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Sample records for mathematically reduced chemical

  1. Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ziaul Huque

    2007-08-31

    This is the final technical report for the project titled 'Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks'. The aim of the project was to develop an efficient chemistry model for combustion simulations. The reduced chemistry model was developed mathematically without the need of having extensive knowledge of the chemistry involved. To aid in the development of the model, Neural Networks (NN) was used via a new network topology known as Non-linear Principal Components Analysis (NPCA). A commonly used Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN) was modified to implement NPCA-NN. The training rate of NPCA-NN was improved with the GEneralized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) based on kernel smoothing techniques. Kernel smoothing provides a simple way of finding structure in data set without the imposition of a parametric model. The trajectory data of the reaction mechanism was generated based on the optimization techniques of genetic algorithm (GA). The NPCA-NN algorithm was then used for the reduction of Dimethyl Ether (DME) mechanism. DME is a recently discovered fuel made from natural gas, (and other feedstock such as coal, biomass, and urban wastes) which can be used in compression ignition engines as a substitute for diesel. An in-house two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was developed based on Meshfree technique and time marching solution algorithm. The project also provided valuable research experience to two graduate students.

  2. Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson Butuk

    2005-12-01

    This is an annual technical report for the work done over the last year (period ending 9/30/2005) on the project titled ''Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks''. The aim of the project is to develop an efficient chemistry model for combustion simulations. The reduced chemistry model will be developed mathematically without the need of having extensive knowledge of the chemistry involved. To aid in the development of the model, Neural Networks (NN) will be used via a new network topology know as Non-linear Principal Components Analysis (NPCA). We report on the development of a novel procedure to speed up the training of NPCA. The same procedure termed L{sub 2}Boost can be used to increase the order of approximation of the Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN). It is pointed out that GRNN is a basic procedure for the emerging mesh free CFD. Also reported is an efficient simple approach of computing the derivatives of GRNN function approximation using complex variables or the Complex Step Method (CSM). The results presented demonstrate the significance of the methods developed and will be useful in many areas of applied science and engineering.

  3. Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson Butuk

    2006-09-21

    This is an annual technical report for the work done over the last year (period ending 9/30/2005) on the project titled ''Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks''. The aim of the project is to develop an efficient chemistry model for combustion simulations. The reduced chemistry model will be developed mathematically without the need of having extensive knowledge of the chemistry involved. To aid in the development of the model, Neural Networks (NN) will be used via a new network topology know as Non-linear Principal Components Analysis (NPCA). We report on the significant development made in developing a truly meshfree computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver to be coupled to NPCA. First, the procedure of obtaining nearly analytic accurate first order derivatives using the complex step method (CSM) is extended to include computation of accurate meshfree second order derivatives via a theorem described in this report. Next, boosted generalized regression neural network (BGRNN), described in our previous report is combined with CSM and used to obtain complete solution of a hard to solve wave dominated sample second order partial differential equation (PDE): the cubic Schrodinger equation. The resulting algorithm is a significant improvement of the meshfree technique of smooth particle hydrodynamics method (SPH). It is suggested that the demonstrated meshfree technique be termed boosted smooth particle hydrodynamics method (BSPH). Some of the advantages of BSPH over other meshfree methods include; it is of higher order accuracy than SPH; compared to other meshfree methods, it is completely meshfree and does not require any background meshes; It does not involve any construction of shape function with their associated solution of possibly ill conditioned matrix equations; compared to some SPH techniques, no equation for the smoothing parameter is required; finally it is easy to program.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croteau, Joshua; Fox, William P.; Varazo, Kristofoland

    2007-01-01

    In beginning chemistry classes, students are taught a variety of techniques for balancing chemical equations. The most common method is inspection. This paper addresses using a system of linear mathematical equations to solve for the stoichiometric coefficients. Many linear algebra books carry the standard balancing of chemical equations as an…

  5. Some Chemical Applications of the 'New' Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Arthur

    1975-01-01

    Indicates how some branches of chemistry lend themselves to interpretation using a modern mathematical approach. Examples include set theory and the periodic table, matrix algebra and determinants and atomic theory, and symmetry and molecular structure. (GS)

  6. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  7. Some aspects of mathematical and chemical modeling of complex chemical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemes, I.; Botar, L.; Danoczy, E.; Vidoczy, T.; Gal, D.

    1983-01-01

    Some theoretical questions involved in the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of complex chemical process are discussed. The analysis is carried out for the homogeneous oxidation of ethylbenzene in the liquid phase. Particular attention is given to the determination of the general characteristics of chemical systems from an analysis of mathematical models developed on the basis of linear algebra.

  8. Dual photochemical replenisher system reduces chemical losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolber, J. M.

    1967-01-01

    Dual replenisher system reduces chemical losses and maintains optimum solution concentration during long nonprocessing cycles of photo processing machines. Using a single 3-position switch and solenoid control valves, the system provides instantaneous flow control to each processing tank.

  9. Reduced chemical kinetics for propane combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ying, Shuh-Jing; Nguyen, Hung Lee

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism for the combustion of propane consists of 40 chemical species and 118 elementary chemical reactions. An attempt is made to reduce the number of chemical species and elementary chemical reactions so that the computer run times and storage requirements may be greatly reduced in three-dimensional gas turbine combustion flow calculations, while maintaining accurate predictions of the propane combustion and exhaust emissions. By way of a sensitivity analysis, the species of interest and chemical reactions are classified in descending order of importance. Nineteen species are chosen, and their pressure, temperature, and concentration profiles are presented for the reduced mechanisms, which are then compared with those from the full 118 reactions. It is found that 45 reactions involving 27 species have to be kept for comparable agreement. A comparison of the results obtained from the 45 reactions to that of the full 118 shows that the pressure and temperature profiles and concentrations of C3H8, O2, N2, H2O, CO, and CO2 are within 10 percent of maximum change.

  10. Chemical Literacy Levels of Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Suat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Turkish science and mathematics teacher candidates' levels of attainment in chemical literacy. These candidates had all studied the new Turkish chemistry curriculum in high school. The sample of the study consisted of 112 students, who were first-year students in the Department of Secondary Science and…

  11. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  12. 37 CFR 1.58 - Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical and mathematical... Provisions The Application § 1.58 Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables. (a) The specification, including the claims, may contain chemical and mathematical formulae, but shall not contain drawings or...

  13. Reduced graphene oxide by chemical graphitization.

    PubMed

    Moon, In Kyu; Lee, Junghyun; Ruoff, Rodney S; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2010-09-21

    Reduced graphene oxides (RG-Os) have attracted considerable interest, given their potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits. However, very little is known regarding the chemically induced reduction method of graphene oxide (G-O) in both solution and gas phases, with the exception of the hydrazine-reducing agent, even though it is essential to use the vapour phase for the patterning of hydrophilic G-Os on prepatterned substrates and in situ reduction to hydrophobic RG-Os. In this paper, we report a novel reducing agent system (hydriodic acid with acetic acid (HI-AcOH)) that allows for an efficient, one-pot reduction of a solution-phased RG-O powder and vapour-phased RG-O (VRG-O) paper and thin film. The reducing agent system provided highly qualified RG-Os by mass production, resulting in highly conducting RG-O(HI-AcOH). Moreover, VRG-O(HI-AcOH) paper and thin films were prepared at low temperatures (40 °C) and were found to be applicable to flexible devices. This one-pot method is expected to advance research on highly conducting graphene platelets.

  14. Petri Nets - A Mathematical Formalism to Analyze Chemical Reaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Koch, Ina

    2010-12-17

    In this review we introduce and discuss Petri nets - a mathematical formalism to describe and analyze chemical reaction networks. Petri nets were developed to describe concurrency in general systems. We find most applications to technical and financial systems, but since about twenty years also in systems biology to model biochemical systems. This review aims to give a short informal introduction to the basic formalism illustrated by a chemical example, and to discuss possible applications to the analysis of chemical reaction networks, including cheminformatics. We give a short overview about qualitative as well as quantitative modeling Petri net techniques useful in systems biology, summarizing the state-of-the-art in that field and providing the main literature references. Finally, we discuss advantages and limitations of Petri nets and give an outlook to further development.

  15. Assessing chromate reduction by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria using mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lai; Liu, Yiwen; Gao, Shu-Hong; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-11-01

    Chromate (Cr (VI)) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquifers and soils, which can be reduced to its trivalent counterpart (Cr (III)), with the hazard being relieved. The coupling microbial and chemical reduction by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (IRB) is a promising approach for the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III). In this work, three mathematical models with different Cr (VI) reduction pathways were proposed and compared based on their ability to predict the performance of an IRB-based stirred-flow reactor treating Cr (VI) contaminated medium and to provide insights into the possible chemical or microbial pathways for Cr (VI) reduction in the system. The Cr (VI) reduction was considered as chemical reaction between Fe (II) and Cr (VI), direct microbial reduction by IRB and combined biotic-abiotic reduction in these three models, respectively. Model evaluation results indicated that the model incorporating both chemical and microbial Cr (VI) reductions could well describe the system performance. In contrast, the other two single-pathway models were not capable of predicting the experimental data, suggesting that both chemical and microbial pathways contributed to Cr (VI) reduction by IRB. The validity of the two-pathway model was further confirmed by an independent experimental data set with different conditions. The results further revealed that the organic carbon availability and Cr (VI) loading rates for the IRB in the system determined the relative contributions of chemical and microbial pathways to overall Cr (VI) reduction.

  16. Reducible or irreducible? Mathematical reasoning and the ontological method.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William P

    2010-01-01

    Science is often described as nothing but the practice of measurement. This perspective follows from longstanding respect for the roles mathematics and quantification have played as media through which alternative hypotheses are evaluated and experience becomes better managed. Many figures in the history of science and psychology have contributed to what has been called the "quantitative imperative," the demand that fields of study employ number and mathematics even when they do not constitute the language in which investigators think together. But what makes an area of study scientific is, of course, not the mere use of number, but communities of investigators who share common mathematical languages for exchanging quantitative and quantitative value. Such languages require rigorous theoretical underpinning, a basis in data sufficient to the task, and instruments traceable to reference standard quantitative metrics. The values shared and exchanged by such communities typically involve the application of mathematical models that specify the sufficient and invariant relationships necessary for rigorous theorizing and instrument equating. The mathematical metaphysics of science are explored with the aim of connecting principles of quantitative measurement with the structures of sufficient reason.

  17. Mathematical correction for fingerprint similarity measures to improve chemical retrieval.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Baldi, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In many modern chemoinformatics systems, molecules are represented by long binary fingerprint vectors recording the presence or absence of particular features or substructures, such as labeled paths or trees, in the molecular graphs. These long fingerprints are often compressed to much shorter fingerprints using a simple modulo operation. As the length of the fingerprints decreases, their typical density and overlap tend to increase, and so does any similarity measure based on overlap, such as the widely used Tanimoto similarity. Here we show that this correlation between shorter fingerprints and higher similarity can be thought of as a systematic error introduced by the fingerprint folding algorithm and that this systematic error can be corrected mathematically. More precisely, given two molecules and their compressed fingerprints of a given length, we show how a better estimate of their uncompressed overlap, hence of their similarity, can be derived to correct for this bias. We show how the correction can be implemented not only for the Tanimoto measure but also for all other commonly used measures. Experiments on various data sets and fingerprint sizes demonstrate how, with a negligible computational overhead, the correction noticeably improves the sensitivity and specificity of chemical retrieval.

  18. Mathematical Formalism of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics for Nonlinear Chemical Reaction Systems with General Rate Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies a mathematical formalism of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for chemical reaction models with N species, M reactions, and general rate law. We establish a mathematical basis for J. W. Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics under G. N. Lewis' kinetic law of entire equilibrium (detailed balance in nonlinear chemical kinetics). In doing so, the equilibrium thermodynamics is then naturally generalized to nonequilibrium settings without detailed balance. The kinetic models are represented by a Markovian jumping process. A generalized macroscopic chemical free energy function and its associated balance equation with nonnegative source and sink are the major discoveries. The proof is based on the large deviation principle of this type of Markov processes. A general fluctuation dissipation theorem for stochastic reaction kinetics is also proved. The mathematical theory illustrates how a novel macroscopic dynamic law can emerges from the mesoscopic kinetics in a multi-scale system.

  19. Reducing Sexual Violence by Increasing the Supply of Toilets in Khayelitsha, South Africa: A Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Gregg S.; Kaplan, Edward H.; Paltiel, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is a major public health issue, affecting 35% of women worldwide. Major risk factors for sexual assault include inadequate indoor sanitation and the need to travel to outdoor toilet facilities. We estimated how increasing the number of toilets in an urban township (Khayelitsha, South Africa) might reduce both economic costs and the incidence and social burden of sexual assault. Methods We developed a mathematical model that links risk of sexual assault to the number of sanitation facilities and the time a woman must spend walking to a toilet. We defined a composite societal cost function, comprising both the burden of sexual assault and the costs of installing and maintaining public chemical toilets. By expressing total social costs as a function of the number of available toilets, we were able to identify an optimal (i.e., cost-minimizing) social investment in toilet facilities. Findings There are currently an estimated 5600 toilets in Khayelitsha. This results in 635 sexual assaults and US$40 million in combined social costs each year. Increasing the number of toilets to 11300 would minimize total costs ($35 million) and reduce sexual assaults to 446. Higher toilet installation and maintenance costs would be more than offset by lower sexual assault costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis shows that the optimal number of toilets exceeds the original allocation of toilets in the township in over 80% of the 5000 iterations of the model. Interpretation Improving access to sanitation facilities in urban settlements will simultaneously reduce the incidence of sexual assaults and overall cost to society. Since our analysis ignores the many additional health benefits of improving sanitation in resource-constrained urban areas (e.g., potential reductions in waterborne infectious diseases), the optimal number of toilets identified here should be interpreted as conservative. PMID:25923105

  20. The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present In Limiting Chemical Equations; or, How Dilute Is Dilute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V.

    2007-01-01

    A general mathematical treatment for chemical systems is described that might help students to better understand the real scope of the mathematical equations. The extent to which an equation acceptably describes a chemical system is determined from the limiting values of practical chemical variables and the concordance value defined by given…

  1. Chemically reduced graphene oxide for ammonia detection at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ruma; Midya, Anupam; Santra, Sumita; Ray, Samit K; Guha, Prasanta K

    2013-08-14

    Chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has recently attracted growing interest in the area of chemical sensors because of its high electrical conductivity and chemically active defect sites. This paper reports the synthesis of chemically reduced GO using NaBH4 and its performance for ammonia detection at room temperature. The sensing layer was synthesized on a ceramic substrate containing platinum electrodes. The effect of the reduction time of graphene oxide (GO) was explored to optimize the response, recovery, and response time. The RGO film was characterized electrically and also with atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor response was found to lie between 5.5% at 200 ppm (parts per million) and 23% at 2800 ppm of ammonia, and also resistance recovered quickly without any application of heat (for lower concentrations of ammonia). The sensor was exposed to different vapors and found to be selective toward ammonia. We believe such chemically reduced GO could potentially be used to manufacture a new generation of low-power portable ammonia sensors.

  2. Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation dF^{(meso)}/dt=E_{in}-e_{p} in which the free energy input rate E_{in} and dissipation rate e_{p} are both non-negative, and E_{in}≤e_{p}. We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F^{(meso)} converges to φ^{ss}, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φ^{ss} now satisfies a balance equation dφ^{ss}(x)/dt=cmf(x)-σ(x), in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x) and entropy production rate σ(x) are both non-negative, and cmf(x)≤σ(x). The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.

  3. Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation d F(meso)/d t =Ein-ep in which the free energy input rate Ein and dissipation rate ep are both non-negative, and Ein≤ep . We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F(meso) converges to φss, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φss now satisfies a balance equation d φss(x ) /d t =cmf(x ) -σ (x ) , in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x ) and entropy production rate σ (x ) are both non-negative, and cmf(x )≤σ (x ) . The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.

  4. A mathematical model for material removal and chemical mechanical synergy in chemical mechanical polishing at molecular scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Zhao, Y. W.; Wang, Y. G.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a mathematical material removal model based on the chemical and mechanical synergistic effects in the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process. It seems to explain the transition from a chemically dominant region to a mechanically dominant region. In addition, this model predicts the effects of most variables involved in the CMP process including the processing conditions (velocity, downpressure), pad properties (modulus, hardness and asperity sizes) and slurry characteristics (particle size, concentration and distribution). The results reveal some insights into the micro-contact and wear mechanisms of the CMP process.

  5. Chemical and mathematical modeling of asphaltene reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Salvage, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Precipitated asphaltene was subjected to pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, both neat and in solvents, and catalytic hydroprocessing. A solvent extraction procedure defined gas, maltene, asphaltene, and coke product fractions. The apparent first order rate constant for asphaltene conversion at 400/sup 0/C was relatively insensitive to the particular reaction scheme. The yield of gases likewise showed little variation and was always less than 10%. On the other hand, the maltene and coke yields were about 20% and 60%, respectively, from neat pyrolysis, and about 60% and less than 5%, respectively, from catalytic reactions. The temporal variations of the product fractions allowed discernment of asphaltene reaction pathways. The primary reaction of asphaltene was to residual asphaltene, maltenes, and gases. The residual asphaltene reacted thermally to coke and catalytically to maltenes at the expense of coke. Secondary degradation of these primary products led to lighter compounds. Reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of asphaltene model compounds and alkylaromstics were determined. The model compound kinetics results were combined with a stochastic description of asphaltene structure in a mathematical model of asphaltene pyrolysis. Individual molecular product were assigned to either the gas, maltene, asphaltene, or coke product fractions, and summation of the weights of each constituted the model's predictions. The temporal variation of the product fractions from simulated asphaltene pyrolysis compared favorably with experimental results.

  6. Mathematical relationships between metrics of chemical bioaccumulation in fish.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Don; Arnot, Jon A; Gobas, Frank A P C; Powell, David E

    2013-07-01

    Five widely used metrics of bioaccumulation in fish are defined and discussed, namely the octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ), bioconcentration factor (BCF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), biomagnification factor (BMF), and trophic magnification factor (TMF). Algebraic relationships between these metrics are developed and discussed using conventional expressions for chemical uptake from water and food and first-order losses by respiration, egestion, biotransformation, and growth dilution. Two BCFs may be defined, namely as an equilibrium partition coefficient KFW or as a nonequilibrium BCFK in which egestion losses are included. Bioaccumulation factors are shown to be the product of the BCFK and a novel equilibrium multiplier M containing 2 ratios, namely, the diet-to-water concentration ratio and the ratio of uptake rate constants for respiration and dietary uptake. Biomagnification factors are shown to be proportional to the lipid-normalized ratio of the predator/prey values of BCFK and the ratio of the equilibrium multipliers. Relationships with TMFs are also discussed. The effects of chemical hydrophobicity, biotransformation, and growth are evaluated by applying the relationships to a range of illustrative chemicals of varying KOW in a linear 4-trophic-level food web with typical values for uptake and loss rate constants. The roles of respiratory and dietary intakes are demonstrated, and even slow rates of biotransformation and growth can significantly affect bioaccumulation. The BCFK s and the values of M can be regarded as the fundamental determinants of bioaccumulation and biomagnification in aquatic food webs. Analyzing data from food webs can be enhanced by plotting logarithmic lipid-normalized concentrations or fugacities as a linear function of trophic level to deduce TMFs. Implications for determining bioaccumulation by laboratory tests for regulatory purposes are discussed.

  7. Mathematical Model of Load Pass and Prediction of Fatigue Life on Bolt Threads with Reduced Lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asayama, Yukiteru

    A mathematical model is proposed in order to elucidate the mechanism that the fatigue strength of external threads increases by reducing the lead on a thread system such as a bolt and nut. The model is constructed from the concept that a local strain proportional to the reducing degree of the lead, although the local strain is at first produced in the bolt thread farthest from the bearing surface of the nut, is induced in each thread root with an increase of applied load. The fatigue life predicted from the mathematical model shows good agreement with the experimental fatigue life of cadmium-plated external threads with the reduced lead on the material having strength as high as 1270MPa. The model can provide useful suggestions for the design of fasteners for aerospace, which are required to satisfy severe requirements of fatigue strengths and dimensions.

  8. Mathematical Description of Complex Chemical Kinetics and Application to CFD Modeling Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A major effort in combustion research at the present time is devoted to the theoretical modeling of practical combustion systems. These include turbojet and ramjet air-breathing engines as well as ground-based gas-turbine power generating systems. The ability to use computational modeling extensively in designing these products not only saves time and money, but also helps designers meet the quite rigorous environmental standards that have been imposed on all combustion devices. The goal is to combine the very complex solution of the Navier-Stokes flow equations with realistic turbulence and heat-release models into a single computer code. Such a computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code simulates the coupling of fluid mechanics with the chemistry of combustion to describe the practical devices. This paper will focus on the task of developing a simplified chemical model which can predict realistic heat-release rates as well as species composition profiles, and is also computationally rapid. We first discuss the mathematical techniques used to describe a complex, multistep fuel oxidation chemical reaction and develop a detailed mechanism for the process. We then show how this mechanism may be reduced and simplified to give an approximate model which adequately predicts heat release rates and a limited number of species composition profiles, but is computationally much faster than the original one. Only such a model can be incorporated into a CFD code without adding significantly to long computation times. Finally, we present some of the recent advances in the development of these simplified chemical mechanisms.

  9. Mathematical description of complex chemical kinetics and application to CFD modeling codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A major effort in combustion research at the present time is devoted to the theoretical modeling of practical combustion systems. These include turbojet and ramjet air-breathing engines as well as ground-based gas-turbine power generating systems. The ability to use computational modeling extensively in designing these products not only saves time and money, but also helps designers meet the quite rigorous environmental standards that have been imposed on all combustion devices. The goal is to combine the very complex solution of the Navier-Stokes flow equations with realistic turbulence and heat-release models into a single computer code. Such a computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code simulates the coupling of fluid mechanics with the chemistry of combustion to describe the practical devices. This paper will focus on the task of developing a simplified chemical model which can predict realistic heat-release rates as well as species composition profiles, and is also computationally rapid. We first discuss the mathematical techniques used to describe a complex, multistep fuel oxidation chemical reaction and develop a detailed mechanism for the process. We then show how this mechanism may be reduced and simplified to give an approximate model which adequately predicts heat release rates and a limited number of species composition profiles, but is computationally much faster than the original one. Only such a model can be incorporated into a CFD code without adding significantly to long computation times. Finally, we present some of the recent advances in the development of these simplified chemical mechanisms.

  10. 37 CFR 1.58 - Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)) must maintain the spatial relationships (e.g., alignment of columns and rows) of the table elements... formulae and tables. 1.58 Section 1.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions The Application § 1.58 Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables. (a) The...

  11. 37 CFR 1.58 - Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (e.g., alignment of columns and rows) of the table elements when displayed so as to visually preserve... formulae and tables. 1.58 Section 1.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions The Application § 1.58 Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables. (a) The...

  12. 37 CFR 1.58 - Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)) must maintain the spatial relationships (e.g., alignment of columns and rows) of the table elements... formulae and tables. 1.58 Section 1.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions The Application § 1.58 Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables. (a) The...

  13. 37 CFR 1.58 - Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)) must maintain the spatial relationships (e.g., alignment of columns and rows) of the table elements... formulae and tables. 1.58 Section 1.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions The Application § 1.58 Chemical and mathematical formulae and tables. (a) The...

  14. Chemical Analysis of NOx Removal Under Different Reduced Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddouche, A.; Lemerini, M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a chemical kinetic analysis of different species involved in nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas induced by stationary corona discharge at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This study takes into account twenty different chemical species participating in one hundred and seventy selected chemical reactions. The reaction rate coefficients are taken from the literature, and the density is analyzed by the continuity equation without the diffusion term. A large number of investigations considered the removal of NOx showing the effects of N, O and O3 radicals. The aim of the present simulation is to complete these studies by analysing various plasma species under different reduced electric fields in the range of 100-200 Td (1 Td=10-21 V·m2). In particular, we analyze the time evolution of depopulation (10-9-10-3 s) of NOx. We have found that the depopulation rate of NO and NO2 is substantially affected by the rise of reduced electric field as it grows from 100 Td to 200 Td. This allows us to ascertain the important role played by the reduced electric field.

  15. The Normalized Reduced Form and Cell Mathematical Tools for Lattice Analysis-Symmetry and Similarity.

    PubMed

    Mighell, Alan D

    2003-01-01

    To intelligently and effectively use crystallographic databases, mathematical and computer tools are required that can elucidate diverse types of intra- and interlattice relationships. Two such tools are the normalized reduced form and normalized reduced cell. Practical experience has revealed that the first tool-the normalized reduced form-is very helpful in establishing lattice metric symmetry as it enables one to readily deduce significant relationships between the elements of the reduced form. Likewise research with crystallographic databases has demonstrated that the second tool-the normalized reduced cell-plays a vital role in determining metrically similar lattices. Knowledge of similar lattices has practical value in solving structures, in assignment of structure types, in materials design, and in nano-technology. In addition to using the reduced cell, it is recommended that lattice-matching strategies based on the normalized reduced cell be routinely carried out in database searching, in data evaluation, and in experimental work.

  16. The Normalized Reduced Form and Cell Mathematical Tools for Lattice Analysis—Symmetry and Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Mighell, Alan D.

    2003-01-01

    To intelligently and effectively use crystallographic databases, mathematical and computer tools are required that can elucidate diverse types of intra- and interlattice relationships. Two such tools are the normalized reduced form and normalized reduced cell. Practical experience has revealed that the first tool—the normalized reduced form—is very helpful in establishing lattice metric symmetry as it enables one to readily deduce significant relationships between the elements of the reduced form. Likewise research with crystallographic databases has demonstrated that the second tool—the normalized reduced cell—plays a vital role in determining metrically similar lattices. Knowledge of similar lattices has practical value in solving structures, in assignment of structure types, in materials design, and in nano-technology. In addition to using the reduced cell, it is recommended that lattice-matching strategies based on the normalized reduced cell be routinely carried out in database searching, in data evaluation, and in experimental work. PMID:27413622

  17. Reduced hazard chemicals for solid rocket motor production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1995-01-01

    During the last three years. the NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Thiokol Corporation have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem-solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this challenge.

  18. A mathematical model and simulation results of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride thin films from SiH4-NH3-N2-Ar mixture, an important application in modern materials science. Our multiphysics model describes gas dynamics, chemical physics, plasma physics and electrodynamics. The PECVD technology is inherently multiscale, from macroscale processes in the chemical reactor to atomic-scale surface chemistry. Our macroscale model is based on Navier-Stokes equations for a transient laminar flow of a compressible chemically reacting gas mixture, together with the mass transfer and energy balance equations, Poisson equation for electric potential, electrons and ions balance equations. The chemical kinetics model includes 24 species and 58 reactions: 37 in the gas phase and 21 on the surface. A deposition model consists of three stages: adsorption to the surface, diffusion along the surface and embedding of products into the substrate. A new model has been validated on experimental results obtained with the "Plasmalab System 100" reactor. We present the mathematical model and simulation results investigating the influence of flow rate and source gas proportion on silicon nitride film growth rate and chemical composition.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Material on a Curvilinear Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvyrkin, G. N.; Zhuravskii, A. V.; Savel‧eva, I. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a mathematical model has been constructed that describes the process of chemical vapor deposition of material on a curvilinear plate. On the boundary where the deposition occurs, account is taken of convective heat transfer, heat transfer by radiation, and heat and mass transfer during the attachment of the substance to the surface. A numerical algorithm is proposed for finding the temperature profile at any instant of time; results and an analysis of numerical calculation are given for different materials.

  20. Systematically reduced chemical mechanisms for sulfur oxidation and pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cerru, F.G.; Kronenburg, A.; Lindstedt, R.P.

    2006-08-15

    Recent research on sulfur chemistry has predominantly focused on the high-temperature chemistry typical of flames. The present work initially assesses the ability of a sulfur submechanism featuring 12 sulfur-containing species and 70 reversible reactions to reproduce measured data. The functionality includes the pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide as well as the chemistry of sulfur dioxide. The sensitivity of reaction paths to alternative rate determinations has been analyzed. In particular, the consumption paths of sulfanyl and the rates of the reactions involved in the SO{sub 2}-catalyzed radical recombination highlight existing uncertainties. Despite these difficulties, the detailed mechanism generally produces good agreement with experimental data. Most industrial combustion processes are turbulent and turbulence-chemistry interactions cannot be included through high-Damkohler-number limit approximations. Accordingly, chemical kinetic effects need to be accounted for and the implementation of systematically reduced mechanisms has the potential to increase the computational efficiency. The detailed reaction mechanism is thus subsequently reduced to six independent scalars with HSO, HOSO, HOSO{sub 2}, HSSH, and S in steady state. The reduced mechanism provides good agreement over the range of conditions studied. Further simplifications are made in the context of oxides of sulfur and a two-step mechanism involving SO, SO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 3} is derived and shown to retain good agreement with the experimental data for a more limited set of conditions. (author)

  1. A multipurpose reduced chemical-kinetic mechanism for methanol combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Tarrazo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Sanz, Mario; Sánchez, Antonio L.; Williams, Forman A.

    2016-07-01

    A multipurpose reduced chemical-kinetic mechanism for methanol combustion comprising 8 overall reactions and 11 reacting chemical species is presented. The development starts by investigating the minimum set of elementary reactions needed to describe methanol combustion with reasonable accuracy over a range of conditions of temperature, pressure, and composition of interest in combustion. Starting from a 27-step mechanism that has been previously tested and found to give accurate predictions of ignition processes for these conditions, it is determined that the addition of 11 elementary reactions taken from its basis (San Diego) mechanism extends the validity of the description to premixed-flame propagation, strain-induced extinction of non-premixed flames, and equilibrium composition and temperatures, giving results that compare favourably with experimental measurements and also with computations using the 247-step detailed San Diego mechanism involving 50 reactive species. Specifically, premixed-flame propagation velocities and extinction strain rates for non-premixed counterflow flames calculated with the 38-step mechanism show departures from experimental measurements and detailed-chemistry computations that are roughly on the order of 10%, comparable with expected experimental uncertainties. Similar accuracy is found in comparisons of autoignition times over the range considered, except at very high temperatures, under which conditions the computations tend to overpredict induction times for all of the chemistry descriptions tested. From this 38-step mechanism, the simplification is continued by introducing steady-state approximations for the intermediate species CH3, CH4, HCO, CH3O, CH2OH, and O, leading to an 8-step reduced mechanism that provides satisfactory accuracy for all conditions tested. The flame computations indicate that thermal diffusion has a negligible influence on methanol combustion in all cases considered and that a mixture-average species

  2. Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costellano, Janet; Scaffa, Matthew

    The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents 37 activities designed to develop mathematics concepts and skills utilizing the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on experiencing math models, patterns, problems, and relationships found in an urban environment. Activities…

  3. [A mathematical model for the chemical control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) having acquired chemical resistance].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Alape, Leonardo D; Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever is a common vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito. Since no vaccines are currently available which can protect against infection, disease control relies on controlling the mosquito population. This work was aimed at modelling such mosquito's population dynamics regarding chemical control of the adult population and its acquired resistance to chemicals. The model was analysed by using classical dynamic system theory techniques and mosquito growth threshold was determined as this establishes when a particular population may prosper in the environment or when it is likely to disappear. A suitable chemical control strategy was developed from such threshold. Simulations were made in control and non-control scenarios; this determined the degree of control application effectiveness against different levels of acquired resistance.

  4. Mathematical modeling to reduce waste of compounded sterile products in hospital pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Tilson, Vera; Dobson, Gregory; Haas, Curtis E; Tilson, David

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, many US hospitals embarked on "lean" projects to reduce waste. One advantage of the lean operational improvement methodology is that it relies on process observation by those engaged in the work and requires relatively little data. However, the thoughtful analysis of the data captured by operational systems allows the modeling of many potential process options. Such models permit the evaluation of likely waste reductions and financial savings before actual process changes are made. Thus the most promising options can be identified prospectively, change efforts targeted accordingly, and realistic targets set. This article provides one example of such a datadriven process redesign project focusing on waste reduction in an in-hospital pharmacy. A mathematical model of the medication prepared and delivered by the pharmacy is used to estimate the savings from several potential redesign options (rescheduling the start of production, scheduling multiple batches, or reordering production within a batch) as well as the impact of information system enhancements. The key finding is that mathematical modeling can indeed be a useful tool. In one hospital setting, it estimated that waste could be realistically reduced by around 50% by using several process changes and that the greatest benefit would be gained by rescheduling the start of production (for a single batch) away from the period when most order cancellations are made.

  5. Magnetism in pristine and chemically reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulou, A.; Glenis, S.; Zolnierkiwicz, G.; Guskos, N.; Likodimos, V.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of magnetism for graphene oxide (GO) before and after chemical reduction was investigated by means of static magnetization and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Strong paramagnetism with a saturation magnetization of ˜1.2 emu/g and weak antiferromagnetic interactions were identified in pristine GO. Apart from spin-half defect centers, ESR spectroscopy indicated the excitation of high spin states, consistently with the high spin (S = 2) magnetic moments derived from the magnetization analysis, corroborating the formation of spatially "isolated" magnetic clusters in GO. A marked reduction of GO's magnetization (˜0.17 emu/g) along with an appreciable rise of diamagnetism (-2.4 × 10-6 emu/g Oe) was detected after chemical reduction by sodium borohydride, reflecting the drastic removal of paramagnetic defects and the concomitant growth of sp2 domains in reduced graphene oxide (rGO). ESR revealed a large drop of the spin susceptibility for rGO, which, in addition to the main paramagnetic Curie component, showed an appreciable Pauli contribution. The latter together with the g-factor shift and the broadening of the ESR line indicated the coupling of localized spins with conduction electrons. The rGO ESR signal presented a metallic line shape, which could be analyzed in terms of two separate spectral components, a broad one that may be related to defect states strongly coupled with itinerant spins within the sp2 clusters and a narrow one due to edge/vacancy defect spins, indicative of rGO's persistent structural inhomogeneity.

  6. Multi-criteria optimisation problems for chemical engineering systems and algorithms for their solution based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

    PubMed

    Orazbayev, B B; Orazbayeva, K N; Kurmangaziyeva, L T; Makhatova, V E

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

  7. Multi-criteria optimisation problems for chemical engineering systems and algorithms for their solution based on fuzzy mathematical methods

    PubMed Central

    Orazbayev, B. B.; Orazbayeva, K. N.; Kurmangaziyeva, L. T.; Makhatova, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods. PMID:28275318

  8. Reducing chemical vapour infiltration time for ceramic matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Timms, L. A.; Westby, W.; Prentice, C.; Jaglin, D.; Shatwell, R. A.; Binner, J. G. P.

    2001-02-01

    Conventional routes to producing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require the use of high temperatures to sinter the individual ceramic particles of the matrix together. Sintering temperatures are typically much higher than the upper temperature limits of the fibres. This paper details preliminary work carried out on producing a CMC via chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), a process that involves lower processing temperatures, thus avoiding fibre degradation. The CVI process has been modified and supplemented in an attempt to reduce the CVI process time and to lower the cost of this typically expensive process. To this end microwave-enhanced CVI (MECVI) has been chosen, along with two alternative pre-infiltration steps: electrophoretic infiltration and vacuum bagging. The system under investigation is based on silicon carbide fibres within a silicon carbide matrix (SiCf/SiC). The results demonstrate that both approaches result in an enhanced initial density and a consequent significant reduction in the time required for the MECVI processing step. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as a non-destructive, density evaluation technique. Initial results indicate that the presence of the SiC powder in the pre-form changes the deposition profile during the MECVI process.

  9. A general mathematical model for chemical-enhanced flushing of soil contaminated by organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Brusseau, Mark L.

    The use of chemical agents to enhance the in situ removal of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from porous media is an emerging remediation technology. Whereas surfactants and cosolvents are the primary agents examined to date, others, such as natural organic matter and complexing agents, have also been examined for their ability to enhance the solubilization of HOCs. While the mode of action of each type of enhanced-solubilization agent may be different, they all induce similar responses. In this paper, a general mathematical model is developed to simulate the enhanced-solubilization process for various chemical agents, including cosolvents, surfactants, natural organic matter, and complexing agents. This model is developed using a master-equation approach that incorporates the solubilization mechanisms associated with each type of agent. A limited evaluation of the model is conducted by comparing simulations to the results of two laboratory experiments. A sensitivity analysis is performed to illustrate the influence of various factors on contaminant removal.

  10. Aperture-Tolerant, Chemical-Based Methods to Reduce Channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2007-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004, through May 16, 2007, for the project, 'Aperture-Tolerant, Chemical-Based Methods to Reduce Channeling'. We explored the potential of pore-filling gels for reducing excess water production from both fractured and unfractured production wells. Several gel formulations were identified that met the requirements--i.e., providing water residual resistance factors greater than 2,000 and ultimate oil residual resistance factors (F{sub rro}) of 2 or less. Significant oil throughput was required to achieve low F{sub rro} values, suggesting that gelant penetration into porous rock must be small (a few feet or less) for existing pore-filling gels to provide effective disproportionate permeability reduction. Compared with adsorbed polymers and weak gels, strong pore-filling gels can provide greater reliability and behavior that is insensitive to the initial rock permeability. Guidance is provided on where relative-permeability-modification/disproportionate-permeability-reduction treatments can be successfully applied for use in either oil or gas production wells. When properly designed and executed, these treatments can be successfully applied to a limited range of oilfield excessive-water-production problems. We examined whether gel rheology can explain behavior during extrusion through fractures. The rheology behavior of the gels tested showed a strong parallel to the results obtained from previous gel extrusion experiments. However, for a given aperture (fracture width or plate-plate separation), the pressure gradients measured during the gel extrusion experiments were much higher than anticipated from rheology measurements. Extensive experiments established that wall slip and first normal stress difference were not responsible for the pressure gradient discrepancy. To explain the discrepancy, we noted that the aperture for gel flow (for mobile gel wormholing through concentrated immobile

  11. Gage of 6.5 per cent Si-Fe sheet is chemically reduced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Pavlovic, D. M.

    1966-01-01

    Chemical milling process aids the production of 6.5 percent silicon-iron soft magnetic-alloy sheets to very thin gages. Following conventional rolling to safe gage limits, the material is chemically reduced to the desired gage.

  12. Mathematical modeling of quartz particle melting process in plasma-chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Volokitin, Oleg Volokitin, Gennady Skripnikova, Nelli Shekhovtsov, Valentin; Vlasov, Viktor

    2016-01-15

    Among silica-based materials vitreous silica has a special place. The paper presents the melting process of a quartz particle under conditions of low-temperature plasma. A mathematical model is designed for stages of melting in the experimental plasma-chemical reactor. As calculation data show, quartz particles having the radius of 0.21≤ r{sub p} ≤0.64 mm completely melt at W = 0.65 l/s particle feed rate depending on the Nusselt number, while 0.14≤ r{sub p} ≤0.44 mm particles melt at W = 1.4 l/s. Calculation data showed that 2 mm and 0.4 mm quartz particles completely melted during and 0.1 s respectively. Thus, phase transformations occurred in silicon dioxide play the important part in its heating up to the melting temperature.

  13. Evaluation of a static granular bed reactor using a chemical oxygen demand balance and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter; Ellis, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    In order to evaluate the static granular bed reactor (SGBR), a chemical oxygen demand (COD) balance was used along with a mathematical model. The SGBR was operated with an organic loading rate (OLR) ranging from 0.8 to 5.5 kg/m(3) day at 24°C. The average COD removal efficiency was 87.4%, and the removal efficiencies of COD, carbohydrates, and proteins increased with an OLR, while the lipids removal efficiency was not a function of an OLR. From the results of the COD balance, the yield of biomass increased with an OLR. The SGBR was modeled using the general transport equation considering advection, diffusion, and degradation by microorganisms, and the first-order reaction rate constant was 0.0166/day. The simulation results were in excellent agreement with experimental data. In addition, the SGBR model provided mechanistic insight into why the COD removal efficiency in the SGBR is proportional to an OLR.

  14. Mathematical modeling in chemical engineering: from lab-scale to field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpavanam, S.

    2010-10-01

    In this work we discuss four different problems where mathematical modeling gives us insight into system behavior. Most chemical plants are characterized by an upstream reactor coupled to a downstream separator unit via a recycle stream. The steady state behavior of a representative system is analyzed for the maximum number of steady states which are admissible Different flow regimes in single and two phase-flows are discussed with a view to understanding mixing phenomena in micro-fluidics. In single phase flows Deans vortices cause mixing while in two phase slugs the mixing is caused by internal circulations. Bubble column reactors are heterogeneous systems characterized by turbulent flows. Flow fields are measured experimentally using PIV and these can be validated using computational fluid dynamics. In the context of Air Quality monitoring, field data are analyzed using statistical methods. This is used to predict source contributions to air quality levels in a region and to evaluate different control options.

  15. Using Propensity Scores to Reduce Selection Bias in Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Selection bias is a problem for mathematics education researchers interested in using observational rather than experimental data to make causal inferences about the effects of different instructional methods in mathematics on student outcomes. Propensity score methods represent 1 approach to dealing with such selection bias. This article…

  16. Mathematical modeling of chemical composition modification and etching of polymers under the atomic oxygen influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirskaia, Natalia; Novikov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina

    2016-07-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) of the upper atmosphere is one of the most important space factors that can cause degradation of spacecraft surface. In our previous mathematical model the Monte Carlo method and the "large particles" approximation were used for simulating processes of polymer etching under the influence of AO [1]. The interaction of enlarged AO particles with the polymer was described in terms of probabilities of reactions such as etching of polymer and specular and diffuse scattering of the AO particles on polymer. The effects of atomic oxygen on protected polymers and microfiller containing composites were simulated. The simulation results were in quite good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments on magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator of the oxygen plasma of SINP MSU [2]. In this paper we present a new model that describes the reactions of AO interactions with polymeric materials in more detail. Reactions of formation and further emission of chemical compounds such as CO, CO _{2}, H _{2}O, etc. cause the modification of the chemical composition of the polymer and change the probabilities of its consequent interaction with the AO. The simulation results are compared with the results of previous simulation and with the results of laboratory experiments. The reasons for the differences between the results of natural experiments on spacecraft, laboratory experiments and simulations are discussed. N. Chirskaya, M. Samokhina, Computer modeling of polymer structures degradation under the atomic oxygen exposure, WDS'12 Proceedings of Contributed Papers: Part III - Physics, Matfyzpress Prague, 2012, pp. 30-35. E. Voronina, L. Novikov, V. Chernik, N. Chirskaya, K. Vernigorov, G. Bondarenko, and A. Gaidar, Mathematical and experimental simulation of impact of atomic oxygen of the earth's upper atmosphere on nanostructures and polymer composites, Inorganic Materials: Applied Research, 2012, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95-101.

  17. Novel in vitro and mathematical models for the prediction of chemical toxicity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dominic P; Shipley, Rebecca; Ellis, Marianne J; Webb, Steve; Ward, John; Gardner, Iain; Creton, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The focus of much scientific and medical research is directed towards understanding the disease process and defining therapeutic intervention strategies. The scientific basis of drug safety is very complex and currently remains poorly understood, despite the fact that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major health concern and a serious impediment to development of new medicines. Toxicity issues account for ∼21% drug attrition during drug development and safety testing strategies require considerable animal use. Mechanistic relationships between drug plasma levels and molecular/cellular events that culminate in whole organ toxicity underpins development of novel safety assessment strategies. Current in vitro test systems are poorly predictive of toxicity of chemicals entering the systemic circulation, particularly to the liver. Such systems fall short because of (1) the physiological gap between cells currently used and human hepatocytes existing in their native state, (2) the lack of physiological integration with other cells/systems within organs, required to amplify the initial toxicological lesion into overt toxicity, (3) the inability to assess how low level cell damage induced by chemicals may develop into overt organ toxicity in a minority of patients, (4) lack of consideration of systemic effects. Reproduction of centrilobular and periportal hepatocyte phenotypes in in vitro culture is crucial for sensitive detection of cellular stress. Hepatocyte metabolism/phenotype is dependent on cell position along the liver lobule, with corresponding differences in exposure to substrate, oxygen and hormone gradients. Application of bioartificial liver (BAL) technology can encompass in vitro predictive toxicity testing with enhanced sensitivity and improved mechanistic understanding. Combining this technology with mechanistic mathematical models describing intracellular metabolism, fluid-flow, substrate, hormone and nutrient distribution provides the opportunity to

  18. Novel in vitro and mathematical models for the prediction of chemical toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, Rebecca; Ellis, Marianne J.; Webb, Steve; Ward, John; Gardner, Iain; Creton, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The focus of much scientific and medical research is directed towards understanding the disease process and defining therapeutic intervention strategies. The scientific basis of drug safety is very complex and currently remains poorly understood, despite the fact that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major health concern and a serious impediment to development of new medicines. Toxicity issues account for ∼21% drug attrition during drug development and safety testing strategies require considerable animal use. Mechanistic relationships between drug plasma levels and molecular/cellular events that culminate in whole organ toxicity underpins development of novel safety assessment strategies. Current in vitro test systems are poorly predictive of toxicity of chemicals entering the systemic circulation, particularly to the liver. Such systems fall short because of (1) the physiological gap between cells currently used and human hepatocytes existing in their native state, (2) the lack of physiological integration with other cells/systems within organs, required to amplify the initial toxicological lesion into overt toxicity, (3) the inability to assess how low level cell damage induced by chemicals may develop into overt organ toxicity in a minority of patients, (4) lack of consideration of systemic effects. Reproduction of centrilobular and periportal hepatocyte phenotypes in in vitro culture is crucial for sensitive detection of cellular stress. Hepatocyte metabolism/phenotype is dependent on cell position along the liver lobule, with corresponding differences in exposure to substrate, oxygen and hormone gradients. Application of bioartificial liver (BAL) technology can encompass in vitro predictive toxicity testing with enhanced sensitivity and improved mechanistic understanding. Combining this technology with mechanistic mathematical models describing intracellular metabolism, fluid-flow, substrate, hormone and nutrient distribution provides the opportunity to

  19. Transport of reacting solutes in porous media: Relation between mathematical nature of problem formulation and chemical nature of reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Jacob

    1983-01-01

    Examples involving six broad reaction classes show that the nature of transport-affecting chemistry may have a profound effect on the mathematical character of solute transport problem formulation. Substantive mathematical diversity among such formulations is brought about principally by reaction properties that determine whether (1) the reaction can be regarded as being controlled by local chemical equilibria or whether it must be considered as being controlled by kinetics, (2) the reaction is homogeneous or heterogeneous, (3) the reaction is a surface reaction (adsorption, ion exchange) or one of the reactions of classical chemistry (e.g., precipitation, dissolution, oxidation, reduction, complex formation). These properties, as well as the choice of means to describe them, stipulate, for instance, (1) the type of chemical entities for which a formulation's basic, mass-balance equations should be written; (2) the nature of mathematical transformations needed to change the problem's basic equations into operational ones. These and other influences determine such mathematical features of problem formulations as the nature of the operational transport-equation system (e.g., whether it involves algebraic, partial-differential, or integro-partial-differential simultaneous equations), the type of nonlinearities of such a system, and the character of the boundaries (e.g., whether they are stationary or moving). Exploration of the reasons for the dependence of transport mathematics on transport chemistry suggests that many results of this dependence stem from the basic properties of the reactions' chemical-relation (i.e., equilibrium or rate) equations.

  20. Reducing disorder in graphene nanoribbons by chemical edge modification

    SciTech Connect

    Dauber, J.; Terrés, B.; Volk, C.; Stampfer, C.; Trellenkamp, S.

    2014-02-24

    We present electronic transport measurements on etched graphene nanoribbons on silicon dioxide before and after a short hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment. We report on changes in the transport properties, in particular, in terms of a decreasing transport gap and a reduced doping level after HF dipping. Interestingly, the effective energy gap is nearly unaffected by the HF treatment. Additional measurements on a graphene nanoribbon with lateral graphene gates support strong indications that the HF significantly modifies the edges of the investigated nanoribbons leading to a significantly reduced disorder potential in these graphene nanostructures.

  1. 76 FR 41371 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 134... Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... comments on the impact of amending the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR) to reduce...

  2. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  3. Exploring Effects of High School Students' Mathematical Processing Skills and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts on Algorithmic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The MPC…

  4. Scramjet Combustor Simulations Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics for Practical Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Stochastic Simulation of an HCCI Engine Using an Automatically Reduced Mechanism,� ICE, Vol. 37-2, 2001 Fall Technical Conference...Christopher J. Montgomery, and Wei Zhao Reaction Engineering International (REI) 77 West 200 South, Suite 210 Salt Lake City, UT 84101 Dean R...DOUGLAS L. DAVIS CAPT. BRIAN C. MCDONALD AFRL/PRAS, Project Engineer Branch Chief Propulsion Sciences Branch Propulsion

  5. Chemical characterization of dissolvable tobacco products promoted to reduce harm.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Christina L; Conder, Paige A; Goodpaster, John V

    2011-03-23

    In 2009, the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. released a line of dissolvable tobacco products that are marketed as an alternative to smoking in places where smoking is prohibited. These products are currently available in Indianapolis, IN, Columbus, OH, and Portland, OR. This paper describes the chemical characterization of four such products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dissolvable tobacco products were extracted and prepared by ultrasonic extraction using acetone, trimethylsilyl derivatization, and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME). The following compounds were identified in the dissolvables using either ultrasonic extractions or trimethylsilyl derivatization: nicotine, ethyl citrate, palmitic acid, stearic acid, sorbitol, glycerol, and xylitol. The following compounds were identified in the dissolvables using headspace SPME: nicotine, ethyl citrate, cinnamaldehyde, coumarin, vanillin, and carvone. With the exception of nicotine, the compounds identified thus far in the dissolvables are either flavoring compounds or binders. The concentration of free nicotine in the dissolvables was determined from the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and by measuring the pH and nicotine concentration by GC-MS. The results presented here are the first to reveal the complexity of dissolvable tobacco products and may be used to assess potential oral health effects.

  6. Design and chemical evaluation of reduced machine-yield cigarettes.

    PubMed

    McAdam, K G; Gregg, E O; Bevan, M; Dittrich, D J; Hemsley, S; Liu, C; Proctor, C J

    2012-02-01

    Experimental cigarettes (ECs) were made by combining technological applications that individually reduce the machine measured yields of specific toxicants or groups of toxicants in mainstream smoke (MS). Two tobacco blends, featuring a tobacco substitute sheet or a tobacco blend treatment, were combined with filters containing an amine functionalised resin (CR20L) and/or a polymer-derived, high activity carbon adsorbent to generate three ECs with the potential for generating lower smoke toxicant yields than conventional cigarettes. MS yields of smoke constituents were determined under 4 different smoking machine conditions. Health Canada Intense (HCI) machine smoking conditions gave the highest MS yields for nicotine-free dry particulate matter and for most smoke constituents measured. Toxicant yields from the ECs were compared with those from two commercial comparator cigarettes, three scientific control cigarettes measured contemporaneously and with published data on 120 commercial cigarettes. The ECs were found to generate some of the lowest machine yields of toxicants from cigarettes for which published HCI smoke chemistry data are available; these comparisons therefore confirm that ECs with reduced MS machine toxicant yields compared to commercial cigarettes can be produced. The results encourage further work examining human exposure to toxicants from these cigarettes, including human biomarker studies.

  7. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings.

  8. Chemically reduced graphene contains inherent metallic impurities present in parent natural and synthetic graphite.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Chua, Chun Kiang; Khezri, Bahareh; Sofer, Zdeněk; Webster, Richard D; Pumera, Martin

    2012-08-07

    Graphene-related materials are in the forefront of nanomaterial research. One of the most common ways to prepare graphenes is to oxidize graphite (natural or synthetic) to graphite oxide and exfoliate it to graphene oxide with consequent chemical reduction to chemically reduced graphene. Here, we show that both natural and synthetic graphite contain a large amount of metallic impurities that persist in the samples of graphite oxide after the oxidative treatment, and chemically reduced graphene after the chemical reduction. We demonstrate that, despite a substantial elimination during the oxidative treatment of graphite samples, a significant amount of impurities associated to the chemically reduced graphene materials still remain and alter their electrochemical properties dramatically. We propose a method for the purification of graphenes based on thermal treatment at 1,000 °C in chlorine atmosphere to reduce the effect of such impurities on the electrochemical properties. Our findings have important implications on the whole field of graphene research.

  9. Chemically reduced graphene contains inherent metallic impurities present in parent natural and synthetic graphite

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Chua, Chun Kiang; Khezri, Bahareh; Sofer, Zdeněk; Webster, Richard D.; Pumera, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Graphene-related materials are in the forefront of nanomaterial research. One of the most common ways to prepare graphenes is to oxidize graphite (natural or synthetic) to graphite oxide and exfoliate it to graphene oxide with consequent chemical reduction to chemically reduced graphene. Here, we show that both natural and synthetic graphite contain a large amount of metallic impurities that persist in the samples of graphite oxide after the oxidative treatment, and chemically reduced graphene after the chemical reduction. We demonstrate that, despite a substantial elimination during the oxidative treatment of graphite samples, a significant amount of impurities associated to the chemically reduced graphene materials still remain and alter their electrochemical properties dramatically. We propose a method for the purification of graphenes based on thermal treatment at 1,000 °C in chlorine atmosphere to reduce the effect of such impurities on the electrochemical properties. Our findings have important implications on the whole field of graphene research. PMID:22826262

  10. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Resources and Strategies for the Use of Writing Projects in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latulippe, Joe; Latulippe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    As an often recommended but under-utilized pedagogical strategy, writing in mathematics has many benefits for students. However, creating and grading worthwhile writing projects can be more time-consuming than utilizing more traditional forms of assessment. This paper provides a concrete example of a writing project prompt, questions, directions,…

  11. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kronbichler, Martin; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Kerschbaum, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret. Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs) and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs) matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection). During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. PMID:25954179

  12. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kronbichler, Martin; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret. Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs) and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs) matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection). During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval.

  13. Evidence for Shared Genetic Risk between ADHD Symptoms and Reduced Mathematics Ability: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Methods: Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents…

  14. Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper from aqueous solutions without reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kochemirovsky, V A; Tumkin, I I; Logunov, L S; Safonov, S V; Menchikov, Leonid G

    2012-08-31

    Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper without a traditional reducing agent has been used for the first time to obtain conductive patterns on a dielectric surface having a reducing ability. It is shown that phenol-formaldehyde binder of the dielectric (glass fibre) can successfully play the role of a reducing agent in this process. The resulting copper sediments have low electrical resistance and good topology. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

  15. The mathematical properties of the quasi-chemical model for microorganism growth-death kinetics in foods.

    PubMed

    Ross, E W; Taub, I A; Doona, C J; Feeherry, F E; Kustin, K

    2005-03-15

    Knowledge of the mathematical properties of the quasi-chemical model [Taub, Feeherry, Ross, Kustin, Doona, 2003. A quasi-chemical kinetics model for the growth and death of Staphylococcus aureus in intermediate moisture bread. J. Food Sci. 68 (8), 2530-2537], which is used to characterize and predict microbial growth-death kinetics in foods, is important for its applications in predictive microbiology. The model consists of a system of four ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which govern the temporal dependence of the bacterial life cycle (the lag, exponential growth, stationary, and death phases, respectively). The ODE system derives from a hypothetical four-step reaction scheme that postulates the activity of a critical intermediate as an antagonist to growth (perhaps through a quorum sensing biomechanism). The general behavior of the solutions to the ODEs is illustrated by several examples. In instances when explicit mathematical solutions to these ODEs are not obtainable, mathematical approximations are used to find solutions that are helpful in evaluating growth in the early stages and again near the end of the process. Useful solutions for the ODE system are also obtained in the case where the rate of antagonist formation is small. The examples and the approximate solutions provide guidance in the parameter estimation that must be done when fitting the model to data. The general behavior of the solutions is illustrated by examples, and the MATLAB programs with worked examples are included in the appendices for use by predictive microbiologists for data collected independently.

  16. Mapping of drug-like chemical universe with reduced complexity molecular frameworks.

    PubMed

    Kontijevskis, Aleksejs

    2017-03-28

    The emergence of DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DEL) field in past decade has attracted attention of pharmaceutical industry as a powerful mechanism for the discovery of novel drug-like hits for various biological targets. Nuevolution Chemetics technology enables DNA encoded synthesis of billions of chemically diverse drug-like small molecule compounds, and the efficient screening and optimization of these, facilitating effective identification of drug candidates at an unprecedented speed and scale. Although many approaches have been developed by the cheminformatics community for the analysis and visualization of drug-like chemical space, most of them are restricted to the analysis of maximum few millions of compounds and cannot handle collections of 10(8)-10(12) compounds typical for DELs. To address this big chemical data challenge, we developed Reduced Complexity Molecular (RCM) frameworks methodology as an abstract and very general way of representing chemical structures. By further introducing RCM framework descriptors we constructed a global framework map of drug-like chemical space and demonstrate how chemical space occupied by multi-million-member drug-like Chemetics DNA-encoded libraries and virtual combinatorial libraries with >10(12) members could be analysed and mapped without a need for library enumeration. We further validate the approach by performing RCM framework-based searches in drug-like chemical universe and mapping Chemetics library selection outputs for LSD1 target on a global framework chemical space map.

  17. Activation of Aluminum as an Effective Reducing Agent by Pitting Corrosion for Wet-chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F−, Cl−, and Br− in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu2Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent. PMID:23390579

  18. Facilitating Student Understanding of Buffering by an Integration of Mathematics and Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtright, Robert; Emry, Randall; Heaton, Ruth M.; Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple undergraduate exercise involving the titration of a weak acid by a strong base using a pH meter and a micropipette. Students then use their data and carry out graphical analyses with a spreadsheet. The analyses involve using mathematical concepts such as first-derivative and semi-log plots and provide an opportunity for…

  19. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    PubMed

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P<2 and ΔE >9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants.

  20. Development of mathematical models and methods for calculation of rail steel deformation resistance of various chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umansky, A. A.; Golovatenko, A. V.; Kadykov, V. N.; Dumova, L. V.

    2016-09-01

    Using the device of the complex “Gleeble System 3800” the physical experimental studies of deformation resistance of chrome rail steel at different thermo-mechanical deformation parameters were carried out. On the basis of mathematical processing of experimental data the statistical model of dependence of the rail steel deformation resistance on the simultaneous influence of deformation degree, rate and temperature, as well as the steel chemical composition, was developed. The nature of influence of deformation parameters and the content of chemical elements in steel on its resistance to plastic deformation is scientifically substantiated. Verification of the adequacy of the proposed model by the comparative analysis of the calculated and actual rolling forces during passes in the universal rail-and-structural steel mill JSC “EVRAZ Consolidated West Siberian Metallurgical Plant” (“EVRAZ ZSMK”) showed the possibility of its use for development and improvement of new modes of rails rolling.

  1. Reduced and simplified chemical kinetics for air dissociation using Computational Singular Perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goussis, D. A.; Lam, S. H.; Gnoffo, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Computational Singular Perturbation CSP methods is employed (1) in the modeling of a homogeneous isothermal reacting system and (2) in the numerical simulation of the chemical reactions in a hypersonic flowfield. Reduced and simplified mechanisms are constructed. The solutions obtained on the basis of these approximate mechanisms are shown to be in very good agreement with the exact solution based on the full mechanism. Physically meaningful approximations are derived. It is demonstrated that the deduction of these approximations from CSP is independent of the complexity of the problem and requires no intuition or experience in chemical kinetics.

  2. Mathematical Analysis of Space Radiator Segmenting for Increased Reliability and Reduced Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft for long duration deep space missions will need to be designed to survive micrometeoroid bombardment of their surfaces some of which may actually be punctured. To avoid loss of the entire mission the damage due to such punctures must be limited to small, localized areas. This is especially true for power system radiators, which necessarily feature large surface areas to reject heat at relatively low temperature to the space environment by thermal radiation. It may be intuitively obvious that if a space radiator is composed of a large number of independently operating segments, such as heat pipes, a random micrometeoroid puncture will result only in the loss of the punctured segment, and not the entire radiator. Due to the redundancy achieved by independently operating segments, the wall thickness and consequently the weight of such segments can be drastically reduced. Probability theory is used to estimate the magnitude of such weight reductions as the number of segments is increased. An analysis of relevant parameter values required for minimum mass segmented radiators is also included.

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS OF STEROIDOGENESIS TO PREDICT MOLECULAR RESPONSE FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment can induce adverse effects on reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife, mediated through hormonal disturbances.

  4. Reducing health risk assigned to organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator.

    PubMed

    Laman, David M; Weiler, B Douglas; Skeen, Rodney S

    2013-03-01

    Organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator have been characterized with an improved set of analytical methods to reduce the human health risk assigned to operations of the facility. A gas chromatography/mass selective detection method with substantially reduced detection limits has been used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared microscopy to improve the speciation of semi-volatile and non-volatile organics emitted from the incinerator. The reduced detection limits have allowed a significant reduction in the assumed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aminobiphenyl (ABP) emission rates used as inputs to the human health risk assessment for the incinerator. A mean factor of 17 decrease in assigned human health risk is realized for six common local exposure scenarios as a result of the reduced PAH and ABP detection limits.

  5. Mathematical Characterization of Protein Sequences Using Patterns as Chemical Group Combinations of Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Provas; Ray, Korak Kumar; Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Jana, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence similarity is the fundamental concept behind the protein phylogenetic tree formation. By virtue of this method, we can explain the evolutionary relationships, but further explanations are not possible unless sequences are studied through the chemical nature of individual amino acids. Here we develop a new methodology to characterize the protein sequences on the basis of the chemical nature of the amino acids. We design various algorithms for studying the variation of chemical group transitions and various chemical group combinations as patterns in the protein sequences. The amino acid sequence of conventional myosin II head domain of 14 family members are taken to illustrate this new approach. We find two blocks of maximum length 6 aa as 'FPKATD' and 'Y/FTNEKL' without repeating the same chemical nature and one block of maximum length 20 aa with the repetition of chemical nature which are common among all 14 members. We also check commonality with another motor protein sub-family kinesin, KIF1A. Based on our analysis we find a common block of length 8 aa both in myosin II and KIF1A. This motif is located in the neck linker region which could be responsible for the generation of mechanical force, enabling us to find the unique blocks which remain chemically conserved across the family. We also validate our methodology with different protein families such as MYOI, Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Altogether, our studies provide a new methodology for investigating the conserved amino acids' pattern in different proteins.

  6. Mathematical Characterization of Protein Sequences Using Patterns as Chemical Group Combinations of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Jana, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence similarity is the fundamental concept behind the protein phylogenetic tree formation. By virtue of this method, we can explain the evolutionary relationships, but further explanations are not possible unless sequences are studied through the chemical nature of individual amino acids. Here we develop a new methodology to characterize the protein sequences on the basis of the chemical nature of the amino acids. We design various algorithms for studying the variation of chemical group transitions and various chemical group combinations as patterns in the protein sequences. The amino acid sequence of conventional myosin II head domain of 14 family members are taken to illustrate this new approach. We find two blocks of maximum length 6 aa as ‘FPKATD’ and ‘Y/FTNEKL’ without repeating the same chemical nature and one block of maximum length 20 aa with the repetition of chemical nature which are common among all 14 members. We also check commonality with another motor protein sub-family kinesin, KIF1A. Based on our analysis we find a common block of length 8 aa both in myosin II and KIF1A. This motif is located in the neck linker region which could be responsible for the generation of mechanical force, enabling us to find the unique blocks which remain chemically conserved across the family. We also validate our methodology with different protein families such as MYOI, Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Altogether, our studies provide a new methodology for investigating the conserved amino acids’ pattern in different proteins. PMID:27930687

  7. Method for Producing Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics and for Stabilizing Contaminants Encapsulated therein Utilizing Reducing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    1999-05-05

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions is stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  8. Method for producing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics and for stabilizing contaminants encapsulated therein utilizing reducing agents

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2000-01-01

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions are stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  9. Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.

    PubMed

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme.

  10. Advantages of isothermal titration calorimetry for xylanase kinetics in comparison to chemical-reducing-end assays.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Martin J; Murphy, Leigh; Lei, Nina; Krogh, Kristian B R M; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2011-03-01

    In lignocellulosic raw materials for biomass conversion, hemicelluloses constitute a substantial fraction, with xylan being the primary part. Although many pretreatments reduce the amount or change the distribution of xylan, it is important to degrade residual xylan so as to improve the overall yield. Typically, xylanase reaction rates are measured in stopped assays by chemical quantification of the reducing ends. With isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), the heat flow of the hydrolysis can be measured in continuous fashion, with the reaction rate being directly proportional to the heat flow. Reaction enthalpies for carbohydrate hydrolysis are typically below 5kJ/mol, which is the limiting factor for straight forward calorimetric quantification of enzymatic reaction rates using current ITC technology. To increase the apparent reaction enthalpy, we employed a subsequent oxidation of hydrolysis products by carbohydrate oxidase and catalase. Here we show that the coupled assay with carbohydrate oxidase and catalase can be used to measure enzyme kinetics of a GH10 xylanase from Aspergillus aculeatus on birch xylan and wheat arabinoxylan. Results are discussed in the light of a critical analysis of the sensitivity of four chemical-reducing-end quantification methods using well-characterized substrates.

  11. Chemical and electrochemical study of fabrics coated with reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, J.; Fernández, J.; del Río, A. I.; Bonastre, J.; Cases, F.

    2013-08-01

    Polyester fabrics coated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been obtained and later characterized by means of chemical and electrochemical techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a decrease of the oxygen content as well as an increase of the sp2 fraction after chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO). The electrical conductivity was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and showed a decrease of 5 orders of magnitude in the resistance (Ω) when GO was reduced to RGO. The phase angle also changed from 90° for PES-GO (capacitative behavior) to 0° for RGO coated fabrics (resistive behavior). In general an increase in the number of RGO layers produced an increase of the conductivity of the fabrics. EIS measurements in metal/sample/electrolyte configuration showed better electrocatalytic properties and faster diffusion rate for RGO specimens. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was employed to test the electroactivity of the different fabrics obtained. The sample coated with GO was not conductive since negative feedback was obtained. When GO was reduced to RGO the sample behaved like a conducting material since positive feedback was obtained. Approach curves indicated that the redox mediator had influence on the electrochemical response. The Fe(CN)63-/4- redox mediator produced a higher electrochemical response than Ru(NH3)63+/2+ one.

  12. Spraying chicken skin with selected chemicals to reduce attached Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Xiong, H; Li, Y; Slavik, M F; Walker, J T

    1998-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of 5% and 10% trisodium phosphate (TSP), 0.1% and 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 1% and 2% lactic acid (LA), and 0.1% and 0.5% grapefruit seed extract (DF-100) were evaluated in prechill spraying for reducing Salmonella typhimurium attached on chicken skins. Chicken skins were inoculated with S. typhimurium and then sprayed with the selected chemical solutions for 30 sec at 206 kPa and 20 degrees C. After chemical spraying, the skins were rinsed by spraying tap water for 30 sec. Each skin was stomached in buffered peptone water (BPW) for 1 min. The stomaching water was then diluted serially, inoculated onto both xylose lysine tergitol (XLT4) agar and Aerobic Plate Count (APC) Petrifilm, and incubated for 24 hr at 37 degrees C. The results showed that the numbers of Salmonella on the chicken skins after the chemical spraying were significantly lower than those without spray (P < 0.05). The CPC reduced Salmonella by 1.5 to 1.9 log10. TSP resulted in a 2.1 to 2.2 log10 reduction of Salmonella and DF-100 produced a 1.6 to 1.8 log10 reduction of Salmonella. The LA had a number of Salmonella with a 2.2 log10 reduction. The 0.5% CPC resulted a significantly greater reduction in Salmonella than 0.1% CPC. There were no significant differences in Salmonella reduction between different concentrations of the other three chemicals.

  13. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields.

  14. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields. PMID:24917701

  15. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-05-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields.

  16. Nitroxyl (HNO): A Reduced Form of Nitric Oxide with Distinct Chemical, Pharmacological, and Therapeutic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shoman, Mai E.; Aly, Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO), the one-electron reduced form of nitric oxide (NO), shows a distinct chemical and biological profile from that of NO. HNO is currently being viewed as a vasodilator and positive inotropic agent that can be used as a potential treatment for heart failure. The ability of HNO to react with thiols and thiol containing proteins is largely used to explain the possible biological actions of HNO. Herein, we summarize different aspects related to HNO including HNO donors, chemistry, biology, and methods used for its detection. PMID:26770654

  17. Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.

  18. Balancing Chemical Reactions With Matrix Methods and Computer Assistance. Applications of Linear Algebra to Chemistry. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 339.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Ralph P.

    This material was developed to provide an application of matrix mathematics in chemistry, and to show the concepts of linear independence and dependence in vector spaces of dimensions greater than three in a concrete setting. The techniques presented are not intended to be considered as replacements for such chemical methods as oxidation-reduction…

  19. Imaging Chemical Aggregation of Ni/NiO Particles from Reduced NiO-YSZ

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2011-07-20

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of nickel oxide yttria-stabilized zirconia (NiO-YSZ) was carried out after various hydrogen reducing and methane steam reforming conditions. Nickel aggregation was visualized after methane steam reforming by correlating Ni K{sub {alpha}} map with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. From the reduced O K{sub {alpha}} intensities in the Ni K{sub {alpha}} dominated regions after methane steam reforming, NiO reduction in to Ni can be interpreted. From correlation between Zr K{sub {alpha}} and O K{sub {alpha}} maps, high stability of YSZ was also realized. Examples of NiO-YSZ overlapped particles are considered to discuss chemical imaging of a single particle.

  20. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  1. Synthesis of Bulk BC8 Silicon Allotrope by Direct Transformation and Reduced-Pressure Chemical Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kurakevych, Oleksandr O; Le Godec, Yann; Crichton, Wilson A; Guignard, Jérémy; Strobel, Timothy A; Zhang, Haidong; Liu, Hanyu; Coelho Diogo, Cristina; Polian, Alain; Menguy, Nicolas; Juhl, Stephen J; Gervais, Christel

    2016-09-06

    Phase-pure samples of a metastable allotrope of silicon, Si-III or BC8, were synthesized by direct elemental transformation at 14 GPa and ∼900 K and also at significantly reduced pressure in the Na-Si system at 9.5 GPa by quenching from high temperatures ∼1000 K. Pure sintered polycrystalline ingots with dimensions ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm can be easily recovered at ambient conditions. The chemical route also allowed us to decrease the synthetic pressures to as low as 7 GPa, while pressures required for direct phase transition in elemental silicon are significantly higher. In situ control of the synthetic protocol, using synchrotron radiation, allowed us to observe the underlying mechanism of chemical interactions and phase transformations in the Na-Si system. Detailed characterization of Si-III using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, (29)Si NMR spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy are discussed. These large-volume syntheses at significantly reduced pressures extend the range of possible future bulk characterization methods and applications.

  2. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Wcislo, William T.

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance of these lines of defence, and their activity spectra, by scoring abundance of visible Pseudonocardia for nine species from five genera and measuring rates of MG grooming after challenging ants with disease agents of differing virulence. Atta and Sericomyrmex have lost or greatly reduced the abundance of visible bacteria. When challenged with diverse disease agents, including Escovopsis, they significantly increased MG grooming rates and expanded the range of targets. By contrast, species of Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex maintain abundant Pseudonocardia. When challenged, these species had lower MG grooming rates, targeted primarily to brood. More elaborate MG defences and reduced reliance on mutualistic Pseudonocardia are correlated with larger colony size among attine genera, raising questions about the efficacy of managing disease in large societies with chemical cocktails versus bacterial antimicrobial metabolites. PMID:19324734

  3. Ferromagnetism in chemically reduced LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tao; Ye, Ning; Xu, Liuwei; Sang, Yuanhua; Chen, Yanxue; Song, Wei; Long, Xifa; Wang, Jiyang; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The ferromagnetism of bulk LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 at room temperature was investigated for the first time in the present work. The stoichiometric LiNbO3 is non-magnetic, while congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 show very weak ferromagnetism. After chemical reduction in a mixture of zinc and lithium carbonate powders under flowing nitrogen, the ferromagnetic behavior of each sample became clear, with an increased value of magnetization. The saturation magnetization, the magnetic remanence and the coercive field of reduced congruent LiNbO3 are 7.0  ×  10-3 emu g-1, 0.65  ×  10-3 emu g-1 and 0.050 kOe, respectively. The ferromagnetism of chemically reduced LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 can be explained by considering the intrinsic Li vacancies, the appearance of Nb4+ (or Ta4+) on the surface with non-zero net spin and the oxygen vacancies at the surface.

  4. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings.

  5. Improved chemical and electrochemical stability of perovskite oxides with less reducible cations at the surface.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Nikolai; Lu, Qiyang; Sun, Lixin; Crumlin, Ethan J; Yildiz, Bilge

    2016-09-01

    Segregation and phase separation of aliovalent dopants on perovskite oxide (ABO3) surfaces are detrimental to the performance of energy conversion systems such as solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells and catalysts for thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting. One key reason behind the instability of perovskite oxide surfaces is the electrostatic attraction of the negatively charged A-site dopants (for example, ) by the positively charged oxygen vacancies () enriched at the surface. Here we show that reducing the surface concentration improves the oxygen surface exchange kinetics and stability significantly, albeit contrary to the well-established understanding that surface oxygen vacancies facilitate reactions with O2 molecules. We take La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 (LSC) as a model perovskite oxide, and modify its surface with additive cations that are more and less reducible than Co on the B-site of LSC. By using ambient-pressure X-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy, we proved that the dominant role of the less reducible cations is to suppress the enrichment and phase separation of Sr while reducing the concentration of and making the LSC more oxidized at its surface. Consequently, we found that these less reducible cations significantly improve stability, with up to 30 times faster oxygen exchange kinetics after 54 h in air at 530 °C achieved by Hf addition onto LSC. Finally, the results revealed a 'volcano' relation between the oxygen exchange kinetics and the oxygen vacancy formation enthalpy of the binary oxides of the additive cations. This volcano relation highlights the existence of an optimum surface oxygen vacancy concentration that balances the gain in oxygen exchange kinetics and the chemical stability loss.

  6. Improved chemical and electrochemical stability of perovskite oxides with less reducible cations at the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Nikolai; Lu, Qiyang; Sun, Lixin; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Yildiz, Bilge

    2016-09-01

    Segregation and phase separation of aliovalent dopants on perovskite oxide (ABO3) surfaces are detrimental to the performance of energy conversion systems such as solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells and catalysts for thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting. One key reason behind the instability of perovskite oxide surfaces is the electrostatic attraction of the negatively charged A-site dopants (for example, ) by the positively charged oxygen vacancies () enriched at the surface. Here we show that reducing the surface concentration improves the oxygen surface exchange kinetics and stability significantly, albeit contrary to the well-established understanding that surface oxygen vacancies facilitate reactions with O2 molecules. We take La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 (LSC) as a model perovskite oxide, and modify its surface with additive cations that are more and less reducible than Co on the B-site of LSC. By using ambient-pressure X-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy, we proved that the dominant role of the less reducible cations is to suppress the enrichment and phase separation of Sr while reducing the concentration of and making the LSC more oxidized at its surface. Consequently, we found that these less reducible cations significantly improve stability, with up to 30 times faster oxygen exchange kinetics after 54 h in air at 530 °C achieved by Hf addition onto LSC. Finally, the results revealed a `volcano' relation between the oxygen exchange kinetics and the oxygen vacancy formation enthalpy of the binary oxides of the additive cations. This volcano relation highlights the existence of an optimum surface oxygen vacancy concentration that balances the gain in oxygen exchange kinetics and the chemical stability loss.

  7. Applying the three R's: Reduce, reuse, and recycle in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohamed K; Peters, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) assessment was conducted by applying the three R's, reduce, reuse, and recycle, in a chemical industry for the purpose of reducing the amount of wastewater generated, reusing paint wastewater in the manufacture of cement bricks, recycling cooling water, and improving water usage efficiency. The results of this study showed that the annual wastewater flow generated from the paint manufacturing can be reduced from 1,100 m(3) to 488.4 m(3) (44.4% reduction) when a high-pressure hose is used. Two mixtures were prepared. The first mixture (A) contains cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, Addicrete BVF, and clean water. The second mixture (B) contains the same components used in the first mixture, except that paint wastewater was used instead of the clean water. The prepared samples were tested for water absorption, toxicity, reactivity, compressive strength, ignitability, and corrosion. The tests results indicated that using paint wastewater in the manufacture of the cement bricks improved the mechanical properties of the bricks. The toxicity test results showed that the metals concentration in the bricks did not exceed the U.S. EPA limits. This company achieved the goal of zero liquid discharge (ZLD), especially after recycling 2,800 m(3) of cooling water. The total annual saving could reach $42,570 with a payback period of 41 days.

  8. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide for supercapacitor applications: An effective green alternative for chemically reduced graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Mariano, Ruperto G.; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J.

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. The most successful method for preparing graphene from graphite involves the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and reduction back to graphene. Even though different chemical and thermal methods have been developed to reduce GO to graphene, the use of less toxic materials to generate graphene still remains a challenge. In this study we developed a facile one-pot synthesis of deoxygenated graphene (hGO) via alkaline hydrothermal process, which exhibits similar properties to the graphene obtained via hydrazine reduction (i.e. the same degree of deoxygenation found in hydrazine reduced GO). Moreover, the hGO formed freestanding, binder-free paper electrodes for supercapacitors. Coin cell type (CR2032) symmetric supercapacitors were assembled using the hGO electrodes. Electrochemical characterization of hGO was carried out using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and ethylmethylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) electrolytes. The results for the hGO electrodes were compared with the hydrazine reduced GO (rGO) electrode. The hGO electrode exhibits a energy density of 20 W h kg-1 and 50 W h kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI respectively, while delivering a maximum power density of 11 kW kg-1 and 14.7 kW kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI, respectively.

  9. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-07-01

    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions.

  10. Graphene growth from reduced graphene oxide by chemical vapour deposition: seeded growth accompanied by restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Jin; Hyun, Moon Seop; Myung, Sung; Kang, Min-A.; Yoo, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyoung G.; Choi, Bong Gill; Cho, Youngji; Lee, Gaehang; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from RGO flakes on Cu foils up to a few hundred nanometres during CVD process, it shows appreciable improvement in structural quality. The monotonous enhancement of the structural quality of the graphene with increasing length of the graphene growth from RGO suggests that seeded CVD growth of graphene from RGO on Cu surface is accompanied by the restoration of graphitic structure. The finding provides insight into graphene growth and defect reconstruction useful for the production of tailored carbon nanostructures with required properties.

  11. Ultrafast and sensitive room temperature NH3 gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Wang, Ying; Huang, Xiaolu; Wei, Hao; Wei, Liangmin; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-01-17

    Ultrafast and sensitive room temperature NH3 gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are demonstrated in this work. rGO, which was prepared via the reduction of graphene oxide by pyrrole, exhibited excellent responsive sensitivity and selectivity to ammonia (NH3) gas. The high sensing performance of these rGO sensors with resistance change as high as 2.4% and response time as fast as 1.4 s was realized when the concentration of NH3 gas was as low as 1 ppb. Furthermore, the rGO sensors could rapidly recover to their initial states with IR illumination. The devices also showed excellent repeatability and selectivity to NH3. These rGO sensors, with low cost, low power, and easy fabrication, as well as scalable properties, showed great potential for ultrasensitive detection of NH3 gas in a wide variety of fields.

  12. Ferromagnetic inks facilitate large scale paper recycling and reduce bleach chemical consumption.

    PubMed

    Zeltner, Martin; Toedtli, Laura M; Hild, Nora; Fuhrer, Roland; Rossier, Michaël; Gerber, Lukas C; Raso, Renzo A; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2013-04-23

    Deinking is a fundamental part of paper recycling. As the global paper consumption rises and exceeds even the annual paper production, recycling of this raw material is of high importance. Magnetic ink based on carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles enables an alternative approach to state of the art paper deinking. Magnetic deinking comprises three steps (preselection, washing, and magnetic separation of fibers). Preseparation of printed from nonprinted scraps of paper is feasible and reduces the paper mass which has to be fed into a deinking process. A consecutive washing process removes surficial magnetic ink that can be collected by application of a permanent magnet. Still, printed parts are subjected to a further continuous magnetic deinking step, where magnetic and nonmagnetic paper fibers can be separated. Magnetic deinking of a model print allows recovery of more than 80% of bright fibers without any harsh chemical treatment and the re-collection of more than 82% of magnetic ink.

  13. Secondary Defense Chemicals in Milkweed Reduce Parasite Infection in Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus.

    PubMed

    Gowler, Camden D; Leon, Kristoffer E; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-06-01

    In tri-trophic systems, herbivores may benefit from their host plants in fighting parasitic infections. Plants can provide parasite resistance in two contrasting ways: either directly, by interfering with the parasite, or indirectly, by increasing herbivore immunity or health. In monarch butterflies, the larval diet of milkweed strongly influences the fitness of a common protozoan parasite. Toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides correlate strongly with parasite resistance of the host, with greater cardenolide concentrations in the larval diet leading to lower parasite growth. However, milkweed cardenolides may covary with other indices of plant quality including nutrients, and a direct experimental link between cardenolides and parasite performance has not been established. To determine if the anti-parasitic activity of milkweeds is indeed due to secondary chemicals, as opposed to nutrition, we supplemented the diet of infected and uninfected monarch larvae with milkweed latex, which contains cardenolides but no nutrients. Across three experiments, increased dietary cardenolide concentrations reduced parasite growth in infected monarchs, which consequently had longer lifespans. However, uninfected monarchs showed no differences in lifespan across treatments, confirming that cardenolide-containing latex does not increase general health. Our results suggest that cardenolides are a driving force behind plant-derived resistance in this system.

  14. Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina Neves Girao Salgado; Amaral, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Franca, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. Sixty slabs of dentin from human teeth were sealed so that only the enamel surface was exposed. The enamel surfaces were photographed for initial color assessment. Staining was performed by immersing the dental slabs in 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and then in black tea for 60 minutes. This process was repeated 15 times. Photographs were taken at the end of the staining process, and the slabs were divided into 5 groups (n = 12), 3 to be brushed with toothpastes containing chemical whitening agents (2 containing phosphate salts and 1 containing phosphate salts plus hydrogen peroxide) and 2 to represent control groups (ordinary/nonwhitening toothpaste and distilled water). The dental slabs were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing with toothpaste slurry or distilled water, according to each group's specifications. After brushing, more photographs were taken for color analysis. The results showed a significant reduction in luminosity after the staining process in addition to an increase in the colors red and yellow (P < 0.001). After brushing, there was a significant increase in luminosity and a reduction in both red and yellow (P < 0.001). However, there was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste. The whitening toothpastes did not outperform an ordinary toothpaste in the removal of extrinsic staining.

  15. 76 FR 41365 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No... Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... Security (BIS) is seeking public comments on the impact of amending the Chemical Weapons...

  16. A constrained reduced-dimensionality search algorithm to follow chemical reactions on potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankau, Timm; Yu, Chin-Hui

    2013-06-01

    A constrained reduced-dimensionality algorithm can be used to efficiently locate transition states and products in reactions involving conformational changes. The search path (SP) is constructed stepwise from linear combinations of a small set of manually chosen internal coordinates, namely the predictors. The majority of the internal coordinates, the correctors, are optimized at every step of the SP to minimize the total energy of the system so that the path becomes a minimum energy path connecting products and transition states with the reactants. Problems arise when the set of predictors needs to include weak coordinates, for example, dihedral angles, as well as strong ones such as bond distances. Two principal constraining methods for the weak coordinates are proposed to mend this situation: static and dynamic constraints. Dynamic constraints are automatically activated and revoked depending on the state of the weak coordinates among the predictors, while static ones require preset control factors and act permanently. All these methods enable the successful application (4 reactions are presented involving cyclohexane, alanine dipeptide, trimethylsulfonium chloride, and azafulvene) of the reduced dimensionality method to reactions where the reaction path covers large conformational changes in addition to the formation/breaking of chemical bonds. Dynamic constraints are found to be the most efficient method as they require neither additional information about the geometry of the transition state nor fine tuning of control parameters.

  17. Chemical defense in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic herbivorous Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Daniela; Pohnert, Georg; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2007-08-01

    The submersed macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Hydrocharitaceae) is invasive in Europe and frequently found in aquatic plant communities. Many invertebrate herbivores, such as larvae of the generalist aquatic moth, Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), avoid feeding on E. nuttallii and preferably consume native species. First instar larvae exhibited a high mortality on E. nuttallii compared to the native macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus. Mortality of older larvae was also high when fed E. nuttallii exposed to high light intensities. Growth of older larvae was strongly reduced on E. nuttallii compared to pondweeds (Potamogeton lucens). Neither differences in nitrogen nor phosphorus content explained the different performance on these submerged macrophytes, but plants differed in their flavonoid content. To investigate whether plant-derived allelochemicals from E. nuttallii affect larval performance in the same way as live plants, we developed a functional bioassay, in which Acentria larvae were reared on artificial diets. We offered larvae Potamogeton leaf disks coated with crude Elodea extracts and partially purified flavonoids. Elodea extracts deterred larvae from feeding on otherwise preferred Potamogeton leaves, and yet, unknown compounds in the extracts reduced growth and survival of Acentria. The flavonoid fraction containing luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide, apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide, and chrysoeriol-7-O-diglucuronide strongly reduced feeding of larvae, but did not increase mortality. The concentrations of these compounds in our assays were 0.01-0.09% of plant dry mass, which is in the lower range of concentrations found in the field (0.02-1.2%). Chemical defense in E. nuttallii thus plays an ecologically relevant role in this aquatic plant-herbivore system.

  18. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    PubMed

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  19. Dimensional reduction of the master equation for stochastic chemical networks: The reduced-multiplane method.

    PubMed

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer; Kupferman, Raz; Lipshtat, Azi; Zait, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Chemical reaction networks which exhibit strong fluctuations are common in microscopic systems in which reactants appear in low copy numbers. The analysis of these networks requires stochastic methods, which come in two forms: direct integration of the master equation and Monte Carlo simulations. The master equation becomes infeasible for large networks because the number of equations increases exponentially with the number of reactive species. Monte Carlo methods, which are more efficient in integrating over the exponentially large phase space, also become impractical due to the large amounts of noisy data that need to be stored and analyzed. The recently introduced multiplane method [A. Lipshtat and O. Biham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 170601 (2004)] is an efficient framework for the stochastic analysis of large reaction networks. It is a dimensional reduction method, based on the master equation, which provides a dramatic reduction in the number of equations without compromising the accuracy of the results. The reduction is achieved by breaking the network into a set of maximal fully connected subnetworks (maximal cliques). A separate master equation is written for the reduced probability distribution associated with each clique, with suitable coupling terms between them. This method is highly efficient in the case of sparse networks, in which the maximal cliques tend to be small. However, in dense networks some of the cliques may be rather large and the dimensional reduction is not as effective. Furthermore, the derivation of the multiplane equations from the master equation is tedious and difficult. Here we present the reduced-multiplane method in which the maximal cliques are broken down to the fundamental two-vertex cliques. The number of equations is further reduced, making the method highly efficient even for dense networks. Moreover, the equations take a simpler form, which can be easily constructed using a diagrammatic procedure, for any desired network

  20. Reduced chemical and electrical connections of fast-spiking interneurons in experimental cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Roper, Steven N

    2014-09-15

    Aberrant neural connections are regarded as a principal factor contributing to epileptogenesis. This study examined chemical and electrical connections between fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (FS-PV) interneurons and regular-spiking (RS) neurons (pyramidal neurons or spiny stellate neurons) in a rat model of prenatal irradiation-induced cortical dysplasia. Presynaptic action potentials were evoked by current injection and the elicited unitary inhibitory or excitatory postsynaptic potentials (uIPSPs or uEPSPs) were recorded in the postsynaptic cell. In dysplastic cortex, connection rates between presynaptic FS-PV interneurons and postsynaptic RS neurons and FS-PV interneurons, and uIPSP amplitudes were significantly smaller than controls, but both failure rates and coefficient of variation of uIPSP amplitudes were larger than controls. In contrast, connection rates from RS neurons to FS-PV interneurons and uEPSPs amplitude were similar in the two groups. Assessment of the paired pulse ratio showed a significant decrease in synaptic release probability at FS-PV interneuronal terminals, and the density of terminal boutons on axons of biocytin-filled FS-PV interneurons was also decreased, suggesting presynaptic dysfunction in chemical synapses formed by FS-PV interneurons. Electrical connections were observed between FS-PV interneurons, and the connection rates and coupling coefficients were smaller in dysplastic cortex than controls. In dysplastic cortex, we found a reduced synaptic efficiency for uIPSPs originating from FS-PV interneurons regardless of the type of target cell, and impaired electrical connections between FS-PV interneurons. This expands our understanding of the fundamental impairment of inhibition in this model and may have relevance for certain types of human cortical dysplasia.

  1. A Probablistic Diagram to Guide Chemical Design with Reduced Potency to Incur Cytotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity is a concern with many chemicals currently in commerce, and with new chemicals that are introduced each year. The standard approach to testing chemicals is to run studies in laboratory animals (e.g. rats, mice, dogs), but because of the expense of these studies and conce...

  2. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks.

  3. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  4. Manipulating respiratory levels in Escherichia coli for aerobic formation of reduced chemical products.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangfeng; Sánchez, Ailen; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2011-11-01

    Optimizing the productivity of bioengineered strains requires balancing ATP generation and carbon atom conservation through fine-tuning cell respiration and metabolism. Traditional approaches manipulate cell respiration by altering air feeding, which are technically difficult especially in large bioreactors. An approach based on genetic regulation may better serve this purpose. With excess oxygen supply to the culture, we efficiently manipulated Escherichia coli cell respiration by adding different amount of coenzyme Q1 to strains lacking the ubiCA genes, which encode two critical enzymes for ubiquinone synthesis. As a proof-of-concept, the metabolic effect of the ubiCA gene knockout and coenzyme Q1 supplementation were characterized, and the metabolic profiles of the experimental strains showed clear correlations with coenzyme Q1 concentrations. Further proof-of-principle experiments were performed to illustrate that the approach can be used to optimize cell respiration for the production of chemicals of interest such as ethanol. This study showed that controlled respiration through genetic manipulation can be exploited to allow much larger operating windows for reduced product formation even under fully aerobic conditions.

  5. Reducing the emission of ozone depleting chemicals through use of a self-cleaning soldering process

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, L.; Martin, G.; Van Buren, P.; Iman, R.; Paffett, M.T.

    1991-12-31

    Motorola has jointed with Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories to perform work under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to reduce the use of CFC`s and other ozone depleting printing wiring board (PWB) cleaning solvents. This study evaluated the use of a new soldering process that uses dilute adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid during the soldering process and precludes the need for subsequent cleaning with ozone depleting solvents. This paper presents results from a series of designed experiments that evaluated PWB cleanliness as a function of various levels of machine control parameters. The study included a comprehensive hardware reliability evaluation, which included environmental conditioning, cleanliness testing, surface chemical analysis, surface insulation resistance testing, along with electrical, mechanical and long term storage testing. The results of this study that the new process produces quality, reliable hardware over a wide range of processing parameters. Adoption of this process, which eliminates the need for supplemental cleaning, will have a positive impact on many environmental problems, including depletion of the ozone layer.

  6. Reducing the emission of ozone depleting chemicals through use of a self-cleaning soldering process

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, L.; Martin, G.; Van Buren, P. . Government Electronics Group); Iman, R. ); Paffett, M.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Motorola has jointed with Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories to perform work under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to reduce the use of CFC's and other ozone depleting printing wiring board (PWB) cleaning solvents. This study evaluated the use of a new soldering process that uses dilute adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid during the soldering process and precludes the need for subsequent cleaning with ozone depleting solvents. This paper presents results from a series of designed experiments that evaluated PWB cleanliness as a function of various levels of machine control parameters. The study included a comprehensive hardware reliability evaluation, which included environmental conditioning, cleanliness testing, surface chemical analysis, surface insulation resistance testing, along with electrical, mechanical and long term storage testing. The results of this study that the new process produces quality, reliable hardware over a wide range of processing parameters. Adoption of this process, which eliminates the need for supplemental cleaning, will have a positive impact on many environmental problems, including depletion of the ozone layer.

  7. Excellent electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of chemically reduced graphitic oxide paper at 101 GHz*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Parveen; Kaushik, Sachin; Sharma, Rahul; Chakravarty, Disha; Raj, Rishi; Sharma, Jyotirmay

    2016-06-01

    Graphitic oxide (GO) was synthesized by oxidation of graphite powder using Hummer's method and the formed GO is solution processed into paper-like macroscopic form. Subsequently, chemically reduced graphitic oxide paper (CRGOP) is prepared by hydrazine vapours induced reduction of formed GO precursor based paper. The formation of GO and its successful reduction to RGO phase is confirmed by FTIR, Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It has been observed that due to high electrical conductivity ~200 micron thick CRGOP display excellent EMI shielding performance at very high frequency of 101 GHz frequency with total shielding effectiveness (SE) value of -35.49 dB (i.e. >99.97% blocking of incident EM radiation) which is much higher compared to pristine GO paper (-1.55 dB) or comparable to expanded graphite (EG) sheet (-35.61 dB). Due to their lightweight nature, these freestanding CRGOPs display average specific SE value of -221.8 dB cm3/g. Besides, their excellent flexibility and makes them potential candidate for lightweight EMI gasketing material compared to other forms of flexible carbons like EG.

  8. Chemical Reactivity Probes for Assessing Abiotic Natural Attenuation by Reducing Iron Minerals.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dimin; Bradley, Miranda J; Hinkle, Adrian W; Johnson, Richard L; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2016-02-16

    Increasing recognition that abiotic natural attenuation (NA) of chlorinated solvents can be important has created demand for improved methods to characterize the redox properties of the aquifer materials that are responsible for abiotic NA. This study explores one promising approach: using chemical reactivity probes (CRPs) to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of contaminant reduction by reducing iron minerals. Assays of thermodynamic CRPs were developed to determine the reduction potentials (ECRP) of suspended minerals by spectrophotometric determination of equilibrium CRP speciation and calculations using the Nernst equation. ECRP varied as expected with mineral type, mineral loading, and Fe(II) concentration. Comparison of ECRP with reduction potentials measured potentiometrically using a Pt electrode (EPt) showed that ECRP was 100-150 mV more negative than EPt. When EPt was measured with small additions of CRPs, the systematic difference between EPt and ECRP was eliminated, suggesting that these CRPs are effective mediators of electron transfer between mineral and electrode surfaces. Model contaminants (4-chloronitrobenzene, 2-chloroacetophenone, and carbon tetrachloride) were used as kinetic CRPs. The reduction rate constants of kinetic CRPs correlated well with the ECRP for mineral suspensions. Using the rate constants compiled from literature for contaminants and relative mineral reduction potentials based on ECRP measurements, qualitatively consistent trends were obtained, suggesting that CRP-based assays may be useful for estimating abiotic NA rates of contaminants in groundwater.

  9. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Sirivedhin; Tanita

    2003-03-06

    Research was conducted in six major focus areas: (1) Evaluation of the process using 6 test soils with full chemical and physical characteristics to determine controlling factors for biodegradation and chemical oxidation; (2) Determination of the sequestration time on chemical treatment suspectability; (3) Risk factors, i.e. toxicity after chemical and biological treatment; (4) Impact of chemical treatment (Fenton's Reagent) on the agents of biodegradation; (5) Description of a new genus and its type species that degrades hydrocarbons; and (6) Intermediates generate from Fenton's reagent treatment of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

  10. Dimensional reduction of the master equation for stochastic chemical networks: The reduced-multiplane method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer; Kupferman, Raz; Lipshtat, Azi; Zait, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Chemical reaction networks which exhibit strong fluctuations are common in microscopic systems in which reactants appear in low copy numbers. The analysis of these networks requires stochastic methods, which come in two forms: direct integration of the master equation and Monte Carlo simulations. The master equation becomes infeasible for large networks because the number of equations increases exponentially with the number of reactive species. Monte Carlo methods, which are more efficient in integrating over the exponentially large phase space, also become impractical due to the large amounts of noisy data that need to be stored and analyzed. The recently introduced multiplane method [A. Lipshtat and O. Biham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 170601 (2004)10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.170601] is an efficient framework for the stochastic analysis of large reaction networks. It is a dimensional reduction method, based on the master equation, which provides a dramatic reduction in the number of equations without compromising the accuracy of the results. The reduction is achieved by breaking the network into a set of maximal fully connected subnetworks (maximal cliques). A separate master equation is written for the reduced probability distribution associated with each clique, with suitable coupling terms between them. This method is highly efficient in the case of sparse networks, in which the maximal cliques tend to be small. However, in dense networks some of the cliques may be rather large and the dimensional reduction is not as effective. Furthermore, the derivation of the multiplane equations from the master equation is tedious and difficult. Here we present the reduced-multiplane method in which the maximal cliques are broken down to the fundamental two-vertex cliques. The number of equations is further reduced, making the method highly efficient even for dense networks. Moreover, the equations take a simpler form, which can be easily constructed using a diagrammatic procedure

  11. Soil structure, colloids, and chemical transport as affected by short-term reducing conditions: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-Campos, A. B.; Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Wagner, L. E.

    2008-12-01

    Upland soils in the Midwestern US often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring and remain water saturated for days or weeks. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and may affect soil structure and solution chemical transport. The effects of short-term reducing conditions on chemical and physical properties of the soils, colloids, and associated chemical/nutrients transport are still not well understood and was the objective of our study. A biogeochemical reactor was built to achieve reducing conditions. Three cultivated and three uncultivated soils with different organic carbon contents were incubated in the reactor for 1 hour and 3 days under anaerobic conditions. Effects of the redox state on soil structure (pore size distribution) and drainable porosity, colloids mobility, and chemical transport were determined using high energy moisture characteristic and analytical methods. After each treatment, the soil solution was collected for redox potential (Eh), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements, and chemical analysis of metals (Ca, Mg, K), nutrients (N, P), and dissolved organic carbon. Strongly reducing conditions were achieved after 3 days of incubation and were followed by a decrease in soil porosity and an increase in pH, EC, clay dispersion, swelling, colloids mobility, and associated chemical transport. The trend for each soil depended on their initial structural stability and chemical properties. The structure of cultivated soils and the leaching of nutrients and carbon from uncultivated soils were more sensitive to the redox state. A strong correlation was found between changes in Eh and drainable porosity. The role of short-term reducing conditions on changes in redox sensitive elements, organic matter decomposition, pH, and EC and their influence on soil structure and soil particles or colloids/chemical transport for both soil groups are discussed in the paper. This study

  12. Reducing the Risk of Dangerous Chemicals Getting into the Wrong Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Appropriations Act of 2007, DHS has the authority and funding to regulate security at facilities storing chemicals considered to be high-risk (P. L. 109-295, Section 550). This article discusses the Department's efforts to enhance the security of facilities that store chemicals that could be stolen…

  13. Method to reduce chemical background interference in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using exclusive reactions with the chemical reagent dimethyl disulfide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P; Covey, Thomas R

    2007-06-01

    The interference of chemical background ions (chemical noise) has been a problem since the inception of mass spectrometry. We present here a novel method to reduce the chemical noise in LC-MS based on exclusive gas-phase reactions with a reactive collision gas in a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Combined with the zero neutral loss (ZNL) scan of a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, the reactive chemical noise ions can be removed because of shifts of mass-to-charge ratios from the original background ions. The test on various classes of compounds with different functional groups indicates a generic application of this technique in LC-MS. The preliminary results show that a reduction of the level of LC-MS base-peak chromatographic baseline by a factor up to 40 and an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor up to 5-10 are achieved on both commercial and custom-modified triple-quadrupole LC-MS systems. Application is foreseen in both quantitative and qualitative trace analysis. It is expected that this chemical noise reduction technique can be optimized on a dedicated mass spectrometric instrumentation which incorporates both a chemical reaction cell for noise reduction and a collision stage for fragmentation.

  14. Columbia River Strategy for Measuring, Documenting and Reducing Chemicals of Emerging Concern - July 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Outline for a research and monitoring strategy for chemicals of emerging concern in the Columbia River Basin, and a characterization of the biological impacts of CECs on aquatic and terrestrial wildlife.

  15. Mathematical descriptors for the prediction of property, bioactivity, and toxicity of chemicals from their structure: a chemical-cum-biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Basak, Subhash C

    2013-12-01

    This review article covers major aspects of mathematical chemistry, QSAR, chemoinformatics, bioinformatics, and molecular modeling research carried out by Subhash C. Basak and coworkers during 1968 to the present time in three distinct phases: 1) Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta and Charuchandra College, India (1968-1981); 2) Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Minnesota, Duluth, USA (1982-1987), and 3) Natural Resources Research Institute, University of Minnesota, Duluth, UMD-NRRI (1988-date). Topics discussed include development of novel mathematical descriptors of molecules and biomolecules; QSAR, HiQSAR, DiffQSAR and I-QSAR studies using chemodescriptors and biodescriptors; formulation of arbitrary quantitative molecular similarity analysis (QMSA) and tailored QMSA methods and their applications. The role of proper statistical methods in QSAR formulation and validation as well as the critical role of such methods in the molecular descriptor landscape of the twenty first century are also addressed.

  16. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  17. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

    2000-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  18. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

    2001-05-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  19. Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Assessment of Food Quality: How the Electrochemical Platform Should Be Tailored to the Application.

    PubMed

    Chng, Chu'Er; Ambrosi, Adriano; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin; Bonanni, Alessandra

    2017-02-03

    Graphene platforms have been drawing considerable attention in electrochemistry for the detection of various electroactive probes. Depending on the chemical composition and properties of the probe, graphene materials with diverse structural features may be required to achieve an optimal electrochemical performance. This work comprises a comparative study on three chemically modified graphenes, obtained from the same starting material and with different oxygen functionalities and structural defects (graphene oxide (GO), chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO), and thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO)) towards the electrochemical detection of quinine, an important flavoring agent present in tonic-based beverages. In general, the reduced graphenes, namely CRGO and TRGO, showed enhanced performance in terms of calibration sensitivity and selectivity, due to the improved heterogeneous electron-transfer rates on their surfaces. In particular, CRGO provided the best overall electrochemical performance, which can be attributed to its higher density of structural defects and reduced amount of oxygen functionalities. For this reason, CRGO was employed for the electrochemical detection of quinine in commercial tonic drink samples, showing high sensitivity and selectivity, and therefore representing a valid low-cost alternative to more complicated and time consuming traditional analytical methods.

  20. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    SciTech Connect

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  1. Reducing Steam Pressure Saves $42,000 Annually at Vulcan Chemicals (VMC Geismar Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-02-01

    As part of their Operational Excellence Program, Vulcan Chemicals, a business group of the Vulcan Materials Company, implemented a process optimization project involving two chloromethane production units. This four-month project required no capital investment and resulted in a reduction in process steam demand and significant cost savings.

  2. Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Narayanan, Raman; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2017-04-01

    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the "arm-in cage assay." Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage. Justicia adhatoda extracts led to reduced fecundity and oviposition of gravid females compared to controls. The extracts led to substantially reduced A. aegypti survival. We infer that the extracts have potential to reduce pathogen transmission by suppressing population growth of A. aegypti, and possibly other mosquito species.

  3. Quantum chemical and solution phase evaluation of metallocenes as reducing agents for the prospective atomic layer deposition of copper.

    PubMed

    Dey, Gangotri; Wrench, Jacqueline S; Hagen, Dirk J; Keeney, Lynette; Elliott, Simon D

    2015-06-14

    We propose and evaluate the use of metallocene compounds as reducing agents for the chemical vapour deposition (and specifically atomic layer deposition, ALD) of the transition metal Cu from metalorganic precursors. Ten different transition metal cyclopentadienyl compounds are screened for their utility in the reduction of Cu from five different Cu precursors by evaluating model reaction energies with density functional theory (DFT) and solution phase chemistry.

  4. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  5. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  6. Clean Air Act Settlement Reduces Air Emissions and Improves Chemical Safety at Rhode Island Biodiesel Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA & U.S. Department of Justice have settled an environmental enforcement case with Newport Biodiesel, Inc., resulting in reduced air emissions and improved safety controls at the company’s biodiesel manufacturing plant in Newport, Rhode Island.

  7. Reduced weight decontamination formulation for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2014-06-03

    A reduced weight DF-200 decontamination formulation that is stable under high temperature storage conditions. The formulation can be pre-packed as an all-dry (i.e., no water) or nearly-dry (i.e., minimal water) three-part kit, with make-up water (the fourth part) being added later in the field at the point of use.

  8. A Chemical Treatment to Reduce P Desorption From Manure Exposed Fluvial Sediments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current remediation methods for manure spills that have reached surface waters give no attention to the P enriched ditch sediments that remain in the fluvial system and continue to impair the water column. Consequently, no method exists to treat P contaminated sediments to reduce their ability ...

  9. Selecting the optimum quasi-steady-state species for reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms using a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Christopher J.; Yang, Chongguan; Parkinson, Alan R.; Chen, J.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic optimization algorithm has been applied to the selection of quasi-steady-state (QSS) species in reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms. The algorithm seeks to minimize the error between reduced and detailed chemistry for simple reactor calculations approximating conditions of interest for a computational fluid dynamics simulation. The genetic algorithm does not guarantee that the global optimum will be found, but much greater accuracy can be obtained than by choosing QSS species through a simple kinetic criterion or by human trial and error. The algorithm is demonstrated for methane-air combustion over a range of temperatures and stoichiometries and for homogeneous charge compression ignition engine combustion. The results are in excellent agreement with those predicted by the baseline mechanism. A factor of two reduction in the number of species was obtained for a skeletal mechanism that had already been greatly reduced from the parent detailed mechanism.

  10. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

    2003-01-07

    The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils undergoing remediation

  11. Reducing flicker noise in chemical vapor deposition graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Heather N.; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Schmucker, Scott W.; Cress, Cory D.; Luck, Kyle A.; Friedman, Adam L.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer graphene derived from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) holds promise for scalable radio frequency (RF) electronic applications. However, prevalent low-frequency flicker noise (1/f noise) in CVD graphene field-effect transistors is often up-converted to higher frequencies, thus limiting RF device performance. Here, we achieve an order of magnitude reduction in 1/f noise in field-effect transistors based on CVD graphene transferred onto silicon oxide substrates by utilizing a processing protocol that avoids aqueous chemistry after graphene transfer. Correspondingly, the normalized noise spectral density (10-7-10-8 μm2 Hz-1) and noise amplitude (4 × 10-8-10-7) in these devices are comparable to those of exfoliated and suspended graphene. We attribute the reduction in 1/f noise to a decrease in the contribution of fluctuations in the scattering cross-sections of carriers arising from dynamic redistribution of interfacial disorder.

  12. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  13. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via chemical reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Alpana Rangra, V. S.; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-05-15

    Natural flake Graphite was used as the starting material for the graphene synthesis. In the first step flake graphite was treated with oxidizing agents under vigorous conditions to obtain graphite oxide. Layered graphite oxide decorated with oxygen has large inter-layer distance leading easy exfoliation into single sheets by ultrasonication giving graphene oxide. In the last step exfoliated graphene oxide sheets were reduced slowly with the help of reducing agent to obtain fine powder which is labeled as reduced graphene oxide (rGO). This rGO was further characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Spectroscopy techniques. XRD pattern shows peaks corresponding to (002) graphitic lattice planes indicating the formation of network of sp{sup 2} like carbon structure. SEM images show the ultrathin, wrinkled, paper-like morphology of graphene sheets. IR study shows that the graphite has been oxidized to graphite oxide with the presence of various absorption bands confirming the presence of oxidizing groups. The FTIR spectrum of rGO shows no sharp peaks confirming the efficient reduction of rGO. The Raman spectrum shows disorder in the graphene sheets.

  14. Mathematical equations and system identification models for a portable pneumatic bladder system designed to reduce human exposure to whole body shock and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Ayyad, Ezzat

    A mathematical representation is sought to model the behavior of a portable pneumatic foam bladder designed to mitigate the effects of human exposure to shock and whole body random vibration. Fluid Dynamics principles are used to derive the analytic differential equations used for the physical equations Model. Additionally, combination of Wiener and Hammerstein block oriented representation techniques have been selected to create system identification (SID) block oriented models. A number of algorithms have been iterated to obtain numerical solutions for the system of equations which was found to be coupled and non-linear, with no analytic closed form solution. The purpose is to be able to predict the response of such system due to random vibrations and shock within reasonable margin of error. The constructed models were found to be accurate within accepted confidence level. Beside the analytic set of physical equations model representation, a linear SID model was selected to take advantage of the available vast amount of mathematical tools available to further analyze and redesign the bladder as a dynamic system. Measured field-test and lab test data have been collected from several helicopter and land terrain vehicle experiments. Numerous excitation and response acceleration measurement records were collected and used to prove the agreement with predictions. The estimation of two selected models were later applied to standard metrics in the frequency domain realization and compared with measurement responses. The collected test records are obtained from measured data at the US Army fields and facilities and at UNLV-CMEST environmental lab. The emerged models have been validated for conformity with actual accelerometer measurement responses and found within accepted error tolerance that is in both time and frequency domains. Further, standard metrics have been used to further confirm the confidence in the validation results. When comparing model prediction with

  15. Superior performance of asymmetric supercapacitor based on reduced graphene oxide-manganese carbonate as positive and sono-chemically reduced graphene oxide as negative electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Milan; Kumar, J. Sharath; Khanra, Partha; Samanta, Pranab; Koo, Hyeyoung; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kuila, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize hierarchical rod like MnCO3 on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets by a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method is demonstrated. The chelating action of citric acid facilitates the formation a complex intermediate of Mn2+ and citrate ions, which finally results a 3D MnCO3/RGO (MRGO) composite with high electrical conductivity (∼1056 S m-1), good surface area (59 m2 g-1) and high pore volume (0.3 cm3 g-1). The specific capacitance (SC) of the MRGO composite is ∼1120 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 in three electrode system. An asymmetric device has been designed with MRGO as positive and sono-chemically reduced RGO (SRGO) as negative electrode material. The asymmetric device (MRGO//SRGO) shows the SC of ∼318 F g-1 (at 2 A g-1) and energy density of ∼113 W h kg-1 (at 1600 W kg-1). The true energy density (1.7 W h kg-1) has been calculated considering the total weight of the device. The MRGO//SRGO device can power a wall clock for ∼13 min after full charging. The Nyquist plot of the asymmetric cell has been simulated with Z-View software to measure the solution resistance, charge-transfer resistance and Warburg elements.

  16. A composite structure based on reduced graphene oxide and metal oxide nanomaterials for chemical sensors

    PubMed Central

    Comini, Elisabetta; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Ponzoni, Andrea; Sberveglieri, Veronica; Poli, Nicola; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Summary A hybrid nanostructure based on reduced graphene oxide and ZnO has been obtained for the detection of volatile organic compounds. The sensing properties of the hybrid structure have been studied for different concentrations of ethanol and acetone. The response of the hybrid material is significantly higher compared to pristine ZnO nanostructures. The obtained results have shown that the nanohybrid is a promising structure for the monitoring of environmental pollutants and for the application of breath tests in assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds. PMID:27826516

  17. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  18. Comparative electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes with different chemical functionalities for quantum dot attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Chuyen V.; Krueger, Michael E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de; Eck, Michael; Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de

    2014-03-31

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to different chemically treated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A narrow EPR signal is visible at g = 2.0029 in both GO and CNT-Oxide from carbon-related dangling bonds. EPR signals became broader and of lower intensity after oxygen-containing functionalities were reduced and partially transformed into thiol groups to obtain thiol-functionalized reduced GO (TrGO) and thiol-functionalized CNT (CNT-SH), respectively. Additionally, EPR investigation of CdSe quantum dot-TrGO hybrid material reveals complete quenching of the TrGO EPR signal due to direct chemical attachment and electronic coupling. Our work confirms that EPR is a suitable tool to detect spin density changes in different functionalized nanocarbon materials and can contribute to improved understanding of electronic coupling effects in nanocarbon-nanoparticle hybrid nano-composites promising for various electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  19. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, A O; Torbert, H A; Kloepper, J W

    2009-11-01

    The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake levels equivalent to those with full rates of the fertilizer and (2) the minimum level to which fertilizer could be reduced when inoculants were used. The microbial inoculants used in the study were a mixture of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus T4, a formulated PGPR product, and the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF), Glomus intraradices. Results showed that supplementing 75% of the recommended fertilizer rate with inoculants produced plant growth, yield, and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake that were statistically equivalent to the full fertilizer rate without inoculants. When inoculants were used with rates of fertilizer below 75% of the recommended rate, the beneficial effects were usually not consistent; however, inoculation with the mixture of PGPR and AMF at 70% fertility consistently produced the same yield as the full fertility rate without inoculants. Without inoculants, use of fertilizer rates lower than the recommended resulted in significantly less plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake or inconsistent impacts. The results suggest that PGPR-based inoculants can be used and should be further evaluated as components of integrated nutrient management strategies.

  20. Electric Current Activated Combustion Synthesis and Chemical Ovens Under Terrestrial and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unuvar, C.; Fredrick, D.; Anselmi-Tamburini, U.; Manerbino, A.; Guigne, J. Y.; Munir, Z. A.; Shaw, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion synthesis (CS) generally involves mixing reactants together (e.g., metal powders) and igniting the mixture. Typically, a reaction wave will pass through the sample. In field activated combustion synthesis (FACS), the addition of an electric field has a marked effect on the dynamics of wave propagation and on the nature, composition, and homogeneity of the product as well as capillary flow, mass-transport in porous media, and Marangoni flows, which are influenced by gravity. The objective is to understand the role of an electric field in CS reactions under conditions where gravity-related effects are suppressed or altered. The systems being studied are Ti+Al and Ti+3Al. Two different ignition orientations have been used to observe effects of gravity when one of the reactants becomes molten. This consequentially influences the position and concentration of the electric current, which in turn influences the entire process. Experiments have also been performed in microgravity conditions. This process has been named Microgravity Field Activated Combustion Synthesis (MFACS). Effects of gravity have been demonstrated, where the reaction wave temperature and velocity demonstrate considerable differences besides the changes of combustion mechanisms with the different high currents applied. Also the threshold for the formation of a stable reaction wave is increased under zero gravity conditions. Electric current was also utilized with a chemical oven technique, where inserts of aluminum with minute amounts of tungsten and tantalum were used to allow observation of effects of settling of the higher density solid particles in liquid aluminum at the present temperature profile and wave velocity of the reaction.

  1. A simple chemical method reduces ochratoxin A in contaminated cocoa shells.

    PubMed

    Amézqueta, S; González-Peñas, E; Lizarraga, T; Murillo-Arbizu, M; López de Cerain, A

    2008-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, which contaminates cocoa among other food commodities. It has been previously demonstrated that the toxin is concentrated in cocoa shells. The aim of this study was to assay a simple chemical method for ochratoxin A reduction from naturally contaminated cocoa shells. In order to determine the efficiency of the method, a high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection was set up beforehand and validated. Ochratoxin A was extracted from cocoa shells with methanol-3% sodium bicarbonate solution and then purified with immunoaffinity columns. The recovery attained was 88.7% (relative standard deviation = 6.36%) and the limits of detection and quantification were 0.06 and 0.2 kg/kg, respectively. For decontamination experiments, the solvent extractor ASE 200 was used. First, aqueous solutions of 2% sodium bicarbonate and potassium carbonate were compared under the same conditions (1,500 lb/in2 at 40 degrees C for 10 min). Higher ochratoxin A reduction was obtained with potassium carbonate (83 versus 27%). Then, this salt was used under different conditions of pressure, temperature, and time. The greatest ochratoxin A reduction was achieved with an aqueous potassium carbonate solution (2%), at 1,000 lb/in2 at 90 degrees C for 10 min. This method could probably be applicable to the cocoa industry because it is fast and relatively economic. From the point of view of human health, the use of potassium carbonate, partially eliminated by rinsing the sample with water, does not likely represent a risk for human health.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride films in the reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B.J.

    1999-12-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films were deposited onto a graphite substrate in reduced pressure by reacting ammonia and boron tribromide at 800--1,200 C. The growth rate of h-BN films was dependent on the substrate temperature and the total pressures. The growth rate increased with increasing the substrate temperature at the pressure of 2 kPa, while it showed a maximum value at the pressures of 4 and 8 kPa. The temperature at which the maximum growth rate occurs decreased with increasing total pressure. With increasing the substrate temperature and total pressure, the apparent grain size increased and the surface morphology showed a rough, cauliflower-like structure.

  3. Phosphorus sequestration by chemical amendments to reduce leaching from wastewater applications.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus-immobilizing amendments can be useful in minimizing P leaching from high P soils that may be irrigated with wastewater. This study tested the P-binding ability of various amendment materials in a laboratory incubation experiment and then tested the best amendment in a field setup using drainage lysimeters. The laboratory experiment involved incubating 100-g samples of soil (72 mg kg(-1) water-extractable phosphorus, WEP) with various amendments at different rates for 63 d at field moisture capacity and 25 degrees C. The amendments tested were alum [Al2SO4)3.14H2O], ferric chloride (FeCl3), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), water treatment residual (WTR), and sugarbeet lime (SBL). Ferric chloride and alum at rates of 1.5 and 3.9 g kg(-1), respectively, were the most effective amendments that decreased WEP to 20 mg kg(-1), below which leaching has previously been shown to be low. Alum (1.3 kg m(-2)), which is less sensitive to redox conditions, was subsequently tested under field conditions, where it reduced WEP concentration in the 0- to 0.15-m layer from 119 mg kg(-1) on Day 0 to 36.1 mg kg(-1) (85% decrease) on Day 41. Lysimeter breakthrough tests using tertiary-treated potato-processing wastewater (mean total phosphorus [TP] = 3.4 mg L(-1)) showed that alum application reduced leachate TP and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations by 27 and 25%, respectively. These results indicate that alum application may be an effective strategy to immobilize P in high P coarse-textured soils. The relatively smaller decreases in TP and SRP in the leachate compared to WEP suggest some of the P may be coming from depths below 0.2 m. Thus, to achieve higher P sequestration, deeper incorporation of the alum may be necessary.

  4. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy.

  5. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla; Svingen, Terje; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Isling, Louise Krag; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben, as well as paracetamol. The compounds were tested together (Totalmix) or in subgroups with anti-androgenic (AAmix) or estrogenic (Emix) potentials. Paracetamol was tested separately. In pre-pubertal rats, a significant reduction in primordial follicle numbers was seen in AAmix and PM groups, and reduced plasma levels of prolactin was seen in AAmix. In one-year-old animals, the incidence of irregular estrous cycles was higher after Totalmix-exposure and reduced ovary weights were seen in Totalmix, AAmix, and PM groups. These findings resemble premature ovarian insufficiency in humans, and raises concern regarding potential effects of mixtures of EDCs on female reproductive function.

  6. Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrowitz, I.H.; Woodham, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A multipurpose wet stormwater detention pond in Pinellas Park, Florida was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing the load of selected water-quality constituents commonly found in urban streamflow. Water-quality samples, and data on streamflow and precipitation were collected at the outflow and principal inflow of detention area 3 on Saint Joe Creek. To compare the constituent loads entering and leaving the detention pond, flows and water quality were monitored simultaneously at the inflow and outflow sites for six storms, and were monitored intermittently during periods of base flow. Lodas od 19 selected chemical and physical constituents were determined. Because all the stormwater entering the detention pond was not measured at the inflow site, computed stormwater inflow loads were adjusted to account for loads from the unmonitored areas. The ratio of storm- water volume measured at the outflow site to stormwater volume measured at the inflow site was used to adjust inflow loads for individual storms. Pond efficiencies for selected water- quality constituents for each of the storms were estimated by dividing the difference in outflow and adjusted inflow loads by the adjusted inflow load. Stormwater loads of the major ions (chloride, calcium and bicarbonate) and dissolved solids at the outflow site exceeded loads at the inflow site, partly as a result of mixing with base flow stored within the pond. However, the detention pond was effective in reducing the stormwater load of such urban-runoff contaminants as metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Estimated median pond efficiencies for reducing constituent loads ranged from 25 to more than 60 percent for metals, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 7 to 11 percent for two measurements of suspended solids, and 16 to 49 percent for the oxygen- consuming substances. The reductions of constituent loads in stormwater are probably a result of

  7. Acidification with nitric acid improves chemical characteristics and reduces phytotoxicity of alkaline chars.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; Belda, Rosa Maria

    2017-01-19

    Charred organic matter is recently receiving attention for its potential use as soilless growth medium. However, depending on its origin and on the manufacturing technology, it can result toxic for plants. This fact implies that a detoxifying treatment ought to be devised in order to reclaim char in this way. We have studied three materials which combine these factors: two pyrolyzed biochars, one from forest waste (BCH-FW) and another from olive mill waste (BCH-OMW), and one hydrothermally carbonized hydrochar from forest waste (HYD-FW). These materials are suspicious of phytotoxicity due to their high pH, high salinity, or presence of organic toxics. For these new materials, it is mandatory to select fast and reliable bioassays to predict their potential phytotoxicity. In order to achieve this goal water extracts of the three chars were subjected to bioassays of seed germination and bioassays of seedling growth in hydroponic conditions. The biochar from olive mill waste and the hydrochar, but not the biochar from forest waste, showed considerable phytotoxicity as seed germination and plant growth were negatively affected (e.g. BCH-OMW reduced seed germination by 80% and caused early seedling death). In order to adjust pH and electrical conductivity for plant growth, treatments of acidification and salt leaching with optimal diluted HNO3 solutions (0.3 N, 0.2 N, and 0.75 N for BCH-OMW, BCH-FW, and HYD-FW, respectively) as calculated from titration curves, were conducted. The acid treatment reduced electrical conductivity in BCH-OMW (from 9.2 to 4.5 dS m(-1)), pH (maximum in BCH-FW from 9.6 to 6.2) and water soluble carbonaceous compounds (maximum in HYD-FW from 5969 to 2145 mg kg(-1)) in the three chars, and increased N content (maximum in BCH-OMW from 50 to 6342 mg kg(-1)) in the three chars. Bioassays on acid-treated chars demonstrated the absence of phytotoxicity and even stimulation of seedling growth over the control (increase of 86% and 56% for BCH

  8. Cancer prevention: Application of chemicals in treatment therapy to reduce risk in secondary tumor induction

    SciTech Connect

    Grdina, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated WR2721 and similar aminothiol compounds to determine their role in modulating the mutagenic and carcinogenic action of radiation and selected chemotherapeutic agents. We have found that 2-((aminopropyl)amino) ethanethiol (WR1065), a free-thiol of WR2721, effectively protected against the mutagenic effects of radiation at the HGPRT locus in V79 cells even if administered up to 3 h following irradiation, a reduction in mutation frequencies of about 0.55. Under the conditions tested, the radioprotector protected against cell killing only if it was present during irradiation. In contrast, protection against mutagenesis occurred regardless of whether the protector was present during or following irradiation. These preliminary studies were expanded to determine the effects of WR1065 on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum-(cis-DDP) and bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity and mutagenicity even when administered following chemotherapy treatment. Thus, the V79 cell system used was found to be extremely effective in monitoring, in a rapid and cost-effective manner, the antimutagenic effects of radioprotectors on radiation and chemotherapy agents. Cell transformation was assayed using C3H 10T1/2 cells. The presence of a radioprotector significantly reduced the formation of radiation-induced transformed cells. Neonatal rats were also used to assess the induction of preneoplastic-lesions. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Chemical genoprotection: reducing biological damage to as low as reasonably achievable levels

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, M; Armero, D; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Fernandez, H; Alcaraz-Saura, M; Canteras, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances present in the human diet with an antimutagenic protective capacity against genotoxic damage induced by exposure to X-rays in an attempt to reduce biological damage to as low a level as reasonably possible. Methods Ten compounds were assessed using the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome test. The compounds studied were added to human blood at 25 μM 5 min before exposure to irradiation by 2 Gy of X-rays. Results The protective capacity of the antioxidant substances assessed was from highest to lowest according to the frequency of the MN generated by X-ray exposure: rosmarinic acid = carnosic acid = δ-tocopherol = l-acid ascorbic = apigenin = amifostine (P < 0.001) > green tea extract = diosmine = rutin = dimetylsulfoxide (P < 0.05) > irradiated control. The reduction in genotoxic damage with the radiation doses administered reached 58%, which represents a significant reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage (P < 0.001). This degree of protection is greater than that obtained with amifostine, a radioprotective compound used in radiotherapy and which is characterised by its high toxicity. Conclusion Several antioxidant substances, common components of the human diet and lacking toxicity, offer protection from the biological harm induced by ionizing radiation. Administering these protective substances to patients before radiological exploration should be considered, even in the case of small radiation doses and regardless of the biological damage expected. PMID:21697157

  10. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-09-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment.

  11. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-01-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment. PMID:27650801

  12. Investigation of chemical rinses suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Sally F; Henning, William R; Mills, Edward W; Doores, Stephanie; Ostiguy, Nancy; Cutter, Catherine N

    2012-01-01

    Numerous antimicrobial interventions are capable of reducing the prevalence of harmful bacteria on raw meat products. There is a need to identify effective and inexpensive antimicrobial interventions that could, in practice, be used in very small meat plants because of limited financial, space, and labor resources. Eight antimicrobial compounds (acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, and aqueous ozone) were applied at various concentrations with small, hand-held spraying equipment, and bactericidal effectiveness was examined. Beef plate pieces were inoculated with fecal slurry containing a pathogen cocktail (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni) and natural populations of aerobic plate counts, coliforms, and E. coli. Antimicrobial solutions were applied to beef surfaces via a portable, pressurized hand-held spray tank, and treated surfaces were subjected to appropriate methods for the enumeration and isolation of pathogens and hygiene indicators. Relative antimicrobial effectiveness was determined (from greatest to least): (i) organic acids, (ii) peroxyacetic acid, (iii) chlorinated compounds, and (iv) aqueous ozone. Using the equipment described, a 2% lactic acid rinse provided 3.5- to 6.4-log CFU/cm(2) reductions across all bacterial populations studied. Conversely, aqueous ozone yielded 0.02- to 2.9-log CFU/cm(2) reductions in pathogens and hygiene indicators, and did not differ significantly from a control tap water rinse (P = 0.055 to 0.731). This 2% lactic acid rinse will be subsequently combined with a previously described water wash to create a multistep antimicrobial intervention that will be examined under laboratory conditions and validated in very small meat plants.

  13. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically-induced multistep skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunstfeld, Rainer; Hawighorst, Thomas; Streit, Michael; Hong, Young-Kwon; Nguyen, Lynh; Brown, Lawrence F.; Detmar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously reported stromal upregulation of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) during multistep carcinogenesis, and we found accelerated and enhanced skin angiogenesis and carcinogenesis in TSP-2 deficient mice. Goals To investigate whether enhanced levels of TSP-2 might protect from skin cancer development. Methods We established transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of TSP-2 in the skin and subjected hemizygous TSP-2 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates to a chemical skin carcinogenesis regimen. Results TSP-2 transgenic mice showed a significantly delayed onset of tumor formation compared to wild-type mice, whereas the ratio of malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas was comparable in both genotypes. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of blood vessels revealed pronounced tumor angiogenesis already in the early stages of carcinogenesis in wild type mice. TSP-2 overexpression significantly reduced tumor blood vessel density in transgenic mice but had no overt effect on LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels. The percentage of desmin surrounded, mature tumor-associated blood vessels and the degree of epithelial differentiation remained unaffected. The antiangiogenic effect of transgenic TSP-2 was accompanied by a significantly increased number of apoptotic tumor cells in transgenic mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that enhanced levels of TSP-2 in the skin result in reduced susceptibility to chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis and identify TSP-2 as a new target for the prevention of skin cancer. PMID:24507936

  14. Mathematics Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  15. Reversible control of the chromium valence in chemically reduced Cr-doped SrTiO3 bulk powders.

    PubMed

    Lehuta, Keith A; Kittilstved, Kevin R

    2016-06-14

    The effect of chemical reduction by NaBH4 on the electronic structure of Cr-doped SrTiO3-δ bulk powders prepared by a solid-state reaction was systematically studied as a function of reduction temperature. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies (DRS) were utilized to monitor changes in the electronic structures of both intrinsic defects (oxygen vacancies and/or Ti(3+)) and extrinsic dopants (Cr(3+)) at different reduction temperatures. We identify the existence of two temperature regimes where changes occur within 30 min. The first temperature regime occurs between 300-375 °C and results in (1) reduction of oxygen-related surface defects, and (2) an increase in the concentration of Cr(3+) by over an order of magnitude, suggesting that EPR-silent Cr(4+) or Cr(6+) is being reduced to Cr(3+) by NaBH4. The second temperature regime occurs between 375-430 °C where we observe clear evidence of Ti(3+) formation by EPR spectroscopy that indicates chemical reduction of the SrTiO3 lattice. In addition, the oxygen-related surface defects observed in regime 1 are not formed in regime 2, but instead lattice oxygen vacancies (VO) are observed by EPR. The changes to the Cr-doped SrTiO3 electronic structure after chemical reduction in regime 1 are quantitatively reversible after aerobic annealing at 400 °C for 30 min. The internal oxygen vacancies formed during the higher temperature reductions in regime 2 require increased temperatures of at least 600 °C to be fully reoxidized in 30 min. The effect of these different oxygen-related defects on the EPR spectrum of substitutional Cr(3+) dopants is discussed. These results allow us to independently tune the dopant and host electronic structures of a technologically-relevant multifunctional material by a simple ex situ chemical perturbation.

  16. Chemical property based sequence characterization of PpcA and its homolog proteins PpcB-E: A mathematical approach

    PubMed Central

    Pal Choudhury, Pabitra

    2017-01-01

    Periplasmic c7 type cytochrome A (PpcA) protein is determined in Geobacter sulfurreducens along with its other four homologs (PpcB-E). From the crystal structure viewpoint the observation emerges that PpcA protein can bind with Deoxycholate (DXCA), while its other homologs do not. But it is yet to be established with certainty the reason behind this from primary protein sequence information. This study is primarily based on primary protein sequence analysis through the chemical basis of embedded amino acids. Firstly, we look for the chemical group specific score of amino acids. Along with this, we have developed a new methodology for the phylogenetic analysis based on chemical group dissimilarities of amino acids. This new methodology is applied to the cytochrome c7 family members and pinpoint how a particular sequence is differing with others. Secondly, we build a graph theoretic model on using amino acid sequences which is also applied to the cytochrome c7 family members and some unique characteristics and their domains are highlighted. Thirdly, we search for unique patterns as subsequences which are common among the group or specific individual member. In all the cases, we are able to show some distinct features of PpcA that emerges PpcA as an outstanding protein compared to its other homologs, resulting towards its binding with deoxycholate. Similarly, some notable features for the structurally dissimilar protein PpcD compared to the other homologs are also brought out. Further, the five members of cytochrome family being homolog proteins, they must have some common significant features which are also enumerated in this study. PMID:28362850

  17. The Role of STEM High Schools in Reducing Gaps in Science and Mathematics Coursetaking: Evidence from North Carolina. Research Report. RTI Press Publication RR-0025-1603

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Mason, Marcinda; Dalton, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Some states have created science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) schools to encourage student interest and enhance student proficiency in STEM subjects. We examined a set of STEM schools serving disadvantaged students to see whether these students were more likely to take and pass advanced science and mathematics classes than…

  18. The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-10-03

    The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

  19. Successions and diversity of humic-reducing microorganisms and their association with physical-chemical parameters during composting.

    PubMed

    Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Huang, Caihong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) could utilize humic substances (HS) as terminal electron mediator to promote the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, the dynamics of HRMs during composting has not been explored. Here, high throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate the patterns of HRMs during three composting systems. A total of 30 main genera of HRMs were identified in three composts, with Proteobacteria being the largest phylum. HRMs were detected with increased diversity and abundance and distinct patterns during composting, which were significantly associated with dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and germination index. Regulating key physical-chemical parameters is a process control of HRMs community composition, thus promoting the redox capability of the compost. The redox capability of HRMs were strengthened during composting, suggesting that HRMs of the compost may play an important role on pollutant degradation of the compost or when they are applied to the contaminated soils.

  20. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    PubMed

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  1. Mathematical Assessment of Physical and Chemical Processes from the middle B to the early F Type Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuce, Kutluay; Adelman, Saul J.

    2016-07-01

    The middle B to the early F main sequence stars are thought to have some of the most quiet atmospheres. In this part of the HR diagram we find stars with atmospheres in radiative equilibrium. They lack the convective circulations of the middle F and cooler stars and the massive stellar winds of hotter stars. Diffusion theory requires the Chemically Peculiar stars to have relatively quiet atmospheres and if there are no magnetic fields they should lack abundance spots. If we look at stars evolving off the Main Sequence in this part of the HR diagram, we see that the evolutionary paths of stars of different mass do not cross. So if we compare stars with the same effective temperature and surface gravity, we are studying stars of the same luminosity and mass. By comparing their elemental abundances, we might be able to identify physical processes which cause their abundances to be different. In this work we begin with stars whose effective temperatures and surface gravities are similar, and which has been analyzed by us using spectra obtained from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  2. Mathematics, Anyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin

    2011-01-01

    In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…

  3. Conductive reduced graphene oxide/MnO2 carbonized cotton fabrics with enhanced electro -chemical, -heating, and -mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Mingwei; Du, Minzhi; Qu, Lijun; Zhang, Kun; Li, Hongliang; Zhu, Shifeng; Liu, Dongdong

    2016-09-01

    Versatile and ductile conductive carbonized cotton fabrics decorated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/manganese dioxide (MnO2) are prepared in this paper. In order to endow multifunction to cotton fabric, graphene oxide (GO) is deposited on cotton fibers by simple dip-coating route. MnO2 nanoparticles are assembled on the surface of cotton fabric through in-situ chemical solution deposition. MnO2/GO@cotton fabrics are carbonized to achieve conductive fabric (MnO2/rGO@C). The morphologies and structures of obtained fabrics are characterized by SEM, XRD, ICP and element analysis, and their electro-properties including electro-chemical, electro-heating and electro-mechanical properties are evaluated. The MnO2/rGO@C yields remarkable specific capacitance of 329.4 mA h/g at the current density of 100 mA/g, which is more than 40% higher than that of the control carbonized cotton fabric (231 mA h/g). Regarding electro-heating properties, the temperature of MnO2/rGO@C fabric could be monotonically increased to the steady-state maximum temperatures (ΔTmax) of 36 °C within 5 min under the applied voltage 15 V while the ΔTmax = 17 °C of the control case. In addition, MnO2/rGO@C exhibits repeatable electro-mechanical properties and its normalized resistance (R-R0)/R0 could reach 0.78 at a constant strain (curvature = 0.6 cm-1). The MnO2/rGO@C fabric is versatile, scalable, and adaptable to a wide variety of smart textiles applications.

  4. Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Can Be Chemically Dynamic, Anoxic, and Extremely Reduced Due to Hydrogen Sulfide Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Elise S.; Kopf, Sebastian H.; LaRiviere, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Severe and persistent bacterial lung infections characterize cystic fibrosis (CF). While several studies have documented the microbial diversity within CF lung mucus, we know much less about the inorganic chemistry that constrains microbial metabolic processes and their distribution. We hypothesized that sputum is chemically heterogeneous both within and between patients. To test this, we measured microprofiles of oxygen and sulfide concentrations as well as pH and oxidation-reduction potentials in 48 sputum samples from 22 pediatric patients with CF. Inorganic ions were measured in 20 samples from 12 patients. In all cases, oxygen was depleted within the first few millimeters below the sputum-air interface. Apart from this steep oxycline, anoxia dominated the sputum environment. Different sputum samples exhibited a broad range of redox conditions, with either oxidizing (16 mV to 355 mV) or reducing (−300 to −107 mV) potentials. The majority of reduced samples contained hydrogen sulfide and had a low pH (2.9 to 6.5). Sulfide concentrations increased at a rate of 0.30 µM H2S/min. Nitrous oxide was detected in only one sample that also contained sulfide. Microenvironmental variability was observed both within a single patient over time and between patients. Modeling oxygen dynamics within CF mucus plugs indicates that anoxic zones vary as a function of bacterial load and mucus thickness and can occupy a significant portion of the mucus volume. Thus, aerobic respiration accounts only partially for pathogen survival in CF sputum, motivating research to identify mechanisms of survival under conditions that span fluctuating redox states, including sulfidic environments. PMID:26220964

  5. Chemical Transport and Reduced-Form Models for Assessing Air Quality Impacts of Current and Future Energy Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Though essential for informed decision-making, it is challenging to estimate the air quality and public health impacts associated with current and future energy generation scenarios because the analysis must address the complicated atmospheric processes that air pollutants undergo: emissions, dispersion, chemistry, and removal. Employing a chemical transport model (CTM) is the most rigorous way to address these atmospheric processes. However, CTMs are expensive from a computational standpoint and, therefore, beyond the reach of policy analysis for many types of problems. On the other hand, previously available reduced-form models used for policy analysis fall short of the rigor of CTMs and may lead to biased results. To address this gap, we developed the Estimating Air pollution Social Impacts Using Regression (EASIUR) method, which builds parameterizations that predict per-tonne social costs and intake fractions for pollutants emitted from any location in the United States. Derived from a large database of tagged CTM simulations, the EASIUR method predicts social costs almost indistinguishable from a full CTM but with negligible computational requirements. We found that the average mortality-related social costs from inorganic PM2.5 and its precursors in the United States are 150,000-180,000/t EC, 21,000-34,000/t SO2, 4,200-15,000/t NOx, and 29,000-85,000/t NH3. This talk will demonstrate examples of using both CTMs and reduced-form models for assessing air quality impacts associated with current energy production activities as well as a future deployment of carbon capture and sequestration.

  6. Mathematical modeling of drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2008-12-08

    Due to the significant advances in information technology mathematical modeling of drug delivery is a field of steadily increasing academic and industrial importance with an enormous future potential. The in silico optimization of novel drug delivery systems can be expected to significantly increase in accuracy and easiness of application. Analogous to other scientific disciplines, computer simulations are likely to become an integral part of future research and development in pharmaceutical technology. Mathematical programs can be expected to be routinely used to help optimizing the design of novel dosage forms. Good estimates for the required composition, geometry, dimensions and preparation procedure of various types of delivery systems will be available, taking into account the desired administration route, drug dose and release profile. Thus, the number of required experimental studies during product development can be significantly reduced, saving time and reducing costs. In addition, the quantitative analysis of the physical, chemical and potentially biological phenomena, which are involved in the control of drug release, offers another fundamental advantage: The underlying drug release mechanisms can be elucidated, which is not only of academic interest, but a pre-requisite for an efficient improvement of the safety of the pharmaco-treatments and for effective trouble-shooting during production. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art of mathematical modeling of drug delivery, including empirical/semi-empirical and mechanistic realistic models. Analytical as well as numerical solutions are described and various practical examples are given. One of the major challenges to be addressed in the future is the combination of mechanistic theories describing drug release out of the delivery systems with mathematical models quantifying the subsequent drug transport within the human body in a realistic way. Ideally, the effects of the design

  7. Mathematic Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanh, Vu Duc, Ed.

    This document gives a listing of mathematical terminology in both the English and Vietnamese languages. Vocabulary used in algebra and geometry is included along with a translation of mathematical symbols. (DT)

  8. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  9. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  10. Rainforest Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  11. Chemical, ultrastructural and supramolecular analysis of tension wood in Populus tremula x alba as a model substrate for reduced recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect

    Foston, Marcus B; Hubbell, Christopher A; Samuel, Reichel; Jung, Seung-Yong; Ding, Shi-You; Zeng, Yining; Jawdy, Sara; Sykes, Virginia R; Tuskan, Gerald A; Kalluri, Udaya C; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant potential sustainable sources for fuel and material production, however to fully realize this potential an improved understanding of lignocellulosic recalcitrance must be developed. In an effort to appreciate the underlying phenotypic, biochemical and morphological properties associated with the reduced recalcitrance observed in tension stress-induced reaction wood, we report the increased enzymatic sugar yield and corresponding chemical and ultrastructural properties of Populus tension wood. Populus tremula x alba (PTA) was grown under tension and stem segments containing three different wood types: normal wood (NW), tension wood (TW) from the elongated stem side and opposite wood (OW) from the compressed stem side were collected. A variety of analytical techniques were used to describe changes occurring as a result of the tension stress-induced formation of a gelatinous cell wall layer (G-layer). For example, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the molecular weight and crystallinity of cellulose in TW is greater than that of cellulose acquired from NW. Whole cell ionic liquid and other solid-state NMR analysis detailed the structure of lignin and hemicellulose in the samples, detecting the presence of variations in lignin and hemicellulose sub-units, linkages and semi-quantitatively estimating the relative amounts of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) monolignol units. It was confirmed that TW displayed an increase in PB or H-like lignin and S to G ratio from 1.25 to 1.50 when compared to the NW sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) were also used to evaluate the morphology and corresponding spatial distribution of the major lignocellulosic components. We found changes in a combination of cell wall properties appear to influence recalcitrance more than any single factor alone.

  12. Spatial pattern assessment of river water quality: implications of reducing the number of monitoring stations and chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeuh-Bin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Pei-Yu; Lee, Jin-Jing

    2014-03-01

    The Tamsui River basin is located in Northern Taiwan and encompasses the most metropolitan city in Taiwan, Taipei City. The Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) has established 38 water quality monitoring stations in the Tamsui River basin and performed regular river water quality monitoring for the past two decades. Because of the limited budget of the Taiwan EPA, adjusting the monitoring program while maintaining water quality data is critical. Multivariate analysis methods, such as cluster analysis (CA), factor analysis (FA), and discriminate analysis (DA), are useful tools for the statistically spatial assessment of surface water quality. This study integrated CA, FA, and DA to evaluate the spatial variance of water quality in the metropolitan city of Taipei. Performing CA involved categorizing monitoring stations into three groups: high-, moderate-, and low-pollution areas. In addition, this categorization of monitoring stations was in agreement with that of the assessment that involved using the simple river pollution index. Four latent factors that predominantly influence the river water quality of the Tamsui River basin are assessed using FA: anthropogenic pollution, the nitrification process, seawater intrusion, and geological and weathering processes. We plotted a spatial pattern using the four latent factor scores and identified ten redundant monitoring stations near each upstream station with the same score pattern. We extracted five significant parameters by using DA: total organic carbon, total phosphorus, As, Cu, and nitrate, with spatial variance to differentiate them from the polluted condition of the group obtained by using CA. Finally, this study suggests that the Taiwan EPA can adjust the surface water-monitoring program of the Tamsui River by reducing the monitoring stations to 28 and the measured chemical parameters to five to lower monitoring costs.

  13. Combined microspectrophotometric and crystallographic examination of chemically-reduced and X-ray radiation-reduced forms of cytochrome ba3 oxidase from Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Chen, Ying; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, S. Michael; Stout, C. David; Fee, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Three paths are described to obtain crystals of reduced (II-E4Q/I-K258R) cytochrome ba3, and the structures of these are reported at ∼2.8 to 3.0 Å resolution. Microspectrophotometry of single crystals of Thermus ba3 oxidase at 100 K was used to show that crystals of the oxidized enzyme are reduced in an intense X-ray (beam line 7-1 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, U.S.A) being nearly complete in one minute. The previously reported structures of ba3 (PDB codes 1EHK and 1XME), having a crystallographically detectable water between the CuB and Fea3 metals of the dinuclear center, actually represent the X-ray radiation-reduced enzyme. Dithionite reduced crystals or crystals formed from dithionite reduced enzyme revealed the absence of the above mentioned water and an increase in the CuB - Fea3 distance of ∼0.3 A. The new structures are discussed in terms of enzyme function. An unexpected optical absorption envelope at ∼590 nm is also reported. This spectral feature is tentatively thought to arise from a 5-coordinate, low-spin, ferrous heme-a3 that is trapped in the frozen crystals. PMID:19140675

  14. Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2015-01-01

    Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…

  15. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  16. Theoretical Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  17. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  18. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

    2009-06-26

    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  19. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  20. Mathematics Scrapbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazka, Helen

    2004-01-01

    One section of this "scrapbook" section describes Pythagoras' belief in the connections between music and mathematics -- that everything in the universe was a series of harmonies and regulated by music. Another section explains why Phythagoras felt it important for women to be encouraged to learn mathematics. At least 28 women were involved in his…

  1. Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langbort, Carol, Ed.; Curtis, Deborah, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this special issue is mathematics education. All articles were written by graduates of the new masters Degree program in which students earn a Master of Arts degree in Education with a concentration in Mathematics Education at San Francisco State University. Articles include: (1) "Developing Teacher-Leaders in a Masters Degree Program…

  2. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  3. Why Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Kathryn T.

    Why mathematics should be learned is discussed. Its role as an important active force in the development of our civilization, and as the most useful subject taught in our schools, next to English, is noted. The primary objective of all mathematics work is to help man study nature, and some practical achievements of this connection are noted.…

  4. Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Hope

    2007-01-01

    "Mathematical literacy" implies that a person is able to reason, analyze, formulate, and solve problems in a real-world setting. Mathematically literate individuals are informed citizens and intelligent consumers. They have the ability to interpret and analyze the vast amount of information they are inundated with daily in newspapers, on…

  5. 76 FR 71310 - Notice of Intent To Reduce the Frequency of Chemical Use Surveys and All Associated Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... crops for Field Crops Chemical Use survey. Please note that wheat and soybeans were originally in the... year NASS commodity ERS commodity (PPCR) 2011 Fruit Barley, Sorghum. 2012 Wheat (PPR) and Soybeans. Soybeans. 2013 Vegetable Rice and Peanuts. 2014 Cotton Cotton. 2015 Corn and Potatoes (PPR).. To...

  6. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    St.Martin, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

  7. Peterson's Top Colleges for Science: A Guide to Leading Four-Year Programs in the Biological, Chemical, Geological, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Van Atta, David, Ed.

    This guide, published for the first time, provides prospective college students detailed information on 190 United States colleges and universities identified as having very strong track records in the sciences and mathematics. Following a description of how institutions were identified for inclusion by David Davis-Van Atta, and a discussion on…

  8. Chemical Chaperones Reduce ER Stress and Restore Glucose Homeostasis in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Umut; Yilmaz, Erkan; Özcan, Lale; Furuhashi, Masato; Vaillancourt, Eric; Smith, Ross O.; Görgün, Cem Z.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2006-08-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanistic link can be exploited for therapeutic purposes with orally active chemical chaperones. 4-Phenyl butyric acid and taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid alleviated ER stress in cells and whole animals. Treatment of obese and diabetic mice with these compounds resulted in normalization of hyperglycemia, restoration of systemic insulin sensitivity, resolution of fatty liver disease, and enhancement of insulin action in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues. Our results demonstrate that chemical chaperones enhance the adaptive capacity of the ER and act as potent antidiabetic modalities with potential application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Chemical chaperones reduce ionizing radiation-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in IEC-6 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun Sang; Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Seongman; Lim, Young-Bin

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • UPR activation precedes caspase activation in irradiated IEC-6 cells. • Chemical ER stress inducers radiosensitize IEC-6 cells. • siRNAs that targeted ER stress responses ameliorate IR-induced cell death. • Chemical chaperons prevent cell death in irradiated IEC-6 cells. - Abstract: Radiotherapy, which is one of the most effective approaches to the treatment of various cancers, plays an important role in malignant cell eradication in the pelvic area and abdomen. However, it also generates some degree of intestinal injury. Apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is the primary pathological factor that initiates radiation-induced intestinal injury, but the mechanism by which ionizing radiation (IR) induces apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is not clearly understood. Recently, IR has been shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells. However, the consequences of the IR-induced activation of the UPR signaling pathway on radiosensitivity in intestinal epithelial cells remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress responses in IR-induced intestinal epithelial cell death. We show that chemical ER stress inducers, such as tunicamycin or thapsigargin, enhanced IR-induced caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation in intestinal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Xbp1 or Atf6 with small interfering RNA inhibited IR-induced caspase 3 activation. Treatment with chemical chaperones prevented ER stress and subsequent apoptosis in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a pro-apoptotic role of ER stress in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, inhibiting ER stress may be an effective strategy to prevent IR-induced intestinal injury.

  10. Reduced weight decontamination formulation utilizing a solid peracid compound for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2011-09-20

    A reduced weight decontamination formulation that utilizes a solid peracid compound (sodium borate peracetate) and a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride) that can be packaged with all water removed. This reduces the packaged weight of the decontamination formulation by .about.80% (as compared to the "all-liquid" DF-200 formulation) and significantly lowers the logistics burden on the warfighter. Water (freshwater or saltwater) is added to the new decontamination formulation at the time of use from a local source.

  11. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  12. Fully adiabatic 31P 2D-CSI with reduced chemical shift displacement error at 7 T--GOIA-1D-ISIS/2D-CSI.

    PubMed

    Chmelík, M; Kukurová, I Just; Gruber, S; Krššák, M; Valkovič, L; Trattnig, S; Bogner, W

    2013-05-01

    A fully adiabatic phosphorus (31P) two-dimensional (2D) chemical shift spectroscopic imaging sequence with reduced chemical shift displacement error for 7 T, based on 1D-image-selected in vivo spectroscopy, combined with 2D-chemical shift spectroscopic imaging selection, was developed. Slice-selective excitation was achieved by a spatially selective broadband GOIA-W(16,4) inversion pulse with an interleaved subtraction scheme before nonselective adiabatic excitation, and followed by 2D phase encoding. The use of GOIA-W(16,4) pulses (bandwidth 4.3-21.6 kHz for 10-50 mm slices) reduced the chemical shift displacement error in the slice direction ∼1.5-7.7 fold, compared to conventional 2D-chemical shift spectroscopic imaging with Sinc3 selective pulses (2.8 kHz). This reduction was experimentally demonstrated with measurements of an MR spectroscopy localization phantom and with experimental evaluation of pulse profiles. In vivo experiments in clinically acceptable measurement times were demonstrated in the calf muscle (nominal voxel volume, 5.65 ml in 6 min 53 s), brain (10 ml, 6 min 32 s), and liver (8.33 ml, 8 min 14 s) of healthy volunteers at 7 T. High reproducibility was found in the calf muscle at 7 T. In combination with adiabatic excitation, this sequence is insensitive to the B1 inhomogeneities associated with surface coils. This sequence, which is termed GOIA-1D-ISIS/2D-CSI (goISICS), has the potential to be applied in both clinical research and in the clinical routine.

  13. Chemical chaperones reduce ionizing radiation-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Sang; Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Seongman; Lim, Young-Bin

    2014-07-25

    Radiotherapy, which is one of the most effective approaches to the treatment of various cancers, plays an important role in malignant cell eradication in the pelvic area and abdomen. However, it also generates some degree of intestinal injury. Apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is the primary pathological factor that initiates radiation-induced intestinal injury, but the mechanism by which ionizing radiation (IR) induces apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is not clearly understood. Recently, IR has been shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells. However, the consequences of the IR-induced activation of the UPR signaling pathway on radiosensitivity in intestinal epithelial cells remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress responses in IR-induced intestinal epithelial cell death. We show that chemical ER stress inducers, such as tunicamycin or thapsigargin, enhanced IR-induced caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation in intestinal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Xbp1 or Atf6 with small interfering RNA inhibited IR-induced caspase 3 activation. Treatment with chemical chaperones prevented ER stress and subsequent apoptosis in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a pro-apoptotic role of ER stress in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, inhibiting ER stress may be an effective strategy to prevent IR-induced intestinal injury.

  14. Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-induced mouse model of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaqin; Wu, Zhihong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xiang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, which is characteristic by chronic inflammation, is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese state and is known to be strongly associated with chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ER stress on adipokine secretion in obese mice and explore the potential mechanisms. In this study, we found high-fat diet induced-obesity contributed to strengthened ER stress and triggered chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Chemical chaperones, 4-PBA and TUDCA, modified metabolic disorders and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The alleviation of ER stress is in accordance with the decrease of free cholesterol in adipose tissue. Furthermore chemical chaperones suppress NF-κB activity in adipose tissue of obese mice in vivo. In vitro studies showed IKK/NF-κB may be involved in the signal transduction of adipokine secretion dysfunction induced by ER stress. The present study revealed the possibility that inhibition of ER stress may be a novel drug target for metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Further studies are now needed to characterize the initial incentive of sustained ER stress in obese. PMID:27271106

  15. [Process monitoring of dissolution of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets by fiber-chemical sensor assisted by mathematical separation model of linear equations].

    PubMed

    Ding, Hai-Yan; Li, Gai-Ru; Yu, Ying-Ge; Guo, Wei; Zhi, Ling; Li, Xin-Xia

    2014-04-01

    A method for on-line monitoring the dissolution of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets assisted by mathematical separation model of linear equations was established. UV spectrums of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide were overlapping completely at the maximum absorption wavelength respectively. According to the Beer-Lambert principle of absorbance additivity, the absorptivity of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide was determined at the maximum absorption wavelength, and the dissolubility of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets was detected by fiber-optic dissolution test (FODT) assisted by the mathematical separation model of linear equations and compared with the HPLC method. Results show that two ingredients were real-time determined simultaneously in given medium. There was no significant difference for FODT compared with HPLC (p > 0.05). Due to the dissolution behavior consistency, the preparation process of different batches was stable and with good uniformity. The dissolution curves of valsartan were faster and higher than hydrochlorothiazide. The dissolutions at 30 min of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide were concordant with US Pharmacopoeia. It was concluded that fiber-optic dissolution test system assisted by the mathematical separation model of linear equations that can detect the dissolubility of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide simultaneously, and get dissolution profiles and overall data, which can directly reflect the dissolution speed at each time. It can provide the basis for establishing standards of the drug. Compared to HPLC method with one-point data, there are obvious advantages to evaluate and analyze quality of sampling drug by FODT.

  16. Long-term manure incorporation with chemical fertilizers reduced environmental nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization in intensive farming systems are essential for sustainable agriculture and food security around the world. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of various fertilization...

  17. Dynamic Boolean Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic mathematical environments allow users to reify mathematical concepts through multiple representations, transform mathematical relations and organically explore mathematical properties, investigate integrated mathematics, and develop conceptual understanding. Herein, we integrate Boolean algebra, the functionalities of a dynamic…

  18. A screen of chemical modifications identifies position-specific modification by UNA to most potently reduce siRNA off-target effects

    PubMed Central

    Bramsen, Jesper B.; Pakula, Malgorzata M.; Hansen, Thomas B.; Bus, Claus; Langkjær, Niels; Odadzic, Dalibor; Smicius, Romualdas; Wengel, Suzy L.; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Engels, Joachim W.; Herdewijn, Piet; Wengel, Jesper; Kjems, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are now established as the preferred tool to inhibit gene function in mammalian cells yet trigger unintended gene silencing due to their inherent miRNA-like behavior. Such off-target effects are primarily mediated by the sequence-specific interaction between the siRNA seed regions (position 2–8 of either siRNA strand counting from the 5′-end) and complementary sequences in the 3′UTR of (off-) targets. It was previously shown that chemical modification of siRNAs can reduce off-targeting but only very few modifications have been tested leaving more to be identified. Here we developed a luciferase reporter-based assay suitable to monitor siRNA off-targeting in a high throughput manner using stable cell lines. We investigated the impact of chemically modifying single nucleotide positions within the siRNA seed on siRNA function and off-targeting using 10 different types of chemical modifications, three different target sequences and three siRNA concentrations. We found several differently modified siRNAs to exercise reduced off-targeting yet incorporation of the strongly destabilizing unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) modification into position 7 of the siRNA most potently reduced off-targeting for all tested sequences. Notably, such position-specific destabilization of siRNA–target interactions did not significantly reduce siRNA potency and is therefore well suited for future siRNA designs especially for applications in vivo where siRNA concentrations, expectedly, will be low. PMID:20453030

  19. Use of chemical sanitizers to reduce microbial populations and maintain quality of whole and fresh-cut cantaloupe.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Annous, Bassam A; Keskinen, Lindsey A; Mattheis, James P

    2009-12-01

    Whole cantaloupes either not inoculated or inoculated with Salmonella Poona were submerged in water, 180 ppm of chlorine, acidified calcium sulfate (ACS: 1.2% Safe(2)O-ACS50), 1,000 ppm of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 80 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (PAA), and a combination of ACS and PAA for 10 min. Although only ASC and the combination of ACS and PAA significantly reduced the aerobic plate count of samples taken from the surface of whole cantaloupe (compared with samples taken from cantaloupe submerged in water only), all treatments reduced yeast and mold counts on the whole cantaloupe. However, none of the treatments of whole cantaloupes consistently reduced yeast and mold counts for the samples of fresh-cut cantaloupes. The aerobic plate counts for fresh-cut cantaloupe were reduced by 1 to 2 log CFU/g by sanitization of whole fruit with ASC, ACS, and the combination of ACS and PAA. The low bacterial population on the fresh-cut fruit was maintained during 14 days of storage at 4 degrees C. All treatments had a limited effect on the population of Salmonella, achieving no more than a 1.5-log reduction of the pathogen inoculated on the surface of the whole cantaloupes. Salmonella was nondetectable via direct plating (with a detection limit of 0.4 log CFU/g) in fresh-cut cantaloupes prepared from whole cantaloupes treated with any of the sanitizers. However, after enrichment, Salmonella often was detectable. Color, texture, soluble solids, pH, ascorbic acid, and drip loss of cut cantaloupes were not consistently affected by any of the whole-fruit treatments. Overall, treatments of whole cantaloupe with ASC, ACS, and the combination of ACS and PAA at the concentrations tested permitted a significant reduction in Salmonella and native microflora of whole and cut fruit; however, Salmonella still could be found in cut cantaloupes from all treatments.

  20. Mathematical wit and mathematical cognition.

    PubMed

    Aberdein, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The published works of scientists often conceal the cognitive processes that led to their results. Scholars of mathematical practice must therefore seek out less obvious sources. This article analyzes a widely circulated mathematical joke, comprising a list of spurious proof types. An account is proposed in terms of argumentation schemes: stereotypical patterns of reasoning, which may be accompanied by critical questions itemizing possible lines of defeat. It is argued that humor is associated with risky forms of inference, which are essential to creative mathematics. The components of the joke are explicated by argumentation schemes devised for application to topic-neutral reasoning. These in turn are classified under seven headings: retroduction, citation, intuition, meta-argument, closure, generalization, and definition. Finally, the wider significance of this account for the cognitive science of mathematics is discussed.

  1. Mathematical Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.

    2009-10-14

    Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.

  2. Chemical Modification with High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Glycol Reduces Transduction of Hepatocytes and Increases Efficacy of Intravenously Delivered Oncolytic Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Doronin, Konstantin; Shashkova, Elena V.; May, Shannon M.; Hofherr, Sean E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Oncolytic adenoviruses are anticancer agents that replicate within tumors and spread to uninfected tumor cells, amplifying the anticancer effect of initial transduction. We tested whether coating the viral particle with polyethylene glycol (PEG) could reduce transduction of hepatocytes and hepatotoxicity after systemic (intravenous) administration of oncolytic adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). Conjugating Ad5 with high molecular weight 20-kDa PEG but not with 5-kDa PEG reduced hepatocyte transduction and hepatotoxicity after intravenous injection. PEGylation with 20-kDa PEG was as efficient at detargeting adenovirus from Kupffer cells and hepatocytes as virus predosing and warfarin. Bioluminescence imaging of virus distribution in two xenograft tumor models in nude mice demonstrated that PEGylation with 20-kDa PEG reduced liver infection 19- to 90-fold. Tumor transduction levels were similar for vectors PEGylated with 20-kDa PEG and unPEGylated vectors. Anticancer efficacy after a single intravenous injection was retained at the level of unmodified vector in large established prostate carcinoma xenografts, resulting in complete elimination of tumors in all animals and long-term tumor-free survival. Anticancer efficacy after a single intravenous injection was increased in large established hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts, resulting in significant prolongation of survival as compared with unmodified vector. The increase in efficacy was comparable to that obtained with predosing and warfarin pretreatment, significantly extending the median of survival. Shielding adenovirus with 20-kDa PEG may be a useful approach to improve the therapeutic window of oncolytic adenovirus after systemic delivery to primary and metastatic tumor sites. PMID:19469693

  3. Application of Glomus sp. and Pseudomonas diminuta Reduce the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Production of Potato Grown on Different Soil Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurbaity, A.; Sofyan, E. T.; Hamdani, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    The use of high chemical fertilizer rates in potato production has been applied on the farm in Indonesia. Application of biofertilizer consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been tested to reduce the use of NPK rates in production of potato and to determine whether different soil types will have different response to this biofertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using mixtures of spores of Glomus sp. and inoculant of mycorrhizal helper bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta, applied at different rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended rates) and different soil types (Andisols and Inceptisols). Results of experiment showed that application of Glomus sp. and P. diminuta reduced the use of NPK up to 50%, where the growth (plant height and tuber number), N,P,K uptake and tuber yields of potato had similar effect to the highest recommendation rate of NPK fertilizer. Inceptisols in general had better response to the biofertiliser compared to Andisols. Findings from this experiment confirmed the evidences that biofertilizer could reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, and the widely distributed soil in Indonesia such as Inceptisols, is potential to be used as a medium for potato production.

  4. Long-term operation of microbial electrosynthesis cell reducing CO2 to multi-carbon chemicals with a mixed culture avoiding methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, Suman; Yuliasni, Rustiana; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J N; Strik, David P B T B; Pant, Deepak

    2017-02-01

    In microbial electrosynthesis (MES), CO2 can be reduced preferably to multi-carbon chemicals by a biocathode-based process which uses electrochemically active bacteria as catalysts. A mixed anaerobic consortium from biological origin typically produces methane from CO2 reduction which circumvents production of multi-carbon compounds. This study aimed to develop a stable and robust CO2 reducing biocathode from a mixed culture inoculum avoiding the methane generation. An effective approach was demonstrated based on (i) an enrichment procedure involving inoculum pre-treatment and several culture transfers in H2:CO2 media, (ii) a transfer from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth and (iii) a sequential batch operation. Biomass growth and gradual acclimation to CO2 electro-reduction accomplished a maximum acetate production rate of 400mgLcatholyte(-1)d(-1) at -1V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Methane was never detected in more than 300days of operation. Accumulation of acetate up to 7-10gL(-1) was repeatedly attained by supplying (80:20) CO2:N2 mixture at -0.9 to -1V (vs. Ag/AgCl). In addition, ethanol and butyrate were also produced from CO2 reduction. Thus, a robust CO2 reducing biocathode can be developed from a mixed culture avoiding methane generation by adopting the specific culture enrichment and operation procedures without the direct addition of chemical inhibitor.

  5. Physico-chemical properties based differential toxicity of graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide in human lung cells mediated through oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sandeep; Kumar, Veeresh; Dhiman, Nitesh; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Pasricha, Renu; Pandey, Alok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Goraphene derivatives (GD) are currently being evaluated for technological and biomedical applications owing to their unique physico-chemical properties over other carbon allotrope such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). But, the possible association of their properties with underlying in vitro effects have not fully examined. Here, we assessed the comparative interaction of three GD - graphene oxide (GO), thermally reduced GO (TRGO) and chemically reduced GO (CRGO), which significantly differ in their lateral size and functional groups density, with phenotypically different human lung cells; bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). The cellular studies demonstrate that GD significantly ineternalize and induce oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity in both cells. The toxicity intensity was in line with the reduced lateral size and increased functional groups revealed more toxicity potential of TRGO and GO respectively. Further, A549 cells showed more susceptibility than BEAS-2B which reflected cell type dependent differential cellular response. Molecular studies revealed that GD induced differential cell death mechanism which was efficiently prevented by their respective inhibitors. This is prior study to the best of our knowledge involving TRGO for its safety evaluation which provided invaluable information and new opportunities for GD based biomedical applications. PMID:28000740

  6. Physico-chemical properties based differential toxicity of graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide in human lung cells mediated through oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Sandeep; Kumar, Veeresh; Dhiman, Nitesh; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Pasricha, Renu; Pandey, Alok Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Goraphene derivatives (GD) are currently being evaluated for technological and biomedical applications owing to their unique physico-chemical properties over other carbon allotrope such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). But, the possible association of their properties with underlying in vitro effects have not fully examined. Here, we assessed the comparative interaction of three GD - graphene oxide (GO), thermally reduced GO (TRGO) and chemically reduced GO (CRGO), which significantly differ in their lateral size and functional groups density, with phenotypically different human lung cells; bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). The cellular studies demonstrate that GD significantly ineternalize and induce oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity in both cells. The toxicity intensity was in line with the reduced lateral size and increased functional groups revealed more toxicity potential of TRGO and GO respectively. Further, A549 cells showed more susceptibility than BEAS-2B which reflected cell type dependent differential cellular response. Molecular studies revealed that GD induced differential cell death mechanism which was efficiently prevented by their respective inhibitors. This is prior study to the best of our knowledge involving TRGO for its safety evaluation which provided invaluable information and new opportunities for GD based biomedical applications.

  7. Mathematical modelling of physical and chemical processes of coal combustion in chamber furnaces of boiler aggregates based on the package of applied programs FIRE 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A. V.; Starchenko, A. V.

    2012-09-01

    The furnace processes of the combustion of poly-fraction high-ashes Ekibastuz coal in the furnace chamber of the boiler aggregate PK-39 and of the combustion of highly humid brown Berezov's coal in the furnace of the BKZ-210-140 boiler are investigated by mathematical modeling using the package of applied programs FIRE 3D [1-3]. Results of the numerical modeling of the processes of aerodynamics, heat exchange, and combustion in the furnace volume and their comparison with the results of nature tests are presented.

  8. Comparative evaluation of chemical and enzymatic saccharification of mixotrophically grown de-oiled microalgal biomass for reducing sugar production.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Bhattacharya, Sourish; Bachani, Pooja; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-03-01

    For the commercialization of microalgal based biofuels, utilization of de-oiled carbohydrate rich biomass is important. In the present study, chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of mixotrophically grown Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 de-oiled biomass is evaluated. Among the chemical hydrolysis, use of 0.5M HCl for 45 min at 121°C resulted in highest saccharification yield of 37.87% w/w of de-oiled biomass. However, enzymatic hydrolysis using Viscozyme L at loading rate of 20 FBGU/g of de-oiled biomass, pH 5.5 and temperature 45°C for 72 h resulted in saccharification yield of 43.44% w/w of de-oiled biomass. Further, 78% ethanol production efficiency was achieved with enzymatically hydrolyzed de-oiled biomass using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 6793. These findings of the present study show application of mixotrophically grown de-oiled biomass of Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as promising feedstock for bioethanol production.

  9. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater.

  10. Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients, and mitigate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; West, A. Joshua; Renforth, Phil; KöHler, Peter; de La Rocha, Christina L.; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Dürr, Hans H.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    weathering is an integral part of both the rock and carbon cycles and is being affected by changes in land use, particularly as a result of agricultural practices such as tilling, mineral fertilization, or liming to adjust soil pH. These human activities have already altered the terrestrial chemical cycles and land-ocean flux of major elements, although the extent remains difficult to quantify. When deployed on a grand scale, Enhanced Weathering (a form of mineral fertilization), the application of finely ground minerals over the land surface, could be used to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. The release of cations during the dissolution of such silicate minerals would convert dissolved CO2 to bicarbonate, increasing the alkalinity and pH of natural waters. Some products of mineral dissolution would precipitate in soils or be taken up by ecosystems, but a significant portion would be transported to the coastal zone and the open ocean, where the increase in alkalinity would partially counteract "ocean acidification" associated with the current marked increase in atmospheric CO2. Other elements released during this mineral dissolution, like Si, P, or K, could stimulate biological productivity, further helping to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. On land, the terrestrial carbon pool would likely increase in response to Enhanced Weathering in areas where ecosystem growth rates are currently limited by one of the nutrients that would be released during mineral dissolution. In the ocean, the biological carbon pumps (which export organic matter and CaCO3 to the deep ocean) may be altered by the resulting influx of nutrients and alkalinity to the ocean. This review merges current interdisciplinary knowledge about Enhanced Weathering, the processes involved, and the applicability as well as some of the consequences and risks of applying the method.

  11. One-pot wet-chemical co-reduction synthesis of bimetallic gold-platinum nanochains supported on reduced graphene oxide with enhanced electrocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, De-Jun; Zhang, Qian-Li; Feng, Jin-Xia; Ju, Ke-Jian; Wang, Ai-Jun; Wei, Jie; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a simple, rapid and facile one-pot wet-chemical co-reduction method is developed for synthesis of bimetallic Au-Pt alloyed nanochains supported on reduced graphene oxide (Au-Pt NCs/RGO), in which caffeine is acted as a capping agent and a structure-directing agent, while no any seed, template, surfactant or polymer involved. The as-prepared nanocomposites display enlarged electrochemical active surface area, significantly enhanced catalytic activity and better stability for methanol and ethylene glycol oxidation, compared with commercial Pt-C (Pt 50 wt%), PtRu-C (Pt 30 wt% and Ru 15 wt%) and Pt black.

  12. Quotable Quotes in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Bruce W. N.

    1983-01-01

    As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)

  13. Effect of fluorine plasma treatment with chemically reduced graphene oxide thin films as hole transport layer in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youn-Yeol; Kang, Byung Hyun; Lee, Yang Doo; Lee, Sang Bin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2013-12-01

    The inorganic materials such as V2O5, MoO3 and WO3 were investigated to replace PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer (HTL) in organic electronic devices such as organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic lighting emission diodes. However, these methods require vacuum techniques that are long time process and complex. Here, we report about plasma treatment with SF6 and CF4 using reactive ion etching on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films that are obtained using an eco-friendly method with vitamin C. The plasma treated rGO thin films have dipoles since they consist of covalent bonds with fluorine on the surface of rGO. This means it is possible to increase the electrostatic potential energy than bare rGO. Increased potential energy on the surface of rGO films is worth applying organic electronic devices as HTL such as OSCs. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency of OSCs increased more than the rGO films without plasma treatment.

  14. Strategies for Understanding and Reducing the Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale Hypnozoite Reservoir in Papua New Guinean Children: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial and Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Leanne J.; Wampfler, Rahel; Betuela, Inoni; Karl, Stephan; White, Michael T.; Li Wai Suen, Connie S. N.; Hofmann, Natalie E.; Kinboro, Benson; Waltmann, Andreea; Brewster, Jessica; Lorry, Lina; Tarongka, Nandao; Samol, Lornah; Silkey, Mariabeth; Bassat, Quique; Siba, Peter M.; Schofield, Louis; Felger, Ingrid; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Background The undetectable hypnozoite reservoir for relapsing Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale malarias presents a major challenge for malaria control and elimination in endemic countries. This study aims to directly determine the contribution of relapses to the burden of P. vivax and P. ovale infection, illness, and transmission in Papua New Guinean children. Methods and Findings From 17 August 2009 to 20 May 2010, 524 children aged 5–10 y from East Sepik Province in Papua New Guinea (PNG) participated in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of blood- plus liver-stage drugs (chloroquine [CQ], 3 d; artemether-lumefantrine [AL], 3 d; and primaquine [PQ], 20 d, 10 mg/kg total dose) (261 children) or blood-stage drugs only (CQ, 3 d; AL, 3 d; and placebo [PL], 20 d) (263 children). Participants, study staff, and investigators were blinded to the treatment allocation. Twenty children were excluded during the treatment phase (PQ arm: 14, PL arm: 6), and 504 were followed actively for 9 mo. During the follow-up time, 18 children (PQ arm: 7, PL arm: 11) were lost to follow-up. Main primary and secondary outcome measures were time to first P. vivax infection (by qPCR), time to first clinical episode, force of infection, gametocyte positivity, and time to first P. ovale infection (by PCR). A basic stochastic transmission model was developed to estimate the potential effect of mass drug administration (MDA) for the prevention of recurrent P. vivax infections. Targeting hypnozoites through PQ treatment reduced the risk of having at least one qPCR-detectable P. vivax or P. ovale infection during 8 mo of follow-up (P. vivax: PQ arm 0.63/y versus PL arm 2.62/y, HR = 0.18 [95% CI 0.14, 0.25], p < 0.001; P. ovale: 0.06 versus 0.14, HR = 0.31 [95% CI 0.13, 0.77], p = 0.011) and the risk of having at least one clinical P. vivax episode (HR = 0.25 [95% CI 0.11, 0.61], p = 0.002). PQ also reduced the molecular force of P. vivax blood-stage infection in the first 3 mo of

  15. Computer program determines chemical composition of physical system at equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, S. S.

    1966-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 digital computer program calculates equilibrium composition of complex, multiphase chemical systems. This is a free energy minimization method with solution of the problem reduced to mathematical operations, without concern for the chemistry involved. Also certain thermodynamic properties are determined as byproducts of the main calculations.

  16. Evolution of Chemical Diversity in a Group of Non-Reduced Polyketide Gene Clusters: Using Phylogenetics to Inform the Search for Novel Fungal Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Throckmorton, Kurt; Wiemann, Philipp; Keller, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal polyketides are a diverse class of natural products, or secondary metabolites (SMs), with a wide range of bioactivities often associated with toxicity. Here, we focus on a group of non-reducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) in the fungal phylum Ascomycota that lack a thioesterase domain for product release, group V. Although widespread in ascomycete taxa, this group of NR-PKSs is notably absent in the mycotoxigenic genus Fusarium and, surprisingly, found in genera not known for their secondary metabolite production (e.g., the mycorrhizal genus Oidiodendron, the powdery mildew genus Blumeria, and the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, Pseudogymnoascus destructans). This group of NR-PKSs, in association with the other enzymes encoded by their gene clusters, produces a variety of different chemical classes including naphthacenediones, anthraquinones, benzophenones, grisandienes, and diphenyl ethers. We discuss the modification of and transitions between these chemical classes, the requisite enzymes, and the evolution of the SM gene clusters that encode them. Integrating this information, we predict the likely products of related but uncharacterized SM clusters, and we speculate upon the utility of these classes of SMs as virulence factors or chemical defenses to various plant, animal, and insect pathogens, as well as mutualistic fungi. PMID:26378577

  17. Mathematical Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogness, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer graphics have provided mathematicians with the ability to create stunning visualizations, both to gain insight and to help demonstrate the beauty of mathematics to others. As educators these tools can be particularly important as we search for ways to work with students raised with constant visual stimulation, from video games…

  18. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  19. Outdoor Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    One of the most interesting developments in teaching has been the growing importance of the outdoor environment. Whether it be playground, garden or field, the outdoors offers a range of challenging experiences, especially in the delivery of early mathematics. Oral feedback to parents, together with photographic displays, can show them that…

  20. ER stress is associated with reduced ABCA-1 protein levels in macrophages treated with advanced glycated albumin - reversal by a chemical chaperone.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Gabriela; Okuda, Ligia S; Pinto, Raphael S; Iborra, Rodgiro T; Nakandakare, Edna R; Santos, Celio X; Laurindo, Francisco R; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 mediates the export of excess cholesterol from macrophages, contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Advanced glycated albumin (AGE-alb) is prevalent in diabetes mellitus and is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Independently of changes in ABCA-1 mRNA levels, AGE-alb induces oxidative stress and reduces ABCA-1 protein levels, which leads to macrophage lipid accumulation. These metabolic conditions are known to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We sought to determine if AGE-alb induces ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in macrophages and how disturbances to the ER could affect ABCA-1 content and cholesterol efflux in macrophages. AGE-alb induced a time-dependent increase in ER stress and UPR markers. ABCA-1 content and cellular cholesterol efflux were reduced by 33% and 47%, respectively, in macrophages treated with AGE-alb, and both were restored by treatment with 4-phenyl butyric acid (a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress), but not MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor). Tunicamycin, a classical ER stress inductor, also impaired ABCA-1 expression and cholesterol efflux (showing a decrease of 61% and 82%, respectively), confirming the deleterious effect of ER stress in macrophage cholesterol accumulation. Glycoxidation induces macrophage ER stress, which relates to the reduction in ABCA-1 and in reverse cholesterol transport, endorsing the adverse effect of macrophage ER stress in atherosclerosis. Thus, chemical chaperones that alleviate ER stress may represent a useful tool for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis in diabetes.

  1. Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Mathematics IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The subject matter is presented in four columns: major areas, significant outcomes, observations and suggestions, and films and references. The topics include: sets-relations-functions, circular functions, graphs of circular functions, inverses of circular…

  2. Backbone chemical shift assignments for Xanthomonas campestris peroxiredoxin Q in the reduced and oxidized states: a dramatic change in backbone dynamics.

    PubMed

    Buchko, Garry W; Perkins, Arden; Parsonage, Derek; Poole, Leslie B; Karplus, P Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are ubiquitous enzymes that reduce peroxides as part of antioxidant defenses and redox signaling. While Prx catalytic activity and sensitivity to hyperoxidative inactivation depend on their dynamic properties, there are few examples where their dynamics has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Here, we provide a foundation for studies of the solution properties of peroxiredoxin Q from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (XcPrxQ) by assigning the observable (1)H(N), (15)N, (13)C(α), (13)C(β), and (13)C' chemical shifts for both the reduced (dithiol) and oxidized (disulfide) states. In the reduced state, most of the backbone amide resonances (149/152, 98 %) can be assigned in the XcPrxQ (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectrum. In contrast, a remarkable 51 % (77) of these amide resonances are not visible in the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectrum of the disulfide state of the enzyme, indicating a substantial change in backbone dynamics associated with the formation of an intramolecular C48-C84 disulfide bond.

  3. Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…

  4. Argon–germane in situ plasma clean for reduced temperature Ge on Si epitaxy by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sheng, Josephine J.; Verley, Jason C.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-06-04

    We found that the demand for integration of near infrared optoelectronic functionality with silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has for many years motivated the investigation of low temperature germanium on silicon deposition processes. Our work describes the development of a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition process that uses a low temperature (<460 °C) in situ germane/argon plasma surface preparation step for epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon. It is shown that the germane/argon plasma treatment sufficiently removes SiOx and carbon at the surface to enable germanium epitaxy. Finally, the use of this surface preparation step demonstrates an alternative way to produce germanium epitaxy at reduced temperatures, a key enabler for increased flexibility of integration with CMOS back-end-of-line fabrication.

  5. Argon–germane in situ plasma clean for reduced temperature Ge on Si epitaxy by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sheng, Josephine J.; Verley, Jason C.; ...

    2015-06-04

    We found that the demand for integration of near infrared optoelectronic functionality with silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has for many years motivated the investigation of low temperature germanium on silicon deposition processes. Our work describes the development of a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition process that uses a low temperature (<460 °C) in situ germane/argon plasma surface preparation step for epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon. It is shown that the germane/argon plasma treatment sufficiently removes SiOx and carbon at the surface to enable germanium epitaxy. Finally, the use of this surface preparation step demonstrates anmore » alternative way to produce germanium epitaxy at reduced temperatures, a key enabler for increased flexibility of integration with CMOS back-end-of-line fabrication.« less

  6. Universal tight binding model for chemical reactions in solution and at surfaces. III. Stoichiometric and reduced surfaces of titania and the adsorption of water

    SciTech Connect

    Lozovoi, A. Y.; Sheppard, T. J.; Kohanoff, J. J.; Pashov, D. L.; Paxton, A. T.

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate a model for stoichiometric and reduced titanium dioxide intended for use in molecular dynamics and other atomistic simulations and based in the polarizable ion tight binding theory. This extends the model introduced in two previous papers from molecular and liquid applications into the solid state, thus completing the task of providing a comprehensive and unified scheme for studying chemical reactions, particularly aimed at problems in catalysis and electrochemistry. As before, experimental results are given priority over theoretical ones in selecting targets for model fitting, for which we used crystal parameters and band gaps of titania bulk polymorphs, rutile and anatase. The model is applied to six low index titania surfaces, with and without oxygen vacancies and adsorbed water molecules, both in dissociated and non-dissociated states. Finally, we present the results of molecular dynamics simulation of an anatase cluster with a number of adsorbed water molecules and discuss the role of edge and corner atoms of the cluster.

  7. Photoelectrocatalytic reduction of CO2 into chemicals using Pt-modified reduced graphene oxide combined with Pt-modified TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Meng; Wu, Gai; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-06-17

    The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reduction of CO2 into high-value chemicals is beneficial in alleviating global warming and advancing a low-carbon economy. In this work, Pt-modified reduced graphene oxide (Pt-RGO) and Pt-modified TiO2 nanotubes (Pt-TNT) were combined as cathode and photoanode catalysts, respectively, to form a PEC reactor for converting CO2 into valuable chemicals. XRD, XPS, TEM, AFM, and SEM were employed to characterize the microstructures of the Pt-RGO and Pt-TNT catalysts. Reduction products, such as C2H5OH and CH3COOH, were obtained from CO2 under band gap illumination and biased voltage. A combined liquid product generation rate (CH3OH, C2H5OH, HCOOH, and CH3COOH) of approximately 600 nmol/(h·cm(2)) was observed. Carbon atom conversion rate reached 1,130 nmol/(h·cm(2)), which were much higher than those achieved using Pt-modified carbon nanotubes and platinum carbon as cathode catalysts.

  8. Mathematical modelling of unsteady MHD natural convection flow past a vertical plate with variable surface temperature and mass flux in the presence of radiation and chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, S. Suresh Kumar; Narahari, Marneni; Pendyala, Rajashekhar

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a numerical analysis is made for unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convective boundary-layer flow past an impulsively started semi-infinite vertical plate with variable surface temperature and mass flux in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction. The Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique is implemented to solve the system of governing equations. Numerical results are obtained for different values of system parameters and analyzed through graphs. The velocity profiles of the present study have been compared with the available results for the limiting case and a good agreement is found between the results.

  9. Mathematical Notation in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasterczyk, Catherine E.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ways in which using mathematical symbols to search online bibliographic databases in scientific and technical areas can improve search results. The representations used for Greek letters, relations, binary operators, arrows, and miscellaneous special symbols in the MathSci, Inspec, Compendex, and Chemical Abstracts databases are…

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  11. Mathematics Worth Teaching, Mathematics Worth Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; Kaput, James J.

    This chapter examines the scope of the mathematical content educators expect students to understand after they have participated in mathematics courses. It is organized under four headings: (1) Traditional School Mathematics, to clarify what the shift is away from; (2) Mathematics as Human Activity, to portray the direction the shift is toward;…

  12. Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…

  13. Effect of increasing the protein-to-fat ratio and reducing fat content on the chemical and physical properties of processed cheese product.

    PubMed

    Guinee, T P; O'Callaghan, D J

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies indicate that the intake of dietary fat and saturated fats in the modern Western diet is excessive and contributes adversely to health, lifestyle, and longevity. In response, manufacturers of cheese and processed cheese products (PCP) are pursuing the development of products with reduced fat contents. The present study investigated the effect of altering the fat level (13.8, 18.2, 22.7, 27.9, and 32.5 g/100g) in PCP on their chemical and physical properties. The PCP were formulated in triplicate to different fat levels using Cheddar cheese, skim milk cheese, anhydrous milk fat, emulsifying salt (ES), NaCl, and water. The formulations were designed to give fixed moisture (~53 g/100g) and ES:protein ratio (0.105). The resultant PCP, and their water-soluble extracts (WSE), prepared from a macerated blend of PCP and water at a weight ratio of 1:2, were analyzed at 4d. Reducing the fat content significantly increased the firmness of the unheated PCP and reduced the flowability and maximum loss tangent (fluidity) of the melted PCP. These changes coincided with increases in the levels of total protein, water-soluble protein, water-insoluble protein, and water-soluble Ca, and a decrease in the molar ratio of water-soluble Ca to soluble P. However, both water-soluble Ca and water-soluble protein decreased when expressed as percentages of total protein and total Ca, respectively, in the PCP. The high level of protein was a major factor contributing to the deterioration in physical properties as the fat content of PCP was reduced. Diluting the protein content or reducing the potential of the protein to aggregate, and thereby form structures that contribute to rigidity, may provide a means for improving quality of reduced-fat PCP by using natural cheese with lower intact casein content and lower calcium:casein ratio, for example, or by decreasing the ratio of sodium phosphate to sodium citrate-based ES.

  14. Kinetics of Oxidation of a Reduced Form of the Cu-Based Oxygen-Carrier for Use in Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Dennis, J. S.; Hayhurst, A. N.; Scott, S. A.

    A co-precipitated mixture of CuO and Al2O3 is a good oxygen-carrier for chemical-looping combustion. The kinetics of regeneration of this reduced oxygen-carrier (355 - 500 urn) were measured from 300 to 750°C when reacting it with O2. Care was taken to ensure these measurements were not affected by interphase mass transfer. Efforts were also made to minimise sampling problems by using a rapid-response mass spectrometer for reactions lasting for 45 s or less; otherwise, a paramagnetic analyser for O2 was used, since the mass spectrometer drifted with time. The order of reaction with respect to O2 was found to be ˜ unity at 300 to 750°C. Below 600°C, the reduced oxygen-carrier was incompletely oxidised to a mixture of CU2O and Al2O3. Above 600°C, regeneration was completely to CuO and Al2O3 and was controlled to a considerable extent by external mass transfer. At these higher temperatures, regeneration involved a shrinking core mechanism and the two consecutive steps: 2Cu + 1/2O_2 to Cu_2 O, Cu_2 O + 1/2O_2 to 2CuO. The activation energies and pre-exponential factors for both reactions were measured from initial rates. The kinetics in the first cycle of operations were found to be similar to those in the subsequent cycles.

  15. Chemical chaperone treatment reduces intracellular accumulation of mutant collagen IV and ameliorates the cellular phenotype of a COL4A2 mutation that causes haemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lydia S; Lu, Yinhui; Taggart, Aislynn; Van Regemorter, Nicole; Vilain, Catheline; Abramowicz, Marc; Kadler, Karl E; Van Agtmael, Tom

    2014-01-15

    Haemorrhagic stroke accounts for ∼20% of stroke cases and porencephaly is a clinical consequence of perinatal cerebral haemorrhaging. Here, we report the identification of a novel dominant G702D mutation in the collagen domain of COL4A2 (collagen IV alpha chain 2) in a family displaying porencephaly with reduced penetrance. COL4A2 is the obligatory protein partner of COL4A1 but in contrast to most COL4A1 mutations, the COL4A2 mutation does not lead to eye or kidney disease. Analysis of dermal biopsies from a patient and his unaffected father, who also carries the mutation, revealed that both display basement membrane (BM) defects. Intriguingly, defective collagen IV incorporation into the dermal BM was observed in the patient only and was associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of COL4A2 in primary dermal fibroblasts. This intracellular accumulation led to ER stress, unfolded protein response activation, reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Interestingly, the absence of ER retention of COL4A2 and ER stress in cells from the unaffected father indicate that accumulation and/or clearance of mutant COL4A2 from the ER may be a critical modifier for disease development. Our analysis also revealed that mutant collagen IV is degraded via the proteasome. Importantly, treatment of patient cells with a chemical chaperone decreased intracellular COL4A2 levels, ER stress and apoptosis, demonstrating that reducing intracellular collagen accumulation can ameliorate the cellular phenotype of COL4A2 mutations. Importantly, these data highlight that manipulation of chaperone levels, intracellular collagen accumulation and ER stress are potential therapeutic options for collagen IV diseases including haemorrhagic stroke.

  16. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the central plains.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-08-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in three locations in Colorado and Kansas during 2001-2003 to investigate the potential of combining planting date and foliar and seed treatment insecticide applications to lower insect stalk densities of these three pests. The impact of these strategies on weevil larval parasitoids also was studied. Eight sunflower stem weevil larval parasitoid species were identified. All were Hymenoptera and included the following (relative composition in parentheses): Nealiolus curculionis (Fitch) (42.6%), Nealiolus collaris (Brues) (3.2%) (Braconidae), Quadrastichus ainsliei Gahan (4.2%) (Eulophidae), Eurytoma tylodermatis Ashmead (13.1%) (Eurytomidae), Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead) (33.7%), Chlorocytus sp. (1.6%), Pteromalus sp. (0.5%) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus sp. (1.0%) (Eupelmidae). The results from this 3-yr study revealed that chemical control was often reliable in protecting the sunflower crop from stem pests and was relatively insensitive to application timing. Although results in some cases were mixed, overall, delayed planting can be a reliable and effective management tool for growers in the central Plains to use in reducing stem-infesting pest densities in sunflower stalks. Chemical control and planting date were compatible with natural mortality contributed by C. adspersus larval parasitoids.

  17. Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…

  18. Applying theoretical premises of binary toxicity mathematical modeling to combined impacts of chemical plus physical agents (A case study of moderate subchronic exposures to fluoride and static magnetic field).

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, B A; Tsepilov, N A; Panov, V G; Sutunkova, M P; Varaksin, A N; Gurvich, V B; Minigalieva, I A; Valamina, I E; Makeyev, O H; Meshtcheryakova, E Y

    2016-09-01

    Sodium fluoride solution was injected i.p. to rats at a dose equivalent to 0.1 LD50 three times a week up to 18 injections. Two thirds of these rats and of the sham-injected ones were exposed to the whole body impact of a 25 mT static magnetic field for 2 or 4 h a day, 5 times a week. For mathematical analysis of the effects they produced in combination, we used a response surface model. This analysis demonstrated that (like in combined toxicity) the combined adverse action of a chemical plus a physical agent was characterized by a diversity of types depending not only on particular effects these types were assessed for but on their level as well. From this point of view, the indices for which at least one statistically significant effect was observed could be classified as identifying (1) single-factor action; (2) additivity; (3) synergism; (4) antagonism (both subadditive unidirectional action and all variants of contradirectional action). Although the classes (2) and (3) taken together encompass a smaller part of the indices, the biological importance of some of them renders the combination of agents studied as posing a higher health risk than that associated with each them acting alone.

  19. Ultrathin barrier AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown at a dramatically reduced growth temperature by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, JunShuai Zhang, JinCheng Hao, Yue

    2015-07-27

    Ultrathin-barrier AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PMOCVD) using indium as a surfactant at a dramatically reduced growth temperature of 830 °C. Upon optimization of growth parameters, an electron mobility of 1398 cm{sup 2}/V s together with a two-dimensional-electron-gas density of 1.3 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} was obtained for a 4 nm thick AlN barrier. The grown structures featured well-ordered parallel atomic steps with a root-mean-square roughness of 0.15 nm in a 5 × 5 μm{sup 2} area revealed by atomic-force-microscopic image. Finally, the potential of such structures for device application was demonstrated by fabricating and testing under dc operation AlN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors. These results indicate that this low temperature PMOCVD growth technique is promising for the fabrication of GaN-based electronic devices.

  20. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitor Gefitinib Reduces but Does Not Prevent Tumorigenesis in Chemical and Hormonal Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Ribback, Silvia; Sailer, Verena; Böhning, Enrico; Günther, Julia; Merz, Jaqueline; Steinmüller, Frauke; Utpatel, Kirsten; Cigliano, Antonio; Peters, Kristin; Pilo, Maria G.; Evert, Matthias; Calvisi, Diego F.; Dombrowski, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway promotes the development of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and carcinoma (HCC). The selective EGFR inhibitor Gefitinib was found to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis in rat cirrhotic livers. Thus, Gefitinib might reduce progression of pre-neoplastic liver lesions to HCC. In short- and long-term experiments, administration of N-Nitrosomorpholine (NNM) or intrahepatic transplantation of pancreatic islets in diabetic (PTx), thyroid follicles in thyroidectomized (TTx) and ovarian fragments in ovariectomized (OTx) rats was conducted for the induction of foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH). Gefitinib was administered for two weeks (20 mg/kg) or three and nine months (10 mg/kg). In NNM-treated rats, Gefitinib administration decreased the amount of FAH when compared to controls. The amount of HCA and HCC was decreased, but development was not prevented. Upon all transplantation models, proliferative activity of FAH was lower after administration of Gefitinib in short-term experiments. Nevertheless, the burden of HCA and HCC was not changed in later stages. Thus, EGFR inhibition by Gefitinib diminishes chemical and hormonal also induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the initiation stage in the non-cirrhotic liver. However, progression to malignant hepatocellular tumors was not prevented, indicating only a limited relevance of the EGFR signaling cascade in later stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27669229

  1. Mathematics Models in Chemistry--An Innovation for Non-Mathematics and Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Agnes M.; Zurbach, E. Peter

    2004-01-01

    The intention of this article is to present a year-long interdisciplinary course, Mathematical Models in Chemistry. The course is comprised of eleven units, each of which has both a mathematical and a chemical component. A syllabus of the course is given and the format of the class is explained. The interaction of the professors and the content is…

  2. Cultural horizons for mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay; Paraides, Patricia; Jannok Nutti, Ylva; Johansson, Gunilla; Bennet, Maria; Doolan, Pat; Peckham, Ray; Hill, John; Doolan, Frank; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Murray, Libbey; Logan, Patricia; McNair, Melissa; Sunnari, Vappu; Murray, Beatrice; Miller, Alissa; Nolan, John; Simpson, Alca; Ohrin, Christine; Doolan, Terry; Doolan, Michelle; Taylor, Paul

    2011-06-01

    As a result of a number of government reports, there have been numerous systemic changes in Indigenous education in Australia revolving around the importance of partnerships with the community. A forum with our local Dubbo community established the importance of working together and developed a model which placed the child in an ecological perspective that particularly noted the role of Elders and the place of the child in the family. However, there was also the issue of curriculum and mathematics education to be addressed. It was recognised that a colonised curriculum reduces the vision of what might be the potential for Indigenous mathematics education. This paper reports on the sharing that developed between our local community and some researchers and teachers from Sweden, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. It has implications for recognising the impact of testing regimes, the teaching space, understanding the ways children learn, the curriculum, and teacher education. As a result of these discussions, a critical pedagogy that considers culture and place is presented as an ecocultural perspective on mathematics education. This perspective was seen as critical for the curriculum and learning experiences of Indigenous children.

  3. Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…

  4. Mathematical Story: A Metaphor for Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting the content found in mathematics curriculum in order to offer teachers and other mathematics educators comprehensive conceptual tools with which to make curricular decisions. More specifically, it describes a metaphor of "mathematics curriculum as story" and defines and…

  5. Discrete Mathematics and the Secondary Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossey, John

    Discrete mathematics, the mathematics of decision making for finite settings, is a topic of great interest in mathematics education at all levels. Attention is being focused on resolving the diversity of opinion concerning the exact nature of the subject, what content the curriculum should contain, who should study that material, and how that…

  6. Mathematical Ability Relies on Knowledge, Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard E.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent "reform" curricula both ignore the absence of supporting data and completely misunderstand the role of problem solving in cognition. If, the argument goes, teachers are not really teaching people mathematics but rather are teaching them some form of general problem solving, then mathematical content can be reduced in importance. According…

  7. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  8. Antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. obtained from an Algerian oilfield and chemical biocide THPS against sulfate-reducing bacteria consortium inducing corrosion in the oil industry.

    PubMed

    Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Touzi, Abdelkader; Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Pauss, André; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-03-01

    The present study enlightens the role of the antagonistic potential of nonpathogenic strain B21 against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The inhibitor effects of strain B21 were compared with those of the chemical biocide tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS), generally used in the petroleum industry. The biological inhibitor exhibited much better and effective performance. Growth of SRB in coculture with bacteria strain B21 antagonist exhibited decline in SRB growth, reduction in production of sulfides, with consumption of sulfate. The observed effect seems more important in comparison with the effect caused by the tested biocide (THPS). Strain B21, a dominant facultative aerobic species, has salt growth requirement always above 5% (w/v) salts with optimal concentration of 10-15%. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B21 is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to Bacillus qingdaonensis DQ115802 (94.0% sequence similarity), Bacillus aidingensis DQ504377 (94.0%), and Bacillus salarius AY667494 (92.2%). Comparative analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data plus physiological, biochemical, and phenotypic features of the novel isolate and related species of Bacillus indicated that strain B21 may represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, named Bacillus sp. (EMBL, FR671419). The results of this study indicate the application potential of Bacillus strain B21 as a biocontrol agent to fight corrosion in the oil industry.

  9. Women with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Have Increased Harm Avoidance and Reduced 5-HT1A Receptor Binding Potential in the Anterior Cingulate and Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Åhs, Fredrik; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a common condition, characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Contrary to the expectations it was recently found that persons with MCS activate the odor-processing brain regions less than controls, while their activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is increased. The present follow-up study was designed to test the hypotheses that MCS subjects have increased harm avoidance and deviations in the serotonin system, which could render them intolerant to environmental odors. Twelve MCS and 11 control subjects, age 22–44, all working or studying females, were included in a PET study where 5-HT1A receptor binding potential (BP) was assessed after bolus injection of [11C]WAY100635. Psychological profiles were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. All MCS and 12 control subjects were also tested for emotional startle modulation in an acoustic startle test. MCS subjects exhibited significantly increased harm avoidance, and anxiety compared to controls. They also had a reduced 5-HT1A receptor BP in amygdala (p = 0.029), ACC (p = 0.005) (planned comparisons, significance level 0.05), and insular cortex (p = 0.003; significance level p<0.005 with Bonferroni correction), and showed an inverse correlation between degree of anxiety and the BP in the amygdala (planned comparison). No group by emotional category difference was found in the startle test. Increased harm avoidance and the observed changes in the 5-HT1A receptor BP in the regions processing harm avoidance provides a plausible pathophysiological ground for the symptoms described in MCS, and yields valuable information for our general understanding of idiopathic environmental intolerances. PMID:23349968

  10. Computational Mathematics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    Marsha Berger, NYU) Inclusion of the Adaptation/Adjoint module, Embedded Boundary Methods in the software package Cart3D --- Transition to NASA...ONR, DOE, AFRL, DIA Cart3D used for computing Formation Flight to reduce drag and improve energy efficiency Application to Explosively Formed

  11. Using Mathematics, Mathematical Applications, Mathematical Modelling, and Mathematical Literacy: A Theoretical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumcu, Hayal Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretical study is to explore the relationships between the concepts of using mathematics in the daily life, mathematical applications, mathematical modelling, and mathematical literacy. As these concepts are generally taken as independent concepts in the related literature, they are confused with each other and it becomes…

  12. Learning To Talk Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Jane-Jane; And Others

    Calls for increased student involvement in mathematics classroom learning situations are due primarily to the recognition that a traditional lecture/demonstration format within school mathematics instruction is not effective in fostering and promoting students' problem-solving abilities, mathematical reasoning power, and mathematical communication…

  13. Mathematics "Is" Motivating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics is motivating; at least, it should be. I argue that mathematical activity is an inherently attractive enterprise for human beings because as intellectual organisms, we are naturally enticed by the intellectual stimulation of mathematizing, and, as social beings, we are drawn to the socializing aspects of mathematical activity. These…

  14. Computer Mathematics: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document describes a mathematics course that uses the computer to solve mathematics problems. It was developed to be used with students who have completed at least one year of general mathematics or are not achieving success in the traditional mathematics program. The course is intended to review, reinforce, and extend concepts included in…

  15. Students as Mathematics Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…

  16. It's all just mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegmark, Max

    2014-02-01

    The world can be described using mathematical equations and numbers, but why does maths do it so well? In his new book Our Mathematical Universe, a section of which is abridged and edited here, Max Tegmark makes the radical proposal that our reality isn't just described by mathematics - it is mathematics.

  17. Mathematics Lessons without ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Kath; Hibbs, John

    2006-01-01

    In the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference, 2006, the authors presented a list of important aspects of mathematics lessons, recommended for students to have a positive attitude to mathematics and for teachers to acquire effective teaching. The following are discussed in detail: (1) Mathematics lessons without good…

  18. Functioning Mathematically: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…

  19. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  20. Phthalocyanine as a chemically inert, redox-active ligand: structural and electronic properties of a Nb(IV)-oxo complex incorporating a highly reduced phthalocyanine(4-) anion.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin W Y; Walsby, Charles J; Storr, Tim; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2010-04-05

    This report describes the reduction of a niobium(V) phthalocyanine complex and investigation of the electronic structure of the resulting products. The reduction of PcNbCl(3) (Pc = phthalocyanine dianion) with 5.5 equiv of potassium graphite in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) resulted in the isolation of K(2)PcNbO.5DME (1a). Addition of 18-crown-6 to 1a gave [K(18-crown-6)](2)(mu-DME)PcNbO (1b). Both 1a and 1b were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In both complexes, the niobium center adopts a square pyramidal geometry and is coordinated by four basal Pc nitrogen atoms and an apical oxo ligand. Notably, the Pc ligand in 1a is saddle-shaped, with significant bond length alternation, rather than flat with delocalized bonding. The production of ethylene during the reduction of PcNbCl(3), detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), suggests that the oxo ligand likely results from double C-O bond activation of DME solvent. A combination of spectroscopic techniques and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to establish the electronic structure of 1a. The close correspondence of the electronic absorption spectrum of 1a to that of [PcZn](2-) with a di-reduced Pc(4-) ligand, indicates a similar electronic structure for the two complexes. Evaluation of the electronic transitions for 1a and [PcZn](2-) by time-dependent DFT calculations further suggests a similar electronic structure for both complexes, indicating that differences in symmetry between 1a and [PcZn](2-) do not significantly affect the nature of the electronic transitions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of 1a in solution at room temperature gave a 10-line spectrum, while frozen-solution X- and Q-band EPR spectra are consistent with powder-pattern spectra defined by uniaxial g and (93)Nb hyperfine tensors: these imply the presence of a d(1) Nb(IV) metal center. EPR and electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy suggests that

  1. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  2. Discover Mathematical Knowledge through Recreational Mathematics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodhi, Amar

    2004-01-01

    The way in which a mathematical problem was used as a vehicle to introduce the joy of mathematical research to a high school student is demonstrated. The student was interested in learning about other classical problems delighting an eager high school student.

  3. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  4. Mathematics and Sports. Mathematical World. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovskii, L. E.; Sadovskii, A. L.

    This volume contains some examples of mathematical applications in sports. Sports discussed include tennis, figure skating, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, skiing, hockey, and swimming. Problems and situations are posed and answers with thorough explanations are provided. Chapters include: (1) Mathematics and Sports; (2) What Is Applied…

  5. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  6. Mathematical and statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, A. Glen

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

  7. Developing My Mathematics Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assuming the role of storyteller, the author uses her experiences as a graduate student and beginning teacher to reflect critically on issues related to mathematics, mathematics education, gender, and diversity.

  8. Sustainable Planning Practices in St. Joseph Watershed as a Mixed Land-Use Watershed to Reduce the Risk of Chemical Impairment of Surface Water Supplies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased population growth in St. Joseph Watershed and the mix of land-use with urban and agricultural production brings about chemical impairment of metropolitan drinking water supplies. Furthermore, the St. Joseph Watershed is not only a drinking water supply, but also it provides water for recre...

  9. Mathematics and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…

  10. Mathematics and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    The wide range of Mathematical Apps targeting different mathematical concepts and the various types of mobile devices available present a demanding and challenging problem to the teaching and learning in the field of mathematics. In an attempt to address this issue, a few Apps were selected, implemented and tested in this work. [For complete…

  11. Mathematics for Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Joseph R.; Nery, Karen P.

    This set of 20 modules was designed for use primarily to help teach and reinforce the basic mathematics skills in electronics classes. The modules are based on electronics competencies that require mathematics skills, as determined by a panel of high school electronics and mathematics teachers. Each module consists of one or two pages of basic…

  12. Defining Mathematical Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…

  13. Mathematics. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Secondary Mathematics Methods Course with Technology Units: Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers To Use Technology" (Rajee Amarasinghe); "Competency Exams in College Mathematics"…

  14. Mathematics, Programming, and STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Andy; Chandra, Vinesh

    2015-01-01

    Learning mathematics is a complex and dynamic process. In this paper, the authors adopt a semiotic framework (Yeh & Nason, 2004) and highlight programming as one of the main aspects of the semiosis or meaning-making for the learning of mathematics. During a 10- week teaching experiment, mathematical meaning-making was enriched when primary…

  15. Mathematics and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between mathematics and music has been investigated for thousands of years. Presented are the mathematical features of music through a study of melody, harmony, and rhythm, and the musical features of mathematics through a study of pattern, ratio, modular arithmetic, Pythagorean triples, and number sequences. (MDH)

  16. Latinos and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Franco, Luis

    An historical perspective reveals that sophisticated mathematical activity has been going on in the Latino culture for thousands of years. This paper provides a general definition of the area of mathematics education that deals with issues of culture and mathematics (ethnomathematics) and defines what is meant by the term Latino in this essay.…

  17. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  18. Contrasts in Mathematical Challenges in A-Level Mathematics and Further Mathematics, and Undergraduate Mathematics Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…

  19. Applied Vocational Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Developed for use in teaching a two-semester, one-unit course, this course guide is intended to aid the high school instructor in teaching mathematical problem-solving and computational skills to vocational education students. The state-adopted textbook for general mathematics III, "Applied General Mathematics" serves as the major…

  20. Mathematical Discovery: Hadamard Resurected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In 1943 Jacques Hadamard gave a series of lectures on mathematical invention at the Ecole Libre des Hautes Etudes in New York City. These talks were subsequently published as The Psychology of Mathematical Invention in the Mathematical Field (Hadamard, 1945). In this article I present a study that mirrors the work of Hadamard. Results both…

  1. Who Can Know Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary thinking about learning mathematics, and within that, social justice within mathematics education. The discussion first looks at mechanisms offered by conventional explanations on the emancipatory project and then moves towards more recent insights developed within mathematics education. Synergies are drawn between…

  2. A "Mathematics Background Check"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubisz, John

    2009-01-01

    Early in my career someone else reported that the best indicator of success in calculus-based physics (CBP) at our school was whether students had taken mathematics in a certain region of New Brunswick. I sat down with a very longtime mathematics teacher and asked him what he thought students should know in mathematics after high school to succeed…

  3. Mathenger Hunt: Mathematics Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falba, Christy J.; Weiss, Maria J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity which shows how mathematics is used in real life and helps to establish a need for mathematics in students' futures. Adapted from a scavenger-hunt idea, this activity helps students to discover that almost every career makes use of mathematics. (KR)

  4. Students' Mathematical Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Rhodehamel, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Even in simple mathematical situations, there is an array of different mathematical features that students can attend to or notice. What students notice mathematically has consequences for their subsequent reasoning. By adapting work from both cognitive science and applied linguistics anthropology, we present a focusing framework, which treats…

  5. Mathematics and Global Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    This resource was written to provide students with an awareness of critical issues facing the world today. In courses for college students, it can motivate their study of mathematics, teach them how to solve mathematical problems related to current global issues, provide coherence to mathematical studies through a focus on issues of human…

  6. Mathematics Teaching Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  7. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  8. Mathematics in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this book is to familiarize the reader with how mathematics can solve important problems in modern military affairs. The authors discuss and explain, without resorting to complex mathematical calculations, the essence of the basic methods which modern mathematics makes available to military problems, design and combat deployment of modern weapons.

  9. Mathematics and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between mathematics and chemistry has been changing rapidly in recent years. Some chemistry teachers have experienced difficulties in their teaching with the introduction of modern mathematics in the schools. Some suggestions for reinforcing the concepts and language of modern mathematics are put forth. (Author/MA)

  10. Mathematics 9th Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Materials in this bulletin indicate suggested teaching procedures needed to implement the teaching of "mathematics, 9th Year" as outlined in Curriculum Bulletin No. 3, 1958-59 series, Course of Study Mathematics 7-8-9. Whereas the course of study suggests the application of mathematical principles such as commutativity,…

  11. Mathematics and mysticism.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Is there a world of mathematics above and beyond ordinary reality, as Plato proposed? Or is mathematics a cultural construct? In this short article we speculate on the place of mathematical reality from the perspective of the mystical cosmologies of the ancient traditions of meditation, psychedelics, and divination.

  12. Creating Words in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galligan, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…

  13. The Chicken or the Egg? The Direction of the Relationship Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance.

    PubMed

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szücs, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA) and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory), or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model). The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by research which manipulates anxiety levels and observes a change in mathematics performance. It is suggested that this mixture of evidence might indicate a bidirectional relationship between MA and mathematics performance (the Reciprocal Theory), in which MA and mathematics performance can influence one another in a vicious cycle.

  14. The Chicken or the Egg? The Direction of the Relationship Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szücs, Dénes

    2016-01-01

    This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA) and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory), or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model). The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by research which manipulates anxiety levels and observes a change in mathematics performance. It is suggested that this mixture of evidence might indicate a bidirectional relationship between MA and mathematics performance (the Reciprocal Theory), in which MA and mathematics performance can influence one another in a vicious cycle. PMID:26779093

  15. LDI-MS assisted by chemical-free gold nanoparticles: enhanced sensitivity and reduced background in the low-mass region.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Litti, Lucio; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2013-12-17

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) emerged as an effective technique for the detection of analytes with high sensitivity. The surface chemistry and the size of AuNPs are the crucial parameters for lowering the detection limits and increasing the selectivity of LDI-MS. Here we show that chemical-free size selected AuNPs, obtained by laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS), have very low background in the low mass region (<500 Da), contrary to citrate stabilized AuNPs (citrate-AuNPs) and dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP). This allowed better performances for the picomole detection of low mass analytes like arginine, fructose, atrazine, anthracene and paclitaxel. The results suggest that chemical-free LASiS-AuNPs can be an excellent matrix for nanoparticle-assisted LDI-MS.

  16. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    PubMed

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  17. Significant increases in pulping efficiency in C4H-F5H-transformed poplars: improved chemical savings and reduced environmental toxins.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Shannon K; Ellis, Dave; Gilbert, Margarita; Chapple, Clint; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2003-10-08

    The gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) was overexpressed in poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) using the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) promoter to drive expression specifically in cells involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway and was shown to significantly alter the mole percentage of syringyl subunits in the lignin, as determined by thioacidolysis. Analysis of poplar transformed with a C4H-F5H construct demonstrated significant increases in chemical (kraft) pulping efficiency from greenhouse-grown trees. Compared to wild-type wood, decreases of 23 kappa units and increases of >20 ISO brightness units were observed in trees exhibiting high syringyl monomer concentrations. These changes were associated with no significant modification in total lignin content and no observed phenotypic differences. C4H-F5H-transformed trees could increase pulp throughputs at mills by >60% while concurrently decreasing chemicals employed during processing (chemical pulping and bleaching) and, consequently, the amount of deleterious byproducts released into the environment.

  18. Modelling Mathematical Reasoning in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhden, Olaf; Karam, Ricardo; Pietrocola, Maurício; Pospiech, Gesche

    2012-04-01

    Many findings from research as well as reports from teachers describe students' problem solving strategies as manipulation of formulas by rote. The resulting dissatisfaction with quantitative physical textbook problems seems to influence the attitude towards the role of mathematics in physics education in general. Mathematics is often seen as a tool for calculation which hinders a conceptual understanding of physical principles. However, the role of mathematics cannot be reduced to this technical aspect. Hence, instead of putting mathematics away we delve into the nature of physical science to reveal the strong conceptual relationship between mathematics and physics. Moreover, we suggest that, for both prospective teaching and further research, a focus on deeply exploring such interdependency can significantly improve the understanding of physics. To provide a suitable basis, we develop a new model which can be used for analysing different levels of mathematical reasoning within physics. It is also a guideline for shifting the attention from technical to structural mathematical skills while teaching physics. We demonstrate its applicability for analysing physical-mathematical reasoning processes with an example.

  19. The History of Mathematics and Mathematical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grattan-Guinness, I.

    1977-01-01

    Answers to questions which were asked after the author's various lectures in Australia are gathered here. Topics touched upon include "new" mathematics, unknown constants and free variables, propositional functions, linear algebra, arithmetic and geometry, and student assessment. (MN)

  20. Mathematics analysis of polymerase chain reaction kinetic curves.

    PubMed

    Sochivko, D G; Fedorov, A A; Varlamov, D A; Kurochkin, V E; Petrov, R V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews different approaches to the mathematical analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kinetic curves. The basic principles of PCR mathematical analysis are presented. Approximation of PCR kinetic curves and PCR efficiency curves by various functions is described. Several PCR models based on chemical kinetics equations are suggested. Decision criteria for an optimal function to describe PCR efficiency are proposed.

  1. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%).

  2. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

  3. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  4. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  5. Early childhood mathematics intervention.

    PubMed

    Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie

    2011-08-19

    Preschool and primary grade children have the capacity to learn substantial mathematics, but many children lack opportunities to do so. Too many children not only start behind their more advantaged peers, but also begin a negative trajectory in mathematics. Interventions designed to facilitate their mathematical learning during ages 3 to 5 years have a strong positive effect on these children's lives for many years thereafter.

  6. Philosophy and mathematics: interactions.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Roshdi

    From Plato to the beginnings of the last century, mathematics provided philosophers with methods of exposition, procedures of demonstration, and instruments of analysis. The unprecedented development of mathematics on the one hand, and the mathematicians' appropriation of Logic from the philosophers on the other hand, have given rise to two problems with which the philosophers have to contend: (1) Is there still a place for the philosophy of mathematics? and (2) To what extent is a philosophy of mathematics still possible? This article offers some reflections on these questions, which have preoccupied a good many philosophers and continue to do so.

  7. Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…

  8. On Mathematical Understanding: Perspectives of Experienced Chinese Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Jinfa; Ding, Meixia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have long debated the meaning of mathematical understanding and ways to achieve mathematical understanding. This study investigated experienced Chinese mathematics teachers' views about mathematical understanding. It was found that these mathematics teachers embrace the view that understanding is a web of connections, which is a result…

  9. Mathematics for Teaching: A Form of Applied Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we elaborate a conceptualisation of "mathematics for teaching" as a form of applied mathematics (using Bass's idea of characterising mathematics education as a form of applied mathematics) and we examine implications of this conceptualisation for the mathematical preparation of teachers. Specifically, we focus on issues of design…

  10. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  11. A Capstone Mathematics Course for Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artzt, Alice F.; Sultan, Alan; Curcio, Frances R.; Gurl, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative capstone mathematics course that links college mathematics with school mathematics and pedagogy. It describes how college juniors in a secondary mathematics teacher preparation program engage in leadership experiences that enable them to learn mathematics for teaching while developing student-centered…

  12. Using Mathematics Literature with Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator's use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that…

  13. Fully solution-processed transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: spray-coated single-wall carbon nanotube thin films loaded with chemically-reduced platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Yesel; Lee, Kyung Moon; Yoon, Woo Sug; Lee, Ho Seok; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Seung-Joo; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Tai Kyu; Lee, Soonil

    2014-08-27

    We report fully solution-processed fabrication of transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining spray-coating of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and chemical reduction of chloroplatinic acid precursor to platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with formic acid. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent DSSC with such SWCNT-based CE loaded with Pt NPs is comparable to that of a control device with a conventional CE. Quantification of Pt loading shows that network morphology of entangled SWCNTs is efficient in forming and retaining chemically reduced Pt NPs. Moreover, electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that mainly Pt NPs, which are tens of nanometers in diameter and reside at the surface of SWCNT CEs, contribute to electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction, to which we attribute strong correlation between power conversion efficiency of DSSCs and time constant deduced from equivalent-circuit analysis of impedance spectra.

  14. Selective epitaxial silicon growth in the 650-1100 °C range in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using dichlorosilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regolini, J. L.; Bensahel, D.; Scheid, E.; Mercier, J.

    1989-02-01

    Selective epitaxial silicon layers have been grown in a reduced pressure (<2 Torr) reactor in the 650-1100 °C temperature range using only dichlorosilane (DCS) gas diluted in hydrogen. The growth rate plotted in Arrhenius coordinates (log G vs 1/T) shows an activation energy of 59 kcal/mol in the 650-800 °C range. A comparison is made between the DCS system and our previous results concerning the SiH4/HCl/H2 system.

  15. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  16. Chemical and Mechanical Defenses Vary among Maternal Lines and Leaf Ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and Reduce Palatability to a Generalist Insect

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Christina; Bowers, M. Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores. PMID:25127229

  17. Bioinspired polydopamine as the scaffold for the active AuNPs anchoring and the chemical simultaneously reduced graphene oxide: characterization and the enhanced biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; Deng, Sheng-Yuan; Li, Da-Li; Shan, Dan; He, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ji; Shi, You

    2013-11-15

    We report here an efficient approach to enhance the performance of biosensing platform based on graphene or graphene derivate. Initially, graphene oxides (GO) nanosheets were reduced and surface functionalized by one-step oxidative polymerization of dopamine in basic solution at environment friendly condition to obtain the polydopamine (Pdop) modified reduced graphene oxides (PDRGO). The bioinspired surface was further used as a support to anchor active gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The morphology and structure of the as-prepared AuNPs/PDRGO nanocomposite were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Electrochemical studies demonstrate that the as-prepared AuNPs/PDRGO hybrid materials possess excellent electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of NADH at low potential (0.1 V vs. SCE) with the fast response (15s) and the broad linear range (5.0 × 10(-8)-4.2 × 10(-5)M). Thus, this AuNPs/PDRGO nanocomposite can be further used to fabricate a sensitive alcohol biosensor using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), by simply incorporating the specific enzyme within the composite matrix with the aid of chitosan (Chit).

  18. Direct, simple derivatization of disulfide bonds in proteins with organic mercury in alkaline medium without any chemical pre-reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; Ferrari, Carlo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Bramanti, Emilia

    2014-09-16

    In this work we have studied the derivatization of protein disulfide bonds with p-Hydroxymercurybenzoate (pHMB) in strong alkaline medium without any preliminary reduction. The reaction has been followed by the determination of the protein-pHMB complex using size exclusion chromatography coupled to a microwave/UV mercury oxidation system for the on-line oxidation of free and protein-complexed pHMB and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (SEC-CVG-AFS) detection. The reaction has been optimized by an experimental design using lysozyme as a model protein and applied to several thiolic proteins. The proposed method reports, for the first time, that it is possible to label 75-100% cysteines of proteins and, thus, to determine thiolic proteins without the need of any reducing step to obtain reduced SH groups before mercury labelling. We obtained a detection limit of 100 nmol L(-1) based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for unbound and complexed pHMB, corresponding to a detection limit of proteins ranged between 3 and 360 nmol L(-1), depending on the number of cysteines in the protein sequence.

  19. The Characteristics of Mathematical Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical creativity ensures the growth of mathematics as a whole. However, the source of this growth, the creativity of the mathematician, is a relatively unexplored area in mathematics and mathematics education. In order to investigate how mathematicians create mathematics, a qualitative study involving five creative mathematicians was…

  20. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  1. Astronomy and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.

  2. Mathematical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Articles on theoretical and applied mathematics are introduced. The articles cover information that might be of interest to workers in statistics and information theory, computational aids that could be used by scientists and engineers, and mathematical techniques for design and control.

  3. [Collected Papers on Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on issues related to mathematics in technology and teacher education: "A Case for Strong Conceptualization in Technology Enhanced Mathematics Instruction" (Michael L. Connell and Delwyn L. Harnisch); "Faculty/Student Collaboration in Education and Math--Using the Web To Improve Student…

  4. The Applied Mathematics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martha J.

    This report describes the Applied Mathematics Laboratory (AML) operated by the Department of Mathematics at Towson State University, Maryland. AML is actually a course offered to selected undergraduates who are given the opportunity to apply their skills in investigating industrial and governmental problems. By agreement with sponsoring…

  5. Mathematics. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Teachers' Learning of Mathematics in the Presence of Technology: Participatory Cognitive Apprenticeship" (Mara Alagic); (2) "A Fractal Is a Pattern in Your Neighborhood" (Craig N. Bach); (3)…

  6. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  7. Learning Together: Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This guide is intended to stimulate professional reflection, dialogue and debate about mathematics and how to improve it. It draws together themes, features and characteristics of effective improvement in mathematics and descriptions of good practice. It offers a reference point for staff and teachers who are working together to improve…

  8. Motivation in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Martha, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to bring together research and theory about motivation for mathematics from different perspectives. Chapters are included that present theory and research on the influence of gender, culture, the classroom environment, and curriculum on children's mathematical performance and motivation. Chapters are: (1) "Sociocultural…

  9. Mathematics across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Glenn M.

    1991-01-01

    Except for its relationship to science, mathematics is the forgotten cousin in interdisciplinary teaching and learning. In the Journeys in Mathematics project, teachers engage children in imaginative activities that inspire them to identify patterns and relationships, solve problems, and communicate accurately, using Jonathan Swift's…

  10. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  11. Mathematics in Power Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, Carl; And Others

    This mathematics curriculum is designed to be taught by the technology education teacher during the power technology class over a period of 2 years. It is intended to be elective in nature; upon successful completion of both years, one-half credit in mathematics is to be awarded. A list of the academic competencies contained in the curriculum…

  12. Mathematics, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The first of three volumes of a mathematics training course for Navy personnel, this document covers a wide range of basic mathematics. The text begins with number systems, signed numbers, fractions, decimals, and percentages and continues into algebra with exponents, polynomials, and linear equations. Early chapters were designed to give insight…

  13. Why physics needs mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2011-12-01

    Classical and the quantum mechanical sciences are in essential need of mathematics. Only thus can the laws of nature be formulated quantitatively permitting quantitative predictions. Mathematics also facilitates extrapolations. But classical and quantum sciences differ in essential ways: they follow different laws of logic, Aristotelian and non-Aristotelian logics, respectively. These are explicated.

  14. Mathematical thinking and origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and calculus.

  15. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  16. The Magic of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John L.; Ginther, John L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the effect, method, and mathematics of the following magic tricks which can be used in introducing mathematics lessons: the Ninth Card, Fibonacci Revealed, the Case of the Missing Area, I've Got Your Numbers, and the Card That Turns Inside Out. (MKR)

  17. Mathematics and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John

    2012-01-01

    This relationship is omnipresent to those who appreciate the shared attributes of these two areas of creativity. The dynamic nature of media, and further study, enable mathematicians and artists to present new and exciting manifestations of the "mathematics in art", and the "art in mathematics". The illustrative images of the relationship--that…

  18. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  19. Teaching Mathematical Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark S.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a course at the University of Glamorgan in the United Kingdom in which a computer algebra system (CAS) teaches mathematical modeling. The format is based on continual assessment of group and individual work stating the problem, a feature list, and formulation of the models. No additional mathematical word processing package is necessary.…

  20. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  1. Mathematics on the Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; Van Gastel, Leendert

    2006-01-01

    Lowering the dropout rate of incoming mathematics and science students, and enhancing the provision of mathematics support for freshmen are two important aims of the University of Amsterdam. The approach recently adopted to support first year students is to set up a diagnostic pretest and posttest and use these tests to identify students being at…

  2. Elementary Mathematics Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

  3. Third Millennium Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry

    This paper describes a mathematics-centered thematic unit for 5th graders which organizes all the topics in the Houghton Mifflin Mathematics Program by combining critical thinking and whole language frameworks to help students retain, understand, and make active use of knowledge within and across domains. The unit connects inquiry, goals, critical…

  4. Quality Teaching in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    The best teaching possible needs to accrue in the mathematics curriculum. Pupils also need to become proficient in using mathematics in every day situations in life. Individuals buy goods and services. They pay for these in different ways, including cash. Here, persons need to be able to compute the total cost of items purchased and then pay for…

  5. Designing Assessment for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depka, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Teaching mathematics in today's world requires practices and procedures integrated with performance tasks that actively involve students. In this second edition of Designing Rubrics for Mathematics, Eileen Depka clarifies the purpose of rubrics in math instruction and illustrates the relationship between assessment, rubrics, and the National…

  6. The Impossible in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Irving

    The material in this reprint, with minor editorial changes, is from the chapter "Doing the Impossible" in MONKEY BUSINESS by Irving Adler. This 25-page booklet contains brief accounts of historical attempts to prove impossible problems in mathematics. The mathematical recreations in this booklet of geometric constructions include the trisection…

  7. Integrating Writing and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brad; Monroe, Eula Ewing

    2011-01-01

    Teachers often find it difficult to integrate writing and mathematics while honoring the integrity of both disciplines. In this article, the authors present two levels of integration that teachers may use as a starting point. The first level, writing without revision, can be worked into mathematics instruction quickly and readily. The second…

  8. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  9. Under Threes' Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on mathematics for toddlers in preschool, with the aim of challenging a strong learning discourse that mainly focuses on cognitive learning. By devoting more attention to other perspectives on learning, the hope is to better promote children's early mathematical development. Sweden is one of few countries to have a curriculum…

  10. Mathematics Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Adrien L.

    This handbook is designed as a guide for teachers and students in choosing and developing mathematics projects, from simple demonstrations of mathematical problems or principles that the teacher has assigned as classroom learning experiences to complex, sophisticated exhibits, intended for entrance in fairs and competitions. The use of projects to…

  11. Psychology and Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between cognitive psychology as a broad theoretical framework, and the psychology of mathematics education. Argues that mathematics education should not simply borrow from cognitive psychology; rather, it should provide its own psychological research problems, adapted investigation strategies, and adequate original…

  12. Teaching Mathematics Using Steplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringslid, Odd; Norstein, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates online mathematical content used for teaching mathematics in engineering classes and in distance education for teacher training students. In the EU projects Xmath and dMath online computer algebra modules (Steplets) for undergraduate students assembled in the Xmath eBook have been designed. Two questionnaires, a compulsory…

  13. Philosophy of Teaching Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    There are selected philosophies in the teaching of mathematics which can provide guidance to the teacher in developing the curriculum and also a framework for teaching and learning. This paper discusses four such philosophies of teaching mathematics: Idealism, Realism, Experimentalism, and Existentialism. Idealism stresses that students live in an…

  14. A multi-material coating containing chemically-modified apatites for combined enhanced bioactivity and reduced infection via a drop-on-demand micro-dispensing technique.

    PubMed

    Lim, Poon Nian; Wang, Zuyong; Chang, Lei; Konishi, Toshiisa; Choong, Cleo; Ho, Bow; Thian, Eng San

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of infection and enhanced osseointegration are closely related, and required for a successful orthopaedic implant, which necessitate implant designs to consider both criteria in tandem. A multi-material coating containing 1:1 ratio of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite as the top functional layer, and hydroxyapatite as the base layer, was produced via the drop-on-demand micro-dispensing technique, as a strategic approach in the fight against infection along with the promotion of bone tissue regeneration. The homogeneous distribution of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite micro-droplets at alternate position in silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite-silver-substituted hydroxyapatite/hydroxyapatite coating delayed the exponential growth of Staphylococcus aureus for up to 24 h, and gave rise to up-regulated expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, type I collagen and osteocalcin as compared to hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings. Despite containing reduced amounts of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite micro-droplets over the coated area than silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite-silver-substituted hydroxyapatite/hydroxyapatite coating exhibited effective antibacterial property with enhanced bioactivity. By exhibiting good controllability of distributing silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite, silver-substituted hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite micro-droplets, it was demonstrated that drop-on-demand micro-dispensing technique was capable in harnessing the advantages of silver-substituted hydroxyapatite, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite to produce a multi-material coating along with enhanced bioactivity and reduced infection.

  15. Collective surfing of chemically active particles.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures.

  16. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…

  17. Business Mathematics. Mathematics Curriculum Guide (Career Oriented).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuschler, Alexandra; And Others

    The curriculum guide correlates concepts in business mathematics with career-oriented concepts and activities. The curriculum outline format gives the concepts to be taught, matched with related career-oriented performance objectives, concepts, and suggested instructional activities in facing page layouts. The outline is divided into the major…

  18. Examining Fourth-Grade Mathematics Writing: Features of Organization, Mathematics Vocabulary, and Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael A.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, students are expected to write about mathematics. Mathematics writing may be informal (e.g., journals, exit slips) or formal (e.g., writing prompts on high-stakes mathematics assessments). In order to develop an effective mathematics-writing intervention, research needs to be conducted on how students organize mathematics writing and…

  19. Hands-on mathematics: two cases from ancient Chinese mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youjun

    2009-05-01

    In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in ancient China is an abundant resource for materials to demonstrate mathematics by hands-on manipulation. In this article I shall present two cases that embody this idea of a hands-on approach in ancient Chinese mathematics, at the same time offering an opportunity to show how to utilize materials from the history of Chinese math in modern mathematical education.

  20. A mathematical model for jet engine combustor pollutant emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, J. L.; Weilerstein, G.; Edelman, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Mathematical modeling for the description of the origin and disposition of combustion-generated pollutants in gas turbines is presented. A unified model in modular form is proposed which includes kinetics, recirculation, turbulent mixing, multiphase flow effects, swirl and secondary air injection. Subelements of the overall model were applied to data relevant to laboratory reactors and practical combustor configurations. Comparisons between the theory and available data show excellent agreement for basic CO/H2/Air chemical systems. For hydrocarbons the trends are predicted well including higher-than-equilibrium NO levels within the fuel rich regime. Although the need for improved accuracy in fuel rich combustion is indicated, comparisons with actual jet engine data in terms of the effect of combustor-inlet temperature is excellent. In addition, excellent agreement with data is obtained regarding reduced NO emissions with water droplet and steam injection.

  1. Yeast inoculation as a strategy to improve the physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced salt fermented sausages produced with entire male fat.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Belloch, Carmela; López-Díez, José Javier; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Yeast inoculation of dry fermented sausages manufactured with entire male fat was evaluated as a strategy to improve sausage quality. Four different formulations with entire male/gilt back fat and inoculated/non-inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii were manufactured. The use of entire male back fat produced the highest weight losses, hardness and chewiness in dry sausages. Consumers clearly distinguished samples according to drying time and D. hansenii inoculation while the use of entire/gilt back fat was not highly perceived. The presence of androstenone and skatole was close to their sensory thresholds. Androstenone was not degraded during the process but skatole was affected by yeast inoculation. D. hansenii growth on the surface regulated water release during ripening, reduced hardness and chewiness in entire male sausages and resulted with similar texture to gilt sausages. Yeast inoculation inhibited lipid oxidation providing fruity odours and less oxidized fatty sausages in the sensory analysis. The effectiveness of yeast to mask boar taint was demonstrated by sensory analysis.

  2. Are physicists afraid of mathematics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmer, Jonathan E.; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2015-01-01

    A recent study claimed that heavy use of equations impedes communication among biologists, as measured by the ability to attract citations from peers. It was suggested that to increase the probability of being cited one should reduce the density of equations in papers, that equations should be moved to appendices, and that math training among biologists should be improved. Here, we report a detailed study of the citation habits among physicists, a community that has traditionally strong training and dependence on mathematical formulations. Is it possible to correlate statistical citation patterns and fear of mathematics in a community whose work strongly depends on equations? By performing a systematic analysis of the citation counts of papers published in one of the leading journals in physics covering all its disciplines, we find striking similarities with distribution of citations recorded in biological sciences. However, based on the standard deviations in citation data of both communities, biologists and physicists, we argue that trends in statistical indicators are not reliable to unambiguously blame mathematics for the existence or lack of citations. We digress briefly about other statistical trends that apparently would also enhance citation success.

  3. Prevention of Chemically-Induced Urinary Bladder Cancers by Naproxen: Protocols to Reduce Gastric Toxicity in Humans Do Not Alter Preventive Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lubet, Ronald A.; Scheiman, James M.; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M. Margaret; Boring, Daniel L.; Steele, Vernon E.; Grubbs, Clinton J.

    2015-01-01

    The COX inhibitors (NSAIDs/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2 specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials, and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen (NPX)] have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present studies examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of NPX. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/Kg BW/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/Kg BW/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), NPX alone or combined with omeprazole prevented cancers; yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN treated rats were administered NPX: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily NPX/1wk vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily NPX/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19% and 96% of rats (P<0.01). Short-term NPX treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols which should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g. NPX) in clinical prevention trials. PMID:25762530

  4. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.

  5. Mathematical modeling in neuroendocrinology.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Mathematical models are commonly used in neuroscience, both as tools for integrating data and as devices for designing new experiments that test model predictions. The wide range of relevant spatial and temporal scales in the neuroendocrine system makes neuroendocrinology a branch of neuroscience with great potential for modeling. This article provides an overview of concepts that are useful for understanding mathematical models of the neuroendocrine system, as well as design principles that have been illuminated through the use of mathematical models. These principles are found over and over again in cellular dynamics, and serve as building blocks for understanding some of the complex temporal dynamics that are exhibited throughout the neuroendocrine system.

  6. Mathematization in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmia, Suzanne M.

    Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in

  7. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  8. Mathematics and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Ronald F.; Donahue, Michael J.; Lozier, Daniel W.; McMichael, Robert; Rust, Bert W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the role that mathematics plays in measurement science at NIST. We first survey the history behind NIST’s current work in this area, starting with the NBS Math Tables project of the 1930s. We then provide examples of more recent efforts in the application of mathematics to measurement science, including the solution of ill-posed inverse problems, characterization of the accuracy of software for micromagnetic modeling, and in the development and dissemination of mathematical reference data. Finally, we comment on emerging issues in measurement science to which mathematicians will devote their energies in coming years. PMID:27500024

  9. Mathematics, anxiety, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tindle, Richard; Ansari, Zaheda; Doyle, Margery J; Hewedi, Doaa H; Eissa, Abeer

    2017-02-03

    Given that achievement in learning mathematics at school correlates with work and social achievements, it is important to understand the cognitive processes underlying abilities to learn mathematics efficiently as well as reasons underlying the occurrence of mathematics anxiety (i.e. feelings of tension and fear upon facing mathematical problems or numbers) among certain individuals. Over the last two decades, many studies have shown that learning mathematical and numerical concepts relies on many cognitive processes, including working memory, spatial skills, and linguistic abilities. In this review, we discuss the relationship between mathematical learning and cognitive processes as well as the neural substrates underlying successful mathematical learning and problem solving. More importantly, we also discuss the relationship between these cognitive processes, mathematics anxiety, and mathematics learning disabilities (dyscalculia). Our review shows that mathematical cognition relies on a complex brain network, and dysfunction to different segments of this network leads to varying manifestations of mathematical learning disabilities.

  10. Mathematical challenges from theoretical/computational chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The committee believes that this report has relevance and potentially valuable suggestions for a wide range of readers. Target audiences include: graduate departments in the mathematical and chemical sciences; federal and private agencies that fund research in the mathematical and chemical sciences; selected industrial and government research and development laboratories; developers of software and hardware for computational chemistry; and selected individual researchers. Chapter 2 of this report covers some history of computational chemistry for the nonspecialist, while Chapter 3 illustrates the fruits of some past successful cross-fertilization between mathematical scientists and computational/theoretical chemists. In Chapter 4 the committee has assembled a representative, but not exhaustive, survey of research opportunities. Most of these are descriptions of important open problems in computational/theoretical chemistry that could gain much from the efforts of innovative mathematical scientists, written so as to be accessible introductions to the nonspecialist. Chapter 5 is an assessment, necessarily subjective, of cultural differences that must be overcome if collaborative work is to be encouraged between the mathematical and the chemical communities. Finally, the report ends with a brief list of conclusions and recommendations that, if followed, could promote accelerated progress at this interface. Recognizing that bothersome language issues can inhibit prospects for collaborative research at the interface between distinctive disciplines, the committee has attempted throughout to maintain an accessible style, in part by using illustrative boxes, and has included at the end of the report a glossary of technical terms that may be familiar to only a subset of the target audiences listed above.

  11. Using Mathematics in Science: Working with Your Mathematics Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Changes to the mathematics and science curriculums are designed to increase rigour in mathematics, and place greater emphasis on mathematical content in science subjects at key stages 3, 4 and 5 (ages 11-18). One way to meet the growing challenge of providing increased emphasis on mathematics in the science curriculum is greater collaboration…

  12. Promoting Critical Mathematics Literacy in Secondary Mathematics Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Michael Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how critical mathematical literacy teachers conceptualize their practices and how those practices were demonstrated in the classroom. Practices were considered from an ontology of mathematics education, specific to critical mathematical literacy, in which classroom interactions question what it means to do mathematics as an…

  13. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions and Lived Experiences on Mathematical Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Defne; Aydin, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical thinking skills and meaningful mathematical understanding are among the goals of current mathematics education. There is a wide consensus among scholars about the purpose of developing mathematical understanding and higher order thinking skills in students. However, how to develop those skills in classroom settings is an area that…

  14. Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education: Basic Concepts and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat; Kertil, Mahmut; Çetinkaya, Bülent; Çakiroglu, Erdinç; Alacaci, Cengiz; Bas, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and its role in mathematics education have been receiving increasing attention in Turkey, as in many other countries. The growing body of literature on this topic reveals a variety of approaches to mathematical modeling and related concepts, along with differing perspectives on the use of mathematical modeling in teaching and…

  15. Benjamin Banneker's Mathematical Puzzles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught African American mathematician, kept a journal containing a number of mathematical puzzles. Explores four of these puzzles, 200 years later, with the aid of 21st century technology. (Author/NB)

  16. Fostering Mathematical Curiosity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates what it might mean to engage students in problem posing and how teachers might begin to create classroom environments that encourage, develop, and foster mathematical curiosity. (Author/NB)

  17. Mathematics: Contributions by Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Jacqueline M.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a core course in a women's-studies program at Loyola Marymount University. Provides information, resources, and an annotated bibliography useful for making students more aware of women's contributions to mathematics. Contains 38 references. (ASK)

  18. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  19. Mathematics Case Methods Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)

  20. Mathematics Meets Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Merrilyn

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity using the familiar fairy tale "Cinderella" to provide the context for stimulating mathematical thinking about a real life problem. Makes use of graphing calculator technology to investigate the relationship between shoe sizes and shoe lengths. (ASK)

  1. Mathematics and linguistics

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  2. The reality of Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligomenides, Panos A.

    2009-05-01

    The power of mathematics is discussed as a way of expressing reasoning, aesthetics and insight in symbolic non-verbal communication. The human culture of discovering mathematical ways of thinking in the enterprise of exploring the understanding of the nature and the evolution of our world through hypotheses, theories and experimental affirmation of the scientific notion of algorithmic and non-algorithmic [`]computation', is examined and commended upon.

  3. 1H, 13C, and 15N backbone, side-chain, and heme chemical shift assignments for oxidized and reduced forms of the monoheme c-type cytochrome ApcA isolated from the acidophilic metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum.

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, John R.; Swenson, Michael; Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2011-03-04

    We report the 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift assignments of both oxidized and reduced forms of an abundant periplasmic c-type cytochrome, designated ApcA, from the acidophilic gram-negative facultatively anaerobic metal-reducing alpha-proteobacterium Acidiphilium cryptum. These resonance assignments prove that ApcA is a monoheme cytochrome c2 and the product of the Acry_2099 gene. An absence of resonance peaks in the NMR spectra for the 21 N-terminal residues suggests that a predicted N-terminal signal sequence is cleaved. We also describe the preparation and purification of the protein in labeled form from laboratory cultures of A. cryptum growing on 13C- and 15N- labeled substrates.

  4. Post Mathematical Attitudes Among Prospective Elementary Teachers as Predicted by General Mathematics Skills, Modern Mathematics Skills, Modern Mathematics Achievement, and Prior Mathematical Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John Martin, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationship of general mathematics skills, modern mathematics skills, modern mathematics achievement, prior mathematical attitudes, and postmathematical attitudes of prospective elementary teachers. A sample of 206 students was drawn from 286 students enrolled in a modern mathematics course.…

  5. Reaching All Students with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this…

  6. Truth & Beauty: Mathematics in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marion D.

    2013-01-01

    Today there are many categories of mathematics literature, including fiction and poetry. Mathematics fiction appears in such anthologies as "Fantasia Mathematica" (Fadiman 1958, 1997) and "The Mathematical Magpie" (Fadiman 1962, 1997). In addition, mathematics fiction is featured at http://kasmana.people.cofc.edu/MATHFICT.…

  7. Mathematical Modeling: A Structured Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling, in which students use mathematics to explain or interpret physical, social, or scientific phenomena, is an essential component of the high school curriculum. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) classify modeling as a K-12 standard for mathematical practice and as a conceptual category for high school…

  8. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  9. Celebrating Mathematics All Year 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2010-01-01

    Celebrating mathematics should be a yearlong event in which students in mathematics classes of all levels engage in mathematics activities and competitions that will encourage growth in mathematical knowledge, enthusiasm for the subject, and collaboration among students of different abilities and backgrounds. Pi Day and Pi Week festivities--a good…

  10. Book Mathematics--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2008-01-01

    It is potentially arresting when a mathematical implication is offered in a non-mathematical book. This author contends that students are encouraged to develop mathematical thinking when they read mathematical challenges in books. Aspects of books such as time-lines, historical relationships, maps, journeys, cause-and-affect, deductive inference,…

  11. A Course in Multicultural Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Rachel W.

    2007-01-01

    The course described in this article, "Multicultural Mathematics," aims to strengthen and expand students' understanding of fundamental mathematics--number systems, arithmetic, geometry, elementary number theory, and mathematical reasoning--through study of the mathematics of world cultures. In addition, the course is designed to explore the…

  12. Computers in the Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper examines ways that mathematics teachers and supervisors can use computers in a quality mathematics curriculum in a school setting. Teachers and supervisors continually need to appraise the present mathematics curriculum and make necessary changes. A modern mathematics curriculum makes much use of technology. Society emphasizes heavy use…

  13. Assessing Innovative Proposals in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Mathematics is at the apex in priorities pertaining to state-mandated testing of students. With 49 out of 50 states having mandated the testing of students, all of these have mathematics in the testing format. This paper discusses the modern school mathematics movement, recent approaches in improving the teaching of mathematics, and specific…

  14. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

  15. Reducing the Use of Pesticides with Site-Specific Application: The Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia solani as a Case of Study for the Management of Soil-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Le Cointe, Ronan; Simon, Thomas E.; Delarue, Patrick; Hervé, Maxime; Leclerc, Melen; Poggi, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen. In this study, using Rhizoctonia solani/Raphanus sativus as an example of a soil-borne pathosystem, we investigated the effects of a chemical control currently used by growers, Monceren® L, on key epidemiological components (saprotrophic spread and infectivity). We tested the potential “shield effect” of Monceren® L on pathogenic spread in a site-specific application context, i.e. the efficiency of this chemical to contain the spread of the fungus from an infected host when application is spatially localized, in our case, a strip placed between the infected host and a recipient bait. Our results showed that Monceren® L mainly inhibits the saprotrophic spread of the fungus in soil and may prevent the fungus from reaching its host plant. However, perhaps surprisingly we did not detect any significant effect of the fungicide on the pathogen infectivity. Finally, highly localized application of the fungicide—a narrow strip of soil (12.5 mm wide) sprayed with Monceren® L—significantly decreased local transmission of the pathogen, suggesting lowered risk of occurrence of invasive epidemics. Our results highlight that detailed knowledge on epidemiological processes could contribute to the design of innovative management strategies based on precision agriculture tools to improve the efficacy of disease control and reduce pesticide use. PMID:27668731

  16. The Effect of Mathematics Research on Mathematics Majors' Mathematical Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Joshua E.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dissertation about the beliefs that mathematics majors have about mathematics and how their beliefs are affected by the introduction of mathematics research. The mathematics research presented to the students dealt with counting regular orbits of an action. Research has shown that the beliefs that teachers hold about mathematics…

  17. History of Mathematics: Illuminating Understanding of School Mathematics Concepts for Prospective Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kathleen Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The use of the history of mathematics in teaching has long been considered a tool for enriching students' mathematical learning. However, in the USA few, if any, research efforts have investigated how the study of history of mathematics contributes to a person's mathematical knowledge for teaching. In this article, I present the results of…

  18. High School Mathematics Teachers' Perspectives on the Purposes of Mathematical Proof in School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, David S.; Doerr, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Proof serves many purposes in mathematics. In this qualitative study of 17 high school mathematics teachers, we found that these teachers perceived that two of the most important purposes for proof in school mathematics were (a) to enhance students' mathematical understanding and (b) to develop generalized thinking skills that were…

  19. Chemical Terrorism: US Policies to Reduce the Chemical Terror Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Partnership for a Secure America,1111 19th...RESPONSE: IMPROVED DETECTION, RESIL- IENCE, AND MITIGATION: Foster counter- measure development, response ca- pacity, and consequence manage - ment...Invest in research and development for new physical and medical countermea- sures, such as detectors and therapeu- tics Consequence management

  20. Basic mathematical cognition.

    PubMed

    Gaber, David; Schlimm, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is a powerful tool for describing and developing our knowledge of the physical world. It informs our understanding of subjects as diverse as music, games, science, economics, communications protocols, and visual arts. Mathematical thinking has its roots in the adaptive behavior of living creatures: animals must employ judgments about quantities and magnitudes in the assessment of both threats (how many foes) and opportunities (how much food) in order to make effective decisions, and use geometric information in the environment for recognizing landmarks and navigating environments. Correspondingly, cognitive systems that are dedicated to the processing of distinctly mathematical information have developed. In particular, there is evidence that certain core systems for understanding different aspects of arithmetic as well as geometry are employed by humans and many other animals. They become active early in life and, particularly in the case of humans, develop through maturation. Although these core systems individually appear to be quite limited in application, in combination they allow for the recognition of mathematical properties and the formation of appropriate inferences based upon those properties. In this overview, the core systems, their roles, their limitations, and their interaction with external representations are discussed, as well as possibilities for how they can be employed together to allow us to reason about more complex mathematical domains.

  1. A bionics chemical synapse.

    PubMed

    Thanapitak, Surachoke; Toumazou, Christofer

    2013-06-01

    Implementation of the current mode CMOS circuit for chemical synapses (AMPA and NMDA receptors) with dynamic change of glutamate as the neurotransmitter input is presented in this paper. Additionally, circuit realisation for receptor GABA(A) and GABA(B) with an electrical signal which symbolises γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) perturbation is introduced. The chemical sensor for glutamate sensing is the modified ISFET with enzyme (glutamate oxidase) immobilisation. The measured results from these biomimetics chemical synapse circuits closely match with the simulation result from the mathematical model. The total power consumption of the whole chip (four chemical synapse circuits and all auxiliary circuits) is 168.3 μW. The total chip area is 3 mm(2) in 0.35-μm AMS CMOS technology.

  2. The Relative Efficacy of Negative Practice and Anxiety Management Training in the Treatment of Mathematics Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streim, Leonard; O'Brien, Richard M.

    Mathematics anxiety involves feelings of tension and stress that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems in academic and daily life situations. To investigate the relative effectiveness of group negative practice and group anxiety management training in reducing mathematics anxiety, 72 math-anxious high school students were divided…

  3. Nitride passivation reduces interfacial traps in atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs (001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T. Fukuhara, N.; Osada, T.; Sazawa, H.; Hata, M.; Inoue, T.

    2014-07-21

    Using an atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system, we passivated GaAs with AlN prior to atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This AlN passivation incorporated nitrogen at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs interface, improving the capacitance-voltage (C–V) characteristics of the resultant metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs). The C–V curves of these devices showed a remarkable reduction in the frequency dispersion of the accumulation capacitance. Using the conductance method at various temperatures, we extracted the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}). The D{sub it} was reduced over the entire GaAs band gap. In particular, these devices exhibited D{sub it} around the midgap of less than 4 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1}, showing that AlN passivation effectively reduced interfacial traps in the MOS structure.

  4. After-school enrichment and the activity theory: How can a management service organization assist schools with reducing the achievement gap among minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Reagan D.

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how a management service organization can assist schools with reducing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours. Developing a strategic plan through creating a program that provides support services for the implementation of hands-on activities in STEM for children during the after-school hours was central to this purpose. This Project Demonstrating Excellence (PDE), a social action project, also presents historical and current after-school program developments in the nation. The study is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Surveys were utilized to quantitatively capture the opinions of participants in the social action project on three specific education related issues: (1) disparity in academic motivation of students to participate in after-school STEM enrichment programs; (2) whether teachers and school administrators saw a need for STEM after-school enrichment; and (3) developing STEM after-school programs that were centered on problem-solving and higher-order thinking skills to develop students' interest in STEM careers. The sample consisted of 50 participants comprised of students, teachers, and administrators. The focus groups and interviews provided the qualitative data for the study. The qualitative sample consisted of 14 participants comprised of students, parents and teachers, administrators, an education consultant, and a corporate sponsor. The empirical data obtained from the study survey, focus groups, and interviews provided a comprehensive profile on the current views and future expectations of STEM after-school enrichment, student and school needs, and community partnerships with STEM companies. Results of the study and review of the implementation of the social action project, C-STEM (communication, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teacher and Student Support

  5. Mathematics in modern immunology

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Mario; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and statistical methods enable multidisciplinary approaches that catalyse discovery. Together with experimental methods, they identify key hypotheses, define measurable observables and reconcile disparate results. We collect a representative sample of studies in T-cell biology that illustrate the benefits of modelling–experimental collaborations and that have proven valuable or even groundbreaking. We conclude that it is possible to find excellent examples of synergy between mathematical modelling and experiment in immunology, which have brought significant insight that would not be available without these collaborations, but that much remains to be discovered. PMID:27051512

  6. Babylonian Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossendrijver, Mathieu

    The earliest known form of mathematical astronomy of the ancient world was developed in Babylonia in the 5th century BCE. It was used for predicting a wide range of phenomena of the Moon, the Sun, and the planets. After a brief discussion of the material evidence and historical context of Babylonian mathematical astronomy, its main concepts and methods are illustrated on the basis of a tablet with computed data for Jupiter. Finally, the past, present, and future directions of research are briefly addressed.

  7. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  8. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  9. Mathematics in modern immunology

    DOE PAGES

    Castro, Mario; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen; ...

    2016-02-19

    Mathematical and statistical methods enable multidisciplinary approaches that catalyse discovery. Together with experimental methods, they identify key hypotheses, define measurable observables and reconcile disparate results. Here, we collect a representative sample of studies in T-cell biology that illustrate the benefits of modelling–experimental collaborations and that have proven valuable or even groundbreaking. Furthermore, we conclude that it is possible to find excellent examples of synergy between mathematical modelling and experiment in immunology, which have brought significant insight that would not be available without these collaborations, but that much remains to be discovered.

  10. How Mathematics Describes Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  12. Theoretical Explanations in Mathematical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivadulla, Andrés

    Many physicists wonder at the usefulness of mathematics in physics. According Madrid to Einstein mathematics is admirably appropriate to the objects of reality. Wigner asserts that mathematics plays an unreasonable important role in physics. James Jeans affirms that God is a mathematician, and that the first aim of physics is to discover the laws of nature, which are written in mathematical language. Dirac suggests that God may have used very advanced mathematics in constructing the universe. And Barrow adheres himself to Wigner's claim about the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics for the workings of the physical world.

  13. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  14. Mathematical problem solving by analogy.

    PubMed

    Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J

    1991-05-01

    We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.

  15. Can Mathematics Education and History of Mathematics Coexist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Michael N.

    Despite the wide interest in combining mathematics education and the history of mathematics, there are grave and fundamental problems in this effort. The main difficulty is that while one wants to see historical topics in the classroom or an historical approach in teaching, the commitment to teach the modern mathematics and modern mathematical techniques necessary in the pure and applied sciences forces one either to trivialize history or to distort it. In particular, this commitment forces one to adopt a Whiggish approach to the history of mathematics. Two possible resolutions of the difficulty are (1) radical separation - putting the history of mathematics on a separate track from the ordinary course of instruction, and (2) radical accommodation - turning the study of mathematics into the study of mathematical texts.

  16. Supporting Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Roaf, Caroline; Watson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at how practitioners have focused on the fully educational application of intellect to the problem of developing mathematical thinking among one's pupils. Each chapter demonstrates reflective minds at work, relying on close observation, willingness to understand the student's thinking processes and patient commitment to students…

  17. Flipping Freshman Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Laurie; Fuselier, Jenny; Graham-Squire, Adam; Lamb, Ron; O'Hara, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Our study compared a flipped class with a standard lecture class in four introductory courses: finite mathematics, precalculus, business calculus, and calculus 1. The flipped sections watched video lectures outside of class and spent time in class actively working on problems. The traditional sections had lectures in class and did homework outside…

  18. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  19. The Making of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes the most enduring link between Napoleon and mathematics as the geometric result known as Napoleon's Theorem, which states that if equilateral triangles are drawn on the three sides of any triangle, the line segments joining the centers of these equilateral triangles will themselves form an equilateral triangle. (ASK)

  20. Designing a Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Lee Peng

    2010-01-01

    A decade of PMRI saw the changes in the classroom in some of the primary schools in Indonesia. Based on observation, we can say that though the mathematics syllabus in Indonesia did not change, its curriculum has changed under the movement of PMRI. In this article, we put in writing some of the experience gained through the involvement in…

  1. Storytelling + Origami = Storigami Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastin, Marla

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a way to engage students in mathematics learning by using the innovative instructional method of storigami. The author shares reactions from teachers who have used her storigami techniques in their classes and provides an example of storigami using the Norwegian fable "The Dog and the Mountain." (Contains 6 figures.)

  2. Corner Reflector Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popelka, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Tiny prisms in reflective road signs and safety vests have interesting geometrical properties that can be discussed at any level of high school mathematics. At the beginning of the school year, the author teaches a unit on these reflective materials in her precalculus class so that students can review and strengthen their geometry and trigonometry…

  3. Personal Achievement Mathematics: Automotive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenziger, Betty

    Utilizing word problems relevant to automotive mechanics, this workbook presents a concept-oriented approach to competency development in 13 areas of basic mathematics: (1) the expression of numbers as figures and words; (2) the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; (3) scientific notation;…

  4. Using and Applying Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    The Nobel prize winning physicist Richard Feynman (2007) famously enthused about "the pleasure of finding things out". In day-to-day classroom life, however, it is easy to lose and undervalue this pleasure in the process, as opposed to products, of mathematics. Finding things out involves a journey and is often where the learning takes place.…

  5. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  6. Mathematics, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The second of three volumes of a mathematics training course for Navy personnel, this document contains material primarily found at the college level. Beginning with logarithms and trigonometry, the text moves into vectors and static equilibrium (physics). Coordinate geometry, conic sections, and the tangents, normals, and slopes of curves follow.…

  7. Urban Mathematics Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics teachers are both more difficult to attract and more difficult to retain than social sciences teachers. This fact is not unique to the United States; it is reported as being a problem in Europe as well (Howson, 2002). In the United States, however, the problem is particularly preoccupying. Because of the chronic teacher shortages and…

  8. Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlich, Otto

    1972-01-01

    The foundation of science, and of thermodynamics in particular, can be developed cogently and without arbitrariness. The goal of science, description of nature, is externally given; it requires a set of basic concepts as indispensable tools. Mathematics has no similar externally given goal. (Author/TS)

  9. Mature Students Studying Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Keith

    1999-01-01

    Discusses mature students in the single subject area of mathematics in a single institution and makes comparisons with traditional universities. Reviews some features of the age distribution, entry qualifications, degree-class distribution, non-completion rates and gender distribution. (Author/ASK)

  10. Fostering Creativity Through Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Betty K., Ed.; Troutman, Andria P., Ed.

    The 26 activities described in this volume deal with a wide variety of mathematical ideas. Most of the activities are appropriate for grades 6-9; many could be used with older or younger groups as well. All activities are described in detail; some descriptions include sample worksheets, and several provide suggestions for followup activities. The…

  11. Mathematics and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Tobin; Martin, Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for an approach to mobile learning that leverages students' informal digital practices as resources for designing mathematics classrooms activities. We briefly describe two exploratory designs along these lines, one featuring the use of photos taken by students outside class and the other centered on their recording and…

  12. Teaching Vocational Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiering, Jeannette; And Others

    This Australian document is a guide to teaching mathematics as it relates to specific work situations. After a brief introduction, chapter 1 looks at problem solving, advises teachers to lower the reading level and thus raise the understandability of written math problems, and describes a four-step problem-solving process. Chapter 2 outlines a…

  13. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  14. Mathematics for the Baker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    The curriculum guide offers a course of training in the fundamentals of mathematics as applied to baking. Problems specifically related to the baking trade are included to maintain a practical orientation. The course is designed to help the student develop proficiency in the basic computation of whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percentage,…

  15. Reading in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taschow, Horst G.

    Difficulties inherent in the reading of mathematics at secondary and college levels are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the reading of arithmetic numerals, literal numbers, operational symbols, and expressions of relationships, as well as the reading of technical vocabularies and specialized meanings of general words. While each…

  16. Problematising Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Andy

    2015-01-01

    We assume many things when considering our practice, but our assumptions limit what we do. In this theoretical/philosophical paper I consider some assumptions that relate to our work. My purpose is to stimulate a debate, a search for alternatives, and to help us improve mathematics education by influencing our future curriculum documents and…

  17. Defence Mechanisms against Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimier, Jaques

    1993-01-01

    Students (n=1420) from Belgium and Quebec and students (n=614) of the Marne department were questioned to study the different defense mechanisms they employed against mathematics. Six main ways of grouping the responses were identified: (1) phobic avoidance; (2) repression; (3) projection; (4) reparation; (5) introjection; and (6) reversal into…

  18. Mathematics in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

    This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

  19. A Classroom Mathematics Utility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Reviews CATUSPLOT, a mathematics utility aimed at high school algebra through college-level calculus. Basic program capabilities include plotting, tabulating, integrating, and locating of intersections of functions composed of combinations of polynomial, trigonometric, and exponential functions. Rated excellent on all areas examined…

  20. Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the three Rs, "'rithmetic" has always been central to education and education research. By virtue of that centrality, research in mathematics education has often reflected and at times led trends in education research. This chapter provides some deep background on epistemological and other issues that shape current research,…

  1. Verbalizing Mathematics Using APL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, George E.

    The nature of "A Programing Language" (APL) is viewed as unambiguous, consistent, and powerful. It is based on the notion of functions as imperative verbs, and is used by a small but growing number of mathematicians and computer programers. Three areas of mathematical activity are addressed: calculation of arithmetic expressions,…

  2. The Constructivist Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karrie; Jones, Jennifer L.; Vermette, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    By examining how people learn, the educational theories of Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner can be synthesized to give this set of core Constructivist principles. Principles of effective mathematics teaching: (1) allows learning that is "active" and "reflective". Students are required to transfer key concepts to new situations; (2) allows…

  3. Mathematics and Demography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that teachers use mathematics problems related to the "1992 World Population Data Sheet" to teach students about such population-related issues as hunger, resource scarcity, poverty, and pollution. Offers sample problems involving percents, ratios, basic calculations, sequences, variability, graphs, averages, and correlation. Includes a…

  4. Mathematical Pattern Hunters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The habit of looking for patterns, the skills to find them, and the expectation that patterns have explanations is an essential mathematical habit of mind for young children (Goldenberg, Shteingold, & Feurzeig 2003, 23). Work with patterns leads to the ability to form generalizations, the bedrock of algebraic thinking, and teachers must nurture…

  5. Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Frederick W.

    This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…

  6. Functioning Mathematically: 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at ways of creating conditions to bring about learning. If one is to "arrange conditions to bring about learning," one needs written guidance and support systems. Two books that discusses how to arrange these conditions are: "Thinking Mathematically" by John Mason with Leone Burton and Kaye Stacey and "Starting…

  7. Mathematical Intrusions in Literatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Erasmo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be carried out in one of the final classes of Italian secondary schools. The aim of the activity is to stimulate pupil curiosity, demonstrating that Mathematics is not a barren subject and allowing the students, according to an interdisciplinary point of view, to investigate some literary works and the…

  8. Celebrate Mathematical Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Children's mathematical questions are often based in real-world experiences, as they instinctively make connections to the world around them. In teaching math methods courses, this author recently started to emphasize the importance of fostering curiosity in, and activating the thinking of, the students. In this article, she describes how to tap…

  9. The Amazing Mathematical Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bethany A.; Buckley, Brooke E.

    2011-01-01

    Teams, pit stops, clues, time limits, fast forwards, challenges, and prizes are all components of the CBS hit show "The Amazing Race." They were also elements of the Amazing Mathematical Race sponsored by the Math and Stats Club at Northern Kentucky University in April 2009. Held in recognition of Math Awareness Month, which is advocated…

  10. New Technologies in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento, Jorge

    An understanding of past technological advancements can help educators understand the influence of new technologies in education. Inventions such as the abacus, logarithms, the slide rule, the calculating machine, computers, and electronic calculators have all found their place in mathematics education. While new technologies can be very useful,…

  11. The Changing Curriculum: Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert B.

    In this 1967 booklet, influences of technology, the non-achiever and the culturally disadvantaged, and the revolt against formalism are discussed in relation to the modern mathematics curriculum. Some projects and school programs described include PLATO, the Nuffield Project, the Nova School Program, Advanced Placement Program, and teacher…

  12. Modern School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2008-01-01

    There was much enthusiasm when the phrase "Modern School Mathematics" was coined shortly after the 1958 National Defense Education Act was passed. Many federally funded study groups came into being. Presently, criticisms in secondary teaching are just as great as it was in 1958. The innovations recommended by federally funded study groups has had…

  13. NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

    THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN…

  14. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  15. Assessment Mathematics Teacher's Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnoor, A. G.; Yuanxiang, Guo; Abudhuim, F. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aimed to identifying the professional efficiencies for the intermediate schools mathematics teachers and tries to know at what level the math teachers experience those competencies. The researcher used a descriptive research approach, the study data collected from specialist educators and teacher's experts and previous studies to…

  16. Activities: Some Colorful Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane W.; Walker, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes three activities in discrete mathematics that involve coloring geometric objects: counting colored regions of overlapping simple closed curves, counting colored triangulations of polygons, and determining the number of colors required to paint the plane so that no two points one inch apart are the same color. (MKR)

  17. Extended Analyses: Promoting Mathematical Inquiry with Preservice Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of extended analysis tasks (EATs) in a required mathematics course for prospective high school mathematics teachers, and investigates the mathematical discovery promoted through engagement with these tasks. Extended analysis tasks are designed to move students beyond the problem context to the underlying…

  18. Mathematics Teachers' Ideas about Mathematical Models: A Diverse Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Alfredo; Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Tobin, Roger G.; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the ideas that mathematics teachers (grades 5-9) have regarding mathematical models of real-world phenomena, and explores how teachers' ideas differ depending on their educational background. Participants were 56 United States in-service mathematics teachers. We analyzed teachers' written responses to three open-ended…

  19. Between the Academic Mathematics and the Mathematics Education Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Candida Queiroz

    1997-01-01

    Investigated stresses confronted by Portuguese secondary mathematics teachers during the first semester in a master's course, Perspectives on Mathematics Education, noting how they negatively affected teachers' self-confidence and morale and discussing fundamental issues teachers addressed in bridging the academic mathematics and mathematics…

  20. Mathematical Fiction: Its Place in Secondary-School Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2005-01-01

    This article contains a small selection of mathematical fiction chosen with the teaching of mathematics in secondary school in mind. However, an attempt is made to classify the works and provide a few ideas about how these items may be used by mathematics teachers, sometimes, but not necessarily, in collaboration with science and humanities…

  1. Adults' Use of Mathematics and Its Influence on Mathematical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchhardt, Christoph; Jordan, Anne-Katrin; Ehmke, Timo

    2017-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) has recently drawn additional attention to "mathematical literacy" as an important influential factor for individuals' life chances. High levels of mathematical literacy have thereby been linked to using mathematics in daily and working life frequently. In this…

  2. Teaching Mathematics to Non-Mathematics Majors through Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei; Grinshpan, Arcadii Z.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the important role of applications in teaching mathematics to students with career paths other than mathematics. These include the fields as diverse as education, engineering, business, and life sciences. Particular attention is given to instructional computing as a means for concept development in mathematics education…

  3. Middle School Mathematics Students' Perspectives on the Study of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Christy H.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study addressed the perceptions toward the study of mathematics by middle school students who had formerly been in a remedial mathematics program. The purpose of the study was to explore the past experiences of nine students in order to determine what is needed for them to feel successful in mathematics. The conceptual framework…

  4. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…

  5. Mathematical Models of Elementary Mathematics Learning and Performance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    This project was concerned with the development of mathematical models of elementary mathematics learning and performance. Probabilistic finite automata and register machines with a finite number of registers were developed as models and extensively tested with data arising from the elementary-mathematics strand curriculum developed by the…

  6. History of Modern Applied Mathematics in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the integration of history of modern applied mathematics in mathematics education as well as the possible teaching and learning benefits of introducing a newer history of mathematics over an old(er) one--something that seems to be done most often when integrating history. Three cases of the history of modern applied…

  7. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  8. Mathematics Education in Hungary Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Tamas

    1988-01-01

    Changes in mathematics education from the 1950s to the 1980s are briefly described by the author, who was a leading mathematics educator in Hungary. Illustrations focus on personal experience and small group interaction. (MNS)

  9. Common Threads - Mathematics and Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Describes an exhibition of "mathematically rich" cloths. The themes chosen to be included were symmetry, number, creativity, information handling, and problem solving. The project was an outgrowth of work to take ordinary daily situations and analyze them mathematically. (PK)

  10. Doing Mathematics with Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Martin D.; Diamantis, Maria; Brosnan, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Presents resources to help parents develop their children's abilities to do mathematics while encouraging more positive attitudes toward mathematics and having fun in the process. Provides examples of activities that can be done at home with parents and children. (ASK)

  11. Integrating Mathematics and Composition Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirtland, Joseph; Hoh, Pau-San

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of an integrated approach for teaching mathematics and writing to freshmen. The goals are to strengthen mathematical skills, develop writing competencies, and foster interdisciplinary awareness. (Author/MM)

  12. More on Chemical Reaction Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A previous article stated that only the matrix method was powerful enough to balance a particular chemical equation. Shows how this equation can be balanced without using the matrix method. The approach taken involves writing partial mathematical reactions and redox half-reactions, and combining them to yield the final balanced reaction. (JN)

  13. Early Mathematics Fluency with CCSSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matney, Gabriel T.

    2014-01-01

    To develop second-grade students' confidence and ease, this author presents examples of learning tasks (Number of the Day, Word Problem Solving, and Modeling New Mathematical Ideas) that align with Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and that build mathematical fluency to promote students' creative expression of mathematical…

  14. MAPP: A Mathematics Placement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doblin, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    MAPP (A Mathematics Placement Program) uses two COBOL programs to place entering freshmen in mathematics courses which are commensurate with their backgrounds and abilities. Having been used for three years, the program is considered to be a viable alternative to the traditional mathematics placement process. (Author/JKS)

  15. The Psychological Foundations of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    1967-01-01

    This paper outlines problems which are central to the psychological foundations of mathematics. Discussed are the relations that exist between psychological and classical foundations of mathematics. It is shown how the inadequacies of current learning theories which account for complex mathematics learning may be made explicit for appropriate…

  16. Ethical Dimensions of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between mathematics, mathematics education and issues such as social justice and equity have been addressed by the sociopolitical tradition in mathematics education. Others have introduced explicit discussion of ethics, advocating for its centrality. However, this is an area that is still under developed. There is a need for an…

  17. Investigating Teachers' Images of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterenberg, Gladys

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that understanding new images of mathematics is very challenging and can contribute to teacher resistance. An explicit exploration of personal views of mathematics may be necessary for pedagogical change. One possible way for exploring these images is through mathematical metaphors. As metaphors focus on similarities, they can be…

  18. Mathematical Modelling in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Rita Borromeo

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning of mathematical modelling has become a key competence within school curricula and educational standards in many countries of the world. The term mathematical modelling, its meaning, and how it can be implemented in mathematics lessons have been intensively discussed during several Conferences of the European Society for…

  19. The Emergence of Mathematical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegedus, Stephen John; Moreno-Armella, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We present epistemological ruptures that have occurred in mathematical history and in the transformation of using technology in mathematics education in the twenty-first century. We describe how such changes establish a new form of digital semiotics that challenges learning paradigms and mathematical inquiry for learners today. We focus on drawing…

  20. Assessment and Learning of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C., Ed.

    This book addresses the link between student learning of mathematics, the teaching method adopted in the mathematics classroom, and the assessment procedures used to determine and measure student knowledge. Fifteen chapters address issues that include a review of different models of mathematics learning and assessment practices, three contrasting…