Increasing Your Mathematics and Science Content Knowledge.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
2002-01-01
This journal is intended for classroom teachers and provides a collection of essays and instructional materials organized around the theme of mathematics and science content knowledge. Articles include: (1) "Watching Ourselves Learn" (Annette Thorson); (2) "Search Smarter!" (Kimberly S. Roempler); (3) "Teacher Education Materials Project" (Joan…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevens, T.; Harris, G.; Aguirre-Munoz, Z.; Cobbs, L.
2009-01-01
Teachers of middle school mathematics should have a deep conceptual understanding of the elementary mathematics taught in middle school, should possess the mathematics knowledge for teaching that is required to effectively teach mathematics in middle school and should have the ability to effectively teach mathematics to, and enhance the maths…
Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge: Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akgun, Levent; Isik, Cemalettin; Tatar, Enver; Isleyen, Tevfik; Soylu, Yasin
2012-01-01
The aim of this study is to explain students' ability to transfer their knowledge about mathematical series to the problems that they encounter. The data of the study were obtained by using two different tests, namely "Problem Solving Test (PST)" and "Series Character Identification Test (SCT)" which were developed by the…
Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematical Horizon Content Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mosvold, Reidar; Fauskanger, Janne
2014-01-01
In this article, we present and discuss an example of how teachers' discussions of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) items elicited their beliefs about the knowledge needed to teach mathematics. One category of MKT is "horizon content knowledge," and this can be described as mathematical knowledge not directly deployed in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klemballa, Carolyn
In light of the persistent shortage of qualified mathematics and science teachers and the new teacher qualification provisions of the recently passed No Child Left Behind Act, This study tested the impact of an educational intervention designed to enhance interest in public school teaching careers among undergraduate students who were declared/intended majors in mathematics and/or natural science. Besides salary, research reveals content fear as the biggest roadblock to attracting mathematics and science teachers. Because of this, liberal arts majors in mathematics and science are a target pool of individuals to recruit into teaching. The researcher hypothesized that knowledge and attitudinal favorability would both increase after an intervention about teaching careers and that an increase in one variable would be associated with the other. Also, knowledge and attitudinal favorability would have a greater increase after a more intensive intervention than a less intensive intervention or no intervention. The researcher also hypothesized that if undergraduates were less decided in their career, lower classmen, and female, their attitudes toward the teaching profession would increase the most. One hundred eighty-nine college students, 73 males and 116 females, including 85 freshmen, 67 sophomores, 18 juniors and 19 seniors, at University A and University B were randomly assigned to a workshop, reading, or control group. The workshop group attended a workshop about the teaching profession. The reading group read articles with the same information presented in the workshop. The control group read unrelated articles. The findings from this study indicate that an intervention about teaching does significantly increase both knowledge and attitudinal favorability toward teaching (p < .01). A low significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitudinal favorability (p < .05). Findings also suggested that a more intensive intervention yields a higher increase in
Discover Mathematical Knowledge through Recreational Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sodhi, Amar
2004-01-01
The way in which a mathematical problem was used as a vehicle to introduce the joy of mathematical research to a high school student is demonstrated. The student was interested in learning about other classical problems delighting an eager high school student.
Re-"Conceptualizing" Procedural Knowledge in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Star, Jon R.
Many mathematics educators have lost sight of the critical importance of the mathematical understanding which underlies procedural competence, in part because we do not have a language to refer to this kind of understanding. The modal way of categorizing mathematical knowledge--conceptual and procedural knowledge--is limited in that: (a) it is…
Developing Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching Elementary School Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thanheiser, Eva; Browning, Christine A.; Moss, Meg; Watanabe, Tad; Garza-Kling, Gina
2010-01-01
In this paper the authors present three design principles they use to develop preservice teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching in their mathematics content and/or methods courses: (1) building on currently held conceptions, (2) modeling teaching for understanding, (3) focusing on connections between content knowledge and other…
Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy
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Jackson, Christa
2013-01-01
Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guerrero, Shannon
2010-01-01
Teacher knowledge has long been a focus of many educational researchers. Current conceptualizations of teacher knowledge are beginning to reflect the knowledge and skills teachers need to successfully navigate increasingly technologically-rich mathematical classrooms with the addition of knowledge domains such as technological pedagogical content…
Depth of Teachers' Knowledge: Frameworks for Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holmes, Vicki-Lynn
2012-01-01
This article describes seven teacher knowledge frameworks and relates these frameworks to the teaching and assessment of elementary teacher's mathematics knowledge. The frameworks classify teachers' knowledge and provide a vocabulary and common language through which knowledge can be discussed and assessed. These frameworks are categorized into…
Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Perspectives and Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karagöz-Akar, Gülseren
2016-01-01
This study investigated the relationship between prospective secondary mathematics teachers' perspectives and their mathematical knowledge for teaching in action. Data from two prospective teachers' practice-teachings, one in geometry and one in algebra, their lesson plans and self-reflections were analyzed with Teacher Perspectives and Knowledge…
Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Content Knowledge of Secondary Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krauss, Stefan; Brunner, Martin; Kunter, Mareike; Baumert, Jurgen; Neubrand, Michael; Blum, Werner; Jordan, Alexander
2008-01-01
Drawing on the work of L. S. Shulman (1986), the authors present a conceptualization of the pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of secondary-level mathematics teachers. They describe the theory-based construction of tests to assess these knowledge categories and the implementation of these tests in a sample of German mathematics…
Analogies and Reconstruction of Mathematical Knowledge.
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Fast, Gerald R.
An investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of utilizing analogies to effect conceptual change in mathematics. Forty-one high school seniors participated in a knowledge reconstruction process regarding their beliefs about everyday probability situations such as sports events or lotteries. These mathematics students were given…
Mathematical and Scientific Knowledge: An Overview.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Resnick, Lauren B.; Gelman, Rochel
Most of the research on mathematical and scientific thinking has been concerned with uncovering knowledge structures and reasoning processes in people of different levels of competence. How these structures and processes are acquired has only recently become a major concern. Thus, some of the major research on mathematical and scientific thinking…
Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching: Questions about Constructs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gearhart, Maryl
2007-01-01
Teacher knowledge has been of theoretical and empirical interest for over two decades, and development of measures is overdue. The researchers represented in this volume have been breaking new ground by developing a measure of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) without guiding precedents, and in the face of differing perspectives on teacher…
Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilic, Hulya
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the nature of preservice secondary mathematics teachers' knowledge of students as emerged from a study investigating the development of their pedagogical content knowledge in a methods course and its associated field experience. Six preservice teachers participated in the study and the data were collected in the…
Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zohar, Anat
2006-01-01
While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts "learning for understanding" and "connected…
Can Pedagogical Concerns Eclipse Mathematical Knowledge?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Creager, Mark A.; Jacobson, Erik; Aydeniz, Fetiye
2016-01-01
Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) is often thought of as a transformed, mutually-influencing mixture of content and pedagogy. However when individuals' MKT does not integrate content and pedagogy, one type of knowledge can supersede the other, sometimes unconsciously. We exemplify this with Emma, a prospective elementary teacher, whose…
Mathematics university teachers' perception of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khakbaz, Azimehsadat
2016-02-01
Teaching mathematics in university levels is one of the most important fields of research in the area of mathematics education. Nevertheless, there is little information about teaching knowledge of mathematics university teachers. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) provides a suitable framework to study knowledge of teachers. The purpose of this paper is to make explicit the perception of mathematics university teachers about PCK. For this purpose, a phenomenological study was done. Data resources included semi-structured interviews with 10 mathematics university teachers who were in different places of the mathematics university teaching experience spectrum. Data analysis indicated a model consisting of four cognitive themes which are mathematics syntactic knowledge, knowledge about mathematics curriculum planning, knowledge about students' mathematics learning and knowledge about creating an influential mathematics teaching-learning environment. Besides, it was found out that three contextual themes influenced on PCK for teaching mathematics in university levels which were the nature of mathematics subjects, university teachers' features and terms of learning environment.
Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Anat
2006-10-01
While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts “learning for understanding” and “connected knowledge”, a central theme in feminist epistemology. In learning for understanding, the learner forms multiple, intricate connections among the concepts she is studying in school, between school concepts and her everyday concepts, and between school concepts and their wider context. Viewing connected knowledge as tightly related to understanding has several important implications. It brings connected knowledge into the central learning activities that take place in school science and mathematics, and gives it a high status. It contributes to our understanding of gender-related patterns in thinking; and it may form a unifying theoretical framework for many studies and projects in the field of gender fair education.
Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.
2016-04-01
Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.
Emergence of Mathematical Knowledge Structures. Introspection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stehlikova, Nada
2003-01-01
In the study, a part of longitudinal research focused on the emergence of mathematical knowledge structures in a learner's mind is presented. It concentrates on the analysis of introspective data gained from the author's study of a non-standard arithmetic structure in terms of the model of abstraction in context (Hershkowitz, Schwarz and Dreyfus).…
Validating Measures of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kane, Michael
2007-01-01
According to Schilling, Blunk, and Hill, the set of papers presented in this journal issue had two main purposes: (1) to use an argument-based approach to evaluate the validity of the tests of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), and (2) to critically assess the author's version of an argument-based approach to validation (Kane, 2001, 2004).…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alpaslan, Mustafa; Işıksal, Mine; Haser, Çiğdem
2013-10-01
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades 4-8) mathematics teachers from nine universities in Turkey. Data were collected through Knowledge of History of Mathematics Test and Attitudes and Beliefs towards the Use of History of Mathematics in Mathematics Education Questionnaire. Results indicate that pre-service teachers have moderate knowledge of history of mathematics and positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics. Their knowledge scores increase as the year level in teacher education program advanced. Males' knowledge scores are significantly higher than females' scores in the first 2 years. This situation reverses in the last 2 years, but it is not statistically significant. Pre-service teachers have more positive attitudes and availing beliefs towards using history of mathematics as they progress in their teacher education program. Females have greater attitudes and beliefs mean scores than males in each of the years. The results indicate that the teacher education program may have enhanced the pre-service teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics by related courses. However, the moderate knowledge scores indicate that there is a need for revision of these courses. The pre-service teachers' positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics stress the importance of teacher education program in order to prepare them for implementing this alternative strategy in the future.
Mathematics University Teachers' Perception of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khakbaz, Azimehsadat
2016-01-01
Teaching mathematics in university levels is one of the most important fields of research in the area of mathematics education. Nevertheless, there is little information about teaching knowledge of mathematics university teachers. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) provides a suitable framework to study knowledge of teachers. The purpose of this…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moon, Kyunghee
2013-01-01
This study examined how preservice secondary mathematics teachers developed mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) around representations and big ideas through mathematics and mathematics education courses. The importance of big ideas and representations in mathematics has been emphasized in national standards as well as in literature. Yet,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Margaret Meg Kathleen
2013-01-01
The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Heather C.; Blunk, Merrie L.; Charalambous, Charalambos Y.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; Phelps, Geoffrey C.; Sleep, Laurie; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg
2008-01-01
This study illuminates claims that teachers' mathematical knowledge plays an important role in their teaching of this subject matter. In particular, we focus on teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), which includes both the mathematical knowledge that is common to individuals working in diverse professions and the mathematical…
Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.
Campbell, M J; Waters, W E
1987-04-04
In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed.
Horizon Content Knowledge: Shaping MKT for a Continuous Mathematical Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernández, Sainza; Figueiras, Lourdes
2014-01-01
Mathematics learning is a continuous process in which students face some abrupt episodes involving many changes of different natures. This work is focused on one of those episodes, transition from primary to secondary school, and targets teachers and their mathematical knowledge. By characterising the mathematical knowledge that teachers of…
Integrating pedagogical content knowledge and pedagogical/psychological knowledge in mathematics.
Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander
2014-01-01
In teacher education at universities, general pedagogical and psychological principles are often treated separately from subject matter knowledge and therefore run the risk of not being applied in the teaching subject. In an experimental study (N = 60 mathematics student teachers) we investigated the effects of providing aspects of general pedagogical/psychological knowledge (PPK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in an integrated or separated way. In both conditions ("integrated" vs. "separated"), participants individually worked on computer-based learning environments addressing the same topic: use and handling of multiple external representations, a central issue in mathematics. We experimentally varied whether PPK aspects and PCK aspects were treated integrated or apart from one another. As expected, the integrated condition led to greater application of pedagogical/psychological aspects and an increase in applying both knowledge types simultaneously compared to the separated condition. Overall, our findings indicate beneficial effects of an integrated design in teacher education.
Integrating pedagogical content knowledge and pedagogical/psychological knowledge in mathematics
Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander
2014-01-01
In teacher education at universities, general pedagogical and psychological principles are often treated separately from subject matter knowledge and therefore run the risk of not being applied in the teaching subject. In an experimental study (N = 60 mathematics student teachers) we investigated the effects of providing aspects of general pedagogical/psychological knowledge (PPK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in an integrated or separated way. In both conditions (“integrated” vs. “separated”), participants individually worked on computer-based learning environments addressing the same topic: use and handling of multiple external representations, a central issue in mathematics. We experimentally varied whether PPK aspects and PCK aspects were treated integrated or apart from one another. As expected, the integrated condition led to greater application of pedagogical/psychological aspects and an increase in applying both knowledge types simultaneously compared to the separated condition. Overall, our findings indicate beneficial effects of an integrated design in teacher education. PMID:25191300
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Asikainen, Mervi A.; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2013-01-01
Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pournara, C.
2016-01-01
Depth and rigour in mathematical knowledge for pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers may be found in particular experiences of learning and doing school-level mathematics. Drawing on two cases from a course on financial mathematics for secondary school teachers, I illustrate opportunities for exploring compound and exponential growth.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Purpura, David J.; Napoli, Amy R.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth A.; Gold, Zachary S.
2017-01-01
The acquisition of early mathematical knowledge is critical for successful long-term academic development. Mathematical language is one of the strongest predictors of children's early mathematical success. Findings from previous studies have provided correlational evidence supporting the importance of mathematical language to the development of…
How Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching May Profit from the Study of History of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mosvold, Reidar; Jakobsen, Arne; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2014-01-01
In this theoretical article, we aim at theorizing the old statement that mathematics teachers might profit from studying the history of mathematics. We do this by drawing upon the theoretical framework of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). A selection of international studies on the history and pedagogy of mathematics is used as starting…
Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge: Policy and Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Esprivalo Harrell, Pamela; Eddy, Colleen McLean
2012-01-01
This study examines mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of state and national policymaker recommendations, college coursework and the Mathematics Texas Examination of Educator Standards (TExES) score. Results indicate differences between state and national policy recommendations and college degrees in mathematics. A statistically…
Mathematical Knowledge: Its Growth through Teaching. Mathematics Education Library, Volume 10.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, Alan J., Ed.; And Others
This book presents issues concerning relationships between mathematical knowledge and the teaching and learning processes, focusing especially on the genesis of mathematical knowledge in the classroom. The chapter titles are: (1) The Fragility of Knowledge (Guy Brousseau and Michael Otte); (2) The Double Bind as a Didactical Trap (Stieg…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kwiatkowski-Egizio, Erica
2013-01-01
The two research questions that guided this study were: (1) How do preservice teachers develop mathematical knowledge for teaching during a coordinated math methods course and field experience? and (2) What types of portfolio tasks lend themselves to documenting mathematical knowledge in teaching? Six, female, elementary (K-8) teacher candidates…
The Framing Discussion: Connecting Student Experience with Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henning, John E.; Balong, Megan
2011-01-01
This article introduces the framing discussion, an informal discussion of a mathematical problem that takes place at the beginning of a lesson or unit. The purpose of the framing discussion is to assess student knowledge, motivate student interest, and to serve as a basis for guiding students to more formal mathematical knowledge. The article…
Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge and Teacher Efficacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newton, Kristie Jones; Leonard, Jacqueline; Evans, Brian R.; Eastburn, Julie A.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mathematics content knowledge and teacher efficacy during an elementary mathematics methods course. A positive moderate relationship between content knowledge and personal teaching efficacy was found, and this relationship was stable during the course. No relationship was found…
How Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching May Profit from the Study of History of Mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosvold, Reidar; Jakobsen, Arne; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2013-07-01
In this theoretical article, we aim at theorizing the old statement that mathematics teachers might profit from studying the history of mathematics. We do this by drawing upon the theoretical framework of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). A selection of international studies on the history and pedagogy of mathematics is used as starting points for discussing how the different domains of teachers' MKT—to a larger or smaller degree—can profit from the history of mathematics.
Mathematical Ability Relies on Knowledge, Too
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sweller, John; Clark, Richard E.; Kirschner, Paul A.
2011-01-01
Recent "reform" curricula both ignore the absence of supporting data and completely misunderstand the role of problem solving in cognition. If, the argument goes, teachers are not really teaching people mathematics but rather are teaching them some form of general problem solving, then mathematical content can be reduced in importance. According…
Why (Urban) Mathematics Teachers Need Political Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gutiérrez, Rochelle
2013-01-01
Rochelle Gutiérrez has spent 15 years researching effective, urban high school mathematics departments that served Black, Latin@ and low-income adolescents (see, e.g., Gutiérrez, 1996, 1999a, 1999b, 2000, 2002). These were schools where students took more mathematics than was required by their district; where English learners, recent immigrants,…
Selecting and Sequencing Mathematics Tasks: Seeking Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galant, Jaamia
2013-01-01
In this article, I present an initial analysis of an empirical study that was undertaken in an attempt to elicit what subject-matter knowledge, pedagogic content knowledge and curriculum knowledge teachers bring to bear on decisions for teaching. The analysis is based on interview data with 46 Grade 3 teachers, who were presented with two…
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Smith, Marvin E.; Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Hart, Lynn C.; Haardorfer, Regine
2012-01-01
This longitudinal study examines the effects of changes in an elementary teacher preparation program on mathematics beliefs and content knowledge for teaching of two groups of prospective teachers (N = 276): (1) those who completed a program with three mathematics content courses and two mathematics methods courses and (2) those who completed a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Harpen, Xianwei Y.; Presmeg, Norma C.
2013-01-01
The importance of students' problem-posing abilities in mathematics has been emphasized in the K-12 curricula in the USA and China. There are claims that problem-posing activities are helpful in developing creative approaches to mathematics. At the same time, there are also claims that students' mathematical content knowledge could be highly…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…
Building Mathematical Knowledge in an Authentic Mobile Phone Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daher, Wajeeh
2010-01-01
Although many researchers have examined knowledge building in traditional settings and distance learning, few have examined middle school students' building of mathematical knowledge using mobile phones. The present study uses two well-known models of knowledge building to carry out the examination: the interactive analysis model of knowledge…
Theoretical Framework of Researcher Knowledge Development in Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kontorovich, Igor'
2016-01-01
The goal of this paper is to present a framework of researcher knowledge development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing filters that influence a researcher's decision making. The components…
Investigating Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Proof in Professional Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesseig, Kristin
2016-01-01
Research documenting teachers' fragile understanding of proof and how it is advanced suggests that enhancing the role of proof in school mathematics will demand substantial teacher learning. To date, there is little research detailing what mathematical knowledge might support the teaching of proof or how professional development (PD) might afford…
Changes in School Mathematics Knowledge in Greece: A Bernsteinian Analysis
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Koustourakis, Gerasimos; Zacharos, Konstantinos
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the changes that took place in school mathematics knowledge for pupils aged six and seven (first grade of Greek elementary school) and its pedagogical approach, which took shape following the reforms of the mathematics curricula in 1982 and 2003. Our analysis is based on Bernstein's theoretical…
Mathematical Knowledge of Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary School Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stigler, James W.; And Others
This study compared the results of group tests of computational skills and tests of knowledge and skills in mathematics between three groups of first and fifth grade students from the United States, Japan, and Taiwan. The battery of tests were constructed after reviewing the mathematics textbooks used in each location and discussing the major…
Language-Based Prior Knowledge and Transition to Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide; Torres, Cristina; Chen, Fan
2005-01-01
The paper provides a college mathematics student's concept maps, definitions, and essays to support the thesis that language-based prior knowledge can influence students' cognitive processes of mathematical concepts. A group of intermediate algebra students who displayed terms mainly from the spoken language on the first and the second concept…
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Secondary Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Handal, Boris; Campbell, Chris; Cavanagh, Michael; Petocz, Peter; Kelly, Nick
2013-01-01
The integration of technology, pedagogy, and content in the teaching of secondary mathematics was explored among 280 secondary mathematics teachers in the State of New South Wales, Australia. The study adopted the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) model through the administration of a 30-item instrument called TPCK-M. The…
Opportunities to Promote Mathematical Content Knowledge for Primary Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livy, Sharyn; Herbert, Sandra
2014-01-01
Understanding the development of pre-service teachers' mathematical content knowledge (MCK) is important for improving primary mathematics' teacher education. This paper reports on a case study, Rose and her opportunities to develop MCK during the four years of her program. Program opportunities to promote MCK when planning and practicing primary…
Preschool children's mathematical knowledge: The effect of teacher "math talk.".
Klibanoff, Raquel S; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Hedges, Larry V
2006-01-01
This study examined the relation between the amount of mathematical input in the speech of preschool or day-care teachers and the growth of children's conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year. Three main findings emerged. First, there were marked individual differences in children's conventional mathematical knowledge by 4 years of age that were associated with socioeconomic status. Second, there were dramatic differences in the amount of math-related talk teachers provided. Third, and most important, the amount of teachers' math-related talk was significantly related to the growth of preschoolers' conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year but was unrelated to their math knowledge at the start of the school year.
Preservice Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Menon, Ramakrishnan
2009-01-01
Sixty four preservice teachers taking a mathematics methods class for middle schools were given 3 math problems: multiply a three digit number by a two digit number; divide a whole number by a fraction; and compare the volume of two cylinders made in different ways from the same rectangular sheet. They were to a) solve them, explaining their…
"Concreteness Fading" Promotes Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.
2012-01-01
Recent studies have suggested that educators should avoid concrete instantiations when the goal is to promote transfer. However, concrete instantiations may benefit transfer in the long run, particularly if they are "faded" into more abstract instantiations. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to learn a mathematical concept in one of three…
Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Proof by Mathematical Induction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.; Philippou, George N.
2007-01-01
There is a growing effort to make "proof" central to all students' mathematical experiences across all grades. Success in this goal depends highly on teachers' knowledge of proof, but limited research has examined this knowledge. This paper contributes to this domain of research by investigating preservice elementary and secondary school…
Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Mathematics
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Lee, Joohi
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess 81 kindergarten teachers' pedagogical content knowledge of mathematics on six subcategory areas such as number sense, pattern, ordering, shapes, spatial sense, and comparison. The data showed participants possessed a higher level of pedagogical content knowledge of "number sense" (M = 89.12) compared to…
Knowledge for Teaching Secondary School Mathematics: What Counts?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goos, Merrilyn
2013-01-01
This article discusses key issues surrounding the nature and development of professional knowledge for effective teaching of mathematics, especially at the secondary school level. In the education research community it is generally accepted that teachers need more than knowledge of the content they will teach; an additional construct, pedagogical…
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Shirvani, Hosin
2015-01-01
This study examined the knowledge of mathematics content of elementary pre-service teachers at a sixth grade level. The researcher administered a mathematics test for sixth graders mandated by the Texas Education Agency to pre-service teachers; the same test was given to sixth graders in Texas. The study found that pre-service teachers performed…
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Stiegelmeyer, Cindy
2012-01-01
This study surveyed 82 preservice elementary teachers using items from an instrument designed to predict student achievement based on a teacher's mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) in numbers and operations concepts. Additional mathematics beliefs items asked participants to rate their level of agreement with math myths and math anxiety…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baki, Mujgan
2015-01-01
This study aims to explore the role of lesson analysis in the development of mathematical knowledge for teaching. For this purpose, a graduate course based on lesson analysis was designed for novice mathematics teachers. Throughout the course the teachers watched videos of group-mates and discussed the issues they identified in terms of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leong, Kwan Eu; Meng, Chew Cheng; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul
2015-01-01
This article seeks to present findings from the analysis of the TEDS-M reports on the mathematical content knowledge (MCK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of the pre-service teachers in Malaysia. The main objective of this study was to investigate the level of teaching knowledge attained by the Malaysian pre-service primary and secondary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scheiner, Thorsten
2015-01-01
The guiding philosophy of this theoretical work lays in the argument that mathematics teachers' professional knowledge is the integration of various knowledge facets derived from different sources including teaching experience and research. This paper goes beyond past trends identifying what the teachers' knowledge is about (content) by providing…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, Fay
2012-01-01
In this paper I report findings from a four year study of beginning elementary school teachers which investigated development in their mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). The study took a developmental research approach, in that the teachers and the researcher collaborated to develop the mathematics teaching of the teachers, while also…
Teaching Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: Curriculum and Challenges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Yeon
2013-01-01
Over the last decade, researchers have investigated the nature and scope of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) and have provided evidence that teachers' MKT plays a critical role in the effectiveness of teaching and learning. This dissertation focuses on the problem of helping teachers develop MKT. Two goals shape the research: (1) to…
Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Fractions with Drawn Quantities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Izsak, Andrew; Jacobson, Erik; de Araujo, Zandra; Orrill, Chandra Hawley
2012-01-01
Researchers have recently used traditional item response theory (IRT) models to measure mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Some studies (e.g., Hill, 2007; Izsak, Orrill, Cohen, & Brown, 2010), however, have reported subgroups when measuring middle-grades teachers' MKT, and such groups violate a key assumption of IRT models. This study…
The Mathematical Content Knowledge of Prospective Teachers in Iceland
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johannsdottir, Bjorg
2013-01-01
This study focused on the mathematical content knowledge of prospective teachers in Iceland. The sample was 38 students in the School of Education at the University of Iceland, both graduate and undergraduate students. All of the participants in the study completed a questionnaire survey and 10 were interviewed. The choice of ways to measure the…
What Knowledge Is Shaping Teacher Preparation in Early Childhood Mathematics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parks, Amy Noelle; Wager, Anita A.
2015-01-01
This article examines the bodies of knowledge that influence and inform the teaching of mathematics methods courses for preservice early childhood teachers, focusing on the U.S. context. In particular, the article reports on an analysis of scholarship published over the last 20 years in four journals (two focused on early childhood education and…
Measuring Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beswick, Kim; Goos, Merrilyn
2012-01-01
This paper reports on the knowledge for teaching mathematics of 294 pre-service primary teachers from seven Australian universities participating in a project aimed at establishing a culture of evidence-based improvement of teacher education. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Rasch measurement techniques were…
Embracing "Nepantla": Rethinking "Knowledge" and Its Use in Mathematics Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gutiérrez, Rochelle
2012-01-01
Although educational researchers are moving beyond purely psychological and cognitive models of learning to consider the ways in which mathematics teaching might reach a more diverse student population, this work remains in its infancy, and the concept of "knowledge" is rarely questioned. This paper begins with the idea that mathematics…
Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Task Unfolding: An Exploratory Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charalambous, Charalambos Y.
2010-01-01
Although teachers' knowledge is thought to contribute to the selection and implementation of mathematical tasks, empirical evidence supporting this claim is scarce. To investigate this relationship and understand its nature, this exploratory study examines the unfolding of tasks in a series of lessons led by 2 elementary school teachers who…
Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students about the Algebraic Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tanisli, Dilek; Kose, Nilufer Yavuzsoy
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate preservice primary mathematics teachers' ability to discuss and investigate students' thinking process about the concepts of variable, equality and equation, to analyse their ability to predict student difficulties and misconceptions and, in this respect, to present their subject-matter knowledge and possible…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livy, Sharyn
2010-01-01
This paper draws on observation of a primary mathematics lesson prepared and taught by a second-year pre-service teacher who lacked mathematical content knowledge. A "knowledge quartet" (Rowland, Turner, Thwaites, & Huckstep, 2009) was used to investigate when and how a pre-service teacher drew on their knowledge of mathematics during primary…
Relationships between Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Teaching Practice: The Case of Proof
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.; Cervello Rogers, Kimberly
2012-01-01
Teachers of mathematics orchestrate opportunities for interactions between learners and subject matter. Therefore, mathematics teachers need rich, multidimensional content knowledge for teaching mathematics, which incorporates knowledge of the subject matter, students, and teaching. Studying this mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haroun, Ramzi F.; Ng, Dicky; Abdelfattah, Faisal A.; AlSalouli, Misfer S.
2016-01-01
This study examines gender differences of teachers on their mathematical knowledge for teaching in the context of single-sex classrooms in Saudi Arabia. A translated version of the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) instrument (Learning Mathematics for Teaching [LMT], 2008) in Number and Operation Content Knowledge (CK) and Knowledge of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Speer, Natasha M.; King, Karen D.; Howell, Heather
2015-01-01
The construct "mathematical knowledge for teaching" (MKT) has received considerable attention in the mathematics education community in recent years. The development and refinement of the MKT construct, including the components of common content knowledge (CCK) and specialized content knowledge (SCK), came from research into elementary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subramaniam, Karthigeyan
2014-01-01
Prospective secondary mathematics teachers' pedagogical knowledge for teaching the estimation of length measurements was investigated by examining their personal benchmarks for measurement estimation. Benchmarks for measurement estimation are the meaningful representations of units that serve to increase one's understanding of…
Visual Programming: A Programming Tool for Increasing Mathematics Achivement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanier, Cheryl A.; Seals, Cheryl D.; Billionniere, Elodie V.
2009-01-01
This paper aims to address the need of increasing student achievement in mathematics using a visual programming language such as Scratch. This visual programming language facilitates creating an environment where students in K-12 education can develop mathematical simulations while learning a visual programming language at the same time.…
The Use of Video Analysis and the Knowledge Quartet in Mathematics Teacher Education Programmes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liston, Miriam
2015-01-01
This study investigates the potential of video analysis and a mathematical knowledge for teaching framework, the Knowledge Quartet (KQ), in mathematics teacher education programmes. It reports on the effectiveness of these tools in analysing and supporting secondary level pre-service mathematics teachers' subject matter knowledge and pedagogical…
The Development of Teacher Knowledge in Support of Student Mathematical Inquiry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slavit, David; Lesseig, Kristin
2017-01-01
Applying the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching framework, we discuss the components of teacher knowledge that might be useful in supporting mathematical inquiry, and examine ways in which we strive to develop this knowledge within a middle grades mathematics program for undergraduate students who are prospective teachers. Using sample activities…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma'rufi, Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi
2017-02-01
Teacher is one of the key aspects of student's achievement. Teachers should master content material taught, how to teach it, and can interpret the students' thinking so that students easily understand the subject matter. This research was a qualitative research that aimed at describing profile of PCK's teachers in mathematics on limit algebraic functions in terms of the differences of teaching experience. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and understanding of teachers is defined as involving the relationship between knowledge of teaching materials, how to transfer the subject matter, and the knowledge of students in mathematics on limit algebraic functions that the subject matter may be understood by students. The PCK components in this research were knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of students. Knowledge of pedagogy defines as knowledge and understanding of teachers about the planning and organization of the learning and teaching strategy of limit algebraic function. The subjects were two mathematics high school teachers who teach in class XI IPS. Data were collected through observation of learning during five meetings and interviews before and after the lesson continued with qualitative data analysis. Focus of this article was to describe novice teacher's knowledge of student in mathematics learning on limit algebraic function. Based on the results of the analysis of qualitative data the data concluded that novice teacher's knowledge of pedagogy in mathematics on limit algebraic function showed: 1) in teaching the definitions tend to identify prior knowledge of the student experience with the material to be studied, but not in the form of a problem, 2) in posing the questions tend to be monotonous non lead and dig, 3) in response to student questions preservice teachers do not take advantage of the characteristics or the potential of other students, 4) in addressing the problem of students, tend to use the drill approach and did
Elementary school quality, the mathematics curriculum and the role of local knowledge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balfanz, Robert
1990-03-01
This article uses data from several elementary school classrooms in Chicago on how students learn to calculate, and reviews similar data from a number of developing countries to examine the strengths and limitations of using the mathematical knowledge which students develop on their own outside of formal schooling to increase the amount, range and power of mathematical knowledge which is acquired through formal schooling. In so doing it attempts to reconcile the views of those who believe that the key to improving elementary school quality lies in improving the technology of instruction and those who believe that it lies in a deeper understanding of the mental life of children. It concludes by arguing that the quality of elementary schooling can be improved through skilled management of the environmentally acquired knowledge which students bring to instruction, if this knowledge is transformed through pedagogic and curricular interventions into a set of portable intellectual skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, Erin E.; Drake, Corey; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Aguirre, Julia; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Foote, Mary Q.
2012-01-01
Research repeatedly documents that teachers are underprepared to teach mathematics effectively in diverse classrooms. A critical aspect of learning to be an effective mathematics teacher for diverse learners is developing knowledge, dispositions, and practices that support building on children's mathematical thinking, as well as their cultural,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novikasari, Ifada; Darhim, Didi Suryadi
2015-01-01
This study explored the characteristics of pre-service primary teachers (PSTs) influenced by mathematical belief and mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) PSTs'. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the levels of PSTs on mathematical belief and MKT. The two research instruments used in this study were an interview-based task and a…
The Development of Logico-Mathematical Knowledge in a Block-Building Activity at Ages 1-4
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kamii, Constance; Miyakawa, Yoko; Kato, Yasuhiko
2004-01-01
To study the developmental interrelationships among various aspects of logico-mathematical knowledge, 80 one- to 4-year-olds were individually asked to build "something tall" with 20 blocks. Percentages of new and significant behaviors increased with age and were analyzed in terms of the development of logico-mathematical relationships. It was…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkie, Karina J.
2016-06-01
A key aspect of learning algebra in the middle years of schooling is exploring the functional relationship between two variables: noticing and generalising the relationship, and expressing it mathematically. This article describes research on the professional learning of upper primary school teachers for developing their students' functional thinking through pattern generalisation. This aspect of algebra learning has been explicitly brought to the attention of upper primary teachers in the recently introduced Australian curriculum. Ten practising teachers participated over 1 year in a design-based research project involving a sequence of geometric pattern generalisation lessons with their classes. Initial and final survey responses and teachers' interactions in regular meetings and lessons were analysed from cognitive and situated perspectives on professional learning, using a theoretical model for the different types of knowledge needed for teaching mathematics. The teachers demonstrated an increase in certain aspects of their mathematical knowledge for teaching algebra as well as some residual issues. Implications for the professional learning of practising and pre-service teachers to develop their mathematics knowledge for teaching functional thinking, and challenges with operationalising knowledge categories for field-based research are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miheso-O'Connor Khakasa, Marguerite; Berger, Margot
2016-01-01
Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), defined by Ball ("Elementary Journal," 93, 373-397, 1993) as knowledge that is needed to teach mathematics, has been used as a framework by researchers to interrogate various aspects of teaching and learning mathematics. In this article, which draws from a larger study, we show how an in-depth…
An Exploration of the Common Content Knowledge of High School Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bansilal, Sarah; Brijlall, Deonarain; Mkhwanazi, Thokozani
2014-01-01
Many studies point to the problem of poor mathematics content knowledge of mathematics teachers in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' knowledge of the mathematics they are themselves teaching. Data was generated from the teachers' (n = 253) written responses to test that was a shortened form of a previous Grade 12…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Eddy, Colleen McLean
2011-01-01
This study examined mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of policy maker recommendations, college coursework and teacher certification mathematics test scores. Transcript analysis indicated poor alignment of national policy maker recommendations for mathematics teachers and college degrees in mathematics. Teacher certification test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khoule, Alioune
2013-01-01
The study investigated the relationship between conceptual knowledge and mathematics anxiety of remedial mathematics students in an urban community college. The impact that conceptual understanding has on mathematics achievement was also examined. The study sample consisted of 105 remedial mathematics students from four elementary algebra courses.…
Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children with Mathematical Learning Difficulty
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin
2016-01-01
Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by…
What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement
Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
2015-01-01
Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961
Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learners: The Fabrication of Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawler, Brian R.
2008-01-01
This dissertation is embedded in a deconstruction of the field of Mathematics Education in order to reconstitute the mathematics student as a generative mathematical learner. The purpose of the dissertation is to understand how generative adolescent mathematical learners (GAMLs) maneuver through their mathematics courses while maintaining such a…
Elementary School Teachers' Views of Knowledge Pertaining to Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Renne, Christine G.
The facets of teachers' views of mathematics include their personal views, how they view mathematics for their students, how they view the mathematics curriculum, and how they view mathematics teaching. This paper reports a pilot study to examine how elementary school teachers view mathematics both personally and for their students. A coding…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Kimberly
2015-01-01
This study set out to examine how interactions between a mathematics instructional coach and a teacher influence teacher pedagogical content knowledge, instructional practices, and a classroom culture of mathematical inquiry (CCMI). The research literature on mathematics instructional coaching was limited, but showed promise in supporting…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stylianides, Andreas J.; Ball, Deborah L.
2008-01-01
This article is situated in the research domain that investigates what mathematical knowledge is useful for, and usable in, mathematics teaching. Specifically, the article contributes to the issue of understanding and describing what knowledge about proof is likely to be important for teachers to have as they engage students in the activity of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin
2015-01-01
In this study, I examined the relationship between teachers' mathematical knowledge and instruction. Twenty-one K-8 teachers who were enrolled in a master's program were followed for 3 years to study how their mathematical knowledge and teaching changed over time. The results of multilevel growth models indicated that gains in teachers'…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordek, David
2017-01-01
The problematics of optical systems aberrations that is described in my article is beyond mathematical knowledge of secondary school students, especially the problematics of simulations of these aberrations. In my contribution the problematics of optical systems aberrations will be described using higher level-mathematics. Then it will be presented to secondary school students regarding their theoretical knowledge of mathematics. Even though i&tacute;s necessary to include mathematics into clearly physics problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bair, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.
2011-01-01
This article characterizes the development of a deep and connected body of mathematical knowledge categorized by Ball and Bass' (2003b) model of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), as Specialized Content Knowledge for Teaching (SCK) in algebraic reasoning and number sense. The research employed multiple cases across three years from two…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hourigan, Mairéad; O'Donoghue, John
2013-01-01
Given the acknowledged relationship between teachers' knowledge, their teaching and pupil learning, teachers' mathematics subject matter knowledge (MSMK) has received increased attention internationally. As children's early mathematics experiences have been recognized as a critical stage, elementary teachers' MSMK has become a focal point among researchers and policy makers alike. International research findings have uncovered that in many cases, there is a mismatch between what is perceived to be an appropriate MSMK for teaching elementary mathematics and that demonstrated by many qualified and prospective elementary teachers. Following repeated incidences of weak MSMK during interactions with prospective elementary teachers in one Irish College of Education (provider of initial teacher education programme for elementary teachers), this study sought to examine and address the issue purposefully through two cycles of action research. This article focuses on the data collected prospective teachers' MSMK in the initial stage (reconnaissance) of these cycles, i.e. pre-test findings. While considerable differences were evident among the pre-test population, the findings suggest that prior to the intervention stage many participating prospective teachers; regardless of previous mathematics achievements or the level of mathematics study; demonstrate weaknesses and gaps in their 'common' MSMK. Particular difficulties were evident in relation to pre-test items requiring knowledge of rational numbers, conceptual understanding or problem solving. These findings highlight the inadequacy of previous mathematics achievements and indeed minimum entry requirements as predictors of MSMK for teaching. As well as its contribution at a local and national level, the findings provide an Irish perspective on this international issue.
The Key to Enhancing Students' Mathematical Vocabulary Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riccomini, Paul J.; Sanders, Sharon; Jones, Julie
2008-01-01
The importance of learning mathematical vocabulary is vital for the development of proficiency in mathematics. In an effort to improve students' mathematical performance, educators must use research-validated instructional methods to teach important mathematical vocabulary. Mnemonic instruction is a set of evidenced-based strategies used to…
Integrating Mathematical, Technological, and Pedagogical Knowledge in Teacher Preparation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schneiter, Kady; Kohler, Brynja R.; Watts, Brandon J.
2011-01-01
The Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Utah State University offers two courses for preservice secondary school mathematics teachers that complement each other in working toward a vision for school mathematics in which "all students have access to high-quality, engaging mathematics instruction." Through these courses, students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oleson, Vicki
2010-01-01
This study sought to understand the process of change elementary teachers experienced as they participated in mathematics professional development. This investigation explored the impact of mathematics professional development on teachers' content knowledge for teaching, their ability to implement innovative pedagogical practices, and the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adamu, L. E.
2015-01-01
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between scores in mathematics knowledge and teaching practice of Diploma mathematics students. A sample of 39 students was used. Two research questions and two hypotheses were asked and formulated respectively. An ex-post facto correlation design was used. The data were analyzed using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basaran, Mehmet; Özalp, Gülümser; Kalender, Ilker; Alacaci, Cengiz
2015-01-01
One important function of school mathematics curriculum is to prepare high school students with the knowledge and skills needed for university education. Identifying them empirically will help making sound decisions about the contents of high school mathematics curriculum. It will also help students to make informed choices in course selection at…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luitel, Bal Chandra
2013-01-01
The problem of culturally decontextualised mathematics education faced by Nepali students, teachers and teacher educators has often been oriented by the view of the nature of "mathematics as a body of pure knowledge," which gives rise to an exclusive emphasis on an ideology of singularity, epistemology of objectivism, language of…
Using Differentiated Instruction to Increase Mathematics Achievement in Elementary Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Faulkner, Jennifer H.
2013-01-01
As evidenced by the poor mathematics performance in American schools, specifically in the school district in the current study, providing identical educational opportunities for diverse students does not necessarily increase academic achievement for everyone. Differentiation is an instructional method that has been found to be successful in…
Dissociations in mathematical knowledge: case studies in Down's syndrome and Williams syndrome.
Robinson, Sally J; Temple, Christine M
2013-02-01
A study is reported of mathematical vocabulary and factual mathematical knowledge in PQ, a 22 year old with Down's syndrome (DS) who has a verbal mental age (MA) of 9 years 2 months and ST, a 15 year old with Williams syndrome (WS) who has a verbal MA of 9 years 6 months, matched to typically developing controls. The number of mathematical words contained within PQ's lexical stores was significantly reduced as reflected by performance on lexical decision. PQ was also impaired at both naming from descriptions and describing mathematical words. These results contrast with normal lexical decision and item descriptions for concrete words reported recently for PQ (Robinson and Temple, 2010). PQ's recall of mathematical facts was also impaired, whilst his recall of general knowledge facts was normal. This performance in DS indicates a deficit in both lexical representation and semantic knowledge for mathematical words and mathematical facts. In contrast, ST, the teenager with WS had good accuracy on lexical decision, naming and generating definitions for mathematical words. This contrasted with the atypical performance with concrete words recently reported for ST (Robinson and Temple, 2009). Knowledge of addition facts and general knowledge facts was also unimpaired for ST, though knowledge of multiplication facts was weak. Together the cases form a double dissociation and provide support for the distinct representation of mathematical and concrete items within the lexical-semantic system during development. The dissociations between mathematical and general factual knowledge also indicate that different types of factual knowledge may be selectively impaired during development. There is further support for a modular structure within which mathematical vocabulary and mathematical knowledge have distinct representations. This supports the case for the independent representation of factual and language-based knowledge within the semantic system during development.
Infusing Mathematics Content into a Methods Course: Impacting Content Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, Megan; Daane, C. J.; Giesen, Judy
2008-01-01
This study compared content knowledge for teaching mathematics differences between elementary pre-service teachers in a traditional versus an experimental mathematics methods course. The experimental course replaced 20 minutes of traditional methods, each class, with an intervention of elementary mathematics content. The difference between groups…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Youngs, Peter; Qian, Hong
2013-01-01
In this article, we draw on survey data to investigate associations between Chinese elementary teaching candidates’ mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) and their experiences in mathematics courses, mathematics methods courses, and student teaching. In our study, we found that (a) Chinese teaching candidates' completion of courses in number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Koay, Phong Lee
2013-01-01
In this article, we explore the mathematical content knowledge of one entire cohort of pre-service teachers (N = 107) through analysing their performance in a Secondary Mathematics Audit that was developed for the International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Teacher Training that was initiated by the University of Plymouth. We study how their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yüksel, Ismail
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of activity-based mathematics instruction on mathematics performance and investigate those factors, which contribute to the mathematics performance of a sample of children aged between 10 and 12 years. The study was designed to consider the impact of prior knowledge, self-regulation, prior attitude,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polly, Drew; McGee, Jennifer R.; Sullivan, Christie
2010-01-01
While technology has potential to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics, research indicates that teachers struggle in their efforts to implement technology-rich mathematical tasks in their classrooms. Effective technology integration in mathematics requires teachers to be able to apply their classroom knowledge related to mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peschek, Werner; Schneider, Edith
2001-01-01
Discusses descriptive and normative perspectives of mathematics and of (general) mathematics education which can be found in the didactic literature. Contemplates and evaluates the use of computer algebra systems and offers suggestions for basic knowledge and basic skills in a modern technology-supported mathematics classroom. (Contains 12…
What Math Matters? Types of Mathematics Knowledge and Relationships to Methods Course Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kajander, Ann; Holm, Jennifer
2016-01-01
This study investigated the effect of a departmental focus on enhanced mathematics knowledge for teaching on overall performance in upper elementary mathematics methods courses. The study examined the effect of performance on a new course in mathematics for teaching on performance at the methods course level. In addition, the effect of performance…
[Internship-test reveals increased knowledge gaps].
Östgren, Carl-Johan; Krook-Brandt, Margareta; Carlborg, Andreas
2016-04-08
We present the results of the medical knowledge test after fulfilled internship for Swedish medical authorization during the years 2009 to the spring of 2015. A total of 7,613 tests were analyzed. Interns graduated from Swedish universities failed in 2.7% to 3.8% of the test moments. Interns who graduated from countries within the European Union (EU) failed in 21.2% and interns graduated from a non-EU country failed in 41.6%. The results from those who graduated from EU and non-EU countries have worsened compared to an earlier study in 2009. Proper measures have now to be implemented for doctors graduated from a non-Swedish university to improve the outcome and introduction to the Swedish health care system.
Orienteering in Knowledge Spaces: The Hyperbolic Geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics
Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.
2013-01-01
In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or “The MathWiki.” The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of “knowledge space” in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store. PMID:23844017
Orienteering in knowledge spaces: the hyperbolic geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics.
Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N
2013-01-01
In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or "The MathWiki." The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of "knowledge space" in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store.
Statewide Mathematics Professional Development: Teacher Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Beliefs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carney, Michele B.; Brendefur, Jonathan L.; Thiede, Keith; Hughes, Gwyneth; Sutton, John
2016-01-01
We examined the impact of a state-mandated K-12 mathematics professional development course on knowledge, self-efficacy, and beliefs of nearly 4,000 teachers and administrators. Participants completed the Mathematical Thinking for Instruction course, emphasizing student thinking, problem-solving, and content knowledge specific to mathematics…
The Curious--and Crucial--Case of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Heather; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg
2009-01-01
Mathematics teachers need specialized math knowledge that is different from the knowledge needed by mathematicians, including the mathematical understanding involved in posing questions, interpreting students' answers, providing explanations, and using representations. Based on the authors' work involving over 300 teachers, they have found that…
A Framework for Examining Mathematics Teacher Knowledge as Used in Error Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peng, Aihui; Luo, Zengru
2009-01-01
Error analysis is a basic and important task for mathematics teachers. Unfortunately, in the present literature there is a lack of detailed understanding about teacher knowledge as used in it. Based on a synthesis of the literature in error analysis, a framework for prescribing and assessing mathematics teacher knowledge in error analysis was…
Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.
2016-01-01
Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…
Primary Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Ratio and Proportion in Mathematics: The Case of Indonesia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ekawati, Rooselyna; Lin, Fou-Lai; Yang, Kai-Lin
2015-01-01
In this study, we aimed at examining Indonesian In-Service primary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge (MCK) and Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge (MPCK) for teaching ratio and proportion. The instruments were administered to 271 in-service primary teachers with various education background. There were three underlined factors on MCK…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Jon D.
2009-01-01
This study examines the influence of reading and planning from two differently organized mathematics textbooks on prospective high school mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of exponential functions. The teachers completed a pretest and two posttests. On the pretest, the teachers possessed an incomplete…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonner, Emily P.; Ruiz, Elsa C.; Travis, Betty
2013-01-01
Teacher content knowledge has been repeatedly linked to student achievement. Alternative Mathematics Teacher Education Programs are popular and prevalent, but do they prepare teachers with the content knowledge needed to teach secondary mathematics? This study reports on a quantitative analysis comparing scores between traditionally and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell, Patricia F.; Nishio, Masako; Smith, Toni M.; Clark, Lawrence M.; Conant, Darcy L.; Rust, Amber H.; DePiper, Jill Neumayer; Frank, Toya Jones; Griffin, Matthew J.; Choi, Youyoung
2014-01-01
This study of early-career teachers identified a significant relationship between upper-elementary teachers' mathematical content knowledge and their students' mathematics achievement, after controlling for student- and teacher-level characteristics. Findings provide evidence of the relevance of teacher knowledge and perceptions for teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livy, Sharyn; Vale, Colleen
2011-01-01
In this article, pre-service teachers' mathematics content knowledge is explored through the analysis of two items about ratio from a Mathematical Competency, Skills and Knowledge Test. Pre-service teachers' thinking strategies, common errors and misconceptions in their responses are presented and discussed. Of particular interest was the range…
Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C
2016-12-06
Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sahin, Ömer; Gökkurt, Burçin; Soylu, Yasin
2016-01-01
The aim of the study is to examine prospective mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in terms of knowledge of understanding students and knowledge of instructional strategies which are the subcomponents of pedagogical content knowledge. The participants of this research consist of 98 prospective teachers who are studying in two…
Liu, Allison S; Schunn, Christian D
2017-01-01
It is notoriously difficult for people to adaptively apply formal mathematical strategies learned in school to real-world contexts, even when they possess the required mathematical skills. The current study explores whether a problem context's mechanism can act as an "embodied analogy" onto which abstract mathematical concepts can be applied, leading to more frequent use of formal mathematical strategies. Participants were asked to program a robot to navigate a maze and to create a navigation strategy that would work for differently sized robots. We compared the strategy complexity of participants with high levels of mechanistic knowledge about the robot against participants with low levels of mechanistic knowledge about the robot. Mechanistic knowledge was significantly associated with the frequency and complexity of the mathematical strategies used by participants, suggesting that learning to recognize a problem context's mechanism may promote independent mathematical problem solving in applied contexts.
A Framework for Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematical Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herbert, Sandra
2014-01-01
Exploring and developing primary teachers' understanding of mathematical reasoning was the focus of the "Mathematical Reasoning Professional Learning Research Program." Twenty-four primary teachers were interviewed after engagement in the first stage of the program incorporating demonstration lessons focused on reasoning conducted in…
Strengthening Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hine, Gregory S. C.
2015-01-01
Over the past two decades there has been a growing body of literature concerning the preparation of pre-service mathematics teachers. Research efforts have focused principally on approaches conducted by tertiary educators to adequately prepare pre-service teachers (PST) for the mathematics classroom. Despite the extensive literature there is no…
Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weston, Tracy L.
2013-01-01
This study examined trainee teachers' mathematical knowledge in teaching (MKiT) over their final year in a US Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme. This paper reports on an exploratory methodological approach taken to use the "Knowledge Quartet" to quantify MKiT through the development of a new protocol to code trainees' teaching of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adler, Jill; Hossain, Sarmin; Stevenson, Mary; Clarke, John; Archer, Rosa; Grantham, Barry
2014-01-01
This article reports an investigation into how students of a mathematics course for prospective secondary mathematics teachers in England talk about the notion of "understanding mathematics in depth", which was an explicit goal of the course. We interviewed eighteen students of the course. Through our social practice frame and in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Faulkner, Valerie N.; Cain, Chris R.
2013-01-01
Student performance in mathematics has been linked to the mathematical knowledge of the teacher. Based on this finding, a 5-day professional development module was created to improve teachers' mathematical knowledge and their understanding of number sense. We found no difference prior to the professional development in mathematical content…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegfried, John Zig Michael
2012-01-01
Teachers' mathematical content knowledge is one of the most important constructs considered by researchers studying elementary mathematics education (Fennema & Franke, 1992). One component of mathematical content knowledge that is complicated, ill-defined, and oft-ignored is "productive disposition," defined as the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross A.; Berry, Robert Q.
2015-01-01
This study investigates the effectiveness of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, a social and emotional learning intervention, on changing the relations between mathematics teacher and classroom inputs (mathematical knowledge for teaching [MKT] and standards-based mathematics teaching practices) and student mathematics achievement. Work was…
Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ewing, Bronwyn
2012-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Serafino, Kathleen; Cicchelli, Terry
2003-01-01
Tested the effects of prior knowledge and two instructional models--structured problem solving and guided generation (GG)--on mathematical problem solving and transfer to an analogous task. Data on students with high and low prior knowledge highlighted significant main effects for prior knowledge, significant differences on transfer to analogous…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tchoshanov, Mourat; Cruz, Maria D.; Huereca, Karla; Shakirova, Kadriya; Shakirova, Liliana; Ibragimova, Elena N.
2017-01-01
This mixed methods study examined an association between cognitive types of teachers' mathematical content knowledge and students' performance in lower secondary schools (grades 5 through 9). Teachers (N = 90) completed the Teacher Content Knowledge Survey (TCKS), which consisted of items measuring different cognitive types of teacher knowledge.…
Measuring Knowledge of Mathematical Functions: Validity of Scores and Profiles of Participants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higley, Kelli
2009-01-01
Knowledge of mathematical functions is expected of university students. This knowledge was measured in this dissertation using two previously untested instruments. The aim of this dissertation was to validate the scores from these measures. The first instrument measured function knowledge in its declarative, procedural, or conditional form. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Komatsu, Kotaro
2016-01-01
The process of proofs and refutations described by Lakatos is essential in school mathematics to provide students with an opportunity to experience how mathematical knowledge develops dynamically within the discipline of mathematics. In this paper, a framework for describing student processes of proofs and refutations is constructed using a set of…
Construction of mathematical knowledge using graphic calculators (CAS) in the mathematics classroom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hitt, Fernando
2011-09-01
Mathematics education researchers are asking themselves about why technology has impacted heavily on the social environment and not in the mathematics classroom. The use of technology in the mathematics classroom has not had the expected impact, as it has been its use in everyday life (i.e. cell phone). What about teachers' opinions? Mathematics teachers can be divided into three categories: those with a boundless overflow (enthusiasm) who want to use the technology without worrying much about the construction of mathematical concepts, those who reject outright the use of technology because they think that their use inhibits the development of mathematical skills and others that reflect on the balance that must exist between paper-pencil activities and use of technology. The mathematics teacher, by not having clear examples that support this last option about the balance of paper-pencil activities and technology, opt for one of the extreme positions outlined above. In this article, we show the results of research on a methodology based on collaborative learning (ACODESA) in the training of mathematics teachers in secondary schools and implementation of activities in an environment of paper-pencil and CAS in the mathematics classroom. We also note that with the development of technology on the use of electronic tablets and interactive whiteboards, these activities will take on greater momentum in the near future.
A Case Study on the Impact of Teacher Mathematical Knowledge on Pedagogical Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Sally
2016-01-01
This study explores the implications for mathematical knowledge and pedagogical practices of primary teachers in Papua New Guinea making a shift from a transmission approach to a connectionist approach to teaching mathematics. The research participants were engaged in a professional development program designed to support the teaching and learning…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulikowich, Jonna M.
2007-01-01
Operating from multiple literature bases in cognitive psychology, mathematics education, and theoretical and applied psychometrics, Schilling, Hill and their colleagues provide a systemic approach to studying the validity of scores of mathematical knowledge for teaching. This system encompasses an array of task formats and methodologies. The…
Investigating First Year Elementary Mathematics Teacher Education Students' Knowledge of Prism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bozkurt, Ali; Koc, Yusuf
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate first year elementary mathematics teacher education students' knowledge of prism. For this goal, the participants were asked to define the geometric concept of prism. The participants were 158 first year elementary mathematics teacher education students from a public university in Southern Turkey. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.
2013-01-01
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.
2010-01-01
In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…
Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.
2013-01-01
This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Danhui; Orrill, Chandra; Campbell, Todd
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixture Rasch models followed by qualitative item-by-item analysis of selected Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics and science items offered insight into knowledge students invoke in mathematics and science separately and combined. The researchers administered an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niss, Mogens; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria; Turner, Ross; Villa-Ochoa, Jhony Alexander
2016-01-01
This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on "Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research". It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master mathematics, focusing on notions such as…
Sociological Tools in the Study of Knowledge and Practice in Mathematics Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, Diane; Adler, Jill
2014-01-01
In this paper, we put Basil Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse to work together with additional theoretical resources to interrogate knowledge and practice in mathematics teacher education. We illustrate this methodology through analysis of an instance of mathematics teacher education pedagogic practice. While the methodology itself is…
Investigating Lebanese Grade Seven Biology Teachers Mathematical Knowledge and Skills: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raad, Nawal Abou; Chatila, Hanadi
2016-01-01
This paper investigates Lebanese grade 7 biology teachers' mathematical knowledge and skills, by exploring how they explain a visual representation in an activity depending on the mathematical concept "Function". Twenty Lebanese in-service biology teachers participated in the study, and were interviewed about their explanation for the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, Carne
1991-01-01
Researchers studied how a cognitive flexibility and knowledge transfer theory framed the design of a case-based curriculum for mathematics teacher education. The paper includes a sample mathematics teaching case and analyzes four discussions based on the case. The analysis shows the potential of subject-specific cases for enhancing mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Usman, Ahmed Ibrahim
2015-01-01
Knowledge and understanding of mathematical operations serves as a pre-reequisite for the successful translation of algebraic word problems. This study explored pre-service teachers' ability to recognize mathematical operations as well as use of those capabilities in constructing algebraic expressions, equations, and their solutions. The outcome…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gonzalez, Maria Jose; González-Ruiz, Ignacio
2017-01-01
Teachers' beliefs, together with sound technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), are directly related to the effective integration of technology in mathematics teaching. This study explored the relationship between pre-service teachers' behavioural intention to use technology to teach mathematics and their TPACK. A case-study analysis…
Teacher Belief, Knowledge, and Practice: A Trichotomy of Mathematics Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belbase, Shashidhar
2012-01-01
In this paper I reviewed and analyzed three important constructs--beliefs, knowledge, and practices in mathematics teacher education. I carried out a literature review of teacher beliefs and practice, and beliefs and change in mathematics education in to order draw some pedagogical and research implications. I was able to draw three themes from…
Investigating Level of Mathematics Knowledge for Students Attending Vocational Schools in Turkey
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colakoglu, Nurdan
2013-01-01
Students attend mathematics courses in Turkey for totally 11 years, throughout education life ranging from primary school to university, including eight years in primary education and three years in secondary education (four years based on new arrangement); however, level of mathematic knowledge of students is upsetting when they reach university…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Munter, Charles; Correnti, Richard
2017-01-01
This article provides a longitudinal examination of how changes in more than 200 middle-grades mathematics teachers' instructional practices related to their (a) mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) and (b) instructional vision. Results of this multilevel regression analysis suggest that MKT and instructional vision are related to instruction…
The use of video analysis and the Knowledge Quartet in mathematics teacher education programmes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liston, Miriam
2015-01-01
This study investigates the potential of video analysis and a mathematical knowledge for teaching framework, the Knowledge Quartet (KQ), in mathematics teacher education programmes. It reports on the effectiveness of these tools in analysing and supporting secondary level pre-service mathematics teachers' subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. This paper describes how a videotaped lesson of one pre-service teacher, teaching a class of mature students, was analysed and makes comparisons between the teacher educators' and the pre-service teacher's observations. Inter-rater reliability was investigated and a Kappa coefficient of .72 indicated substantial agreement between both coders. Findings are presented and implications of the use of video and the KQ for mathematics teacher education are drawn.
Community Elders, Traditional Knowledge, and a Mathematics Curriculum Framework.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yamamura, Brian; Netser, Saimanaaq; Qanatsiaq, Nunia
2003-01-01
In Nunavut, where most residents are Inuit, Inuit elders are helping develop a new mathematics curriculum based on Inuit philosophy. Students will be involved in cultural, experiential activities during on-the-land trips. Such trips involve other community members, and the resulting interactions and informal teaching by individuals other than…
Identity, Knowledge and Departmental Practices: Mathematics of Engineers and Mathematicians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John
2004-01-01
This report explores first year undergraduate mechanical engineering and mathematics students' conceptions of the derivative and the contribution that membership of different departments may have on these conceptions. Quantitative results suggest that mechanical engineering students develop a proclivity for rate of change aspects of the derivative…
Learning Mathematics Does Not (Necessarily) Mean Constructing the Right Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dawson, Sandy
2015-01-01
In this article, which was first published in 1991, the late Sandy Dawson, discusses aspects of a Lakatosian approach to mathematics teaching. The ideas are illustrated with examples from three teaching situations: making conjectures about the next number in a sequence; making conjectures about the internal angles in a triangle using Logo; and…
Changing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stohlmann, Micah; Moore, Tamara; Cramer, Kathleen; Maiorca, Cathrine
2015-01-01
Studies have reported that pre-service teachers often enter teacher preparation programs with beliefs and attitudes not conducive to teaching the subject conceptually. In the USA, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics have brought a renewed focus on procedural and conceptual understanding. However, many U.S. pre-service teachers have…
Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Knowledge, Mathematics, and Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cady, Jo Ann; Rearden, Kristin
2007-01-01
This study examines the beliefs of K-8 preservice teachers during a content methods course. The goals of this course included exposing the preservice teachers to student-centered instructional methods for math and science and encouraging the development of lessons that would integrate mathematics and science. Prior research suggested that one must…
Uniquely Precise: Importance of Conceptual Knowledge and Mathematical Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shockey, Tod; Pindiprolu, Sekhar
2015-01-01
The importance of mathematical concept development and language is recognized early in children's schooling as they mature through shape and counting experiences. The reader may recall instances of a youngster referring to a "corner" of a shape before the reader has the language of vertex. This language precision needs to continue to…
Stotsky, Sandra
2009-01-01
To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories.
Mori, Giuliano
2016-11-22
This article engages the much-debated role of mathematics in Bacon's philosophy and inductive method at large. The many references to mathematics in Bacon's works are considered in the context of the humanist reform of the curriculum studiorum and, in particular, through a comparison with the kinds of natural and intellectual subtlety as they are defined by many sixteenth-century authors, including Cardano, Scaliger and Montaigne. Additionally, this article gives a nuanced background to the 'subtlety' commonly thought to have been eschewed by Bacon and by Bacon's self-proclaimed followers in the Royal Society of London. The aim of this article is ultimately to demonstrate that Bacon did not reject the use of mathematics in natural philosophy altogether. Instead, he hoped that following the Great Instauration a kind of non-abstract mathematics could be founded: a kind of mathematics which was to serve natural philosophy by enabling men to grasp the intrinsic subtlety of nature. Rather than mathematizing nature, it was mathematics that needed to be 'naturalized'.
Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay
2000-04-01
Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.
Increasing Knowledge -- How to Read a Research Paper
... Donate Increasing Knowledge - How to Read a Research Paper Click here to download a pdf of this ... they are to the disease. Organization of a paper In most scientific journals, scientific papers follow a ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilburne, Jane M.; Long, Michael
2010-01-01
Seventy secondary mathematics pre-service teachers from two universities were assessed on their content knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, and their perceived confidence in teaching the content addressed on the eleventh grade state assessment. The results indicate the pre-service teachers had significant content weakness in data analysis, algebra,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yumusak, Ahmet; Sargin, Seyid Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan; Kelani, Raphael R.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to measure science and mathematics teacher candidates' environmental knowledge level, awareness, behavior and environmental attitudes. Four instruments comprising Environmental Sensitivity Scale, environmental Behavior Scale, Environmental Attitudes Scale and Environmental Knowledge Test were administered to a total…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asquith, Pamela; Stephens, Ana C.; Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.
2007-01-01
This article reports results from a study focused on teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of core algebraic concepts. In particular, the study examined middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of the equal sign and variable, and students' success applying their understanding of these concepts. Interview…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kersting, Nicole B.; Givvin, Karen B.; Thompson, Belinda J.; Santagata, Rossella; Stigler, James W.
2012-01-01
This study explores the relationships between teacher knowledge, teaching practice, and student learning in mathematics. It extends previous work that developed and evaluated an innovative approach to assessing teacher knowledge based on teachers' analyses of classroom video clips. Teachers watched and commented on 13 fraction clips. These written…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCartney, Kathleen Perry
2013-01-01
This study examined the effects of a short-term professional development on the mathematical knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes of intermediate teachers. Participants in the control and experimental groups were pre-tested for knowledge using the eighth grade TCAP Item Sampler. Anxiety was measured through the use of Suinn and Winston's (2003)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Peter
A conception of discussing mathematical material in the domain of calculus is outlined. Applications include that university students work at their knowledge and prepare for their oral examinations by utilizing the dialog system. The conception is based upon three pillars. One central pillar is a knowledge base containing the collections of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nezhnov, Peter; Kardanova, Elena; Vasilyeva, Marina; Ludlow, Larry
2015-01-01
The present study tested the possibility of operationalizing levels of knowledge acquisition based on Vygotsky's theory of cognitive growth. An assessment tool (SAM-Math) was developed to capture a hypothesized hierarchical structure of mathematical knowledge consisting of procedural, conceptual, and functional levels. In Study 1, SAM-Math was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charalambous, Charalambos Y.
2016-01-01
Central in the frameworks proposed to capture the knowledge needed for teaching mathematics is the assumption that teachers need more than pure subject-matter knowledge. Validation studies exploring this assumption by recruiting contrasting populations are relatively scarce. Drawing on a sample of 644 Greek-Cypriots preservice and inservice…
Towards a Methodology for the Characterization of Teachers' Didactic-Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pino-Fan, Luis R.; Assis, Adriana; Castro, Walter F.
2015-01-01
This research study aims at exploring the use of some dimensions and theoretical-methodological tools suggested by the model of Didactic-Mathematical Knowledge (DMK) for the analysis, characterization and development of knowledge that teachers should have in order to efficiently develop within their practice. For this purpose, we analyzed the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akkas, Elif Nur; Türnüklü, Elif
2014-01-01
Pedagogical content knowledge is consisted of two components: student knowledge and teaching strategies. Teaching strategies was defined under two sub-headings as strategies for specific topics and specific strategies for any topic. The purpose of this study was to examine the method with which quadrilaterals were taught by mathematics teachers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Provost, Lauren E.
2013-01-01
This work investigates middle school teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) as defined by Hill (2007). Within this two-part dissertation, the level of MKT was considered as well as the role of teacher beliefs in actual specialized content knowledge (SCK) use, a specific type of mathematics knowledge for teaching vital in quality…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Samuel A.; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy
2016-02-01
Studies have shown that at the end of an introductory statistics course, students struggle with building block concepts, such as mean and standard deviation, and rely on procedural understandings of the concepts. This study aims to investigate the understandings entering freshman of a department of mathematics and statistics (including mathematics education), students who are presumably better prepared in terms of mathematics and statistics than the average university student, have of introductory statistics. This case study found that these students enter college with common statistical misunderstandings, lack of knowledge, and idiosyncratic collections of correct statistical knowledge. Moreover, they also have a wide range of beliefs about their knowledge with some of the students who believe that they have the strongest knowledge also having significant misconceptions. More attention to these statistical building blocks may be required in a university introduction statistics course.
Increasing Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance through Relaxation Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, AmyKay
2000-01-01
Studies two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in a mathematics course; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5-7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which received the relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flynn, Natalie P.
This study developed a survey from the existing literature in an attempt to illuminate the processes, tools, insights, and events that allow university science and mathematics content experts (Ph.D.'s) unpack their expertise in order to teach develop and teach undergraduate students. A pilot study was conducted at an urban university in order to refine the survey. The study consisted of 72 science or mathematics Ph.D. faculty members that teach at a research-based urban university. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 21 volunteer faculty to further explore their methods and tools for developing and implementing teaching within their discipline. Statistical analysis of the data revealed: faculty that taught while obtaining their Ph.D. were less confident in their ability to teach successful and faculty that received training in teaching believed that students have difficult to change misconceptions and do not commit enough time to their course. Student centered textbooks ranked the highest among tools used to gain teaching strategies followed by grading of exams and assignments for gaining insights into student knowledge and difficulties. Science and mathematics education literature and university provided education session ranked the lowest in rating scale for providing strategies for teaching. The open-ended survey questions were sub-divided and analyzed by the number of years of experience to identify the development of teaching knowledge over time and revealed that teaching became more interactive, less lecture based, and more engaging. As faculty matured and gained experience they became more aware of student misconceptions and difficulties often changing their teaching to eliminate such issues. As confidence levels increase their teaching included more technology-based tools, became more interactive, incorporated problem based activities, and became more flexible. This change occurred when and if faculty members altered their thinking about their
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aguirre, Julia M.; Zavala, Maria del Rosario; Katanyoutanant, Tiffany
2012-01-01
This study documents and describes efforts to develop robust forms of pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through a culturally responsive mathematics teaching approach. Embedded in a university K-8 mathematics methods course emphasising the connections among mathematics, children's mathematical thinking, and children's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Platas, Linda M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Sitabkhan, Yasmin
2016-01-01
This paper describes the development and intended uses of the Early Grades Mathematics Assessment (EGMA), which measures essential early mathematical knowledge and skills that are foundational to more sophisticated mathematical abilities, predictive of later achievement, and teachable. Administering the EGMA can provide policy makers,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aguirre, Julia M.; Turner, Erin E.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Kalinec-Craig, Crystal; Foote, Mary Q.; Roth McDuffie, Amy; Drake, Corey
2013-01-01
This study examines the ways prospective elementary teachers (PSTs) made connections to children's mathematical thinking and children's community funds of knowledge in mathematics lesson plans. We analyzed the work of 70 PSTs from across three university sites associated with an instructional module for elementary mathematics methods courses that…
Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.
2016-01-01
One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted
Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C
2016-01-01
One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted
[Four numbers and a bit more basic knowledge of mathematics].
Günther, Judith; Briel, Matthias; Suter, Katja
2015-02-01
In addition to relative risk, relative risk reduction and absolute risk reduction there circulates another effect size for binary endpoints in the scientific medical literature: the odds ratio. Relative risk and odds ratio are alternative ways of reflecting study results. Both, relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR), can easily be calculated from the "2 x 2-table". Advantage of OR: odds ratios can be calculated in every type of controlled study design, including retrospective studies. Furthermore, odds ratios--the biostatisticians are swarming--offer beautiful mathematical properties and therefore are often used in meta-analysis as an effect size for calculating a pooled estimate of the results of different studies with the same clinical question. Disadvantage of OR: In clinical studies the presentation of the results as "odds ratios" may result in an overestimation of the intervention effect. This article shows the difference between "chance" and "risk" and how odds ratio and relative risk are associated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attard, Catherine; Orlando, Joanne
2014-01-01
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are positioned in policy/syllabus documents as an essential resource in the teaching of mathematics. Given their youth and lifelong experience with technology, early career teachers (ECTs) are expected to excel in their use of ICT; however, we are not clear on the viability of these expectations and…
Learning to Leverage Children's Multiple Mathematical Knowledge Bases in Mathematics Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, Erin E.; Foote, Mary Q.; Stoehr, Kathleen Jablon; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Aguirre, Julia Maria; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Drake, Corey
2016-01-01
In this article, the authors explore prospective elementary teachers' engagement with and reflection on activities they conducted to learn about a single child from their practicum classroom. Through these activities, prospective teachers learned about their child's mathematical thinking and the interests, competencies, and resources she or he…
Mathematical Connections and Their Relationship to Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eli, Jennifer A.; Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret J.; Lee, Carl W.
2013-01-01
Effective competition in a rapidly growing global economy places demands on a society to produce individuals capable of higher-order critical thinking, creative problem solving, connection making, and innovation. We must look to our teacher education programs to help prospective middle grades teachers build the mathematical habits of mind that…
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.
Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2014-06-10
To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2014-01-01
To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756
Increasing military social work knowledge: an evaluation of learning outcomes.
Forgey, Mary Ann; Young, Sharon L
2014-02-01
Service members and veterans face a myriad of health, mental health, and social challenges stemming from the combat and operational stressors experienced during deployment and the challenges ofreintegration to civilian life. To intervene effectively with this population, social workers must be knowledgeable about these issues and the cultural context within which they occur. Although schools of social work across the country are developing course work in military social work, little is known about the learning outcomes of these courses. This article describes a military social work course that was developed to increase student preparedness to work with a military or veteran population and the learning outcomes achieved. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, this study compared the learning outcomes of students enrolled in the course with a group of students who had not taken the course. To measure this knowledge, the authors developed a 50-item Military Social Work Knowledge Scale for the study. Significant differences between pre- and posttest scores were found for the social work students enrolled in the course. Specific areas of knowledge that increased for the class participants included knowledge about cultural sensitivity to military populations and knowledge about service and advocacy frameworks.
Increasing Knowledge in Social Science Among Agricultural Educators. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Joseph H., Jr.; And Others
Social science concepts are presented as related parts of a systematic approach to understanding and predicting human behavior and implementing programs. This monograph was developed to improve the effectiveness of the change agent in agricultural education by increasing his knowledge in the area of social sciences relating to initiating and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thanheiser, Eva; Browning, Christine; Edson, Alden J.; Kastberg, Signe; Lo, Jane-Jane
2013-01-01
This survey of the literature summarizes and reflects on research findings regarding elementary preservice teachers' (PSTs') mathematics conceptions and the development thereof. Despite the current focus on teacher education, peer-reviewed journals offer a surprisingly sparse insight in these areas. The limited research that exists…
Increasing Students' Involvement in Technology-Supported Mathematics Lesson Sequences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prodromou, Theodosia; Lavicza, Zsolt; Koren, Balazs
2015-01-01
This article aims to report on a pilot or proof of concept study with experienced Hungarian teachers who introduced mathematical concepts through a sequence of lessons utilising a pedagogical framework (Lavicza, Hohenwarter, Jones, Lu and Dawes, 2009a and Lavicza, Hohenwarter and Lu 2009b) for general technology integration. Our aim was to examine…
Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children With Mathematical Learning Difficulty.
Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin
2016-01-01
Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by testing using a web-based curriculum learning system. A total of 142 children with MLD were recruited; half of the children were in the experimental group (using the system), and the other half were in the control group (not using the system). The children were encouraged to use the web-based learning system at home for at least a 15-min session, at least once a week, for one and a half months. The mean accumulated time of testing on the system for children in the experimental group was 56.2 min. Children in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on their final mathematical examination compared to the control group. The results suggest that web-based curriculum learning through testing that promotes the building of knowledge structures for a mathematical course was helpful for children with MLD.
Building Pre-Service Teacher's Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching of High School Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Somayajulu, Ravi Bhamidipati
2012-01-01
There were two primary goals of the research conducted for this dissertation study. Firstly, to fill a gap in the research literature and begin a discussion around secondary pre-service teachers Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) as it pertains to geometry. Although a multitude of studies exist for elementary teachers' MKT, few exist at the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke
2012-01-01
Although many studies have shown the need to pay attention to teachers' preparation for the integration of technology in classroom practice, most teachers in Ghana have not had any preparation that develops their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). This paper presents a case study of four pre-service mathematics teachers from the…
Does Strategy Knowledge Influence Working Memory in Children with Mathematical Disabilities?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee
2001-01-01
A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…
A Collaborative Inquiry to Promote Pedagogical Knowledge of Mathematics in Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moghaddam, Alireza; Sarkar Arani, Mohammad Reza; Kuno, Hiroyuki
2015-01-01
The present study attempts to report a collaborative cycle of professional development in teaching elementary school mathematics through lesson study. It explores a practice of lesson study conducted by teachers aiming to improve their knowledge of pedagogy. The study adopts an ethnographic approach to examine how collaborative teaching within an…
Developing Teachers' Knowledge of Students as Learners of Mathematics through Structured Interviews
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenkins, Oliver F.
2010-01-01
A structured interview process is proffered as an effective means to advance prospective teachers' understandings of students as learners of mathematics, a key component of pedagogical content knowledge. The interview process is carried out in three phases with the primary objective of developing listening skills for accessing students'…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFlorio, Lydia; Beliakoff, Amber
2015-01-01
Research Findings: Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) enter kindergarten with less developed mathematical knowledge compared to children from middle SES families. This discrepancy is present at age 3 years and likely stems from differences in the home learning environment. This study reports SES-related differences both in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cagirgan Gulten, Dilek
2013-01-01
This research aims to investigate primary preservice mathematics teachers' views on distance education and web pedagogical content knowledge in terms of the subscales of general web, communicative web, pedagogical web, web pedagogical content and attitude towards web based instruction. The research was conducted with 46 senior students in the…
Professional Knowledge Required When Teaching Mathematics for Numeracy in the Multiplicative Domain
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mills, Judith
2015-01-01
This paper presents findings as part of a wider study that investigated the professional knowledge of teachers when teaching mathematics for numeracy in the primary school classroom. This paper focuses on teachers in action as they taught two lessons on multiplication. It outlines the specific pedagogical categories the teachers used and the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoilescu, Dorian
2014-01-01
This paper describes challenges encountered by two secondary mathematics teachers when they try to integrate ICT devices in their classes. These findings are based on using the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) context, the four dimension framework developed by Niess: 1) overarching conceptions of integrating ICT, 2)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henning, Elizabeth
2013-01-01
This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…
Developing Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in a Methods Course: The Case of Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.; Hillen, Amy F.; Smith, Margaret S.
2013-01-01
This study describes teacher learning in a teaching experiment consisting of a content-focused methods course involving the mathematical knowledge for teaching function. Prospective and practicing teachers in the course showed growth in their ability to define function, to provide examples of functions and link them to the definition, in the…
Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching the Function Concept and Student Learning Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hatisaru, Vesife; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interrelationships between teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) the function concept and their students' learning outcomes of this concept. Data were collected from two teachers teaching in a vocational high school and their students through a function concept test for teachers…
Knowledge Dissemination and Use in Science and Mathematics Education: A Literature Review.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hutchinson, Janet; Huberman, Michael
Dissemination of educational research and effective practice has burgeoned in the past two decades. This report reviews the research on knowledge use in science and mathematics education and highlights approaches and strategies for dissemination which might be particularly useful to the National Science Foundation. In particular, the influence of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Venville, Grady; Rennie, Leonie; Wallace, John
2004-01-01
This article reports on students' decision making processes and sources of knowledge in an integrated teaching and learning setting. The study was conducted in a Year 9 classroom as students undertook a 10-week solar-powered boat project and were exposed to related concepts from science, technology and mathematics. Data collection involved…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doerr, Helen M.; Wood, Terry
2004-01-01
This research forum addresses the question: what is the nature of the mathematical knowledge that is needed for secondary teaching? Six international contributors: (1) Australia (Kaye Stacey); (2) Brazil (Marcelo Borba); (3) Israel (Ruhama Even); (4) Norway (Bodil Kleve and Barbara Jaworski); (5) Taiwan (Fou-Lai Lin); and (6) USA (Helen Doerr)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoilescu, Dorian
2015-01-01
This study explores the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for three experienced mathematics secondary teachers from a Toronto public school. By using a multiple case study, teachers' attitudes, skills, and approaches toward the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in classrooms are described. By being aware of…
Emergences and Affordances as Opportunities to Develop Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Julie, Cyril
2014-01-01
Teachers' mathematical content knowledge has been under scrutiny for some time. This development is in the wake of learners' unsatisfactory performance in national examinations and international achievement tests. A widely held belief is that one, if not the most important, of the efforts to improve and enhance the performance and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando
2011-01-01
The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…
The Impact of Assumed Knowledge Entry Standards on Undergraduate Mathematics Teaching in Australia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Deborah; Cattlin, Joann
2015-01-01
Over the last two decades, many Australian universities have relaxed their selection requirements for mathematics-dependent degrees, shifting from hard prerequisites to assumed knowledge standards which provide students with an indication of the prior learning that is expected. This has been regarded by some as a positive move, since students who…
Technological pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practice of mathematics trainee teachers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd.; Kadir, Noor Zarinawaty Abd.
2014-07-01
This study aims to identify the level of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) of mathematics trainee teachers at Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and explore their teaching practices during practical training at school. The study was conducted in two phases using a mix-method research. In the first phase, a survey method using a questionnaire was carried out on 156 trainee teachers of Bachelor of Mathematics Education (AT14) and Bachelor of Science (Mathematics) with Education (AT48). The instrument used was a questionnaire that measures the level of content knowledge, pedagogy, technology and TPCK of mathematics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, namely the mean. While in the second phase, the interview method involved four trainee teachers were performed. The instrument used was the semi-structured interview protocol to assess the trainee teacher's TPCK integration in their teaching practice. Data were analyzed using the content analysis. The findings showed that the level of knowledge of TPCK among trainee teachers was moderate with overall mean score of 3.60. This level did not show significant differences between the two programs with mean scores of 3.601 for the AT14 group and 3.603 for the AT48 group. However, there was a difference for gender classification such that the female trainees had mean score of 3.58 and male trainees with mean score of 3.72. Although students' TPCK level was moderate, the level of content knowledge (CK), technological knowledge (TK) and pedagogical knowledge (PK), showed a higher level with overall mean scores of 3.75, 3.87 and 3.84 respectively. The findings also showed that in terms of content knowledge, trainee teacher's learning mathematics background was good, but the knowledge of mathematics was limited in the curriculum, philosophy and application aspect. In terms of pedagogical content knowledge, all respondents tend to use lecture and discussion methods in teaching Trigonometry topic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, Erin E.; Drake, Corey
2016-01-01
Researchers have studied the preparation of elementary teachers to teach mathematics to students from diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds by focusing either on teachers' learning about children's mathematical thinking (CMT) or, less frequently, about children's cultural funds of knowledge (CFoK) related to mathematics. Despite this…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tularam, Gurudeo Anand; Hulsman, Kees
2015-01-01
This study focuses on students in first year environmental science degree programs, where traditionally mathematical emphasis has been much less than within the strict science or math majors. The importance now placed on applied mathematics, however, means that students need to gain more conceptual and quantitative knowledge of mathematics in not…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chichekian, Tanya; Shore, Bruce M.
2013-01-01
This collaborative concept-mapping exercise was conducted in a second-year mathematics methods course. Teachers' visual representations of their mathematical content and pedagogical knowledge provided insight into their understanding of how students learn mathematics. We collected 28 preservice student teachers' concept maps and analyzed them by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.
This text is the first of five in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series which was designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program, and wish to continue their study of mathematics. The first chapter, devoted to organizing geometric knowledge, deals with the distinction…
[The discussion of the infiltrative model of mathematical knowledge to genetics teaching].
Liu, Jun; Luo, Pei-Gao
2011-11-01
Genetics, the core course of biological field, is an importance major-basic course in curriculum of many majors related with biology. Due to strong theoretical and practical as well as abstract of genetics, it is too difficult to study on genetics for many students. At the same time, mathematics is one of the basic courses in curriculum of the major related natural science, which has close relationship with the establishment, development and modification of genetics. In this paper, to establish the intrinsic logistic relationship and construct the integral knowledge network and to help students improving the analytic, comprehensive and logistic abilities, we applied some mathematical infiltrative model genetic knowledge in genetics teaching, which could help students more deeply learn and understand genetic knowledge.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.; Dela Cruz, Cecilio; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.
2016-01-01
This study attempted to determine the influence of prior knowledge in mathematics of students on learner-interface interactions in a learning-by-teaching intelligent tutoring system. One hundred thirty-nine high school students answered a pretest (i.e., the prior knowledge in mathematics) and a posttest. In between the pretest and posttest, they…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Şahin, Ömer; Gökkurt, Burçin; Soylu, Yasin
2016-05-01
The aim of the study is to examine prospective mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in terms of knowledge of understanding students and knowledge of instructional strategies which are the subcomponents of pedagogical content knowledge. The participants of this research consist of 98 prospective teachers who are studying in two universities in Turkey. The participants were selected with the purposive sampling method which is one of the non-random sampling methods. Case study method, which is based on the qualitative research approach, was used. The answers given by secondary school students to fraction-related open-ended questions in the study of Soylu and Soylu were used as the data collection tool. The obtained data were analyzed via the content analysis technique. The analyses showed that the prospective mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge on fractions was not at an adequate level in identifying and correcting students' errors. However, it was observed that the prospective teachers experienced more difficulty in the knowledge of instructional strategies compared to the knowledge of understanding students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruthven, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Reports from 13 Further Mathematics Knowledge Networks supported by the National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics [NCETM] are analysed. After summarizing basic characteristics of the networks regarding leadership, composition and pattern of activity, each of the following aspects is examined in greater depth: Developmental aims…
Increasing student nurses' knowledge of breastfeeding in baccalaureate education.
Bozzette, Maryann; Posner, Tricia
2013-05-01
Nurses are the largest group of health care professionals capable of providing crucial support to new parents (Marzalik, 2004). However, studies show that nurses' knowledge of breastfeeding is inadequate and most nursing programs do not include breastfeeding in their curriculum. Therefore nursing graduates enter the field of maternal child care with little or no ability to assist new mothers. A pilot program was implemented at a major university to evaluate the effect of adding specific breastfeeding content to the nursing curriculum. A pre-post-test method was used to evaluate nursing students who were provided a comprehensive lecture on evidence-based breastfeeding information with audiovisual components and resources. This education pilot showed the inclusion of breastfeeding education significantly increased student knowledge of the benefits and nutritional value of breastfeeding and management of lactation complications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowery, Maye Norene Vail
1998-12-01
The purposes of this study were to further the understanding of how preservice teacher construct teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of elementary mathematics and science and to determine the extent of that knowledge in a school-based setting. Preservice teachers, university instructors, inservice teachers, and other school personnel were involved in this context-specific study. Evidence of the preservice teachers' knowledge construction (its acquisition, its dimensions, and the social context) was collected through the use of a qualitative methodology. Collected data included individual and group interviews, course documents, artifacts, and preservice teaching portfolios. Innovative aspects of this integrated mathematics and science elementary methods course included standards-based instruction with immediate access to field experiences. Grade-level teams of preservice and inservice teachers planned and implemented lessons in mathematics and science for elementary students. An on-site, portable classroom building served as a mathematics and science teaching and learning laboratory. A four-stage analysis was performed, revealing significant patterns of learning. An ecosystem of learning within a constructivist learning environment was identified to contain three systems: the university system; the school system; and the cohort of learners system. A mega system for the construction of teacher knowledge was revealed in the final analysis. Learning venues were discovered to be the conduits of learning in a situated learning context. Analysis and synthesis of data revealed an extensive acquisition of teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge through identified learning components. Patience, flexibility, and communication were identified as necessities for successful teaching. Learning components included: collaboration with inservice teachers; implementation of discovery learning and hands-on/minds-on learning; small groupwork; lesson planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lira, Matthew
This dissertation explores the Knowledge in Pieces (KiP) theory to account for how students learn to coordinate knowledge of mathematical and physical models in biology education. The KiP approach characterizes student knowledge as a fragmented collection of knowledge elements as opposed to stable and theory-like knowledge. This dissertation sought to use this theoretical lens to account for how students understand and learn with mathematical models and representations, such as equations. Cellular physiology provides a quantified discipline that leverages concepts from mathematics, physics, and chemistry to understand cellular functioning. Therefore, this discipline provides an exemplary context for assessing how biology students think and learn with mathematical models. In particular, the resting membrane potential provides an exemplary concept well defined by models of dynamic equilibrium borrowed from physics and chemistry. In brief, membrane potentials, or voltages, "rest" when the electrical and chemical driving forces for permeable ionic species are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. To assess students' understandings of this concept, this dissertation employed three studies: the first study employed the cognitive clinical interview to assess student thinking in the absence and presence of equations. The second study employed an intervention to assess student learning and the affordances of an innovative assessment. The third student employed a human-computer-interaction paradigm to assess how students learn with a novel multi-representational technology. Study 1 revealed that students saw only one influence--the chemical gradient--and that students coordinated knowledge of only this gradient with the related equations. Study 2 revealed that students benefited from learning with the multi-representational technology and that the assessment detected performance gains across both calculation and explanation tasks. Last, Study 3 revealed how students
Knowledge dissemination and use in science and mathematics education: A literature review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, Janet R.; Huberman, Michael
1994-03-01
A synthesis of the literature on knowledge dissemination and use in education, notably in science and mathematics, is presented. Perspectives have changed in the ways in which knowledge and products are seen to reach potential users. From the top-down, linear models, we have come closer to bottom-up approaches and to the crucial role of linking agents. At present, the most influential approach is a "constructivist" one, whereby research and other kinds of specialized knowledge is exchanged between researchers and professionals in a mutually constructed social context. While there is still debate over the best predictors of successful knowledge use, the scope of the field has been considerably enlarged by including users' perspectives. To some extent then, specialists in this field are now working in a new paradigm.
Phelps, Geoffrey; Kelcey, Benjamin; Jones, Nathan; Liu, Shuangshuang
2016-10-03
Mathematics professional development is widely offered, typically with the goal of improving teachers' content knowledge, the quality of teaching, and ultimately students' achievement. Recently, new assessments focused on mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) have been developed to assist in the evaluation and improvement of mathematics professional development. This study presents empirical estimates of average program change in MKT and its variation with the goal of supporting the design of experimental trials that are adequately powered to detect a specified program effect. The study drew on a large database representing five different assessments of MKT and collectively 326 professional development programs and 9,365 teachers. Results from cross-classified hierarchical growth models found that standardized average change estimates across the five assessments ranged from a low of 0.16 standard deviations (SDs) to a high of 0.26 SDs. Power analyses using the estimated pre- and posttest change estimates indicated that hundreds of teachers are needed to detect changes in knowledge at the lower end of the distribution. Even studies powered to detect effects at the higher end of the distribution will require substantial resources to conduct rigorous experimental trials. Empirical benchmarks that describe average program change and its variation provide a useful preliminary resource for interpreting the relative magnitude of effect sizes associated with professional development programs and for designing adequately powered trials.
Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Myers, Gwen F; Lewis, Katherine E; Hanich, Laurie B; Murphy, Melissa M
2013-06-01
Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions equivalent to one-half, fraction pairs with common denominators) differentiates those with mathematics learning disability (MLD) versus low achievement (LA) or typical achievement (TA) in mathematics and whether long-term learning trajectories of this knowledge also differentiate these groups. We confirmed that although fourth graders with TA (n=93) were more accurate in evaluating "one-half" fractions than in evaluating "non-half" fractions (until they reached ceiling performance levels on both types of fractions), children with MLD (n=11) did not show a one-half advantage until Grade 7 and did not reach ceiling performance even by Grade 8. Both the MLD and LA groups had early difficulties with fractions, but by Grade 5 the LA group approached performance levels of the TA group and deviated from the MLD group. All groups showed a visual model advantage over Arabic number representation of fractions, but this advantage was short-lived for the TA group (because ceiling level was achieved across formats), whereas it was slightly more persistent for the LA group and persisted through Grade 8 for children with MLD. Thus, difficulties with fractions persist through Grade 8 for many students, but the nature and trajectories of those difficulties vary across children with math difficulties (MLD or LA).
Widening and Increasing Post-16 Mathematics Participation: Pathways, Pedagogies and Politics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noyes, Andrew; Wake, Geoff; Drake, Pat
2011-01-01
This paper explores the potential impact of a national pilot initiative in England aimed at increasing and widening participation in advanced mathematical study through the creation of a new qualification for 16- to 18-year-olds. This proposed qualification pathway--"Use of Mathematics"--sits in parallel with long-established,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qian, Hong; Youngs, Peter
2016-01-01
This article addresses the problem of how opportunities to learn in teacher education programs influence future elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge. This study used data collected for the Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). TEDS-M measured the mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and the mathematics pedagogical…
Increasing Cognitive Inhibition with a Difficult Prior Task: Implications for Mathematical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attridge, Nina; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
Dual-process theories posit two distinct types of cognitive processing: Type 1, which does not use working memory making it fast and automatic, and Type 2, which does use working memory making it slow and effortful. Mathematics often relies on the inhibition of pervasive Type 1 processing to apply new skills or knowledge that require Type 2…
Mabbott, Donald J; Bisanz, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
Knowledge and skill in multiplication were investigated for late elementary-grade students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD), typically achieving age-matched peers, low-achieving age-matched peers, and ability-matched peers by examining multiple measures of computational skill, working memory, and conceptual knowledge. Poor multiplication fact mastery and calculation fluency and general working memory discriminated children with MLD from typically achieving age-matched peers. Furthermore, children with MLD were slower in executing backup procedures than typically achieving age-matched peers. The performance of children with MLD on multiple measures of multiplication skill and knowledge was most similar to that of ability-matched younger children. MLD may be due to difficulties in computational skills and working memory. Implications for the diagnosis and remediation of MLD are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.
2013-06-01
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers were assessed at the beginning and the end of school year (February and October, respectively) on their Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), through the use of a questionnaire involving teachers' responses to hypothetical teaching, planning, or assessment scenarios. We report here the results from one item that assessed teachers' MKT in relation to representations of division. Results indicated that teachers were more familiar with partitive than quotitive division, and found connecting appropriate story problems with a given form of division difficult. Teachers' relating their understanding of the forms of division to the context of division by a decimal number was also challenging. There were interesting variations in the data across primary grade levels, particularly in relation to change over time. Professional learning on these topics and other support within the project appeared to improve teachers' MKT in this area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peace, Heather Marie Bjorum
This research focuses on a cohort of pre-service elementary teachers and their perspectives with respect to the knowledge required for teaching science and mathematics at the beginning and end of their first academic year in a teacher preparation program. An activity, designed to emphasize the differences between factual/procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge in elementary mathematics and science, was analyzed along with classroom discussions in order to gain deeper understandings of the perspectives of knowledge for teaching for the given cohort. Additionally, subject specific efficacy beliefs were compared to teaching confidence ratings related to specific science and mathematics topics. The pre-service teachers' expressed a variety of ideas regarding the role of content knowledge, and the different types of content knowledge (i.e., factual/procedural and conceptual), in teaching mathematics and science. Furthermore, their perceptions of the nature of mathematics and the nature of science were discussed. By utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods, this project was able to not only note data trends, but also obtain depth and richness regarding conceptions of the knowledge required for teaching mathematics and science provided by the voices of the pre-service teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silverman, Jason
2012-01-01
We report on our efforts to support teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching through online professional development focusing on authentic engagement in collaborative mathematical problem solving. In particular, this paper seeks to explore and understand the relationship between teachers' participation in professional…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth McDuffie, Amy; Foote, Mary Q.; Bolson, Catherine; Turner, Erin E.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia
2014-01-01
As part of a larger research project aimed at transforming preK-8 mathematics teacher preparation, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which prospective teachers notice children's competencies related to children's mathematical thinking, and children's community, cultural, and linguistic funds of knowledge or what…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nikolakaki, Maria; Dossa, Katerina; Moraiti, Tzeni
2012-01-01
Through analysis of exercises offered in mathematics textbooks, this article investigates the discursive practice of cross-curricularity and group work teaching that was advocated in the 2007 reform of mathematics education in Greek primary schools. The conclusion of the research is that the organisation of school knowledge is vertical, and strong…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polly, Drew; Neale, Henry; Pugalee, David K.
2014-01-01
This study examined how a task-focused, year-long mathematics professional development program influenced elementary school teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices. Participants completed 84 h of professional development over 13 months that were focused on exploring, modifying and implementing cognitively-demanding mathematical tasks.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Steenbrugge, H.; Valcke, M.; Desoete, A.
2010-01-01
The present study builds on teachers' professional knowledge about mathematics learning difficulties. Based on the input of 918 primary school teachers, an attempt is made to develop an overview of difficult curriculum topics in primary school mathematics. The research approach builds on new conceptions about the professional identity of teachers…
A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge
Sheakley, Maria L.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Leighton, Kim; Hall, Maureen; Callender, Diana; Pederson, David
2016-01-01
Background The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (nl=515) and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066). Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4) that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%). USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003). Discussion Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum. PMID:27060102
Buring, Shauna M.; Papas, Elizabeth
2013-01-01
Objective. To assess doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ mathematics ability by content area before and after completing a required pharmaceutical calculations course and to analyze changes in scores. Methods. A mathematics skills assessment was administered to 2 cohorts of pharmacy students (class of 2013 and 2014) before and after completing a pharmaceutical calculations course. The posttest was administered to the second cohort 6 months after completing the course to assess knowledge retention. Results. Both cohorts performed significantly better on the posttest (cohort 1, 13% higher scores; cohort 2, 15.9% higher scores). Significant improvement on posttest scores was observed in 6 of the 10 content areas for cohorts 1 and 2. Both cohorts scored lower in percentage calculations on the posttest than on the pretest. Conclusions. A required, 1-credit-hour pharmaceutical calculations course improved PharmD students’ overall ability to perform fundamental and application-based calculations. PMID:23966727
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bleiler, Sarah K.
2015-01-01
Collaborations between mathematicians and mathematics teacher educators are increasingly being expected, and realized, within the context of mathematics teacher education. Most research related to collaborative efforts between members of the mathematics and mathematics education communities has focused on the products, rather than the process of…
The impact of assumed knowledge entry standards on undergraduate mathematics teaching in Australia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Deborah; Cattlin, Joann
2015-10-01
Over the last two decades, many Australian universities have relaxed their selection requirements for mathematics-dependent degrees, shifting from hard prerequisites to assumed knowledge standards which provide students with an indication of the prior learning that is expected. This has been regarded by some as a positive move, since students who may be returning to study, or who are changing career paths but do not have particular prerequisite study, now have more flexible pathways. However, there is mounting evidence to indicate that there are also significant negative impacts associated with assumed knowledge approaches, with large numbers of students enrolling in degrees without the stated assumed knowledge. For students, there are negative impacts on pass rates and retention rates and limitations to pathways within particular degrees. For institutions, the necessity to offer additional mathematics subjects at a lower level than normal and more support services for under-prepared students impacts on workloads and resources. In this paper, we discuss early research from the First Year in Maths project, which begins to shed light on the realities of a system that may in fact be too flexible.
Characterizing the Use of Mathematical Knowledge in Boundary-Crossing Situations at Work
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kent, Phillip; Noss, Richard; Guile, David; Hoyles, Celia; Bakker, Arthur
2007-01-01
The first aim of this article is to present a characterization of the techno-mathematical literacies needed for effective practice in modern, technology-rich workplaces that are both highly automated and increasingly focused on flexible response to customer needs. The second aim is to introduce an epistemological dimension to activity theory,…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahon, Lee
1997-01-01
The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, Kenjiro T.; Hassan, Mohamad Nor
2014-07-01
Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD) which surpasses the underlying theories of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Graphics (CG) has been taught in a number of Malaysian universities under the umbrella of Mathematical Sciences' faculty/department. On the other hand, CAD/CG is taught either under the Engineering or Computer Science Faculty. Even though CAGD researchers/educators/students (denoted as contributors) have been enriching this field of study by means of article/journal publication, many fail to convert the idea into constructive innovation due to the gap that occurs between CAGD contributors and practitioners (engineers/product/designers/architects/artists). This paper addresses this issue by advocating a number of technologies that can be used to transform CAGD contributors into innovators where immediate impact in terms of practical application can be experienced by the CAD/CG practitioners. The underlying principle of solving this issue is twofold. First would be to expose the CAGD contributors on ways to turn mathematical ideas into plug-ins and second is to impart relevant CAGD theories to CAD/CG to practitioners. Both cases are discussed in detail and the final section shows examples to illustrate the importance of turning mathematical knowledge into innovations.
Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.
Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W
2013-10-01
Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food.
Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge
Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.
2013-01-01
Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele
2015-01-01
We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Courtney, Scott Allen
2010-01-01
Although the idea of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been elaborated in numerous studies, there has been little clarification of what constitutes it or research into its development. Furthermore, studies that have investigated PCK, or mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) as introduced by Thompson and Thompson, have historically…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peace, Heather Marie Bjorum
2012-01-01
This research focuses on a cohort of pre-service elementary teachers and their perspectives with respect to the knowledge required for teaching science and mathematics at the beginning and end of their first academic year in a teacher preparation program. An activity, designed to emphasize the differences between factual/procedural knowledge and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venville, Grady; Rennie, Léonie; Wallace, John
2004-04-01
This article reports on students'' decision making processes and sources of knowledge in an integrated teaching and learning setting. The study was conducted in a Year 9 classroom as students undertook a 10-week solar-powered boat project and were exposed to related concepts from science, technology and mathematics. Data collection involved detailed case studies of three pairs of students, interviews, classroom observation and analysis of the artefacts and portfolios produced by the students. Students were found to access knowledge from a variety of sources, including teacher''s notes from formal instruction, informal interactions with the teacher, observation of and interaction with other students, as well as sources outside the classroom. However, the utility of the knowledge sources was influenced by the nature of the task. When students were performing open-ended tasks, they drew on a wider variety of knowledge sources than when they were performing less open tasks. Moreover, subject discipline-based sources often were not as helpful in solving open tasks. The study leads to several important implications for designing teaching and learning in integrated curriculum settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhao, Yan-jun
2011-01-01
Ethnic students will face the problem of "cultural discontinuities" when they learn school mathematics. "Cultural discontinuity" is the main obstacle when they learn school mathematics. Teachers should put up the bridge for introducing ethnic mathematical knowledge into school mathematics teaching. The concrete tactics are:…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross; Merritt, Eileen G.
2011-01-01
Despite over thirty years of theoretically based research investigating "how" teacher mathematical knowledge and instructional practice relate to student learning, it is still largely unclear how these constructs are related, and policy makers and practitioners are still situated in a context with insufficient data to make decisions. Thus, there…
Multilingualism in an EFL Practicum: Increasing Student Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olivero, María Matilde
2015-01-01
Research in second language teacher education has demonstrated that novice teachers have difficulty in using their pedagogical knowledge, which partly results from a heavy focus on theory offered in teacher training programs (e.g., Bartels, 2005, 2009; Tarone & Allwright, 2005). In order to better equip student teachers with the knowledge…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; Hand, Victoria; Taylor, Edd V.
2008-01-01
This chapter is about culture and mathematics teaching and learning. The authors' goal is to offer a thoughtful treatment of the role of culture in the teaching and learning of mathematics and to synthesize literature that is relevant to this concern from multiple subdisciplines in education, including math education, educational anthropology,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoffer, Alan R.
1993-01-01
Discusses the potential that school mathematics has for being a source of exploration and discovery for students and teachers. Provides a process-oriented definition of understanding mathematics. Presents activities in which students construct computer and actual models of polyhedra and make conjectures regarding a medical research application of…
Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong
2011-01-01
The authors used a large sample of children (N ≈ 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate kindergarten children's academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. The authors were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)--as well as those of other groups of children--were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than nondisabled children. However, and over the subsequent 5 years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind nondisabled peers in their reading skills growth. The authors observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind nondisabled children in their mathematics skills growth. The authors also observed some consistency in "poor-get-poorer" effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socioeconomic status families, who were African American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behavior problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than a compensatory cycle of achievement growth.
Increasing the Knowledge of Stratification in Shallow Coastal Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojo, T.; Bonner, J.; Hodges, B.; Maidment, D.; Montagna, P.; Minsker, B.
2006-12-01
developed for the bay and results indicate that water mass is conserved through a strong vortex spawning from the ~ 20 m deep ship channel that runs east-west along the northernmost portion of the bay. HF radar "observations" however does not indicate this vortical structure suggesting that water conservation is maintained through vertical eddies, captured by 3D current measurements using Acoustic Doppler profilers. This is an example of where advanced sensors indicate needs for more advanced modeling, leading us toward the development of 3D hydrodynamic model for the bay. The geomorphology of the bay (shallow with respect to the deep ship channel) poses a challenge in this model development. Knowledge of stratification in this system of bays has been increased through this study. Measurements taken using the instrument suite deployed by our research facility was coupled with (observed and predicted) hydrodynamic and meteorological data, providing new insight into stratification in Corpus Christi Bay. The bay was observed as cycling through quiescent and well-mixed periods under strong wind influence with the onset of hypoxia during the summer months (June through August). Quiescent periods, when combined with tidal cycling and inland horizontal gradient propagation (from adjoining water bodies as described) lead to conditions favorable to stratification.
Increasing levels of assistance in refinement of knowledge-based retrieval systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baudin, Catherine; Kedar, Smadar; Pell, Barney
1994-01-01
The task of incrementally acquiring and refining the knowledge and algorithms of a knowledge-based system in order to improve its performance over time is discussed. In particular, the design of DE-KART, a tool whose goal is to provide increasing levels of assistance in acquiring and refining indexing and retrieval knowledge for a knowledge-based retrieval system, is presented. DE-KART starts with knowledge that was entered manually, and increases its level of assistance in acquiring and refining that knowledge, both in terms of the increased level of automation in interacting with users, and in terms of the increased generality of the knowledge. DE-KART is at the intersection of machine learning and knowledge acquisition: it is a first step towards a system which moves along a continuum from interactive knowledge acquisition to increasingly automated machine learning as it acquires more knowledge and experience.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barthel, Margaret Gorjanc
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between achievement in Chem 33 (a third semester general chemistry course) and the following predictor variables: prior knowledge (Chem 32 grade), level of Piagetian intellectual development, number of college mathematics courses previously completed, grades received in prior college mathematics courses, science ACT scores, mathematics ACT scores, and composite ACT scores. During the winter semester of the 1994--1995 school year, the students who were enrolled in two sections of Chem 33, taught by the same professor, were given the TOLT test. In addition, their student records were examined in order to determine the grade they received in Chem 32, the number of mathematics courses Completed in college, the GPA for the mathematics courses completed in college, the science ACT score, mathematics ACT score, and the composite ACT score. A Pearson Correlation was performed on these variables to determine to what extent they were able to predict the student's achievement, measured by the grade in Chem 33. What was found in respect to achievement in Chem 33 was: prior knowledge was r = 0.67, GPA of mathematics courses completed in college was r = 0.58, mathematics ACT was r = 0.50, composite ACT was r = 0.40, and TOLT was r = 0.33. A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to see what interactions could be found between the variables themselves. There was no single predictor variable that adequately serves as a dominant predictor variable for success in Chem 33. It can be concluded that the Chem 32 grade (prior knowledge) coupled with the GPA of the college mathematics courses completed in college as well as the mathematics ACT score are the best predictors for achievement in Chem 33.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calhoun, James M., Jr.
2011-01-01
Student achievement is not progressing on mathematics as measured by state, national, and international assessments. Much of the research points to mathematics curriculum and instruction as the root cause of student failure to achieve at levels comparable to other nations. Since mathematics is regarded as a gate keeper to many educational…
Increasing Student Learning in Mathematics with the Use of Collaborative Teaching Strategies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Di Fatta, Jenna; Garcia, Sarah; Gorman, Stephanie
2009-01-01
Three teacher researchers conducted this action research project to increase their 54 high school students' achievements in mathematics. The teacher researchers had noticed a trend of low scores on teacher-made chapter tests and non-completion of daily homework. Standardized tests showed that most students scored below average on the mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Jeffry L.; Massiha, G. H.
2015-01-01
As a nation wrestles with the need to train more professionals, persons with disabilities are undereducated and underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The following project was proposed to increase representation of students with disabilities in the STEM disciplines. The program emphasizes an integrated…
Hands-on mathematics: two cases from ancient Chinese mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Youjun
2009-05-01
In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in ancient China is an abundant resource for materials to demonstrate mathematics by hands-on manipulation. In this article I shall present two cases that embody this idea of a hands-on approach in ancient Chinese mathematics, at the same time offering an opportunity to show how to utilize materials from the history of Chinese math in modern mathematical education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellerton, Sharon; Carmona, Naydu; Tsimounis, Areti
2016-01-01
There is an urgent need to increase K-12 science knowledge and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) preparedness for college. State and national data suggest a strong correlation between student performance in STEM subjects and student socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. Queensborough Community College (QCC) is situated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ekawati, Rooselyna; Lin, Fou-Lai; Yang, Kai-Lin
2015-01-01
In this study, we developed an instrument for assessing teachers' mathematics content knowledge (MCK) on ratio and proportion and examined the profile of Indonesian primary teacher's MCK on this topic. The MCK items were administered to 271 Indonesian in-service primary teachers with a variety of educational backgrounds and teaching experiences.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beach, Dennis; Player-Koro, Catarina
2012-01-01
Two related ethnographic research projects on mathematics teacher education in Sweden are presented in this paper. They represent a response to recent policy developments that reaffirm the value of authoritative subject studies content as the central and most important component in the professional knowledge base of would-be teachers and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koirala, Hari P.; Davis, Marsha; Johnson, Peter
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to share a performance assessment task and rubric designed to assess secondary school mathematics preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills. The assessment task and rubric were developed in collaboration with five education faculty, four arts and sciences faculty, and four high school teachers over…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pape, Stephen J.; Prosser, Sherri K.; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Algina, James; Bae, Jungah
2015-01-01
This study sought to identify components of an asynchronous online teacher professional development program, "Prime Online," that potentially affected participants' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Twenty-three third- through fifth-grade general education and special education teachers completed a yearlong online teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheriani, Cheriani; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Tahmir, Suradi; Manda, Darman; Dirawan, Gufran Darma
2015-01-01
This study aims to determine the differences in learning output by using Problem Based Model combines with the "Buginese" Local Cultural Knowledge (PBL-Culture). It is also explores the students activities in learning mathematics subject by using PBL-Culture Models. This research is using Mixed Methods approach that combined quantitative…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simsek, Nurullah; Boz, Nihat
2016-01-01
Studies that explore pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the field of mathematics education date back to the turn of the century in Turkey. In recent years, studies on PCK have gained momentum. Master's theses and doctoral dissertations have been written on PCK. In this context, there is a need to analyze the studies on PCK in Turkey to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Mokhtar, Mahani; Halim, Noor Dayana Abd; Ali, Dayana Farzeeha; Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Kohar, Umar Haiyat Abdul
2017-01-01
This study aims to identify the level of knowledge and practice on the implementation of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) among mathematics teachers at a secondary school in the district of Terengganu. The study focused on the aspects of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment and compared them with demographic factors of the respondents. It used…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meng, Chew Cheng; Sam, Lim Chap
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop pre-service secondary teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for teaching mathematics with The Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) through Lesson Study (LS). Specifically, a single-group pretest-posttest design was employed to examine whether there was a significant difference in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilhelm, Anne Garrison
2014-01-01
This study sought to understand how aspects of middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge and conceptions are related to their enactment of cognitively demanding tasks. I defined the enactment of cognitively demanding tasks to involve task selection and maintenance of the cognitive demand of high-level tasks and examined those two…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, Sandra
2009-01-01
This article describes experiences from a professional development project designed to prepare in-service eighth-grade mathematics teachers to develop, explore, and advance technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) in the teaching and learning of Algebra I. This article describes the process of the participating teachers' mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, Mary Elizabeth
2013-01-01
This literature review examines the models, theories, and research in mathematics education that are informed by Lee S. Shulman's construct, Pedagogical Content Knowledge. The application of the concept differs in nature and volume across levels of schooling. The research includes substantial work at the elementary level, fewer studies at the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Doug; Clarke, David; Roche, Anne; Chan, Man Ching Esther
2015-01-01
A central premise of this project is that teachers learn from the act of teaching a lesson and that this learning is evident in the planning and teaching of a subsequent lesson. In this project, the knowledge construction of mathematics teachers was examined utilising multi-camera research techniques during lesson planning, classroom interactions…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boston, Melissa D.
2013-01-01
This investigation describes secondary mathematics teachers' learning and instructional change following their participation in a professional development workshop, the Enhancing Secondary Mathematics Teacher Preparation Project (ESP) (2004-2005), specifically focused on the selection and implementation of cognitively challenging mathematical…
Discrete mathematics in deaf education: a survey of teachers' knowledge and use.
Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L
The study documents what deaf education teachers know about discrete mathematics topics and determines if these topics are present in the mathematics curriculum. Survey data were collected from 290 mathematics teachers at center and public school programs serving a minimum of 120 students with hearing loss, grades K-8 or K-12, in the United States. Findings indicate that deaf education teachers are familiar with many discrete mathematics topics but do not include them in instruction because they consider the concepts too complicated for their students. Also, regardless of familiarity level, deaf education teachers are not familiar with discrete mathematics terminology; nor is their mathematics teaching structured to provide opportunities to apply the real-world-oriented activities used in discrete mathematics instruction. Findings emphasize the need for higher expectations of students with hearing loss, and for reform in mathematics curriculum and instruction within deaf education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalinec-Craig, Crystal
2012-01-01
This dissertation study examines the experiences of four Latina/o pre-service teachers (PSTs) as they learn about teaching mathematics for understanding (TM4U) and integrating a child's out-of-school mathematical knowledge and experiences during instruction. Studying the knowledge and experiences of Latina/o PSTs is necessary because PSTs…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hannigan, Ailish; Gill, Olivia; Leavy, Aisling M.
2013-01-01
The development of statistical literacy is fast becoming the focus of a large part of mathematics instruction at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. This broadening of the mathematics curriculum to encompass a focus on statistics makes considerable demands on teachers. Most mathematics teachers acknowledge the practical importance of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stohlmann, Micah Stephen
2012-01-01
This case study explored the impact of a standards-based mathematics and pedagogy class on preservice elementary teachers' beliefs and conceptual subject matter knowledge of linear functions. The framework for the standards-based mathematics and pedagogy class in this study involved the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shanley, Lina; Cary, Mari Strand; Clarke, Ben; Jungjohann, Kathy
2013-01-01
Children enter kindergarten with variable levels of mathematics skill and knowledge gained from informal learning opportunities at home, preschool, and daycare. Many perform well once they receive formal mathematics instruction. However, if students do not develop an initial understanding of the most basic aspects of formal mathematics, they are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Costellano, Janet; Scaffa, Matthew
The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents 37 activities designed to develop mathematics concepts and skills utilizing the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on experiencing math models, patterns, problems, and relationships found in an urban environment. Activities…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Schneider, Michael; Star, Jon R.
2015-01-01
There is a long-standing and ongoing debate about the relations between conceptual and procedural knowledge (i.e., knowledge of concepts and procedures). Although there is broad consensus that conceptual knowledge supports procedural knowledge, there is controversy over whether procedural knowledge supports conceptual knowledge and how instruction…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuentes, Sarah Quebec; Bloom, Mark; Peace, Heather
2014-01-01
Preservice teachers often enter teacher education programs with naïve views about mathematics and science as well as the various domains of knowledge needed for effective teaching. A significant body of research has demonstrated that teacher knowledge is multifaceted and consists of both subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lambert, Rachel; Sugita, Trisha
2016-01-01
Engagement in problem-solving and mathematical discussion is critical for learning mathematics. This research review describes a gap in the literature surrounding engagement of students with Learning Disabilities in standards-based mathematical classrooms. Taking a sociocultural view of engagement as participation in mathematical practices, this…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.; Lewis, Katherine E.; Hanich, Laurie B.; Murphy, Melissa M.
2013-01-01
Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan Salleh, Masturah; Sulaiman, Hajar
2013-04-01
The use of technology in the teaching of mathematics at the university level has long been introduced; but many among the lecturers, especially those that have taught for many years, still opt for a traditional teaching method, that is, by lecture talk. One reason is that lecturers themselves were not exposed to the technologies available and how it can assist in the teaching and learning procedures (T&L) in mathematics. GeoGebra is a mathematical software which is open and free and has just recently been introduced in Malaysia. Compared with the software Cabri Geometry and Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP), which only focus on geometry, GeoGebra is able to connect geometry, algebra and numerical representation. Realizing this, the researchers have conducted a study to expose the university lecturers on the use of GeoGebra in T&L. The researchers chose to do the research on mathematics lecturers at the Department of Computer Science and Mathematics (JSKM), Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Penang. The objective of this study is to determine whether an exposure to GeoGebra software can affect the conceptual knowledge and procedural teaching of mathematics at the university level. This study is a combination of descriptive and qualitative. One session was conducted in an open workshop for all the 45 lecturers. From that total, four people were selected as a sample. The sample was selected by using a simple random sampling method. This study used materials in the form of modules during the workshop. In terms of conceptual knowledge, the results showed that the GeoGebra software is appropriate, relevant and highly effective for in-depth understanding of the selected topics. While the procedural aspects of teaching, it can be one of the teaching aids and considerably facilitate the lecturers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norton, Anderson; McCloskey, Andrea; Hudson, Rick A.
2011-01-01
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental elementary mathematics field experience course, we have designed a new assessment instrument. These video-based prediction assessments engage prospective teachers in a video analysis of a child solving mathematical tasks. The prospective teachers build a model of that child's mathematics…
Developing Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching: One Preservice Teacher and Her Planning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Susanna
2016-01-01
This paper describes how a new pre-service teacher engaged with mathematical content in order to learn it for teaching, during practicum. The results show that the PST learned mathematical content by initiating and carrying out a preparation phase prior to planning. This phase involved searching through internet sites and making notes that were…
The Priorities and Challenges of Primary Teachers' Knowledge in Their Mathematics Planning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davidson, Aylie
2016-01-01
There is growing consensus that the process of planning mathematics lessons is as complex as teaching them, yet there is limited research on this. This paper reports on one aspect of a project examining issues in primary teachers' mathematics planning. The results, taken from a questionnaire completed by 62 primary teachers, indicate that when…
How Important Is Where You Start? Early Mathematics Knowledge and Later School Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi
2013-01-01
Background: Children's early skills are essential for their later success in school. Recent evidence highlights the importance of early mathematics, relative to reading and socioemotional skills, for elementary school achievement. Key advocacy groups for both early childhood and mathematics education have issued position statements on the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chinnappan, Mohan; Desplat, Bethany
2012-01-01
The teaching of mathematics for the development of numeracy is emerging to be an important goal of recent reforms. In broad terms, numeracy involves the application of mathematical concepts and procedures in the understanding and solution of a range of problems including real-life problems. Teaching for numeracy, thus calls for skills in…
Bilingual Students Articulation and Gesticulation of Mathematical Knowledge during Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dominguez, Higinio
2005-01-01
This research focuses on eliciting bilingual students' problem-solving reasoning by providing mathematical tasks designed to involve the students in the action described in the problem by making connections to contexts familiar to them. Results showed these tasks allowed children to articulate their mathematical reasoning through gestures and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westbrook, Amy Franks
2014-01-01
This study addresses the problem of mathematics teachers' resistance to problem-solving models that align with constructivist perspectives because they feel pressure to utilize more teaching approaches that focus on preparing students for high-stakes tests. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explain how ninth grade mathematics students…
Mathematical Knowledge of Technology and Design Student Teachers: Diagnosis and Remediation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, Irene Teresa; Gibson, Ken
2009-01-01
This research examines how e-assessment and e-resources were used to assess and support the mathematics of Technology and Design students undertaking a B.Ed. (post-primary) teacher education course. The students participated in two similar tests in order to ascertain if their mathematical difficulties were in the underlying concepts of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.
1994-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.
2012-01-01
In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…
Becker, Bryan K; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H; Eager, Eric A; Bronner, Liliana P; Godfrey, Maurice
2017-03-01
Underserved minority groups are disproportionately absent from the pursuit of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. One such underserved population, Native Americans, are particularly underrepresented in STEM fields. Although recent advocacy and outreach designed toward increasing minority involvement in health care-related occupations have been mostly successful, little is known about the efficacy of outreach programs in increasing minority enthusiasm toward careers in traditional scientific professions. Furthermore, very little is known about outreach among Native American schools toward increasing involvement in STEM. We collaborated with tribal middle and high schools in South Dakota and Nebraska through a National Institutes of Health Science Education Partnership Award to hold a day-long physiology, activity-based event to increase both understanding of physiology and enthusiasm to scientific careers. We recruited volunteer biomedical scientists and trainees from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and University of South Dakota. To evaluate the effectiveness of the day of activities, 224 of the ~275-300 participating students completed both a pre- and postevent evaluation assessment. We observed increases in both students self-perceived knowledge of physiology and enthusiasm toward scientific career opportunities after the day of outreach activities. We conclude that activity-based learning opportunities in underserved populations are effective in increasing both knowledge of science and interest in scientific careers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hiebert, James; Morris, Anne K.
2009-01-01
Consistent with the theme of this issue, we describe the details of one continuing effort to build knowledge for teacher education. We argue that building a useful knowledge base requires attention to the processes used to generate, record, and vet knowledge. By using 4 features of knowledge-building systems we identified in the introductory…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Eilerts, Katja; Blömeke, Sigrid
2016-01-01
Teacher competence is a multi-dimensional construct that includes beliefs as well as knowledge. The present study investigated the structure of prospective preschool teachers' mathematics-related beliefs and their relation to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, prospective preschool teachers' perception and planning…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pray, Lisa; Ilieva, Vessela
2011-01-01
This research investigates the link between mathematic teachers' use of English-language learner (ELL) strategies and the mathematics achievement of their students who are ELLs. Interviews and observations of mathematic teachers who taught ELLs were used to document instructional strategies use. The findings from the interviews and observations…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.
2010-01-01
Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jassi, Amita D.; Kolvenbach, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel; Macleod, Trish; Rose, Joel; Diamond, Holly
2016-01-01
Objective: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children can be difficult to detect. Schools and families need to be made aware of the signs and symptoms of OCD in order to facilitate access to treatment. Parents of children with OCD may require support as well as knowledge. This study evaluated two initiatives aimed at increasing knowledge and…
Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn
1997-01-01
Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin
2011-01-01
In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…
Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Cognitive Activation in the Classroom, and Student Progress
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baumert, Jurgen; Kunter, Mareike; Blum, Werner; Brunner, Martin; Voss, Thamar; Jordan, Alexander; Klusmann, Uta; Krauss, Stefan; Neubrand, Michael; Tsai, Yi-Miau
2010-01-01
In both the United States and Europe, concerns have been raised about whether preservice and in-service training succeeds in equipping teachers with the professional knowledge they need to deliver consistently high-quality instruction. This article investigates the significance of teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mungure, Daudi Mika
2016-01-01
This paper explored the Relevance of the Pedagogy and Academic Content Knowledge that are offered to Prospective Science and Mathematics Teachers in Tanzania Teachers' colleges. Morogoro Teachers' College and Kleruu Teachers' college were used as a case study. The performance in science and mathematics subjects in form four National examinations…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polly, Drew
2014-01-01
This paper presents the findings of a study that examined pre-service teachers' development of knowledge about technology, pedagogy and content (TPACK) during a mathematics pedagogy course focused on elementary school mathematics in the United States. Data sources included work samples from pre-service teachers as well as an open-ended survey…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Suanrong
Fractal geometry has gained great attention from mathematicians and scientists in the past three decades (Fraboni & Moller, 2008). As a new geometry language and subject, fractal geometry has significant value in teaching and learning secondary mathematics. The present study focused on investigating the current state of mathematics teachers' awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry in the United States (U.S.) and China, as well as the factors that influence them. The instrument of the study included a survey and a test designed by the researcher and validated by five experts. The results of the study indicated that secondary math teachers in the U.S. and China had very low levels of awareness of fractals and lack the knowledge and skills of solving fractal problems, but they had a higher level of interest in fractals related to classroom teaching and professional development as compared with their levels of awareness. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the factor 'experience of learning fractals' had the most positive effect on the average score of awareness. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most positive effect on the average score of interest. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most negative effect on the average score of knowledge.
Concept Maps & Schematic Diagrams as Devices for Documenting the Growth of Mathematical Knowledge.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGowen, Mercedes; Tall, David
The major focus of this study is to trace the cognitive development of students throughout a mathematics course and to seek the qualitative differences between those of different levels of achievement. The aspect of the project described here concerns the use of concept maps constructed by the students at intervals during the course. From these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kar, Tugrul
2016-01-01
This study examined prospective middle school mathematics teachers' problem-posing skills by investigating their ability to associate linear graphs with daily life situations. Prospective teachers were given linear graphs and asked to pose problems that could potentially be represented by the graphs. Their answers were analyzed in two stages. In…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cook, Samuel A.; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy
2016-01-01
Studies have shown that at the end of an introductory statistics course, students struggle with building block concepts, such as mean and standard deviation, and rely on procedural understandings of the concepts. This study aims to investigate the understandings entering freshman of a department of mathematics and statistics (including mathematics…
iPad Apps That Promote Mathematical Knowledge? "Yes, They Exist!"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larkin, Kevin
2014-01-01
Having trouble finding the right app? In this article, Kevin Larkin discusses the difficulties teachers encounter when searching the App Store for high quality, appropriate apps that support students' mathematical learning. Kevin provides a useful link to a collection of over 100 app reviews.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGuire, Patrick
2013-01-01
This article describes how a free, web-based intelligent tutoring system, (ASSISTment), was used to create online error analysis items for preservice elementary and secondary mathematics teachers. The online error analysis items challenged preservice teachers to analyze, diagnose, and provide targeted instructional remediation intended to help…
Construction and Modification of the Autonomy of School Mathematical Knowledge in Portugal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matos, José Manuel
2016-01-01
During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel…
Developing Mathematics Knowledge Keepers--Issues at the Intersection of Communities of Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siemon, Dianne E.
2009-01-01
This paper discusses some issues that arose in the context of a three-year research project on Indigenous mathematics teacher education in the Northern Territory of Australia. The project was based on the premise that Indigenous student numeracy outcomes are more likely to be improved where students can work on key number ideas and strategies in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkie, Karina J.
2016-01-01
A key aspect of learning algebra in the middle years of schooling is exploring the functional relationship between two variables: noticing and generalising the relationship, and expressing it mathematically. This article describes research on the professional learning of upper primary school teachers for developing their students' functional…
Does an Observer's Content Knowledge Influence the Feedback Offered about Mathematics Lessons?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peck, Duane C.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, feedback from 3 different groups of observers: math content specialists, content specialists in areas other than mathematics, and building principals, was analyzed using an inductive approach to identify themes within the feedback. Second, differences in the feedback offered by participants of the 3…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLeod, Julie; Vasinda, Sheri; Dondlinger, Mary Jo
2012-01-01
This article adds to the growing body of research surrounding the use of virtual manipulatives for mathematics learning. The study reported herein used five different virtual manipulatives from four different websites, all within a sixth grade unit on proportional thinking. While many studies have reported on student achievement when using virtual…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oonk, Wil; Verloop, Nico; Gravemeijer, Koeno P. E.
2015-01-01
This study concentrated on the theory-practice problem in mathematics teacher education. We examined 13 student teachers' use of theory when they reflected on teaching practice in a class specifically designed to optimize the chance for theory use. We developed a Reflection Analysis Instrument with which the student teachers' use of theory could…
The Influence of Attention on Mathematical Knowledge of Teachers and Lecturers: A Comparison
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klymchuk, Sergiy; Thomas, Michael O. J.
2011-01-01
This article reports on some findings from the project "Analysing the Transition from Secondary to Tertiary Education in Mathematics". One of the key variables in the school to university transition is the teacher/lecturer, and here, we deal with the data analysing secondary teachers' and tertiary lecturers' responses to four mathematics…
Engendering Proof Attitudes: Can the Genesis of Mathematical Knowledge Teach Us Anything?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almeida, Dennis
2003-01-01
Suggests that there is continued poverty in student understanding of proof. Reports on how proof attitudes could be inculcated in students by offering them a course design that is somewhat faithful to the historical genesis of modern mathematics. Contends that such a design can enable students to discover a sense of proof for themselves. (Contains…
Hoskinson, Anne-Marie
2010-01-01
Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillentine, E. Paige
2013-01-01
Researchers have suggested that teachers use a specialized type of knowledge specifically attributed to the work of teaching. One aspect of this specific type of knowledge is the ability to analyze children's work. With continued emphasis on a teacher's ability to analyze their students' thought processes, teacher candidates will need to develop…
Gottvall, M; Tydén, T; Höglund, A T; Larsson, M
2010-08-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention concerning human papillomavirus (HPV) directed at Swedish first year high school students. The intervention consisted of a class room lesson, a website and a folder. Outcome variables were knowledge of HPV and attitudes to preventive methods such as HPV vaccination, condom use and Pap smear testing. An intervention group (n = 92) was matched with two comparison groups (n = 184). At baseline, the median score for HPV knowledge was one out of 10 in both groups. At follow-up, the median knowledge score had increased to six in the intervention group, but was still one in the comparison group (P < 0.001). Attitudes to HPV vaccination, condom use and Pap smear testing remained the same (P > 0.05). In conclusion, a short school-based intervention can greatly increase the students' knowledge about HPV, but attitudes and behaviours are less easy to influence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klymchuk, Sergiy; Zverkova, Tatyana; Gruenwald, Norbert; Sauerbier, Gabriele
2008-01-01
This article presents the results of two studies on using an innovative pedagogical strategy in teaching mathematical modelling and applications to engineering students. Both studies are dealing with introducing non-traditional contexts for engineering students in teaching/learning of mathematical modelling and applications: environment and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talbot, Robert M.
2016-12-01
There is a clear need for valid and reliable instrumentation that measures teacher knowledge. However, the process of investigating and making a case for instrument validity is not a simple undertaking; rather, it is a complex endeavor. This paper presents the empirical case of one aspect of such an instrument validation effort. The particular instrument under scrutiny was developed in order to determine the effect of a teacher education program on novice science and mathematics teachers' strategic knowledge (SK). The relationship between novice science and mathematics teachers' SK as measured by a survey and their SK as inferred from observations of practice using a widely used observation protocol is the subject of this paper. Moderate correlations between parts of the observation-based construct and the SK construct were observed. However, the main finding of this work is that the context in which the measurement is made (in situ observations vs. ex situ survey) is an essential factor in establishing the validity of the measurement itself.
Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming
2015-01-01
Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.
Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming
2015-01-01
Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kiss, Gabor
2012-01-01
An analysis of Information Technology knowledge of Hungarian and Romanian students was made with the help of a self developed web based Informatics Test. The goal of this research is an analysis of the Computer Science knowledge level of Hungarian and Romanian students attending a Science course or a Mathematics-Informatics course. Analysed was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barham, Peter J.
2012-01-01
New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…
Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women.
Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn
2016-01-01
Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS), while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women.
Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women
Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn
2016-01-01
Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS), while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women. PMID:27147995
1994-11-01
S ELU.gTE, JAN 0 3 1994% OF ’Origi•,l oOntainzs colorplates: All DTIC reproduot.. ions will be in black and white- DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TOOLS ...1I994 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TOOLS TO INCREASE USER CONTROL AND KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION IN A VIRTUAL BATTLESPACE _SFJ7 h- For THESIS •! -Jim J...AFIT/GCS/ENG/94-20 Design and Implementation of Tools to Increase User Control and Knowledge Elicitation in a Virtual Battlespace THESIS Presented to
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swars, Susan Lee
2015-01-01
This mixed methods study examined the mathematical preparation of elementary teachers in a Teach for America (TFA) program, focal participants for whom there is scant extant research. Data collection occurred before and after a university mathematics methods course, with a particular focus on the participants' (n = 22) mathematical beliefs,…
Gonsalves, Gregg S.; Kaplan, Edward H.; Paltiel, A. David
2015-01-01
Background Sexual violence is a major public health issue, affecting 35% of women worldwide. Major risk factors for sexual assault include inadequate indoor sanitation and the need to travel to outdoor toilet facilities. We estimated how increasing the number of toilets in an urban township (Khayelitsha, South Africa) might reduce both economic costs and the incidence and social burden of sexual assault. Methods We developed a mathematical model that links risk of sexual assault to the number of sanitation facilities and the time a woman must spend walking to a toilet. We defined a composite societal cost function, comprising both the burden of sexual assault and the costs of installing and maintaining public chemical toilets. By expressing total social costs as a function of the number of available toilets, we were able to identify an optimal (i.e., cost-minimizing) social investment in toilet facilities. Findings There are currently an estimated 5600 toilets in Khayelitsha. This results in 635 sexual assaults and US$40 million in combined social costs each year. Increasing the number of toilets to 11300 would minimize total costs ($35 million) and reduce sexual assaults to 446. Higher toilet installation and maintenance costs would be more than offset by lower sexual assault costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis shows that the optimal number of toilets exceeds the original allocation of toilets in the township in over 80% of the 5000 iterations of the model. Interpretation Improving access to sanitation facilities in urban settlements will simultaneously reduce the incidence of sexual assaults and overall cost to society. Since our analysis ignores the many additional health benefits of improving sanitation in resource-constrained urban areas (e.g., potential reductions in waterborne infectious diseases), the optimal number of toilets identified here should be interpreted as conservative. PMID:25923105
Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.
2011-01-01
Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…
Use of Increasingly Complex Text to Advance ELs' Knowledge and Academic Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Brien, Lisa M.; Leighton, Christine M.
2015-01-01
This mixed-methods study explored joining use of increasing-complex text with sound instructional practices on English Learners' (ELs) academic language and conceptual knowledge. Findings showed one-week postintervention, ELs achieved significant academic vocabulary gains such that there were no differences between ELs and general education (GE)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Bernardine H.; Leibbrand, Jane A.
2010-01-01
This brief is a summary of "Increasing the Application of Developmental Sciences Knowledge in Educator Preparation: Policy Issues and Recommendations" by Robert C. Pianta, Randy Hitz and Blake West. It includes highlights and policy recommendations contained in that paper. This brief argues that teachers and education administrators need…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.
2016-01-01
The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…
"An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nolan, Jessica M.
2010-01-01
Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dwyer, Julie C.
2010-01-01
This dissertation study investigated the efficacy of a supplementary preschool embedded multimedia curriculum that was designed to increase one type of conceptual knowledge: taxonomic categories. Named the World of Words (WOW), this curriculum focused on teaching the properties and concepts associated with seven taxonomic categories and providing…
A Simple and Effective Program to Increase Faculty Knowledge of and Referrals to Counseling Centers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nolan, Susan A.; Pace, Kristi A.; Iannelli, Richard J.; Palma, Thomas V.; Pakalns, Gail P.
2006-01-01
The authors describe a simple, cost-effective, and empirically supported program to increase faculty referrals of students to counseling centers (CCs). Incoming faculty members at 3 universities received a mailing and personal telephone call from a CC staff member. Faculty assigned to the outreach program had greater knowledge of and rates of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fyfe, Emily R.; DeCaro, Marci S.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
2014-01-01
Background: The sequencing of learning materials greatly influences the knowledge that learners construct. Recently, learning theorists have focused on the sequencing of instruction in relation to solving related problems. The general consensus suggests explicit instruction should be provided; however, when to provide instruction remains unclear.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe
2012-01-01
This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Jian-peng; Pang, Ming Fai
2011-01-01
In experiment 1, novice fourth-grade students (N = 92) who compared multiple examples that separately varied each critical aspect and then simultaneously varied all critical aspects developed better conceptual knowledge about the "altitude of a triangle" than students who compared multiple examples that did not separately vary each critical aspect…
Links between Content Knowledge and Practice in a Mathematics Teacher Education Course: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brijlall, D.; Isaac, V.
2011-01-01
This qualitative study examined the link between content knowledge and classroom practice from the perceptions of two university lecturers. The study was contextualized at a higher education institution in South Africa where the two university lecturers were lecturing to a second year undergraduate teacher trainee class (n = 78). The research was…
Yordanova, Juliana; Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil
2015-01-01
Only some, but not all, individuals who practice tasks with dual structure, overt and covert, are able to comprehend consciously a hidden regularity. The formation of implicit representations of regularity has been proposed to be critical for subsequent awareness. However, explicit knowledge also has been predicted by the activation of executive control systems during task encoding. The present study analyzed performance patterns in participants who could comprehend task regularity and those who could not at delayed recall. Specifically, the role of practice-based knowledge of sequence for individual awareness was focused on. A lateralized variant of the visual serial response time task (SRTT) comprising structured and random blocks was practiced in implicit conditions by 109 participants before and after 10-h retention, with explicit knowledge about covert sequence tested thereafter. Sequence learning was quantified using the normalized difference between response speed in regular and subsequent random blocks. Patterns of performance dynamics were evaluated using response speed, response variability, and error rate. Major results demonstrate that (1) All participants who became aware of the sequence (solvers), gained practice-based sequence knowledge at learning or after retention, (2) Such knowledge also was accumulated during learning by participants who remained fully unaware about covert task structure, (3) Only in explicit solvers, however, was sequence-specific learning accompanied by a prominent increase in performance variability. (4) Specific features and dynamics of performance patterns distinguished different cognitive modes of SRTT processing, each of which supported subsequent knowledge awareness. It is concluded that a behavioral precursor of sequence awareness is the combination of speeded sequence processing and increased performance variability, pointing to an interaction between implicit and explicit processing systems. These results may
Yordanova, Juliana; Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil
2015-01-01
Only some, but not all, individuals who practice tasks with dual structure, overt and covert, are able to comprehend consciously a hidden regularity. The formation of implicit representations of regularity has been proposed to be critical for subsequent awareness. However, explicit knowledge also has been predicted by the activation of executive control systems during task encoding. The present study analyzed performance patterns in participants who could comprehend task regularity and those who could not at delayed recall. Specifically, the role of practice-based knowledge of sequence for individual awareness was focused on. A lateralized variant of the visual serial response time task (SRTT) comprising structured and random blocks was practiced in implicit conditions by 109 participants before and after 10-h retention, with explicit knowledge about covert sequence tested thereafter. Sequence learning was quantified using the normalized difference between response speed in regular and subsequent random blocks. Patterns of performance dynamics were evaluated using response speed, response variability, and error rate. Major results demonstrate that (1) All participants who became aware of the sequence (solvers), gained practice-based sequence knowledge at learning or after retention, (2) Such knowledge also was accumulated during learning by participants who remained fully unaware about covert task structure, (3) Only in explicit solvers, however, was sequence-specific learning accompanied by a prominent increase in performance variability. (4) Specific features and dynamics of performance patterns distinguished different cognitive modes of SRTT processing, each of which supported subsequent knowledge awareness. It is concluded that a behavioral precursor of sequence awareness is the combination of speeded sequence processing and increased performance variability, pointing to an interaction between implicit and explicit processing systems. These results may
Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Brown, Kirsten; Goldman, Ellen; Galoosian, Artin; Butera, Gisela; Krapf, Jill M
2016-07-08
Deficits in retention of anatomy knowledge from the preclinical years to clinical application on the wards have been well documented in the medical education literature. We developed and evaluated a web and laboratory-based curriculum to address deficits in anatomy knowledge retention and to increase anatomy knowledge recall through repetition and application of clinical concepts during the obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) core clinical clerkship. Using principles of adult learning and instructional design, a curriculum was designed consisting of (1) interactive, case-based e-modules reviewing clinically relevant anatomical topics and (2) a hands-on laboratory session reinforcing the content of the e-modules, with the practice of clinical techniques using anatomical cadaveric dissections. The curriculum's effectiveness was evaluated by using multiple choice testing and comparing baseline and final test scores. For questions testing content directly covered in this curriculum, mean final scores increased by 14.3% (P < 0.001). In contrast, for questions not directly addressed in this curriculum, mean final scores did not increase significantly, only by 6.0% (P = 0.31). Questions related to the uterus showed the greatest gains in final scores (30.3% improvement, P = 0.002). A curriculum with web-based preparatory material and a hands-on gross anatomy laboratory session effectively addresses deficits in anatomy retention and improves anatomical knowledge recall for medical students on a clinical clerkship. In the future, the authors plan to conduct a multicenter study to further evaluate the ability of this curriculum to improve clinically relevant anatomical knowledge. Anat Sci Educ 9: 337-343. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoskinson, Anne-Marie
2010-01-01
Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity…
Increasing Equity and Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics: The Contribution of Content Exposure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ottmar, Erin R.; Konold, Timothy R.; Berry, Robert Q.; Grissmer, David W.; Cameron, Claire E.
2013-01-01
This study uses a large nationally representative data set (ECLS-K) of 5,181 students to examine the extent to which exposure to content and instructional practice contributes to mathematics achievement in fifth grade. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results suggest that more exposure to content beyond numbers and operations (i.e., geometry,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rich, Peter J.; Bly, Neil; Leatham, Keith R.
2014-01-01
This study aimed to provide first-hand accounts of the perceived long-term effects of learning computer programming on a learner's approach to mathematics. These phenomenological accounts, garnered from individual interviews of seven different programmers, illustrate four specific areas of interest: (1) programming provides context for many…
Forecast: Changing Mathematics Curriculum and Increasing Pressure for Higher-Level Thinking Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niess, Margaret L.
1993-01-01
Presents a unit developed by the 1991 Oregon Mathematics Teachers of Middle School project in which students investigate the average temperature, precipitation, and snowfall in their town using spreadsheets and graphing packages. Students compare the averages over a period of 30 years to a particular year. (MDH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Long, Gary W.
2010-01-01
Success rates in California community college developmental mathematics courses have hovered around 50% for decades. These gatekeeper courses have prevented many students from earning college degrees. Since community college is the starting point for the majority of California's potential college graduates and the majority of these students…
Rees, Stephen E
2011-12-01
This dissertation has addressed the broad hypothesis as to whether building mathematical models is useful as a tool for translating physiological knowledge into clinical practice. In doing so it describes work on the INtelligent VENTilator project (INVENT), the goal of which is to build, evaluate and integrate into clinical practice, a model-based decision support system for control of mechanical ventilation. The dissertation describes the mathematical models included in INVENT, i.e. a model of pulmonary gas exchange focusing on oxygen transport, and a model of the acid-base status of blood, interstitial fluid and tissues. These models have been validated, and applied in two other systems: ALPE, a system for measuring pulmonary gas exchange and ARTY, a system for arterialisation of the acid-base and oxygen status of peripheral venous blood. The major contributions of this work are as follows. A mathematical model has been developed which can describe pulmonary gas exchange more accurately that current clinical techniques. This model is parsimonious in that it can describe pulmonary gas exchange from measurements easily available in the clinic, along with a readily automatable variation in F(I)O(2). This technique and model have been developed into a research and commercial tool (ALPE), and evaluated both in the clinical setting and when compared to the reference multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). Mathematical models have been developed of the acid- base chemistry of blood, interstitial fluid and tissues, with these models formulated using a mass-action mass-balance approach. The model of blood has been validated against literature data describing the addition and removal of CO(2), strong acid or base, and haemoglobin; and the effects of oxygenation or deoxygenation. The model has also been validated in new studies, and shown to simulate accurately and precisely the mixing of blood samples at different PCO(2) and PO(2) levels. This model of acid
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallego, Melania Terrazas; Llach, Maria del Pilar Agustin
2009-01-01
This paper tracks the increase in the overall word reception knowledge of 224 young pupils in their 4th, 5th and 6th grades of primary education and in their 1st year of secondary education (7th grade), who learn EFL in a formal context. The 2,000 word frequency band of The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham, 2001, version 2) is…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Stacy Kathryn
This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems
Impacts of Farmers' Knowledge Increase on Farm Profit and Watershed Water Quality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, D.; Bennett, D. A.
2013-12-01
This study explores the impact that an increase in real-time data might have on farmers' nitrogen management, on-farm profit, and watershed water quality in the Midwestern US. In this study, an agent-based model (ABM) is used to simulate farmers' decisions about nitrogen application rate and timing in corn fields. SWAT (soil-water assessment tool) is used to generate a database that characterizes the response of corn yields to nitrogen fertilizer application and the dynamics of nitrogen loss under different scenarios of rainfall events. The database simulates a scenario where farmers would receive real-time feedback about the fate and impact of nitrogen applied to their fields from in-situ sensors. The ability to transform these data into optimal actions is simulated at multiple levels for farmer agents. In a baseline scenario, the farmer agent is only aware of the yield potential of the land field and single values of N rates for achieving the yield potential and is not aware of N loss from farm fields. Knowledge increase is represented by greater accuracy in predicting rainfall events, and the increase of the number of discrete points in a field-specific quadratic curve that captures crop yield response to various levels of nitrogen perceived by farmer agents. In addition, agents perceive N loss from farm fields at increased temporal resolutions. Correspondingly, agents make adjustments to the rate of N application for crops and the timing of fertilizer application given the rainfall events predictions. Farmers' decisions simulated by the ABM are input into SWAT to model nitrogen concentration in impacted streams. Farm profit statistics and watershed-level nitrogen loads are compared among different scenarios of knowledge increase. The hypothesis that the increase of farmers' knowledge benefits both farm profits and watershed water quality is tested through the comparison.
Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Mathematics Achievement of Students in Peru
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cueto, Santiago; León, Juan; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Miranda, Alejandra
2017-01-01
After improving enrolment rates significantly, many developing countries such as Peru are facing the challenge to increase learning levels among students. Over the past few years, many researchers have turned to teacher-related variables as a way to better understand classroom processes that may help increase learning levels among students. In…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corkin, Danya M.; Ekmekci, Adem; Papakonstantinou, Anne
2015-01-01
This paper examines the antecedents of three types of educational beliefs about mathematics among 151 teachers predominantly working in high poverty schools. Studies across various countries have found that teachers in high poverty schools are less likely to enact instructional approaches that align with mathematics reform standards set by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mousavi, Shima; Radmehr, Farzad; Alamolhodaei, Hasan
2012-01-01
Introduction: The main objective of this study is (a) to investigate whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical performance and which variable is relatively most important in predicting mathematical performance and b) to explore whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical…
The use of secondments as a tool to increase knowledge translation.
O'Donoughue Jenkins, Lily; Anstey, Kaarin J
2017-02-15
This paper discusses the use of secondments as a tool to increase knowledge translation between academics and policy makers by developing individual capacity. A case study is presented of a reciprocal secondment between a government department and a university. Enablers of knowledge translation included flexibility and support, a prior relationship between the two organisations, and a government culture that values use of research in policy making. Barriers included the lack of a planned approach with agreed outcomes, and a lack of evaluation at the end of the secondment. Recommendations for future secondments include establishing ongoing secondments between organisations; trialling different types of secondments; and having a detailed plan at the beginning of a secondment, including how the success of the secondment will be measured, and a formal evaluation at the end.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Online-Offline, 1999
1999-01-01
This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)
Even the "Best" Teachers May Need Adequate Subject Knowledge: An Illustrative Mathematics Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modiba, Maropeng
2011-01-01
As curriculum scholars in South Africa express concerns about the failures of the outcomes-based curriculum policy that has been introduced post-apartheid it is of increased importance to try and understand the professional development that is required by teachers for its successful implementation. As a contribution to the development of such…
An Instrument for Assessing Primary Students' Knowledge of Information Graphics in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diezmann, Carmel M.; Lowrie, Tom J.
2009-01-01
Information graphics have become increasingly important in representing, organising and analysing information in a technological age. In classroom contexts, information graphics are typically associated with graphs, maps and number lines. However, all students need to become competent with the broad range of graphics that they will encounter in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Tracy L.
2011-01-01
This study examined pre-service teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) over their final year in a university based teacher education program. This was done through analyzing written reflections, focus group interviews, individual interviews, teaching observations, and post-observation interviews as well as through the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laschke, Christin
2013-01-01
How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Michael; Tibanyendera, Basil; Seltzer-Kelly, Debbie
2007-01-01
This article reports the effects of a science, technology, and society (STS) teaching approach on the knowledge and attitudes of preservice science and mathematics teachers in Uganda toward global science and technology-based problems and/or threats. The responses of a baseline or control group (N = 50) and an experimental group (N = 50) to five…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Carolyn S.; Cohen, Sara; Keyes, Marian; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Lunsford, Crystal
This guide contains hands-on mathematics activities to connect middle-school students to the traditional knowledge of their grandparents and elders. Because girls often lose interest in math at the middle-school level, and because women in some communities (especially in rural areas) are seldom involved in work with an obvious math basis, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Narli, Serkan
2011-01-01
This study investigates the long-term effects of instructing Cantor set theory using constructivist learning approach on student knowledge retention. The participants included 60 first-year secondary mathematics pre-service teachers. Students were divided into two classes one of which was taught via traditional lecture (n = 30) and the other was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Youchu, Huang
2016-01-01
This study explores the effect of a history-based course on pre-service teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Data were collected from 10 pre-service teachers at a normal university in China. At the beginning of the course, participants were asked to submit their teaching plans followed by a teaching simulation on selected topics.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Puu.
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of type of question prompt and level of prior knowledge on non-routine mathematical problem solving. A computer game was blended within the pattern reasoning tasks, along with question prompts, in order to demonstrate and enhance the connections between viable problem-solving strategies and…
Burr, Carolyn K; Storm, Deborah S; Gross, Elaine
2006-03-01
Although routine counseling and HIV testing of pregnant women is recommended, it is not yet universally offered. This paper reports on a project that trained health care providers from 2000 to 2002 using a faculty trainer (or train-the-trainer) model. The goals of the projects were to increase knowledge and change practice, increase HIV counseling and testing in prenatal care, and improve management of HIV in pregnant women. In four jurisdictions of the southeastern United States, 193 health care providers attended faculty trainer workshops using a standardized curriculum. Eighteen providers used the curriculum to train an additional 545 health care providers over 2 years. Participants in both faculty trainer workshops and trainerled seminars reported significant increases in perceived knowledge in all content areas and the intention to change clinical practice. The number of providers who became faculty trainers and then led seminars varied widely among the jurisdictions. Six-month follow-up of faculty trainers, although limited by a 63% response rate, found that over 90% of respondents reported the workshop had a positive impact on their care of women with and at risk for HIV. Our findings indicate the faculty trainer model is an effective way to educate practicing clinicians. Key elements to successful implementation were: ongoing support of faculty trainers by acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educators, involvement of local HIV experts as trainers and resource persons, and use of a standardized curriculum based on national guidelines.
Grosberg, Dafna; Grinvald, Haya; Reuveni, Haim
2016-01-01
Background The advent of the Internet has driven a technological revolution that has changed our lives. As part of this phenomenon, social networks have attained a prominent role in health care. A variety of medical services is provided over the Internet, including home monitoring, interactive communications between the patient and service providers, and social support, among others. This study emphasizes some of the practical implications of Web-based health social networks for patients and for health care systems. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how participation in a social network among individuals with a chronic condition contributed to patient activation, based on the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional survey with a retrospective component was conducted. Data were collected from Camoni, a Hebrew-language Web-based social health network, participants in the diabetes mellitus, pain, hypertension, and depression/anxiety forums, during November 2012 to 2013. Experienced users (enrolled at least 6 months) and newly enrolled received similar versions of the same questionnaire including sociodemographics and PAM. Results Among 686 participants, 154 of 337 experienced and 123 of 349 newly enrolled completed the questionnaire. Positive correlations (P<.05) were found between frequency and duration of site visits and patient activation, social relationships, and chronic disease knowledge. Men surfed longer than women (χ²3=10.104, P<.05). Experienced users with diabetes surfed more than those with other illnesses and had significantly higher PAM scores (mean, M=69.3, standard deviation, SD=19.1, PAM level 4; Z=−4.197, P<.001) than new users (M=62.8, SD=18.7, PAM level 3). Disease knowledge directly predicted PAM for all users (β=.26 and .21, respectively). Frequency and duration of social health network use were correlated with increased knowledge about a chronic disease. Experienced surfers had higher PAM
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
James, Susanne M.
2011-01-01
Special educators' knowledge of reading concepts are not only influenced by their understanding of the subject matter, but also by an amalgam of content and pedagogy that enables teachers to integrate this information to meet the diverse needs of students with disabilities. This study documented the conceptual knowledge that special education…
A School-Hospital Partnership Increases Knowledge of Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Safety.
Bachman, Shelby L; Arbogast, Helen; Ruiz, Pearl; Farag, Mina; Demeter, Natalie E; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Burke, Rita V
2015-12-01
Pedestrian and motor vehicle-related injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Trauma centers have specialized resources to conduct interventions that improve the safety of whole communities. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a school-hospital partnership in increasing knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents in a large, urban community. Staff from a Level I pediatric trauma center conducted educational interventions in an urban public school district. Elementary school students participated in a pedestrian safety program, middle school students completed a community safety program, and high school students learned about the dangers of drunk and distracted driving. Students completed pre- and post-tests. Parents in the neighboring community received child passenger safety education at two child restraint (CR) inspection events. A total of 2203 students participated at a total of nine schools. Post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores for students in all three age groups and within each grade level. At CR inspection events, 67 CRs were inspected, 49 (73 %) of which were replaced with new age- and weight- appropriate CRs. The most common instance of improper CR use was loose CR fit in vehicle seat (33 %). All 120 observed instances of misuse were corrected by a certified Child Passenger Safety Technician. Educational interventions effectively increased knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents. We have demonstrated the utility of a school-hospital partnership for furthering knowledge of safety in an urban community.
He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun
2016-11-07
Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre
Cyrus-David, Mfon S
2010-12-01
The state of knowledge and personal risk perception among women who are underserved or racial minorities at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) who may be eligible for chemoprevention is limited. The BC knowledge and accuracy of perceived personal risk of a cross-sectional study population of such women residing in the greater Houston Texas area were assessed. The majority had below average knowledge scores and perceived risk inaccurately. The lesser educated were also less knowledgeable. Educational interventions targeted towards this population would enhance their knowledge of BC and empower them to make informed decisions about BC chemoprevention.
Pollock, D D; Bruno, W J
2000-12-01
Assessment of the evolutionary process is crucial for understanding the effect of protein structure and function on sequence evolution and for many other analyses in molecular evolution. Here, we used simulations to study how taxon sampling affects accuracy of parameter estimation and topological inference in the absence of branch length asymmetry. With maximum-likelihood analysis, we find that adding taxa dramatically improves both support for the evolutionary model and accurate assessment of its parameters when compared with increasing the sequence length. Using a method we call "doppelgänger trees," we distinguish the contributions of two sources of improved topological inference: greater knowledge about internal nodes and greater knowledge of site-specific rate parameters. Surprisingly, highly significant support for the correct general model does not lead directly to improved topological inference. Instead, substantial improvement occurs only with accurate assessment of the evolutionary process at individual sites. Although these results are based on a simplified model of the evolutionary process, they indicate that in general, assuming processes are not independent and identically distributed among sites, more extensive sampling of taxonomic biodiversity will greatly improve analytical results in many current sequence data sets with moderate sequence lengths.
Harrison, Lindsay
2012-01-01
Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency.
A Case Analysis to Increase Awareness of Current USMC Knowledge Management (KM) Practices
2013-09-01
of knowledge and can be dated as far back as the Paleolithic age (2.6 million years ago), with the prehistory of human technology . The study of...and theory of knowledge continues to evolve. Cook and Brown (1999) are just one example among many authors who have studied epistemology and the...2006, p. 43) and where knowledge does flow, learning will finally take place. E. KNOWLEDGE TECHNOLOGY Today, almost all business processes involve
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Rebecca Noelle
2009-01-01
This paper reports on findings from a five-teacher, exploratory case study, critically observing their implementation of a technology-intensive, augmented reality (AR) mathematics curriculum unit, along with its paper-based control. The unit itself was intended to promote multiple proportional reasoning strategies to urban, public middle school…
Increasing Aspiring Principals' Readiness to Serve: Knowledge and Skill Application Laboratories
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eiseman, Jeffrey W.; Militello, Matthew
2008-01-01
Most leadership programs emphasize knowledge over skills, being skillful over how to be skillful, knowledge about skills over skill application, and ad hoc and hard-to-assess field activities over focused and observable skill practice. "Knowledge and skill application laboratories" provide opportunities to experiment with--and receive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Finch, Maida A.
2013-01-01
Kindergarten mathematics skills are important for subsequent achievement, yet mathematics is underemphasized in kindergarten classrooms. Using nationally representative data, this study explored the relationship between students' school-entry math skills, classroom content coverage, and end-of-kindergarten math achievement. Although the vast…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaffe, Louise
2014-01-01
The adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards and Smarter Balanced assessments in mathematics are intended to provide all students in California with the knowledge and skills required to transition from high school to college-level coursework. This implementation will take time. Concurrent with these efforts, policymakers and…
Cernusak, Lucas; Winter, Klaus; Dalling, James; Holtum, Joseph; Jaramillo, Carlos; Korner, Christian; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Norby, Richard J; Poulter, Benjamin; Turner, Benjamin; Wright, S. Joseph
2013-01-01
Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horton, Mary Louise; And Others
Information has been lacking as to what characterizes families who show low nutritional knowledge regarding proper foods for their diets, and what characterizes those families who tend to increase in knowledge the most as a result of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Extension Program. This study provides such information. Its purpose was to…
Thiele, Ines; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Steeb, Benjamin; Fankam, Guy; Allen, Douglas K.; Bazzani, Susanna; Charusanti, Pep; Chen, Feng-Chi; Fleming, Ronan MT; Hsiung, Chao A.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid CJ; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Marchal, Kathleen; Mo, Monica L.; Özdemir, Emre; Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer L.; Shin, Sook-Il; Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Sara; Steinmann, Jonas; Sudarsan, Suresh; Swainston, Neil; Thijs, Inge M.; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Bumann, Dirk
2011-01-01
Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Finally, taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.
Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan
2008-01-01
Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lince, Ranak
2016-01-01
Mathematical ability of students creative thinking is a component that must be mastered by the student. Mathematical creative thinking plays an important role, both in solving the problem and well, even in high school students. Therefore, efforts are needed to convey ideas in mathematics. But the reality is not yet developed the ability to…
Finding the Sweet Spot: Network Structures and Processes for Increased Knowledge Mobilization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Briscoe, Patricia; Pollock, Katina; Campbell, Carol; Carr-Harris, Shasta
2015-01-01
The use of networks in public education is one of many knowledge mobilization (KMb) strategies utilized to promote evidence-based research into practice. However, challenges exist in the ability to mobilize knowledge through networks. The purpose of this paper is to explore how networks work. Data were collected from virtual discussions for an…
Hernandez, Maria Y; Mejia, Yesenia; Mayer, Doe; Lopez, Steven R
2016-12-01
Narrative communication is effective in increasing public awareness while generating dialogue about varied health topics. The current study utilized narrative communication in the form of a 15-minute motivational film titled La CLAve to help Latinos recognize symptoms of psychosis and begin a discussion about serious mental illness. The study aimed to explore the participants' response to the film and whether the film led to further dialogue about psychosis. Four focus groups were conducted with 40 Spanish-speaking participants, mostly foreign-born Latinas, with a mean age of 49 years. Results indicate that participants engaged with the film as reflected in their ability to recall the storyline in detail. Reports of psychosis knowledge gains included recognition of key symptoms, such as hallucinations and disorganized speech. Participants attributed symptoms of psychosis, observed in a film character, to social stressors and other previously constructed views of mental illness. Many participants discussed the content of the film within their immediate social networks. Other findings include discussions of key barriers and facilitators to seeking mental health treatment among Latino families, such as denial and family support. Results suggest that narrative films offer a promising strategy to stimulate dialogue about serious mental illness among Latinos.
Peyrot, M; Alperstein, N M; Van Doren, D; Poli, L G
1998-01-01
This study examines the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising on prescription drug knowledge and the requesting behavior of consumers. The authors developed and tested a conceptual model of prescription drug knowledge and requests. Consumers' belief that drug advertising can educate them was associated with a greater amount of drug knowledge, and the belief they would upset physicians by asking for specific drugs was associated with less knowledge. The belief that drug advertising reduces prices was associated with greater probability of drug requests, and the belief that physicians should be the sole source of drug information was associated with lesser probability of request. Preference for generic drugs was associated with a lesser likelihood of requesting a specific drug. Media exposure and drug advertising awareness were associated with higher drug knowledge and a greater probability of drug requesting.
Petermann, Heike
2011-04-01
Since the middle of the 19th century medical knowledge was increasing enormously. According to this differentiation medical specialisation was necessary and began at the Deutschen Ärztetag 1924. The recommendation for a specialist for anaesthesia was fulfilled with the introduction of the Facharzt für Anästhesie. The increasing knowledge stands in correlation to the specialization, but not with the slow installation of Anaesthesia as an independent speciality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kersting, Nicole B.; Sutton, Taliesin; Kalinec-Craig, Crystal; Stoehr, Kathleen Jablon; Heshmati, Saeideh; Lozano, Guadalupe; Stigler, James W.
2016-01-01
In this article we report further explorations of the classroom video analysis instrument (CVA), a measure of usable teacher knowledge based on scoring teachers' written analyses of classroom video clips. Like other researchers, our work thus far has attempted to identify and measure separable components of teacher knowledge. In this study we take…
Teaching Mathematics That Addresses Learners' Multiple Intelligences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gouws, E.; Dicker, A-M.
2011-01-01
To meet the demands of our highly technological and globally competitive society, it is becoming increasingly important for all learners in South Africa to obtain skills and knowledge in mathematics. However, South Africa performed the worst of all the countries who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS).…
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Denizhan, Yagmur; Hester, Robert
2013-01-01
It is well known that renal nerves directly affect renal vascular resistance, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renin secretion. Inhibition of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) decreases renal vascular resistance, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renin secretion, leading to an increase in sodium excretion. Although several studies show that inhibition of RSNA promotes sodium excretion during an acute blood volume expansion, there is limited research relating to the importance of RSNA inhibition that contributes to sodium homeostasis during a long-term increase in sodium intake. Therefore, to dissect the underlying mechanisms of sodium excretion, a mathematical model of a cardiovascular system consisting of two kidneys, each with an independent RSNA, was developed. Simulations were performed to determine the responses of RSNA and sodium excretion to an increased sodium intake. In these simulations, RSNA in the left kidney was fixed at its normal steady-state value, while RSNA in the contralateral kidney was allowed to change normally in response to the increased sodium intake. The results demonstrate that the fixed-RSNA kidney excretes less sodium than the intact-RSNA collateral kidney. Because each kidney is exposed to the same arterial pressure and circulatory hormones, the impaired sodium excretion in the absence of RSNA inhibition supports the hypothesis that RSNA inhibition contributes to natriuresis in response to a long-term increase in sodium intake. PMID:24285363
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niess, Margaret L.; van Zee, Emily H.; Gillow-Wiles, Henry
2011-01-01
Inservice teachers need ways to gain an integrated knowledge of content, pedagogy, and technologies that reflects new ways of teaching and learning in the 21st century. This interpretive study examined inservice K-8 teachers' growth in their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) toward technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) in an online…
Mathematical Analysis of Space Radiator Segmenting for Increased Reliability and Reduced Mass
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, Albert J.
2001-01-01
Spacecraft for long duration deep space missions will need to be designed to survive micrometeoroid bombardment of their surfaces some of which may actually be punctured. To avoid loss of the entire mission the damage due to such punctures must be limited to small, localized areas. This is especially true for power system radiators, which necessarily feature large surface areas to reject heat at relatively low temperature to the space environment by thermal radiation. It may be intuitively obvious that if a space radiator is composed of a large number of independently operating segments, such as heat pipes, a random micrometeoroid puncture will result only in the loss of the punctured segment, and not the entire radiator. Due to the redundancy achieved by independently operating segments, the wall thickness and consequently the weight of such segments can be drastically reduced. Probability theory is used to estimate the magnitude of such weight reductions as the number of segments is increased. An analysis of relevant parameter values required for minimum mass segmented radiators is also included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffin, Sharon
2009-01-01
Using Central Conceptual Structure theory as an heuristic, learning sequences in the acquisition of number knowledge are described in three forms that bridge theory and practice: as a four-stage theoretical progression, as items on a developmental test created to test the theoretical progression, and as learning objectives in a curriculum designed…
Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment
Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.
2013-02-15
Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning
Students as Mathematics Consultants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Jennifer L.
2013-01-01
If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Ho-Yuan; Jang, Syh-Jong
2013-01-01
This study highlights trends and features of E-books and their versatility of this tool in elementary educational settings. There has been little quantitative research employed to examine teachers' reasons for using or not using E-books. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school mathematics and science teachers' reasons for using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
2001-01-01
The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education (ENC) helps teachers by offering a broad assortment of services to enable them to quickly locate educational resources. This theme issue of the serial "ENC Focus" is designed to give educators information on curriculum resources available for teaching math and science in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boakes, Norma J.
2009-01-01
Within the study of geometry in the middle school curriculum is the natural development of students' spatial visualization, the ability to visualize two- and three-dimensional objects. The national mathematics standards call specifically for the development of such skills through hands-on experiences. A commonly accepted method is through the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Benken, Babette M.
2013-01-01
This paper examines upper elementary and middle school teachers' learning of mathematics and science content, how their perceptions of their disciplines and learning of that discipline developed through content-rich learning experiences, and the differences and commonalities of the teachers' learning experiences relative to content domain. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.
2013-01-01
While recent national and international assessments have shown mathematical progress being made by US students, little to no gains are evident in the areas of geometry and measurement. These reports also suggest that practicing teachers have traditionally had few opportunities to engage in content learning around topics in geometry and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodward, George; Galagedera, Don
2006-01-01
A model incorporating prerequisite mathematics performance and other variables deemed to be associated with learning elementary statistics (ES) is developed. The relationship between ES performance and the explanatory variables is well represented by the logistics form. Aptitude, effort and motivation are the only significant explanatory variables…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paddack, Megan
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe how middle school mathematics teachers "make meaning" of proofs and the process of proving in the context of their classroom practices. A framework of "making meaning," created by the researcher, guided the data collection and analysis phases of the study. This framework…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Symington, David; Mackay, Lindsay
1991-12-01
This paper describes a study of primary teacher educators reaction to those aspects of the Discipline Review of Teacher Education in Mathematics and Science dealing with early childhood and primary pre-service teacher education. Interviews with two of the authors of the Review are also reported.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.
2017-01-01
Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brinson, Jesse A.; Brew, Leah; Denby, Ramona
2008-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe a classroom approach for training counseling students in the area of cross-cultural competence. The authors describe real scenarios that form the foundation for an intensive classroom discussion and lecture format regarding cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pianta, Robert C.; Hitz, Randy; West, Blake
2010-01-01
This is the second of two reports commissioned by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) intended to address the dire need for teacher preparation policy and programs to reflect recent advances in scientific knowledge of child and adolescent development. In the first report, "Principles and Exemplars for…
Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent
2014-01-01
Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane
2015-01-01
College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…
Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine
2013-01-01
Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Barry, Carol
2011-01-01
For over a decade, professional learning communities (PLCs) have been touted as an effective way to build upon the knowledge and skills of experienced teachers, yet much of the evidence base is derived from self-reports by practitioners. Although several generations of school reform (the standards movement, No Child Left Behind, and now the Common…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruce, Catherine D.; Ross, John A.
2008-01-01
This study examined the effects of peer coaching on mathematics teaching practices and teacher beliefs about their capacity to have an impact on student learning. Twelve teachers in grades 3 and 6 participated in a brief but intensive professional development program over six months. The program focused on effective mathematics teaching strategies…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Wolff-Michael
2014-01-01
Traditional (e.g., constructivist) accounts of knowledge ground its origin in the "intentional construction" on the part of the learner. Such accounts are blind to the fact that learners, by the fact that they do not know the knowledge to be learned, cannot orient toward it as an object to be constructed. In this study, I provide a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNeil, Celethia Keith
2015-01-01
This study characterizes teaching practices that involve students' funds of knowledge ([FoK], Gonzalez, 1995; Moll, 1992; Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992). FoK may be defined as bodies of knowledge, skills, language, and experiences found in students' homes and communities for potential use in formal learning. I investigated how high…
Sentences with core knowledge violations increase the size of N400 among paranormal believers.
Lindeman, Marjaana; Cederström, Sebastian; Simola, Petteri; Simula, Anni; Ollikainen, Sara; Riekki, Tapani
2008-01-01
A major problem in research on paranormal beliefs is that the concept of "paranormality" remains to be adequately defined. The aim of this study was to empirically justify the following definition: paranormal beliefs are beliefs in physical, biological, or psychological phenomena that contain core ontological attributes of one of the other two categories [e.g., a stone (physical) having thoughts (psychological)]. We hypothesized that individuals who believe in paranormal phenomena are slower in understanding whether sentences with core knowledge violations are literally true than skeptics, and that this difference would be reflected by a more negative N400. Ten believers and 10 skeptics (six men, age range 23-49) participated in the study. Event-related potentials (N400) were recorded as the participants read 210 three-word Finnish sentences, of which 70 were normal ("The house has a history"), 70 were anomalies ("The house writes its history") and 70 included violations of core knowledge ("The house knows its history"). The participants were presented with a question that contextualized the sentences: "Is this sentence literally true?" While the N400 effects were similar for normal and anomalous sentences among the believers and the skeptics, a more negative N400 effect was found among the believers than among the skeptics for sentences with core knowledge violations. The results support the new definition of "paranormality", because participants who believed in paranormal phenomena appeared to find it more difficult to construct a reasonable interpretation of the sentences with core knowledge violations than the skeptics did as indicated by the N400.
Obulaney, Patricia A; Gilliland, Irene; Cassells, Holly
2016-01-01
This evidence-based initiative assessed the impact of language-appropriate cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) prevention education on knowledge level and HPV vaccine uptake among mothers and their daughters. Forty-one mother/daughter dyads from a low-cost, faith-based clinic for the uninsured in southeastern Texas participated in the nurse practitioner-led cervical cancer prevention educational sessions. Spanish was the primary language for the majority of participating mothers. The project produced appreciable knowledge increase and HPV vaccine uptake intent. Aggregate HPV vaccine uptake numbers for the clinic increased considerably compared to HPV vaccine administration prior to educational intervention.
Salazar, A; Howells, J
2000-01-01
This paper explores the specific trend and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry regarding the exploitation of Internet e-commerce technology and virtual organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage. There are two important facets of the current trend. One is the rapid development of a complex network of alliances between the established pharmaceutical companies and the specialised biotechnology company start-ups. The other is the rapid growth of internet e-commerce companies dedicated to developing specialised technological platforms for acquiring and selling genetic and biochemical knowledge. The underlying challenge is how big pharmaceutical companies can emulate some of the innovation processes of smaller biotechnology company start-ups, and how they can appropriate and applied new technological knowledge on the development of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in order to retain competitive advantage need to continuously monitor all aspects of knowledge management with regard to the R&D and manufacturing process (as well as customer management and marketing). Technological change and organisational restructuring should be aimed at boosting the capacity of large firms to innovate rapidly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doukakis, Spyros; Koilias, Christos; Chionidou-Moskofoglou, Maria
During the 2008-2009 spring semester, 25 fourth-year undergraduate primary teachers attended the compulsory course "Teaching Mathematics-Practicum Phase". The course was organised so as to incorporate ICT and special mathematical scenarios in the teaching approaches of undergraduate primary teachers. This article presents course satisfaction of participants as found in the research study. A set of powerful ordinal regression methods has been applied on a survey database. The most important results focus on the determination of the course's weak and strong points, according to the MUSA methodology. The results show a high satisfaction level from the course. The global satisfaction level reaches 98% whereas partial (per criterion) satisfaction levels range from 90% to 97%, the lowest rate corresponding to the theoretical component of the course. The findings raise a number of research questions regarding ICT integration in undergraduate primary teachers' teaching practice.
Result-indistinguishable zero-knowledge proofs: Increased power and constant-round protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Crescenzo, Giovanni; Sakurai, Kouichi; Yung, Moti
We investigate result-indistinguishable perfect zero-knowledge proof systems [8] for "transferring the decision of whether the membership of an input in a language is true or not". Previously only a single number-theoretic language was known to have such a proof system and possible extensions were left as an open question. We show that all known random self-reducible languages (e.g., graph isomorphism, quadratic residuosity, discrete log) and compositions over them have such systems. We also consider techniques for constant-round protocols for these languages in this model, and obtain a 5 round protocol scheme.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium...
2010-01-01
Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease) and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published. PMID:20205874
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richman, Alice R.; Maddy, LaDonna; Torres, Essie; Goldberg, Ellen J.
2016-01-01
Objective: To evaluate an intervention aimed at increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion of the 3-dose series and knowledge. Participants: Two hundred sixty-four male and female US college students 18-26 years old who were receiving HPV vaccine dose 1. Methods: Students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrara, Margaret M.
2009-01-01
This study describes various strategies used by a university educator to integrate parent involvement curriculum into pre-existing teacher preparation courses. This curriculum infusion was not only effective in increasing preservice teacher knowledge but also in raising course instructors' level of awareness about the importance and necessity of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev
2012-01-01
Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearson, Elissa; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla
2011-01-01
Many animals are currently facing extinction. Conservation education which highlights the impacts of our behaviour on other species survival is crucial. This study provides evidence for the use of visual media to increase knowledge, attitudes and conservation behaviours regarding the highly endangered orangutan. University students (n = 126) were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Portnoi, Lisette; Guichard, Jean; Lallemand, Noelle
2004-01-01
This paper reports a study that used a quasi-experimental design to examine if a career intervention designed to increase self-knowledge enabled self-discovery or self-construction, determined by the structure of the personality inventory used. This study, situated within the theoretical model of Markus's research in self-schemata (1977), used…
Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
2015-04-01
The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children's effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter-word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Houser, Chris; Garcia, Sonia; Torres, Janet
2015-01-01
Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means of increasing awareness of, and developing interest in, the geosciences and other science, technology, engineering, and math programs. We describe and report the preliminary results of a 1-wk Geosciences Exploration Summer Program in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M…
Davis, Jonathon M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Giedd, Jay; Sikela, James M
2015-01-01
DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6-11 (R (2) = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26-33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R (2) = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yilmaz, Ismail
2012-01-01
The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vos, Pauline
2009-01-01
When studying correlations, how do the three bivariate correlation coefficients between three variables relate? After transforming Pearson's correlation coefficient r into a Euclidean distance, undergraduate students can tackle this problem using their secondary school knowledge of geometry (Pythagoras' theorem and similarity of triangles).…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kildan, Abdullah Oguzhan; Incikabi, Lutfi
2015-01-01
This study aimed to present early childhood teacher candidates' experiences preparing digital stories and to reveal the resulting changes, if any, in self-reported technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). This study was quasi-experimental and indicated that teacher candidates' evaluations of digital storytelling were affected by their…
Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu
2016-02-25
In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.
Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu
2016-01-01
In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163
Single Point Incremental Forming to increase material knowledge and production flexibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habraken, A. M.
2016-08-01
listed however the lecture will be more focused on the use of SPIF to identify material parameters of well-chosen constitutive law. Results of FE simulations with damage models will be investigated to better understand the relation between the particular stress and strain states in the material during SPIF and the material degradation leading to localization or fracture. Last but not least, as industrial world does not wait that academic scientists provide a deep and total understanding on how it works, to use interesting processes, the lecture will review some applications. Examples in fields as different as automotive guard, engine heat shield, gas turbine, electronic sensor, shower basin, medical component (patient-fitted organic shapes) and architecture demonstrate that the integration of SPIF within the industry is more and more a reality. Note that this plenary lecture is the result of the research performed by the author in the University of Liege (Belgium) and in Aveiro (Portugal) with the team of R. de Souza during PhD theses of C. Henrard, J. Sena and C. Guzman and different research projects. It is also a synthesis of the knowledge gathered during her interactions with many research teams such as the ones of J.R. Duflou from KU Leuven in Belgium, J. Cao from Northwestern University in USA, M. Bambach in BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg in Germany, J. Jeswiet from Queen's University, Kingston, Canada who are currently working together on a state-of-the-art paper. The micro SPIF knowledge relies on contacts with S. Thibaud from the University of Franche Comte.
Mathematics Case Methods Project.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, Carne S.
1998-01-01
Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanders, Jo
From 1990 to 1993, 200 educators, primarily classroom teachers of computers, mathematics, and science, participated in the Computer Equity Expert Project. After a seminar on gender equity in these fields, the educators returned to their schools and taught workshops to their colleagues. Together, workshop participants and their colleagues developed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi
2003-01-01
This article discusses the lack of preparation teachers of students with visual impairments have in the Nemeth Code (the Braille code for mathematics). It then describes a Windows-based tutorial for sighted persons to learn the Nemeth Code, a tutorial for teachers with blindness, and how to access the tutorials. (Contains 10 references.) (CR)
Translations toward Connected Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza
2010-01-01
The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…
Jordan, Scott A.; Cunningham, David G.; Marles, Robin J.
2010-03-01
Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.
Classroom Experience about Cartooning as Assessment in Pre-Service Mathematics Content Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cho, Hoyun; Osborne, Carolyn; Sanders, Tobie
2015-01-01
Elementary Education pre-service teachers are noted for disliking and even fearing mathematics, so a teaching strategy that increases their enjoyment of mathematics learning must be a powerful one, indeed. When the same strategy can also support problem posing and assess mathematical knowledge and reasoning, providing an occasional alternative to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nickerson, Susan D.; Moriarty, Gail
2005-01-01
We describe an urban school initiative aimed at teachers' professional development with the goal of increasing their mathematics content knowledge and helping them improve their practice. In the lowest performing schools, mathematics specialists were employed to teach only mathematics in upper-elementary grades (ages 9-12). One aspect of this…
Rios-Ellis, Britt; Espinoza, Lilia; Bird, Mara; Garcia, Melawhy; D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Bellamy, Laura; Scolari, Rosana
2010-08-01
Latinos are less likely to be aware of their HIV seropositivity than African Americans and Whites. 'Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba' is a culturally and linguistically-sensitive HIV/AIDS prevention and testing program targeting Latino families. Using community-based participatory research techniques, Spanish-speaking bicultural community health workers helped develop and then used an educational flip chart and materials to conduct outreach and HIV prevention education in diverse settings. The intervention was created to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, to improve communication regarding sexual risk, and to augment intentions to use condoms and test for HIV. A secondary purpose was to decrease HIV-related stigma by improving knowledge about transmission and reducing homophobia. Participants demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge, intention to practice safer sex and communicate sexual risk to partner(s), and intention to test for HIV. Improvements were also found in self-reported comfort levels when interacting with and caring for the HIV positive, thus decreasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, G. W.
2014-12-01
Conflict minerals, including their uses and methods of extraction, are associated with significant societal and environmental issues in today's world. Minerals such as columbite-tantalite (also referred to as COLTAN), wolframite, cassiterite and gold are important in electronics manufacturing and have a wide variety of other usages. Mining practices are frequently unsustainable and have significant impacts on the environment; moreover, in many locations, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo—the epicenter of the conflict mineral trade—major human rights violations are associated with the extraction and production of these minerals. Because conflict minerals represent a relatively new issue, students in geology classes are frequently unfamiliar with the topic and commonly have little understanding of the concerns. In some cases they are completely unaware of the issues. In an introductory mineralogy class at the University of California, San Diego I have introduced a content module into my otherwise traditional curriculum that introduces students to conflict minerals, explains the issues, and delineates the problems our society will face with the continued uses of these natural resources. Most significantly, an assignment has been created and implemented in class that is paired with the content module and is designed to enhance and reinforce student learning. Its goal is to increase awareness of the societal and environmental issues surrounding conflict minerals. Initial results suggest (based on pre and post-tests) that our students have learned significantly from the combination of content, exercise, and assessment and that they are much better informed on the issues of conflict minerals. This model, including the exercise, can be modified and adapted for other introductory classes and learning settings.
Nicholson Thomas, Eleanor; Edwards, Lloyd; McArdle, Paul
2017-01-01
Patients frequently leave hospital uninformed about the details of their hospital stay with studies showing that only 59.9% of patients are able to accurately state their diagnosis and ongoing management after discharge. 1 2 This places patients at a higher risk of complications. Educating patients by providing them with accurate and understandable information enables them to take greater control, potentially reducing readmission rates, and unplanned visits to secondary services whilst providing safer care and improving patient satisfaction. 3 4 We wished to investigate whether through a simple intervention, we could improve the understanding and retention of key pieces of clinical information in those patients recently admitted to hospital. A leaflet was designed to trigger patients to ask questions about key aspects of their stay. This was then given to inpatients who were interviewed two weeks later using telephone follow up to assess their understanding of their hospital admission. Patients were asked about their diagnosis, new medications, likely complications, follow up arrangements and recommended points of contact in case of difficulty. Sequential modifications were made using PDSA cycles to maximise the impact and benefit of the process. Baseline data revealed that only 77% of patients could describe their diagnosis and only 27% of patients knew details about their new medications. After the leaflet intervention these figures improved to 100% and 71% respectively. Too often patients are unaware about what happens to them whilst in hospital and are discharged unsafely and dissatisfied as a result. A simple intervention such as a leaflet prompting patients to ask questions and take responsibility for their health can make a difference in potentially increasing patient understanding and thereby reducing risk. PMID:28321297
Maton, Kenneth I; Pollard, Shauna A; McDougall Weise, Tatiana V; Hrabowski, Freeman A
2012-01-01
The Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County is widely viewed as a national model of a program that enhances the number of underrepresented minority students who pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhDs. The current article provides an overview of the program and the institution-wide change process that led to its development, as well as a summary of key outcome and process evaluation research findings. African American Meyerhoff students are 5× more likely than comparison students to pursue a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhD. Program components viewed by the students as most beneficial include financial scholarship, being a part of the Meyerhoff Program community, the Summer Bridge program, study groups, and summer research. Qualitative findings from interviews and focus groups demonstrate the importance of the Meyerhoff Program in creating a sense of belonging and a shared identity, encouraging professional development, and emphasizing the importance of academic skills. Among Meyerhoff students, several precollege and college factors have emerged as predictors of successful entrance into a PhD program in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, including precollege research excitement, precollege intrinsic math/science motivation, number of summer research experiences during college, and college grade point average. Limitations of the research to date are noted, and directions for future research are proposed.
Evaluating the Effects of Mastery Learning in Postsecondary Developmental Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradley, Kirk
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine which academic and affective student factors were significant to student success in a mastery learning program in developmental mathematics and to determine if the mastery learning program led to increased mathematical knowledge retention and success in the subsequent math course. The first phase of the…
MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari L; Nunn, Amy; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Operario, Don
2015-12-01
Attention to transgender health has dramatically increased in the U.S. Scientific knowledge gaps in empirical research, however, remain and act as barriers to achieving transgender-related health equity. We conducted a search using PubMed and PsycINFO to identify gaps in empirical, peer-reviewed publications related to adult transgender health in the U.S. between 1981 and 2013. We synthesized these findings and commented on opportunities for improving health research. Reducing health disparities and advancing transgender-related health equity requires greater investment in research that addresses current gaps to more comprehensively respond to the diverse health needs of transgender people.
Reisner, Sari L.; Nunn, Amy; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Operario, Don
2015-01-01
Abstract Attention to transgender health has dramatically increased in the U.S. Scientific knowledge gaps in empirical research, however, remain and act as barriers to achieving transgender-related health equity. We conducted a search using PubMed and PsycINFO to identify gaps in empirical, peer-reviewed publications related to adult transgender health in the U.S. between 1981 and 2013. We synthesized these findings and commented on opportunities for improving health research. Reducing health disparities and advancing transgender-related health equity requires greater investment in research that addresses current gaps to more comprehensively respond to the diverse health needs of transgender people. PMID:26788768
2003-06-01
measure of value and Knowledge Management has become a primary method of creating value from an otherwise intangible asset (Krishna, 2000; Housel and...value of knowledge that is otherwise an intangible asset (Krishna, 2000). However, this challenge is quite difficult since traditional methods of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lo, Jane-Jane; And Others
Calls for increased student involvement in mathematics classroom learning situations are due primarily to the recognition that a traditional lecture/demonstration format within school mathematics instruction is not effective in fostering and promoting students' problem-solving abilities, mathematical reasoning power, and mathematical communication…
Celebrating Mathematics All Year 'Round
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daire, Sandra Arguelles
2010-01-01
Celebrating mathematics should be a yearlong event in which students in mathematics classes of all levels engage in mathematics activities and competitions that will encourage growth in mathematical knowledge, enthusiasm for the subject, and collaboration among students of different abilities and backgrounds. Pi Day and Pi Week festivities--a good…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garet, Michael S.; Heppen, Jessica B.; Walters, Kirk; Parkinson, Julia; Smith, Toni M.; Song, Mengli; Garrett, Rachel; Yang, Rui; Borman, Geoffrey D.
2016-01-01
Recent results from national and international assessments continue to show a need for improvement in math achievement among U.S. students. For example, 60 per-cent of grade 4 students scored below the proficient level on the 2015 National Assessment of Educational Progress. In an era of increasingly rigorous state standards, teachers at all grade…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.
This hearing was held to examine the current state of mathematics, science, and engineering education at the undergraduate level by focusing on the demands of a knowledge-based economy. Contents include opening statements by Representative Nick Smith, Chairman, Subcommittee on Research, Committee in Science, U.S. House of Representatives;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Kathleen Michelle
2012-01-01
The use of the history of mathematics in teaching has long been considered a tool for enriching students' mathematical learning. However, in the USA few, if any, research efforts have investigated how the study of history of mathematics contributes to a person's mathematical knowledge for teaching. In this article, I present the results of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bettencourt, Connie Lynn
2009-01-01
Studies report that U.S. students rank among the lowest in the area of mathematical knowledge of all industrialized countries. Schools in the United States are producing graduates ill-prepared to be successful at jobs which require mathematical competency. To increase mathematical understanding, this study examined the inclusion of writing in…
Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Wright, Marcie S.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Murithi, Lydia K.; Coney, PonJola
2016-01-01
Introduction: Health disparities can negatively impact subsets of the population who have systematically experienced greater socioeconomic obstacles to health. For example, health disparities between ethnic and racial groups continue to grow due to the widening gap in large declines in infant and fetal mortality among Caucasians compared to Black non-Hispanic or African Americans. According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to determine if the computer-based educational modules related to preterm birth health literacy and health disparity with a pre-test and post-test can effectively increase health knowledge of our participants in targeted underserved communities within the Richmond-metro area. Methods: This was a pilot study in the Richmond-Metro area. Participants were required to be over the age of 18, and had to electronically give consent. Descriptive statistics, means and standard deviations, and Paired t-tests were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results: There were 140 participants in the pilot study. P <.05 was set as significant and all four modules had a P <.000. The males were not significant with modules: Let’s Talk Patient & Provider Communication P <.132 and It Takes a Village P <.066. Preterm birth status yes all of the findings were statistically significant P<.000. Preterm birth status no Let’s Talk Patients & Provider Communication was not significant P <.106. Conclusion: Overall, researchers found that with a strong research methodology and strong content relevant to the community, the participants demonstrated an increase in their knowledge in health literacy and preterm birth. PMID:26234992
Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Hernandez, Paul R; Simmons, Sarah L; Dolan, Erin L
2016-01-01
National efforts to transform undergraduate biology education call for research experiences to be an integral component of learning for all students. Course-based undergraduate research experiences, or CUREs, have been championed for engaging students in research at a scale that is not possible through apprenticeships in faculty research laboratories. Yet there are few if any studies that examine the long-term effects of participating in CUREs on desired student outcomes, such as graduating from college and completing a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major. One CURE program, the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI), has engaged thousands of first-year undergraduates over the past decade. Using propensity score-matching to control for student-level differences, we tested the effect of participating in FRI on students' probability of graduating with a STEM degree, probability of graduating within 6 yr, and grade point average (GPA) at graduation. Students who completed all three semesters of FRI were significantly more likely than their non-FRI peers to earn a STEM degree and graduate within 6 yr. FRI had no significant effect on students' GPAs at graduation. The effects were similar for diverse students. These results provide the most robust and best-controlled evidence to date to support calls for early involvement of undergraduates in research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazizova, O. V.; Malafeyev, A. V.; Kondrashova, Y. N.
2016-04-01
The regulations of the energy saving policy, being implemented at present, require an enhanced reliability of the power supply systems and operations of the motive loading, actuating machines and mechanisms, for the purpose of reduction of power inputs under operating emergency conditions. The development of industrial units of the distributed generation enables putting the generators, equipped with motors of the comparable power, into the operation, which is non-parallel to a power system. To provide static stability under such conditions the complex approach is required since it allows estimating the stability of the generators and the load during parallel and non-parallel operations with the power system and a complex circuit configuration. The mathematical models of units of the distributed generation and motive loading considering the character of the given mechanism are developed. They are implemented in the software package allowing the operative-dispatch personnel of the industrial power stations to forecast similar modes and develop special measures to provide a stable operation of electrical machines.
Rodenbusch, Stacia E.; Hernandez, Paul R.; Simmons, Sarah L.; Dolan, Erin L.
2016-01-01
National efforts to transform undergraduate biology education call for research experiences to be an integral component of learning for all students. Course-based undergraduate research experiences, or CUREs, have been championed for engaging students in research at a scale that is not possible through apprenticeships in faculty research laboratories. Yet there are few if any studies that examine the long-term effects of participating in CUREs on desired student outcomes, such as graduating from college and completing a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major. One CURE program, the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI), has engaged thousands of first-year undergraduates over the past decade. Using propensity score–matching to control for student-level differences, we tested the effect of participating in FRI on students’ probability of graduating with a STEM degree, probability of graduating within 6 yr, and grade point average (GPA) at graduation. Students who completed all three semesters of FRI were significantly more likely than their non-FRI peers to earn a STEM degree and graduate within 6 yr. FRI had no significant effect on students’ GPAs at graduation. The effects were similar for diverse students. These results provide the most robust and best-controlled evidence to date to support calls for early involvement of undergraduates in research. PMID:27252296
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKenzie, Karen
2013-01-01
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hebert, Michael A.; Powell, Sarah R.
2016-01-01
Increasingly, students are expected to write about mathematics. Mathematics writing may be informal (e.g., journals, exit slips) or formal (e.g., writing prompts on high-stakes mathematics assessments). In order to develop an effective mathematics-writing intervention, research needs to be conducted on how students organize mathematics writing and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fluellen, Jerry
This paper describes a mathematics-centered thematic unit for 5th graders which organizes all the topics in the Houghton Mifflin Mathematics Program by combining critical thinking and whole language frameworks to help students retain, understand, and make active use of knowledge within and across domains. The unit connects inquiry, goals, critical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Black, Bruce J.; Haynes, Cynthia; Schrock, Denny; Duerfeldt, Kevin; Litchfield, Ruth
2016-01-01
Gardening and nutrition lessons for children can affect knowledge, actions, and behaviors that support more healthful lifestyles. The objective of the study described in this article was to determine the effectiveness of a master gardener--led education program for youth at a week-long summer camp in Iowa. Garden knowledge was assessed via a…
Using Mathematics in Science: Working with Your Mathematics Department
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyon, Steve
2014-01-01
Changes to the mathematics and science curriculums are designed to increase rigour in mathematics, and place greater emphasis on mathematical content in science subjects at key stages 3, 4 and 5 (ages 11-18). One way to meet the growing challenge of providing increased emphasis on mathematics in the science curriculum is greater collaboration…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaboardi, M.; Parker, W.; Rodriguez, D.
2010-12-01
Short-term field research projects were embedded into a two-week, Mathematics and Science Partnership-funded, teacher institute devoted to increasing content knowledge about the physical basis of climate change. Teams of four teachers were encouraged to ask any research question related to weather or climate, and create a data collection method that they thought might help answer their question. They were provided with a range of measurement devices, from simple immersible thermometers to light sensors, probeware, and carbon dioxide concentration sensors. Teams were expected to design data collection sites in a middle-school setting, present site designs to their peers, collect data, present initial results, and participate in peer-review about site design and data collected. Teachers were encouraged to generate research questions that could be replicated with their students at their schools. Design complexity ranged widely with some teachers deliberately choosing to model sites their students might design and others making full use of more sophisticated technology. On the third day of the institute, each group presented their research question and setup for data collection in poster format. Large gaps in understanding about testable questions and effective data collection methods were apparent. Instead of addressing errors as groups presented, facilitators encouraged participants to explore each groups’ presentation and make comments using post-it notes. Participants were then encouraged to respond to the comments and consider modifying their questions, site designs, or data collection methods. Teams gathered data up to three times daily and were fully responsible for choosing means of data organization; by the second week most were using and becoming familiar with Microsoft Excel. Final presentations were in Microsoft PowerPoint. Teams were expected to graphically report data, present possible interpretations, and discuss any problems related to their initial
Assessment and Learning of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leder, Gilah C., Ed.
This book addresses the link between student learning of mathematics, the teaching method adopted in the mathematics classroom, and the assessment procedures used to determine and measure student knowledge. Fifteen chapters address issues that include a review of different models of mathematics learning and assessment practices, three contrasting…
Collaboration in the Mathematical Community
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bagnato, Robert A.
1974-01-01
Proliferation of mathematical knowledge prohibits individual reduplication of all results and causes mathematicians to accept much on faith. To convey the spirit of the mathematical community, and provide maximum content coverage, instruction should allow students to accept some theorems without proof. Students would then find mathematics less…
Mathematics in the Early Years.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Copley, Juanita V., Ed.
Noting that young children are capable of surprisingly complex forms of mathematical thinking and learning, this book presents a collection of articles depicting children discovering mathematical ideas, teachers fostering students' informal mathematical knowledge, adults asking questions and listening to answers, and researchers examining…
Fort Benton Mathematics Curriculum Outline.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fort Benton Public Schools, MT.
The mathematics curriculum of the Fort Benton school system was designed with funds under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to present all students with a basic knowledge of mathematics and to provide the gifted child with an opportunity to develop to the best of his ability the mathematical skills and theory demanded by a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cetorelli, Nancy; And Others
The purpose of this project is to help teachers of mathematics use the computer to aid the teaching and learning of many mathematical concepts in a meaningful way. To this end, commercially available software packages are described which are versatile, cost effective, and easy to use. A review and several lessons, each including homework…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Simon J.
2014-01-01
The Faculty of Engineering at The University of Nottingham, UK, has developed interdisciplinary, hands-on workshops for primary schools that introduce space technology, its relevance to everyday life and the importance of science, technology, engineering and maths. The workshop activities for 7-11 year olds highlight the roles that space and satellite technology play in observing and monitoring the Earth's biosphere as well as being vital to communications in the modern digital world. The programme also provides links to 'how science works', the environment and citizenship and uses pixel art through the medium of digital photography to demonstrate the importance of maths in a novel and unconventional manner. The interactive programme of activities provides learners with an opportunity to meet 'real' scientists and engineers, with one of the key messages from the day being that anyone can become involved in science and engineering whatever their ability or subject of interest. The methodology introduces the role of scientists and engineers using space technology themes, but it could easily be adapted for use with any inspirational topic. Analysis of learners' perceptions of science, technology, engineering and maths before and after participating in ENGage showed very positive and significant changes in their attitudes to these subjects and an increase in the number of children thinking they would be interested and capable in pursuing a career in science and engineering. This paper provides an overview of the activities, the methodology, the evaluation process and results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitfield, Frank Albert
The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.
Understanding Mathematics and Science Matters. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.; Carpenter, Thomas P., Ed.; Dremock, Fae, Ed.
2005-01-01
The research reported in this book provides reliable evidence on and knowledge about mathematics and science instruction that emphasizes student understanding--instruction consistent with the needs of students who will be citizens in an increasingly demanding technological world. The National Center for Improving Student Learning in Mathematics…
Simon, Uwe K; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas
2016-01-01
Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries' schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14-17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14-17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula.
Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas
2016-01-01
Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horner, Michelle S.; Miller, Susan Milam; Rettew, David C.; Althoff, Robert; Ehmann, Mary; Hudziak, James J.; Martin, Andres
2008-01-01
Objective: The authors assess changes in knowledge and feeling connected to the field of child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) after participation in a brief mentoring program held at two CAP conferences. Methods: Similar mentorship programs were implemented at two CAP conferences, one national (N=119 participants), one international (N=53). The…