of cardiovascular death for women with chronic heart failure. For men with chronic heart failure, the patient's age, ejection fraction, and sodium level were independent predictors of cardiovascular death. In a modern tertiary referral heart failure clinic, decreased triglyceride levels were, upon univariate analysis, predictors of poor outcomes for both men and women. However, upon Cox regression analysis, reduced triglyceride levels were independent predictors of cardiac death only in women. PMID:24391311

  15. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-06-10

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking.

  16. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking. PMID:26068452

  17. Lake Michigan fish consumption as a source of polychlorinated biphenyls in human cord serum, maternal serum, and milk

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.M.; Jacobson, S.W.; Fein, G.; Jacobson, J.L.; Price, H.

    1983-03-01

    Reported consumption of Lake Michigan sport fish was examined in relation to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in biological samples provided by a sample of maternity patients. Fish consumption was correlated with PCB levels in maternal serum and milk but not in cord serum. PCB levels in serum increased with age, but were unrelated to social class, parity, or weight. Women who breast fed consumed as much fish as women who did not and their maternal and cord sera PCB levels were similar.

  18. The use of total serum proteins and triglycerides for monitoring body condition in the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Serrano, Emmanuel; González, Francisco J; Granados, José E; Moço, Gisela; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M

    2008-12-01

    Body condition in wild ungulates is traditionally evaluated during the necropsy of animals on the basis of the weight of fat stored around or within the vital organs, the weight of the organs themselves, and their derived indices. However, sometimes it is important to evaluate the nutritional status of the animal by means of blood and serum analyses and the interpretation of specific parameters. Only in a very few studies is the nutritional status of the animal obtained by blood biochemistry and, when obtained, compared with the values for body condition obtained by anatomic dissection. In this study, the usefulness of two serum parameters, total serum proteins (TSP) and serum triglycerides (ST), was assessed in the monitoring of the body condition of Iberian wild goats (Capra pyrenaica). In addition, their relationship with the kidney fat index (KFI) and its components, kidney mass without fat (KM) and kidney fat (KF) is evaluated. A total of 25 wild goats from the Sierra Nevada National Park (southern Iberian Peninsula) that were shot by hunters were used in this study. The parameter TSP was found to be correlated with KM, and ST was correlated with both KM and KFI. Hence, both TSP and ST can be used for monitoring physical condition in wild and captive Iberian wild goats.

  19. Impact of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection on Triglyceride Concentration in Serum Lipoprotein Fractions.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Tomohisa; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Tomita, Yoichi; Sugita, Tomonori; Aida, Yuta; Itagaki, Munenori; Sutoh, Satoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Akihito; Aizawa, Yoshio

    2015-08-31

    Reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level is a characteristic feature of dyslipidemia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, abnormality in serum triglyceride (TG) has not been fully investigated. To clarify the impact of HCV genotype 1b (G1b) infection and advanced fibrosis on serum TG profiles, TG concentrations in lipoprotein fractions were examined in fasting sera from 185 subjects with active or cleared HCV infection by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated into four classes: chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Then, the significance of HCV G1b infection on TG levels in each lipoprotein fraction was determined using multiple regression models. We found that active HCV G1b infection was positively associated with high HDL-TG levels and low VLDL-TG levels, independent of other factors included in the regression model. In VLDL sub-fractions, active HCV infection was only found to be associated with low levels of large VLDL-TG. Similarly, advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV G1b infection was associated with high levels of LDL-TG, HDL-TG, and small VLDL-TG, independent of other clinical factors. These findings indicate that active HCV G1b infection and advanced fibrosis are closely associated with abnormal serum TG profiles.

  20. An improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides in human serum by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yizhao; Liu, Qinde; Yong, Sharon; Teo, Hui Ling; Lee, Tong Kooi

    2014-01-20

    Triglycerides are widely tested in clinical laboratories using enzymatic methods for lipid profiling. As enzymatic methods can be affected by interferences from biological samples, this together with the non-specific nature of triglycerides measurement makes it necessary to verify the accuracy of the test results with a reference measurement procedure. Several such measurement procedures had been published. These procedures generally involved lengthy and laborious sample preparation steps. In this paper, an improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides was reported which simplifies the sample preparation steps and greatly shortens the time taken. The procedure was based on isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IDGC-MS)with tripalmitin as the calibration standard. Serum samples were first spiked with isotope-labeled tripalmitin. For the measurement of triglycerides, the serum samples were subjected to lipid extraction followed by separation of triglycerides from diglycerides and monoglycerides. Triglycerides were then hydrolyzed to glycerol, derivatized and injected into the GC–MS for quantification. For the measurement of total glycerides, the serum samples were hydrolyzed directly and derivatized before injection into the GC-MS for quantification. All measurement results showed good precision with CV <1%. A certified reference material (CRM) of lipids in frozen human serum was used to verify the accuracy of the measurement. The obtained values for both triglycerides and total glycerides were well within the certified ranges of the CRM, with deviation <0.4% from the certified values. The relative expanded uncertainties were also comparable with the uncertainties associated with the certified values of the CRM. The validated procedure was used in an External Quality Assessment (EQA) Program organized by our laboratory to establish the assigned values for triglycerides and total glycerides.

  1. Association of fasting and nonfasting serum triglycerides with cardiovascular disease and the role of remnant-like lipoproteins and small dense LDL.

    PubMed

    Stalenhoef, Anton F H; de Graaf, Jacqueline

    2008-08-01

    The magnitude of the contribution of serum triglycerides to cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms by which triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exert their effect on the vascular wall are largely unknown. Postprandial lipemia likewise has been linked to atherosclerosis, but large prospective studies assessing the magnitude of this association are also lacking. Hypertriglyceridemia is characterized by the presence of cholesterol-rich remnant-like lipoproteins and small dense LDL particles, both of which are believed to contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. Several large prospective cohort studies and a meta-analysis have been published recently, investigating the association of fasting and nonfasting serum triglycerides with cardiovascular disease. Fasting triglycerides increase the adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease risk 1.7 x (comparing upper with lower tertile), and nonfasting levels around 2.0 x. Measurement of nonfasting triglycerides may be more feasible and more informative, but standardization of a test meal is necessary. For clinical practice, the concentration of the atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions in hypertriglyceridemia may be reflected best by measuring apolipoprotein B. Nonfasting triglyceride levels may replace fasting levels in assessing cardiovascular disease risk once standard reference values have been developed. Several atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions can be measured by including apolipoprotein B in addition to HDL, (nonfasting) triglycerides and LDL cholesterol.

  2. GCN2 in the Brain Programs PPARγ2 and Triglyceride Storage in the Liver during Perinatal Development in Response to Maternal Dietary Fat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xu; Hu, Jingjie; McGrath, Barbara C.; Cavener, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in regulating lipid metabolism and facilitates efficient lipid utilization and storage. We discovered that a modest increase in maternal dietary fat in mice programs triglyceride storage in the liver of their developing offspring. The activation of this programming is not apparent, however, until several months later at the adult stage. We found that the perinatal programming of adult hepatic triglyceride storage was controlled by the eIF2α kinase GCN2 (EIF2AK4) in the brain of the offspring, which stimulates epigenetic modification of the Pparγ2 gene in the neonatal liver. Genetic ablation of Gcn2 in the offspring exhibited reduced hepatic triglyceride storage and repressed expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (Pparγ2) and two lipid droplet protein genes, Fsp27 and Cidea. Brain-specific, but not liver-specific, Gcn2 KO mice exhibit these same defects demonstrating that GCN2 in the developing brain programs hepatic triglyceride storage. GCN2 and nutrition-dependent programming of Pparγ2 is correlated with trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in the Pparγ2 promoter region during neonatal development. In addition to regulating hepatic triglyceride in response to modest changes in dietary fat, Gcn2 deficiency profoundly impacts the severity of the obese-diabetic phenotype of the leptin receptor mutant (db/db) mouse, by reducing hepatic steatosis and obesity but exacerbating the diabetic phenotype. We suggest that GCN2-dependent perinatal programming of hepatic triglyceride storage is an adaptation to couple early nutrition to anticipated needs for hepatic triglyceride storage in adults. However, increasing the hepatic triglyceride set point during perinatal development may predispose individuals to hepatosteatosis, while reducing circulating fatty acid levels that promote insulin resistance. PMID:24130751

  3. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-E; Wu, Yun-Li; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Huang, Rong-Dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans.

  4. Transplacental transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in paired samples of maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and placenta in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Li, Xiaojing; Jing, Ye; Fang, Xiangming; Zhang, Xinyu; Lei, Bingli; Yu, Yingxin

    2017-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a high-priority public health concern. However, maternal to fetal transplacental transfer of PAHs has not been systematically studied. To investigate the transplacental transfer of PAHs from mother to fetus and determine the influence of lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient, KOW) on transfer process, in the present study, we measured the concentrations of 15 PAHs in 95 paired maternal and umbilical cord serum, and placenta samples (in total 285 samples) collected in Shanghai, China. The average concentration of total PAHs was the highest in maternal serums (1290 ng g(-1) lipid), followed by umbilical cord serums (1150 ng g(-1) lipid). The value was the lowest in placenta samples (673 ng g(-1) lipid). Low molecular weight PAHs were the predominant compounds in the three matrices. Increases in fish and meat consumption did not lead to increases in maternal PAH levels, and no obvious gender differences in umbilical cord serums were observed. The widespread presence of PAHs in umbilical cord serums indicated the occurrence of transplacental transfer. The ratios of PAH concentrations in umbilical cord serum to those in maternal serum (F/M) and the concentrations in placenta to those in maternal serum (P/M) of paired samples were analyzed to characterize the transfer process of individual PAHs. Most F/M ratios on lipid basis were close to one (range: 0.79 to 1.36), which suggested that passive diffusion may control the transplacental transfer of PAHs from maternal serum to the fetal circulation. The P/M and F/M values calculated on lipid basis showed that PAHs with lower KOW were more likely to transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum lipidomics profiling using LC-MS and high-energy collisional dissociation fragmentation: focus on triglyceride detection and characterization.

    PubMed

    Bird, Susan S; Marur, Vasant R; Sniatynski, Matthew J; Greenberg, Heather K; Kristal, Bruce S

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing need both clinically and experimentally to improve the characterization of blood lipids. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method, developed for the qualitative and semiquantitative detection of lipids in biological samples and previously validated in mitochondrial samples, was now evaluated for the profiling of serum lipids. Data were acquired using high-resolution, full scan MS and high-energy, collisional dissociation (HCD), all ion fragmentation. The method was designed for efficient separation and detection in both positive and negative ionization mode and evaluated using standards spanning seven lipid classes. Platform performance, related to the identification and characterization of serum triglycerides (TGs), was assessed using extracted ion chromatograms with mass tolerance windows of 5 ppm or less from full scan exact mass measurements determined using SIEVE nondifferential LC-MS analysis software. The platform showed retention time coefficients of variation (CV) of <0.3%, mass accuracy values of <2 ppm error, and peak area CV of <13%, with the majority of that error coming from sample preparation and extraction rather than the LC-MS analysis, and linearity was shown to be over 4 orders of magnitude (r(2) = 0.999) for the standard TG (15:0)(3) spiked into serum. Instrument mass accuracy and precision were critical to the identification of unknown TG species, in part because these parameters enabled us to reduce false positives. In addition to detection and relative quantitation of TGs in serum, TG structures were characterized through the use of alternating HCD scans at different energies to produce diagnostic fragmentations on all ions in the analysis. The lipidomics method was applied to serum samples from 192 rats maintained on diets differing in macronutrient composition. The analysis identified 86 TG species with 81 unique masses that varied over 3.5 orders of magnitude and showed diet-dependency, consistent with

  7. Comparability of skinfold thickness to DXA whole-body total fat in their associations with serum triglycerides in youths.

    PubMed

    Addo, O Y; Pereira, M A; Himes, J H

    2012-09-01

    To determine the comparability of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body total fat (kg) in relation to serum triglyceride (TG) levels and increased risk of elevated TG levels, and identified optimum skinfold cutoffs for screening purposes in US adolescents. Data from triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, DXA whole-body total fat and serum TGs were obtained from 1505 US adolescents ages 12.00-17.99 years, who participated in two continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2001-2004. Study associations were examined with linear and logistic models, and ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analyses were used to derive skinfold cutoffs for identifying the risk of elevated TG levels. Using area under the curves (AUCs) as metrics of prediction accuracy (with bootstrapped 95% CIs), no significant differences were found between skinfolds and DXA logistic models for predicting elevated TG levels. Similarly, skinfold and DXA models had comparable precision in predicting continuous serum TG from bootstrapped root mean squared errors for both sexes. Population-adjusted marginal mean estimates indicated that youths whose skinfolds are in the top quartile had TG levels within 83-108 mg/dl. Skinfold cutoffs for predicting elevated estimated TG using ROC analyses showed that cutoffs decreased with age and ranged from 13 to 30 mm for ages 12-17, in yearly intervals. Skinfold thicknesses were comparable to DXA whole-body total fat in predicting serum TG levels. These skinfold cutoffs could be used in practical settings as a first pass screener for identifying US adolescents at risk of elevated serum TGs.

  8. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in pregnancies complicated by diabetes: implications for screening programs.

    PubMed

    Martin, A O; Dempsey, L M; Minogue, J; Liu, K; Keller, J; Tamura, R; Freinkel, N

    1990-10-01

    Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein may be reduced in diabetic pregnancies, but the association with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin has been controversial. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein may reflect the same phenomena that can also impair normal rates of embryo growth in the presence of poorly compensated maternal diabetes. If so, associations would be expected among maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, embryo rates of growth, and levels of glycosylated hemoglobin reflective of regulation of maternal diabetes during the period of organogenesis. We found maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in 93 pregnant patients with diabetes to be negatively associated with the earliest (4 to 12 weeks) glycosylated hemoglobin determinations. At glycosylated hemoglobin values greater than 9.6% (which approximates the upper quartile), all maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values fell below the median for patients without diabetes (below 0.8 multiple of the median after weight adjustment). Moreover, there was a trend for pregnancies with lower maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and higher glycosylated hemoglobin values to also demonstrate early fetal growth delay as measured by ultrasonography.

  9. Concentrations of antioxidant vitamins in maternal and cord serum and their effect on birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhong; Ren, Wei-Hong; Liao, Wen-qiang; Zhang, Guo-Yuan

    2009-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that maternal oxidative stress during pregnancy could impair fetal growth and that antioxidant vitamins (e.g. vitamins A, E and C) have a significant role in maintaining physiological processes of pregnancy and growth. To determine the concentrations of vitamins A, E, and C in pair-matched maternal and cord serum samples of neonate, and thus to investigate the relationship between maternal serum levels of these vitamins at delivery and birth outcomes. A total of 143 mother-neonate pairs were recruited into the cross-sectional descriptive study. Demographic information was investigated by questionnaire. After delivery, both cord and maternal blood were collected for quantification of serum levels of vitamins A, E and C by HPLC. Maternal serum levels of vitamins A and E were significantly higher than those in cord serum. In contrast, vitamin C level in cord serum was significantly higher than that in maternal serum. Further, we found that maternal vitamin A status was significantly correlated to both birth weight (r=0.19, p=0.0419) and birth height (r=0.21, p=0.0311), and these were manifested by these findings: (i) per 250.2 g reduction in birth weight concomitant with 1 micromol/L increase in maternal serum vitamin A level (p<0.01; 95% CI: 56.9-451.5); and (ii) per 1% increase in the ratio of serum vitamin A level of neonate to mother concomitant with 0.8 cm increase in birth height (p=0.049; 95% CI: 0.004-1.639). Maternal vitamin A, but not vitamins E and C, during pregnancy had a significant effect on birth outcomes. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of these antioxidant vitamins in fetal growth at various gestation stages.

  10. Neonatal serum magnesium concentrations are determined by total maternal dose of magnesium sulfate administered for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Borja-Del-Rosario, Pamela; Basu, Sudeepta Kumar; Haberman, Shoshana; Bhutada, Alok; Rastogi, Shantanu

    2014-03-01

    Antenatal magnesium in preterm labor for neuroprotection decreases the incidence of cerebral palsy. However, there are no guidelines on the dose and duration of magnesium infusion for neuroprotection. As increased neonatal serum magnesium concentrations may be related to higher risk of morbidity and mortality, the role of total amount of magnesium and maternal serum magnesium concentrations associated with safe neonatal serum magnesium concentrations is not known. A retrospective study was conducted on 289 mothers who received antenatal magnesium for neuroprotection as a loading dose of 4-6 g infused over 30 min, followed by a maintenance infusion of 1-2 g/h. Total magnesium dose infused to the mother and maternal serum magnesium concentrations were correlated with neonatal serum magnesium concentrations. Of the 289 mothers, 192 mother/baby dyads had all three measurements (maternal total magnesium dose, and maternal and neonatal serum magnesium concentrations). Magnesium infusion was continued beyond 24 h in 60 mothers. Total maternal magnesium dose at 24 and 48 h of infusion correlated with neonatal serum magnesium concentrations (r=0.55, P<0.0001 and r=0.35, P<0.0001, respectively), but not with maternal serum magnesium concentrations (r=0.004, P=0.98 and r=0.14, P=0.21). However, there was no correlation between the maternal and neonatal serum magnesium concentrations (r=0.10, P=0.15). Total dose of magnesium infused to the mother correlates with neonatal serum magnesium concentrations. To keep neonatal serum magnesium concentrations within a range that is effective for neuroprotection and safe for the neonates, the total dose received by the mother needs to be monitored and limited.

  11. Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal serum sample.

    PubMed

    Torella, M; Tormettino, B; Zurzolo, V; Labriola, D; Ambrosio, D; Stradella, L; Schettino, M T; De Franciscis, P

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the performance of two-stage first-trimester combined screening based on maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum sample "free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A)". A combined screening for chromosomal anomalies was performed in 713 singleton pregnancies. We performed a two-stage screening with the blood taken at 8+0 to 10+6 weeks and the measurement of NT performed at 12+0 to 12+6 weeks. The maternal age related risk for trisomy 21 was calculated and adjusted according to the gestational age at the time of screening to derive the a-priori risk. The measured free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were converted into a multiple of the median (MoM) for gestational age, adjusted for maternal weight, smoking status, ethnicity, method of conception (spontaneous or IVF) and parity. The measured NT was assessed in relationship of mesasure of CRL. Finally, the risk resulting by NT thickness and biochemical markers were multiplied by the a-priori risk to derive the patient-specific risk. The ultrascreen was considered positive in the case where the risk was greater than 1:250. In this case it was suggested the study of the fetal karyotype through an invasive test. In our study we had 23 positive cases after the combined screening: all patients have opted for the study of fetal karyotype, and in 5 cases the result was abnormal (trisomy 21). We had 1 case where the test was negative but the fetal karyotype was abnormal (trisomy 21). We have calculated sensitivity and false positive rate of the test. In our study there were 707 cases with a normal karyotype or delivery of a phenotypically normal baby and 6 cases with trisomy 21. The detection rate of the first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies was 83% with a false positive rate of 3,2%. The aim of the study was estimated the

  12. Associations of Maternal and Neonatal Serum Trace Element Concentrations with Neonatal Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Shinya; Morimoto, Nao; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Matsushita, Takeji

    2013-01-01

    Background Trace elements play important nutritional roles in neonates. Our objective was to examine whether there are differences in maternal/neonatal serum trace element concentrations between mature infants and premature infants. Methods During 2012, 44 infants born at National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, were enrolled. Serum samples were collected to measure serum iron, zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations 5 days after birth. Maternal serum samples were obtained before delivery and cord blood was taken at delivery to measure the same trace elements. We compared the results between term group whose birth weight were ≥2500 g and gestational age were ≥37 weeks and premature group whose birth weight were <2500 g or gestational age were <37 weeks. Variables significantly different between two groups were included in linear regression models to identify significant predictors of birth weight. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Serum selenium concentrations were lower in premature group than in term group (43.3±7.0 µg/L vs. 52.0±8.9 µg/L, P = 0.001). Maternal serum selenium concentrations were also significantly lower in the mothers of premature group than in the mothers of term group (79.3±19.3 µg/L vs. 94.1±18.1 µg/L, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences in neonatal or maternal iron, zinc, or copper concentrations between two groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that, except for gestational age, only maternal serum selenium was significantly associated with birth weight (P = 0.015). Conclusions Serum selenium concentrations were lower in premature group and their mothers compared with the term group. The maternal serum selenium concentration was positively correlated with birth weight. These results suggest that maternal serum selenium concentration may influence neonatal birth weight. PMID:24086594

  13. Determination of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum lipoproteins using flow field-flow fractionation coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Schoenmakers, Peter J; Kok, Wim Th

    2011-11-14

    Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) was combined with pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry for a sized based fractionation and a detailed compositional study of the triglycerides and cholesterol associated with the various lipoprotein subclasses present in human serum. Serum samples were injected in the AsFlFFF instrument and fractionated with a time-delayed exponential decay cross flow program. The fractions collected after AsFlFFF elution were injected into a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) GC-injector, containing a fritted liner. A temperature and split-flow program for the PTV injector was optimized for the thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation of the compounds of interest. The resulting fatty acid and cholesterol methyl esters were separated by GC and characteristic fragment ions were detected by MS. The system was optimized and calibrated with triglyceride and cholesterol standards for quantitative analysis. The possible interference by phospholipids with the quantitative results was investigated and found to be of minor importance. The concentrations and lipoprotein profiles of triglycerides and cholesterol were determined in a pooled serum sample of healthy volunteers and a serum sample of a sepsis patient. The results obtained with the GC-MS approach were compared with those of a previously developed method based on AsFlFFF with a dual enzymatic reaction detection system. A good agreement of the profiles was found, for cholesterol as well as for the triglycerides, even when the GC-MS method quantifies the fatty acids while with the enzymatic reaction method the glycerol concentrations are determined. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration values for the serum samples showed good agreement with the results of the standard enzymatic method as used in practice in the university hospital. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal obesity is associated with a low serum progesterone level in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goh, Jia Ying; He, Song; Allen, John Carson; Malhotra, Rahul; Tan, Thiam Chye

    2016-09-01

    Progesterone is an important biomarker of early pregnancy failure. However, literature is limited regarding factors that influence progesterone levels in early pregnancy. Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriages. We investigated the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and serum progesterone level in first trimester singleton pregnancies for 194 women at a tertiary maternity hospital in Singapore, from January 2012 to February 2014. Maternal characteristics and study outcomes were retrieved from clinical records. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an inverse relationship between first trimester maternal BMI category and serum progesterone level (p=0.012). Obesity (maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m2), relative to normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), conferred an increased risk for serum progesterone <35 nmol/L (adjusted OR: 9.14; 95% CI: 2.12 - 39.5; p=0.003). The overall miscarriage rate in our study population was 13.9%. This study indicates that maternal obesity is associated with low first trimester serum progesterone. Pre-pregnancy weight optimization may be beneficial in regulation of serum progesterone level and maintenance of healthy pregnancy.

  15. On the anti-atherogenic effect of the antioxidant BHT in cholesterol-fed rabbits: inverse relation between serum triglycerides and atheromatous lesions.

    PubMed

    Freyschuss, A; Al-Schurbaji, A; Björkhem, I; Babiker, A; Diczfalusy, U; Berglund, L; Henriksson, P

    2001-12-30

    We have shown that inclusion of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in the diet protects against development of atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits. In parallel, BHT treatment results in increased plasma triglyceride levels. The present study explores the relationship between the triglyceride-inducing and protective effects of BHT in two different studies. The combined material contains 22 rabbits fed cholesterol and 18 rabbits fed cholesterol in combination with 1% BHT. In the BHT group there was an inverse relationship between triglyceride exposure/cholesterol exposure and extent of lesions with r=0.74 (P=0.0005). Our results show that increased triglyceride exposure parallels the anti-atherogenic effect of BHT. There was no significant correlation between atheromatosis and serum BHT levels. beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) from cholesterol and BHT animals was triglyceride-enriched and smaller compared to beta-VLDL from cholesterol-fed animals, but there was no significant association between the anti-atherogenic effect of BHT and particle size or apolipoprotein pattern of LDL or beta-VLDL. LDL isolated from rabbits treated with cholesterol and BHT was less sensitive to oxidative modification than LDL isolated from rabbits treated with cholesterol only. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the degree of triglyceride exposure may be an important modulator of the anti-atherogenic effect of an antioxidant.

  16. Optimal range of triglyceride values to estimate serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009.

    PubMed

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the validity of Friedewald's formula and to propose a range of triglyceride values over which the formula can be used without significant error. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,929 subjects (946 males and 983 females) aged 20 yr and older using data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Estimated total number was considered to be 10,633,655 (5,846,384 males and 4,787,271 females). Calculated and directly-measured low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values were highly correlated (r = 0.96); however, significant differences were observed between the directly-measured and calculated LDL-C concentrations. Subjects in the underestimated group (10.5%) had higher dysmetabolic profiles than those in the overestimated group (11.4%). Although serum triglyceride level showed the greatest independent association with differences between the calculated and directly-measured LDL-C concentrations, no statistically significant differences were noted when triglyceride concentration was between 36 and 298 mg/dL (93.2%). In conclusion, Friedewald's formula accurately estimates directly-measured serum LDL-C concentration in Korean adults. However, the formula can be applied to subjects with serum triglyceride concentrations from 36 to 298 mg/dL without significant error.

  17. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05). A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223-2.334, P<0.01). However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720-1.336, P=0.903) or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  18. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. Methods There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. Results E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05). A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223–2.334, P<0.01). However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720–1.336, P=0.903) or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759–1.429, P=0.800). Conclusion A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides. PMID:25031531

  19. Elevated Serum Triglyceride and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels Associated with Fructose-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Wei-Zeng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Chen, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA) production. Objectives This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls) who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG) and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl). The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24) interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404), but not among non-drinkers. Conclusions High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4. PMID:24475021

  20. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2). Results The serum triglyceride (TG) levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3%) exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4%) and non-smokers (18.8%). The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9%) and former smokers (14.9%) demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%). In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA. PMID:26616395

  1. A lipasin/Angptl8 monoclonal antibody lowers mouse serum triglycerides involving increased postprandial activity of the cardiac lipoprotein lipase

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhiyao; Abou-Samra, Abdul B.; Zhang, Ren

    2015-01-01

    Lipasin/Angptl8 is a feeding-induced hepatokine that regulates triglyceride (TAG) metabolism; its therapeutical potential, mechanism of action, and relation to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), however, remain elusive. We generated five monoclonal lipasin antibodies, among which one lowered the serum TAG level when injected into mice, and the epitope was determined to be EIQVEE. Lipasin-deficient mice exhibited elevated postprandial activity of LPL in the heart and skeletal muscle, but not in white adipose tissue (WAT), suggesting that lipasin suppresses the activity of LPL specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Consistently, mice injected with the effective antibody or with lipasin deficiency had increased postprandial cardiac LPL activity and lower TAG levels only in the fed state. These results suggest that lipasin acts, at least in part, in an endocrine manner. We propose the following model: feeding induces lipasin, activating the lipasin-Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles to direct circulating TAG to WAT for storage; conversely, fasting induces Angptl4, which inhibits LPL in WAT to direct circulating TAG to cardiac and skeletal muscles for oxidation. This model suggests a general mechanism by which TAG trafficking is coordinated by lipasin, Angptl3 and Angptl4 at different nutritional statuses. PMID:26687026

  2. A lipasin/Angptl8 monoclonal antibody lowers mouse serum triglycerides involving increased postprandial activity of the cardiac lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhiyao; Abou-Samra, Abdul B; Zhang, Ren

    2015-12-21

    Lipasin/Angptl8 is a feeding-induced hepatokine that regulates triglyceride (TAG) metabolism; its therapeutical potential, mechanism of action, and relation to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), however, remain elusive. We generated five monoclonal lipasin antibodies, among which one lowered the serum TAG level when injected into mice, and the epitope was determined to be EIQVEE. Lipasin-deficient mice exhibited elevated postprandial activity of LPL in the heart and skeletal muscle, but not in white adipose tissue (WAT), suggesting that lipasin suppresses the activity of LPL specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Consistently, mice injected with the effective antibody or with lipasin deficiency had increased postprandial cardiac LPL activity and lower TAG levels only in the fed state. These results suggest that lipasin acts, at least in part, in an endocrine manner. We propose the following model: feeding induces lipasin, activating the lipasin-Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles to direct circulating TAG to WAT for storage; conversely, fasting induces Angptl4, which inhibits LPL in WAT to direct circulating TAG to cardiac and skeletal muscles for oxidation. This model suggests a general mechanism by which TAG trafficking is coordinated by lipasin, Angptl3 and Angptl4 at different nutritional statuses.

  3. Human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors: Levels and profiles in paired maternal and cord serum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Yu; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) precursors, the indirect source of PFAA exposure, have been observed in environmental and human samples. However, the maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals has not been well examined. In this study, 50 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Jiangsu province of China were analyzed for fifteen PFAA precursors. Among the detected PFAAs, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), N-methyl- and N-ethyl-perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetates had comparable detection rate in both maternal and cord sera, while the mean concentrations and detection rates of 8:2 FTS and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were higher in maternal sera compared to cord sera (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance and least significant difference tests showed that the youngest maternal age group (21-24 years old) had the highest concentration of 6:2 FTS in cord sera. Maternal serum PFOSA was found significantly correlated with the cord serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (Spearman test, r = 0.361, P = 0.010), indicating that maternal serum PFOSA might be an indirect source of PFOS in fetuses. The obtained results suggested the potential prenatal exposure and human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Serum Triglyceride to HDL Cholesterol Ratio with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Incident Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tae Ik; Streja, Elani; Soohoo, Melissa; Kim, Tae Woo; Rhee, Connie M; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kashyap, Moti L; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Moradi, Hamid

    2017-04-03

    Elevated serum triglyceride/HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality in the general population. However, the association of this important clinical index with mortality has not been fully evaluated in patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We hypothesized that the association of serum TG/HDL-C ratio with all-cause and CV mortality in patients with ESRD on MHD is different from the general population. We studied the association of serum TG/HDL-C ratio with all-cause and CV mortality in a nationally representative cohort of 50,673 patients on incident hemodialysis between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. Association of baseline and time-varying TG/HDL-C ratios with mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with adjustment for multiple variables, including statin therapy. During the median follow-up of 19 months (interquartile range, 11-32 months), 12,778 all-cause deaths and 4541 CV deaths occurred, respectively. We found that the 10th decile group (reference: sixth deciles of TG/HDL-C ratios) had significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99] in baseline and 0.86 [95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.94] in time-varying models) and CV mortality (hazard ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.96] in baseline and 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.90] in time-varying models). These associations remained consistent and significant across various subgroups. Contrary to the general population, elevated TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with better CV and overall survival in patients on hemodialysis. Our findings provide further support that the nature of CV disease and mortality in patients with ESRD is unique and distinct from other patient populations. Hence, it is vital that future studies focus on identifying risk factors unique to patients on MHD and decipher the underlying

  5. Interaction between serum uric acid and triglycerides in relation to prehypertension in community-dwelling Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kusunoki, Tomo; Abe, Masanori; Miki, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    There are few data available on the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and blood pressure (BP) categories earlier in the disease continuum, when efforts for its prevention may be applicable. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association between SUA and prehypertension in a community-dwelling sample of Japanese adults. Study participants without hypertension aged 19 to 90 years [567 men aged 56 ± 15 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 808 women aged 58 ± 13 years] were recruited for a survey at the community based annual medical check-up. The main outcome was the presence of prehypertension [systolic BP (SBP) 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) 80-89 mmHg]. After adjustments by gender and age, both SBP (p<0.001) and DBP (p<0.001) increased significantly and progressively with increasing SUA and triglycerides (TG) as well as body mass index, LDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Compared to those with normotension, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for participants with prehypertension was 1.15 (1.05-1.26) for SUA and 3.19 (1.66-6.14) for TG. The interaction between increased SUA and TG was a significant and independent determinant for SBP (β=-2.474, p=0.008), but not for DBP (β=-0.608, p=0.349). Higher SUA levels are associated with prehypertension in participants without hypertriglyceridemia (<150 mg/dL), but not in participants with hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 150 mg/dL). TG levels may modify the association between SUA and prehypertension.

  6. Leucine 7 to proline 7 polymorphism in the preproneuropeptide Y is associated with birth weight and serum triglyceride concentration in preschool aged children.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, M K; Koulu, M; Pesonen, U; Uusitupa, M I; Tammi, A; Viikari, J; Simell, O; Rönnemaa, T

    2000-04-01

    The Leu7Pro gene variant of the signal peptide part of neuropeptide Y (NPY), has been shown to affect cholesterol metabolism in obese adults. This study investigates whether the Leu7Pro polymorphism in the prepro-NPY has an impact on serum lipid concentrations in preschool-aged children at 5 and 7 yr of age. As birth weight may influence future lipid values, we also investigated whether Leu7Pro polymorphism is associated with birth weight. The study comprised 688 children participating in the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. Fasting lipid concentrations were determined first at the age of 5 yr and again at the age of 7 yr. The Leu7Pro polymorphism was not associated with serum total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol values in boys or in girls. However, Pro7 substitution in prepro-NPY was constantly associated with 14-17% higher mean serum triglyceride values in the boys at the ages of 5 and 7 yr (P = 0.023). In addition, boys with the Pro7 substitution had, on the average, a 193-g higher birth weight than boys homozygous for Leu7 (P = 0.03). The Leu7Pro polymorphism may thus be linked with serum triglyceride concentrations, but not with serum cholesterol concentrations, in gender-specific manner in preschoolers.

  7. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  8. Higher Levels of Serum Triglycerides were Associated with Postoperative Deep Vein Thrombosis After Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients with Nontraumatic Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihong; Dai, Xiaoyu; Yao, Yao; Shi, Dongquan; Chen, Dongyang; Dai, Jin; Teng, Huajian; Jiang, Qing

    2016-03-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the association of serum lipids and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) risk following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). A total of 224 nontraumatic ONFH patients were enrolled. Serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were detected preoperatively. All the patients underwent unilateral lower extremity venography on postoperative days 3 to 5 for DVT screening. In females, patients who were venogram positive for DVT had a higher serum TG level than those who were venogram negative for DVT (P = .029) and a higher TG level was associated with an increased DVT risk (P = .042). Serum TG levels considerably affect DVT risk after THA in female nontraumatic ONFH patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Role of bran in normals. Serum levels of cholesterols, triglyceride, calcium and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid, and intestinal transit time.

    PubMed

    Winreich, J; Pedersen, O; Dinesen, K

    1977-01-01

    After the intake of approximately 24 g wheat bran daily for 5 weeks, 25 trainee nurses showed no changes in the serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium or total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. On the other hand, the study revealed a reduced intestinal transit time with good correlation to an increased frequency of bowel movements. Average body weight fell significantly, by 0.4 kg. The daily caloric intake remained constant throughout the study period, whereas the calcium intake was significantly increased. Among the serum parameters and the dietary constituents, good correlation was found only between serum cholesterol and the dietary cholesterol content. In addition, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between the serum levels of cholesterol and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. The significance of this observation is as yet unknown.

  10. Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Shafieineek, Leila; Tohidinik, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring. Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package. Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence. PMID:28360442

  11. A mixed (long- and medium-chain) triglyceride lipid emulsion extracts local anesthetic from human serum in vitro more effectively than a long-chain emulsion.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Weiming; French, Deborah; Wong, Alicia; Drasner, Kenneth; Wu, Alan H B

    2012-02-01

    Lipid emulsion infusion reverses cardiac toxicity of local anesthetics. The predominant effect is likely creation of a "lipid sink." This in vitro study determined the extent to which Intralipid® (Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) and Lipofundin® (B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) sequester anesthetics from serum, and whether it varies with pH. Bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine were added to human drug-free serum (pH 7.4) at 10 μg/ml. The lipid emulsions were added, and the mixture shaken and incubated at 37°C. Lipid was removed by ultracentrifugation and drug remaining in the serum measured. Additional experiments were performed using 100 μg/ml bupivacaine and at pH 6.9. Lipofundin® extracted all three anesthetics to a greater extent than Intralipid® (34.7% vs..22.3% for bupivacaine, 25.8% vs..16.5% for ropivacaine, and 7.3% vs..4.7% for mepivacaine). By increasing either concentration of bupivacaine or lipid, there was an increase in drug extraction from serum. Adjusting the pH to 6.9 had no statistically significant effect on the percentage of bupivacaine sequestered. Bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine were sequestered to an extent consistent with their octanol:water partition constants (logP). In contrast with previous studies of extraction of lipids from buffer solutions, an emulsion containing 50% each of medium- and long-chain triglycerides extracted local anesthetics to a greater extent from human serum than one containing exclusively long-chain triglycerides, calling into question recent advanced cardiac life support guidelines for resuscitation from anesthetic toxicity that specify use of a long-chain triglyceride. The current data also do not support recent recommendations to delay administration until pH is normalized.

  12. Adiponectin and leptin in maternal serum, cord blood, and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Weyermann, Maria; Beermann, Christopher; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2006-11-01

    The presence of the adipokines adiponectin and leptin in cord blood and placental and fetal tissues suggests a possible role in fetal development. We measured concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in maternal serum, cord blood, and breast milk and examined their correlations within a large, population-based study. Between November 2000 and November 2001, we recruited all mothers and their newborns after delivery at the University of Ulm (Ulm, Germany). The current analysis included 766 mothers with available breast milk samples collected 6 weeks postpartum. Adipokine concentrations were measured with commercially available ELISAs (R&D Systems). Median adiponectin concentrations in maternal serum (n=713), cord blood (n=709), and breast milk (n=766) were 8.6 mg/L, 30.6 mg/L, and 10.9 microg/L, respectively. Median leptin concentrations were 12.8 microg/L in maternal serum, 7.8 microg/L in cord blood, and 174.5 ng/L in breast milk. Whereas increases in leptin concentrations with increasing birth weight, birth weight according to gestational age, and ponderal index were statistically significant in cord blood (all P values<0.0001), cord blood adiponectin was clearly related only to birth weight (P=0.0004). Concentrations of both adipokines were moderately correlated in breast milk and maternal serum (both Spearman rho values were 0.43; P<0.0001). Concentrations of adiponectin and leptin vary strongly in maternal serum, cord blood, and breast milk, with only moderate correlations between both adipokines in maternal serum and breast milk. The health implications of these patterns warrant further investigation.

  13. Abetalipoproteinemia caused by maternal isodisomy of chromosome 4q containing an intron 9 splice acceptor mutation in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, X P; Inazu, A; Yagi, K; Kajinami, K; Koizumi, J; Mabuchi, H

    1999-08-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD), a rare inheritance of 2 copies of a single chromosome homolog or a region of a chromosome from one parent, can result in various autosomal recessive diseases. Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is a rare autosomal recessive deficiency of apoB-containing lipoproteins caused by a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) deficiency. In this study, we describe a patient with ABL inherited as a homozygous intron 9 splice acceptor G(-1)-to-A mutation of the transfer protein gene. This mutation alters the splicing of the mRNA, resulting in a 36 amino acids, in-frame deletion of sequence encoded by exon 10. We analyzed chromosome 4, including MTP gene (4q22-24), using short tandem repeat markers. The proband has only his mother's genes in chromosome 4q spanning a 150-centimorgan region; ie, segmental maternal isodisomy 4q21-35, probably due to mitotic recombination. Nonpaternity between the proband and his father was excluded using 6 polymorphic markers from different chromosomes (paternity probability, 0.999). Maternal isodisomy (maternal UPD 4q) was the basis for homozygosity of the MTP gene mutation in this patient.

  14. Measurement of betamethasone concentration in maternal serum treated for fetal lung maturity; Is it feasible?

    PubMed

    Salim, Raed; Suleiman, Abeer; Colodner, Raul; Nachum, Zohar; Goldstein, Lee H; Shalev, Eliezer

    2016-02-10

    The association between maternal serum concentration of betamethasone given for fetal lung maturity and perinatal outcome has not been investigated. This may be due to an absence of a reliable method for measuring serum betamethasone concentrations. We aimed in the current study to assess the feasibility of a specific ELISA kit to measure the concentrations of betamethasone in maternal serum and to examine the trend of sequential measurements after a course of betamethasone for fetal lung maturity. Pregnant women at risk for preterm birth who received betamethasone between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were prospectively included. Serum concentrations were determined before administering betamethasone (baseline), and 36 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 5 to 7 days after the 1(st) dose. Betamethasone concentration in samples was determined using Corticosteroid ELISA kit. The Friedman test was used to test whether there were significant differences between the measurements. Five singleton pregnancies were included. Using the ELISA kit, betamethasone concentration in maternal serum samples was obtained for all women. Among the five measurements performed, the concentration was highest at 36 hours after the 1(st) dose and close to baseline at the 5(th) measurement performed after 5 to 7 days (p < 0.05). Serum concentration varied at each time point between the five women but similar trend was observed. Betamethasone concentration is measurable in the serum of pregnant women with this ELISA kit.

  15. Influence of epidural dexamethasone on maternal temperature and serum cytokine concentration after labor epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Zhong; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Xia; Qian, Ping; Ge, Jia-Mei; Tang, Bei-Lei

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of epidural dexamethasone on maternal temperature and serum cytokine levels after labor epidural analgesia. Sixty healthy term nulliparas in spontaneous labor were randomized to receive epidural analgesia alone using bupivacaine 0.125% and fentanyl 1 μg/mL (group I) or epidural analgesia combined with dexamethasone 0.2mg/mL (group II) (n=30 per group). Maternal tympanic temperature was measured before epidural analgesia and hourly thereafter until delivery. Maternal and cord venous blood were sampled for analysis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-10 levels. There was no difference in the incidence of intrapartum fever (38 °C or more) between the 2 groups (3/30 versus 1/30, P=0.612). The mean maternal temperature increased with time in group I, with the elevation reaching statistical significance at 4 hours post analgesia and at delivery compared with baseline (P=0.012 and P=0.043, respectively). A similar trend was observed with maternal serum IL-6 levels in group I. In group II, maternal temperature and IL-6 levels did not differ from baseline at any time point during labor. Epidural dexamethasone alleviates maternal temperature elevation after epidural analgesia. This effect can be attributed to the decrease in IL-6 levels. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2 = 0.214, P < 0.04). Conclusions We conclude that is not the glucose blood levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP. PMID:23642086

  17. eNOS genotype modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on serum triglyceride levels in a Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide is a key molecule not only in the cardiovascular system, but also in the metabolic-endocrine system. The purpose of this study was to examine possible associations of the NOS3 T-786C polymorphism (rs2070744) with serum lipid levels on the basis of lifestyle factors for tailoring prevention of dyslipidemia. Methods For this cross-sectional study, a total of 2226 subjects aged 35 to 69 years (1084 men and 1142 women) were selected from Japanese participants in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. They were recruited in eight areas throughout Japan between February 2004 and November 2008. Results In a stratified analysis by leisure-time physical activity, the likelihood of hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglyceride levels ≥ 150 mg/dL) among subjects with the C allele was significantly lower than those without it in the active group (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22-0.84 in the fasting group), but not in the sedentary group. A gene-environment interaction between the T-786C polymorphism and leisure-time physical activity for hypertriglyceridemia was significant (P = 0.007 in the fasting group). Additionally, serum triglyceride levels (mean ± SD) across leisure-time physical activity classes decreased significantly only in the TC + CC genotype group (111 ± 60 mg/dL for sedentary, 95 ± 48 mg/dL for moderately active, 88 ± 44 mg/dL for very active, P for trend = 0.008 in the fasting group), but not in the TT genotype group. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol levels had no significant association with the polymorphism. Conclusions This study suggests that the NOS3 T-786C polymorphism modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on serum triglyceride levels. PMID:23122449

  18. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the ...

  19. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  20. First trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein is not raised in pregnancies with open spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin; Khalil, Asma; Brown, Louise; Mills, Ian; Horne, Hannah

    2014-02-01

    Two recent studies have suggested that maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels are increased in the first trimester of pregnancies in which the fetus has an open spina bifida. This is contrary to previously published studies. This study assesses further whether maternal serum AFP is elevated in the first trimester in cases with open spina bifida. Cases with open spina bifida were identified from our fetal database, and corresponding first trimester screening samples were retrieved and analysed for maternal serum AFP. A control group was selected by taking three samples matched for gestational age (exact day), ethnicity and smoking status and received in the laboratory on the same day. AFP was measured with the Kryptor platform and free β-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A results were available from the fetal database. Thirty-nine open spina bifida cases were identified with a control group of 126 cases. The median multiple of the median AFP in the cases were not significantly different from the controls (0.92 vs 1.06 p = 0.3511) as was the case for free β-hCG (0.87 vs 0.95 p = 0.7146) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (1.04 vs 1.04 p = 0.261). Our results confirm that maternal serum biochemical markers in the first trimester are unable to distinguish cases in which the fetus has open spina bifida. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  2. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  3. Maternal Serum Meteorin Levels and the Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, María F.; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luisa F.; Simanca, Elkin L.; González, Iván; Leal, Luis G.; Mora, José A.; Bedoya, Andrés; Alzate, Juan P.; Sánchez, Ángel Y.; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H.; Franco-Vega, Roberto; Parra, Mario O.; Ruíz—Parra, Ariel I.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meteorin (METRN) is a recently described neutrophic factor with angiogenic properties. This is a nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort study that describes the serum profile of METRN during different periods of gestation in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women. Moreover, we explore the possible application of METRN as a biomarker. Methods and Findings Serum METRN was measured by ELISA in a longitudinal prospective cohort study in 37 healthy pregnant women, 16 mild preeclamptic women, and 20 healthy non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle with the aim of assessing serum METRN levels and its correlations with other metabolic parameters. Immunostaining for METRN protein was performed in placenta. A multivariate logistic regression model was proposed and a classifier model was formulated for predicting preeclampsia in early and middle pregnancy. The performance in classification was evaluated using measures such as sensitivity, specificity, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In healthy pregnant women, serum METRN levels were significantly elevated in early pregnancy compared to middle and late pregnancy. METRN levels are significantly lower only in early pregnancy in preeclamptic women when compared to healthy pregnant women. Decision trees that did not include METRN levels in the first trimester had a reduced sensitivity of 56% in the detection of preeclamptic women, compared to a sensitivity of 69% when METRN was included. Conclusions The joint measurements of circulating METRN levels in the first trimester and systolic blood pressure and weight in the second trimester significantly increase the probabilities of predicting preeclampsia. PMID:26121675

  4. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, Rocio; Morrison, Katherine; Teo, Koon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Kubwabo, Cariton; Stewart, Brian; Foster, Warren G.

    2008-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean{+-}S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1{+-}10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2{+-}10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3{+-}5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05{+-}12.3 and 5.05{+-}12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight.

  5. Mid-trimester maternal serum HCG and alpha fetal protein levels: clinical significance and prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Gkogkos, Panagiotis; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Maternal serum human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and Alpha Fetal Protein (AFP) were originally introduced to detect trisomy 21 and neural tube defects. However, in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects, mid-trimester maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with unexplained mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP, are at increased risk for pregnancy complications resulting from placental insufficiency. Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG>2.5 MoM associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death(IUFD). Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP levels >2.5 MoM are thought to reflect a defect in placentation and associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Combined mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and AFP levels suggest a more complex type of placental pathology. They have stronger association with pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG or AFP levels alone cannot detect all pregnant women with increased risk to develop pregnancy complications. Multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester (maternal serum hCG and AFP screening, uterine artery Doppler and placental morphology) may allow us to identify women with increased risk to develop severe placental insufficiency and pregnancy complications. However, future prospective studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester.

  6. Association of apolipoprotein A5 concentration with serum insulin and triglyceride levels and coronary artery disease in Korean men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE: Whereas the relation between apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triglycerides (TG) levels is well established, the associations between apoA5 concentrations, TG and coronary artery disease (CAD) remain controversial. Therefore, we investigated these relations in the setting ...

  7. Ethamsylate (Dicynone) interference in determination of serum creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, and cholesterol in assays involving the Trinder reaction; in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dastych, Milan; Wiewiorka, Ondrej; Benovská, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research was the quantification of interfering properties of the haemostatic drug Dicynone (ethamsylate) in serum creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride assays using the Trinder reaction. Blood from patients was collected before and 15 minutes after administration of 500 mg Dicynone dose i.v. and the above mentioned analytes were quantified using Roche assays (Cobas 8000). In our in vitro experiment, we measured concentrations of the analytes in pooled serum aliquots with final concentrations of Dicynone additions 0, 30, 60, 150, and 300 mg/L. Aliquots with 60 mg/L Dicynone were also measured at 2, 6, and 8 hours after initial measurement when stored in 22 degrees C and 4 degrees C for comparison. Concentrations of the measured analytes in samples from patients administered with a 500 mg dose of Dicynone were lower in all cases (n = 10) when compared to values in samples taken immediately before treatment. The in vitro samples showed that considerable negative interference occurred even with the low concentrations of Dicynone additions (30 and 60 mg/L), showing the strongest negative interference in creatinine values, followed by uric acid, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Using in vitro samples, we showed strong time and temperature dependence on Dicynone interference. We found and proved significant negative interference of the drug Dicynone (ethamsylate) in the clinical analysis of blood using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Furthermore, we observed a change of this effect in serum matrix over time and at different storage temperatures.

  8. Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstetter, M.; Volgger, L.; Genner, A.; Jungbauer, C.; Lendl, B.

    2013-02-01

    This work reports on a compact sensor for fast and reagent-free point-of-care determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum based on a tunable (1030-1230 cm-1) external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL). For simple and robust operation a single beam set-up was designed and only thermoelectric cooling was used for the employed laser and detector. Full computer control of analysis including liquid handling and data analysis facilitated routine measurements. A high optical pathlength (>100 μm) is a prerequisite for robust measurements in clinical practice. Hence, the optimum optical pathlength for transmission measurements in aqueous solution was considered in theory and experiment. The experimentally determined maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was around 140 μm for the QCL blood sensor and around 50 μm for a standard FT-IR spectrometer employing a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector. A single absorption spectrum was used to calculate the analyte concentrations simultaneously by using a partial-least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. Glucose was determined in blood serum with a prediction error (RMSEP) of 6.9 mg/dl and triglycerides with an error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 17.5 mg/dl in a set of 42 different patients. In spiked serum samples the lactate concentration could be determined with an RMSECV of 8.9 mg/dl.

  9. First-trimester fetal sex determination in maternal serum using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Costa, J M; Benachi, A; Gautier, E; Jouannic, J M; Ernault, P; Dumez, Y

    2001-12-01

    Fetal sex prediction can be achieved using PCR targeted at the SRY gene by analysing cell-free fetal DNA in maternal serum. Unfortunately, the results reported to date show a lack of sensitivity, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, determination of fetal sex by maternal serum analysis could not replace karyotype analysis following chorionic villus sampling. A new highly sensitive real-time PCR was developed to detect an SRY gene sequence in maternal serum. Analysis was performed on 121 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy (mean gestational age: 11.8 weeks). Among them, 51 had at least one previous male-bearing pregnancy. Results were compared with fetal sex. SRY PCR analysis of maternal serum was in complete concordance with fetal sex. Among the 121 pregnant women, 61 were bearing a male fetus and 60 a female fetus. No false-negative results were observed. Furthermore, no false-positive results occurred, even though 27 women carrying a female fetus during the current pregnancy had at least one previous male-bearing pregnancy. This study demonstrates that a reliable, non-invasive sex determination can be achieved by PCR analysis of maternal serum during the first trimester of pregnancy. This non-invasive approach for fetal sex prediction should have great implications in the management of pregnant women who are carriers of an X-linked genetic disorder. Prenatal diagnosis might thus be performed for male fetuses only, avoiding invasive procedures and the risk of the loss of female fetuses.

  10. Maternal serum and fetal cord blood irisin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Oncul, Mahmut; Tuten, Abdullah; Imamoglu, Metehan; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Kucur, Mine; Madazli, Riza

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal and cord blood irisin in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Twenty women with GDM and 20 pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies were recruited for this case-control study. Maternal serum irisin and cord blood irisin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit at the time of birth. The association of maternal serum and cord blood irisin levels with metabolic parameters was analyzed. Women with GDM had significantly lower mean serum irisin levels compared to control group (258.3±127.9 vs. 393±178.9ng/ml, p<0.05). Mean cord blood irisin levels for GDM and control groups were not significantly different (357.2±248.0 vs. 333.2±173.4ng/ml, p>0.05). No significant differences were found in terms of maternal age, gestational week at birth, BMI at birth, birth weight, neonatal height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the groups as well (p>0.05). Serum irisin level was negatively correlated with BMI at birth and HOMA-IR (r=-0.401, p=0.010; r=-0.395, p=0.012, respectively). No correlations between irisin levels and others parameters were found in both groups. Maternal serum irisin levels of patients with GDM are significantly lower compared with non-GDM controls. However, no significant difference was found between cord blood irisin levels of patients with GDM and healthy pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Levels of maternal serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at midpregnancy in relation to maternal characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yumin; Holzman, Claudia; Chung, Hwan; Senagore, Patricia; Talge, Nicole M; Siler-Khodr, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in maternal blood originates primarily from gestational tissues and elevated levels in midpregnancy have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Investigators have hypothesized that high levels of maternal stress might lead to elevated CRH levels in pregnancy. Yet a few studies have measured maternal CRH levels among subgroups of women who experience disproportionate socioeconomic disadvantage, such as African-American and Hispanic women, and found that these groups have lower CRH levels in pregnancy. Our goal was to identify maternal characteristics related to CRH levels in midpregnancy and examine which if any of these factors help to explain race differences in CRH levels. METHODS The Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study prospectively enrolled women at 15–27 weeks’ gestation from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (1998–2004). Data from the POUCH Study were used to examine maternal demographics, anthropometrics, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors (independent variables) in relation to midpregnancy blood CRH levels modeled as log CRH pg/ml (dependent variable). Analyses were conducted within a subcohort from the POUCH Study (671 non-Hispanic Whites, 545 African Americans) and repeated in the subcohort subset with uncomplicated pregnancies (n=746). Blood levels of CRH and independent variables were ascertained at the time of enrollment. All regression models included week of enrollment as a covariate. In addition, final multivariable regression models alternately incorporated different psychosocial measures along with maternal demographics and weight. Psychosocial variables included measures of current depressive symptoms, perceived stress, coping style, hostility, mastery, anomie, and a chronic stressor (history of abuse as a child and adult). RESULTS In subcohort models, the adjusted mean CRH level was significantly lower in African Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites

  12. Effects of maternal treatment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in embryonic chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Xue; Zhang, Yuanshu; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang

    2010-04-01

    Over the last decade, much evidence emerged to suggest that alterations in maternal diets during pregnancy may irreversibly affect aspects of physiological and biochemical functions in the fetus. To explore the effects of maternal dietary treatments with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on lipid metabolism in the embryo, we investigated serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the maternal and embryonic chicken. Sixteen-week-old pullets were allocated into 3 groups (n=30), and after laying, they were provided with a commercial diet supplemented with DHEA at 0, 20 or 100mg/kg diet. Eggs were collected after DHEA treatment and incubated at 37.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. Blood and liver samples were collected from hens and embryonic chickens. DHEA treatment resulted in decreased body weight and increased relative liver weight in both maternal and embryonic chickens, while the concentrations of blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly lower in the 20mg DHEA/kg group as compared to the control group during embryonic development. The expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPTI) gene was also reduced following treatment with 20mg DHEA/kg at hatching. However, blood TC, and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hydroxy methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene expression were significantly up-regulated in the 100mg DHEA/kg group during embryonic development and hatching. Overall, the results of this study indicate that maternal dietary treatment with DHEA regulates serum lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relation between Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors and Genetic Variations of Apolipoprotein V in Relation with Serum Triglyceride and HDL-C Level.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Mohammad-Sadegh; Sedaghatikhayat, Bahareh; Guity, Kamran; Akbari, Fereshteh; Azizi, Fereidoun; Daneshpour, Maryam S

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multi-factorial disorder with five important components. A high triglyceride level combined with low HDL cholesterol has been reported to be associated with Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene variations. In this study, we aimed to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms including: rs662799, rs3135506 and rs2075291 in the apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5) gene in relation to MetS component like triglyceride and HDL-C level in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to ATPIII and phenotypes were defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria for MetS. Demographic, biochemical parameters and anthropometric variables were measured. Selected APOA5 gene polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. From TLGS population, 947 adults, aged 19 - 70 years, were randomly selected and recruited into the study. Mean age, triglyceride and WC were higher and mean HDL was lower in MetS vs. non-MetS group. C allele in rs2075291 showed a significant association with MetS (OR: 2.38, 95% CI; 1.11 - 5.08, P = 1.5 ×10(-2)). The association was shown between higher serum triglyceride and the presence of T allele (P = 4.5 × 10(-4)) and also lower serum HDL-C and the presence of T allele (P = 1.6 × 10(-3)) in rs2075291. Also this association showed between raised waist circumference and C allele in rs3135506 (P = 3.5 × 10(-2) ) and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure level and C allele of rs662799 (P = 4.5 × 10(-2)). According to the results, there is a relationship between lipid profile and studied polymorphism in the presence of metabolic syndrome. It seems that APOA5 rs2075291 could play an important role in triglyceride and HDL-C level in metabolic syndrome affected, while the association of APOA5 rs662799 polymorphism is still under debate.

  14. Reduction of serum free fatty acids and triglycerides by liver-targeted expression of long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minhao; Cao, Aiqin; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jingwen

    2011-05-01

    ACSL3 is a member of the long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family that consists of 5 isozymes responsible for cellular fatty acid metabolism in various tissues in an isozyme-specific manner. Our previous studies have demonstrated that expression of ACSL3 mRNA and protein in liver was specifically increased after feeding hamsters with a fat- and cholesterol-enriched diet, providing the first in vivo evidence for the regulated expression of ACSL3 in liver tissue. The aim of the current study was to further investigate the role of ACSL3 in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo. We utilized an adenoviral-mediated gene delivery approach to exogenously express hamster ACSL3 in hamster liver as well as in HepG2 cells. Transduction of HepG2 cells with Ad-hamACSL3 adenovirus elevated total cellular ACSL enzyme activity, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of cellular contents of triglycerides and total phospholipids. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ACSL3 was localized to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In vivo, infection of hamsters with Ad-hamACSL3 led to sustained expression of ACSL3 mRNA and protein in liver two weeks after infection. Importantly, compared with Ad-GFP control virus infected hamsters, we observed significantly lower free fatty acids and triglycerides plus modest reduction of phospholipids in the serum of Ad-hamACSL3 infected animals. Furthermore, triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in Ad-hamACSL3 infected hamster liver. Altogether, these results provide important and physiologically relevant evidence that strengthens the link between ACSL3 expression and hepatic reduction of triglycerides and fatty acids.

  15. Maternal and cord serum vitamin E levels in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there is an association between reduced vitamin E levels and an abnormal pregnancy. Levels were measured by HPLC in maternal and, where possible, in paired umbilical cord serum from normal and abnormal pregnancies at delivery and in serial serum samples from healthy women during gestation. Abnormal pregnancies were compared with normals. In normal pregnancies, mean vitamin E levels rose from 12.9 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml in early pregnancy to 22.5 +/- 1.5 micrograms/ml at term (p < 0.05, n = 11). In pregnancies with fetal complications or maternal risks, levels were lower than in normals at corresponding gestational age (p < 0.005 in smokers, n = 20 at > or = 30 weeks & p < 0.01 in hypertensives, n = 4 at 16-23 weeks). Mean maternal and paired cord serum levels in normal pregnancies at delivery > or = 37 weeks were 21.3 +/- 0.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml respectively (p < 0.001, n = 56). Maternal levels in women with a low birthweight infant and in smokers (> 10 cig/day) were significantly lower (p < 0.05, n = 13 & p < 0.0005, n = 12); levels in women with a malformed infant (n = 6) were also reduced, but just barely below the level of significance (p = 0.06). Cord serum levels in complicated pregnancies, however, were unchanged. The results show lower maternal levels of vitamin E in abnormal pregnancies, suggesting a changed vitamin E metabolism.

  16. Treating liver fat and serum triglyceride levels in NAFLD, effects of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genotypes: Results from the WELCOME trial.

    PubMed

    Scorletti, Eleonora; West, Annette L; Bhatia, Lokpal; Hoile, Samuel P; McCormick, Keith G; Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A; Clough, Geraldine F; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2015-12-01

    Genetic variation in both patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein-3 (PNPLA3) (I148M) and the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 protein (TM6SF2) (E167K) influences severity of liver disease, and serum triglyceride concentrations in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but whether either genotype influences the responses to treatments is uncertain. One hundred three patients with NAFLD were randomised to omega-3 fatty acids (DHA+EPA) or placebo for 15-18months in a double blind placebo controlled trial. Erythrocyte enrichment with DHA and EPA was measured by gas chromatography. PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genotypes were measured by PCR technologies. Multivariable linear regression and analysis of covariance were undertaken to test the effect of genotypes on omega-3 fatty acid enrichment, end of study liver fat percentage and serum triglyceride concentrations. All models were adjusted for baseline measurements of each respective outcome. Fifty-five men and 40 women (Genotypes PNPLA3 I148M, 148I/I=41, 148I/M=43, 148M/M=11; TM6SF2 E167K 167E/E=78, 167E/K+167K/K=17 participants) (mean ± SD age, 51 ± 11 years) completed the trial. Adjusting for baseline measurement, measured covariates and confounders, PNPLA3 148M/M variant was independently associated with percentage of DHA enrichment (B coefficient -1.02 (95% CI -1.97, -0.07), p=0.036) but not percentage of EPA enrichment (B coefficient -0.31 (95% CI -1.38, 0.75), p=0.56). This genotype was also independently associated with end of study liver fat percentage (B coefficient 9.5 (95% CI 2.53, 16.39), p=0.008), but not end of study triglyceride concentration (B coefficient -0.11 (95% CI -0.64, 0.42), p=0.68). PNPLA3 148M/M variant influences the changes in liver fat and DHA tissue enrichment during the trial but not the change in serum triglyceride concentration. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IgG subclasses compared in maternal and cord serum and breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Gasparoni, A; Avanzini, A; Ravagni Probizer, F; Chirico, G; Rondini, G; Severi, F

    1992-01-01

    Total and specific IgG subclass antibodies against 14 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antigens on the cord serum from 11 healthy term infants at birth and on serum from their mothers at delivery were evaluated. The same evaluation was performed five days after delivery on the serum and the milk obtained from the six mothers who were breast feeding their infants. Mean neonatal: maternal serum ratio of total IgG1 was significantly higher than the ratios of total IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 and higher than the ratios of pneumococcal IgG subclass antibodies. Total IgG3 and IgG4 ratios were higher than the specific antibody ratios of the same IgG subclass. Type 1 and type 14 IgG1 antibodies were the highest antipneumococcal ratios. Although the maternal milk:serum ratios of total IgG subclasses were very low, significant amounts of specific antibodies were found in the milk, at about half the concentration observed in mother's serum. PMID:1536584

  18. Extremely high maternal alkaline phosphatase serum concentration with syncytiotrophoblastic origin

    PubMed Central

    Boronkai, A; Than, N G; Magenheim, R; Bellyei, S; Szigeti, A; Deres, P; Hargitai, B; Sumegi, B; Papp, Z; Rigo, J

    2005-01-01

    An extremely high alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentration (3609 IU/litre) was found in a 20 year old primigravida at 37 week’s gestation, prompting an examination of its histological and cellular origin. Immunohistochemistry and western blots using antibodies against AP, Ki-67, phospho-protein kinase B (Akt), phospho-p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2), phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phospho-stress activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, total-Akt, total-GSK-3β, and phospho-p38-MAPK were carried out on index and control placental samples of the same gestational age. Compared with controls, staining of the index placenta showed minimal AP labelling of the brush border and remarkable positivity of the intervillous space. Cytotrophoblastic proliferation was 8–10% in the index placenta compared with 1–2% in controls. The index placenta also had raised concentrations of protein kinases with important roles in cell differentiation. The proliferation and differentiation rates of the cytotrophoblasts were found to be five times higher in index samples than in controls. It is hypothesised that loss of syncytial membranes in immature villi led to increased AP concentrations in the maternal circulation and decreased AP staining of the placenta. Loss of the syncytium might also stimulate increased proliferation of villous cytotrophoblasts, which would then fuse and maintain the syncytium. PMID:15623487

  19. Treatment with buckwheat bran extract prevents the elevation of serum triglyceride levels and fatty liver in KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Toshio; Sasaga, Sayaka; Yamasaka, Yukiko; Nii, Yoshitaka; Edazawa, Kazuhiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Shuto, Emi; Okahisa, Naoki; Iwata, Shinya; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Buckwheat powder or protein has been shown to decrease the total serum cholesterol level in non-diabetic mice or rats. However, the lipid-lowering effect of buckwheat bran extract (BBE) in diabetic mice has not been fully elucidated. KK-A(y) mice that received six-week treatment with BBE showed decreased body weight and liver weight compared to those of control (vehicle) mice. However, there was no significant difference in food intake. BBE treatments prevented liver triglyceride accumulation and decreased the serum level of triglycerides. In addition, mRNA expression levels lipogenic enzyme genes, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-coenzyme a oxidase and stearyl-coenzyme a desaturase 1, but not those of β-oxidized enzyme genes, were decreased in BBE-treated mice. Level of transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c, transcripts of lipogenic genes, were also decreased in BBE-treated mice. These results suggest that chronic treatment with BBE derivatives could have beneficial effects on hypertriglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin as a marker for the delivery of low-birth-weight infants in women with unexplained elevations in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hurley, T J; Miller, C; O'Brien, T J; Blacklaw, M; Quirk, J G

    1996-01-01

    We wished to ascertain whether the measurement of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) in the serum of pregnant women with unexplained elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) would more precisely define those women at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. MShCG was measured in samples of serum obtained from women in the second trimester of pregnancy who had elevated MSAFP, normal Level II ultrasounds, and normal fetal karyotypes. Based on the characteristics of a receiver-operator curve for MShCG and birth weight, patients were divided into two groups and pregnancy outcomes were compared. Pregnant women with an unexplained elevation in MSAFP, who also had an abnormal MShCG (< or = 0.5 MoM > or = 2.5) were at significantly greater risk of delivering a low-birth-weight infant compared to women with a normal MShCG (43% and 15%, respectively; P = 0.013). They were also more likely to deliver a preterm infant (48% and 11.9%), respectively; P = 0.001). In the prediction of low birth weight, an abnormal MShCG had a sensitivity of 50%, a specificity of 81%, and a positive predictive value of 43%; in the detection of preterm delivery the values were 59%, 88%, and 48%, respectively. These findings suggest that in pregnant women with a second trimester unexplained elevation in MSAFP, abnormal MShCG levels may identify a group of women at high risk of preterm delivery or delivery of a low-birth-weight infant.

  1. Maternal Neuroendocrine Serum Levels in Exclusively Breastfeeding Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Pearson, Brenda; Pedersen, Cort; Grewen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low milk supply is a common cause of early weaning, and supply issues are associated with dysregulation of thyroid function and prolactin. However, hormone levels compatible with successful breastfeeding are not well defined, limiting interpretation of clinical lab results. In this study we sought to quantify ranges for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), total T4, and prolactin in a cohort of exclusively breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: Women planning to breastfeed were recruited in the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal endocrine function was assessed before and after a breastfeeding session at 2 and 8 weeks postpartum. We used paired t tests to determine whether values changed from the 2- to 8-week visit. Results: Of 52 study participants, 28 were exclusively breastfeeding, defined as only breastmilk feeds in the prior 7 days, at both the 2- and 8-week study visits. Endocrine function changed with time since delivery: the TSH level was higher, whereas total T4, free T4, and prolactin levels were lower, at the 8-week visit than at the 2-week visit (by paired t test, p≤0.01). We found a wide range of prolactin values at the 8-week visit, with a 5th percentile value of 9 ng/dL before feeding and 74 ng/dL at 10 minutes after feeding. Conclusions: Neuroendocrine function changes during the first 8 weeks after birth, and a wide range of values is compatible with successful breastfeeding. Further studies are needed to define reference values in breastfeeding women. PMID:25831434

  2. Enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum lipoprotein profiles by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with on-line, dual detection.

    PubMed

    Rambaldi, Diana Cristina; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Zattoni, Andrea; Johann, Christoph

    2009-11-03

    Alterations of lipoproteins (LPs) and related lipid levels in blood serum are correlated to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fast, possibly automated methods to obtain complete, multi-parametric LP profiles are therefore welcome to be developed for routine, clinical analysis practice. In this work, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line, dual post-fractionation reaction detection (PFRD) is applied to develop a method for single-run, simultaneous quantification of cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TGs) in each fractionated LP class. The enzymatic reagents used for the post-fractionation reaction are available as commercial kits for certified, standard clinical protocols for the analysis of CHOL and TGs in serum. Using CHOL and glycerol as reference standards, a new procedure is applied to optimize the experimental conditions for PFRD-based, quantitative analysis. Upon optimized PFRD and AF4 conditions, results obtained for the determination of total CHOL (TC), TGs, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in a set of serum samples from healthy donors are found in agreement with the values provided by a clinical laboratory. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were found always lower than 10% (CV). When the method was applied to serum samples from patients affected by sepsis, differences in CHOL and TG profiles between patients and healthy donors were observed.

  3. Effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy on maternal serum screening tests.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, G G; Timur, H; Yilmaz, Z; Kirbas, A; Daglar, K; Tokmak, A; Uygur, D; Danişman, N

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the changes in the first and second trimester maternal serum biochemical markers used for prenatal screening are associated with euploid pregnancies complicated by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). A total of 94 pregnant women were included in this retrospective comparative study. Thirty-seven women whose pregnancy was complicated with ICP constituted the study group whereas 57 of them constituted the control group. All hospital records were examined in terms of combined first trimester screening test and second trimester triple test parameters. Perinatal outcomes were also recorded. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in term of age, BMI, and obstetric history (all p > 0.05). Mean serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum bile acid concentrations in the study group were significantly higher than in the controls (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of first and second trimester serum biochemical markers. Newborn gender, route of birth, and NICU admission rates were also similar in the two groups. Mean birth weight of the control group was statistically significantly higher than the ICP group (p = 0.012). We report no significant differences between pregnancies complicated by ICP and healthy pregnancies in terms of first and second trimester maternal serum screening test results.

  4. Comparison of Polyfluoroalkyl Compound Concentrations in Maternal Serum and Amniotic Fluid: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cheryl R.; Wolff, Mary S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Engel, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are detectable in amniotic fluid is unknown. Using paired samples from 28 women, we compared the concentration of 8 PFCs measured in serum, the standard matrix for assessing human exposure, amniotic fluid from routine amniocentesis, and urine. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all maternal serum samples. The number of amniotic fluid samples with detectable concentrations differed by PFC (PFOA n=24; PFNA n=10; PFOS n=9; PFHxS n=4). The correlation coefficient between maternal serum and amniotic PFC levels varied considerably by PFC (PFOA ρ=0.64, p<0.001; PFNA ρ=0.05, p=0.9; PFOS ρ=0.76, p=0.01; PFHxS ρ=0.80, p=0.2). Using linear regression, PFOA appeared to be commonly detected in amniotic fluid if the serum concentration exceeded approximately 1.5 ng/mL whereas PFOS was rarely detected in amniotic fluid until the serum concentration was about 5.5 ng/mL. No PFCs were detected in urine. PMID:22613200

  5. Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in maternal serum and amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, R; Sodeck, G; Platzer, P; Jäger, W; Graf, J; Pollak, A; Thalhammer, T

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy is widely treated with oral spiramycin to reduce the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis in the infant. Failures of therapy have been observed, however. In this study, a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to measure concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin, one of the major metabolites of spiramycin, in maternal serum and amniotic fluid. Samples were obtained from 18 women who underwent amniocentesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of fetal infection 5-109 days following the prescription of spiramycin therapy (3 g/day). Concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in both serum and amniotic fluid were highly variable, ranging from nondetectable values to 1 microg/ml. None of the concentrations measured were within the range reported to inhibit growth of the parasite in vitro. Consistent with previous reports, part of the observed variability in maternal and fetal drug concentrations could be explained by individual differences in several pharmacokinetic parameters: intestinal absorption, tissue distribution, cellular uptake, metabolism, transfer across the placenta, drug accumulation in fetal tissue, and maternal and fetal drug elimination. The heterogeneity of the data could also be related to differences in patient compliance with the medication prescribed. By addressing factors that could impair adequate treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, the data presented call for a larger-scale controlled study to determine individual and diurnal variations in maternal drug levels, patient compliance, and outcomes of the offspring. The activity of neospiramycin against Toxoplasma gondii should be assessed.

  6. Reductions in serum levels of LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides and lipoprotein(a) in hypercholesterolaemic patients treated with the liver-selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist eprotirome.

    PubMed

    Angelin, Bo; Kristensen, Jens D; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Bo; Klein, Irwin; Olsson, Anders G; Chester Ridgway, E; Ladenson, Paul W

    2015-03-01

    Liver-selective thyromimetic agents could provide a new approach for treating dyslipidaemia. We performed a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eprotirome, a liver-selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist, in 98 patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. After previous drug wash-out and dietary run-in, patients received 100 or 200 μg day(-1) eprotirome or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was change in serum LDL cholesterol; secondary end-points included changes in other lipid parameters and safety measures. Eprotirome treatment at 100 and 200 μg daily reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels by 23 ± 5% and 31 ± 4%, respectively, compared with 2 ± 6% for placebo (P < 0.0001). Similar reductions were seen in non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B, whereas serum levels of HDL cholesterol and apo A-I were unchanged. There were also considerable reductions in serum triglycerides and lipoprotein(a), in particular in patients with elevated levels at baseline. There was no evidence of adverse effects on heart or bone and no changes in serum thyrotropin or triiodothyronine, although the thyroxine level decreased. Low-grade increases in liver enzymes were evident in most patients. In hypercholesterolaemic patients, the liver-selective thyromimetic eprotirome decreased serum levels of atherogenic lipoproteins without signs of extra-hepatic side effects. Selective stimulation of hepatic thyroid hormone receptors may be an attractive way to modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidaemia. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  7. The soluble fiber complex PolyGlycopleX lowers serum triglycerides and reduces hepatic steatosis in high-sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Raylene A; Grover, Gary J; Koetzner, Lee; Gahler, Roland J; Lyon, Michael R; Wood, Simon

    2011-04-01

    Viscous soluble fibers have been shown to reduce risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The novel functional fiber, PolyGlycopleX (PGX) (InovoBiologic Inc, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) displays greater viscosity than other currently identified soluble fibers. The objective of this study was to determine if PGX lowers serum and hepatic triglycerides (TGs) in a high-sucrose-fed rat model. In this rodent model, feeding a high-sucrose diet consistently increases serum TGs. We hypothesized that consumption of PGX would attenuate hypertriglyceridemia and reduce hepatic steatosis compared with cellulose in rats fed a high-sucrose background diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 65% sucrose and supplemented with either 5% cellulose (control) or 5% PGX (wt/wt) for 43 weeks. At study termination, serum insulin and TGs, hepatic steatosis, and hepatocellular injury were assessed. Body weight increased over time in both groups, but weight gain was attenuated in rats fed PGX vs cellulose in weeks 2 through 22 (P < .05). Serum TGs did not differ from baseline for the first half of the study but consistently increased in the cellulose group thereafter. PolyGlycopleX significantly reduced serum TG to near-baseline levels. At study termination, rats fed PGX had significantly lower hepatic steatosis scores (measured by Sudan black staining) compared with rats fed cellulose. Hepatocellular injury scores did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, PGX reduced serum TG and lipid accumulation in the liver of sucrose-fed rats. Further examination of its potential as a fiber supplement aimed at lessening the burden of hepatic steatosis is warranted.

  8. Screening for aneuploidies by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13+6 gestational weeks.

    PubMed

    Karadzov-Orlić, Natasa; Egić, Amira; Filimonović, Dejan; Marinković, Maja; Damnjanović-Pazin, Barbara; Milovanović, Zagorka; Joksić, Ivana; Branković, Snezana; Lukić, Relja; Mandić, Vesna; Cerović, Nikola; Mojović, Donka; Plamenac, Sanja; Stanković, Minja; Maglić, Dragana; Mikovć, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    Aneuploidies are the major cause of perinatal death and early psychophysical disorders. In this study, we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation, using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Our screening study for aneuploidies analyzed 4172 singleton pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2010. The sensitivities and false-positive rates using the combined aneuploidies determination for the risk cut-off of 1:275 were evaluated. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies, the fetal NT was higher than 95th centile, in 72.8%, serum free b-hCG concentration it was above the 95th centile in 55% and serum PAPP-A was below the 5th centile in 47% of the cases. In the trisomy 18 and 13, the fetal NT was above 95th centile in 66.6% and 44.4% of the cases, respectively.The serum free b-hCG concentration was above the 95th centile in 0 and 10%, but serum PAPP-A was below 5th centile in 80.9% and 88.8% of pregnancies. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 169 fetuses: trisomy 21 (97), Turner syndrome (19), trisomy 18 (28), trisomy 13 (11) and others (14). Detection rate of combined screening for aneuploides were 86.0% with false positive rate of 5.3% (mean age 33 +/- 4.9 years, > 35 years in 35% of pregnancies). Our study suggests that the strategy of first-trimester combined screening of biochemical values and ultrasonographic parameters at 12 gestational weeks identifies higher percentage of aneuploidies with a lower false-positive rate than a single parameter strategy.

  9. Daidzein supplementation decreases serum triglyceride and uric acid concentrations in hypercholesterolemic adults with the effect on triglycerides being greater in those with the GA compared with the GG genotype of ESR-β RsaI.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Shu, FuRong; Zeng, Yuan; Meng, XiangGui; Wang, Bin; Diao, LiPing; Wang, Li; Wan, Jing; Zhu, JunDong; Wang, Jian; Mi, ManTian

    2014-01-01

    Daidzein (one of the major isoflavones) can be metabolized to equol in certain individuals. The effects of isoflavones alone and equol status on lipid profiles are still controversial. To evaluate the 6-mo effects of daidzein on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic individuals and the interactions of these effects with equol status and estrogen receptor (ESR) genotypes, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial consisting of 210 hypercholesterolemic adults (40-65 y old). The participants were randomly assigned (177 completed) to consume placebo, 40 mg daidzein (DAI40), or 80 mg daidzein (DAI80) daily for 6 mo. Daidzein decreased serum triglycerides (TGs) by 0.15 ± 0.62 mmol/L (mean ± SD) and 0.24 ± 0.61 mmol/L and decreased serum uric acid by 23 ± 47 μmol/L and 29 ± 44 μmol/L in the DAI40 and DAI80 groups, respectively. These reductions in the DAI40 and DAI80 groups were greater than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Other blood lipids, glucose, insulin, or glycated hemoglobin did not significantly change after daidzein treatment. No dose-dependent effects of daidzein were found. The reduction of TGs was influenced by the ESR genotype, with a greater effect observed in participants with the GA genotype compared with those with the GG genotype of ESR-β RsaI. These effects were not influenced by equol status. Six-month supplementation of daidzein significantly decreased TGs and uric acid. ESR-β RsaI genotype, not equol status, influenced daidzein's effects on TGs. Daidzein consumption may be effective to improve cardiovascular risk factors, especially in adults with the GA genotype of ESR-β RsaI. This trial was registered at the Chinese clinical trial registry as ChiCTR-TRC-10001048.

  10. Prognostic significance of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (from the EVEREST Trial).

    PubMed

    Greene, Stephen J; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Lupi, Laura; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Mentz, Robert J; Konstam, Marvin A; Nodari, Savina; Subacius, Haris P; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bonow, Robert O; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2013-02-15

    Lower cholesterol levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and have been shown to predict in-hospital mortality. The relation between lipid profile and postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for worsening HF is less clear. In this post hoc analysis of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study With Tolvaptan (EVEREST), 3,957 patients hospitalized for worsening HF with ejection fractions ≤40% were examined. Baseline total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured <48 hours after admission and evaluated as continuous variables. The primary end points of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF were compared using Cox regression models. Patient characteristics at randomization were also compared among quartiles of total cholesterol. Patients with lower total cholesterol tended to have lower blood pressure, ejection fractions, serum sodium, and albumin, and were more likely to have worse HF functional class, to have higher natriuretic peptide levels, and to have histories of diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, and coronary revascularization (all p values <0.001). After adjustment for baseline clinical risk factors, total cholesterol was predictive of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 0.85, p <0.001) and cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.82, p <0.001) at median follow-up of 9.9 months. Lower baseline triglyceride level was also associated with worse outcomes. In conclusion, lower baseline total cholesterol is correlated with a high-risk patient profile and is a marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized for worsening HF with reduced ejection fraction. Baseline total cholesterol and triglyceride levels are predictive of mortality and HF rehospitalization beyond traditional risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Conjugated Bisphenol A (BPA) in maternal serum in relation to miscarriage risk

    PubMed Central

    Lathi, Ruth B.; Liebert, Cara A.; Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Taylor, Julia A.; Saal, Frederick S. vom; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Baker, Valerie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal serum Bisphenol-A (BPA) concentration at the time of the missed period and miscarriage risk. Design Retrospective cohort of prospectively collected serum samples. Setting Academic fertility center. Patients Women presenting for early pregnancy monitoring with singleton pregnancies. Intervention Stored serum samples from 4-5 weeks gestation were analyzed for conjugated serum BPA concentrations. Main Outcomes Live birth, miscarriage, and chromosome content of miscarriage. Results Of the 115 included subjects, there were 47 live births and 68 clinical miscarriages (46 aneuploid and 22 euploid). Median conjugated BPA concentrations were higher in women with miscarriages than those with live births (0.101 vs 0.075 ng/ml). Women with the highest quartile of conjugated BPA had an increased relative risk of miscarriage (1.83, 95% CI 1.14-2.96) compared to women in the lowest quartile. We found a similar increase risk for both euploid and aneuploid miscarriages. Conclusions Maternal conjugated BPA was associated with higher risk of aneuploid and euploid miscarriage in this cohort. The impact of reducing individual exposures on future pregnancy outcomes deserves further study. PMID:24746738

  12. First Trimester Maternal Serum PP13 in the Risk Assessment for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; THAN, Nandor Gabor; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; EDWIN, Samuel; CHEFETZ, Ilana; GOMEZ, Ricardo; NIEN, Jyh Kae; SAMMAR, Marei; PINELES, Beth; HASSAN, Sonia S.; MEIRI, Hamutal; TAL, Yossi; KUHNREICH, Ido; PAPP, Zoltan; CUCKLE, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether first trimester maternal serum Placental Protein 13 (PP13) concentrations can be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia. Study Design This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 250 patients with normal pregnancies. Samples were collected between 8-13 weeks of gestation. Serum PP13 concentrations were measured by ELISA and expressed as medians and multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age. Sensitivity and specificity were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results 1) Serum PP13 concentration in the first trimester was significantly lower in patients who developed preterm and early-onset preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies; and 2) At 80% specificity, a cutoff of 0.39 MoM had a sensitivity of 100% for early-onset preeclampsia and 85% for preterm preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal serum first trimester PP13 appears to be a reasonable marker for risk assessment, but a weak marker for severe preeclampsia at term, and ineffective for identifying mild preeclampsia at term. PMID:18539259

  13. Triglycerides Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct LDL Cholesterol ; VLDL Cholesterol ; Lipid Profile ; Cardiac Risk Assessment All content on Lab Tests ... tests for triglycerides are usually part of a lipid profile that is used to help identify an individual's ...

  14. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization: results from the Southampton Women's Survey cohort.

    PubMed

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J; Titcombe, Philip; Abrahamsen, Bo; Heitmann, Berit L; Calder, Philip C; Dennison, Elaine M; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2016-10-01

    Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. We examined the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. In total, 520 and 446 mother-offspring pairs had measurements of maternal serum retinol and β-carotene, respectively. Higher maternal serum retinol in late pregnancy was associated with lower offspring total body BMC (β = -0.10 SD/SD; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.02; P = 0.020) and BA (β = -0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.03; P = 0.009) but not BMD. Conversely, higher maternal serum β-carotene concentrations in late pregnancy were associated with greater total body BMC (β = 0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.21; P = 0.016) and BA (β = 0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22; P = 0.010) but not BMD. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations had differing associations with offspring bone size and growth at birth: retinol was negatively associated with these measurements, whereas β-carotene was positively associated. These findings highlight the need for further investigation of the effects of maternal retinol and carotenoid status on offspring bone development.

  15. Feeding healthy beagles medium-chain triglycerides, fish oil, and carnitine offsets age-related changes in serum fatty acids and carnitine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if feeding dogs medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), fish oil, and L-carnitine enriched foods offsets age-associated changes in serum fatty acids (FA) and carnitine metabolites. Forty-one healthy Beagles, mean age 9.9 years (range 3.1 to 14.8), were fed control or one of two treatment foods for 6 months. All foods were complete and balanced and met the nutrient requirements for adult dogs, and had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approx. 7.4%, 14.0%, and 18.1%, respectively). The treatment diets both contained added L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) and 0.6% (treatment food 1) or 1.5% (treatment food 2) added fish oil. Treatment food 2 also had increased MCT from coconut oil, added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Composition of serum FA was determined by gas chromatography of FA methyl esters. Metabolomic profiles of serum samples were determined from extracted supernatants that were split and run on GC/MS and LC/MS/MS platforms, for identification and relative quantification of small metabolites. Body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among dog groups, there was no change in total-lean-body weight, or in serum total protein and serum albumin concentrations, based on time or dietary treatment. Serum concentrations of carnitine metabolites were decreased in geriatric (>7 years) vs. mature adult (≤ 7 years) dogs, and supplementation with L-carnitine attenuated the effects of aging. The ratio of PUFA to SFA was significantly greater in mature dogs at baseline (P ≤ 0.05). Serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic FA increased in a dose-dependent manner. Dogs consuming treatment food 2 also had increased serum concentrations of lauric and myristic FA, and decreased concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and arachidonate (all P ≤ 0.05) and their PUFA to SFA ratio increased. In summary, dietary MCT, fish oil, and L-carnitine counterbalanced the effects of aging on circulating

  16. Time and dose relationships between schisandrin B- and schisandrae fructus oil-induced hepatotoxicity and the associated elevations in hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound, is isolated from schisandrae fructus (SF). This study was conducted to compare the time- and dose-response between Sch B- and SF oil (SFO)-induced changes in hepatic and serum parameters in mice. Methods Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0.125–2 g/kg) or SFO (0.3–5 g/kg). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatic malondialdehyde, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured at increasing time intervals within 6–120 hours postdosing. Results Serum ALT activity was elevated by 60%, with maximum effect (Emax) =45.77 U/L and affinity (KD) =1.25 g/kg at 48–96 hours following Sch B, but not SFO, treatment. Sch B and SFO treatments increased hepatic malondialdehyde level by 70% (Emax =2.30 nmol/mg protein and KD =0.41 g/kg) and 22% (Emax =1.42 nmol/mg protein and KD =2.56 g/kg) at 72 hours postdosing, respectively. Hepatic index was increased by 16%–60% (Emax =11.01, KD =0.68 g/kg) and 8%–32% (Emax =9.88, KD =4.47 g/kg) at 12–120 hours and 24–120 hours after the administration of Sch B and SFO, respectively. Hepatic TG level was increased by 40%–158% and 35%–85%, respectively, at 12–96 hours and 6–48 hours after Sch B and SFO treatment, respectively. The values of Emax and KD for Sch B/SFO-induced increase in hepatic TG were estimated to be 22.94/15.02 μmol/g and 0.78/3.03 g/kg, respectively. Both Sch B and SFO increased serum TG (up to 427% and 123%, respectively), with the values of Emax =5.50/4.60 mmol/L and KD =0.43/2.84 g/kg, respectively. Conclusion The findings indicated that Sch B/SFO-induced increases in serum/hepatic parameters occurred in a time-dependent manner, with the time of onset being serum TG level < hepatic TG level < hepatic index < serum ALT activity. However, the time of recovery of these parameters to normal values varied as follow: serum TG level < hepatic TG level and liver injury < hepatic index

  17. Time and dose relationships between schisandrin B- and schisandrae fructus oil-induced hepatotoxicity and the associated elevations in hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound, is isolated from schisandrae fructus (SF). This study was conducted to compare the time- and dose-response between Sch B- and SF oil (SFO)-induced changes in hepatic and serum parameters in mice. Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0.125-2 g/kg) or SFO (0.3-5 g/kg). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatic malondialdehyde, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured at increasing time intervals within 6-120 hours postdosing. Serum ALT activity was elevated by 60%, with maximum effect (E(max)) = 45.77 U/L and affinity (K(D)) = 1.25 g/kg at 48-96 hours following Sch B, but not SFO, treatment. Sch B and SFO treatments increased hepatic malondialdehyde level by 70% (E(max) =2.30 nmol/mg protein and K(D) =0.41 g/kg) and 22% (E(max) = 1.42 nmol/mg protein and K D = 2.56 g/kg) at 72 hours postdosing, respectively. Hepatic index was increased by 16%-60% (E max = 11.01, K(D) = 0.68 g/kg) and 8%-32% (E(max) = 9.88, K D = 4.47 g/kg) at 12-120 hours and 24-120 hours after the administration of Sch B and SFO, respectively. Hepatic TG level was increased by 40%-158% and 35%-85%, respectively, at 12-96 hours and 6-48 hours after Sch B and SFO treatment, respectively. The values of E max and K D for Sch B/SFO-induced increase in hepatic TG were estimated to be 22.94/15.02 μmol/g and 0.78/3.03 g/kg, respectively. Both Sch B and SFO increased serum TG (up to 427% and 123%, respectively), with the values of E(max) = 5.50/4.60 mmol/L and K D = 0.43/2.84 g/kg, respectively. The findings indicated that Sch B/SFO-induced increases in serum/hepatic parameters occurred in a time-dependent manner, with the time of onset being serum TG level < hepatic TG level < hepatic index < serum ALT activity. However, the time of recovery of these parameters to normal values varied as follow: serum TG level < hepatic TG level and liver injury < hepatic index. The E max and affinity of Sch B

  18. Feeding Healthy Beagles Medium-Chain Triglycerides, Fish Oil, and Carnitine Offsets Age-Related Changes in Serum Fatty Acids and Carnitine Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if feeding dogs medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), fish oil, and L-carnitine enriched foods offsets age-associated changes in serum fatty acids (FA) and carnitine metabolites. Forty-one healthy Beagles, mean age 9.9 years (range 3.1 to 14.8), were fed control or one of two treatment foods for 6 months. All foods were complete and balanced and met the nutrient requirements for adult dogs, and had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approx. 7.4%, 14.0%, and 18.1%, respectively). The treatment diets both contained added L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) and 0.6% (treatment food 1) or 1.5% (treatment food 2) added fish oil. Treatment food 2 also had increased MCT from coconut oil, added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Composition of serum FA was determined by gas chromatography of FA methyl esters. Metabolomic profiles of serum samples were determined from extracted supernatants that were split and run on GC/MS and LC/MS/MS platforms, for identification and relative quantification of small metabolites. Body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among dog groups, there was no change in total-lean-body weight, or in serum total protein and serum albumin concentrations, based on time or dietary treatment. Serum concentrations of carnitine metabolites were decreased in geriatric (>7 years) vs. mature adult (≤7 years) dogs, and supplementation with L-carnitine attenuated the effects of aging. The ratio of PUFA to SFA was significantly greater in mature dogs at baseline (P≤0.05). Serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic FA increased in a dose-dependent manner. Dogs consuming treatment food 2 also had increased serum concentrations of lauric and myristic FA, and decreased concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and arachidonate (all P≤0.05) and their PUFA to SFA ratio increased. In summary, dietary MCT, fish oil, and L-carnitine counterbalanced the effects of aging on circulating

  19. Maternal serum folate species in early pregnancy and risk of preterm birth123

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Katherine P; Venkataramanan, Raman; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Evans, Rhobert W; Meyer, Jennifer L; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor maternal folate status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. However, major gaps remain in our understanding of how individual folate species relate to preterm birth. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between maternal folate status as measured by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MeTHF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5FoTHF), and folic acid concentrations, which are the 3 primary folate species in serum, and the risk of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Design: A cohort of 313 pregnant women who received care at resident antepartum clinics at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA) (2003–2007) was enrolled at <16 wk gestation. We analyzed nonfasting blood samples that were drawn from subjects at enrollment for the 3 folate species by using HPLC–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Serum 5MeTHF and 5FoTHF concentrations comprised 65% and 33% of total folate concentrations, respectively. In confounder-adjusted, multivariable, log-binomial regression models, 1-SD increases in serum total folate and serum 5MeTHF concentrations were associated with significant reductions in the risk of sPTB (P < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between serum 5MeTHF and 5FoTHF concentrations and risk of preterm birth (P = 0.01). When serum 5MeTHF concentrations were low, there was a positive linear relation between 5FoTHF and risk of preterm birth. When 5MeTHF concentrations were high, there was a strong negative relation between 5FoTHF and preterm birth. Conclusions: Our results imply that the relative concentrations of folate species may be more critical than total folate in preventing preterm birth. An improved understanding of folate metabolism during pregnancy may lead to targeted intervention strategies that decrease the rate of preterm birth. PMID:20739422

  20. Screening for trisomy 21 with maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-14 weeks: a regional experience from Germany.

    PubMed

    Soergel, P; Pruggmayer, M; Schwerdtfeger, R; Muhlhaus, K; Scharf, A

    2006-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of first trimester screening for trisomy 21 using a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT), maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in a regional setting [maternity unit of the Women's University Hospital, Hannover Medical School (study center); two regional private centers for prenatal diagnosis and human genetics; laboratory for prenatal diagnosis and human genetics]. Fetal NT, crown-rump length, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Risk calculation was carried out using the FMF computer algorithm. The patients were informed and counseled about possible invasive test options if the risk was 1 in 300 or greater. Fetal outcome was obtained by questionnaires given to the patients or sent to their gynecologists. The detection and false-positive rates for the different screening strategies were calculated. Pregnancy outcome was obtained in 2,497 cases, of which 2,196 cases had completed first trimester screening with NT and maternal serum biochemistry and 301 additional cases had NT measurement only. The median age was 32.5 years. In our population 11 affected fetuses were found. The estimated risk for trisomy 21 was 1 in 300 or greater in 64, 82, 88 and 88% of affected fetuses using maternal age alone, in combination with nuchal translucency, with maternal serum biochemical markers or with both NT and biochemical markers for a false-positive rate of 28.2, 5.1, 15.3 and 4.0%. First trimester screening using maternal age, NT, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A is highly effective for the detection of trisomy 21 and is associated with a sensitivity of about 90% for 5% false-positive patients. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Maternal serum proteome changes between the first and third trimester of pregnancy in rural Southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, P.F.; Cole, R.N.; Ruczinski, I.; Gucek, M.; Diez, R.; Rennie, A.; Nathasingh, C.; Schulze, K.; Christian, P.; Yager, J.; Groopman, J.D.; West, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of normal changes in the serum proteome during pregnancy may enhance understanding of maternal physiology and lead to the development of new gestational biomarkers of health. In 23 Nepalese pregnant women who delivered at term two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was used to assess changes in relative protein abundance between paired serum samples collected in the first and third trimesters. One-hundred and forty-five of over 700 protein spots in DIGE gels (pI 4.2–6.8) exhibited nominally significant (p<0.05) differences in abundance across trimesters. Additional filtering using a Bonferroni correction reduced the number of significant (p<0.00019) spots to 61. Mass spectrometric analysis detected 38 proteins associated with gestational age, cytoskeletal remodeling, blood pressure regulation, lipid and nutrient transport, and inflammation. One new protein, pregnancy-specific β-glycoprotein 4 was detected. A follow-up isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) experiment of six mothers from the DIGE study revealed 111 proteins, of which 11 exhibited significant (p<0.05) differences between trimesters. Four of these proteins: gelsolin, complement C1r subcomponent, α-1-acid glycoprotein, and α-1B-glycoprotein also changed in the DIGE analysis. Although not previously associated with normal pregnancy, gelsolin decreased in abundance by the third trimester (p<0.01) in DIGE, iTRAQ and Western analyses. Changes in abundance of proteins in serum that are associated with syncytiotrophoblasts (gelsolin, pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein 1 and β-2-glycoprotein I) probably reflect dynamics of a placental proteome shed into maternal circulation during pregnancy. Measurement of changes in the maternal serum proteome, when linked with birth outcomes, may yield biomarkers for tracking reproductive health in resource poor settings in future studies. PMID:22385826

  2. First trimester maternal serum placental growth factor in trisomy 21 pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Cowans, N J; Stamatopoulou, A; Spencer, K

    2010-05-01

    To examine placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in first trimester maternal serum in trisomy 21 pregnancies and to investigate the potential value of PlGF in a first trimester screening test. First trimester maternal serum from 70 trisomy 21 cases and 375 euploid controls were retrospectively analyzed for PlGF using a DELFIA Xpress immunoassay platform. Results were expressed as multiples of medians (MoM) for comparison. PlGF levels were significantly decreased in pregnancies with trisomy 21, 0.76 MoM versus 0.98 MoM in controls. Inclusion of PlGF into the first trimester combined test [maternal age, pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free-beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and nuchal translucency] would increase the detection rate by 0.5% at a 5% false positive rate. PlGF at 11 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days has the potential to be included as a marker for the detection of pregnancies with trisomy 21.

  3. Prediction of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Unconjugated Estriol Levels in Maternal Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Junguk; Cho, Eun-Hee; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Kyung Ju

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal serum estriol levels, which are routinely measured in the first trimester of pregnancy, and adverse pregnancy outcomes including gestational diabetes. We performed a retrospective chart analysis of women who delivered between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2009, at Kangnam CHA Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. Only patients with available estriol measurements during their pregnancies and complete follow-up data were included in the study. The effect of estriol on the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes was examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis with age and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as covariates. The total number of subjects was 1,553, the mean age was 32.9 ± 3.7 years, and the mean pre-pregnancy BMI was 21.2 ± 3.0 kg/m2. Unconjugated estriol > 95th percentile of the screened population or unconjugated estriol ≥ 2.0 MoM (Multiple of the Median) was significantly associated with an increased risk for developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), after adjusting for age and pre-pregnancy maternal weight. High levels of unconjugated estriol in the maternal serum during the early second trimester of pregnancy are a useful predictor of GDM development. PMID:28260987

  4. Maternal serum soluble CD30 is increased in pregnancies complicated with acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Soto, Eleazar; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Than, Nandor Gabor; Friel, Lara; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Normal pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immunity and suppression of the adaptive limb of the immune response. However, pregnant women are more susceptible to the effects of infection and microbial products than non-pregnant women. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is preferentially expressed by activated T cells producing Th2-type cytokines. Its soluble form (sCD30) is proposed to be an index of Th2 immune response. High serum concentrations of sCD30 have been found in the acute phase of viral infections, such as HIV-1 and hepatitis B. There is, however, conflicting evidence about serum sCD30 concentration in patients with bacterial infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in the serum concentration of sCD30 in pregnant women with pyelonephritis. Methods This cross-sectional study included normal pregnant women (N=89) and pregnant women with pyelonephritis (N=41). Maternal serum concentration of sCD30 was measured by a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results (1) Pregnant women with pyelonephritis had a significantly higher median serum concentration of sCD30 than those with a normal pregnancy (median: 44.3 U/ml, range: 16–352.5 vs. median: 29.7 U/ml, range: 12.2–313.2, respectively; p<0.001); and (2) No significant differences were found in the median maternal serum concentration of sCD30 between pregnant women with pyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture compared to those with a negative blood culture (median:47.7 U/mL, range: 17.1–118.8 vs. median: 42.6 U/mL, range: 16–352.5, respectively; p=0.86). Conclusions Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a higher maternal serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnancy. This finding is novel, and suggests that pregnant women with pyelonephritis may

  5. Relationships Between Alanine Aminotransferase, Serum Triglycerides, Body Mass Index and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in an Outpatient Pediatric Clinic Population.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah; Gonzales-Pacheco, Diana; Myers, Orrin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to describe the demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data of children and adolescents diagnosed with NAFLD during a seven-year period in an outpatient pediatric clinic in the Southwest region of the US and to evaluate relationships between race, BMI, ALT, triglyceride levels, age and gender with a diagnosis of NAFLD. A retrospective medical record review of patients who attended an outpatient pediatric clinic with a billing diagnosis ICD-9 code of 571.8 was conducted. Forty-one patients met these criteria. The majority was male (74%) Hispanic (32%), Hispanic/Latino (68%) and obese. The small number of patients diagnosed with NAFLD in our study is consistent with previously reported results. Our results indicate that the population of this culturally diverse, high-risk population has significant clinical markers that are indicative of NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  7. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. Methods The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. Results High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67–2.94] and 1.39 [0.99–1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28–0.49] and 0.51 [0.37–0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45–0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). Conclusions The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast

  8. Factors affecting maternal serum magnesium levels during long-term magnesium sulfate tocolysis in singleton and twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Hiroshi; Uchida, Akiko; Minamitani, Tomoyuki; Makishi, Aya; Takamatsu, Yukou; Kiyoshi, Kenji; Samoto, Takashi; Funakoshi, Toru

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to determine factors that affect maternal serum magnesium (Mg) levels, to help ensure the safety and efficacy of long-term magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) therapy for threatened preterm labor in singleton and twin pregnancies. We retrospectively and arbitrarily studied 100 patients (singleton pregnancy, n = 65; twin pregnancy, n = 35) who received i.v. MgSO4 for >48 h for tocolysis of threatened preterm labor. We used multiple regression analysis to investigate the functional relations between the candidate factors and maternal serum Mg levels. MgSO4 was administered as a loading dose of 3 g for 1 h followed by a maintenance dose of 1.0-2.0 g/h. There were no maternal severe adverse events related to the elevated Mg levels in any of the subjects. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that total dose of MgSO4 for 24 h before blood collection (g/day), total serum protein level (g/dL), serum total calcium level (mg/dL), serum creatinine level (mg/dL) and maternal bodyweight (kg) significantly affected maternal serum Mg levels in both singleton and twin pregnancies (all P-values were < 0.001). Gestational age (weeks) and period of MgSO4 administration (days) at blood collection had no significant effect in singleton or twin pregnancies. Our study statistically shows that dose of MgSO4 , total serum protein level, serum total calcium level, serum creatinine level and maternal bodyweight are key factors to achieving safe and effective long-term tocolysis with MgSO4 in not only singleton but also twin pregnancies. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. High maternal serum ferritin in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Khambalia, Amina Z; Collins, Clare E; Roberts, Christine L; Morris, Jonathan M; Powell, Katie L; Tasevski, Vitomir; Nassar, Natasha

    2015-08-14

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between maternal serum ferritin concentrations and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Fe biomarkers, including serum ferritin concentrations, and the risk of total ( 75th percentile ( ≥ 43 μg/l) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.06, 2.10) and >90th percentile ( ≥ 68 μg/l) (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.25, 2.96). Increased odds of early and moderate-to-late sPTB were associated with ferritin levels >90th percentile (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.32, 4.73) and >75th percentile (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03, 2.37), respectively. No association was found between the risk of sPTB and elevated sTfR levels or Fe deficiency. In conclusion, elevated maternal serum ferritin levels in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of sPTB from 34 weeks of gestation. The usefulness of early pregnancy ferritin levels in identifying women at risk of sPTB warrants further investigation.

  10. DDE and PCB serum concentration in maternal blood and their adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Wen; Osuch, Janet Rose; Todem, David; Taffe, Bonita; O'Keefe, Michael; Adera, Selamawit; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-07-01

    Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be passed from mother to offspring through placental transfer or breastfeeding. Unknown is whether maternal levels can predict concentrations in adult offspring. To test the association between maternal blood levels of DDE and PCBs and adult female offspring levels of these compounds using data from the Michigan Fisheaters'Cohort. DDE and PCB concentrations were determined in 132 adult daughters from 84 mothers. Prenatal exposures were estimated based on maternal DDE and PCB serum levels measured between 1973 and 1991. Levels in adult daughters were regressed on maternal and estimated prenatal exposure levels, adjusting for potential confounders using linear mixed models. Confounders included daughter's age, birth order, birth weight, number of pregnancies, the length of time the daughter was breast-fed, the length of time the daughter breast-fed her own children, last year fish-eating status, body mass index, and lipid weight. The median age of the participants was 40.4 years (range 18.4-65.4, 5-95 percentiles 22.5-54.6%, respectively). Controlling for confounders and intra-familial associations, DDE and PCB concentrations in adult daughters were significantly positively associated with estimated prenatal levels and with maternal concentrations. The proportion of variance in the adult daughters' organochlorine concentrations explained by the maternal exposure levels is approximately 23% for DDE and 43% for PCBs. The equivalent of a median of 3.67 μg/L prenatal DDE and a median of 2.56 μg/L PCBs were 15.64 and 10.49 years of fish consumption, respectively. When controlling for effects of the shared environment (e.g., fish diet) by using a subsample of paternal levels measured during the same time frames (n=53 and n=37), we determined that the direct maternal transfer remains important. Estimated intra-uterine DDE and PCB levels predicted concentrations in adult female offspring 40

  11. Maternal serum paraxanthine during pregnancy and offspring body mass index at ages 4 and 7 years.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-03-01

    Obesity affects 18% of U.S. children. In a recent report, maternal consumption of ≥150 mg of caffeine per day during pregnancy was associated with increased odds for obesity in the offspring (odds ratio = 2.1 [95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.5]). If this association was causal, a considerable fraction of childhood obesity might be prevented by reduction of caffeine intake in pregnancy. We studied 1986 mother-child pairs who were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Women were pregnant during 1959-1966, and children were followed with visits at 48 and/or 84 months of age, when height and weight were measured according to a standardized protocol. Serum was drawn at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation and assayed for paraxanthine (caffeine's primary metabolite) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Relative risks of obesity (body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and sex) were estimated by log-binomial or Poisson regression and adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnant weight, diabetes in pregnancy, and gestational age at blood draw. Obesity prevalence was 11.7% at 48 months and 6.5% at 84 months. Associations of maternal serum paraxanthine and child obesity were nonlinear, and adjustment reduced the magnitude of all associations. The maximum relative risk (approximately 1.4) was for the association of paraxanthine drawn at <20 weeks with obesity at ages 48 and 84 months. This study does not support an increased risk of childhood obesity with increasing maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy.

  12. [Alpha-tocopherol level in serum and colostrum of breastfeeding women and association with maternal variables].

    PubMed

    de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Ribeiro, Penha Patrícia Cabral; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; Lima, Mayara Santa Rosa; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    To determine the nutritional status of vitamin E in breastfeeding women through the analysis of alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum, to analyze its relation with maternal variables and to determine the prevalence of vitamin E deficiency in these women. The study included 103 mothers who were classified according to maternal variables: age, nutritional status before pregnancy, gestational weight gain, parity and mode of delivery. Colostrum and serum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. Alpha-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A serum cutoff of 697.7 μg/dL was adopted to define the nutritional status of vitamin E. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t test for independent samples and Pearson's correlation. Differences were significant when p<0.05. The average concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 1.125±551.0 μg/dL in colostrum and 1,138.6±346.0 μg/dL in serum, indicating adequate biochemical nutritional status. However, when analyzing the mothers individually, a 16% rate of subclinical vitamin E deficiency was detected. Women undergoing cesarean delivery had significantly higher alpha-tocopherol levels in colostrum (1.280±591 μg/dL) compared with those undergoing normal delivery (961.7±370 μg/dL) (p<0.05). It was found that mothers who were overweight before pregnancy had higher vitamin concentration in colostrum (1,331.5±548 μg/dL) when compared to underweight women (982.1±374 μg/dL) or women of normal weight (992.3±346 μg/dL) (p<0.05). However, the other variables were not associated with alpha-tocopherol in colostrum. Moreover, no variable showed association with vitamin E levels in maternal serum and no correlation was demonstrated between the alpha-tocopherol levels in serum and in milk. Despite the diagnosis of satisfactory nutritional status, breastfeeding women showed significant risk of subclinical vitamin E deficiency. We

  13. Maternal serum progesterone, estradiol and estriol levels in successful dinoprostone-induced labor

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, C.K.; Morais, E.N.; Naidon, D.; Pereira, A.M.; Rubin, M.A.; Oliveira, J.F.; Mello, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Hormone-mediated quiescence involves the maintenance of a decreased inflammatory responsiveness. However, no study has investigated whether labor induction with prostanoids is associated with changes in the levels of maternal serum hormones. The objective of this study was to determine whether labor induction with dinoprostone is associated with changes in maternal serum progesterone, estradiol, and estriol levels. Blood samples were obtained from 81 pregnant women at term. Sixteen patients had vaginal birth after spontaneous labor, 12 required cesarean section after spontaneous labor and 16 underwent elective cesarean. Thirty-seven patients had labor induction with dinoprostone. Eligible patients received a vaginal insert of dinoprostone (10 mg) and were followed until delivery. Serum progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) levels and changes in P4/E2, P4/E3 and E3/E2 ratios were monitored from admission to immediately before birth, and the association of these measures with the resulting clinical classification outcome (route of delivery and induction responsiveness) was assessed. Progesterone levels decreased from admission to birth in patients who underwent successful labor induction with dinoprostone [vaginal and cesarean birth after induced labor: 23% (P < 0.001) and 18% (P < 0.025) decrease, respectively], but not in those whose induction failed (6.4% decrease, P > 0.05). Estriol and estradiol levels, P4/E2, P4/E3 and E3/E2 ratios did not differ between groups. Successful dinoprostone-induced labor was associated with reduced maternal progesterone levels from induction to birth. While a causal relationship between progesterone decrease and effective dinoprostone-induced labor cannot be established, it is tempting to propose that dinoprostone may contribute to progesterone withdrawal and favor labor induction in humans. PMID:23314338

  14. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in a triplet pregnancy with 2 papyraceous fetuses.

    PubMed

    Taubert, H D; Bastert, G; Dericks-Tan, J S

    1986-01-01

    Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) was found to rise to exceedingly high levels in a case of triplet pregnancy after two fetuses died in the 21st week of gestation. The surviving infant was born in the 36th week accompanied by the two fetus papyracei. By the time the process of mummification of the two dead fetuses appeared to be complete on ultrasound, the maternal AFP level had returned to the normal range for singleton pregnancies. HCG, hPL, and estriol and the coagulation profile remained within the normal range throughout the pregnancy.

  15. Higher on-admission serum triglycerides predict less severe disability and lower all-cause mortality after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Pikija, Slaven; Trkulja, Vladimir; Juvan, Lucija; Ivanec, Marija; Dukši, Dunja

    2013-10-01

    High(er) on-admission triglyceride (TG) levels have been suggested as an independent predictor of better outcomes of the acute ischemic stroke. Data regarding poststroke physical disabilities have been contradictory. We aimed to investigate the relationship between fasting on-admission TG and development of disability and all-cause mortality over a 2.5-year period. This prospective observational study included 83 acute ischemic stroke patients (29 cardioembolic; 41% men; median age 76 years) followed-up for 28 to 30 months and assessed for physical disability using the Modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 1 week and 3, 12, and 24 months poststroke. TGs were considered as a continuous and a binary variable (≤ 1.27 [n = 43] and >1.27 mmol/L [n = 43]). Higher TGs (continuous or binary) were independently (default adjustments: stroke type, severity at presentation, age, atrial fibrillation, preindex event antiplatelet use, infarct volume, postindex event antiplatelet, statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, on-admission fasting cholesterol, mean platelet volume, and glomerular filtration rate) were associated with: (1) higher odds of mRS 0 to 2 (none/mild disability) across the assessments (overall odds ratio [OR] 2.73 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.15-6.38] and OR 3.57 [95% CI 1.04-12.3], respectively); (2) lower odds of mRS worsening between any 2 consecutive assessments (overall OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.20-0.96] and OR 0.35 [95% CI 0.16-0.77], respectively); (3) lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.47 [95% CI 0.23-0.96] and hazard ratio 0.45 [95% CI 0.21-0.98], respectively). These data suggest that higher fasting TGs on-admission predict less severe disability, reduced disability progression, and all-cause mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal Serum Serpin B7 Is Associated With Early Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Samuel; Zhang, Heping; Biggio, Joseph; Bukowski, Radek; Varner, Michael; Xu, Yaji; Andrews, William W.; Saade, George R.; Esplin, M. Sean; Leite, Rita; Ilekis, John; Reddy, Uma M.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Blair, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify serum biomarkers of early spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) using semi-quantitative proteomic analyses. Study Design Nested case-control study of pregnant women with previous SPTB. Maternal serum was collected at 19 to 24 and 28 to 32 weeks gestation, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry. Targeted and shotgun proteomics identified 31 candidate proteins that were differentially expressed in pooled serum samples from spontaneous preterm (<34 weeks - cases) and term deliveries (controls). Candidate protein expression was compared in individual serum samples between cases and controls matched by age and race groups, and clinical site. Protein expression was verified by Western blot in the placenta and fetal membranes from cases and controls. Results Serum samples were available for 35 cases and 35 controls at 19 to 24 weeks, and 16 cases and 16 controls at 28 to 32 weeks. One protein, serpin B7, yielded serum concentrations that differed between cases and controls. The mean concentration of serpin B7 at 28 to 32 weeks was 1.5-fold higher in women with subsequent preterm deliveries compared to controls; there was no difference at 19 to 24 weeks. Higher levels of serpin B7 at both gestational age windows were associated with a shorter interval to delivery, and higher levels of serpin B7 in samples from 28 to 32 weeks were associated with a lower gestational age at delivery. Western blotting identified serpin B7 protein in placenta, amnion, and chorion from cases and controls. Conclusion Targeted and shotgun serum proteomics analyses associated one protein, serpin B7, with early SPTB. Our results require validation in other cohorts and analysis of the possible mechanistic role of serpin B7 in parturition. PMID:24954659

  17. Higher serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in female patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Xiong, L; Xu, Q; Wu, J; Huang, R; Guo, Q; Mao, H; Yu, X; Yang, X

    2015-08-01

    High serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been found to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in the general population. We aimed to evaluate whether a high TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In this single-center retrospective cohort study, 1170 incident patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011 were recruited and followed up until 31 December 31 2013. The mean age was 47.4 ± 15.2 years, and 24.7% were diabetic. During a median of the 34.5-month follow-up period, 213 (18.2%) deaths occurred, 121 of which (56.8%) were caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). The serum median TG/HDL-C ratio at baseline was 2.57 (range: 0.06-39.39). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the highest quartile of the TG/HDL-C ratio (≥4.19) was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-3.36; P = 0.011) and CVD mortality (HR 2.28, 95% CI, 1.16-4.47; P = 0.017). For female patients, each one-unit higher baseline TG/HDL-C was associated with 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22; P = 0.001) increased risk of CVD mortality, whereas such an association was not observed for male patients, (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.08; P = 0.977). A higher serum TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in PD patients. Moreover, the increased risk of CVD mortality was significantly higher in female than male PD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Second trimester screening for trisomy 21 using ADAM12-S as a maternal serum marker].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Lv, Ling; Yang, Bing; Sun, Yi-jun; Zhang, Xiao-juan; Sun, Yun; Xu, Qian-jun; Xu, Zheng-feng

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the value of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 secreting form (ADAM12-S) as a maternal serum marker in second trimester screening for trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS), and to develop an appropriate prenatal DS screening protocol. Serum samples were collected from 53 pregnant women carrying a trisomy 21 fetus and 621 pregnant women with matched gestational age and weight carrying a healthy fetus. ADAM12-S concentrations were determined with a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA). Curve fitting by weighted regression and other statistical methods were conducted, and the model was optimized for prenatal trisomy 21 screening program in second trimester. ADAM12-S alone or in combination with other two- or three-combination test was selected as a serum marker for prenatal second-trimester screening of trisomy 21 by calculation of detection rate (DR) and false positive rate (FPR). By comparison, the median multiple of the median (MoM) value of ADAM12-S in DS pregnancy group was higher than that of the control group (P< 0.01). When FPR = 5%, the DR of ADAM12-S was 28.3%, and the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.66 and 0.75, respectively. The DR of three-combination test of ADAM12-S, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) has increased to 52.80% from 39.62% of the conventional two-combination test (AFP and free β-HCG). For women with a risk between 1/300 and 1/1000 by two-combination test for DS, the DR has increased from 39.62% to 47.12%, but FPR only increased by 0.8% after adding ADAM12-S as a maternal serum marker. Considering the increased DR of pregnancies with a risk between 1/300 and 1/1000 in second trimester, ADAM12-S may provide a feasible maternal serum maker when combined with AFP and free β-HCG. The cost-effectiveness ratio is reasonable.

  19. Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-14 weeks: a German multicenter study.

    PubMed

    von Kaisenberg, C S; Gasiorek-Wiens, A; Bielicki, M; Bahlmann, F; Meyberg, H; Kossakiewicz, A; Pruggmayer, M; Kamin, G; Fritzer, E; Harris, C; Arnold, N

    2002-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness of screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum biochemistry using free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11-14 weeks of gestation. This was a multicenter study of screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11-14 weeks of gestation, using the methodology developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. The distribution of estimated risks for trisomy 21 was determined and the sensitivity and false-positive rate for a risk cut-off of 1 in 300 were calculated. In total, 3864 singleton pregnancies with live fetuses at 11-14 weeks were examined and the fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were successfully measured in all cases. The median maternal age was 33 (range 15-46) years and, in 1271 (35.8%), the age was 35 years or more, the median gestation at screening was 12 (11-14) weeks and the median fetal crown-rump length was 64 (range 45-84) mm. The fetal NT was above the 95th centile in 73.7% (14 of 19) of trisomy 21 and in 4.8% (169 of 3505) of normal pregnancies. The estimated risk for trisomy 21 based on maternal age, fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was 1 in 300 or greater in 6.6% (233 of 3505) of normal pregnancies, in 84.2% (16 of 19) of those with trisomy 21 and 88.9% (24 of 27) of those with other chromosomal defects. In Germany, the results of screening for chromosomal defects by measurement of fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry, in centers with appropriately qualified sonographers, are similar to those reported in the UK using the same methodology.

  20. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Maternal Serum, Breast Milk, Umbilical Cord Serum, and House Dust in a South Korean Birth Panel of Mother-Neonate Pairs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi-Yeon; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon

    2016-07-28

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants. Although many reports have indicated an association between exposure to PBDEs and developmental neurotoxicity, the relative contributions of different sources of dust PBDE congeners to the levels in various tissues of mother-baby pairs is not well understood. The aims of this study were thus to measure the quantitative relationship between the level of PBDEs in house dust and tissues of mother-neonate pairs, and to investigate the chemical sources of the PBDEs. Forty-one mother-neonate pairs were recruited and provided samples of maternal serum (n = 29), umbilical cord serum (n = 25), breast milk (n = 50), and house dust (n = 41), where PBDEs were determined with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. While deca- (e.g., BDE 209, detected 100%), nona- (BDE 206/207, 95.1%), octa- (BDE 183, 100%), penta- (BDE 99/153, 100%, 98%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 100%) were detected abundantly in dust, penta- (BDE 99, 76%, 92%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 84%, 98%) were detected abundantly in umbilical cord serum and breast milk, respectively; tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 86%) were detected more often relative to other congeners in maternal serum. Spearman's pairwise comparison showed that the levels of BDE 47 (ρ = 0.52, p < 0.001) and -99 (ρ = 0.64, p < 0.01) in umbilical cord serum were associated with BDE 209 levels in dust; BDE 47 in maternal serum also showed correlation with BDE 99 in cord serum (ρ = 0.48, p < 0.01) but there was no significant correlation between maternal BDE 47 and dust BDE 209. On the other hand, a comparison of the distribution among congeners suggested probable associations of BDE 47 in maternal serum, breast milk, and umbilical cord serum with BDE 209 in dust; and of BDE 99 in maternal and umbilical cord serum, breast milk, and dust with BDE 209 in dust. Although further studies are needed, a radar chart-based distributional comparison among

  1. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Maternal Serum, Breast Milk, Umbilical Cord Serum, and House Dust in a South Korean Birth Panel of Mother-Neonate Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi-Yeon; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon

    2016-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants. Although many reports have indicated an association between exposure to PBDEs and developmental neurotoxicity, the relative contributions of different sources of dust PBDE congeners to the levels in various tissues of mother–baby pairs is not well understood. The aims of this study were thus to measure the quantitative relationship between the level of PBDEs in house dust and tissues of mother-neonate pairs, and to investigate the chemical sources of the PBDEs. Forty-one mother-neonate pairs were recruited and provided samples of maternal serum (n = 29), umbilical cord serum (n = 25), breast milk (n = 50), and house dust (n = 41), where PBDEs were determined with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. While deca- (e.g., BDE 209, detected 100%), nona- (BDE 206/207, 95.1%), octa- (BDE 183, 100%), penta- (BDE 99/153, 100%, 98%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 100%) were detected abundantly in dust, penta- (BDE 99, 76%, 92%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 84%, 98%) were detected abundantly in umbilical cord serum and breast milk, respectively; tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 86%) were detected more often relative to other congeners in maternal serum. Spearman’s pairwise comparison showed that the levels of BDE 47 (ρ = 0.52, p < 0.001) and −99 (ρ = 0.64, p < 0.01) in umbilical cord serum were associated with BDE 209 levels in dust; BDE 47 in maternal serum also showed correlation with BDE 99 in cord serum (ρ = 0.48, p < 0.01) but there was no significant correlation between maternal BDE 47 and dust BDE 209. On the other hand, a comparison of the distribution among congeners suggested probable associations of BDE 47 in maternal serum, breast milk, and umbilical cord serum with BDE 209 in dust; and of BDE 99 in maternal and umbilical cord serum, breast milk, and dust with BDE 209 in dust. Although further studies are needed, a radar chart-based distributional comparison

  2. Soluble HLA-G changes in maternal blood serum during the progression of labor.

    PubMed

    Knafel, Anna; Basta, Pawel; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Mach, Pawel; Bednarek, Wieslawa; Klimek, Marek; Zietek, Jerzy; Zajac, Krzysztof; Dancewicz, Lukasz; Iwaniec, Miroslawa; Basta, Antoni; Wicherek, Lukasz

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the HLA-G antigen from implantation toward term is crucial for the growth of a semiallogenic fetus as it shields this fetus from the maternal cytotoxic response. Little is known, however, about the potential role of soluble HLA-G isoforms during delivery. The initiation of labor is associated with a complex molecular response leading to a brief activation of the maternal immune system with an accompanying capacity to restrict this activation, and HLA-G seems to be an important factor in enabling the proper immune response at the maternal fetal interface. In our study the levels of soluble HLA-G concentration were evaluated in the blood serum samples obtained from 47 pregnant women who either underwent cesarean sections or delivered vaginally. The patients were divided into three subgroups according to the progression of labor at the time of the cesarean or, in cases of vaginal delivery, according to the duration of the pregnancy. We have observed that the progression of labor is associated with a continuous increase in the sHLA-G plasma level. The sHLA-G levels were statistically significantly higher in the blood sera obtained from the women in advanced labor than from the women who were at the beginning of labor. The changes in sHLA-G concentration levels observed during the stages of labor may indicate that this isoform participates in maintaining reproductive tract homeostasis.

  3. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in maternal serum and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jin, Lei; Ren, Aiguo; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Yi, Deqing; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu; Finnell, Richard H

    2015-01-06

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose-response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs.

  4. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose–response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs. PMID:25488567

  5. Maternal Serum PLGF, PAPPA, β-hCG and AFP Levels in Early Second Trimester as Predictors of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Duan, Honglei; Zhao, Guangfeng; Xu, Biyun; Hu, Suwei; Li, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Identifying women at risk of preeclampsia (PE) by maternal serum screening is conducive to prompt gestational management and thereby improve both maternal and perinatal outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between the concentrations of maternal serum placental growth factor (PLGF), pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA), free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), and αFetoprotein (AFP) and the development of preeclampsia early in the second trimester. Forty pregnant women subsequently developed mild PE, 21 pregnant women subsequently developed severe PE, and 61 cases of normotensive controls were included. Maternal serum concentrations of PLGF, PAPPA, β-hCG, and AFP were measured at 15 - 20 weeks of gestation. Serum PLGF level was lower in women who subsequently developed PE than in normotensive controls. However, the significant difference was only found between the severe PE and control groups (p = 0.015). Serum PAPPA, β-hCG, and AFP levels were not significantly different between the PE and control groups. Serum PLGF level was lower in women who subsequently developed severe PE early in the second trimester, suggesting its role in prediction of PE.

  6. Maternal and paternal serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and the secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jisuk; Kim, Sungduk; Schisterman, Enrique F; Boyd Barr, Dana; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2015-08-01

    Select persistent environmental chemicals have been associated with a reduction in the secondary sex ratio (SSR), or the ratio of male to female live births. We evaluated preconception maternal, paternal, and couple serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in relation to the SSR, given the absence of previous investigation. Two hundred thirty-three couples from Michigan and Texas were enrolled prior to conception and prospectively followed through delivery of a singleton birth, 2005-2009. Maternal and paternal serum concentrations (ng mL(-1)) were measured at baseline for seven PFASs. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for a male birth, after adjusting for potential confounders. When maternal and paternal PFAS concentrations were modeled jointly, five of the seven PFASs, including the two most prominent PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid, were not significantly associated with the SSR. However, paternal N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (MeFOSAA) and perfluorononanoic acid (2nd versus 1st tertile, OR, 0.43, 95% CI, 0.21-0.88) were significantly associated with an excess of female births. Meanwhile, a dose-response relation was observed only for paternal MeFOSAA (2nd versus 1st tertile, OR, 0.53, 95% CI, 0.26-1.10; 3rd versus 1st tertile, OR, 0.34, 95% CI, 0.13-0.89). This study suggests a possible dose-response relation between a less prevalent PFAS and a reversal in the SSR, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown and the findings await corroboration to eliminate other explanations including chance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc uptake by human placental microvillous membrane vesicles: effects of gestational age and maternal serum zinc levels.

    PubMed

    Vargas Zapata, C L; Trugo, N M; Donangelo, C M

    2000-02-01

    Zinc uptake by syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane vesicles (SMMV) from human placentas was characterized and the effects of maternal serum zinc levels at term and of gestational age on kinetic parameters were evaluated. Zinc uptake at pH 7.2 was rapid for the first 2 min, followed by a slower increase, approaching equilibrium after 30 min. Uptake was saturable at a zinc concentration of 30 micromol/L, higher than the upper range of the physiological serum zinc level. Kinetic analysis of uptake at 1 min in SMMV from term placenta showed similar Km values (mean: 6.9+/-0.6 micromol/L) for different levels of maternal serum zinc. However, Vmax was higher (p < 0.05) in SMMV from mothers with serum zinc lower than 7.6 micromol/L compared to those with higher serum zinc levels (35.8+/-1.6 and 26.6+/-1.6 nmol 65Zn/mg protein/min, respectively). Km values were similar in term (>37 wk of gestation) and preterm (20-25 wk of gestation) placentas, whereas Vmax was higher (p < 0.05) in the preterm (34.3+/-1.6 nmol Zn/mg protein/min) compared to term placentas from mothers with serum zinc levels above 7.6 micromol/L. These results suggest that whereas afffinity for zinc was not altered with gestational age or maternal serum zinc levels, zinc-uptake capacity in human placenta is influenced both by gestational age and by low levels of maternal serum zinc in order to ensure an adequate maternal-fetal zinc transfer.

  8. Maternal serum concentrations of the chemokine CXCL10/IP-10 are elevated in acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most frequent medical complications of pregnancy, as well as a common cause of antepartum hospitalization. Interferon (IFN)-γ inducible protein, CXCL10/IP-10, is a member of the CXC chemokine family with pro-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal serum concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 change in patients with acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy. Study Design This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the difference in maternal serum concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis (N=41) and normal pregnant women (N=89). Pyelonephritis was defined in the presence of a positive urine culture, fever and maternal clinical signs; blood cultures were performed in 36 cases. Maternal serum concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 were measured by a sensitive immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) The median serum concentration of CXCL10/IP-10 in pregnant patients with pyelonephritis was significantly higher than in normal pregnant women (median 318.5 pg/mL, range: 78.8–2459.2 vs. median: 116.1 pg/mL, range:40.7–1314.3, respectively; p < 0.001); (2) maternal median serum concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 did not differ significantly among patients with acute pyelonephritis with and without bacteremia (positive blood cultures: median: 362.6 pg/mL, range: 100.2–2459.2 vs. negative blood cultures: median 298.9 pg/mL, range: 108.5–1148.7, respectively; p = 0.3). Conclusions Pyelonephritis in pregnant women is associated with increased maternal serum concentration of the chemokine CXCL10/IP-10. PMID:17763275

  9. A Novel Apolipoprotein C-II Mimetic Peptide That Activates Lipoprotein Lipase and Decreases Serum Triglycerides in Apolipoprotein E–Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai-Ikuta, Akiko; Sviridov, Denis; Freeman, Lita; Ahsan, Lusana; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are currently being developed as possible new agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on their ability to promote cholesterol efflux and their other beneficial antiatherogenic properties. Many of these peptides, however, have been reported to cause transient hypertriglyceridemia due to inhibition of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We describe a novel bihelical amphipathic peptide (C-II-a) that contains an amphipathic helix (18A) for binding to lipoproteins and stimulating cholesterol efflux as well as a motif based on the last helix of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) that activates lipolysis by LPL. The C-II-a peptide promoted cholesterol efflux from ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1-transfected BHK cells similar to apoA-I mimetic peptides. Furthermore, it was shown in vitro to be comparable to the full-length apoC-II protein in activating lipolysis by LPL. When added to serum from a patient with apoC-II deficiency, it restored normal levels of LPL-induced lipolysis and also enhanced lipolysis in serum from patients with type IV and V hypertriglyceridemia. Intravenous injection of C-II-a (30 mg/kg) in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice resulted in a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 ± 6% and 85 ± 7%, respectively, at 4 hours. When coinjected with the 5A peptide (60 mg/kg), the C-II-a (30 mg/kg) peptide was found to completely block the hypertriglyceridemic effect of the 5A peptide in C57Bl/6 mice. In summary, C-II-a is a novel peptide based on apoC-II, which promotes cholesterol efflux and lipolysis and may therefore be useful for the treatment of apoC-II deficiency and other forms of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:25395590

  10. A novel apolipoprotein C-II mimetic peptide that activates lipoprotein lipase and decreases serum triglycerides in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Amar, Marcelo J A; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai-Ikuta, Akiko; Sviridov, Denis; Freeman, Lita; Ahsan, Lusana; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are currently being developed as possible new agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on their ability to promote cholesterol efflux and their other beneficial antiatherogenic properties. Many of these peptides, however, have been reported to cause transient hypertriglyceridemia due to inhibition of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We describe a novel bihelical amphipathic peptide (C-II-a) that contains an amphipathic helix (18A) for binding to lipoproteins and stimulating cholesterol efflux as well as a motif based on the last helix of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) that activates lipolysis by LPL. The C-II-a peptide promoted cholesterol efflux from ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1-transfected BHK cells similar to apoA-I mimetic peptides. Furthermore, it was shown in vitro to be comparable to the full-length apoC-II protein in activating lipolysis by LPL. When added to serum from a patient with apoC-II deficiency, it restored normal levels of LPL-induced lipolysis and also enhanced lipolysis in serum from patients with type IV and V hypertriglyceridemia. Intravenous injection of C-II-a (30 mg/kg) in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice resulted in a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 ± 6% and 85 ± 7%, respectively, at 4 hours. When coinjected with the 5A peptide (60 mg/kg), the C-II-a (30 mg/kg) peptide was found to completely block the hypertriglyceridemic effect of the 5A peptide in C57Bl/6 mice. In summary, C-II-a is a novel peptide based on apoC-II, which promotes cholesterol efflux and lipolysis and may therefore be useful for the treatment of apoC-II deficiency and other forms of hypertriglyceridemia. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  11. High oestradiol concentration after ovarian stimulation is associated with lower maternal serum beta-HCG concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suying; Kuang, Yanping; Wu, Yu; Feng, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Li; Sun, Yijuan; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between maternal serum oestradiol and progesterone levels after fresh embryo transfer or frozen embryo transfer (FET), and serum beta-HCG levels in early pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was examined. Included for analysis were 5643 conceived singletons: 2610 after FET and 3033 after fresh embryo transfer. Outcome measures included maternal serum oestradiol, progesterone, beta-HCG levels during the peri-implantation period, birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Results at 4, 5 and 6 weeks' gestation were as follows: serum oestradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in women who underwent fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (all P < 0.0001 except progesterone at 6 weeks; P = 0.009); for fresh embryo transfers, serum beta-HCG levels were significantly lower than in women who underwent FET (P < 0.0001); beta-HCG levels were negatively correlated with serum oestradiol; and birth weight was negatively correlated with serum oestradiol. Incidence of SGA in fresh embryo transfer was increased significantly compared with FET (P < 0.001). Higher maternal oestradiol levels after fresh embryo transfer was correlated with lower beta-HCG in early pregnancy, lower birth weight and higher incidence of SGA. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal and neonatal serum zinc level and its relationship with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dey, Arjun Chandra; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Noor, Mohammad Khaled; Saha, Laxmi; Rahman, Shahana A

    2010-08-01

    .001). After adjusting for other factors, such as maternal age and parity, newborns with the low serum zinc level was found to be 9.186 times more likely to be associated with NTDs compared to newborns with normal serum zinc level. Based on the findings, it may be concluded that the low serum zinc levels of newborns may be associated with NTDs. To confirm these findings, a further study with a larger sample-size is recommended. Moreover, a follow-up study with zinc supplementation to pregnant women and its impact on NTDs is also recommended.

  13. CE: Triglycerides: Do They Matter?

    PubMed

    Scordo, Kristine; Pickett, Kim Anne

    2017-01-01

    : Since the introduction of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, as an adjunct to diet in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the greater emphasis placed on reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), there has been less focus on the value of lowering serum triglyceride levels. Many patients are aware of their "good" and "bad" cholesterol levels, but they may not be aware of their triglyceride level or of the association between high triglycerides and the development of CVD. In recent years, however, in light of the increasing incidences of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, lowering triglyceride levels has gained renewed interest. In addition to the focus on lowering LDL cholesterol levels in CVD prevention, clinicians need to be aware of the role of triglycerides-their contribution to CVD, and the causes and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

  14. First-Trimester Maternal Serum Levels of sFLT1, PGF and ADMA Predict Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zheng; Shixia, Chenzi; Duan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Abnormal maternal sFLT1, PGF and ADMA levels are detectable weeks before the onset of preeclampsia. To investigate sFLT1, PGF and ADMA in the first trimester of pregnancy as predictors of preeclampsia. In this prospective nested case-control study, 740 pregnant women enrolled at 12-16 weeks of gestation and followed up until 6 weeks after delivery at the Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Health Hospital of Tongji University between January 2010 and December 2012. Forty-four women developed preeclampsia. Urinary proteins were measured using 24-hour collection or dipsticks. sFLT1, PGF and ADMA were measured by ELISA in the first trimester. Pulsatility index (PI) was measured by Doppler ultrasound in the second trimester. First-trimester serum sFLT1 and ADMA levels of women who developed preeclampsia were significantly higher compared with women with normal pregnancies (sFLT1: 0.321 ± 0.023 vs. 0.308 ± 0.019 ng/ml, P = 0.001; ADMA: 0.86 ± 0.16 vs. 0.68 ± 0.20 μM, P < 0.001). First-trimester serum PGF levels of women who developed preeclampsia were significantly lower than in women with normal pregnancies (115.72 ± 32.55 vs. 217.30 ± 74.48 pg/ml, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic curves identified first-trimester PGF and ADMA to be sensitive and selective predictors of preeclampsia (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.902), as well as second-trimester uterine artery pulse index (AUC: 0.836). In the first trimester, maternal serum sFLT1, PGF and ADMA levels, as well as second-trimester uterine artery PI, could predict preeclampsia.

  15. First-Trimester Maternal Serum Levels of sFLT1, PGF and ADMA Predict Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Zheng; Shixia, Chenzi; Duan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background Placental growth factor (PGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Abnormal maternal sFLT1, PGF and ADMA levels are detectable weeks before the onset of preeclampsia. Objective To investigate sFLT1, PGF and ADMA in the first trimester of pregnancy as predictors of preeclampsia. Methods In this prospective nested case-control study, 740 pregnant women enrolled at 12–16 weeks of gestation and followed up until 6 weeks after delivery at the Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Health Hospital of Tongji University between January 2010 and December 2012. Forty-four women developed preeclampsia. Urinary proteins were measured using 24-hour collection or dipsticks. sFLT1, PGF and ADMA were measured by ELISA in the first trimester. Pulsatility index (PI) was measured by Doppler ultrasound in the second trimester. Results First-trimester serum sFLT1 and ADMA levels of women who developed preeclampsia were significantly higher compared with women with normal pregnancies (sFLT1: 0.321±0.023 vs. 0.308±0.019 ng/ml, P = 0.001; ADMA: 0.86±0.16 vs. 0.68±0.20 μM, P<0.001). First-trimester serum PGF levels of women who developed preeclampsia were significantly lower than in women with normal pregnancies (115.72±32.55 vs. 217.30±74.48 pg/ml, P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic curves identified first-trimester PGF and ADMA to be sensitive and selective predictors of preeclampsia (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.902), as well as second-trimester uterine artery pulse index (AUC: 0.836). Conclusion In the first trimester, maternal serum sFLT1, PGF and ADMA levels, as well as second-trimester uterine artery PI, could predict preeclampsia. PMID:25906026

  16. Breast-feeding, maternal IgE, and total serum IgE in childhood.

    PubMed

    Wright, A L; Sherrill, D; Holberg, C J; Halonen, M; Martinez, F D

    1999-09-01

    There is controversy regarding the relationship of the effect of breast-feeding on markers of allergy such as total serum IgE in childhood. This study, using longitudinal data, tested the hypothesis that the relation of breast-feeding to IgE in childhood differs depending on maternal total IgE level. Total serum IgE was assessed with the paper radioimmunosorbent test at 4 ages in nonselected children enrolled at birth into the prospective Tucson Children's Respiratory Study. Children were classified as never breast-fed, breast-fed less than 4 months, or breast-fed 4 months or longer, on the basis of physician report or questionnaires completed by parents by the time the child was 18 months old. A longitudinal random effects model was used to test for group differences and temporal trends in IgE for children classified with reference to maternal IgE (high tertile vs all others) and breast-feeding history. A total of 664 children with 1457 observations were included. Among children whose mothers were in the 2 lower tertiles of IgE, breast-feeding was associated with lower total serum IgE at age 6 years (24.2 vs 44.3 IU/mL for never breast-fed children; P <.02); similar trends existed at age 11 years. In contrast, for children whose mothers were in the highest tertile of IgE, breast-feeding of 4 months or longer was associated with higher IgE levels in the child compared with those never breast-fed or breast-fed less than 4 months (97.0 vs 38.9 IU/mL; P <. 005). These cross-sectional analyses were confirmed with the longitudinal random effects model, which also showed no effect of confounders. Paternal IgE showed no similar relation with child IgE. Breast-feeding appears to have paradoxic relations with IgE in childhood, depending on maternal IgE level. These findings may help explain the contradictory results found in other investigations of the relation of breast-feeding to allergic symptoms and markers.

  17. Is the ratio of maternal serum to amniotic fluid AFP superior to serum levels as a predictor of pregnancy complications?

    PubMed

    Sharony, Reuven; Dayan, Dikla; Kidron, Debora; Manor, Mira; Berkovitz, Arie; Biron-Shental, Tal; Maymon, Ron

    2016-04-01

    The use of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels as a predictor of pregnancy complications (PC) is well established. We hypothesized that the ratio between the MSAFP/AFAFP levels (RATIO) will more accurately predict PC than MSAFP levels alone. Women who had a MSAFP test followed by amniocentesis were divided into two groups: those who had PC comprised the study group and those who had an uneventful pregnancy served as the control group. Data regarding pregnancy and delivery course were collected. The RATIO between the study and the control groups was compared. 166 women were included in the study, of which 24 had PC. A significant correlation was found between the RATIO and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and week of delivery. Six pregnancies had elevated MSAFP levels; two with RATIO below 2 had uneventful pregnancies. Among the other four pregnancies with RATIO above two, one had IUGR and the other, placental abruption. Our data suggest that the RATIO might serve as a predictor of IUGR and week of delivery. Although the number of patients in the current study was relatively small, the novelty of the proposed simple marker implies that a larger scale study is warranted. Such studies may confirm this finding and a possible advantage of using this RATIO instead of or in addition to MSAFP values for better prediction of pregnancies at risk for PC.

  18. Correlation of magnesium levels in cord blood and maternal serum among pre-eclamptic pregnant women treated with magnesium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Boriboonhirunsarn, Dittakarn; Lertbunnaphong, Tripop; Suwanwanich, Morakot

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cord blood and maternal serum magnesium levels among pre-eclamptic pregnant women treated with magnesium sulfate. A total of 36 pregnant women, >28weeks' gestation, diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and treated with magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4) ), were enrolled. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were obtained immediately after delivery and sent for determination of magnesium and calcium levels.   Mean maternal age was 27.4±6.4years and mean gestational age was 38.1±1.8weeks. Most were diagnosed with pre-eclampsia (94.5%), others had HELLP syndrome. Mean total MgSO(4) the women received was 14.4±6.0g and mean duration of treatment was 5.1±3.3h. Mean maternal serum and cord blood magnesium levels were 2.2±0.4 and 1.8±0.3mmol/L, respectively. Maternal magnesium and calcium levels showed significant positive correlation with their levels in cord blood (P<0.001). Significant positive correlation was found between total dose as well as duration of MgSO4 and maternal and cord blood magnesium levels (P<0.001) but was inversely correlated with maternal and cord blood calcium levels. Maternal serum magnesium and calcium levels were correlated with cord blood levels in pre-eclamptic pregnant women who received MgSO4 therapy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Maternal serum C-reactive protein concentration and intra-amniotic inflammation in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes

    PubMed Central

    Musilova, Ivana; Stepan, Martin; Bestvina, Tomas; Pliskova, Lenka; Zednikova, Barbora; Jacobsson, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) in relation to the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI). Methods Two hundred and eighty-seven women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM between 2014 and 2016 were included in this study. Maternal blood and amniotic fluid samples were collected at the time of admission. Maternal serum CRP concentration was measured using a high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration was measured using a point-of-care test. MIAC was diagnosed based on a positive polymerase chain reaction result for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis, and/or Chlamydia trachomatis and for the 16S rRNA gene. IAI was characterized by an amniotic fluid IL-6 concentration of ≥ 745 pg/mL. Result Women with MIAC and IAI had higher maternal serum CRP concentrations than did women without (with MIAC: median 6.9 mg/L vs. without MIAC: median 4.9 mg/L; p = 0.02; with IAI: median 8.6 mg/L vs. without IAI: median 4.7 mg/L; p < 0.0001). When women were split into four subgroups based on the presence of MIAC and/or IAI, women with the presence of both MIAC and IAI had higher maternal serum CRP than did women with IAI alone, with MIAC alone, and women without MIAC and IAI (both MIAC and IAI: median: 13.1 mg/L; IAI alone: 6.0 mg/L; MIAC alone: 3.9 mg/L; and without MIAC and IAI: median 4.8 mg/L; p < 0.0001). The maternal serum CRP cutoff value of 17.5 mg/L was the best level to identify the presence of both MIAC and IAI, with sensitivity of 47%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 42%, negative predictive value of 96%, and the positive likelihood ratio of 10.9. Conclusion The presence of both MIAC and IAI was associated with the highest maternal serum CRP concentrations. Maternal serum CRP concentration in women with PPROM at the time of

  20. First trimester maternal serum AFP and total hCG in aneuploidies other than trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Heath, V; Flack, N; Ong, C; Nicolaides, K H

    2000-08-01

    Total human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured in maternal serum at 10-14 weeks of gestation from 53 pregnancies affected by trisomy 18, 42 cases with trisomy 13, 46 with Turner's syndrome and 13 with other sex aneuploides. The only significant association was the finding of reduced levels of total hCG in cases of trisomy 18 and 13. The association of increased levels of AFP in cases of trisomy 18 with ventral wall defects and the slight increase in AFP in cases of sex chromosomal anomalies other than Turner's syndrome was found. AFP and total hCG are not likely to replace the markers free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Decreased placental and maternal serum TRAIL-R2 levels are associated with placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ersoy, Ebru; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Uygur, Dilek; Yucel, Aykan; Ergin, Merve; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) is produced both by decidual and trophoblast cells during pregnancy and known to participate in apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine and to compare maternal serum and placental TRAIL-R2 levels in patients with placenta accreta, non-adherent placenta previa and in healthy pregnancies. We also aimed to analyze the association of placenta accreta with the occurrence of previous C-sections. A total of 82 pregnant women were enrolled in this case-control study (27 placenta accreta patients, 26 non-adherent placenta previa patients and 29 age-, and BMI-matched healthy, uncomplicated pregnant controls). TRAIL-R2 levels were studied in both maternal serum and placental tissue homogenates. Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate placenta accreta was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Both placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were significantly lower in placenta accreta group (median 34.82 pg/mg and 19.85 pg/mL, respectively) when compared with both non-adherent placenta previa (median 39.24 pg/mg and 25.99 pg/mL, respectively) and the control groups (median 41.62 pg/mg and 25.87 pg/mL, respectively) (p < 0.05). Placental TRAIL-R2 levels and previous cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta (OR: 0.934 95% CI 0.883-0.987, p = 0.016 and OR:7.725 95% CI: 2.717-21.965, p < 0.001, respectively). Placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were positively correlated. Decreased levels of placental TRAIL-R2 and previous history of cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta, suggesting a possible role of apoptosis in abnormal trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feto-maternal Outcome Using New Screening Criteria of Serum TSH for Diagnosing Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deeksha; Dewan, Rupali; Bharti, Rekha; Thariani, Karishma; Sablok, Aanchal; Sharma, Manjula; Biswas, Krishna; Batra, Aruna

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that by using the classical non pregnant reference range for serum TSH (STSH), one might miss hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Therefore, upper normal cut off value of S TSH should be taken as <2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester and <3mIU/L in the second and third trimester. However, two Indian studies have reported higher trimester specific reference ranges in the Indian pregnant women. To assess the maternal and fetal outcomes using new screening criteria with upper S TSH cut off as >3mIU/L, for diagnosing hypothyroidism in pregnancy. This study was a cross sectional study, carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of a tertiary care hospital, in collaboration with the Department of Endocrinology. Pregnant women with ≤ 20 weeks gestation, attending antenatal OPD from December 2010 to January 2012 were included in the study. On the basis of S TSH level, women were divided into Study Group with S TSH level between 3.1 to 6.2 mIU/L, (new range to be studied) and an equal number of age and parity matched Control Group with S TSH levels between 0.4 to 3 mIU/L. The maternal and fetal outcomes were compared between study and control groups. During the study period, a total of 66 women had S TSH between 3.1-6.2 mIU/L. Maternal and fetal outcomes in both the groups were comparable. There was no difference in the mode of delivery between study and control groups. The lower S TSH cut off recommended for diagnosing hypothyroidism in pregnancy may not be applicable to pregnant Indian women.

  3. Maternal Serum C-Reactive Protein in Women with Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Martin; Cobo, Teresa; Musilova, Ivana; Hornychova, Helena; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) as a predictor of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) in women with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (PPROM) before and after 32 weeks of gestation. Methods This study was a prospective observational cohort study of 386 women. Maternal serum CRP concentrations were evaluated, and amniotic fluid samples were obtained via transabdominal amniocentesis at the time of admission. Placentas underwent histopathological examination after delivery. MIAC was defined based on a positive PCR for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis and/or positive 16S rRNA gene amplification. HCA was defined based on the Salafia classification. Results Maternal CRP was significantly higher in women with MIAC and HCA (median 9.0 mg/l) than in women with HCA alone (median 6.9 mg/l), MIAC alone (median 7.4 mg/l) and without MIAC or HCA (median 4.5 mg/l) (p<0.0001). CRP was a weak predictor of the occurrence of MIAC and HCA before and after 32 weeks of gestation. Only the 95th percentile of CRP and PPROM before 32 weeks exhibited a false-positive rate of 1%, a positive predictive value of 90% and a positive likelihood ratio of 13.2 to predict MIAC and HCA. However, the low sensitivity of 15% limits the clinical utility of this detection. Conclusion CRP is a poor predictor of the occurrence of MIAC and HCA, even at early gestational ages. PMID:26942752

  4. Second trimester two-step trisomy 18 screening using maternal serum markers.

    PubMed

    Muller, Françoise; Sault, Corinne; Lemay, Catherine; Roussel-Mizon, Nathalie; Forestier, François; Frendo, Jean-Louis

    2002-07-01

    Trisomy 21 maternal serum marker screening has led to screening for other anomalies, including trisomy 18. Trisomy 18 is generally prenatally diagnosed because of major morphological defects. However, in up to 30% of cases ultrasound signs are unclear, and in most cases diagnosis is performed late in pregnancy. Of the different maternal serum markers, PAPP-A is now considered as the best for trisomy 18 screening. However, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is of value in first trimester screening for trisomy 21, but not in the second trimester. We therefore propose a two-step screening strategy. Based on 45 trisomy 18 cases, we confirm the values of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (median 0.61 MoM), free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) (median 0.24 MoM) and of PAPP-A (median 0.08 MoM). In the first step, a 0.5 MoM cut-off for AFP or for free beta-hCG resulted in detection of 37/45 trisomy 18 cases (82%) with a 10% false-positive rate. The second step consisted of the measurement of PAPP-A for all these false-positive cases. Using a PAPP-A cut-off of 0.5 MoM, all the 37 trisomy 18 cases were detected, but now with a 0.1-0.2% false-positive rate. Amniocentesis was only offered to these few patients. This two-step second trimester screening will be of value for patients who have not been included in first trimester screening based on nuchal translucency (NT) measurement combined with the first trimester markers, PAPP-A and free beta-hCG. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Role of Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein and Ultrasonography in Contemporary Detection of Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Racusin, Diana A; Villarreal, Sarah; Antony, Kathleen M; Harris, R Alan; Mastrobattista, Joan; Lee, Wesley; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Belfort, Michael; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2015-12-01

    Midtrimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and sonographic evaluation have been used to screen for spina bifida. With the increased uptake of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and first trimester screening, MSAFP levels may no longer be obtained routinely. Our aim was to evaluate a pediatric neurosurgical referral center database of spina bifida cases to determine the antenatal detection rate and means of diagnosis. Nested case series of all spina bifida cases referred postnatally from 2007 to 2013. Data were abstracted from the maternal record and rates of antenatal detection with MSAFP and sonographic screening were determined. Of the 105 postnatally referred cases, 11.4% (12/105) were not identified until delivery. Overall, 39% of the cases had MSAFP screening. The odds ratio for sonogram-based detection of spina bifida was 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 2-11.9). Of the neonatally detected cases, 100% had prenatal care and 91.6% (11 of the 12 cases) had documented sonography. We have found that 11.4% of the spina bifida cases were not detected before delivery. Nine out of the 12 cases of antenatally missed spina bifida were not screened using MSAFP. Our findings support the approach of midtrimester MSAFP screening combined with sonographic evaluation. We speculate that prenatal screening with MSAFP is underutilized. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Estimating fetal morbidity and mortality resulting from cigarette smoke exposure by measuring cotinine levels in maternal serum.

    PubMed

    Haddow, J E; Knight, G J; Palomaki, G E; Haddow, P K

    1988-01-01

    An essay for cotinine levels in maternal serum was used to define cigarette smoking exposure level and fetal morbidity and mortality. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has a circulating half-life of about a day, making it more reliable than nicotine as an indicator or active and passive smoke exposure. Maternal smoking has been linked in previous studies with low Apgar scores, low birthweight, decreased placental blood flow, fetal activity, fetal breathing movements, depressed prostacyclin synthesis in umbilical artery, increased perinatal mortality and spontaneous abortion. In this study, 8063 2nd trimester pregnant women whose serum had been collected and frozen in 1979-1983 were analyzed for smoking habit determined from intake questionnaires. Cotinine levels correlated with 95% of those reporting no smoking, and 93% of those reporting smoking. Smokers with cotinine 10 ng/ml was higher than expected, possible because some women quit before blood was drawn. Cotinine levels did not correlate as well as number of cigarettes per day reported. There was a significant association between serum cotinine and birthweight at the 10 and 20 cigarette/day level, and a trend toward a link between cotinine and fetal deaths in 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Among infants of the 30% of women exposed to passive smoke whose serum cotinine levels were 1 ng/ml, the average birth weight was 107 g lower than those of non-exposed women, a difference remaining after controlling for maternal weight and height, infant's sex, maternal age, gravidity and education.

  7. Glyphosate and Paraquat in Maternal and Fetal Serums in Thai Women.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Phupancharoensuk, Ratanavadee; Palarach, Chonlada; Sujirarat, Dusit; Sangprasert, Supha; Sermsuk, Malasod; Sawattrakool, Namthip; Woskie, Susan Renee

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study measured the glyphosate and paraquat concentrations found in maternal and umbilical cord serum in 82 pregnant women who gave birth in three provinces of Thailand. Through questionnaires and biological samples collected at childbirth, factors such as personal characteristics, family members occupation, agricultural activities, and herbicide use in agricultural work were evaluated as predictors of glyphosate and paraquat levels in the pregnant women. Statistical analysis used univariate and binary multiple logistic regression, where the outcome was the probability of exposure to paraquat or glyphosate above the limit of detection associated with occupation and household factors. The glyphosate concentrations in the pregnant women's serum at childbirth (median: 17.5, range: 0.2-189.1 ng/mL) were significantly higher (P < .007) than those in the umbilical cord serum (median: 0.2, range: 0.2-94.9 ng/mL). However, the paraquat concentrations in the serum of the pregnant women at childbirth (83% ≤limit of detection [LOD], with maximum of 58.3 ng/mL) were similar to those in the umbilical cord serum (80% LOD in serum at childbirth were 11.9 times more likely to report work as an agriculturist (P < .001), 3.7 times more likely to live near agricultural areas (P = .006), and 5.9 times more likely to have a family member who worked in agriculture (P < .001). The only factors affecting paraquat exposures in pregnant women at childbirth were reporting the agricultural activity of digging in farm soil and working in the agricultural fields in the third trimester of pregnancy. These results show that pregnant women who work in agriculture or live in families that work in agriculture have higher exposures to the herbicides glyphosate and paraquat. The potential for long-term health impacts of these prenatal exposures to children should be evaluated, and greater regulation of the sale and use

  8. Mid-Trimester Maternal Serum hCG and Alpha Fetal Protein Levels: Clinical Significance and Prediction of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Gkogkos, Panagiotis; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Context Maternal serum human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and Alpha Fetal Protein (AFP) were originally introduced to detect trisomy 21 and neural tube defects. However, in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects, mid-trimester maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with unexplained mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP, are at increased risk for pregnancy complications resulting from placental insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG>2.5 MoM associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death(IUFD). Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP levels >2.5 MoM are thought to reflect a defect in placentation and associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Results Combined mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and AFP levels suggest a more complex type of placental pathology. They have stronger association with pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Conclusions Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG or AFP levels alone cannot detect all pregnant women with increased risk to develop pregnancy complications. Multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester (maternal serum hCG and AFP screening, uterine artery Doppler and placental morphology) may allow us to identify women with increased risk to develop severe placental insufficiency and pregnancy complications. However, future prospective studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester. PMID:23825981

  9. Correlation of serum triglyceride and its reduction by omega-3 fatty acids with lipid transfer activity and the neutral lipid compositions of high-density and low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pownall, H J; Brauchi, D; Kilinç, C; Osmundsen, K; Pao, Q; Payton-Ross, C; Gotto, A M; Ballantyne, C M

    1999-04-01

    Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are inversely correlated and mechanistically linked by means of lipid transfer activities. Phospholipid transfer activity (PLTA) moves phospholipids among serum lipoproteins; cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA), which exchanges cholesteryl esters (CE) and TG among lipoproteins, is stimulated by nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The aims of this study were (a) to develop a quantitative model that correlates the neutral lipid (NL = CE + TG) compositions of HDL and LDL with serum TG concentration; (b) identify the serum lipid determinants of CETA and PLTA, and; (c) identify the effects of serum TG reductions on the neutral lipid compositions of HDL and LDL, serum NEFA concentrations, and on PLTA and CETA. These aims were addressed in 40 hypertriglyceridemic subjects before and after treatment with an 85% concentrate of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor) and in 16 untreated normolipidemic subjects. In vivo, the NL compositions of LDL and HDL were described by a mathematical model having the form of adsorption isotherms: HDL - (TG/NL) = (0.90 +/- 0.07) serum TG/(7.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l + serum TG) and LDL - (TG/NL) = (0.65 +/- 0.08) serum TG/(4.9 +/- 1.5 mmol/l + serum TG). Reduction of serum TG was associated with reductions in HDL - (TG/NL), serum NEFA concentration, and serum CETA but not PLTA. These data suggest that both hypertriglyceridemia and the attendant elevated serum CETA but not PLTA are determinants of HDL and LDL composition and structure and that serum TG concentrations are good predictors of the NL compositions of HDL and LDL.

  10. Synergistic association of changes in serum uric acid and triglycerides with changes in insulin resistance after walking exercise in community-dwelling older women.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Katoh, Takeaki; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori; Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) and triglyceride (TG) levels are strongly correlated with insulin resistance; however, the association after a walking exercise program in community-dwelling older women has not been investigated. The present study included 100 postmenopausal women (mean ± standard deviation, 68 ± 7 years) from a rural village in Japan. The Nordic walking program of 120 min per week was performed for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, SUA, TG, various relevant factors and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that baseline TG and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were significantly associated with baseline HOMA-IR. After the 12-week training program, changes in TG, SUA and GGT were significantly associated with changes in HOMA-IR. In addition to their direct associations, we observed a synergistic association between changes in TG and SUA and changes in HOMA-IR. Participants were divided into three groups (tertiles) according to changes in TG and SUA. The tertiles of changes in SUA correlated significantly with changes in HOMA-IR in participants in the tertile with the greatest decrease in TG (r = 0.525, p = 0.001), but not in the other two tertiles of change in TG (r = 0.049, p = 0.699). There was a significant interaction between SUA and TG for changes in HOMA-IR (β = 0.281, p = 0.005). These results suggest that changes in TG and SUA are synergistic factors associated with changes in insulin resistance after a 12-week walking exercise program in community-dwelling older women.

  11. The relationship between retinol-binding protein 4 and apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins is attenuated in patients with very high serum triglycerides: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Christou, Georgios A; Tellis, Constantinos C; Elisaf, Moses S; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the association between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipoproteins in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Forty-six obese or overweight hypertriglyceridemic patients were studied at baseline and 20 of them underwent a hypocaloric low-fat diet for 3 months. Plasma RBP4 levels were positively correlated with serum triglycerides (TG) in the subgroup of patients with TG <200 mg/dL (r=0.453, p=0.039) and negatively correlated with TG in patients with TG ≥200 mg/dL (r=-0.487, p=0.019). In the subgroup with TG <200 mg/ dL, subjects with circulating RBP4 above the median 46 mg/L had higher levels of intermediate density lipoprotein-cholesterol (IDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB), while these differences were absent in patients with TG ≥200 mg/dL. The associations of percentage changes of circulating RBP4 with the percentage changes of LDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and ApoB were positive after the first month and 3 months of diet for patients with baseline TG <200 mg/dL, while no correlations existed for patients with TG ≥200 mg/dL. The positive association between circulating RBP4 and ApoB-containing lipoproteins in a steady metabolic state, as well as during a hypocaloric diet, appears to be attenuated in patients with very high TG.

  12. Community-based study on the relationship between serum cholesterol/triglyceride and dietary habits/life styles in Pu-Li, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, P; Shaw, C K; Lai, M Y

    1993-09-01

    This is a community-based study on the relationship between serum cholesterol (CHO)/triglyceride (TG) and dietary habits/life styles of persons living in a central Taiwan Town. Door-to-door interviews were carried out by the Yang-Ming Crusade, and fasting blood for CHO and TG tests was drawn by public health nurses from Pu-Li Health Station. Univariate analysis found that significant variables correlated with CHO were age (+), locality, non-fish seafood (+) and pungent food (+). Significant variables correlated with TG were age (+), sex, locality, smoking (+), alcohol (+) and physical activity (-). Stratified by age (> or = 50 and < 50) and by sex respectively, only one significant interaction item--age x organ meat consumption--was found; those who consumed organ meat more frequently had higher TG, if they were less than 50 years of age. This was not true for those aged 50 and over. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression revealed that after controlling for all of the other covariates, significant variables correlated with CHO were age (OR = 1.92, 95% C.I. = 1.37-2.69), pungent food (OR = 1.91, 95% C.I. = 1.26-2.89); locality (OR = 0.53, 95% C.I. = 0.35-0.80 for sub urban area; and OR = 0.74, 95% C.I. = 0.50-1.08 for rural area); sea food consumption (OR = 1.50, 95% C.I. = 0.94-2.40); and smoking (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. = 0.48-0.99).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Okwara, J E; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

    2011-12-20

    The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

  14. Maternal tobacco smoke increased visceral adiposity and serum corticosterone levels in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Lang, Brook Y; Yu, Baifeng; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Chengshe; Fitzhugh, Melanie; Dahl, Marjanna; Campbell, Michael S; Fung, Camille; Malleske, Daniel; Albertine, Kurt H; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2014-07-01

    Maternal tobacco smoke (MTS) predisposes human and rat offspring to visceral obesity in early adulthood. Glucocorticoid excess also causes visceral obesity. We hypothesized that in utero MTS would increase visceral adiposity and alter the glucocorticoid pathway in young adult rats. We developed a novel model of in utero MTS exposure in pregnant rats by exposing them to cigarette smoke from E11.5 to term. Neonatal rats were cross-fostered to control dams and weaned to standard rat chow through young adulthood (postnatal day 60). We demonstrated increased visceral adiposity (193%)*, increased visceral adipose 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 mRNA (204%)*, increased serum corticosterone (147%)*, and no change in glucocorticoid receptor protein in adult male MTS rat offspring. Female rats exposed to MTS in utero demonstrated no change in visceral or subcutaneous adiposity, decreased serum corticosterone (60%)*, and decreased adipose glucocorticoid receptor protein (66%)*. *P < 0.05. We conclude that in utero MTS exposure increased visceral adiposity and altered in the glucocorticoid pathway in a sex-specific manner. We speculate that in utero MTS exposure programs adipose dysfunction in adult male rat offspring via alteration in the glucocorticoid pathway.

  15. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = -0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (β = -0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (β = -0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = -0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (β = -0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (β = -0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (β = -0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.).

  16. Predictive value of maternal serum β-hCG concentration in the ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Faraji Darkhaneh, Roya; Asgharnia, Maryam; Farahmand Porkar, Nastaran; Alipoor, Ali Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of serum β-hCG concentration commonly used to diagnose tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) and follow up patients treated conservatively. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of maternal serum β-hCG concentration in ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy to help physicians identify those women who are at greatest risk. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all women with a diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy who were treated in Alzahra Hospital, in Rasht, from March 2002 to February 2011. The data was collected for each woman from medical records and included age, parity, gravidia, gestational age, primary level of serum β-hCG, rupture status, past history of pelvic inflammation disease, EP, abortion, and intrauterine contraceptive device use. Women with tubal rupture were compared to those without rupture. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS 19 for Windows. A total of 247 cases of tubal ectopic pregnancy were recorded during the study period. One hundred and ninety seven (79.8%) were cases with unruptured EP and 50 patients (20.2 %) were cases with ruptured EP. The mean level of β-hCG was significantly higher in patients with ruptured EP compared to patients with unruptured EP (p=0.03). Logistic regression analysis revealed that >1750 IU/ml of β-hCG levels (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.18-1.68) was the significant risk factors for tubal rupture. Higher β-hCG levels seem to be significant risk factors for rupture of a tubal EP.

  17. The vitamin E-binding protein afamin increases in maternal serum during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hubalek, Michael; Buchner, Hannes; Mörtl, Manfred G.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Huppertz, Berthold; Firulovic, Branka; Köhler, Wolfgang; Hafner, Erich; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Wildt, Ludwig; Dieplinger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background Afamin is a liver-derived plasma glycoprotein with vitamin E-binding properties and a putative function in fertility. This study evaluated serum afamin concentrations during and postpartum to uncomplicated pregnancies and investigated a potential association between afamin concentrations and pregnancy outcome. Methods Afamin serum concentrations were measured in women with uncomplicated pregnancies in a retrospective cohort (n = 466) at different gestational ages and a prospective observational study (n = 76) in the first, second and third trimester. Furthermore, afamin was determined in the first trimester in a cross-sectional pilot study including women with preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and women without pregnancy complications (n = 13 each). Finally, expression of afamin was investigated in human placental tissue by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Afamin concentrations increased linearly almost two-fold during pregnancy in both retrospective and prospective studies in women without pregnancy complications with median afamin serum concentrations of 61.9 mg/l, 79.6 mg/l, and 98.6 mg/l in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. After delivery, median afamin concentrations decreased to baseline values of 54.6 mg/l. In the pilot study with pregnancy complications, women with PE displayed significantly higher median afamin concentrations than did women with uncomplicated pregnancy (70.0 mg/l vs. 55.4 mg/l, P = 0.007). Expression analyses revealed no placental afamin expression at either mRNA or protein level in uncomplicated pregnancy. Conclusion A linear increase in the maternally expressed glycoprotein afamin during pregnancy may serve as basic reference for subsequent investigations of afamin in pregnancy-related disorders. PMID:24768783

  18. Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Maternal Serum and Indices of Fetal Growth: The Aarhus Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregård; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies indicated an association between intrauterine exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and lower birth weight. However, these perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have to some extent been substituted by other compounds on which little is known. We investigated the association between specific PFAAs and birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth. We studied 1,507 mothers and their children from the Aarhus Birth Cohort (2008-2013). Nulliparous women were included during pregnancy, and serum levels of 16 PFAAs were measured between 9 and 20 completed gestational weeks (96% within 13 weeks). For compounds with quantifiable values in > 50% of samples (7 compounds), we report the associations with birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth determined by multivariable linear regression. Estimated mean birth weights were lower among women with serum perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluoroheptane sulfonate, and PFOS concentrations above the lowest exposure quartile, but we found no consistent monotonic dose-response patterns. These associations were stronger when the population was restricted to term births (n = 1,426). For PFOS, the birth weight estimates for the highest versus lowest quartile were -50 g (95% CI: -123, 23 g) in all births and -62 g (95% CI: -126, 3 g) in term births. For the other PFAAs, the direction of the associations was inconsistent, and no overall association with birth weight was apparent. No PFAAs were associated with birth length or head circumference at birth. Overall, we did not find strong or consistent associations between PFAAs and birth weight or other indices of fetal growth, though estimated mean birth weights were lower among those with exposures above the lowest quartile for some compounds. Bach CC, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Olsen J, Matthiesen NB, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC, Bossi R, Henriksen TB. 2016. Perfluoroalkyl acids in maternal serum and indices of fetal growth: the

  19. Effect of routine prenatal supplementation on vitamin concentrations in maternal serum and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Sânzio Gurgel, Cristiane Santos; Alves de Araújo Pereira, Larisa; de Assis Costa, Aldiane; Adja da Silva Souza, Mayara; Araújo de Brito, Poliana; Miranda de Melo, Larisse Rayanne; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of multivitamin supplements and their different vitamin A sources on retinol concentrations in serum and colostrum milk of postpartum women. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study composed of healthy postpartum women attending two Brazilian private maternity wards (N = 100). According to the type of multivitamin taken during pregnancy, the women were assigned to one of four groups: control group (CG; n = 25), formulation 1 (F1; n = 25), formulation 2 (F2; n = 25), and formulation 3 (F3; n = 25). Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions and retinol was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary vitamin A was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Retinol concentrations <20 μg/dL (<0.70 μmol/L) in serum and <60 μg/dL (2.10 μmol/L) in colostrum were considered indicative of vitamin A deficiency. Of women in the control group, 12% (n = 3) presented serum retinol levels below the cut-off value for adequacy; this was not observed in the supplemented groups. Evaluating the retinol content in breast milk, supplemented groups F1 and F3 presented 4% (n = 1) of inadequacy cases, whereas F2 presented 40% (n = 10). The concentrations found in the F2 and F3 groups were statistically different (P < 0.05). The use of multivitamin supplements containing vitamin A during pregnancy prevents vitamin A deficiency regardless of the source administered. In breast milk, supplementation with β-carotene provided a lower concentration of vitamin A compared with retinol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The maternal serum thiol/disulfide homeostasis is impaired in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Boza, Baris; Cim, Numan; Alisik, Murat; Erel, Ozcan; Kolusarı, Ali; Sahin, Hanım Guler

    2017-02-28

    To investigate the maternal serum thiol/disulfide homeostasis in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to compare the results with healthy pregnancies. This descriptive cohort study included 55 pregnant women complicated by idiopathic IUGR and 57 similar gestational aged healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation. Maternal serum samples were collected at the day of diagnosis and the thiol/disulfide homeostasis was measured by using an automated assay method. The patients were followed up until delivery and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Maternal serum native thiol (308.1 ± 40.7 μmol/L vs. 282.4 ± 60.6 μmol/L) and total thiol (346.8 ± 48.1 μmol/L vs. 324.0 ± 62.2 μmol/L) concentrations were significantly lower in IUGR group compared with healthy controls (p: .010 and p: .032, respectively), whereas disulfide (19.3 ± 8.7 μmol/L vs. 20.8 ± 7.8 μmol/L) concentrations were similar between the groups (p: .350). Maternal serum disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratios were higher in IUGR group compared with healthy controls (p: .014 and p: .017, respectively), whereas native thiol/total thiol ratio was significantly lower in IUGR group compared with healthy controls (p: .016). This study suggests that there is an impaired maternal thiol/disulfide homeostasis in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic IUGR during the third trimester of gestation.

  1. Maternal Early Pregnancy Serum Metabolomics Profile and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding as Predictors of Placental Abruption: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Sumner, Susan J.; McRitchie, Susan; Carlson, James E.; Ananth, Cande V.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Qiu, Chunfang; Sorensen, Tanya K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Placental abruption, an ischemic placental disorder, complicates about 1 in 100 pregnancies, and is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolomics holds promise for improving the phenotyping, prediction and understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms of complex clinical disorders including abruption. We sought to evaluate maternal early pregnancy pre-diagnostic serum metabolic profiles and abnormal vaginal bleeding as predictors of abruption later in pregnancy. Methods Maternal serum was collected in early pregnancy (mean 16 weeks, range 15 to 22 weeks) from 51 abruption cases and 51 controls. Quantitative targeted metabolic profiles of serum were acquired using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) and the Absolute IDQ® p180 kit. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history were abstracted from medical records. Stepwise logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the extent to which metabolites aid in the prediction of abruption. We evaluated the predictive performance of the set of selected metabolites using a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and area under the curve (AUC). Results Early pregnancy vaginal bleeding, dodecanoylcarnitine/dodecenoylcarnitine (C12 / C12:1), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C 38:1 (PC ae C38:1) strongly predict abruption risk. The AUC for these metabolites alone was 0.68, for early pregnancy vaginal bleeding alone was 0.65, and combined the AUC improved to 0.75 with the addition of quantitative metabolite data (P = 0.003). Conclusion Metabolomic profiles of early pregnancy maternal serum samples in addition to the clinical symptom, vaginal bleeding, may serve as important markers for the prediction of abruption. Larger studies are necessary to corroborate and validate these findings in other cohorts. PMID:27300725

  2. The progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, J; Dangarembizi, R; Mtetwa, B; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks, 36 Guinea fowl and 36 Muscovy ducks were divided into two groups, for each species, and fed either a standard (STD = commercial poultry feed) or high-fat diet (HFD = commercial poultry feed with 20% palm oil and 2% lard) for up to 12 weeks. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks on the diets, six birds from each group were euthanized and blood samples collected. Osmotic fragility was assessed by measuring the haemoglobin released by erythrocytes placed in serially diluted solutions of phosphate-buffered saline, spectrophotometrically. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were also determined. Fragiligrams from erythrocytes from both species of birds on the HFD were not different to those on the STD. However, Muscovy duck erythrocytes were more resistant to haemolysis compared with Guinea fowl erythrocytes. Final body mass and serum triglyceride levels were not significantly different (p > 0.05, anova) between the birds in the HFD and STD groups, for both species of birds. In contrast, serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in birds on the HFD compared with those on the STD, after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of feeding, for both species of birds. Feeding Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks a high-fat diet for up to 12 weeks resulted in hypercholesterolaemia but had no effect on final body mass, erythrocyte osmotic fragility or serum triglyceride concentrations in either bird species. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Pregnancy outcomes regarding maternal serum AFP value in second trimester screening.

    PubMed

    Bartkute, Karolina; Balsyte, Dalia; Wisser, Josef; Kurmanavicius, Juozas

    2016-10-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of α-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) as a marker for diverse pregnancy outcomes. The study was based on pregnancy and delivery data from 5520 women between 1999 and 2014 at University Hospital of Zurich (UHZ). both MS-AFP and pregnancy outcome were known for the same pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes and characteristics such as fetal malformation, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and intrauterine growth retardation as well as maternal age, weight before pregnancy, gestational age (GA) at delivery, newborn weight, length and head circumference were analyzed with respect to the MS-AFP value. MS-AFP value was categorized into three groups: elevated MS-AFP>2.5 multiples of the median (MoM), normal 0.5-2.49 MoM and decreased <0.5 MoM. Newborn weight (g) and length (cm) were significantly lower in the elevated MS-AFP (P<0.001) group, and infants had 1 week lower GA at delivery (P<0.05). In the group of elevated MS-AFP (n=46), 26.1% of pregnancies were significantly related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as fetal malformations, fetuses small for gestational age (SGA) and IUFD. Adverse pregnancy outcomes of 5.6% were registered in the group of normal MS-AFP and 7.3% in the group of low MS-AFP (P<0.05). MS-AFP level in the second trimester is still an important indicator of fetal surface malformations; however, ultrasound still outweighs as a screening method. Nevertheless, pregnant women with elevated MS-AFP values and with no sonographically detected fetal malformations should additionally receive the third trimester ultrasound examination to exclude other possible complications of pregnancy.

  4. Evaluation of Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Paraoxonase 1 Levels, and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Akkar, Ozlem Bozoklu; Sancakdar, Enver; Karakus, Savas; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ismail; Arslan, Murat; Sahin, Irfan Oguz; Yenicesu, Ayse Gonca Imir; Cetin, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, paraoxonase 1, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in women having early spontaneous preterm birth without clinical chorioamnionitis. Material/Methods This study was prospectively administered in women referred to our obstetrics service with preterm labor that resulted in preterm birth (n=35) and term labor that ended in term birth (n=44). The maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 were measured and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Results The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels of the preterm group were significantly lower than those of the term group (p<0.05). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio value of the preterm group was significantly higher than that of the term group (p<0.05). There was a significant but small positive correlation between the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 in the preterm group (r=0.35; p=0.021). Conclusions Decreased maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may have a role in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:27072780

  5. Elevated Levels of Total Cell-Free DNA in Maternal Serum Samples Arise from the Generation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    PubMed

    Sur Chowdhury, Chanchal; Hahn, Sinuhe; Hasler, Paul; Hoesli, Irene; Lapaire, Olav; Giaglis, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of cell-free DNA from maternal blood samples has facilitated the noninvasive detection of fetal aneuploidies or hereditary Mendelian disorders. In this context, previous studies have indicated that the pool of cell-free DNA is greater in maternal serum than in plasma samples, necessitating optimized collection and storage protocols. As the source of this increased amount of cell-free DNA is not clear, we have now examined whether neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to this material. Serum samples were collected in all three trimesters of normal healthy pregnant women, and at term from cases with manifest preeclampsia. The presence of NET-derived material was demonstrated by the detection of cell-free DNA fragments complexed to neutrophil granular proteins (i.e. myeloperoxidase). Our data indicate that NET-derived cell-free DNA/myeloperoxidase complexes were greater in serum from normal pregnant women than in normal matching nonpregnant controls. This neutrophil chromosomal material increased incrementally throughout gestation and was most pronounced in cases with preeclampsia. By detecting increased levels of cell-free DNA/myeloperoxidase complexes in maternal serum samples, our data indicate that a significant proportion of this material is derived from the generation of NETs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Predictive Role of Serum Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio According to Renal Function in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Yang Gyoon; Moon, Joo Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective A high serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been reported as an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in the general population. However, the prognostic value of this ratio in patients with renal dysfunction is unclear. We examined the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) according to renal function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method This study was based on the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry database. Of 13,897 patients who were diagnosed with AMI, the study population included the 7,016 patients with available TG/HDL-C ratio data. Patients were stratified into three groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the TG/HDL-C ratio was categorized into tertiles. We investigated 12-month MACEs, which included cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. Results During the 12-month follow up period, 593 patients experienced MACEs. There was a significant association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and MACEs (p<0.001) in the entire study cohort. Having a TG/HDL-C ratio value in the highest tertile of TG/HDL-C ratio was an independent factor associated with increased risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–1.93; p<0.001). Then we performed subgroup analyses according to renal function. In patients with normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2) and mild renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥ 60 to < 90ml/min/1.73m2), a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with increased risk of MACEs (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.04–2.60; p = 0.035; and HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.14–2.12; p = 0.005, respectively). However, in patients with moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2), TG/HDL-C ratio lost its predictive value on the risk of MACEs (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.82–1.83; p = 0.317). Conclusions In

  7. Markers of macromolecular oxidative damage in maternal serum and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Le; Jin, Lei; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Linlin; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-03-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common and severe congenital malformations. To examine the association between markers of macromolecular oxidative damage and risk of NTDs, we measured levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) in maternal serum samples of 117 women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 121 women with healthy term newborns. We found higher levels of 8-OHdG and PC in the NTD group than in the control group; however, we did not observe a statistically significant difference in 8-iso-PGF2α levels between the NTD and the control groups. NTD risk increased with increasing quartiles of 8-OHdG [odds ratio (OR)=1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-3.51; OR=2.19; 95% CI, 0.68-7.01; OR=3.70; 95% CI, 1.30-10.51, for the second, third, and fourth quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively; P=0.009], and with increasing quartiles of PC (OR=2.26; 95% CI, 0.66-7.69; OR=3.86; 95% CI, 1.17-12.80; OR=5.98; 95% CI, 1.82-19.66, for the second, third, and fourth quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively; P=0.002]. Serum levels of 8-OHdG were higher in women who did not take folic acid supplements during the periconceptional period. These results suggest that oxidative stress is present in women carrying pregnancies affected by NTDs.

  8. Levels of maternal serum angiogenic factors in third-trimester normal pregnancies: reference ranges, influence of maternal and pregnancy factors and fetoplacental Doppler indices.

    PubMed

    Lobmaier, Silvia Martina; Figueras, Francesc; Mercade, Imma; Crovetto, Francesca; Peguero, Anna; Parra-Saavedra, Miguel; Ortiz, Javier U; Crispi, Fatima; Gratacós, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    To establish normal ranges of maternal placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at 32-41 weeks' gestation and to evaluate the influence of maternal characteristics, and of fetoplacental Doppler. Serum levels of PlGF, sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio were measured in 300 noncomplicated pregnancies (30 at each gestational week between 32 and 41). Quantile regression analysis was used to derive gestational age (GA)-adjusted normal ranges, and to account for characteristics that might influence serum levels. The relationship with Doppler indices was tested, including umbilical artery pulsatility index and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index. PlGF decreased with GA from 32 weeks, while sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio increased steadily. None of the factors evaluated showed any significant influence on the levels of angiogenic factors. PlGF multiple of the median significantly correlated with mean uterine artery Doppler (R -0.17; p = 0.029). In normal pregnancies during the third trimester, serum PlGF decreases, sFlt-1 increases and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio increases with GA. Angiogenic factor levels needed no adjustment for factors such as smoking, body mass index, blood pressure or parity.

  9. Maternal serum human placental growth hormone at 11 to 13 weeks in trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Sifakis, Stavros; Akolekar, Ranjit; Syngelaki, Argyro; De Cruz, Jader; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the maternal serum concentration of human placental growth hormone (hPGH) in trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 pregnancies at 11 to 13 weeks of gestation and to examine the possible association between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). The maternal serum concentration of hPGH at 11 to 13 weeks was measured in a case-control study from 28 pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21, 28 with trisomy 18 and 112 pregnancies with euploid fetuses. The median hPGH multiple of the median (MoM) in trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 pregnancies were compared with euploid pregnancies. Serum hPGH was significantly lower in trisomy 21 (0.93 MoM) and trisomy 18 (0.62 MoM) compared to euploid pregnancies (1.02 MoM). There was a significant association between serum hPGH and PAPP-A in both the euploid (r = 0.258, p = 0.006) and trisomy 21 pregnancies (r = 0.410, p = 0.030) but not in trisomy 18 pregnancies (p = 0.445). In the first trimester, serum hPGH in trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 pregnancies is reduced. This is the opposite of findings in previous studies reporting that in the second trimester, trisomy 21 and 18 pregnancies have increased hPGH. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Nationwide survey for current clinical status of amniocentesis and maternal serum marker test in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Yamada, Shigehito; Fujii, Yosuke; Sawai, Hideaki; Arimori, Naoko; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Ozasa, Yuka; Kanai, Makoto; Sago, Haruhiko; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Takada, Fumio; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Matsubara, Yoichi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Kugu, Koji

    2016-10-01

    Prenatal testing has been provided in Japan over the past several decades. However, it is difficult to assess the clinical status of amniocentesis (AC) and maternal serum markers (MSM) because obstetricians can perform these tests without registration. This study aims to investigate the current clinical status of AC and MSM in Japan. We conducted a questionnaire study that was intended for a total of 5622 Japanese obstetrics/gynecology facilities during October 2013 to January 2014. The response rate was 40.8% (2295/5622). Of the 2295 facilities, 864 performed MSM (37.7%), 619 performed AC (27.0%) and 412 performed both (18.0%). The average number of MSM tests was 2.0 per month (range 0-52), and the average number of AC tests was 2.4 per month (range 0-30). Involvement of genetic professionals, such as clinical geneticists (CGs) and certified genetic counselors (CGCs), contribute to a content-rich explanation and management of difficult issues and lengthened the explanation time. Nevertheless, relatively few facilities employed these specialists (MSM: 96/864 and AC: 128/619). This is the first study to highlight the current clinical status of AC and MSM tests in Japan. Active involvement of CGs and CGCs can provide more appropriate genetic counseling for prenatal tests.

  11. Low maternal serum vitamin D during pregnancy and the risk for postpartum depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Monique; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Newnham, John P; Gorman, Shelley; Jacoby, Peter; Holt, Barbara J; Serralha, Michael; Tearne, Jessica E; Holt, Pat G; Hart, Prue H; Kusel, Merci M H

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy is a time of vulnerability for vitamin D insufficiency, and there is an emerging literature associating low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D with depressive symptoms. However, the link between 25(OH)-vitamin D status in pregnancy and altered risk of postnatal depressive symptoms has not been examined. We hypothesise that low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D in maternal serum during pregnancy will be associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depressive symptoms. We prospectively collected sera at 18 weeks gestation from 796 pregnant women in Perth (1989-1992) who were enrolled in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and measured levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D. Women reported postnatal depressive symptoms at 3 days post-delivery. Women in the lowest quartile for 25(OH)-vitamin D status were more likely to report a higher level of postnatal depression symptoms than women who were in the highest quartile for vitamin D, even after accounting for a range of confounding variables including season of birth, body mass index and sociodemographic factors. Low vitamin D during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of postpartum depression symptoms.

  12. Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Maternal Serum and Indices of Fetal Growth: The Aarhus Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregård; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    . 2016. Perfluoroalkyl acids in maternal serum and indices of fetal growth: the Aarhus Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:848–854; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510046 PMID:26495857

  13. Maternal serum 25(OH)D levels in the third trimester of pregnancy during the winter season.

    PubMed

    Ustuner, Isik; Keskin, H Levent; Tas, Emre Erdem; Neselioglu, Salim; Sengul, Ozlem; Avsar, Ayse Filiz

    2011-12-01

    To measure serum 25(OH)D levels of pregnant women in the last trimester during the winter season and to determine the factors affecting their serum levels. In all, 79 pregnant women in the third trimester were examined between November 2008 and March 2009. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and 25(OH)D levels were measured. Maternal age, education, socioeconomic status (SES), nutrition, dressing habits, and level of sunlight exposure were determined and their correlation with serum 25(OH)D levels were statistically compared. The mean serum 25(OH)D level of the study group was 11.95 ± 7.20 ng/ml, and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 10 ng/ml] in pregnant women was 45.6%. No association was detected between severe vitamin D deficiency and maternal age, gravidity, skin phototype, benefiting from ultraviolet index, and educational status of the cases. Also in patients who used multivitamin supplements and good SES, 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher (p=0.046, p=0.025, respectively). This study showed a remarkable high rate of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women during the winter season and we have found high levels of vitamin D in patients supplemented with multivitamins and in ones with good SES.

  14. [Contribution of genotyping for fetal sex determination in maternal serum for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of X-linked diseases].

    PubMed

    Tachdjian, G; Costa, J M; Frydman, N; Ray, P; Le Dû, A; Kerbrat, V; Ernault, P; Frydman, R

    2003-12-01

    Couples with a risk of transmitting X-linked diseases included in a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) center need early and rapid fetal sex determination during pregnancy in two situations. The first situation corresponds to control of embryo sexing after PGD, the second one being that of couples in PGD program having a spontaneous pregnancy. Determination of fetal sex can be achieved by karyotyping using invasive procedures such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis or cordocentesis and by non-invasive procedures such as ultrasound (US) examination. CVS is the earliest invasive procedure for fetal sex determination and molecular analysis of X-linked genetic disorders during the first trimester but it is associated with a risk of fetal loss. US allows reliable fetal sex determination only during the second trimester. Recently, reliable non-invasive fetal sex determination was realized by using SRY gene amplification in maternal serum. We report the prospective use of fetal sex determination in maternal serum in our PGD center. Management of pregnancies was performed using this non-invasive procedure in four cases of embryo sexing control and nine cases of spontaneous pregnancies in couples included in PGD program for X-linked diseases. Fetal sex results using SRY gene amplification on maternal serum were in complete concordance with fetal sex observed by cytogenetic analysis or US examination, as well as at birth. This new strategy allowed rapid sex determination during the first trimester and permitted to avoid performing invasive procedures in nine pregnancies.

  15. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels are normal in Fanconi anemia: Can it be a lack of postnatal inhibition of AFP gene resulting in the elevation?

    PubMed

    Aslan, Deniz; Karabacak, Recep Onur; Aslan, Oner Deniz

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels as a screening test for prenatal diagnosis of Fanconi anemia (FA). Serial measurements in maternal serum were recorded. Parents, both heterozygous for FA, had declined prenatal molecular testing. The infant was born with no somatic abnormalities, and FA was confirmed by postnatal molecular analysis. Maternal serum AFP levels during each trimester of pregnancy were normal indicating that these levels cannot be used as a screening test in prenatal diagnosis. Three-year follow-up after birth showed constantly elevated serum levels in the patient from the start, suggesting a lack of postnatal inhibition on AFP gene.

  16. Maternal serum glycosylated fibronectin as a point-of-care biomarker for assessment of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Rasanen, Juha; Quinn, Matthew J; Laurie, Amber; Bean, Eric; Roberts, Charles T; Nagalla, Srinivasa R; Gravett, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the association of glycosylated fibronectin (GlyFn) with preeclampsia and its performance in a point-of-care (POC) test. GlyFn, placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt1) levels were determined in serum samples from 107 pregnant women. In all, 45 were normotensive and 62 were diagnosed with preeclampsia. The ability of GlyFn to assess preeclampsia status and relationships between GlyFn and maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. GlyFn serum levels in the first trimester were significantly higher in women with preeclampsia (P < .01) and remained higher throughout pregnancy (P < .01). GlyFn, sFlt1, PlGF, and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were significantly associated (P < .01) with preeclampsia status, and the classification performance of these analytes represented by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.99, 0.96, 0.94, and 0.98, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals of 0.98-1.00, 0.89-1.00, 0.86-1.00, and 0.94-1.00, respectively. Increased GlyFn levels were significantly associated with gestational age at delivery (P < .01), blood pressure (P = .04), and small-for-gestational-age neonates. Repeated-measures analysis of the difference in weekly GlyFn change in the third trimester demonstrated that mild preeclampsia was associated with a weekly change of 81.7 μg/mL (SE 94.1) vs 195.2 μg/mL (SE 88.2) for severe preeclampsia. The GlyFn POC demonstrated similar performance to a plate assay with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93 and 95% confidence interval of 0.85-1.00. GlyFn is a robust biomarker for monitoring of preeclampsia in both a standard and POC format, which supports its utility in diverse settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum Retinol Concentrations in Mothers and Newborns at Delivery in a Public Maternity Hospital in Recife, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreto, Luciana Marques; Vieira, Carmina Silva dos Santos; de Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Serum retinol concentrations were compared in a consecutive series of 65 mother-newborn pairs at delivery in a public maternity hospital in Recife, Brazil, from January to August 2008 and examined their association with biological, socioeconomic, environmental and obstetrical characteristics. Serum retinol concentrations of the newborns (umbilical cord) and mothers (brachial venipuncture) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prevalence of low (<0.70 µmol/L) and inadequate (<1.05 µmol/L) serum retinol concentrations were observed in 23.1% (95% CI 13.9-35.5) and 23.0% (95% CI 13.5-35.8) among newborns and mothers respectively. The serum retinol distribution was lower in male than female infants (-0.4 µmol/L, p=0.01) and, across both sexes, concentrations in paired newborn and mother were correlated (r=0.27, p=0.04). Further, maternal status explains only 7% of the variance in retinol concentrations in newborn's cord plasma. Among mothers delivering in public facilities in Recife, hypovitaminosis may exist. PMID:24847590

  18. A structural equation model for assessment of links between changes in serum triglycerides, -urate, and -glucose and changes in serum calcium, -magnesium and -phosphate in type 2 diabetes and non-diabetes metabolism.

    PubMed

    Håglin, Lena; Bäckman, Lennart; Törnkvist, Birgitta

    2011-12-22

    This study investigates the associations between changes in serum triglycerides (S-TG), -urate (S-Urate), and -glucose (S-Glu) and changes in serum calcium (S-Ca), -magnesium (S-Mg), and -phosphate (S-P) in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic patients. The analysis is based on data collected from a secondary prevention population of women and men (W/M) at risk for cardiovascular disease (type 2 diabetes, 212/200; non-diabetes 968/703). The whole population (n = 2083) had a mean age of 51.0 (9.7) years and was stratified for sex and according to type 2 diabetes or non-diabetes. The patients were followed for, either half a year or one year and changes in risk factors were calculated from follow-up to baseline, the time when patients were admitted to the health center. The pattern of relationships was evaluated using a structural equation model. Higher S-TG and S-Glu but lower S-Urate was revealed at baseline in type 2 diabetes women and men as compared to their counterparts, non-diabetes patients. Women with type 2 diabetes had higher S-Ca and lower S-Mg than non-diabetes women. Changes in S-Glu were associated with changes in S-Ca (+), baseline S-Ca (+), and S-Urate (-) in type 2 diabetes men. Changes in S-Urate were associated with changes in S-Mg (+) in type 2 diabetes women and non-diabetes men. In men with non-diabetes, changes in S-Glu were associated with changes in S-Mg (-). In women with non-diabetes, changes in S-Glu were associated with changes in S-P (-) and changes in S-Urate with changes in S-Ca (+). With respect to metabolic disturbances in non-diabetes and the awareness of risk for type 2 diabetes, changes in S-Glu and changes in S-Ca, S-Mg, and S-P should be considered as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Increased early detection and corrections of high S-Ca, low S-Mg, and S-P in obese patients may improve their metabolism and reduce the risk of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes. ISRCTN: ISRCTN79355192.

  19. Maternal serum dioxin levels and birth outcomes in women of Seveso, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo; Warner, Marcella; Chee, Wan-Ying; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Samuels, Steven; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2003-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)para(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is associated with increased fetal loss and reduced birth weight in animal studies. In 1976, an explosion at a trichlorophenol plant near Seveso, Italy, resulted in the highest TCDD exposure known in human residential populations. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study, a retrospective cohort study of women who resided in the most contaminated areas, zones A and B. We examined the relation of pregnancy outcome in 510 women (888 total pregnancies) to maternal TCDD levels measured in serum collected shortly after the explosion. Ninety-seven pregnancies (10.9%) ended as spontaneous abortions (SABs). There was no association of log(subscript)10(/subscript) TCDD with SAB [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-1.2], with birth weight (adjusted beta = -4 g; 95% CI, -68 to 60), or with births that were small for gestational age (SGA) (adjusted OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8). However, associations with birth weight (adjusted beta = -92 g; 95% CI, -204 to 19) and with SGA (adjusted OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 0.6-2.9) were stronger for pregnancies within the first 8 years after exposure. TCDD was associated with a 1.0-1.3 day nonsignificant adjusted decrease in gestational age and a 20-50% nonsignificant increase in the odds of preterm delivery. It remains possible that the effects of TCDD on birth outcomes are yet to be observed, because the most heavily exposed women in Seveso were the youngest and the least likely to have yet had a pregnancy. PMID:12782497

  20. Maternal and Cord Serum Cytokine Changes with Continuous and Intermittent Labor Epidural Analgesia: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Mantha, Venkat R.; Vallejo, Manuel C.; Ramesh, Vimala; Jones, Bobby L.; Ramanathan, Sivam

    2012-01-01

    Background. Maternal fever during labor epidural analgesia (LEA) may cause increased maternal and cord serum inflammatory cytokines. We report the effects of intermittent and continuous LEA on these cytokines. Methods. Ninety-two women were randomly assigned to continuous (CLEA) or intermittent (ILEA) groups, 46 in each. Maternal temperature was checked and blood drawn at epidural insertion (baseline) and four-hourly until 4 h postpartum (4 PP). Cord blood was drawn after placental delivery. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured and analyzed according to group randomization, and then combined and reanalyzed as febrile (temperature ≥38°C) or afebrile groups. Results. Significant intragroup changes from baseline were noted in some groups. Data are pg/mL, median (Q1/Q3). IL-6 rose at all time points in all groups. CLEA: baseline: 18.5 (12.5/31.1), 4 h: 80.0 (46.3/110.8), 8 h: 171.9 (145.3/234.3), and 4 PP: 81 (55.7/137.4). ILEA: baseline: 15.7 (10.2/27.1), 4 h: 68.2 (33.3/95.0), 8 h: 125.0 (86.3/195.0), and 4 PP: 70.2 (54.8/103.6). Febrile group: baseline: 21.6 (13.8/40.9), 4 h: 83.9 (47.5/120.8), 8 h: 186.7 (149.6/349.9), and 4 PP: 105.8 (65.7/158.8). Afebrile group: baseline: 10.9 (2.1/17.4), 4 h: 38.2 (15.0/68.2), 8 h: 93.8 (57.1/135.7), and 4 PP: 52.9 (25.1/78). IL-8 rose at all time points in CLEA: baseline: 2.68 (0.0/4.3), 4 h: 3.7 (0.0/6.5), 8 h: 6.0 (3.3/9.6), 4 PP: 5.6 (0.8/8.0), and afebrile group baseline: 2.5 (0.0/4.7), 4 h: 3.3 (0.0/6.2), 8 h: 5.3 (1.9/9.8), and 4 PP: 4.7 (0.0/7.6). It fell at 4 PP in febrile group: baseline: 4.1 (0.0/6.4), 4 h: 3.8 (0.0/6.5), 8 h: 5.2 (2.5/8.0), and 4 PP: 2.9 (0.0/4.0). GM-CSF increased at 8 h and decreased at 4 PP in ILEA baseline: 2.73 (0.0/7.2), 4 h: 2.73 (0.0/7.9), 8 h: 3.9 (2.7/11.5), and 4 PP: 2.0 (0.0/7.2). It

  1. [Predictive value of abnormal second-trimester maternal serum triple screening markers for adverse pregnancy outcomes].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhuming; Liu, Xiangyin; Li, Linlin; Jia, Chunshu; Li, Dejun; Liu, Ruizhi

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the predictive value of abnormal multiples of the median (MoM) of second trimester maternal serum triple screening (STMSTS) markers for adverse pregnancy outcomes. 16 000 singleton pregnancies at 15⁺⁰ to 20⁺⁵ weeks' gestation who underwent STMSTS between July 2010 and January 2013 in the First Hospital of Jilin University were recruited. Maternal serum AFP, free β-hCG (F-β-hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE3) levels were measured using time- resolved fluoroimmunoassay, and then converted to MoM. LifeCycle 3.2 software was used to calculate risk, and a risk value greater than 1 in 270 or 1 in 350 was considered as high risk for trisomy 21 syndrome (Down syndrome, DS) and trisomy 18 syndrome (Edwards syndrome, ES), respectively. MoM of AFP more than 2.5 was considered high risk for open neural tube defect (ONTD). Amniocentesis and karyotyping, ultrasound screening were advised for high risk women. AFP, F-β-hCG higher than 2.0 MoM or uE3 lower than 0.5 MoM was considered as abnormal, respectively. The MoM of STMSTS marker between women with adverse pregnancy outcome and with normal outcome was compared. (1) The median MoM of AFP, F-β-hCG and uE3 was 0.91 MoM, 0.94 MoM and 1.05 MoM, respectively. Of the 16 000 pregnant women, there was no statistical difference in the median MoM of triple screening marker at different weeks of gestation (P > 0.05). The positive rate of DS, ES and ONTD in women ≤35 years old (n = 14 972) was 4.03% (603/14 972), 0.36% (54/14 972) and 0.29% (44/14 972) respectively. And in women>35 years old (n = 1 028), the positive rate was 24.51% (252/1 028), 1.95% (20/1 028) and 0.78% (8/1 028), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference of positive rate between the two groups (P < 0.05). (2) 9 cases of DS, 1 case of ES and 1 case of ONTD were found in the high risk group, and 2 cases of DS in the low risk group. The detection rate of DS, ES and ONTD was 9/11, 1/1 and 1/1 respectively; and the positive

  2. Association of maternal serum progesterone in early pregnancy with low birth weight and other adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    He, Song; Allen, John Carson; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Tan, Thiam Chye

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association of serum progesterone in first trimester with low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes including hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes at term, and preterm premature rupture of membranes in a general population. We conducted a cohort study of 263 women with low-risk singleton intrauterine pregnancies who had a spot serum progesterone measurement in the first trimester in a Singapore tertiary maternity hospital. Study outcomes were retrieved from clinical records. Follow-up data were available for 131 women. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of low serum progesterone (<35 nmol/L) with LBW and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Low serum progesterone was associated with a significantly increased risk of LBW (adjusted odds ratio: 5.28 [1.02, 27.3]; p=0.047). Low serum progesterone was associated with a significantly increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in univariate analysis (unadjusted odds ratio: 8.43 [1.31, 54.2]; p=0.025). Low serum progesterone in the first trimester is a significant risk factor for LBW and possibly other placental dysfunction disorders such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the associations.

  3. Maternal serum placental growth factor at 12, 22, 32 and 36 weeks' gestation in screening for pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Tsiakkas, A; Cazacu, R; Wright, A; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2016-04-01

    To examine the distribution of maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) at 12, 22, 32 and 36 weeks' gestation in singleton pregnancies which develop pre-eclampsia (PE) and examine the performance of this biomarker in screening for PE. Serum PlGF was measured in 40 212 cases at 11-13 weeks, in 10 282 cases at 19-24 weeks, in 10 400 at 30-34 weeks and 4043 at 35-37 weeks. Bayes' theorem was used to combine the a-priori risk from maternal characteristics and medical history with serum PlGF. The performance of screening for PE requiring delivery < 32, at 32 + 0 to 36 + 6 and ≥ 37 weeks' gestation was estimated. In pregnancies that developed PE, serum PlGF was decreased and the separation in multiples of the median (MoM) values from normal was greater with earlier, compared to later, gestational age at which delivery for PE became necessary. Additionally, the slope of the regression lines of PlGF MoM with gestational age at delivery in pregnancies that developed PE increased with advancing gestational age at screening. The detection rates (DRs), at a false-positive rate (FPR) of 10%, for PE delivering < 32 weeks were 79% and 97% with screening at 12 and 22 weeks, respectively. The DRs for PE delivering at 32 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks were 57%, 65% and 90% with screening at 12, 22 and 32 weeks. The DRs for PE delivering ≥ 37 weeks were 40%, 37%, 54% and 64% with screening at 12, 22, 32 and 36 weeks, respectively. The performance of combined screening with maternal factors, medical history and PlGF is superior in screening for early, compared to late, PE and improves with advancing gestational age at screening. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Maternal serum and breast milk vitamin D levels: findings from the Universiti Sains Malaysia Pregnancy Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan; Rowan, Angela; Fong, Bertram; Loy, See-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has become a global health issue in pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of maternal vitamin D status by measuring maternal serum and breast milk 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and to determine the association between maternal serum and milk 25(OH)D levels. Data was obtained from the Universiti Sains Malaysia Pregnancy Cohort Study. This study was conducted from April 2010 to December 2012 in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Blood samples from pregnant women aged 19 to 40 years were drawn in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, while breast milk samples at delivery, 2, 6 and 12 months postpartum were collected to analyze for 25(OH)D levels. A total of 102 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] was detected in 60% and 37% of women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. There were 6% and 23% of women who reached normal level of vitamin D status in the second trimester and the third trimester, respectively. Multivitamin intakes during pregnancy were significantly associated with higher serum 25(OH)D levels in the second trimester (β = 9.16, p = 0.005) and the third trimester (β = 13.65, p = 0.003). 25(OH)D levels in breast milk during the first year of lactation ranged from 1.01 to 1.26 nmol/L. Higher maternal serum 25(OH)D level in the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with an elevated level of 25(OH)D in breast milk at delivery (β = 0.002, p = 0.026). This study shows that high proportions of Malay pregnant women are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Maternal vitamin D status in the second trimester of pregnancy was found to influence vitamin D level in breast milk at delivery.

  5. Maternal Serum and Breast Milk Vitamin D Levels: Findings from the Universiti Sains Malaysia Pregnancy Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan; Rowan, Angela; Fong, Bertram; Loy, See-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency has become a global health issue in pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of maternal vitamin D status by measuring maternal serum and breast milk 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and to determine the association between maternal serum and milk 25(OH)D levels. Methods Data was obtained from the Universiti Sains Malaysia Pregnancy Cohort Study. This study was conducted from April 2010 to December 2012 in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Blood samples from pregnant women aged 19 to 40 years were drawn in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, while breast milk samples at delivery, 2, 6 and 12 months postpartum were collected to analyze for 25(OH)D levels. A total of 102 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Results Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] was detected in 60% and 37% of women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. There were 6% and 23% of women who reached normal level of vitamin D status in the second trimester and the third trimester, respectively. Multivitamin intakes during pregnancy were significantly associated with higher serum 25(OH)D levels in the second trimester (β = 9.16, p = 0.005) and the third trimester (β = 13.65, p = 0.003). 25(OH)D levels in breast milk during the first year of lactation ranged from 1.01 to 1.26 nmol/L. Higher maternal serum 25(OH)D level in the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with an elevated level of 25(OH)D in breast milk at delivery (β = 0.002, p = 0.026). Conclusions This study shows that high proportions of Malay pregnant women are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Maternal vitamin D status in the second trimester of pregnancy was found to influence vitamin D level in breast milk at delivery. PMID:24992199

  6. The association between level of maternal serum leptin in the third trimester and the occurrence of moderate preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Fakor, Fereshteh; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Milani, Forozan; Mirblouk, Fariba; Kazemi, Sodabeh; Pourmarzi, Davoud; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Heirati, Seyedeh Fatemeh Dalil

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of maternal serum leptin and the occurrence of moderate preterm labor. Material and Methods This was a case control study conducted on pregnant women referred to Al-Zahra Hospital in Rasht, north of Iran in 2013. Cases included 30 moderate preterm delivering women and 30 control pregnant women with the same gestational age. The maternal serum leptin was measured for each mother at the time of entering the study. Results The mean serum leptin in the control group (56.66±34.18) was significantly higher than the preterm (33.65±16.70) group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of body mass index and age. Logistic regression revealed that age and body mass index did not have a significant relationship to moderate preterm birth. However, an increased leptin level as low as 1 microgram per liter was associated with the risk of moderate preterm birth incidence (OR: 0.973, CI: 0.948–0.997). Conclusion Higher levels of leptin in pregnant women are associated with a decreased risk of moderate preterm birth. Further investigations are recommended with a larger sample size. PMID:27990085

  7. Maternal serum calponin 1 level as a biomarker for the short-term prediction of preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Boza, Baris; Cim, Numan; Sahin, Hanım Guler

    2017-01-26

    To assess the utility of maternal serum calponin 1 level in the prediction of delivery within 7 days among pregnancies complicated with threatened preterm labor. Eligible women who presented at 24-34 weeks of gestation with threatened preterm labor underwent sampling for serum calponin 1 level and cervical length measurement. They were followed up until delivery prospectively and the perinatal outcomes of the patients were recorded. Of 73 women included in the study, 36 women delivered within 7 days and 37 women delivered beyond 7 days after admission. The maternal serum calponin 1 level was significantly high in women who delivered within 7 days (p: 0.031). The threshold value of 2 ng/mL for maternal serum calponin 1 predicted delivery within 7 days with 61.1% sensitivity and 62.2 specificity (area under curve, 0.658, confidence interval 0.53-0.79). The general accuracy values for maternal cervical length measurement (≤25 mm), serum calponin 1 level (>2 ng/mL) and the combination of two tests to predict delivery within 7 days was found to be 64.4%, 61.6% and 72.1%, respectively. The maternal serum calponin 1 level may be a useful biomarker in short-term prediction of preterm birth among pregnancies complicated with threatened preterm labor, in addition to cervical length measurement.

  8. Maternal serum inhibin-A and free beta-hCG concentrations in trisomy 21 pregnancies at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Noble, P L; Wallace, E M; Snijders, R J; Groome, N P; Nicolaides, K H

    1997-03-01

    To determine the relation between maternal serum inhibin-A and free beta-hCG concentrations in chromosomally normal pregnancies and to compare the two biochemical markers for their sensitivity in identifying trisomy 21 pregnancies. Inhibin-A and free beta-hCG were measured in maternal serum samples from 800 chromosomally normal singleton pregnancies at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation and 76 singleton pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21. In the normal group maternal serum inhibin-A was significantly associated with both maternal weight and gestational age (F = 11.2, P < 0.0001). In pregnancies with trisomy 21 the maternal serum inhibin-A and free beta-hCG concentrations were significantly increased (mean difference inhibin = 0.51 SD, F = 18, P < 0.0001 and mean difference free beta-hCG = 1.13 SD, F = 80, P < 0.0001). For a 5% false positive rate, the sensitivity of maternal serum free beta-hCG in identifying pregnancies with trisomy 21 was 28.9% compared with 12.8% for maternal serum inhibin-A. Delta inhibin-A was significantly associated with delta-free beta-hCG (r = 0.345, P < 0.01) and the deviation from the normal mean for free beta-hCG was significantly greater than the deviation for inhibin-A (t = 4.0, P < 0.0001). For a 5% false positive rate, the sensitivity achieved by combining information from delta inhibin-A and delta free beta-hCG was similar to the sensitivity of free beta-hCG alone (30.3% compared with 28.9%). At 10 to 14 weeks of gestation fetal trisomy 21 is associated with increased maternal serum inhibin-A and free beta-hCG levels. However, the degree of elevation of inhibin-A is less than that of free beta-hCG, and there is a significant association between levels of the two proteins. The sensitivity for trisomy 21 achieved with the combination of maternal serum inhibin-A and free beta-hCG is not significantly different from that achieved with maternal serum free beta-hCG alone.

  9. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight did not Correlate with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Maternal Serum Profiles – a Brazilian Report

    PubMed Central

    Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós; Galão, Eloisa Aparecida; Oliani, Antonio Hélio; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological profiles (IgM-/IgG+; IgM-/IgG-; IgM+/IgG+) were determined by ELISA commercial kits. Maternal age, gestational age and weight of the newborn at birth were collected and recorded in the Statement of Live Birth. Prematurity was defined as gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight ≤ 2499 grams. The t-test was used to compare values (p < 0.05). The mean maternal age was 27.6±6.6 years. Overall, 56.3% (120/213) of the women studied were IgM-/IgG+, 36.2% (77/213) were IgM-/IgG- and 7.5% (16/213) were IgM+/IgG+. The average age of the women with serological profile IgM+/IgG+ (22.3±3.9 years) was different from women with the profile IgM-/IgG+ (27.9±6.7 years, p = 0.0011) and IgM-/IgG- (27.9±6.4 years, p = 0.0012). There was no statistically significant difference between the different serological profiles in relation to prematurity (p = 0.6742) and low birth weight (p = 0.7186). The results showed that prematurity and low birth weight did not correlate with anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles. PMID:26192182

  10. Impact on spina bifida screening of shifting prenatal Down syndrome maternal serum screening from the second trimester to the first.

    PubMed

    Spaggiari, Emmanuel; Dreux, Sophie; Stirnemann, Julien J; Czerkiewicz, Isabelle; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Segonne, Alexandra; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Ville, Yves; Muller, Francoise

    2017-07-01

    Shifting screening for trisomy 21 to the first trimester has resulted in the loss of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for spina bifida. The aim of this study was to study the impact on open spina bifida prenatal screening. We reviewed prenatally diagnosed cases of spina bifida over three years: 2009 (only second-trimester screening, MSM2T), 2010 (transient period) and 2011 (majority first-trimester screening, MSM1T). Cases were assigned to three groups based on maternal serum markers (MSM2T, MSM1T and 'not performed'). Gestational age at diagnosis of spina bifida was compared between these three groups and between the years 2009 and 2011. Median gestational ages at diagnosis of the 742 spina bifida cases between the three groups were 22 weeks [18(+6) -23], 22(+1)  weeks [21(+3) -23] and 21(+4)  weeks [14(+1) -23], respectively (P < 0.005). The diagnosis was made at 14-20 weeks in 34.7% for MSM2T group versus 8.5% for MSM1T (P < 0.001). Spina bifida diagnosis at 14-20 weeks declined from 38.8% in 2009 to 13.3% in 2011 (P < 0.001). Loss of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein had a tangible effect on the gestational age at diagnosis of spina bifida and resulted in a decrease of 25% of cases of spina bifida detected before 20 weeks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Placental growth hormone and growth hormone binding protein are first trimester maternal serum markers of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Placental growth hormone (PGH) is synthesised by the placenta, and its function is modulated by growth hormone binding protein (GHBP). The potential of PGH and GHBP as maternal serum screening markers for Down syndrome (DS) was examined. Maternal serum concentrations of PGH and GHBP were determined by ELISA in 74 DS and 261 control pregnancies in gestational week 8(+0) to 13(+4). Log(10) MoM distributions of the markers were established. The performance of DS screening was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. PGH log(10) MoM (SD) was decreased (p < 0.001) to -0.201 (0.373) and GHBP log(10) MoM to -0.116 (0.265) (p = 0.04), in DS pregnancies (n = 34) in week 8(+0) to 10(+0). In week 10(+1) to 13(+4), neither PGH (p = 0.16) nor GHBP (p = 0.13) was reduced in DS pregnancies. The detection rate (DR) for PGH in screening for DS in week 8(+0) to 10(+0) was 39% for a false positive rate (FPR) of 5%; increasing to 72% in combination with PAPP-A + hCGbeta. PGH + GHBP in combination with PAPP-A + hCGbeta + nuchal translucency (NT) (CUB test) had a DR of 91% compared with 80% for the CUB test. PGH and GHBP are early first trimester maternal serum markers for DS [Correction made here after initial online publication]. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [Maternal serum levels of cystine-aminopeptidase (C.A.P.) in normal and pathological pregnancies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thoumsin, H J; Loos, A B; Krausch, C; Lambotte, R

    1980-01-01

    The variations of the maternal serum levels of cystine-aminopeptidase or oxytocinase (C.A.P.) have been studied in 399 measurements from 326 pregnant patients, 226 normal pregnancies were used as control and allowed us to set up a range of normal values for the age of pregnancy; the mean levels increase exponentially. It has not been possible from this study to establish conclusively a direct relationship between the C.A.P. levels, or variations of these levels and the onset of a fetal and/or placental pathology. In twin pregnancies only, the levels were constantly elevated.

  13. First trimester maternal serum placenta growth factor (PIGF)concentrations in pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21 or trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Liao, A W; Ong, C Y; Geerts, L; Nicolaides, K H

    2001-09-01

    Placenta growth factor (PIGF), an angiogenic factor belonging to the vascular endothelial growth factor family, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) were measured in maternal serum from 45 pregnancies with trisomy 21, 45 with trisomy 18 and 493 normal controls at 10-13 completed weeks of gestation. In the normal pregnancies maternal serum PIGF levels increased exponentially with gestation. The median multiple of the median (MoM) PIGF concentration in the trisomy 21 group (1.26 MoM) was significantly higher (p<0.0001) than in the control group (1.00 MoM). In the trisomy 18 group the median PIGF was lower (0.889 MoM) but this did not quite reach significance (p=0.064). The corresponding median MoM values for PAPP-A were 1.00 MoM for the controls, 0.49 MoM for trisomy 21 and 0.16 MoM for trisomy 18. The median MoM values for free beta-hCG were 1.00 MoM for the controls, 2.05 MoM for trisomy 21 and 0.38 MoM for trisomy 18. In the control group there was a small but significant correlation of PIGF with free beta-hCG (r=+0.1024) and PAPP-A (r=+0.2288). In the trisomy 18 group there was a significant association between PIGF and free beta-hCG (r=+0.2629) but not with PAPP-A (r=+0.0038). In the trisomy 21 group there was a small but significant association with PAPP-A (r=+0.1028) but not with free beta-hCG (r=+0.0339). The separation of affected and unaffected pregnancies in maternal serum PIGF is small, and therefore it is unlikely that measurement of PIGF would improve screening for these abnormalities provided by the combination of fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mid-trimester maternal serum and amniotic fluid biomarkers for the prediction of preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Aktulay, Ayla; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Erkaya, Salim; Danisman, Nuri

    2014-06-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the predictive value of maternal serum and amniotic fluid biomarkers that were obtained at the time of genetic amniocentesis for preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in 107 singleton pregnancies that underwent amniocentesis at 16-22 weeks according to standard genetic indications. Maternal blood and amniotic fluid obtained from genetic amniocentesis were tested for glucose, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ceruloplasmin, ferritin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Ninety-four pregnancies were followed until delivery. Of the 94 patients, 16 (18.1%) delivered before 37 weeks and seven (7.5%) delivered a baby below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Amniotic fluid glucose levels were significantly lower in patients with preterm delivery than term deliveries (P = 0.01). Median amniotic fluid ferritin and IL-6 levels and mean amniotic fluid ALP levels were higher in the preterm group but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Mean maternal ALP and LDH levels tended to be insignificantly higher. Only median maternal blood ferritin levels in the IUGR group were found to be higher than patients who were appropriate for gestational age (P = 0.03). Low amniotic fluid glucose levels are associated with risk of preterm delivery, whereas high maternal blood ferritin levels increase the risk for IUGR. Although this result is significant and notable, there is not enough clinical evidence to recommend their use as a screening test for preterm delivery and IUGR in routine practice. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Family history of hypertension and serum triglycerides predict future insulin sensitivity: a 17-year follow-up study of young men.

    PubMed

    Skårn, Sigrid Nordang; Flaa, Arnljot; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Rostrup, Morten; Brunborg, Cathrine; Reims, Henrik M; Fossum, Eigil; Høieggen, Aud; Aksnes, Tonje Amb

    2015-09-01

    Low insulin sensitivity is closely related to both cardiovascular diseases and diabetes development. Still, correlates of insulin sensitivity have mainly been examined in cross-sectional studies. As far as we are aware, the longitudinal stability of insulin sensitivity in young men is largely unknown. We aimed for the first time to examine both the stability (tracking) and longitudinal predictors of future insulin sensitivity in healthy young men with and without a family history of diabetes or hypertension. We performed a 17-year follow-up study of a cohort of 100 healthy young men. Cardiovascular risk markers, including insulin sensitivity measured by the gold standard method--hyperinsulinaemic isoglycaemic glucose clamp--were examined both at baseline and at follow-up. Baseline insulin sensitivity showed no significant correlation with insulin sensitivity at follow-up, whereas all other measured cardiovascular risk markers had significant correlation (tracking coefficients 0.4-0.7). In multiple regression analyses, family history of hypertension and baseline triglycerides remained the negative predictors of future insulin sensitivity. This was driven by the strong correlations in men with family history of diabetes. Our data suggest that clamp-derived insulin sensitivity is not a stable feature in young men, and that family history of hypertension and baseline triglycerides were associated with future insulin sensitivity, especially in men with a family history of diabetes, and irrespective of blood pressure status 17 years earlier. These findings provide further insight into the development of insulin sensitivity and related diseases.

  16. Concentrations of select persistent organic pollutants across pregnancy trimesters in maternal and in cord serum in Trujillo, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Horton, Kevin; Sjodin, Andreas; Jones, Richard; Hall, Daniel B.; Aguillar-Villalobos, Manuel; Cassidy, Brandon E.; Vena, John E.; Needham, Larry L.; Naeher, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Although the production and use of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been banned or highly restricted, human exposure remains a subject of investigation due to their environmental persistence. Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect the disposition of POPs in the mother’s body, and thus fetal exposure. Changes in serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) across pregnancy trimesters, and trans-placental transfer to the fetus were investigated. Seventy-nine pregnant women in Trujillo, Peru were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy, and provided blood samples for the analysis of 35 PCB congeners, 9 OCPs, and 11 polybrominated biphenyl diethers (PBDEs). Subsequently, maternal blood samples were collected in the second (n = 64) and third trimesters (n = 59), and cord blood samples (n = 50) were collected at delivery. There were statistically significant changes across trimesters (p <0.05) for both fresh weight (increase) and lipid adjusted concentrations (decrease) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p′-DDE), PCB-74, 118, 138–158, 153, 170, 180 and 194. Fresh weight concentrations of these POPs increased from first to third trimester by 10–28%. On the other hand lipid adjusted concentrations decreased from first to third trimester by 16–28%. Serum lipids increased from first to third trimester by 53% indicating the dilution of the POPs in the lipids. Concentrations of 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), its metabolite p,p′-DDE, PCB-118, 138-158, 153, 170 and 180 above their limits of detection were measured in >60% of cord serum samples. Intra-individual correlations in maternal serum concentrations were high for most of the POPs (ρ = 0.62–0.99; p <0.05) while correlations between maternal and cord serum concentrations were also high (ρ = 0.68–0.99; p < 0.05). Results indicate that the disposition in the body

  17. Maternal serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG at 12, 22 and 32 weeks' gestation in screening for pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Guerra, L; Pellegrino, M; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2016-06-01

    To examine the distribution of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) at 12, 22 and 32 weeks' gestation in singleton pregnancies which develop pre-eclampsia (PE) and examine the performance of these biomarkers in screening for PE. Serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG were measured in 94 989 cases at 11-13 weeks, 7597 at 19-24 weeks and 8088 at 30-34 weeks' gestation. Bayes' theorem was used to combine the a-priori risk from maternal characteristics and medical history with PAPP-A and free β-hCG. The empirical and model-based performance of screening for preterm PE requiring delivery < 37 weeks' gestation and term PE with delivery ≥ 37 weeks was estimated. Combined screening with maternal factors and serum PAPP-A at 11-13 and 30-34 weeks and with maternal factors and serum free β-hCG at 19-24 and 30-34 weeks improved the prediction provided by maternal factors alone for preterm PE. The detection rate, at a 10% false-positive rate, for preterm PE by screening with maternal factors was about 45% which improved to 51% and 53% by combined screening with PAPP-A at 11-13 weeks and 30-34 weeks, respectively, and 55% and 54% by combined screening with free β-hCG at 19-24 weeks and 30-34 weeks, respectively. Measurement of serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG was not useful in the prediction of term PE. Measurement of serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG could improve the prediction of preterm PE provided by maternal characteristics and medical history alone. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord serum in a human cohort from South Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, B; Arrebola, J P; Serafim, A; Company, R; Rosa, J; Olea, N

    2014-11-01

    Organochlorine compounds as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp'DDE) are ubiquitous, resistant to degradation and lipophilic compounds, commonly found in the general population. Prenatal exposure to these compounds has been associated to adverse developmental effects. Levels of PCBs and pp'DDE were investigated in maternal and umbilical cord serum of 68 women/newborns pairs from Algarve, South Portugal. Mean sum PCBs congeners and pp'DDE concentrations were 1.62 ± 0.39 ng mL(-1)and 1.11 ± 0.69 ng mL(-1)-for maternal and 1.45 ± 0.25 ng mL(-1) and 0.85 ± 0.50 ng mL(-1)for cord serum, respectively. Congeners distribution pattern followed the order PCB 153>180>130, both for maternal and cord serum). Significant correlations (p<0.05) were found between maternal and cord serum concentrations. The umbilical cord/maternal serum ratio were 0.90 and 0.76, respectively for ΣPCB and pp'DDE Multivariate analyses relate women in urban centers with higher PCB levels, while higher pp'DDE relates to older primiparous women that live at rural areas. PCBs were also correlated to more portions of fat rich foods, while pp'DDE is associated to higher ingestion of vegetables and fruits. Smoking habits only correlated to maternal PCB. The present work provides, to our knowledge and for the first time, baseline human-biomonitoring data and establishes background ranges of PCB and pp'DDE levels in the maternal and umbilical cord serum in the Algarve region. These compounds exhibited the capacity to pass the placenta barrier and target the fetus. Even in non-industrialized areas, and in non-intensive agriculture areas, like the Southern Portugal, there is a need to take measures to eliminate or minimize the risk of organochlorine exposure during pregnancy.

  19. [Evaluating the applicability of MoM in second trimester maternal serum to screening for Down's syndrome in Jiangsu province].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bi-yun; Hu, Yali; Zhang, Chun-yan; Zhang, Jian-wei; Liu, Qi-lan; Yue, Hui; Ru, Tong; Xu, Zheng-feng; Zhu, Rui-fang; Zhang, Ying; Zhong, Xiaoling; Wu, Qing-mei

    2008-02-01

    To study the applicability of MultiCalc software to prenatal screening of Down's syndrome in Jiangsu province, China. The gestational age-specific median of maternal serum marker was calculated by means of regression method. Regression functions for adjustment of Multiple of the Median (MoM) by weight were established for our own population. Before the adjustment by weight, the average level of alpha fetal protein(AFP) was 16% higher and the free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) was 14% higher than those of the Caucasian in MultiCalc software respectively. But when the AFP and free beta-hCG results were converted to weight-adjusted MoM levels, the values were 0.99 and 1.02 respectively. The median of MoM of AFP and the free beta-hCG were 1.00 through the regression model of gestational age and weight adjustment. There was no difference of average weight-adjusted MoM levels between the Jiangsu population and the Caucasian, and the MultiCalc software was applicable to maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome of Jiangsu.

  20. Maternal and fetal serum levels of caspase-cleaved fragments of cytokeratin-18 in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Kirbas, Ayse; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ebru; Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Ergin, Merve; Erkaya, Salim; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and caspase-cleaved fragments of cytokeratin-18, also referred to as M30, a marker of apoptosis. In this case-control study, maternal and umbilical cord blood venous samples were obtained from 21 pregnant women with ICP and 22 healthy pregnant women as a control group. M30 levels were compared among the groups. Maternal serum M30 levels were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the control (p < 0.001) and mild ICP groups (p = 0.006). The values were comparable between the mild ICP and the control groups. The umbilical cord serum M30 levels were also significantly greater in the severe ICP group than in the control group (p = 0.001). Changes in M30 levels, as an apoptosis marker, may shed light on the pathogenesis of ICP. Explaining the mechanisms of bile acid (BA)-induced hepatocyte injury may contribute further therapeutic strategies for the treatment of human cholestatic diseases.

  1. [Zinc levels of maternal serum and umbilical venous blood in normal, small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational-age infants].

    PubMed

    Doszpod, J; Cseh, I; Gáti, I

    1983-01-01

    The zinc concentration of the cord blood was measured in several thousand cases. 482 pregnant women were randomised and evaluated right after the delivery. The newborn's weight were normal in 241 cases, while 241 mothers delivered intrauterine retarded babys. The zinc concentration of the sera was significantly higher in this second group. Following the maternal serum zinc measurement the cord blood zinc concentration was established in 182 cases. The zinc content of the 91 intrauterine retarded newborn's cord blood was significantly lower than in their maternal sera respectively comparing the normal newborns with the retarded newborns the maternal serum zinc concentration was higher than the cord blood's. The 59 large-for-dates newborns (higher than 4 000 g) and the 56 normal newborns showed no difference either in the maternal or in the cord blood zinc concentration.

  2. Perfluorinated compounds in maternal serum and cord blood from selected areas of South Africa: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Linda; Röllin, Halina; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Moe, Morten K; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2010-06-01

    There is limited information about both environmental and human perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) concentrations in the southern hemisphere, and for the first time, concentrations of these compounds are reported in maternal serum and cord blood of South African women. The majority of the participants were of African Black ethnicity, with a similar socioeconomic status. In maternal serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found to be the most abundant PFC (1.6 ng mL(-1)), followed by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA: 1.3 ng mL(-1)) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS: 0.5 ng mL(-1)); however, in cord blood PFOA was the most abundant compound (1.3 ng mL(-1)) followed by PFOS (0.7 ng mL(-1)) and PFHxS (0.3 ng mL(-1)). Linear PFOS constituted 58% of the sum of PFOS, comparable with a reported percentage from Australia. Differences in PFC concentrations between communities were found, with the highest concentrations in urban and semi-urban areas. The median maternal PFOS concentration was lower than has been reported in other studies, whereas the PFOA concentration was the same. This clearly indicates that the exposure pathway is different from the western world. Significant differences in housing quality were observed and the urban and sub-urban community had the highest living and housing standards. Possible exposure pathways could be different from those elucidated in the western world with the exception of the urban community in our study that showed higher living standards in general and easier access to modern consumer products.

  3. Broccoli sprouts powder could improve serum triglyceride and oxidized LDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Rajab, Asadolah; Asghari, Golale; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-06-01

    In this study, broccoli sprout powder (BSP), a good source of bioactive components, was used as supplementary treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. This randomized clinical trial included 81 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned to consume 10g/d BSP (group A), 5g/d BSP (group B), or the placebo (group C), each for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBS), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride concentration (TG), LDL-C, HDL-C, and oxidized-LDL were measured at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. The ratios of OX-LDL/LDL, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP; log TG/HDL), TC/HDL and LDL/HDL were calculated as cardiovascular risk factors parameters, at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Seventy-two patients completed the study; n=23, 26 and 23 for groups A, B and C, respectively. After 4 weeks, BSP in dose of 10g/d, significantly decreased serum triglycerides, OX-LDL/LDL ratio and AIP (p<0.05 for treatment effect). HDL-C concentration was significantly higher (p<0.01 for treatment) in group A as compared with group B and placebo. BSP as supplementary treatment in type 2 diabetes could have favorable effects on lipid profiles and OX-LDL/LDL ratio, as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Omar M; Pabona, John Mark P; Kelly, Thomas; Huang, Yan; Hennings, Leah J; Prior, Ronald L; Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2013-02-01

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether early exposure to blueberry (BB) via maternal diet alters oncogene Wnt1-induced mammary tumorigenesis in offspring. Wnt1-transgenic female mice were exposed to maternal Casein (CAS, control) or blueberry-supplemented (CAS + 3%BB) diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned to CAS and mammary tumor development was followed until age 8 months. Tumor incidence and latency were similar for both groups; however, tumor weight at killing and tumor volume within 2 weeks of initial detection were lower (by 50 and 60%, respectively) in offspring of BB- versus control-fed dams. Dietary BB exposure beginning at weaning did not alter mammary tumor parameters. Tumors from maternal BB-exposed offspring showed higher tumor suppressor (Pten and Cdh1) and lower proproliferative (Ccnd1), anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) and proangiogenic (Figf, Flt1 and Ephb4) transcript levels, and displayed attenuated microvessel density. Expression of Pten and Cdh1 genes was also higher in mammary tissues of maternal BB-exposed offspring. Mammary tissues and tumors of maternal BB-exposed offspring showed increased chromatin-modifying enzyme Dnmt1 and Ezh2 transcript levels. Body weight, serum insulin and serum leptin/adiponectin ratio were lower for maternal BB-exposed than control tumor-bearing offspring. Tumor weights and serum insulin were positively correlated. Results suggest that dietary influences on the maternal environment contribute to key developmental programs in the mammary gland to modify breast cancer outcome in adult progeny.

  5. Analysis of first and second trimester maternal serum analytes for the prediction of morbidly adherent placenta requiring hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Yucel, Aykan

    2016-11-01

    Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is a growing concern currently and is still a diagnostic challenge for obstetricians. As emergency hysterectomy due to unscheduled delivery in MAP carries significant risks, we aimed to evaluate whether first and second trimester serum analytes may be used in the prediction of MAP requiring hysterectomy. A retrospective chart review of all identified cases of placenta previa totalis with and without MAP was performed. A total of 316 pregnant women diagnosed as placenta previa totalis were identified and included in the analysis. Cases were examined in three groups (Group 1: 204 nonadherent placenta previa patients; Group 2: 61 MAP patients managed with endouterine hemostatic square sutures and/or Bakri balloon tamponade; and Group 3: 51 patients with MAP requiring hysterectomy). Among all first and second trimester screening analytes only maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MS-AFP) levels were significantly higher in patients with MAP requiring hysterectomy (p < 0.001). According to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis performed for the predictive value of MS-AFP levels, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.742 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.505-0.979]. The best MS-AFP cut-off value was 1.25 multiple of the median (MoM) with 85.94% sensitivity and 71.43% specificity (p = 0.036). The best predictors which affect the increased risk of hysterectomy, was further evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Only elevated maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MS-AFP) was found to be an independent predictor of MAP requiring hysterectomy [odds ratio (OR) = 25.329, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.487-43.143, p = 0.025]. In conclusion, increased second trimester MS-AFP levels independently predict morbidly adherent placenta requiring hysterectomy among women with placenta previa totalis. Copyright © 2016 Kaohsiung Medical University. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal serum ischemia modified albumin as a marker for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Vyakaranam, Sapna; Bhongir, Aparna Varma; Patlolla, Dakshayani; Chintapally, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypoxia driven oxidative stress of the placenta contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Serum Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) has recently emerged as an oxidative stress marker, used in diagnosis of cardiac ischemia. Aim: To determine the efficiency of serum IMA in differentiating hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (pregnancy induced hypertension, preeclampsia) from normal pregnancy. Methods It was a case control study. Pregnant women ≥32 weeks of gestation. Study population were included 3 groups, 19 Normotensive Pregnant (NP) women as controls, 18 pregnant women with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) and 19 with preeclampsia (PE). Serum IMA was estimated by Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results were analyzed by student ‘t’test. Critical values for serum IMA were obtained by Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) curves. Results Serum IMA levels were significantly elevated in PE (56.84 ± 21.57 ng/ml) when compared with PIH (36.24 ± 14.51 ng/ml) and NP (35.47 ± 11.58 ng/ml) (P value <0.001). With a cutoff of 38.33 ng/ml, sensitivity and specificity for preeclampsia was 88.9% and 73.7% respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that serum IMA, an oxidative stress marker is elevated in PE & PIH. Hence serum IMA can undergo further evaluation as a marker of PE. PMID:26636109

  7. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  8. Exploration of potential biomarkers and related biological pathways for PCB exposure in maternal and cord serum: A pilot birth cohort study in Chiba, Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Mori, Chisato

    2017-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with adverse human reproductive and fetal developmental measures or outcomes because of their endocrine-disrupting effects; however, the biological mechanisms of adverse effects of PCB exposure in humans are not currently well established. In this study, we aimed to identify the biological pathways and potential biomarkers of PCB exposure in maternal and umbilical cord serum using a hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) metabolomics platform. The median concentration of total PCBs in maternal (n=93) and cord serum (n=93) were 350 and 70pgg(-1) wet wt, respectively. PCB levels in maternal and fetal serum from the Chiba Study of Mother and Children's Health (C-MACH) cohort are comparable to those of earlier cohort studies conducted in Japan, the USA, and European countries. We used the random forest model with the metabolome profile to predict exposure levels of PCB (first quartile [Q1] and fourth quartile [Q4]) for pregnant women and fetuses. In the prediction model for classification of Q1 versus Q4 (area-under-curve [AUC]: pregnant women=0.812 and fetuses=0.919), citraconic acid level in maternal serum and ethanolamine, p-hydroxybenzoate, and purine levels in cord serum had >0.70 AUC values. These candidate biomarkers and metabolite included in composited models were related to glutathione and amino acid metabolism in maternal serum and the amino acid metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis in cord serum (FDR <0.10), indicating disruption of metabolic pathways by PCB exposure in pregnant women and fetuses. These results showed that metabolome analysis might be useful to explore potential biomarkers and related biological pathways for PCB exposure. Thus, more detailed studies are needed to verify sensitivity of the biomarkers and clarify the biochemical changes resulting from PCB exposure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  9. Embryo transfer day does not affect the initial maternal serum β-hCG levels: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Mona; Rupani, Karishma; Yu, Su Ling; Fook-Chong, Stephanie M C; Siew Fui, Diana Chia; Rajesh, Hemashree

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the serum β-hCG values post transfer of a cleavage stage embryo versus a blastocyst stage embryo at equal time intervals post oocyte retrieval (OR) in clinically pregnant patients, and to ascertain a β-hCG value to predict pregnancy outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of 560 women with clinical pregnancy who underwent an embryo transfer performed at either the cleavage stage or the blastocyst stage of embryo development between January 2003 and June 2014 at the Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARE), Singapore General Hospital. The serum β-hCG level was measured on day 17 post OR. The β-hCG values were not significantly different in the cleavage stage versus the blastocyst stage embryos (mean±SD: 387±486IU/L D3 vs. 352±268IU/L D5, p=0.96, median value 297 in both groups). Our study suggests that the initial maternal serum β-hCG values were not affected by the day of transfer of the embryos since assessing the β-hCG at equivalent points after transfer should not lead to a significant difference assuming the progress and development of the embryos occurred as expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels and profiles in breast milk, maternal and cord serum of French women and their newborns.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Ronan; Veyrand, Bruno; Yamada, Ami; Berrebi, Alain; Zalko, Daniel; Durand, Sophie; Pollono, Charles; Marchand, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    One major concern regarding perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is their potential role in onset of health troubles consecutive to early exposure during the perinatal period. In the present work, the internal exposure levels of 18 targeted PFAAs were determined in ca. 100 mother-newborn pairs recruited in France between 2010 and 2013. In serum, the cumulated concentrations of the 7 most frequently detected compounds were 5.70ng/mL and 2.83ng/mL (median values) in maternal and cord serum, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexylesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) contributed to around 90% of the total PFAAs contamination, with concentration levels and contamination profiles in accordance with other published work in Europe. Levels measured in breast milk were far lower (20 to 150 fold) than those determined in serum. Associations between the different monitored substances as well as between levels determined in the different investigated biological matrices mostly do not appear statistically significant. The estimated materno-foetal transfer would be thus substance-dependant, mainly driven by the physico-chemical properties of the different PFAAs (nature of polar group and length of alkylated side chain). We conclude that trans-placental passage and breastfeeding are both significant routes of human exposure to PFAAs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations during Pregnancy and Infant Birthweight for Gestational Age: a Three-Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan; Holzman, Claudia; Siega-Riz, Anna M; Williams, Michelle A; Dole, Nancy; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ferre, Cynthia D

    2016-03-01

    In response to inconsistent findings, we investigated associations between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and infant birthweight for gestational age (BW/GA), including potential effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity and infant sex. Data from 2558 pregnant women were combined in a nested case-control study (preterm and term) sampled from three cohorts: the Omega study, the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition study, and the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health study. Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations were sampled at 4 to 29 weeks gestation (80% 14-26 weeks). BW/GA was modelled as sex and gestational age-specific birthweight z-scores. General linear regression models (adjusting for age, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, season at blood draw, and smoking) assessed 25(OH)D concentrations in relation to BW/GA. Among non-Hispanic Black women, the positive association between 25(OH)D concentrations and BW/GA was of similar magnitude in pregnancies with female or male infants [beta (β) = 0.015, standard error (SE) = 0.007, P = 0.025; β = 0.018, SE = 0.006, P = 0.003, respectively]. Among non-Hispanic White women, 25(OH)D-BW/GA association was observed only with male infants, and the effect size was lower (β = 0.008, SE = 0.003, P = 0.02). Maternal serum concentrations of 25(OH)D in early and mid-pregnancy were positively associated with BW/GA among non-Hispanic Black male and female infants and non-Hispanic White male infants. Effect modification by race/ethnicity may be due, in part, to overall lower concentrations of 25(OH)D in non-Hispanic Blacks. Reasons for effect modification by infant sex remain unclear. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Cardona, Juliana; Velásquez-Rodríguez, Claudia

    2016-02-15

    The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: obese with MetS (OBMS), obese (OB) and appropriate weight (AW). FA profiles were quantified by gas chromatography; waist circumference (WC), fat folds, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index), food intake and physical activity (PA) were assessed. The OBMS group had significantly greater total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic-16:0 in triglyceride (TG), palmitoleic-16:1n-7 in TG and phospholipid (PL); in the OB group, these FAs were higher than in the AW group. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DHGL-20:3n-6) was higher in the OBMS than the AW in PL and FFAs. Linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL had the lowest proportion in the OBMS group. WC, PA, total FFA, linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and DHGL-20:3n-6 in FFAs explained 62% of the HOMA value. The OB group presented some higher proportions of FA and biochemical values than the AW group. The OBMS had proportions of some FA in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS.

  13. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Cardona, Juliana; Velásquez-Rodríguez, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: obese with MetS (OBMS), obese (OB) and appropriate weight (AW). FA profiles were quantified by gas chromatography; waist circumference (WC), fat folds, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index), food intake and physical activity (PA) were assessed. The OBMS group had significantly greater total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic-16:0 in triglyceride (TG), palmitoleic-16:1n-7 in TG and phospholipid (PL); in the OB group, these FAs were higher than in the AW group. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DHGL-20:3n-6) was higher in the OBMS than the AW in PL and FFAs. Linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL had the lowest proportion in the OBMS group. WC, PA, total FFA, linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and DHGL-20:3n-6 in FFAs explained 62% of the HOMA value. The OB group presented some higher proportions of FA and biochemical values than the AW group. The OBMS had proportions of some FA in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS. PMID:26891317

  14. Association between serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the association between the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. We examined the relationship between the TG/HDL ratio and sarcopenia in 879 elderly males ≥60years who participated in the 2010-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the weight (%), which is >1 SD below the mean for young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across the TG/HDL ratio quartiles (Q1: ≤1.4, Q2: 1.5-2.4, Q3: 2.5-3.8 and Q4: ≥3.9) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia significantly increased in accordance with TG/HDL ratio quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio for sarcopenia was 2.10 (1.12-3.91) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. TG/HDL ratio was positively related with a higher risk of sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization: results from the Southampton Women’s Survey cohort1

    PubMed Central

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J; Titcombe, Philip; Abrahamsen, Bo; Heitmann, Berit L; Calder, Philip C; Dennison, Elaine M; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. Objective: We examined the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Design: In the Southampton Women’s Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. Results: In total, 520 and 446 mother-offspring pairs had measurements of maternal serum retinol and β-carotene, respectively. Higher maternal serum retinol in late pregnancy was associated with lower offspring total body BMC (β = −0.10 SD/SD; 95% CI: −0.19, −0.02; P = 0.020) and BA (β = −0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: −0.20, −0.03; P = 0.009) but not BMD. Conversely, higher maternal serum β-carotene concentrations in late pregnancy were associated with greater total body BMC (β = 0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.21; P = 0.016) and BA (β = 0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22; P = 0.010) but not BMD. Conclusions: Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations had differing associations with offspring bone size and growth at birth: retinol was negatively associated with these measurements, whereas β-carotene was positively associated. These findings highlight the need for further investigation of the effects of maternal retinol and carotenoid status on offspring bone development. PMID:27629051

  16. Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Yu, S; Jewell, D E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feeding cats reduced protein and phosphorus foods with added fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) altered serum biomarkers of renal function. Thirty-two healthy cats, mean age 14.0 (8.3-19.6) years, were fed control food or one of two experimental foods for 6 months. All foods had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approximately 8.0%, 26.5%, and 20.0%, respectively). Both experimental foods contained added fish oil (1.5%) and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg). Experimental-food 2 also contained increased MCT (10.5% from coconut oil), 1.5% added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum biochemistries, renal function biomarkers including serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and plasma metabolomic profiles were measured at baseline, and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Although both experimental foods altered plasma fatty acids, carnitine and related metabolites, and lysophospholipid concentrations, there were no changes in renal function biomarkers. There was, however, a benefit in using SDMA versus sCr to assess renal function in older cats with less total lean mass. Compared with cats <12 years, those >15 years had lower total lean mass (P < 0.01), lower GFR (P = 0.04), and lower sCr concentrations (P < 0.01). However, SDMA concentrations (P < 0.01) were higher in older cats. This study shows that in cats, serum SDMA concentration is more highly correlated with GFR than sCr concentration, and, unlike sCr, which declines with age because of muscle wasting, SDMA increases as GFR declines with age.

  17. A low maternal protein diet during pregnancy and lactation has sex- and window of exposure-specific effects on offspring growth and food intake, glucose metabolism and serum leptin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, E; Bautista, C J; Deás, M; Martínez-Samayoa, P M; González-Zamorano, M; Ledesma, H; Morales, J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W

    2006-02-15

    Extensive epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that a sub-optimal environment during fetal and neonatal development in both humans and animals may programme offspring susceptibility to later development of chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes that are the result of altered carbohydrate metabolism. We determined the effects of protein restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation on growth, serum leptin, and glucose and insulin responses to a glucose tolerance test in male and female offspring at 110 days postnatal life. We fed Wistar rats a normal control 20% casein diet (C) or a restricted diet (R) of 10% casein during pregnancy. Female but not male R pups weighed less than C at birth. After delivery, mothers received the C or R diet during lactation to provide four offspring groups: CC (first letter maternal pregnancy diet and second maternal lactation diet), RR, CR and RC. All offspring were fed ad libitum with C diet after weaning. Relative food intake correlated inversely with weight. Offspring serum leptin correlated with body weight and relative, but not absolute, food intake in both male and female pups. Serum leptin was reduced in RR female pups compared with CC and increased in RC males compared with CC at 110 days of age. Offspring underwent a glucose tolerance test (GTT) at 110 days postnatal life. Female RR and CR offspring showed a lower insulin to glucose ratio than CC. At 110 days of age male RR and CR also showed some evidence of increased insulin sensitivity. Male but not female RC offspring showed evidence of insulin resistance compared with CC. Cholesterol was similar and triglycerides (TG) higher in male compared with female CC. Cholesterol and TG were higher in males than females in RR, CR and RC (P < 0.05). Cholesterol and TG did not differ between groups in females. Cholesterol and TG were elevated in RC compared with CC males. Nutrient restriction in lactation increased relative whole protein and decreased whole

  18. Association of serum triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio with carotid artery intima-media thickness, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, L; Bonci, E; Andreoli, G; Romaggioli, S; Di Miscio, R; Lombardo, C V; Chiesa, C

    2014-07-01

    The triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio has been reported as a useful marker of atherogenic lipid abnormalities, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated in a large sample of children and adolescents the association of TG/HDL-C ratio with early signs of morphological vascular changes and cardiometabolic risk factors including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study population, including 548 children (aged 6-16 years), of whom 157 were normal-weight, 118 overweight, and 273 obese, had anthropometric, laboratory, liver and carotid ultrasonography (carotid artery intima-media thickness-cIMT) data collected. Subjects were stratified into tertiles of TG/HDL-C. There was a progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), BMI-SD score (SDS), waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cIMT values across TG/HDL-C tertiles. The odds ratios for central obesity, insulin resistance, high hsCRP, NAFLD, metabolic syndrome, and elevated cIMT increased significantly with the increasing tertile of TG/HDL-C ratio, after adjustment for age, gender, pubertal status, and BMI-SDS. In a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, increased cIMT was associated with high TG/HDL-C ratio [OR, 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08-3.04); P < 0.05], elevated BP [5.13 (95% CI, 1.03-15.08); P < 0.05], insulin resistance [2.16 (95% CI, 1.30-3.39); P < 0.01], and NAFLD [2.70 (95% CI, 1.62-4.56); P < 0.01]. TG/HDL-C ratio may help identify children and adolescents at high risk for structural vascular changes and metabolic derangement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relation of uric acid to serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and to hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Tanya; Blaha, Michael J; Nasir, Khurram; Silverman, Michael G; Tota-Maharaj, Rajesh; Carvalho, Jose A M; Conceição, Raquel D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Santos, Raul D

    2012-12-15

    Increased uric acid (UA) is strongly linked to cardiovascular disease. However, the independent role of UA is still debated because it is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study assessed the association of UA with increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), increased ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL), sonographically detected hepatic steatosis, and their clustering in the presence and absence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We evaluated 3,518 employed subjects without clinical cardiovascular disease from November 2008 through July 2010. Prevalence of hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L was 19%, that of TG/HDL ≥3 was 44%, and that of hepatic steatosis was 43%. In multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and confounders, highest versus lowest UA quartile was associated with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 2.28, p = 0.04), TG/HDL ≥3 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 2.36 to 4.60, p <0.001), and hepatic steatosis (OR 3.10, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.32, p <0.001) independently of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Association of UA with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L became nonsignificant in analyses stratified by obesity. Ascending UA quartiles compared to the lowest UA quartile demonstrated a graded increase in the odds of having 2 or 3 of these risk conditions and a successive decrease in the odds of having none. In conclusion, high UA levels were associated with increased TG/HDL and hepatic steatosis independently of metabolic syndrome and obesity and with increased hs-CRP independently of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mass spectrometric discovery and selective reaction monitoring (SRM) of putative protein biomarker candidates in first trimester Trisomy 21 maternal serum.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mary F; Kuppusamy, Ramesh; Sarracino, David A; Prakash, Amol; Athanas, Michael; Krastins, Bryan; Rezai, Taha; Sutton, Jennifer N; Peterman, Scott; Nicolaides, Kypros

    2011-01-07

    The accurate diagnosis of Trisomy 21 requires invasive procedures that carry a risk of miscarriage. The current state-of-the-art maternal serum screening tests measure levels of PAPP-A, free bhCG, AFP, and uE3 in various combinations with a maximum sensitivity of 60-75% and a false positive rate of 5%. There is currently an unmet need for noninvasive screening tests with high selectivity that can detect pregnancies at risk, preferably within the first trimester. The aim of this study was to apply proteomics and mass spectrometry techniques for the discovery of new putative biomarkers for Trisomy 21 in first trimester maternal serum coupled with the immediate development of quantitative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) assays. The results of the novel workflow were 2-fold: (1) we identified a list of differentially expressed proteins in Trisomy 21 vs Normal samples, including PAPP-A, and (2) we developed a multiplexed, high-throughput SRM assay for verification of 12 new putative markers identified in the discovery experiments. To narrow down the initial large list of differentially expressed candidates resulting from the discovery experiments, we incorporated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve algorithms early in the data analysis process. We believe this approach provides a substantial advantage in sifting through the large and complex data typically obtained from discovery experiments. The workflow efficiently mined information derived from high-resolution LC-MS/MS discovery data for the seamless construction of rapid, targeted assays that were performed on unfractionated serum digests. The SRM assay lower limit of detection (LLOD) for the target peptides in a background of digested serum matrix was approximately 250-500 attomoles on column and the limit of accurate quantitation (LOQ) was approximately 1-5 femtomoles on column. The assay error as determined by coefficient of variation at LOQ and above ranged from 0 to 16%. The workflow developed in

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

    2004-01-01

    To present the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings of prenatally diagnosed mosaic trisomy 16. A 30-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of a positive maternal serum screen result with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSfreebeta-hCG). Cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid at 21 weeks' gestation revealed mosaicism for trisomy 16, 47,XX,+16[3]/46,XX[15]. Ultrasonography demonstrated right diaphragmatic hernia and agenesis of left umbilical artery. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently. The karyotype of the cord blood was 46,XX. Cytogenetic analyses of the multiple sampled tissue specimens showed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 in the placenta and 47,XX,+16/46,XX with various levels of trisomy 16 in the umbilical cord and skin. Molecular studies showed that the trisomy 16 in the placenta was likely to have resulted from a maternal meiosis II nondisjunction error. Partial dosage increase of an extra maternal allele was noted in the skin and umbilical cord. Fetuses with mosaic trisomy 16 may be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated MSAFP and MShCG. Fetal blood sampling is of a limited value in confirming mosaic trisomy 16 ascertained through amniocentesis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Maternal serum C-reactive protein in early pregnancy and occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Mohamadi, Bita; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohamad; Aliyan Moghadam, Narges

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and later occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. A prospective cohort study that measured maternal serum CRP levels in 778 pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy was performed in the city of Noor (north Iran), and included follow-up of patients up to time of delivery. Preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth were defined as the occurrence of membranes rupture and birth, respectively before 37 weeks of gestation. Of the 778 pregnancies studied, 19 (2.41%) preterm premature rupture of membranes and 58 (7.3%) preterm births were seen. Median CRP levels in preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth cases were much higher than in term deliveries (7 and 6.8 respectively vs 2.4 mg/L; 66.67 and 64.76, respectively vs 24.38 nmol/L). CRP levels >4 mg/L had statistically significant relationships with preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR 5.91, 95% CI 2.07-16.89) and preterm birth (OR 8.95, 95% CI 4.60-17.43). With a cut-off level of 4 mg/L of CRP, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LR(+) and LR(-) ) for preterm birth were 81, 70, 2.70, 0.28%, respectively, and for preterm premature rupture of membranes they were 79, 67, 2.41 and 0.31%, respectively. It seems that the inflammatory marker, CRP, can be used in the early stages of pregnancy to identify women at risk of experiencing preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Mercury concentration in maternal serum, cord blood, and placenta in patients with amalgam dental fillings: effects on fetal biometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Bedir Findik, Rahime; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Tasci, Yasemin; Moraloglu, Ozlem; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the extent to which mercury is transmitted from the mother to fetus via the umbilical cord in patients with amalgam dental fillings, and its effect on fetal biometric measurements. Twenty-eight patients as the study group with amalgam fillings, and 32 of them as the control group were included in this prospective case-control study. The mercury levels were measured in the maternal and cord venous sera, and the placental samples. Two groups were compared in terms of these and the fetal/neonatal biometric measurements. In the study group, the maternal and umbilical cord mercury levels were found to be significantly higher than those from the control group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.010, respectively). These high levels did not affect the fetal biometric measurements. The presence of high serum mercury levels in pregnant women with amalgam fillings is important, and warrants further long-term studies in order to investigate the fetal neurological effects as well.

  4. Molecular weight forms of inhibin A, inhibin B and pro-alphaC in maternal serum, amniotic fluid and placental extracts of normal and Down syndrome pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukarasu, P P; Lambert-Messerlian, G; Robertson, D M; Dawson, G; Canick, J; Wallace, E M

    2002-12-01

    Inhibin A, an established prenatal marker of Down syndrome (DS), exists in the maternal circulation in a number of isoforms. The present study explored whether specific inhibin A isoforms may be selectively increased in DS, offering the prospect of improved marker performance. Second trimester maternal serum, placental extracts and amniotic fluid (AF) pools from both normal and DS pregnancies were fractionated by a combined immunoaffinity (IA) chromatography, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Prep-PAGE) and electroelution procedure. Inhibins A, B and pro-alphaC were determined in the eluted fractions by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the profiles of immunoactivity (IA) characterized in terms of molecular weight (MW) and percentage recovery. The MW patterns of inhibin A and pro-alphaC in maternal serum and AF were similar between DS and control pregnancies, both showing peaks between 25-40 k and approximately 65 k. AF contained, in addition, a higher proportion of <30 k inhibins A and B, and <25 k pro-alphaC forms. There were large differences in the inhibin forms present in DS placentae, with more 70 k and less 30-40 k inhibin A than in controls. The present data suggest that the processing, cleavage or secretion of inhibin MW forms by the DS placenta differs from normal. However, these differences are not reflected in maternal serum and so improvements in serum screening will not be afforded by measuring specific inhibin A isoforms. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  7. A role for maternal serum screening in detecting chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with isolated choroid plexus cysts: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Kliewer, M A; Hertzberg, B S; Ruiz, C; Stamper, T H; Rosnes, J; Lucas, A; Wright, L N; Chescheir, N C; Farmer, L; Jordan, S; Kay, H H

    1999-05-01

    A prospective multicentre study was performed to identify patients with fetal choroid plexus cysts and examine the association between choroid plexus cysts and chromosome abnormalities in the context of variables such as maternal age, serum triple-screen results, race, other prenatally-identified fetal anomalies and cyst characteristics. A total of 18 437 scans were performed in 5 centres and 257 fetuses were identified with choroid plexus cysts. Outcome was available on 250 patients, and of these, chromosomal abnormalities were detected in a total of 13 (5.2 per cent) fetuses. 26 patients in the group had additional ultrasound abnormalities, and 8 of these had fetal chromosome abnormalities. Among the 224 patients with isolated choroid plexus cysts, 5 (2.2 per cent) were found to have chromosomal abnormalities. All cases with identified chromosomal abnormalities were associated with an additional risk factor, such as other ultrasound findings, advanced maternal age or abnormal maternal serum triple-screen results.

  8. Longitudinal analysis of maternal serum Follistatin concentration in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Garcés, María F; Vallejo, Sergio A; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Palomino-Palomino, Miguel A; Leal, Luis G; Ángel-Muller, Edith; Díaz-Cruz, Luz A; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel Iván; González-Clavijo, Angélica M; Castaño, Justo P; Abba, Martin; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2015-08-01

    Follistatin (FST) is a regulator of the biological activity of activin A (Act A), binding and blocking it, which could contribute to the modulation of its pro-inflammatory activity during pregnancy. We sought to investigate, in this nested case-control study, FST serum levels during normal pregnancy and correlate it with the FST profile in preeclamptic pregnant women, normal pregnant women followed 3 months postpartum and eumenorrheic nonpregnant women throughout the menstrual cycle. Follistatin serum levels determined by ELISA, biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured in normal pregnant (n = 28) and preeclamptic (n = 20) women during three periods of gestation. In addition, FST serum levels were measured in a subset of normal pregnant women (n = 13) followed 3 months postpartum and in eumenorrheic nonpregnant women (n = 20) during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Follistatin serum levels in the eumenorrheic nonpregnant and postpartum group were significantly lower when compared to levels throughout gestation (P < 0·01). Serum FST levels increased in each period of pregnancy analysed, being significantly higher towards the end of gestation (P < 0·01). FST levels were lower in late pregnancy in preeclamptic women compared to normal pregnant women (P < 0·05). Finally, FST levels were higher in the luteal phase when compared with the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P < 0·05). These analyses would permit the consideration that changes in FST levels during pregnancy contribute to the control of the Act A system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Lactation history, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, and maternal risk of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wang, Xiaobin; Sun, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006, and examined whether potentially diabetogenic POPs account for associations between lactation and diabetes. Among 4479 parous women, breastfeeding history was defined as the number of children breastfed ≥1 month. Diabetes was identified by self-report or hemoglobin A1c >6.5%. Twenty-four POPs were measured in serum among subsamples of 668 to 1073 participants. Compared with women without lactation history, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes among those with 1-2 and ≥3 lactation periods were 0.83(0.61, 1.13) and 0.63(0.44, 0.91; P trend=0.03). Lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with serum concentrations of 17 out of the 24 organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and perfluoroalkyl substances (Ptrend<0.05). Comparing the ≥3 lactations group with women without a lactation history, the relative reduction of POPs ranged from 12% (PCB-196) to 30% (oxychlordane). The inverse association between lactation and diabetes was slightly attenuated after adjustment for POPs. Age-stratified analyses showed that the inverse association between lactation periods and serum POP concentrations was observed primarily among participants <60 years, whereas age did not significantly modify the association between lactation history and diabetes prevalence. Crudely-classified lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with concurrent serum POP concentrations and diabetes prevalence. Prospective studies are needed to clarify how lactation could complement diabetes prevention through decreasing the POP body burdens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal fructose drives placental uric acid production leading to adverse fetal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Zeenat A.; Thompson, Alysha; Chi, Maggie; Cusumano, Andrew; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Saben, Jessica L.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolic diseases increase offspring risk for low birth weight and cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Excess fructose consumption may confer metabolic risks for both women and their offspring. However, the direct consequences of fructose intake per se are unknown. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-fructose diet on the fetal-placental unit in mice in the absence of metabolic syndrome and determined the association between maternal serum fructose and placental uric acid levels in humans. In mice, maternal fructose consumption led to placental inefficiency, fetal growth restriction, elevated fetal serum glucose and triglyceride levels. In the placenta, fructose induced de novo uric acid synthesis by activating the activities of the enzymes AMP deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the placentas had increased lipids and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress. Treatment of mothers with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduced placental uric acid levels, prevented placental inefficiency, and improved fetal weights and serum triglycerides. Finally, in 18 women delivering at term, maternal serum fructose levels significantly correlated with placental uric acid levels. These findings suggest that in mice, excess maternal fructose consumption impairs placental function via a xanthine oxidase/uric acid-dependent mechanism, and similar effects may occur in humans. PMID:27125896

  11. Maternal fructose drives placental uric acid production leading to adverse fetal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Zeenat A; Thompson, Alysha; Chi, Maggie; Cusumano, Andrew; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Saben, Jessica L; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-04-29

    Maternal metabolic diseases increase offspring risk for low birth weight and cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Excess fructose consumption may confer metabolic risks for both women and their offspring. However, the direct consequences of fructose intake per se are unknown. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-fructose diet on the fetal-placental unit in mice in the absence of metabolic syndrome and determined the association between maternal serum fructose and placental uric acid levels in humans. In mice, maternal fructose consumption led to placental inefficiency, fetal growth restriction, elevated fetal serum glucose and triglyceride levels. In the placenta, fructose induced de novo uric acid synthesis by activating the activities of the enzymes AMP deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the placentas had increased lipids and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress. Treatment of mothers with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduced placental uric acid levels, prevented placental inefficiency, and improved fetal weights and serum triglycerides. Finally, in 18 women delivering at term, maternal serum fructose levels significantly correlated with placental uric acid levels. These findings suggest that in mice, excess maternal fructose consumption impairs placental function via a xanthine oxidase/uric acid-dependent mechanism, and similar effects may occur in humans.

  12. Early maternal serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) levels and sex-related growth difference of IVF embryos.

    PubMed

    Esh-Broder, Efrat; Oron, Galia; Son, Weon-Young; Holzer, Hananel; Tulandi, Togas

    2015-10-01

    Maternal serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) represents the trophoblastic cell mass and is an indirect measurement of embryo development at early implantation stage. Studies in animals and human embryos detected sex-related growth differences (SRGD) in favour of male embryos during the pre-implantation period. The purpose of our study was to correlate SRGD and maternal serum ß-hCG at 16 days after embryo transfer. We retrospectively analysed all (fresh and frozen) non-donor, single embryo transfers (SET), elective and not elective, that were performed between December 2008 and December 2013. We included ß-hCG values from day 16 after oocyte collection of pregnancies resulting in live birth. Neonatal gender was retrieved from patient files. Male and female embryos were further grouped to cleavage and blastocyst stage transfers. Regression analysis for confounding variables included maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI), use of micromanipulation (ICSI), embryo quality (grade), assisted hatching, day of transfer and fresh or frozen embryo transfer. Seven hundred eighty-six non-donor SETs resulted in live birth. After including only day 16 serum ß-hCG results, 525 SETs were analysed. Neonatal gender was available for 522 cases. Mean maternal serum ß-hCG levels were similar, 347 ± 191 IU/L in the male newborn group and 371 ± 200 IU/L in the female group. The difference between ß-hCG levels remained insignificant after adjusting for confounding variables. Early maternal ß-hCG levels after embryo transfers did not represent SRGD in our study.

  13. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered.

  14. Triglycerides: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Philipp; Watson, Karol E

    2017-08-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels are clearly independently associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Another class of lipid particles, triglycerides, is also abundant in the human body and has been found in atherosclerotic plaques. Recent observational studies have demonstrated an association between elevated triglyceride levels and increased risk for future cardiovascular events. With this knowledge and the discovery of effective agents to lower triglyceride levels, the management of triglycerides is currently undergoing a renaissance. Unfortunately, no randomized, controlled clinical trials have been completed to date, proving that lowering triglycerides will reduce cardiovascular events. In this review we highlight some of the evidence that led to this stage and discuss the current data on pharmacologic intervention of triglyceride levels and the effect on clinical outcomes. Lastly, we want to give the reader insight on what the most recent lipid guidelines state about clinical triglyceride management, mention new pharmacological agents, and highlight the clinical evidence for safe and effective lowering of triglycerides levels with life style modification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-08-16

    After the introduction of statins, clinical emphasis first focussed on LDL cholesterol-lowering, then on the potential for raising HDL cholesterol, with less focus on lowering triglycerides. However, the understanding from genetic studies and negative results from randomised trials that low HDL cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence as to whether lowering triglycerides reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of maternal smoking on cord serum IgE levels in newborns].

    PubMed

    Flores D'Arcais, A; De Biase, D; Riva, P; Tito, A; Crippa, L; Mariani, E

    1993-11-01

    Allergic diseases are among the most common diseases in childhood and their prevalence is 14%. One of the most important pathogenetic factors is the ability to produce IgE and the measurement of cord serum IgE seems to be very important for early detection of newborns at risk. Besides, cigarette smoke, among the environmental factors, has been demonstrated to influence the immunologic system, inducing an increase in IgE production. The aim of this study is to evaluate fetal production of IgE in newborns with a family history of atopy and whose mother has been smoking during pregnancy. The measurement of cord serum IgE has been performed in 215 at term newborns (weight at birth > 2500 g, Apgar score at 5' > 7). A careful history has been obtained with particular regard at the presence of familiarity for allergies and a cigarette smoking during pregnancy. According to the history, children have been divided in 3 groups: Group 1: 126 newborns without familiar history of allergy and born from no smoking mothers (control group); Group 2: 46 newborns with familiar history for allergy and born from no smoking mothers; Group 3: 43 newborns without familiar history for allergy born from smoking mothers. The II and III groups of newborns present total IgE levels on cord serum significantly higher than the control group. Besides a positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy and the value of cord serum IgE has been detected. It is well known that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Screening for trisomy 18 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Tul, N; Spencer, K; Noble, P; Chan, C; Nicolaides, K

    1999-11-01

    In a study of 50 cases of trisomy 18 compared with 947 controls we have found the median multiple of the median (MoM) of maternal serum free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin to be significantly decreased (0.281 MoM) in samples collected between the 10th and 14th week of gestation. Similarly, maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels are also decreased (0.177 MoM), whilst the median nuchal translucency is significantly higher (3.272 MoM). Free beta-hCG MoM was less than the 5th centile of normal in 64 per cent of cases of trisomy 18 and for PAPP-A was less than the 5th centile in 78 per cent of cases. Also, in 78 per cent of cases the nuchal translucency was above the 95th centile. When combined together in a multivariate algorithm with maternal age, we predict that 89 per cent of cases of trisomy 18 could be detected at a 1 per cent false-positive rate. We conclude that specific trisomy 18 risks should be part of developing risk algorithms combining maternal serum biochemistry and nuchal translucency for use in first trimester screening alongside those for trisomy 21.

  18. Screening for trisomy 13 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Ong, C; Skentou, H; Liao, A W; H Nicolaides, K

    2000-05-01

    In 42 cases of trisomy 13 at 10-14 weeks of gestation, compared with 947 controls, the median multiple of the median (MoM) of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) was significantly decreased (0.506 MoM and 0.248 MoM respectively), whilst fetal nuchal translucency was increased (2.872 MoM). In 38% and 71% of cases of trisomy 13 maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was below the 5th centile of the appropriate normal range for gestation and in 62% of cases the nuchal translucency was above the 95th centile. When combined together in a multivariate algorithm with maternal age, 90% of cases of trisomy 13 could be detected at a 0.5% false positive rate or 84% at a 0.1% false positive rate. We conclude that specific trisomy 13 risks should be part of developing risk algorithms combining maternal serum biochemistry and nuchal translucency for use in first trimester screening alongside those for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  20. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months.

    PubMed

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M

    2016-10-01

    Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan, has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry (n = 497) and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91/SD change, P = 0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, P = 0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Maternal serum PFOA concentration and DNA methylation in cord blood: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Kelsey, Karl T; Butler, Rondi; Chen, Aimin; Eliot, Melissa N; Romano, Megan E; Houseman, Andres; Koestler, Devin C; Lanphear, Bruce P; Yolton, Kimberly; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-10-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl substance, is commonly detected in the serum of pregnant women and may impact fetal development via epigenetic re-programming. In a pilot study, we explored associations between serum PFOA concentrations during pregnancy and offspring peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation at delivery in women with high (n = 22, range: 12-26ng/mL) and low (n = 22, range: 1.1-3.1ng/mL) PFOA concentrations. After adjusting for cell type, child sex, and income, we did not find differences in CpG methylation in the two exposure groups that reached epigenome-wide significance. Among the 20 CpGs with the lowest p-values we found that seven CpG sites in three genes differed by exposure status. In a confirmatory cluster analysis, these 20 CpGs clustered into two groups that perfectly identified exposure status. Future studies with larger sample sizes should confirm these findings and determine if PFOA-associated changes in DNA methylation underlie potential health effects of PFOA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organochlorines (OCs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs. Methods Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA) births study was collected in 1986–1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models. Results Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study. Conclusions Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this

  3. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in first trimester maternal serum: correlation with pathologic pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Eckmann-Scholz, Christel; Wilke, Christina; Acil, Yahya; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Salmassi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    To determine correlations between macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) levels in maternal blood during first trimester screening with respect to normal and pathological pregnancies. This was a prospective single centre study. First trimester screening was performed according to FMF London certificates. Nuchal translucency, PAPP-A and free β-HCG were obtained as well as M-CSF serum levels in maternal blood. Fetal karyotyping was achieved by chorionic villi sampling. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. 21 pregnancies had confirmed aberrant karyotypes. Trisomy 21 cases showed significantly elevated M-CSF levels of 270 ± 91 pg/ml (p = 0.032), whereas cases of trisomy 13 (183 ± 68 pg/ml) and trisomy 18 (143 ± 40 pg/ml) had low M-CSF levels. Furthermore M-CSF levels tended to be low in preterm deliveries, placental insufficiency and nicotine consumption. In cases with gestational diabetes M-CSF tended to be elevated. Furthermore we found a positive correlation between high free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) and MCSF values. There was no correlation between pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A) and M-CSF. M-CSF is a cytokine promoting placental growth and differentiation. M-CSF is known to be involved in the process of implantation in pregnancy. The role of M-CSF with respect to disturbed pregnancy outcomes such as placental insufficiency in normal or aberrant karyotypes, for example, is yet subject to further research.

  4. Imbalances between Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in Maternal Serum during Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Tency, Inge; Verstraelen, Hans; Kroes, Ivo; Holtappels, Gabriële; Verhasselt, Bruno; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during pregnancy and parturition. Aberrant ECM degradation by MMPs or an imbalance between MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm labor, however few studies have investigated MMPs or TIMPs in maternal serum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine serum concentrations of MMP-3, MMP-9 and all four TIMPs as well as MMP:TIMP ratios during term and preterm labor. Methods A case control study with 166 singleton pregnancies, divided into four groups: (1) women with preterm birth, delivering before 34 weeks (PTB); (2) gestational age (GA) matched controls, not in preterm labor; (3) women at term in labor and (4) at term not in labor. MMP and TIMP concentrations were measured using Luminex technology. Results MMP-9 and TIMP-4 concentrations were higher in women with PTB vs. GA matched controls (resp. p = 0.01 and p<0.001). An increase in MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratio was observed in women with PTB compared to GA matched controls (resp. p = 0.02 and p<0.001) as well as compared to women at term in labor (resp. p = 0.006 and p<0.001). Multiple regression results with groups recoded as three key covariates showed significantly higher MMP-9 concentrations, higher MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratios and lower TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations for preterm labor. Significantly higher MMP-9 and TIMP-4 concentrations and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratios were observed for labor. Conclusions Serum MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 balances are tilting in favor of gelatinolysis during preterm labor. TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations were lower in preterm gestation, irrespective of labor, while TIMP-4 concentrations were raised in labor. These observations suggest that aberrant serum expression of MMP:TIMP ratios and TIMPs reflect pregnancy and labor status, providing a far less invasive method to determine enzymes

  5. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring in Shanxi Province, China: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Yi, Deqing; Jin, Lei; Li, Zhiwen; Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Qiu, Xinghua; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in placental tissue have been reported to be associated with an increased risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Our case-control study was performed to explore the association between maternal serum OCP concentration and NTD risk in offspring. Serum samples were collected from 117 mothers who delivered NTD infants (case group) and 121 mothers who delivered healthy infants (control group). Only three of the 25 OCPs were detected in more than half of the maternal serum samples. The median concentration of total OCPs in the case group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, no dose-response relationships between higher levels of any individual OCP or total OCPs and the risk of NTDs or subtypes were observed in either the unadjusted binary unconditional logistic regression model or the model adjusted by potential confounders. We conclude that no clear association between maternal serum OCP residues and NTD risk in offspring was observed in this population. PMID:24911776

  6. Maternal serum vitamin D levels and pregnancy outcomes: from Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Abidoye; Sobande, Adekunle; Adedeji, Oluwole; Disu, Elizabeth; Korede, Oluwatosin; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Shakunle, Adebusola

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the effect of vitamin D deficiency on pregnancy complications including caesarean section and foetal outcome in our population, blood samples of 461 pregnant women who attended antenatal booking clinic between 10 and 28 weeks of pregnancy were taken for vitamin D estimation and followed up. Details concerning pregnancy complications, labour and foetal outcome were obtained after delivery. They were divided into three groups according to the serum vitamin D level: group 1 (0-20)ng/ml (deficiency), group 2 (21-30)ng/ml (insufficiency), and group 3 (more than 30 mg/ml) normal. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 29%. There were no differences between the groups regarding complications during pregnancy, including preeclampsia and rate of caesarean section. A multicenter study was advocated to elucidate further the role of vitamin D during pregnancy in our population.

  7. Ratio of cord to maternal serum PCB concentrations in relation to their congener-specific physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Lancz, Kinga; Palkovičová, L’ubica; Patayová, Henrieta; Drobná, Beata; Wimmerová, Soňa; Šovčíková, Eva; Kováč, Ján; Farkašová, Dana; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to characterize placental transfer of some congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to relate human in utero exposure to these pollutants to their physicochemical properties. We included into the study 1134 births during the period 2002–2003 from two highly PCB contaminated districts in eastern Slovakia. Concentrations of 15 PCB congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 52, 101, 123+149, 118, 114, 153, 105, 138+163, 167, 156+171, 157, 180, 170, and 189) in umbilical cord (C) and maternal serum (M) were determined. The C/M ratios were significantly related, either positively or inversely depending on parameter, to the logarithm of partition coefficient octanol-water (KOW), to fusion enthalpy at the melting point, molecular weight, water solubility, total surface area of the molecule, solvent accessible surface area, melting point, molar volume, and molecular electronegativity distance vector. We found an inverse association between log KOW and lipid adjusted log C/M (const= 1.078, b1 = −0.179, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.039). Parameters evaluated were interrelated except fusion enthalpy at the melting point and electron affinity vs. solubility. We discuss the possible role of cholesterol as a transplacental transporter of PCBs. PMID:25277764

  8. Elevated second-trimester maternal serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein as indicators of adverse obstetric outcomes in fetal Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Nava, Francisco; Soto, Marisol; Lanes, Roberto; Pons, Hector; Morales-Machin, Alisandra; Bracho, Ana

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of biochemical analytes to identify adverse outcomes in pregnancies with Turner syndrome. Maternal serum and amniotic fluid (AF) marker concentrations were measured in 73 singleton pregnancies with Turner syndrome (10-22 weeks of gestation). Fetal Turner syndrome was definitively established by cytogenetic analysis. Two subgroups, fetuses with hydrops fetalis versus fetuses with cystic hygroma, were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curves and relative risk were established for a cut-off multiples of the median ≥3.5 for β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or AF alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Forty-nine (67%) of 73 pregnant women had an abnormal maternal serum. While levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free β-subunit (fβ)-hCG were not different to those of the control group, AFP, unconjugated estriol and β-hCG concentrations were significantly different in the study group (P < 0.05), when compared to those of unaffected pregnancies. Levels of β-hCG in pregnancies with hydrops fetalis were significantly higher than in those with cystic hygroma (P <0.0001), as were AF-AFP concentrations (P <0.0015). In addition, abnormalities in both maternal serum β-hCG and AF-AFP predicted fetal death. The relative risk of adverse obstetric outcome was 10.667 (P = 0.0004; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.554-73.203) for β-hCG and 2.19 (P = 0.0256; 95% CI: 1.001 to 4.779), for AF-AFP. Maternal serum β-hCG and AF-AFP levels may preferentially identify those Turner syndrome pregnancies with the highest risk of fetal death. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Inflammatory markers in cord blood or maternal serum for early detection of neonatal sepsis-a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, H; Chang, S-S; Han, C-M; Wu, K-Y; Li, M-C; Huang, C-Y; Lee, C-L; Wu, J-Y; Lee, C-C

    2014-04-01

    To perform a quantitative review of the evidence on the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers in maternal serum or umbilical cord blood for the diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). We searched multiple databases for studies published through March 2013 that evaluated the diagnostic performance of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and leukocyte count (white blood cell, WBC) in either umbilical cord blood or maternal serum for diagnosis of EONS. We summarized test performance characteristics with the use of forest plots, hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves and bivariate random effects models. Our search identified 3874 citations, of which 15 studies evaluating 2178 episodes of suspected neonatal infection were included for analysis. IL-6 in cord blood with a pooled-positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 9.47 (95% confidence interval: 3.86 to 23.3), PCT in cord blood with a LR+ of 5.72 (1.56 to 21.0) and IL-6 in maternal serum with a LR+ of 5.47 (2.10 to 14.2) can be qualified as a valid rule-in test. IL-6 in cord blood with a LR- of 0.10 (0.05 to 0.21) and PCT in cord blood with a LR- of 0.20 (0.12-0.37) can be qualified as a useful rule-out test. Either CRP or WBC was inadequate for diagnosis of EONS. For cord blood sample, IL-6 or PCT can be used as reliable rule-in and rule-out tool. For maternal serum, only IL-6 appeared to be sufficient for rule-in diagnosis. An interventional study may be needed to answer whether the addition of these tests will improve the outcome of patients with EONS.

  10. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  11. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937.

  12. Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation in maternal diets on milk quality and serum bone status markers of sows and bone quality of piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Yuling; Zhuo, Yong; Lv, Gang; Lin, Yan; Feng, Bin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Xu, Shengyu; Wu, De

    2017-03-01

    Twenty primiparous sows were allocated to two treatments to evaluate the effects of maternal 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3 ) supplementation during gestation and lactation on milk quality and serum bone status markers of sows and bone quality of piglets. Immediately after mating, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 50 µg/kg 25OHD3 or basal diets without 25OHD3 . Blood and milk samples were obtained. At birth and weaning, 10 piglets from each treatment were killed for bone quality analysis. 25OHD3 -fed sows provided one more piglet at farrowing and 1.17 more piglets at weaning than sows fed basal diets. The contents of solids not-fat, protein, fat or lactose were increased in milk from days 7 and 14 of lactation in 25OHD3 -supplemented sows and 25OHD3 concentrations in milk were increased by dietary 25OHD3 supplementation. Dietary 25OHD3 supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity but had no effect on serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity of sows. Maternal 25OHD3 supplementation improved bone strength, density and ash content of newborn piglets rather than those of weaning piglets. In conclusion, 25OHD3 supplementation in maternal diets improved reproductive performance, milk quality and bone status of sows as well as bone quality of newborn piglets. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Quantitation of fetal DNA in maternal serum during the first trimester of pregnancy by the use of a DAZ repetitive probe.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, I; Bertorelli, R; Capone, L; Mazza, V; Neri, C; Percesepe, A; Forabosco, A

    2006-09-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum is at present widely investigated as a source of fetal genetic material, both in studies of pregnancy-related disorders and in planning strategies for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. Despite the number of trials already performed on the quantitation of fetal DNA, data about the amount of DNA at the beginning of pregnancy, in particular in the first trimester, remain limited. A new probe mapping on the deleted in azoospermia (DAZ) repetitive region of the Yq chromosome was designed for an early assessment of fetal DNA concentration in maternal serum. Among 57 pregnant women prospectively studied in their first trimester, fetal DNA was detected already by the 5th gestational week, with the analysis becoming reliable by the 8th week of gestation when a 100% accuracy in fetal sex determination was achieved. Moreover, in the three cases of pregnancy ending in fetal loss, the amount of fetal DNA apparently decreased before the abortion was diagnosed, whereas it consistently showed an increasing trend in normal pregnancies. Real-time PCR with the use of DAZ multilocus probe can efficiently quantitate free fetal DNA in the maternal serum at the beginning of pregnancy.

  14. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937. PMID:24455219

  15. Changes in maternal serum chlorinated pesticide concentrations across critical windows of human reproduction and development.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Buck-Louis, Germaine M; Schisterman, Enrique F; Kostyniak, Paul J; Vena, John E

    2009-01-01

    Investigators often employ a single cross-sectional measure of in utero exposure when evaluating associations between organochlorine (OCs) pesticides/metabolites and adverse reproductive outcomes. Few data are available on the stability of exposures to OCs over critical windows of human reproduction and development inclusive of the periconception window. Our objective was to measures changes in OC concentrations prior to conception and throughout pregnancy or after 12 unsuccessful months attempting pregnancy. Seventy-nine women planning pregnancy were prospectively enrolled and followed for up to 12 menstrual cycles. Blood specimens were obtained for toxicologic analysis of seven OCs from participating women at baseline (preconception, n=79), at the first prenatal visit following a positive pregnancy test leading to a live birth (n=54) or after pregnancy loss (n=10), at approximately 6 weeks post-partum (n=53), and after 12 unsuccessful cycles (n=9). Overall and daily rate of change in OCs concentration (ng/gserum) were estimated adjusting for serum lipids and baseline concentration. Significant (P<0.05) decreases in the overall and daily rate of change in OCs concentrations (ng/mLserum) were observed from baseline to pregnancy for HCB (-0.032, -0.001, respectively) and trans-nonachlor (-0.050, -0.002, respectively) while oxychlordane demonstrated an increase during this critical window (0.029, 0.001, respectively). Significant decreases in aldrin (-0.002, -1.47x10(-4), respectively), HCB (-0.069, -0.003, respectively), and trans-nonachlor (-0.045, -0.002, respectively), and an overall increase for oxychlordane (0.015) were seen for women with pregnancy losses. Significant decreases also were observed among infertile women for aldrin (-0.003, -3.52x10(-6), respectively), DDE (-0.210, -4.29x10(-4), respectively), and HCB (-0.096, -2.03x10(-4), respectively), along with an increase for trans-nonachlor (0.034, 7.59x10(-5), respectively). These data, though limited by

  16. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  17. A Birth Cohort Study of Maternal and Infant Serum PCB-153 and DDE Concentrations and Responses to Infant Tuberculosis Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Lee, Sue Y.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Verner, Marc-André; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Drobná, Beata; Kočan, Anton; Fabišiková, Anna; Čonka, Kamil; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2015-01-01

    , Trnovec T, Hertz-Picciotto I, Lawrence BP. 2016. A birth cohort study of maternal and infant serum PCB-153 and DDE concentrations and responses to infant tuberculosis vaccination. Environ Health Perspect 124:813–821; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510101 PMID:26649893

  18. A Birth Cohort Study of Maternal and Infant Serum PCB-153 and DDE Concentrations and Responses to Infant Tuberculosis Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jusko, Todd A; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Lee, Sue Y; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Schwartz, Stephen M; Verner, Marc-André; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Drobná, Beata; Kočan, Anton; Fabišiková, Anna; Čonka, Kamil; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lawrence, B Paige

    2016-06-01

    Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine are multifaceted and poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether early-life exposure to PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] reduces 6-month infant BCG vaccine response. Data came from families participating in a prospective birth cohort in eastern Slovakia. At birth, maternal and cord blood were collected for chemical analyses, and infants were immunized with BCG. Blood was collected from infants for chemical analyses and to determine 6-month BCG-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA levels. Multivariable linear regression models were fit to examine chemical-BCG associations among approximately 500 mother-infant pairs, with adjustment for confounders. The median 6-month infant concentration of the prevalent congener PCB-153 was 113 ng/g lipid [interquartile range (IQR): 37-248], and 388 ng/g lipid (IQR: 115-847) for DDE. Higher 6-month infant concentrations of PCB-153 and DDE were strongly associated with lower 6-month BCG-specific antibody levels. For instance, BCG-specific IgG levels were 37% lower for infants with PCB-153 concentrations at the 75th percentile compared to the 25th percentile (95% CI: -42, -32; p < 0.001). Results were similar in magnitude and precision for DDE. There was also evidence of PCB-DDE additivity, where exposure to both compounds reduced anti-BCG levels more than exposure to either compound alone. The associations observed in this study indicate that environmental exposures may be overlooked contributors to poorer responses to BCG vaccine. The overall association between these exposures and tuberculosis incidence is unknown. Jusko TA, De Roos AJ, Lee SY, Thevenet-Morrison K, Schwartz SM, Verner MA, Palkovicova Murinova L, Drobná B, Kočan A, Fabišiková A, Čonka K, Trnovec T, Hertz-Picciotto I, Lawrence BP. 2016. A birth cohort study of maternal

  19. Maternal Serum Ferritin Concentration Is Positively Associated with Newborn Iron Stores in Women with Low Ferritin Status in Late Pregnancy123

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jie; Lou, Jingan; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.; Kaciroti, Niko; Felt, Barbara T.; Zhao, Zheng-Yan; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in pregnant women and infants, particularly in developing countries. The relation between maternal and neonatal iron status remains unclear. This study considered the issue in a large sample of mother-newborn pairs in rural southeastern China. Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) were measured in 3702 pregnant women at ≥37 wk gestation and in cord blood of their infants born at term (37–42 wk gestation). Maternal anemia (Hb <110 g/L) was present in 27.5% and associated with maternal SF <20 μg/L in 86.9%. Only 5.6% of neonates were anemic (Hb <130 g/L) and 9.5% had cord-blood SF <75 μg/L. There were low-order correlations between maternal and newborn iron measures (r = 0.07–0.10 for both Hb and SF; P ≤ 0.0001 due to the large number). We excluded 430 neonates with suggestion of inflammation [cord SF >370 μg/L, n = 208 and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) >5 mg/L, n = 233]. Piecewise linear regression analyses identified a threshold for maternal SF at which cord-blood SF was affected. For maternal SF below the threshold of 13.6 μg/L (β = 2.4; P = 0.001), cord SF was 0.17 SD lower than in neonates whose mothers had SF above the threshold (167 ± 75 vs. 179 ± 80 μg/L). The study confirmed that ID anemia remains common during pregnancy in rural southeastern China. Despite widespread maternal ID, however, iron nutrition seemed to meet fetal needs except when mothers were very iron deficient. The impact of somewhat lower cord SF on iron status later in infancy warrants further study. PMID:23014493

  20. Serum triglyceride levels in relation to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-HDL) ratios as an efficient tool to estimate the risk of sleep apnea syndrome in non-overweight Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuji; Yoshimine, Hiroyuki; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Takahashi, Kensuke; Izumino, Kiyohiro; Inoue, Kenichiro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have reported the association between sleep apnea syndrome and insulin resistance. Being overweight is known risk factor both for sleep apnea syndrome and insulin resistance. However, no studies have reported on the association between serum triglyceride levels in relation to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-HDL) ratios (a marker of insulin resistance) and sleep apnea syndrome accounting for body mass index (BMI) status. Subjects for the present cross-sectional study consisted of 1,528 men aged 30-69 years undergoing pulse oximetry at a sleep disorders clinic for sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep apnea syndrome was diagnosed as a 3 % oxygen desaturation index (ODI) of ≥15 events/h. Among study participants, 241 men were diagnosed with sleep apnea syndrome. Independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, TG-HDL was significantly positively associated with sleep apnea syndrome in participants with a BMI <25 kg/m(2), but not in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). The multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of sleep apnea syndrome per Log TG-HDL was 2.03 (95 % CI: 1.36-3.03) for a BMI <25 kg/m(2) and 1.23 (95 % CI: 0.89-1.70) for a BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). An independent positive association between TG-HDL levels and risk of sleep apnea syndrome was observed in participants with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), but not in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). TG-HDL levels could be an efficient tool to estimate the risk of sleep apnea syndrome in non-overweight Japanese men.

  1. Maternal rat serum concentrations of dimethadione do not explain intra-litter differences in the incidence of dimethadione-induced birth defects, including novel findings in foetal lung.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Ian; Lam, Isabel; Purssell, Elizabeth; Thompson, Mesha; Rutter, Allison; Ozolinš, Terence Rs

    2014-12-04

    To investigate mechanisms of chemical-induced congenital heart defects (CHD) we have developed a rat model using dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant, trimethadione (TMD). Dosing pregnant rats with 300mg/kg DMO every 12h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses) produces a mean 74% incidence of CHD with inter litter variability ranging from 40 to 100%. The goal of this study was to determine if the variability in maternal serum concentrations of DMO on GD 14, a surrogate marker for total exposure, was related to the inter-litter differences in teratogenic outcomes. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rats were dosed as described above and serum levels of DMO assessed on GD 14. On GD 21, foetuses were collected by caesarean section, assessed for a number endpoints and the outcomes were correlated with the GD 14 serum concentrations of DMO. DMO exposure was associated with decreased foetal body weight, increased incidence of sternal defects and CHD, but these endpoints were not meaningfully correlated with maternal concentrations of DMO. Novel findings were decreased viability as measured one-hour following caesarean section, and delayed alveolar maturation. The major conclusions from these studies were first, that serum DMO concentrations on GD 14 did not predict teratogenicity, and second, delayed lung development may contribute to the decreased survival of foetuses at the time of caesarean section. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal immune markers in serum during gestation and in breast milk and the risk of asthma-like symptoms at ages 6 and 12 months: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of breast milk on the risk of childhood asthma is in dispute. The aim of this prospective study is to determine the relationship of immune markers in maternal serum during gestation and breast milk to asthma-like symptoms (AS) in infancy. Methods Pregnant women were recruited in Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina. Blood (median: three weeks before delivery) and breast milk (three weeks after delivery) samples were collected. Concentrations of interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), CCL11, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and immunoglobulin (Ig) A in both maternal serum and milk whey were determined via immunoassays. Asthma-like symptoms (AS) of the infant were ascertained at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Generalized estimating equations assessed relative risks (RRs) of immune markers for repeated measurements of AS, considering intra-individual correlations and adjusting for confounders. To provide comparable risk estimates, quartiles of the immune markers were used, except for IL-5 in whey and IgA in serum, which were dichotomized. Results Of 178 women, 161 provided blood and 115 breast milk samples. IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, and CCL11 in serum and in whey were not further considered for the statistical analyses since the proportion of non-detectable values was high. Most immune markers in serum and milk whey were moderately or highly correlated; however, IgA was negatively correlated. Infants in the highest quartile of IL-13 in both serum and whey were at a higher risk of AS (RR = 3.02 and 4.18; respectively) compared to infants in the first quartile. High levels of IL-5 in serum and whey was also identified as a risk. In addition, increased secretory IgA and TGF-β1 in breast milk reduced the risks of AS. Conclusions Maternal serum and whey levels of IL-5 and IL-13 are risk markers for AS; whey IgA and TGF-β1 seem to be

  3. Maternal immune markers in serum during gestation and in breast milk and the risk of asthma-like symptoms at ages 6 and 12 months: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Karmaus, Wilfried; Yousefi, Mitra; Zhang, Hongmei; Liu, Jihong; Gangur, Venugopal

    2012-07-17

    The role of breast milk on the risk of childhood asthma is in dispute. The aim of this prospective study is to determine the relationship of immune markers in maternal serum during gestation and breast milk to asthma-like symptoms (AS) in infancy. Pregnant women were recruited in Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina. Blood (median: three weeks before delivery) and breast milk (three weeks after delivery) samples were collected. Concentrations of interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), CCL11, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and immunoglobulin (Ig) A in both maternal serum and milk whey were determined via immunoassays. Asthma-like symptoms (AS) of the infant were ascertained at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Generalized estimating equations assessed relative risks (RRs) of immune markers for repeated measurements of AS, considering intra-individual correlations and adjusting for confounders. To provide comparable risk estimates, quartiles of the immune markers were used, except for IL-5 in whey and IgA in serum, which were dichotomized. Of 178 women, 161 provided blood and 115 breast milk samples. IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, and CCL11 in serum and in whey were not further considered for the statistical analyses since the proportion of non-detectable values was high. Most immune markers in serum and milk whey were moderately or highly correlated; however, IgA was negatively correlated. Infants in the highest quartile of IL-13 in both serum and whey were at a higher risk of AS (RR = 3.02 and 4.18; respectively) compared to infants in the first quartile. High levels of IL-5 in serum and whey was also identified as a risk. In addition, increased secretory IgA and TGF-β1 in breast milk reduced the risks of AS. Maternal serum and whey levels of IL-5 and IL-13 are risk markers for AS; whey IgA and TGF-β1 seem to be protective. Only focusing on breast milk

  4. Elevated triglycerides may affect cystatin C recovery.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Samantha H; Butts, Katherine; Filler, Guido

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of triglyceride concentration on cystatin C (CysC) measurements. Serum samples collected from 10 nephrology patients, 43 to 78years of age, were air centrifuged to separate aqueous and lipid layers. The lipid layer from each patient was pooled together to create a mixture with a high triglyceride concentration. This pooled lipid layer was mixed with each of the ten patient aqueous layers in six different ratios. Single factor ANOVA was used to assess whether CysC recovery was affected by triglyceride levels. Regression analysis was used to develop a formula to correct for the effect of triglycerides on CysC measurement, based on samples from 6 randomly chosen patients from our study population. The formula was validated with the 4 remaining samples. The analysis revealed a significant reduction in measured CysC with increasing concentrations of triglycerides (Pearson r=-0.56, p<0.0001). The following formula was developed to correct for the effect of triglycerides: Subsequent Bland-Altman plots revealed a bias (mean±1 standard deviation [SD]) of -3.7±15.6% for the data used to generate the correction formula and a bias of 3.52±9.38% for the validation set. Our results suggest that triglyceride concentrations significantly impact cystatin C measurements and that this effect may be corrected in samples that cannot be sufficiently clarified by air centrifugation using the equation that we developed. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  6. No effect of tocolytic therapy with atosiban on maternal serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in threatened preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Vitoratos, N; Kountouris, A; Makrakis, E; Papadias, K; Creatsas, G

    2007-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of intravenous administration of tocolytic therapy with an oxytocin antagonist drug (atosiban) on maternal serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in women with threatened preterm labor. The study population consisted of 46 women with a singleton pregnancy admitted to our department with a diagnosis of threatened preterm labor at between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation. Atosiban was administered to all women. Nine women (group A) progressed to delivery within 48 hours of admission. The remaining 37 women were divided in two groups: group B consisted of 16 women who remained undelivered at 48 hours but experienced delivery within 7 days and group C consisted of 21 women who did not deliver within the next 7 days. Maternal serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels were assessed in duplicate by a high sensitivity ELISA kit on patient admission and again at the end of treatment with atosiban (36 hours post-admission). Serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations on admission were significantly higher in group A compared to those found in group B (p = 0.01) and group C (p = 0.04). Comparisons of serum IL-6 values on admission and at 36 hours after the initiation of atosiban treatment were comparable in group A (p = 0.95), group B (p = 0.39), and group C (p = 0.79). Similarly serum TNF-alpha levels on admission were not significantly different compared to those at the end of treatment in all groups (p = 0.85 for group A, p = 0.45 for group B, and p = 0.21 for group C). No effect of tocolytic therapy with atosiban was observed on serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels in women with threatened preterm labor.

  7. Maternal serum and fetal cord-blood ischemia-modified albumin concentrations in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seshadri Reddy, Varikasuvu; Duggina, Pragathi; Vedhantam, Mrudula; Manne, Munikumar; Varma, Neelakant; Nagaram, Srinivas

    2017-08-29

    A meta-analysis of maternal serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and fetal cord-blood IMA concentrations in normal pregnancy (NP) compared to non-pregnant healthy controls (HC) and in preeclampsia (PE) compared with normal pregnant controls were studied. All major databases were searched for eligible studies. We included eight studies comparing serum IMA between NP and HC, 14 studies comparing serum IMA between PE and NP and five studies comparing cord-blood IMA between PE and NP groups. Meta-analyses on these included studies were performed using Review Manager 5.3. Pooled-overall effect size as standardized mean difference (SMD), publication bias, subgroup, and sensitivity analysis data were generated. Random-effects meta-analysis indicated a significant increase in serum IMA in the NP group (SMD = 0.98, p = .01) and the PE group (SMD = 0.94, p < .0001) as compared with HC and NP groups, respectively. And, the cord-blood IMA has been found to be significantly increased in PE (SMD = 6.51, p < .0001) compared with the NP group. This meta-analysis, the first of its kind showed that the increased serum IMA concentrations were indicative of increased oxidative stress in NP and PE. Measurement of maternal serum IMA and fetal cord-blood IMA concentrations were useful as simple, novel, and inexpensive markers of oxidative stress (OS) status in PE patients. Future large-scale studies are needed to explore IMA in relationship to the disease severity in PE.

  8. Low maternal serum unconjugated estriol during prenatal screening as an indication of placental steroid sulfatase deficiency and X-linked ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Keren, D F; Canick, J A; Johnson, M Z; Schaldenbrand, J D; Haning, R V; Hackett, R

    1995-04-01

    Placental sulfatase deficiency is an X-linked metabolic defect that occurs in about 1 in 2,000 to 5,000 males. It is associated with congenital ichthyosis. In this report, the authors document a case of placental sulfatase deficiency detected during routine prenatal screening of maternal serum by the triple test: serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). At 16-weeks gestation, her AFP was 20.9 IU/mL (multiple of the median [MOM] 0.83), hCG was 14.4 mIU/L (MOM 0.42) and her uE3 was 0.01 nmol/L (MOM 0.01). The extremely low uE3 indicated a possible placental sulfatase deficiency, congenital adrenal hypoplasia, or other unknown abnormality. On receiving this information, the obstetrician obtained a family history that was consistent with ichthyosis in the maternal grandfather and his siblings. Biochemical analysis of placenta documented the lack of sulfatase activity. This case illustrates that an extremely low level of maternal uE3 should prompt investigation of the family for evidence of X-linked ichthyosis associated with placental sulfatase deficiency.

  9. Toxicity and sister-chromatid exchange in cultured preimplantation mouse embryos exposed to serum from cyclophosphamide-treated rats: possible implications for testing maternal serum genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Porter, A J; Singh, S M

    1988-01-01

    We have worked out a simplified method to detect embryotoxicity associated with blood serum. Here we report results for serum from female rats treated with 0, 25, 250 and 500 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CP) as a control experiment in order to evaluate the feasibility of this protocol. Eight-cell mouse embryos were cultured for 48 h in medium supplemented with 10% rat serum and 10(-6) M 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Colchicine (0.2 microM) was added 3 h prior to harvesting the cells for chromosome preparation, and differentially stained sister chromatids were visualized after fluorescence-plus-Giemsa staining. Rats treated with increasing doses of CP yielded serum which had increasing mutagenic [as evaluated by sister-chromatid exchange (SCE)] and toxic effects on mouse embryos during 48-h in vitro cultures. The SCEs/cell (based on 40 chromosomes) ranged from 17.6 +/- 0.31 (mean +/- SE) for serum from control (0 mg/kg CP) rats to 40.4 +/- 0.22 for serum from rats given 250 mg/kg CP. Serum from rats treated with 500 mg/kg CP was essentially lethal on mouse embryos. The percentage embryo survival decreased from 79.8 +/- 0.31% (mean +/- SE) for serum from control rats to 8.4 +/- 0.42% for serum from rats given 500 mg/kg CP. These results indicate that after appropriate testing, this protocol could be used for the possible detection of embryo genotoxicity associated with any human serum. If successful, the evaluation of mouse embryo survival and SCE in the presence of human female sera could become an 'early warning' system for possible reproductive problems (e.g. recurrent abortions, low birth weight and malformations) of unknown aetiologies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Small-for-Gestational Age Births in White Women1–3

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Catov, Janet M.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Parrott, Meredith S.; Roberts, James M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, but its association with fetal growth restriction remains uncertain. We sought to elucidate the association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk of small-for-gestational age birth (SGA) and explore the association between maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and the risk of SGA. We conducted a nested case-control study of nulliparous pregnant women with singleton pregnancies who delivered SGA infants (n = 77 white and n = 34 black) or non-SGA infants (n = 196 white and n = 105 black). Women were followed from <16 wk gestation to delivery. Women's banked sera at <22 wk were newly measured for 25(OH)D and DNA extracted for VDR genotyping. SGA was defined as live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age. After confounder adjustment, there was a U-shaped relation between serum 25(OH)D and risk of SGA among white mothers, with the lowest risk from 60 to 80 nmol/L. Compared with serum 25(OH)D 37.5–75 nmol/L, SGA odds ratios (95% CI) for levels <37.5 and >75 nmol/L were 7.5 (1.8, 31.9) and 2.1 (1.2, 3.8), respectively. There was no relation between 25(OH)D and SGA risk among black mothers. One SNP in the VDR gene among white women and 3 SNP in black women were significantly associated with SGA. Our results suggest that vitamin D has a complex relation with fetal growth that may vary by race. PMID:20200114

  11. Triglycerides: Why Do They Matter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cholesterol test (sometimes called a lipid panel or lipid profile). You'll have to fast for nine to 12 hours before blood can be drawn for an accurate triglyceride measurement. Triglycerides and cholesterol are separate types of lipids that circulate in your blood. Triglycerides store unused ...

  12. The Paraoxonase 1 Arylesterase Activity, Total Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Vitamin C Levels in Maternal Serum, and Their Relation to Birth Weight of Newborn.

    PubMed

    Mogarekar, Mukund Ramchandra; Dhabe, Mahendra G; Gujrathi, Chanchal C

    2016-10-01

    Aim of this study is to find out clinical relevance of estimating PON1 arylesterase activity, total oxidative stress (TOS), nitric oxide (NO), and vitamin C levels in maternal serum for prediction of birth weight of newborn. We have investigated the PON1 arylesterase activity, TOS, NO, vitamin C, total protein, and albumin levels in 56 postnatal clinic patients having newborn weighing <2500 gm (low birth weight) and compared with 56 postnatal clinic patients having newborn weighing >2500 gm. Samples were collected immediately after delivery. PON1 arylesterase activity levels show significant decrease in cases as compared to controls (93.27 ± 13.76 kU/l vs. 112.77 ± 9.42 kU/l). Nitric oxide (nitrate + nitrite) levels are also found to be significantly decreased in cases with respect to controls (22.89 ± 2.65 umol/l vs. 24.73 ± 3.80 umol/l). Total oxidative stress is significantly increased in cases than in control subjects (23.34 ± 2.64 μmol H2O2 equiv./l vs. ± 21.43 ± 2.47 μmol H2O2 equiv/l). Vitamin C levels are also significantly decreased in cases as compared to controls (1.23 ± 0.25 mg/dl vs. 1.34 ± 0.28 mg/dl). Positive correlation between neonatal birth weight and maternal serum PON1 arylesterase activity (r = 0.682, p < 0.05) while negative correlation is obtained between neonatal birth weight and maternal serum oxidative stress (r = -0.478, p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis is applied for assessing predictive utility which demonstrated a significant association of birth weight with PON1 arylesterase activity (AUC = 0.960, Naglekerke's R (2) = 0.793, p < 0.05). Decreased arylesterase activity and antioxidant vitamin C levels with increased total oxidative stress in maternal serum may be considered as the additional risk factors for the development of low birth weight newborn.

  13. [Determination of immunoglobulins IgG, IgM and IgA in maternal serum in patients with intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Möller, U; Seewald, H J; Groh, A; Ader, B

    1987-01-01

    Immunoglobulin IgG, IgM, and IgA were analysed in maternal serum of 33 patients with intrauterine growth retardation and 30 patients without hypotrophic newborns. The estimations of the immunoglobulins were carried out by means of single radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini and coworkers. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients. Therefore IgG, IgM, and IgA are no additional parameters for estimation of the placental function of the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Decreased liver triglyceride content in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation: role of hepatic triglyceride utilization

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Rani J.; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Browne, Veron; Mendez, Claudia; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Pontiggia, Laura; D’mello, Anil P.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that protein restriction throughout gestation and lactation reduced liver triglyceride content in adult rat offspring. The mechanism(s) mediating the decrease in liver triglyceride content are not understood. The objective of the current study was to use a new group of pregnant animals and their offspring and determine the contribution of increased triglyceride utilization via the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride secretory pathways to the reduction in liver triglyceride content. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a low protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were weaned onto laboratory chow on day 28 and sacrificed on day 65. Liver triglyceride content was reduced in male, but not female, low protein offspring both in the fed and fasted states. The reduction was accompanied by a trend towards higher liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a activity suggesting increased fatty acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix. However, medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase activity within the mitochondrial matrix, expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, and plasma levels of β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between low protein and control offspring indicating a lack of change in fatty acid oxidation. Hepatic triglyceride secretion, assessed by blocking peripheral triglyceride utilization and measuring serum triglyceride accumulation rate, and the activity of microsomal transfer protein were similar between low protein and control offspring. Since enhanced triglyceride utilization is not a significant contributor, the decrease in liver triglyceride content in male low protein offspring is likely due to alterations in liver fatty acid transport or triglyceride biosynthesis. PMID:25641378

  15. Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy: relation to newborn anthropometric parameters and maternal tobacco smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gajewska, Joanna; Mazur, Joanna; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Maciejewski, Tomasz M.; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of the first, second and third trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations with neonatal anthropometric parameters. The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on PAPP-A level was also studied. Material and methods One hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into smoking and tobacco-abstinent groups. Serum PAPP-A level was measured with the KRYPTOR rapid random-access immunoassay analyzer. The relationship between PAPP-A and newborn related outcome as well as markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Results Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A concentration was positively correlated with birth weight in the first (β = 31.6; p < 0.001), second (β = 10.6; p < 0.05), and third (β = 4.6; p < 0.001) trimester of gestation. A significant association between PAPP-A and birth body length and head circumference in the second (β = 0.02; p < 0.05) and third trimester (β = 0.01; p < 0.01) was also found. The serum PAPP-A levels were significantly lower in the smoking than in the tobacco-abstinent group in each trimester of pregnancy (p < 0.001). The largest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on PAPP-A level was found in the second (β = –1.2; p = 0.004) and third trimester (β = –2.6; p = 0.001). Conclusions Maternal serum PAPP-A levels during gestation might be significant predictors for birth weight. Increased PAPP-A concentrations in the second and third trimester appeared to also be predictive for newborn body length and head circumference. Smoking alters maternal PAPP-A levels in all trimesters, with the greatest impact related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. PMID:27904516

  16. Changes in serum concentrations of maternal poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances over the course of pregnancy and predictors of exposure in a multiethnic cohort of Cincinnati, Ohio pregnant women during 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kayoko; Wong, Lee-Yang; Chen, Aimin; Dunbar, Carmen; Webster, Glenys M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Calafat, Antonia M

    2014-08-19

    Data on predictors of gestational exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the United States are limited. To fill in this gap, in a multiethnic cohort of Ohio pregnant women recruited in 2003-2006, we measured perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and six additional PFASs in maternal serum at ∼16 weeks gestation (N = 182) and delivery (N = 78), and in umbilical cord serum (N = 202). We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal serum PFASs concentrations and demographic, perinatal, and lifestyle factors. PFASs concentrations in maternal sera and in their infants' cord sera were highly correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficients = 0.73-0.95). In 71 maternal-infant dyads, unadjusted geometric mean (GM) concentrations (95% confidence interval) (in μg/L) in maternal serum at delivery of PFOS [8.50 (7.01-9.58)] and PFOA [3.43 (3.01-3.90)] were significantly lower than at 16 weeks gestation [11.57 (9.90-13.53], 4.91 (4.32-5.59), respectively], but higher than in infants' cord serum [3.32 (2.84-3.89), 2.85 (2.51-3.24), respectively] (P < 0.001). Women who were parous, with a history of previous breastfeeding, black, or in the lowest income category had significantly lower PFOS and PFOA GM concentrations than other women. These data suggest transplacental transfer of PFASs during pregnancy and nursing for the first time in a U.S. birth cohort.

  17. The independent relationship between triglycerides and coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Alan; Hokanson, John E

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to review epidemiologic studies to reassess whether serum levels of triglycerides should be considered independently of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as a predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results: We systematically reviewed population-based cohort studies in which baseline serum levels of triglycerides and HDL-C were included as explanatory variables in multivariate analyses with the development of CHD (coronary events or coronary death) as dependent variable. A total of 32 unique reports describing 38 cohorts were included. The independent association between elevated triglycerides and risk of CHD was statistically significant in 16 of 30 populations without pre-existing CHD. Among populations with diabetes mellitus or pre-existing CHD, or the elderly, triglycerides were not significantly independently associated with CHD in any of 8 cohorts. Triglycerides and HDL-C were mutually exclusive predictors of coronary events in 12 of 20 analyses of patients without pre-existing CHD. Conclusions: Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between triglycerides and the development of primary CHD independently of HDL-C. Evidence of an inverse relationship between triglycerides and HDL-C suggests that both should be considered in CHD risk estimation and as targets for intervention. PMID:19436658

  18. First Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Using Biochemical Markers PAPP-A and Free β-hCG for Down Syndrome, Patau Syndrome and Edward Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shiefa, S; Amargandhi, M; Bhupendra, J; Moulali, S; Kristine, T

    2013-01-01

    The first trimester screening programme offers a noninvasive option for the early detection of aneuploidy pregnancies. This screening is done by a combination of two biochemical markers i.e. serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at 11 + 0-13 + 6 weeks of gestation. A beneficial consequence of screening is the early diagnosis or trisomies 21, 18 and 13. At 11 + 0-13 + 6 weeks, the relative prevalence of trisomies 18 and 13 to trisomy 21 are found to be one to three and one to seven, respectively. All three trisomies are associated with increased maternal age, increased fetal NT and decreased PAPP-A, but in trisomy 21 serum free β-hCG is increased whereas in trisomies 18 and 13 free β-hCG is decreased.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants measured in maternal serum and offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes--a prospective study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Marin; Hansen, Susanne; Olsen, Sjúrður Fróði; Haug, Line Småstuen; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi

    2014-07-01

    Fetal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adverse neurodevelopment, but few studies have had follow-up beyond childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of maternal serum concentrations of two perfluoroalkyl acids (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) with offspring behavioural and affective disorders and scholastic achievement in a prebirth cohort study with 20 years of follow up. Between 1988 and 1989 pregnant women (n=965) were recruited for the prebirth Danish Fetal Origins 1988 (DaFO88) Cohort in Aarhus, Denmark. Perfluoroalkyl acids, PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and HCB were quantified in serum from week 30 of gestation (n=876 for perfluoroalkyl acids/872 for PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB). Offspring were followed up through national registries until 2011. We evaluated associations between maternal serum concentrations of these POPs and offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes, defined as: first admission diagnosis or prescription of medication until age >20 for (1) ADHD; (2) depression; and (3) scholastic achievement defined as mean grade on a standardized written examination given in the 9th grade (final exams of compulsory school in Denmark). Maternal concentrations of organochlorine substances and perfluoroalkyl acids were higher than present day levels. During the follow-up period there were 27 (3.1%) cases of ADHD and 104 (11.9%) cases of depression; the mean scholastic achievement was 6.7 (SD 2.3). Overall we found no association for maternal levels of any of the measured pollutants with offspring behavioural and affective disorders or with scholastic achievement. Our analyses based on biomarkers from a cohort of over 800 pregnant women with long-term close to complete follow-up through national registries showed little evidence of a programming effect of PFOA, PFOS, PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and

  20. Screening for trisomy 21 in twins using first trimester ultrasound and maternal serum biochemistry in a one-stop clinic: a review of three years experience.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of screening for fetal trisomy 21 in the first trimester of twin pregnancies by a combination of maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasonography. Three year retrospective review of screening performance. District General Hospital maternity unit. All women booked to receive routine antenatal care at Harold Wood Hospital between 1 June 1998 and 30th September 2001. The population included 13,940 women of all ages presenting with pregnancies between 10 weeks 3 days and 13 weeks 6 days gestation. Of these, 230 had a twin pregnancy. Women booked into the clinic were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Women at increased risk of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 or trisomy 13/18 (>/=1 in 300 at sampling) were offered counselling and an invasive diagnostic procedure. Follow up of the outcome of all pregnancies was carried out. For women who on examination were at 14 weeks of gestation or greater, or for women presenting as late bookers beyond 14 weeks, screening was performed in the same time frame using only maternal serum free beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein. The first trimester detection rate for trisomy 21 and all aneuploides, false positive rate, uptake of screening, uptake of invasive testing in women identified at increased risk and fetal loss rates after invasive testing. Overall, 97.4% of the women with twins (224/230) accepted first trimester screening. The rate of detection of trisomy 21 was 75% (3/4). Fetal death at presentation was found in 3.4% of fetuses (16/460). Of women who accepted screening, 4.3% (10/230) presented too late for fetal nuchal translucency measurement and 10.0% of women (23/230) presented too early. A risk for trisomy 21 was calculated for each fetus based on the individual fetal nuchal translucency thickness and the maternal biochemistry. The false positive rate among those eligible for

  1. [MODELS OF CLINICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF CELL FREE FETAL DNA IN THE MATERNAL SERUM SCREENING TEST-ANALYSIS].

    PubMed

    Yankova, M; Chaveeva, P; Stratieva, V

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening by definition is a way of identifying pregnancies, with a high enough risk to specific fetal damage as to justify the subsequent invasive diagnosis among the seemingly normal pregnancies. [1] The aim of the prenatal screening test is to reach the high diagnostic frequency (DR > 95%), with low false-positive rate (FPR < 1%). Several non-invasive prenatal tests (NIPT) are widely adopted and use in clinical practice: 1st Trimester Combined screening (First trimester Combined Screening) and 2nd trimester biochemical screening (Second trimester biochemical screening) and in the last few years through screening Fetal DNA in Maternal serum (cfDNA screening). Since the introduction of the sfDNA test were examined and discussed the results of several ways of application: (1) as a primary screening method without preceding the result of 1st trimester combined screening for chromosomal abnormalities, (2) as a contingent test after 1st trimester combined screening in high risk pregnancies (> 1:100) (3) as a contingent test after 1st trimester combined screening, when the calculated risk is between ( 1:10 to 1:2500). The purpose of the study: to compare the results of different ways of application screening through cfDNA: detection rate (DR) for Tri21, Tri18 and Tri13, procentage of invasive diagnostics and cost-effectiveness ratio of cfDNA test in comparison with the 1st trimester combined screening. To establish the most suitable algorithm for application of cfDNA test. Analyzed were the results of several randomized multi-center clinical studies whose data are processed through a meta-analysis. cfDNA-test has a higher DR for Tri21 for lower FPR, compared to the combined screening in 1st trimester (cfDNA-DR 99%, 1st trimester screening-DR 96% and 0.4%FPR, respectively FPR 5%), but although it is with better results and reduces the incidence of invasive tests, does not justify the significant difference in price-performance ratio. On the other hand cf

  2. Fasting and nonfasting triglycerides in cardiovascular and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Piťha, J; Kovář, J; Blahová, T

    2015-01-01

    Moderately elevated plasma/serum triglycerides (2-10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for cardiovascular disease or presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Extremely elevated triglycerides (more than 10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for pancreatitis and lipemia retinalis. The concentration of triglycerides is regulated by many genetic and nongenetic factors. Extremely elevated triglycerides not provoked by nutritional factors, especially inappropriate alcohol intake are more likely to have a monogenic cause. On the contrary, mildly to moderately elevated triglycerides are often caused by polygenic disorders; these could be also associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Concentration of triglycerides is also closely interconnected with presence of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins, impaired reverse cholesterol transport and more atherogenic small LDL particles. In general, there is tight association between triglycerides and many other metabolic factors including intermediate products of lipoprotein metabolism which are frequently atherogenic. Therefore, reliable evaluation of the independent role of triglycerides especially in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease is difficult. In individual cases values of HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol (total minus HDL cholesterol), non-HDL/nonLDL cholesterol (total minus HDL minus LDL cholesterol, especially in nonfasting status), atherogenic index of plasma and/or apolipoprotein B could help in decisions regarding aggressiveness of treatment.

  3. Effect of 30% nutrient restriction in the first half of gestation on maternal and fetal baboon serum amino acid concentrations

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Thomas J.; Wu, Guoyao; Nijland, Mark J.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Jansson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms linking maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) to intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and programming of adult disease remain to be established. The impact of controlled MNR on maternal and fetal amino acid metabolism has not been studied in non-human primates. We hypothesised that MNR in pregnant baboons decreases fetal amino acid availability by mid-gestation. We determined maternal and fetal circulating amino acid concentrations at 90 d gestation (90dG, term 184dG) in control baboons fed ad libitum (C, n 8) or 70% of C (MNR, n 6). Before pregnancy, C and MNR body weights and circulating amino acids were similar. At 90dG, MNR mothers had lower body weight than C mothers (P<0·05). Fetal and placental weights were similar between the groups. MNR reduced maternal blood urea N (BUN), fetal BUN and fetal BUN:creatinine. Except for histidine and lysine in the C and MNR groups and glutamine in the MNR group, circulating concentrations of all amino acids were lower at 90dG compared with pre-pregnancy. Maternal circulating amino acids at 90dG were similar in the MNR and C groups. In contrast, MNR fetal β-alanine, glycine and taurine all increased. In conclusion, maternal circulating amino acids were maintained at normal levels and fetal amino acid availability was not impaired in response to 30% global MNR in pregnant baboons. However, MNR weight gain was reduced, suggesting adaptation in maternal–fetal resource allocation in an attempt to maintain normal fetal growth. We speculate that these adaptive mechanisms may fail later in gestation when fetal nutrient demands increase rapidly, resulting in IUGR. PMID:23046718

  4. Three-dimensional placental volume and mean grey value: Normal ranges in a Turkish population and correlation with maternal serum biochemistry and Doppler parameters.

    PubMed

    Pala, H G; Artunc Ulkumen, B; Uyar, Y; Koyuncu, F M; Bulbul Baytur, Y

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements of placenta at 11-13(6) weeks' gestation and maternal serum levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (fβhCG), Doppler parameters in early pregnancy. This prospective study consisted of 334 singleton pregnancies at 11-13(6) weeks' gestation. Placental volume and placental volumetric mean grey values were evaluated. The placental volume (cm(3)) was analysed using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL) imaging program and 3D histogram was used to calculate the volumetric mean grey value (%). Mean maternal age was 28.35 ± 7.55. Mean gestational age was 12.29 ± 0.68 weeks. Placental volume was 77.04 ± 35.74 cm(3). Mean grey value of the placenta was 34.38 ± 8.02%. Correlation analysis revealed that placental volume was significantly correlated with the crown-rump length (r = 0.173, p = 0.002), gestational week (r = 0.116, p = 0.036), ductus venosus pulsatility index (r = -0.101, p = 0.04) and maternal weight (r = 0.099, p = 0.037). There was a significant relation between the mean grey value of the placenta and maternal age (r = 0.131, p = 0.02), nuchal translucency (r = -0.109, p = 0.048), PAPP-A (r = 0.108, p = 0.04) and fβhCG (r = 0.104, p = 0.042). Volumetry of the placenta can be carried out with a high percentage of 1st trimester pregnancies. Volumetry during the 1st trimester could be helpful because of the less advanced state of placentation. This examination is easy to perform and the measurements can be acquired correctly and quickly.

  5. Supplementation of metabolizable protein during late gestation and fetal number impact ewe organ mass, maternal serum hormone and metabolite concentrations, and conceptus measurements.

    PubMed

    Swanson, T J; Lekatz, L A; Van Emon, M L; Perry, G A; Schauer, C S; Maddock Carlin, K R; Hammer, C J; Vonnahme, K A

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effects of maternal metabolizable protein (MP) supplementation during late gestation on serum hormone and metabolites and organ masses, multiparous ewes (n = 45) carrying singletons or twins were allotted randomly (within pregnancy group) to 1 of 3 treatments: 60% (MP60), 80% (MP80), or 100% (MP100) of MP requirements. Blood samples were drawn before the initiation of diets (day 100) and before slaughter (day 130) for chemistry panel analysis and weekly for hormone analysis including progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2). At day 130, ewe organ masses were recorded. Despite being fed isocaloric diets, MP60 ewes gained less weight throughout pregnancy compared with MP80 and MP100 ewes which were similar. Although diet did not impact E2 or P4 concentrations, ewes carrying twins had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of both as gestation advanced. Albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, and total protein were reduced (P < 0.05) in MP60 compared with MP100 ewes near term. There was a diet by fetal number interaction (P = 0.03) for lactate dehydrogenase. Twin-carrying MP80 ewes had greater lactate dehydrogenase compared with all other groups on day 130 of gestation. Ewes that were fed MP80 had greater body weight on day 130 of gestation compared with MP60 ewes. Kidney and heart weights were lighter in MP60 ewes compared with MP80 ewes. There was a maternal diet by fetal number interaction (P = 0.05) on fetal weight per unit empty ewe body weight. In ewes carrying singletons, MP60 ewes supported less fetal weight compared with MP100. In contrast, MP60 ewes supported more fetal mass compared with MP100 ewes when carrying twins. The level of protein, and not just total energy, in the diet appears to impact some aspects of the maternal system. Moreover, it appears some measurements of mobilizing maternal body resources are enhanced in ewes carrying twins.

  6. The relationship between low maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and gestational diabetes mellitus according to the severity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Erol, Rumeysa Selvinaz; Kuzu, Idris; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2013-05-01

    To assess the relationship between low maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and gestational diabetes mellitus in Turkish pregnant women according to the severity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and assess intact parathyroid hormone levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and controls with low and sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. We analyzed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels in 234 women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 168 controls. To define the deficiency status, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were further classified into severely deficient, deficient, insufficient and sufficient groups. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus had significantly lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared to controls (30.8±16.3 vs. 36.0±16.2 nmol/L). However, when subgroups of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were analyzed, gestational diabetes mellitus was significantly more common only in women with severely deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. After adjusting for covariates, only severely deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were independently associated with an increased relative risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. The relative risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in women with insufficient and deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels was not statistically significant. Intact parathyroid hormone concentrations were also significantly higher in women with gestational diabetes mellitus compared to the controls (45.3±26.2 vs. 38.7±27.6 pg/ml). The results obtained from this study provide novel data indicating that only severely deficient maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are significantly associated with an elevated relative risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, even after adjusting for established risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  7. Comparison of serum maternal adiponectin concentrations in women with isolated intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine growth retardation concomitant with pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Büke, Barış; Topçu, Hasan Onur; Engin-Üstün, Yaprak; Danışman, Nuri

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare serum maternal adiponectin concentrations in pregnant women with isolated intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and in pregnant women with IUGR concomitant with pre-eclampsia (IUGRcwPE). Material and Methods Thirty patients with isolated IUGR (group 1), 20 patients with IUGRcwPE (group 2), and 30 healthy controls (group 3) between age 18–40 were included into the study. Venous blood samples of those patients were obtained in the starving state. Adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum obtained after centrifugation. To find the differences between the groups, student t-test and one-way ANOVA statistical methods were used. Results There were no differences between the groups in terms of age, body mass index, gestational age, and parity (p>0.05). The values of amniotic fluid index (p<0.001) and weight gained during pregnancy (p=0.017) were significantly different when compared among the three groups. The mean concentrations of adiponectin were 94.041 pg/mL in the IUGR group, 55.717 pg/mL in the IUGRcwPE group, and 51.831 pg/mL in the control group. Both of the differences between the IUGR and IUGRcwPE groups (p value; <0.05) and IUGR and control groups were statistically significant (p value; <0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the IUGRcwPE group and control group (p>0.05). Conclusion We found that IUGR increased maternal serum adiponectin concentrations; however, this rise does not occur in pregnant women with IUGRcwPE. PMID:25317046

  8. Maternal weight correction of maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG MoM when screening for trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin; Bindra, Renu; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2003-10-01

    To assess the suitability of either the log-linear or reciprocal-linear regression procedure for maternal weight correction of biochemical marker MoMs in the first trimester. Data from two prospective first-trimester OSCAR screening programmes including 32,010 women with first-trimester maternal serum-free beta-hCG and PAPP-A measured by the Kryptor analyser was analysed by regression analysis to provide parameters for the log-linear and reciprocal-linear MoM correction procedures. Assessment was made by goodness of fit to the data. The impact on detection rate and false-positive rate of the different correction procedures was assessed using statistical modelling with biochemical markers alone. Both log-linear and reciprocal-linear correction were shown to fit the data well. For free beta-hCG, the log-linear procedure was marginally superior to the reciprocal-linear procedure (r2=0.986 v 0.980), whilst for PAPP-A the reciprocal-linear procedure was marginally better (r2=0.991 v 0.985). Log-linear correction reduced the variance for both markers more than did the reciprocal-linear procedure. For free beta-hCG, the sd was reduced from 0.2675 to 0.2605 and for PAPP-A, it was reduced from 0.2545 to 0.2336. Correcting for maternal weight was shown to reduce the population false-positive rate from 7.0 to 6.5%, whilst maintaining the same detection rate at a risk cut-off of 1 in a 100. At individual levels, a two-fold variation in risk was demonstrated depending upon the individual's weight. To provide accurate individual patient-specific risks for trisomy 21, maternal weight must be taken into account and should be a mandatory data item for screening programmes. Maternal weight correction in the first trimester using free beta-hCG and PAPP-A can be best achieved using the log-linear procedure. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. DETERMINATION OF MATERNAL SERUM ZINC, IRON, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DURING PREGNANCY IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY.

    PubMed

    Khoushabi, Fahimeh; Shadan, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ali; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2016-04-01

    Trace elements and specially minerals are critical for the development of fetus. Many minerals are transferred to the fetus for fetal stores in the latter part of the pregnancy. It has been shown that various trace elements such as Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium are metabolically interrelated and there is alteration in their concentration during pregnancy. Beyond pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and outcome of pregnancy. To study the levels of trace elements namely zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in maternal and umbilical cord blood and their association with pregnancy outcome. Sixty pregnant women in Zabol, Iran were selected from those who had registered their names for the prenatal care and who had followed up till the 3rd trimester of pregnancy ending in child birth. Biochemical parameters analyzed with help of the biochemical laboratory. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. The mean biochemical profile such, serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron in the pregnant women were as follow: in the 1st trimester 8.3, 1.9, 74.9 and 74.4 µg/dl respectively; in the 2nd trimester 8.5, 1.9, 73.1 and 79.3 µg/dl, respectively; in the 3rd trimester 8.6, 1.9, 68.4, and 82.2 µg/dl, respectively. In the umbilical cord blood, the mean serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron were 8.5, 1.9, 84.1, and 89.8 µg/dl, respectively. The mean serum calcium and magnesium during the three trimesters of pregnancy were not significantly different from that in the umbilical cord blood, while the mean serum zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood were significantly different (p<0.05) in the three trimester of pregnancy. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.1 kg and 12% of neonates showed low birth weight. Our findings showed that, except magnesium, the profile of other biochemical variables, namely, calcium, zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood of the neonates with normal birth

  10. Association between Maternal Serum Concentrations of Angiopoietin-like Protein 2 in Early Pregnancy and Subsequent Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Lu, Shan; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background: A recent study reported a positive association between elevated serum levels of angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) and the development of type 2 diabetes in a general population. However, the relationship of serum ANGPTL2 levels with the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not been reported to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of maternal serum ANGPTL2 concentrations in the first trimester of pregnancy and to determine whether ANGPTL2 is a biomarker for subsequent GDM development. Methods: We conducted a prospective, nested case-control study in a pregnancy cohort. First-trimester ANGPTL2 levels were measured using a high-resolution assay in 89 women who subsequently developed GDM and in a random sample of 177 women who remained euglycemic throughout the pregnancy. Median ANGPTL2 levels were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression was used to compute unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for developing GDM among ANGPTL2 quartiles. Results: The serum levels of ANGPTL2 was higher in women with GDM than that in women without GDM (3.06 [2.59, 3.65] ng/ml vs. 2.46 [2.05, 2.96] ng/ml, P = 0.003). Fasting blood glucose was higher in women with GDM than that in women without GDM (5.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L vs. 4.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < 0.001). Glucose challenge test showed that the blood glucose was higher in women with GDM than that in women without GDM (9.1 ± 3.5 mmol/L vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L, P < 0.001). A multivariate model adjusted for baseline characteristics, medical complications, and gestational characteristics revealed that the risk of developing GDM among women in Q4 compared with Q1 was 2.90-fold more likely to develop GDM later in pregnancy. Conclusions: At 11–13 weeks in pregnancies that develop GDM, the serum concentration of ANGPTL2 is increased, and it can be combined with maternal factors to provide effective early screening for GDM. PMID:27647189

  11. DETERMINATION OF MATERNAL SERUM ZINC, IRON, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DURING PREGNANCY IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Khoushabi, Fahimeh; Shadan, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ali; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trace elements and specially minerals are critical for the development of fetus. Many minerals are transferred to the fetus for fetal stores in the latter part of the pregnancy. It has been shown that various trace elements such as Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium are metabolically interrelated and there is alteration in their concentration during pregnancy. Beyond pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and outcome of pregnancy. Aim: To study the levels of trace elements namely zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in maternal and umbilical cord blood and their association with pregnancy outcome. Methods: Sixty pregnant women in Zabol, Iran were selected from those who had registered their names for the prenatal care and who had followed up till the 3rd trimester of pregnancy ending in child birth. Biochemical parameters analyzed with help of the biochemical laboratory. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The mean biochemical profile such, serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron in the pregnant women were as follow: in the 1st trimester 8.3, 1.9, 74.9 and 74.4 µg/dl respectively; in the 2nd trimester 8.5, 1.9, 73.1 and 79.3 µg/dl, respectively; in the 3rd trimester 8.6, 1.9, 68.4, and 82.2 µg/dl, respectively. In the umbilical cord blood, the mean serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron were 8.5, 1.9, 84.1, and 89.8 µg/dl, respectively. The mean serum calcium and magnesium during the three trimesters of pregnancy were not significantly different from that in the umbilical cord blood, while the mean serum zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood were significantly different (p<0.05) in the three trimester of pregnancy. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.1 kg and 12% of neonates showed low birth weight. Our findings showed that, except magnesium, the profile of other biochemical variables, namely, calcium, zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood

  12. A new mutation in the AFP gene responsible for a total absence of alpha feto-protein on second trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Petit, François M; Hébert, Marylise; Picone, Olivier; Brisset, Sophie; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Parisot, Frédéric; Capel, Liliane; Benattar, Clarisse; Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Tachdjian, Gérard; Labrune, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Alpha feto-protein (AFP) is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during the fetal period. During the second trimester of pregnancy, APF and βhCG serum concentrations are commonly used for screening Down syndrome. AFP deficiency is rare (estimated to be 1/105 000 newborns) and only one sequence alteration has previously been reported in the AFP gene. We report a new mutation in exon 5 of the AFP gene, leading to a total absence of AFP on 2nd-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome, confirmed on the amniotic fluid. Despite this, fetal development and birth were normal. After PCR-amplification, the whole AFP gene was sequenced. The new mutation was a guanine to adenine transition in position 543 creating a premature stop codon in position 181. In order to search for eventual modifications of the amniotic fluid profile, proteins were separated by electrophoresis and compared with 10 normal amniotic fluids sampled at the same developmental age (18 weeks). In the amniotic fluid of our patient albumin rate was reduced whereas alpha1 and beta protein fractions were increased, suggesting that AFP deficiency may modify the distribution of protein fractions. This observation emphasizes the complex molecular mechanisms of compensation of serum protein deficiency. Studies on other families with AFP deficiency are necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:18854864

  13. A new mutation in the AFP gene responsible for a total absence of alpha feto-protein on second trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Petit, François M; Hébert, Marylise; Picone, Olivier; Brisset, Sophie; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Parisot, Frédéric; Capel, Liliane; Benattar, Clarisse; Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Tachdjian, Gérard; Labrune, Philippe

    2009-03-01

    Alpha feto-protein (AFP) is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during the fetal period. During the second trimester of pregnancy, APF and betahCG serum concentrations are commonly used for screening Down syndrome. AFP deficiency is rare (estimated to be 1/105,000 newborns) and only one sequence alteration has previously been reported in the AFP gene. We report a new mutation in exon 5 of the AFP gene, leading to a total absence of AFP on 2nd-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome, confirmed on the amniotic fluid. Despite this, fetal development and birth were normal. After PCR-amplification, the whole AFP gene was sequenced. The new mutation was a guanine to adenine transition in position 543 creating a premature stop codon in position 181. In order to search for eventual modifications of the amniotic fluid profile, proteins were separated by electrophoresis and compared with 10 normal amniotic fluids sampled at the same developmental age (18 weeks). In the amniotic fluid of our patient albumin rate was reduced whereas alpha1 and beta protein fractions were increased, suggesting that AFP deficiency may modify the distribution of protein fractions. This observation emphasizes the complex molecular mechanisms of compensation of serum protein deficiency. Studies on other families with AFP deficiency are necessary to confirm this observation.

  14. First trimester screening for trisomy 21 in gestational week 8-10 by ADAM12-S as a maternal serum marker.

    PubMed

    Tørring, Niels; Ball, Susan; Wright, Dave; Sarkissian, Gaïané; Guitton, Marie; Darbouret, Bruno

    2010-10-29

    A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12-S) has previously been reported to be significantly reduced in maternal serum from women with fetal aneuploidy early in the first trimester and to significantly improve the quality of risk assessment for fetal trisomy 21 in prenatal screening. The aim of this study was to determine whether ADAM12-S is a useful serum marker for fetal trisomy 21 using the mixture model. In this case control study ADAM12-S was measured by KRYPTOR ADAM12-S immunoassay in maternal serum from gestational weeks 8 to 11 in 46 samples of fetal trisomy 21 and in 645 controls. Comparison of sensitivity and specificity of first trimester screening for fetal trisomy 21 with or without ADAM12-S included in the risk assessment using the mixture model. The concentration of ADAM12-S increased from week 8 to 11 and was negatively correlated with maternal weight. Log MoM ADAM12-S was positively correlated with log MoM PAPP-A (r = 0.39, P < 0.001), and with log MoM free beta hCG (r = 0.21, P < 0.001). The median ADAM12-S MoM in cases of fetal trisomy 21 in gestational week 8 was 0.66 increasing to approx. 0.9 MoM in week 9 and 10. The use of ADAM12-S along with biochemical markers from the combined test (PAPP-A, free beta hCG) with or without nuchal translucency measurement did not affect the detection rate or false positive rate of fetal aneuploidy as compared to routine screening using PAPP-A and free β-hCG with or without nuchal translucency. The data show moderately decreased levels of ADAM12-S in cases of fetal aneuploidy in gestational weeks 8-11. However, including ADAM12-S in the routine risk does not improve the performance of first trimester screening for fetal trisomy 21.

  15. First trimester screening for trisomy 21 in gestational week 8-10 by ADAM12-S as a maternal serum marker

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12-S) has previously been reported to be significantly reduced in maternal serum from women with fetal aneuploidy early in the first trimester and to significantly improve the quality of risk assessment for fetal trisomy 21 in prenatal screening. The aim of this study was to determine whether ADAM12-S is a useful serum marker for fetal trisomy 21 using the mixture model. Method In this case control study ADAM12-S was measured by KRYPTOR ADAM12-S immunoassay in maternal serum from gestational weeks 8 to 11 in 46 samples of fetal trisomy 21 and in 645 controls. Comparison of sensitivity and specificity of first trimester screening for fetal trisomy 21 with or without ADAM12-S included in the risk assessment using the mixture model. Results The concentration of ADAM12-S increased from week 8 to 11 and was negatively correlated with maternal weight. Log MoM ADAM12-S was positively correlated with log MoM PAPP-A (r = 0.39, P < 0.001), and with log MoM free beta hCG (r = 0.21, P < 0.001). The median ADAM12-S MoM in cases of fetal trisomy 21 in gestational week 8 was 0.66 increasing to approx. 0.9 MoM in week 9 and 10. The use of ADAM12-S along with biochemical markers from the combined test (PAPP-A, free beta hCG) with or without nuchal translucency measurement did not affect the detection rate or false positive rate of fetal aneuploidy as compared to routine screening using PAPP-A and free β-hCG with or without nuchal translucency. Conclusion The data show moderately decreased levels of ADAM12-S in cases of fetal aneuploidy in gestational weeks 8-11. However, including ADAM12-S in the routine risk does not improve the performance of first trimester screening for fetal trisomy 21. PMID:21034452

  16. Effects of a maternal low protein isocaloric diet on milk leptin and progeny serum leptin concentration and appetitive behavior in the first 21 days of neonatal life in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Claudia J; Boeck, Lourdes; Larrea, Fernando; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2008-04-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong metabolic problems. We evaluated effects of maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation on milk quantity and leptin concentration at postnatal day 7, 14, and 21. Control mothers ate 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy and second lactation diet) to enable evaluation of effects influenced by maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation. Milk leptin was not a determinant of pup serum leptin. Pup serum leptin did not inhibit milk appetite at any postnatal age. Pup serum leptin did not correlate with pup adipose tissue. Finally, the normal postnatal leptin rise in pup serum was delayed by prenatal undernutrition. These data suggest that fetal nutrition modifies timing of neonatal leptin surge and may contribute to the development of altered appetite and metabolic disorders in later life.

  17. Development of medians generators for the calculation of MoM for the first-trimester Down syndrome maternal serum markers.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jean-François; Moineau, Marie-Pierre; Richard-Girème, Anouk; Talon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    The Down syndrome risk calculation software, Fast Screen pre I plus, from Thermo Fisher Scientific, converts the First-trimester maternal serum markers concentrations (PAPP-A and hCGβ) into degrees of extreme (DoE). To meet the requirements of the French legislation as well as those of the certified biologists for Down syndrome screening, a conversion tool for DoE into multiple of the median (MoM), intermediate reference value for the screening, was developed. In absence of any median polynomial allowing to obtain MoM easily, the calculations were made first on the basis of the polynomials centiles from the software. The subsequent reviews of the risk algorithms showed the fragility of this approach based on the Gaussian hypothesis. Medians generators, calculated from the data of the Kryptor club's biologists, were established.

  18. Changes in ovine maternal temperature, and serum cortisol and interleukin-6 concentrations after challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kabaroff, L; Boermans, H; Karrow, N A

    2006-08-01

    Major changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy and lactation can have a large impact on the immune and neuroendocrine systems. One of the most significant changes, observed in rats and mice, is hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) in response to inflammation, restraint, and other psychological stressors during late pregnancy and lactation. This attenuation, however, has not been well characterized in ruminant animals and may be relevant to their susceptibility to inflammatory diseases during these periods. Thus, the intent of this study was to characterize responsiveness of the ovine HPAA to inflammatory challenge during pregnancy and lactation. Ewes from early (33 d), middle (55 d), and late (138 d) pregnancy, as well as early lactation (10 d), were challenged i.v. with a bolus dose of 400 ng of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg of BW or saline. A corresponding group of nonpregnant ewes was also challenged with LPS to serve as positive control animals for each pregnancy and lactation study. Responsiveness of the HPAA was assessed by measuring the 4-h change in serum cortisol concentration after LPS challenge. The cortisol increase after LPS challenge was elevated (P < 0.01) in pregnant ewes during late pregnancy over that of nonpregnant animals. In contrast, the characteristic temperature response associated with systemic LPS challenge was decreased (P < 0.01) during early pregnancy and lactation compared with nonpregnant or nonlactating animals. Serum IL-6 concentrations were measured to assess whether changes in HPAA responsiveness during pregnancy or lactation were attributed to changes in proinflammatory signaling to the HPAA. Interestingly, enhanced cortisol responsiveness during late pregnancy was correlated with increased (P < 0.01) serum IL-6 concentrations, indicating that IL-6 may contribute to enhanced HPAA responsiveness during this period. Serum IL-6 concentrations during early and midpregnancy did not

  19. Elevated Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (sTREM)-1 Levels in Maternal Serum during Term and Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Tency, Inge; Verstraelen, Hans; Saerens, Bart; Verhasselt, Bruno; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Degomme, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection and inflammation are important mechanisms leading to preterm birth. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) belongs to a family of cell surface receptors that seems to play an important role in fine-tuning the immune response. It has been demonstrated that sTREM-1 is involved in bacterial infection as well as in non-infectious inflammatory conditions. Few studies have investigated serum sTREM-1 expression during preterm labor. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess sTREM-1 concentrations in maternal serum during term and preterm labor. Methods This case control study included 176 singleton pregnancies in the following groups: patients in (1) preterm labor, delivered before 34 weeks (PTB) (n = 52); (2) GA matched controls, not in labor, matched for gestational age (GA) with the PTB group (n = 52); (3) at term in labor (n = 40) and (4) at term not in labor (n = 32). sTREM-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results sTREM-1 was detected in all serum samples. Median sTREM-1 concentrations were significantly higher in women with PTB vs. GA matched controls (367 pg/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 304–483 vs. 273 pg/ml, IQR 208–334; P<0.001) and in women at term in labor vs. at term not in labor (300 pg/ml, IQR 239–353 vs. 228 pg/ml, IQR 174–285; P<0.001). Women with PTB had significantly higher levels of sTREM-1 compared to women at term in labor (P = 0.004). Multiple regression analysis, with groups recoded as three key covariates (labor, preterm and rupture of the membranes), showed significantly higher sTREM-1 concentrations for labor (+30%, P<0.001) and preterm (+15%, P = 0.005) after adjusting for educational level, history of PTB and sample age. Conclusions sTREM-1 concentrations in maternal serum were elevated during spontaneous term and preterm labor and sTREM-1 levels were significantly higher in preterm labor. PMID:23468854

  20. Predictive values of maternal serum PAPP-A level, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry, and fetal biometric measurements for poor pregnancy and poor neonatal outcomes in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Balcı, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine predictive values of maternal serum PAPP-A (msPAPP-A) levels, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry, and fetal biometric measurements (FBMs) for poor pregnancy and poor neonatal outcomes. Material and Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies followed until delivery. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were evaluated with respect to the msPAPP-A level at the 11th–14th weeks, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry at the 15th–18th weeks, and FBMs at the 20th–24th and 28th–32nd weeks of pregnancy. Results One hundred fifty-eight women constituted the study group; 17 (10.75%) of them had at least one poor pregnancy outcome. The cut-off point of 0.72 multiple of the median (MoM) for the PAPP-A level achieved a sensitivity of 82.4% and a specificity of 29.8% for poor pregnancy outcomes. The mean birth weight was significantly lower in the subgroup with a higher mean pulsatility index of uterine arteries (UAPImean≥1.19) (p=0.025) as well as in the subgroup with a higher mean resistance index of uterine arteries (UARImean≥0.62) (p=0.013). When the subgroup of pregnant women under the risk of early-onset IUGR according to FBMs was compared to the low-risk group, statistically significant differences were seen in terms of pregnancy outcomes (p=0.045) and birth weight (p=0.011). Conclusion Maternal serum PAPP-A level and FBMs could be used for predicting pregnancy outcomes, while uterine artery Doppler velocimetry and FBMs could be used for predicting neonatal outcomes, specifically the birth weight. PMID:27651722

  1. Maternal serum uric acid concentration is associated with the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zheng, D-Y; Yang, J-M; Wang, M; Zhang, X-T; Sun, L; Yun, X-G

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between elevated serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and endothelial inflammatory response in women with preeclampsia (PE). On the basis of clinical and laboratory findings, patients were assigned to three groups: normal blood pressure (Control (Con)), gestational hypertension (GH) and PE (n=50 in each group). SUA concentration was measured by spectrophotometry, and serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were also used to detect the changes in TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in subcutaneous fat tissue. PE patients showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared with Con and GH pregnant women (P=0.02 and P=0.02, respectively). The changes of body mass index (ΔBMI) before and after pregnancy and 24-h urine protein were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.001). Maternal SUA, TNF-α and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were significantly increased in the patients with PE (P<0.05) compared with the other two groups. Scatterplot analysis revealed that elevated SUA concentration positively correlated with TNF-α and sICAM-1 in pregnant women. Moreover, vessels in subcutaneous fat tissues of preeclamptic patients showed intense TNF-α and ICAM-1 staining compared with Con and GH patients. The results support that, to a certain extent, elevated SUA concentration is significantly associated with inflammation of maternal systemic vasculature as indicated by increased TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in women with PE.

  2. A first trimester trisomy 13/trisomy 18 risk algorithm combining fetal nuchal translucency thickness, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2002-10-01

    This study examines 45 cases of trisomy 13 and 59 cases of trisomy 18 and reports an algorithm to identify pregnancies with a fetus affected by trisomy 13 or 18 by a combination of maternal age fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11-14 weeks of gestation. In this mixed trisomy group the median MoM NT was increased at 2.819, whilst the median MoMs for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were reduced at 0.375 and 0.201 respectively. We predict that with the use of the combined trisomy 13 and 18 algorithm and a risk cut-off of 1 in 150 will for a 0.3% false positive rate allow 95% of these chromosomal defects to be identified at 11-14 weeks. Such algorithms will enhance existing first trimester screening algorithms for trisomy 21. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dependence of maternal serum [AFP]/[hCG] median ratios on age of gestation: comparison of trisomy 21 to euploid pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Marcus-Braun, N; Birk, O; Manor, E; Segal, D; Harari, G; Toma, I; Shalev, S; Borochowitz, Z U; Yaron, Y; Sharony, R; Itzhaky, D; Shtoyerman, R; Appelman, Z; Braun, G

    2009-12-01

    Current risk calculations for trisomy 21, which are based on multiples of median (MoM), do not take into account possible differences between euploid and trisomy 21 pregnancies that may develop with gestational age. In order to optimize the predictive value of screening tests, we calculated the ratio between maternal serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and that of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in euploid and in trisomy 21 pregnancies. The medians of the concentration ratios, [AFP]/[hCG] at 16-21 weeks of gestation, were plotted as a function of gestational age for 307 cases of trisomy 21 and were compared with the medians of 30 549 normal karyotype cases. [AFP]/[hCG] ratio medians were independent of body weight and maternal age. There was a significant difference in the [AFP]/[hCG] ratio when comparing trisomy 21 and euploid pregnancies at each week. This difference became greater with advancing gestational age (P < 0.01). There is a significant difference in ratios of [AFP]/[hCG] between euploid and trisomy 21 pregnancies, which may be used to improve detection rates of Down syndrome screening.

  4. Elevated maternal placental protein 13 serum levels at term of pregnancy in postpartum major hemorrhage (>1000 mLs). A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Farina, Antonio; Bernabini, Dalila; Zucchini, Cinzia; De Sanctis, Paola; Quezada, Maria Soledad; Mattioli, Mara; Rizzo, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    To compare placental protein 13 (PP13) levels in the serum of women with primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with a control population. A prospective cohort study was conducted between May 2014 and May 2016 and included 435 pregnant women at term (38 weeks gestation) without any known risk factor and with normal labor. Multiples of median (MoM) were used to evaluate differences of the PP13 values between cases and controls. PP13 concentrations were adjusted for maternal and neonatal weight. Multivariable analysis was used to detect independent contribution of predictors of PPH. Fifteen had a major PPH >1000 mLs and represented the cases of the study. They were matched with 399 controls. Twenty-one patients who had a minor PPH (500-1000 mLs) were excluded. The mean observed rank in the PPH group was higher than that of controls (28.5 vs 13.5, P-value=.01). PP13 MoM values adjusted for maternal weight were higher than expected being 1.44±0.45 in PPH cases and 1.00±0.59 in controls (P-value .008). This difference was still significant even after adjustment for neonatal weight that represented a confounding variable. Higher PP13 levels are independently associated with major PPH >1000 mLs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Usefulness of maternal serum C-reactive protein with vaginal Ureaplasma urealyticum as a marker for prediction of imminent preterm delivery and chorioamnionitis in patients with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong-Wook; Cho, Hee-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Han

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and genital mycoplasmas measured can help predict imminent preterm delivery or chorioamnionitis in patients with preterm labor (PL) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The study group consisted of 165 women with PL or PPROM. Vaginal cultures for genital mycoplasmas and maternal blood for CRP were obtained when they were admitted for the management of PL or PPROM. An elevated level of serum CRP was defined as ≥0.8 mg/dL. Histologic evaluation of the placenta was performed after delivery. The prevalence of positive vaginal fluid cultures for Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) was 63.0%, and elevated maternal serum CRP was 32.7%. No outcome variables were associated with vaginal UU infection in patients with lower CRP levels. However, among women with elevated CRP, the mean gestational age at birth was significantly reduced, and low Apgar score, neonatal intensive care unit admission, histologic chorioamnionitis, and delivery within 7 days of admission were significantly more common in patients with vaginal UU. Although vaginal UU in PL or PPROM cannot act as the sole predictor of imminent preterm delivery or chorioamnionitis, it can provide predictive information in patients with elevated maternal serum CRP levels.

  6. Cell-free total and fetal DNA in first trimester maternal serum and subsequent development of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Robert; Clifton, Rebecca G.; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Reddy, Uma M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Samuels, Philip; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between first trimester cell-free total and fetal DNA in maternal plasma and the subsequent development of preeclampsia. Study Design Nested case-control study of patients enrolled in the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Studies (CAPPS) prediction study of 175 women who did and 175 women who did not develop preeclampsia. The predictive values of cell-free total and fetal DNA and the subsequent development of preeclampsia were measured using ROC curves. Results Cell-free total DNA was higher in African American (median; 25 – 75%; 6.15; 0.14 – 28.73; p = 0.02) and Hispanic (4.95; 0.20 – 26.82; p = 0.037) compared to white women (2.33; 0.03 – 13.10). Levels of cell-free total DNA was also associated with maternal BMI (p = 0.02). Cell-free total DNA levels were similar between women who later developed preeclampsia (3.52; 0.11 – 25.3) and controls (3.74; 0.12 – 21.14, p=0.96). Conclusions There is no significant difference in levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. Levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester are increased in African American and Hispanic compared to white women, and levels increase with increasing BMI. PMID:27398706

  7. Metabolic Networks and Metabolites Underlie Associations Between Maternal Glucose During Pregnancy and Newborn Size at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Bain, James R.; Reisetter, Anna C.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Nodzenski, Michael; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Lowe, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolites and metabolic networks underlying associations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and newborn birth weight and adiposity demand fuller characterization. We performed targeted and nontargeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics on maternal serum collected at fasting and 1 h following glucose beverage consumption during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 400 northern European mothers at ∼28 weeks' gestation in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study. Amino acids, fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and products of lipid metabolism decreased and triglycerides increased during the OGTT. Analyses of individual metabolites indicated limited maternal glucose associations at fasting, but broader associations, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, were found at 1 h. Network analyses modeling metabolite correlations provided context for individual metabolite associations and elucidated collective associations of multiple classes of metabolic fuels with newborn size and adiposity, including acylcarnitines, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids. Random forest analyses indicated an improved ability to predict newborn size outcomes by using maternal metabolomics data beyond traditional risk factors, including maternal glucose. Broad-scale association of fuel metabolites with maternal glucose is evident during pregnancy, with unique maternal metabolites potentially contributing specifically to newborn birth weight and adiposity. PMID:27207545

  8. Changes in Serum Concentrations of Maternal Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances over the Course of Pregnancy and Predictors of Exposure in a Multiethnic Cohort of Cincinnati, Ohio Pregnant Women during 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Data on predictors of gestational exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the United States are limited. To fill in this gap, in a multiethnic cohort of Ohio pregnant women recruited in 2003–2006, we measured perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and six additional PFASs in maternal serum at ∼16 weeks gestation (N = 182) and delivery (N = 78), and in umbilical cord serum (N = 202). We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal serum PFASs concentrations and demographic, perinatal, and lifestyle factors. PFASs concentrations in maternal sera and in their infants’ cord sera were highly correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficients = 0.73–0.95). In 71 maternal-infant dyads, unadjusted geometric mean (GM) concentrations (95% confidence interval) (in μg/L) in maternal serum at delivery of PFOS [8.50 (7.01–9.58)] and PFOA [3.43 (3.01–3.90)] were significantly lower than at 16 weeks gestation [11.57 (9.90–13.53], 4.91 (4.32–5.59), respectively], but higher than in infants’ cord serum [3.32 (2.84–3.89), 2.85 (2.51–3.24), respectively] (P < 0.001). Women who were parous, with a history of previous breastfeeding, black, or in the lowest income category had significantly lower PFOS and PFOA GM concentrations than other women. These data suggest transplacental transfer of PFASs during pregnancy and nursing for the first time in a U.S. birth cohort. PMID:25026485

  9. Maternal antibody-mediated dyslexia? Evidence for a pathogenic serum factor in a mother of two dyslexic children shown by transfer to mice using behavioural studies and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Angela; Deacon, Robert; Dalton, Paola; Salmond, Claire; Blamire, Andrew M; Pendlebury, Sarah; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Rajogopalan, Bheeshma; Styles, Peter; Stein, John

    2002-09-01

    The causes of dyslexia are unknown, but previous studies have suggested an immunological basis in some cases. We hypothesised that maternal antibodies, which cross the placenta and bind to fetal antigens, could be responsible, particularly when the dyslexia recurs in consecutive pregnancies. We injected serum samples from five mothers of two or more children with dyslexia into pregnant mice, and tested the offspring for behavioural abnormalities and cerebellar metabolites by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Mice exposed in utero to serum factors from one woman with two dyslexic children, who had also had three spontaneous fetal losses, showed deficits in motor tests which correlated with cerebellar choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) levels. These preliminary results are consistent with a role for maternal serum factors, probably antibodies, in causing some of the features of dyslexia, and possibly in other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  10. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-08-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Maternal LPS Exposure during Pregnancy on Metabolic Phenotypes in Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mei; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Hu, Chun-Qiu; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Hua; Chen, Xi; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders in late life. Previous studies showed that mice exposed to LPS in late gestation induced fetal IUGR. The present study investigated the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in female adult offspring. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD)15 to GD17. After lactation, female pups were fed with standard-chow diets (SD) or high-fat diets (HFD). Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were assessed 8 and 12 weeks after diet intervention. Hepatic triglyceride content was examined 12 weeks after diet intervention. As expected, maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy resulted in fetal IUGR. Although there was an increasing trend on fat mass in female offspring whose dams were exposed to LPS during pregnancy, maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy did not elevate the levels of fasting blood glucose and serum insulin and hepatic triglyceride content in female adult offspring. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy did not alter insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and liver in female adult offspring. Further analysis showed that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy did not exacerbate HFD-induced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in female adult offspring. In addition, maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy did not aggravate HFD-induced elevation of hepatic triglyceride content in female adult offspring. In conclusion, LPS-induced IUGR does not alter metabolic phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:25479255

  12. Maternal serum progesterone concentration and early conceptus development of bovine embryos produced in vivo or in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barnwell, C V; Farin, P W; Whisnant, C S; Alexander, J E; Farin, C E

    2015-07-01

    The hormone progesterone is essential for proper embryonic development. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between recipient serum concentrations of progesterone, at the time of embryo transfer and at conceptus recovery, on conceptus development from in vivo- or in vitro-produced embryos. Embryos were produced in vivo by superovulation of Holstein cows (IVO; n = 17) or in vitro with either serum-containing (IVPS; n = 27) or serum-restricted medium (IVPSR; n = 34). Single grade I blastocysts from each embryo production system were transferred into heifers on day 7 of development. Conceptuses were recovered on day 17 of gestation and classified as complete, degenerated, or no conceptus. Compared with the IVO group, in vitro-produced embryos had more (P = 0.055) degenerated conceptuses (IVO, 0%; IVPS, 18.5%; and IVPSR, 20.6%). There were no differences in progesterone concentrations at the time of transfer when recipients received either male or female embryos (P > 0.05). Progesterone concentrations in recipients receiving in vivo-produced embryos were higher (P < 0.05; 3.74 ± 0.4 ng/mL; least-squares mean ± standard error of the mean) on day 7 compared with those receiving in vitro-produced embryos (IVPS, 2.4 ± 0.2; IVPSR, 2.58 ± 0.3 ng/mL). However, there was no difference in progesterone concentration on day 7 between treatment groups for heifers from which short conceptuses (≤194 mm) were recovered on day 17. In contrast, when longer (>194 mm) conceptuses were recovered on day 17, heifers receiving in vitro-produced embryos had lower (P = 0.05) serum concentrations of progesterone on day 7 compared with those receiving in vivo-produced embryos (IVPS, 2.2 ± 0.5; IVPSR, 2.3 ± 0.5; IVO, 3.9 ± 0.5 ng/mL). In conclusion, differences in autonomy may exist between in vitro- and in vivo-produced embryos during the period of conceptus elongation with in vitro-produced embryos relying more on intrinsic factors to influence elongation.

  13. Triglyceride-induced diabetes mellitus in congenital generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Montenegro, Ana Paula Dias Rangel; Fernandes, Maria Inez Machado; de Moraes, Renata Ribeiro; Elias, Jorge; Gouveia, Leonor Maria Ferreira Braz; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Foss, Milton Cesar; Moreira, Ayrton Custódio; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2002-04-01

    High levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by intense whole body reduction of subcutaneous fat. Its clinical manifestations appear during the first years of life. However, DM is usually a late event. We report a patient with CGL, diagnosed at 4 months of age, who has severe hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglyceride 12.34 mmol/l and cholesterol 3.90 mmol/l), muscular hypertrophy, hepatomegaly and DM (fasting glycemia 25.9 mmol/l). Hepatic biopsy revealed steatosis and fibrosis. A modified normolipidic (composed of medium chain triglycerides) normocaloric normoproteic milky diet and insulin therapy were instituted. After 1 month treatment a reduction of serum glucose and triglyceride levels (4.13 mmol/I and 7.7 mmol/l, respectively) was noted, with later normalization, which led to the discontinuation of insulin therapy. The patient has been maintaining good control with diet alone, presenting normal serum lipid levels (triglycerides 1.07 mmol/l, total cholesterol 2.71 mmol/l) and the following glycemic profile at OGTT: 0' 4.4 mmol/l; 30' 7.0 mmol/l; 60' 3.8 mmol/l; 90' 5.3 mmol/l, and 120' 5.2 mmol/l. The disappearance of hepatic steatosis was evidenced by a biopsy obtained 1 year after the beginning of treatment. In conolusion, this report suggests that the DM occurring in CGL can be precipitated by high triglyceride levels.

  14. Maternal Lipids May Predict Fetal Growth in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Krstevska, Brankica; Jovanovska, Sasha Misevska; Krstevska, Slagjana Simeonova; Nakova, Valentina Velkoska; Serafimoski, Vladimir

    2016-11-01

    During diabetic pregnancy, complex metabolic changes occur in the lipid profile. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive values of maternal serum lipid levels on large-for-gestational age newborns during the third trimester in pregnancies of women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data of forty three pregnancies of women with DM2 and two hundred women with GDM were analyzed. The analysis encompassed the following parameters: age, body mass index (BMI), lipid parameters, HbA1c in first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, preeclampsia and baby birth weight. DM2 and GDM groups showed statistically significant differences in the following variables: total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, BMI, age, baby birth weight, incidence of SGA and preterm delivery (9.4 ± 2.3 vs. 11.0 ± 2.3 mmol/L, 2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 3.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, 5.5 ± 1.2 vs. 6.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L, 30.6 ± 5.4 vs. 26.9 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 34 ± 7.8 vs. 31.5 ± 5.6 years, 3183 ± 972 vs. 3533 ± 699 g., 20% vs. 7.5%, 27.9 vs. 14%, respectively, p < 0.05). Linear multiple regression analysis demonstrated that triglycerides, LDL-C and total cholesterol were independent predictors of LGA (p < 0.05). Triglycerides and LDL-C in the third trimester of pregnancy are independent predictors for fetal macrosomia in DM2 and GDM pregnancies. Thus, the maternal serum triglycerides and LDL-C levels determined in the maternal blood taken in the third trimester of pregnancy may indentify women who will give birth to LGA newborns.

  15. L-Arginine enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of simvastatin in patients with elevated plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Friedrich; Glos, Sabrina; Petruschka, Dörte; Altenburg, Christiane; Maas, Renke; Benndorf, Ralf; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Beil, Ulrich; Böger, Rainer H

    2009-05-01

    We recently noticed a possible triglyceride-lowering effect during dietary supplementation with L-arginine. The major limitation of prior studies on L-arginine, however, was that triglyceride levels were not the primary end point, and patients were not necessarily hypertriglyceridemic. Therefore, we conducted a 2-arm, randomized, double-blind study in 33 hypertriglyceridemic patients to investigate the hypothesis that oral L-arginine may lower serum triglyceride levels in hypertriglyceridemic patients on and off statins. The study consisted of a 6-week run-in phase, 6 weeks of treatment with L-arginine (n = 22, 1.5 g bid) or placebo (n = 11), and a 6-week extension period where simvastatin (20 mg qd) was added. All patients received dietary advice during each study visit. Routine and lipid laboratory parameters were determined in the local routine clinical laboratory. Treatment with L-arginine alone had no effects on serum lipids compared to placebo. The combination of L-arginine with simvastatin led to a significantly stronger reduction in triglycerides compared to placebo plus simvastatin (-140.5 +/- 149.2 mg/dL vs -56.1 +/- 85.0 mg/dL; P = .048). In addition, we found simvastatin-induced increases in aspartate transaminase and fibrinogen to be attenuated by L-arginine as compared to placebo. We conclude from our data that L-arginine enhances the effects of simvastatin on lipid metabolism, but it has no triglyceride-lowering effects when given alone.

  16. Maternal Lipids as Strong Determinants of Fetal Environment and Growth in Pregnancies With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer-Graf, Ute M.; Graf, Kristof; Kulbacka, Irina; Kjos, Siri L.; Dudenhausen, Joachim; Vetter, Klaus; Herrera, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the contribution of maternal glucose and lipids to intrauterine metabolic environment and fetal growth in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In 150 pregnancies, serum triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, insulin, and glucose were determined in maternal serum and cord blood during the 3rd trimester. Maternal glucose values came from oral glucose tolerance testing and glucose profiles. Measurements of fetal abdominal circumference (AC) were performed simultaneously with maternal blood sampling and birth weight, and BMI and neonatal fat mass were obtained following delivery. RESULTS—Maternal TGs and FFAs correlated with fetal AC size (at 28 weeks: triglycerides, P = 0.001; FFAs, P = 0.02), and at delivery they correlated with all neonatal anthropometric measures (FFA: birth weight, P = 0.002; BMI, P = 0.001; fat mass, P = 0.01). After adjustment for confounding variables, maternal FFAs and TGs at delivery remained the only parameters independently related to newborns large for gestational age (LGA) (P = 0.008 and P = 0.04, respectively). Maternal FFA levels were higher in mothers with LGA newborns than in those with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns (362.8 ± 101.7 vs. 252.4 ± 10.1, P = 0.002). Maternal levels of TGs, FFAs, and glycerol at delivery correlated with those in cord blood (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, and P = 0.005, respectively). Fetal triglyceride and cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with newborn birth weight (P = 0.001), BMI (P = 0.004), and fat mass (P = 0.001). TGs were significantly higher in small for gestational age (SGA) newborns compared with AGA or LGA newborns, while insulin-to-glucose ratio and FFAs were the highest in LGA newborns. CONCLUSIONS—In well-controlled GDM pregnancies, maternal lipids are strong predictors for fetal lipids and fetal growth. Infants with abnormal growth seem to be exposed to a distinct

  17. Maternal serum ADAM12s as a potential marker of trisomy 21 prior to 10 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin; Vereecken, Annie; Cowans, Nicholas J

    2008-03-01

    ADAM12s (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) is a placenta-derived glycoprotein that is involved in growth and differentiation and has been shown to be a potential first-trimester and second-trimester marker of trisomy 21 and other aneuploides. Maternal ADAM12s concentrations show a considerable temporal variation with gestational age and in the initial study levels were found to be significantly reduced in the early first trimester. Here we study the levels prior to 10 weeks of gestation to establish further the effectiveness or otherwise of ADAM12s as an early screening marker. Samples collected as part of routine first-trimester screening were retrieved from storage. In total, ten samples from singleton pregnancies with trisomy 21 were identified and were collected between the 8th and 9th weeks of gestation-of these 80% had been identified by combined first-trimester screening. A series of 62 gestational age-matched samples from singleton pregnancies collected during the same period formed the control group. ADAM12s was measured by a new DELFIA assay incorporating two monoclonals (6E6 and 8F8). Results were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM). The median MoM ADAM12s at a median gestation of 9.3 weeks was 0.61 which was significantly lower than in the controls (p = 0.011) when compared by the Mann-Whitney test. The corresponding median pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A) was 0.30 and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) 2.02. Combining the data from this study and from the only other published study with data prior to 10 weeks suggests that ADAM12s may have the potential as an early screening marker for trisomy 21, but may not be as reduced as first thought. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Is maternal serum total hCG a marker of trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Berry, E; Crossley, J A; Aitken, D A; Nicolaides, K H

    2000-04-01

    In a study of 130 first trimester cases of trisomy 21 and 959 controls we have shown that the median MoM for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is lower (0.82) and that for total human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is higher (1.31) than in the control group. For AFP 15.3% of cases were below the 5th centile and for total hCG 19. 8% were above the 95th centile. The median shift observed for AFP and total hCG is poorer than that for pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) or free beta-hCG and together with maternal age, AFP and total hCG could only be expected to detect 40% of cases. In combination with PAPP-A, total hCG would identify 52% of cases, somewhat less than the 67% observed with free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. However, we have demonstrated for total hCG a significant temporal change in median MoM with gestational age. Before 70 days the median MoM was less than 0.5, between 70 and 83 days this increased to 1.13, and between 84 and 97 days this increased to 1.52. This median shift has significant implications for interpreting previous studies and even more significant implications for detection rates. When population parameters specific to the gestational age in question are used, detection rates with total hCG and PAPP-A increase from 47% at 70-83 days to 60% at 84-97 days. This observation explains much of the confusion around total hCG in the first trimester and shows the importance of selecting analyte pairs and population parameters appropriate to the time in gestation when screening is performed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Associations between maternal serum free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sirikunalai, P; Wanapirak, C; Sirichotiyakul, S; Tongprasert, F; Srisupundit, K; Luewan, S; Traisrisilp, K; Tongsong, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the strength of relationship between maternal free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) concentrations and rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Consecutive records of the database of our Down screening project were assessed for free β-hCG levels and pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with foetal chromosomal or structural anomalies and those with underlying disease were excluded. Free β-hCG levels of < 0.5, > 0.5 and < 2.0, and ≥ 2.0 MoM were categorised as low, normal and high, respectively. Of 17,082 screened women, 13,620 were available for analysis. In the first trimester (n = 8150), low β-hCG levels significantly increased risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW) and low Apgar score with relative risk of 1.66, 1.43, 1.83 and 2.89; whereas high β-hCG group had a significant decreased risk of preterm birth and GDM with relative risk of 0.73 and 0.62. In the second trimester (n = 5470), both low and high β-hCG groups had significant increased risks of the most common adverse outcomes, i.e. spontaneous abortion, IUGR and preterm birth. In conclusion, abnormally low (< 0.5MoM) or high (> 2.0 MoM) free β-hCG levels are generally associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Nevertheless, high free β-hCG levels in the first trimester may possibly decrease risk of preterm delivery and GDM.

  20. Maternal Serum Levels of TNF-Alpha and IL-6 Long after Delivery in Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Vitoratos, N.; Economou, E.; Iavazzo, C.; Panoulis, K.; Creatsas, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate maternal TNF-alpha and IL-6 plasma levels in normotensive pregnant women, women with preeclampsia, and to examine the temporal changes in their levels from theantepartum to the postpartum period correlated with the regression of preeclampsia. Method. A prospective study was performed in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens. Blood samples were obtained: (1) antepartum at the time of clinical diagnosis of the syndrome, 2. 12-14 weeks postpartum. Results. No statistically significant differences were found in IL-6 levels, whereas a difference was found in TNF-alpha levels between preeclamptic and controls in antepartum period (0.80 pg/ml versus 0.60 pg/ml, P : .04). Long after delivery, TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic compared to normotensive controls (0.86 pg/ml versus 0.60 pg/ml, P : .004). No difference was observed in TNF-alpha before and after delivery in both groups. No difference was noticed in IL-6 levels in women of normotensive group long after delivery compared to that before delivery. Long after delivery IL-6 levels were statistically significant higher in preeclamptic women compared to normal controls (3.53 ± 0.52 pg/ml versus 1.69 ± 0.48 pg/ml, P : .02). Conclusion. Preeclamptic women remain under a status of increased inflammatory stress up to 12-14 weeks postpartum despite the fact that all the other signs of preeclampsia are resolved. PMID:21253506

  1. Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester: does chorionicity impact on maternal serum free beta-hCG or PAPP-A levels?

    PubMed

    Spencer, K

    2001-09-01

    In a study of 180 twin pregnancies I have examined the distribution of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), in addition to fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), in twins classified as monochorionic or dichorionic, based on ultrasound appearance at 10-14 weeks of gestation. In 45 monochorionic and 135 dichorionic twin pregnancies the median MoM free beta-hCG was not significantly different (1.00 vs 1.01), whilst that for PAPP-A was lower (0.89 vs 1.01) but again with no statistical significance. Previous reports of an increased fetal NT in monochorionic twins pregnancies could not be confirmed (1.03 vs 1.00). It is concluded that the existing pseudo risk twin correction algorithm is appropriate for both monochorionic and dichorionic twins in providing accurate first trimester risks for trisomy 21. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Psychosocial maternal stress during pregnancy affects serum corticosterone, blood immune parameters and anxiety behaviour in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Götz, Alexander A; Stefanski, Volker

    2007-01-30

    Exposure to prenatal stress can impair the behavioural and hormonal development in mammals. However, the consequences for the immune system are rarely investigated and there is only limited evidence that naturalistic prenatal stressors do also have the potential to affect the offspring. Thus, by using a social conflict model in female Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of prenatal social stress on several behavioural, hormonal and immunological parameters. Offspring from stressed and non-stressed pregnant females were housed in pairs after weaning, and tested at an age of 4-6 months. Prenatally stressed (PS) males were more active in the elevated plus-maze test as indicated by significantly more frequent entries into the open arms compared to prenatal control males (PC). In addition, PS males had significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations under basal conditions as well as after ACTH-challenge. The basal number of total leukocytes was significantly lower in the PS group due to significantly lower lymphocyte counts. In particular, the CD4+ T-helper cell subset was affected. The lymphocyte proliferation to pokeweed mitogen was lower in PS males. Because some of the present findings do not correspond to previous studies using conventional stressors, we assume that the nature of the stressor plays an important role for pregnancy outcome and behaviour and physiology of the offspring in later life.

  3. Determination of triglycerides with special emphasis on biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are transesterification product of fatty acids and glycerol and engaged in the transportation of fats. Elevated triglyceride level is associated with coronary heart disease (CAD), atherosclerosis and hypolipoprotenemia. Convenient and reproducible assay systems based on enzymes are an attractive alternative to conventional analytical methods. Triglyceride biosensors (TGBs) are based on either measurement of oxygen consumed or electron generated from splitting of H2O2, an ultimate product, of immobilized enzymes. TGBs work optimally within 2-900 s, between pH 6.4-8.5 and the potential 0.5-4V. TGBs measure TG level in serum directly and can be used over a period of 14 to 168 days. This review describes the analytic characteristics of various methods available for determination of TGs with special emphasis on TGBs.

  4. A novel method for the quantitative determination of free and conjugated bisphenol A in human maternal and umbilical cord blood serum using a two-step solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kosarac, Ivana; Kubwabo, Cariton; Lalonde, Kaela; Foster, Warren

    2012-06-01

    Bisphenol A is widely used as a monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonates and epoxy resins, as an antioxidant in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and as an inhibitor of end polymerisation in PVC. Several different methods have been used to quantify total BPA in biological specimens. However, quantification of both free and conjugated BPA continues to present challenges. Moreover, there is limited data concerning fetal exposure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a new method for the analysis of both free and conjugated BPA in human maternal and umbilical cord blood serum. For the analysis of free BPA, the method consisted of a liquid-liquid extraction followed by a two-step solid-phase extraction sample cleanup on Florisil and Oasis HLB sorbents, derivatization of the extract using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) and analysis by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). To determine the amount of conjugated BPA in serum samples, bisphenol A-d6 β-glucuronide (4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-d6]phenyl β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid) was added to each sample prior to enzymatic deconjugation. The MDL and LOQ for BPA were 0.026 ng/mL and 0.087 ng/mL, respectively. The observed recoveries ranged between 65% and 88%. The new method was applied to the determination of paired human maternal and umbilical cord blood serum samples. The results demonstrated that total BPA concentrations in human maternal serum at mid-pregnancy and at delivery ranged from <0.026 ng/mL to 10.425 ng/mL (median 0.548 ng/mL, n=12) and <0.026 ng/mL to 3.048 ng/mL (median 1.461 ng/mL), respectively. Results for matching umbilical cord blood serum BPA concentrations were in the range of <0.026-2.569 ng/mL (median 1.823 ng/mL). The concentrations measured in this study agreed well with BPA levels in human serum reported internationally. Only 2 mid-pregnancy serum samples out of 12 contained quantifiable amounts of conjugated BPA

  5. Association of early maternal hypertriglyceridemia with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chandi, Anadeep; Sirohiwal, Daya; Malik, Roopa

    2015-11-01

    Hypertensive diseases are directly responsible for 24 % of maternal deaths in India. A screening method is yet to be discovered to reduce the morbidity and mortality related to it. Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are reported to increase in hypertensive pregnant women. To predict pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) by serum triglyceride values. This study is a prospective cohort study that was conducted over three hundred normotensive, primigravida women with singleton pregnancy at 14-20 weeks of gestation. These were divided into two groups on the basis of their TG concentration estimated at 14-20 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was then followed till delivery and, signs and symptoms of PIH were noted in both the groups. Out of 300 women, 210 women completed the study. Fifty-nine women developed PIH and 151 women remained normotensive. Among 59 women, 45 women had raised TG values i.e., ≥160 mg/dL and 14 women were with normal TG levels i.e., <160 mg/dL. A significant positive correlation was found between serum TG concentration and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It was observed that a cutoff of 162.50 mg/dL for TG could reliably predict PIH with sensitivity of 76 % and specificity of 85 %. Also, the mothers with hypertriglyceridemia were found to be at higher risk of developing early-onset PIH. Our study supports the evidence that early pregnancy hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of PIH.

  6. Role of lipoprotein lipase activity on lipoprotein metabolism and the fate of circulating triglycerides in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E; Lasunción, M A; Gomez-Coronado, D; Aranda, P; López-Luna, P; Maier, I

    1988-06-01

    The mechanism that induces maternal hypertriglyceridemia in late normal pregnancy, and its physiologic significance are reviewed as a model of the effects of sex steroids on lipoprotein metabolism. In the pregnant rat, maternal carcass fat content progressively increases up to day 19 of gestation, then declines at day 21. The decline may be explained by the augmented lipolytic activity in adipose tissue that is seen in late pregnancy in the rat. This change causes maternal circulating free fatty acids and glycerol levels to rise. Although the liver is the main receptor organ for these metabolites, liver triglyceride content is reduced. Circulating triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride levels are highly augmented in the pregnant rat, indicating that liver-synthesized triglycerides are rapidly released into the circulation. Similar increments in circulating VLDL-triglycerides are seen in pregnant women during the third trimester of gestation. This increase is coincident with a decrease in plasma postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity, indicating a reduced removal of circulating triglycerides by maternal tissues or a redistribution in their use among the different tissues. During late gestation in the rat, tissue lipoprotein lipase activity varies in different directions; it decreases in adipose tissue, the liver, and to a smaller extent the heart, but increases in placental and mammary gland tissue. These changes play an important role in the fate of circulating triglycerides, which are diverted from uptake by adipose tissue to uptake by the mammary gland for milk synthesis, and probably by the placenta for hydrolysis and transfer of released nonesterified fatty acids to the fetus. After 24 hours of starvation, lipoprotein lipase activity in the liver greatly increases in the rat in late pregnancy; this change is not seen in virgin animals. This alteration is similar to that seen in liver triglyceride content and plasma ketone body

  7. The influence of fetal sex in screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Ong, C Y; Liao, A W; Papademetriou, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2000-08-01

    In a study of 2923 normal pregnancies and 203 pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 we have shown a significant difference in the median MoM of the markers: fetal nuchal translucency, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the presence of a female fetus compared with a male fetus. For maternal serum free beta-hCG levels are higher by 15% if the fetus is chromosomally normal and by 11% if the fetus has trisomy 21. For maternal serum PAPP-A the levels in chromosomally normal fetuses are 10% higher in the presence of a female fetus and 13% higher if the fetus has trisomy 21. In contrast, fetal nuchal translucency is 3-4% lower in both chromosomally normal and trisomy 21 female fetuses. The consequence of such changes when screening for trisomy 21 will be a reduction in the detection rate in female fetuses by a factor of 1-2%. Correction of risk algorithms for fetal sex, however, is probably not feasible, since ultrasound detection of fetal sex is only 70-90% accurate in the 10-14 week period. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  9. Screening for trisomy 21 by fetal tricuspid regurgitation, nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks.

    PubMed

    Falcon, O; Auer, M; Gerovassili, A; Spencer, K; Nicolaides, K H

    2006-02-01

    To examine whether in pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21 the level of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation is independent of the presence or absence of tricuspid regurgitation and to estimate the performance of a screening test that combines tricuspid regurgitation with fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. The study population comprised 77 trisomy 21 and 232 chromosomally normal fetuses from singleton pregnancies at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. In all cases the fetal karyotype was determined by chorionic villus sampling (CVS), which was carried out at the request of the parents after first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. Immediately before chorionic villus sampling, fetal echocardiography was performed and the presence or absence of tricuspid regurgitation was determined by pulsed wave Doppler ultrasonography. The distribution of fetal NT, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in trisomy 21 fetuses with absent and present tricuspid regurgitation was examined. We examined two screening strategies: first, integrated first-trimester screening in all patients and second, first-stage screening of all patients using fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A followed by second-stage assessment of tricuspid regurgitation only in those with an intermediate risk of 1 in 101 to 1 in 1000 after the first stage. Tricuspid regurgitation was observed in 57 (74.0%) of the trisomy 21 fetuses and in 16 (6.9%) of the chromosomally normal fetuses. There were no significant differences in median maternal age, median gestational age, free beta-hCG multiples of the median (MoM) and PAPP-A MoM in trisomy 21 fetuses with and without tricuspid regurgitation. The modeled detection rates of trisomy 21 for fixed false positive rates of 1%, 2% and 5% in screening

  10. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, T.K.; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; Srivastava, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule patients. The significance of these findings has been discussed. PMID:21965991

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Croen, Lisa. A.; Sjödin, Andreas; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are neurodevelopmental toxicants, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objectives: We aimed to determine whether prenatal exposure to PCBs and OCPs influences offspring risk of ASD and intellectual disability without autism (ID). Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study among Southern California births, including children with ASD (n = 545) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and ID (n = 181), as well as general population (GP) controls (n = 418). Concentrations of 11 PCB congeners and 2 OCPs measured in banked second-trimester serum samples were compared between the diagnostic groups. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for associations with ASD, and separately for ID, compared with GP controls, by quartiles of analyte concentrations in primary analyses. Results: Geometric mean levels of several PCB congeners were higher in the ASD group than in the ID and GP groups. ASD risk was elevated for a number of PCB congeners, particularly for the highest vs. lowest quartile of PCB138/158 (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.71) and PCB153 (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.02), and for highest deciles of other congeners in secondary analyses. PCB138/158 was also associated with increased ID (AOR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.91), though no trend was suggested. OCPs were not associated with increased risk of ASD in primary analyses, whereas nonmonotonic increases in risk of ID were found with p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Our results suggest higher levels of some organochlorine compounds during pregnancy are associated with ASD and ID. Citation: Lyall K, Croen LA, Sjödin A, Yoshida CK, Zerbo O, Kharrazi M, Windham GC. 2017. Polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in maternal mid-pregnancy serum samples: association with

  12. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in t