STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle
2011-01-01
The generative economic power and social influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has made the production of a capable science and engineering workforce a priority among business and policy leaders. They are rightly concerned that without a robust STEM workforce, the nation will become less competitive in the global…
Mathematics, Programming, and STEM
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeh, Andy; Chandra, Vinesh
2015-01-01
Learning mathematics is a complex and dynamic process. In this paper, the authors adopt a semiotic framework (Yeh & Nason, 2004) and highlight programming as one of the main aspects of the semiosis or meaning-making for the learning of mathematics. During a 10- week teaching experiment, mathematical meaning-making was enriched when primary…
Mathematical Modeling: A Bridge to STEM Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kertil, Mahmut; Gurel, Cem
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study is making a theoretical discussion on the relationship between mathematical modeling and integrated STEM education. First of all, STEM education perspective and the construct of mathematical modeling in mathematics education is introduced. A review of literature is provided on how mathematical modeling literature may…
iSTEM: Learning Mathematics through Minecraft
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bos, Beth; Wilder, Lucy; Cook, Marcelina; O'Donnell, Ryan
2014-01-01
The Common Core State Standards can be taught with Minecraft, an interactive creative Lego®-like game. Integrating Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (iSTEM) authors share ideas and activities that stimulate student interest in the integrated fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in K-grade 6 classrooms.
STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. Executive Summary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle
2011-01-01
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations are critical to the nation's continued economic competitiveness because of their direct ties to innovation, economic growth, and productivity, even though they will only be 5 percent of all jobs in the U.S. economy by 2018. The disproportionate influence of STEM raises a…
STEM Gives Meaning to Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hefty, Lukas J.
2015-01-01
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM's) "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (2000) outlines fi ve Process Standards that are essential for developing deep understanding of mathematics: (1) Problem Solving; (2) Reasoning and Proof; (3) Communication; (4) Connections; and (5) Representation. The Common Core…
The Future for Mathematics Subject Associations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pope, Sue
2012-01-01
Subject associations have developed, over the years, to serve the interests of the mathematics education community. We live in changing times, and education is often at the forefront of such change. So, to remain contemporary, relevant, and to have a regard for the future in a world influenced by technology, it is suggested that there is a need…
Views of Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers Regarding STEM
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cinar, Sinan; Pirasa, Nimet; Sadoglu, Gunay Palic
2016-01-01
STEM education is an integrated approach that combines science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines with different subjects in real life situations, together and simultaneously. The views of pre-service teachers introduced to STEM by means of workshops that presented information and scales on STEM education regarding the subject…
What Software to Use in the Teaching of Mathematical Subjects?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berežný, Štefan
2015-01-01
We can consider two basic views, when using mathematical software in the teaching of mathematical subjects. First: How to learn to use specific software for the specific tasks, e. g., software Statistica for the subjects of Applied statistics, probability and mathematical statistics, or financial mathematics. Second: How to learn to use the…
Key Issue: Recruiting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGraner, Kristin L.
2009-01-01
A STEM teacher is one who teaches in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In K-12 schooling, most STEM teachers instruct mathematics and science classes, which continue to be critical shortage areas. As part of a comprehensive human capital strategy, designing recruitment initiatives to attract qualified STEM teachers…
Supporting Mathematics in Other Subject Areas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stump, Sheryl; Clark, Susan E.; Mitchell, Melissa; Roebuck, Kay
2008-01-01
It is important for students to have opportunities to experience mathematics in contexts outside of the mathematics classroom. The links between mathematics and other disciplines can help students develop a fuller understanding of mathematics. Problems arising in health, science, and social studies can help students understand ratios, measurement,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGarr, Oliver; Lynch, Raymond
2017-01-01
The ubiquitous and often pervasive expansion of the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) agenda across global education systems has largely gone uncontested. Strategic efforts to build on perceived natural subject synergies across the separate STEM disciplines are promoted as central to supporting the growth of economies through…
Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM): Catalyzing Change Amid the Confusion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barakos, Lynn; Lujan, Vanessa; Strang, Craig
2012-01-01
Over the past eight years or so, educators have struggled to make sense of the many views and definitions of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and what constitutes quality in STEM practices. The multitude of recent STEM funding opportunities has done little to create a common understanding about how to best engage…
STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. State-Level Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle
2011-01-01
The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) state-level analysis provides policymakers, educators, state government officials, and others with details on the projections of STEM jobs through 2018. This report delivers a state-by-state snapshot of the demand for STEM jobs, including: (1) The number of forecast net new and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glennie, Elizabeth; Mason, Marcinda; Dalton, Ben
2016-01-01
Some states have created science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) schools to encourage student interest and enhance student proficiency in STEM subjects. We examined a set of STEM schools serving disadvantaged students to see whether these students were more likely to take and pass advanced science and mathematics classes than…
Preservice Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Menon, Ramakrishnan
2009-01-01
Sixty four preservice teachers taking a mathematics methods class for middle schools were given 3 math problems: multiply a three digit number by a two digit number; divide a whole number by a fraction; and compare the volume of two cylinders made in different ways from the same rectangular sheet. They were to a) solve them, explaining their…
Retaining Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Majors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric
2013-01-01
In this paper we present results relating undergraduate student retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors to the use of Peer Instruction (PI) in an introductory physics course at a highly selective research institution. We compare the percentages of students who switch out of a STEM major after taking a physics…
Women of Color in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Dawn R.
2011-01-01
Scholars have theorized and examined women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields for well over thirty years. However, much of this research has paid little attention to issues of racial and ethnic diversity among women, suggesting that all women have the same experiences in STEM. Women of color…
STEM Education and Leadership: A Mathematics and Science Partnership Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merrill, Chris; Daugherty, Jenny
2010-01-01
The issue of attracting more young people to choose careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become critical for the United States. Recent studies by businesses, associations, and education have all agreed that the United States' performance in the STEM disciplines have placed the nation in grave risk of…
Lacan, Subjectivity and the Task of Mathematics Education Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Tony
2008-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of subjectivity in the context of mathematics education research. It introduces the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan whose work on subjectivity combined Freud's psychoanalytic theory with processes of signification as developed in the work of de Saussure and Peirce. The paper positions Lacan's subjectivity…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
James, Jamie Smith
2014-01-01
The purpose of this quantitative research study was to evaluate to what degree Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education influenced mathematics and science achievement of seventh grade students in one Middle Tennessee school district. This research used an independent samples t test at the a = 0.05 level to evaluate…
Stout, Jane G; Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Hunsinger, Matthew; McManus, Melissa A
2011-02-01
Three studies tested a stereotype inoculation model, which proposed that contact with same-sex experts (advanced peers, professionals, professors) in academic environments involving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enhances women's self-concept in STEM, attitudes toward STEM, and motivation to pursue STEM careers. Two cross-sectional controlled experiments and 1 longitudinal naturalistic study in a calculus class revealed that exposure to female STEM experts promoted positive implicit attitudes and stronger implicit identification with STEM (Studies 1-3), greater self-efficacy in STEM (Study 3), and more effort on STEM tests (Study 1). Studies 2 and 3 suggested that the benefit of seeing same-sex experts is driven by greater subjective identification and connectedness with these individuals, which in turn predicts enhanced self-efficacy, domain identification, and commitment to pursue STEM careers. Importantly, women's own self-concept benefited from contact with female experts even though negative stereotypes about their gender and STEM remained active.
STEM Images Revealing STEM Conceptions of Pre-Service Chemistry and Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akaygun, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma
2016-01-01
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has been an integral part of many countries' educational policies. In last decade, various practices have been implemented to make STEM areas valuable for 21st century generation. These actions require reconsideration of both pre- and in-service teacher education because those who…
STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanders, Mark
2009-01-01
In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsup, Philip R.
Inspiring learners toward career options available in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is important not only for economic development but also for maintaining creative thinking and innovation. Limited amounts of research in STEM education have focused on the population of students enrolled in religious and parochial schools, and given the historic conflict between religion and science, this sector of American education is worthy of examination. The purpose of this quantitative study is to extend Gottfredson's (1981) Theory of Circumscription and Compromise as it relates to occupational aspirations. Bem's (1981) Gender Schema Theory is examined as it relates to the role of gender in career expectations, and Crenshaw's (1989) Intersectionality Theory is included as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. Six professionals in STEM career fields were video recorded while being interviewed about their skills and education as well as positive and negative aspects of their jobs. The interviews were compiled into a 25-minute video for the purpose of increasing understanding of STEM careers among middle school viewers. The research questions asked whether middle school students from conservative, Protestant Christian schools in a Midwest region increased in STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest as a result of viewing the video and whether gender interacted with exposure to the video. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control groups, pretest/posttest factorial design was employed to evaluate data collected from the STEM Semantic Survey. A Two-Way ANCOVA revealed no significant differences in dependent variables from pretest to posttest. Implications of the findings are examined and recommendations for future research are made. Descriptors: STEM career interest, STEM attitude, STEM gender disparity, Occupational aspirations, Conservative Protestant education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Codiroli, Natasha
2015-01-01
The relative lack of students studying post-compulsory STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects is a key policy concern. A particular issue is the disparities in uptake by students' family background, gender and ethnicity. It remains unclear whether the effects of family background can be explained by academic disparities,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
d'Aguiar, Steve; Harrison, Neil
2016-01-01
It has been argued by some (e.g. the Confederation of British Industry [CBI]) that graduates lack the skills that render them employable. In particular, graduates of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects are often portrayed as being unready for the world of work. This study uses three large-scale national data-sets from…
Re/Writing the Subject: A Contribution to Post-Structuralist Theory in Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Wolff-Michael
2012-01-01
This text, occasioned by a critical reading of "Mathematics Education and Subjectivity" (Brown, "2011") and constituting a response to the book, aims at contributing to the building of (post-structuralist) theory in mathematics education. Its purpose was to re/write two major positions that "Mathematics Education and Subjectivity" articulates:…
Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin
2012-11-01
Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.
The Influence of Applied STEM Coursetaking on Advanced Mathematics and Science Coursetaking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gottfried, Michael A.
2015-01-01
Advanced mathematics and science course taking is critical in building the foundation for students to advance through the STEM pathway-from high school to college to career. To invigorate students' persistence in STEM fields, high schools have been introducing applied STEM courses into the curriculum as a way to reinforce concepts learned in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hackler, Amanda Smith
2011-01-01
Underserved and underrepresented students consistently leave science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree fields to pursue less demanding majors. This perpetual problem slowed the growth in STEM degree fields (United States Department of Labor, 2007). Declining enrollment in STEM degree fields among underserved and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Executive Office of the President, 2016
2016-01-01
As called for in the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010, the National Science and Technology Council's (NSTC) Committee on STEM Education (CoSTEM) released, in May of 2013, the Federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education 5- Year Strategic Plan (Strategic Plan). As required by the Act, this report includes…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guzey, S. Selcen; Harwell, Michael; Moore, Tamara
2014-01-01
There is a need for more students to be interested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers to advance U.S. competitiveness and economic growth. A consensus exists that improving STEM education is necessary for motivating more students to pursue STEM careers. In this study, a survey to measure student (grades 4-6)…
Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science: 25 Years of Early College STEM Opportunities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sayler, Michael F.
2015-01-01
The University of North Texas's Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science began admitting students to its 2-year early college entrance science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program in the fall of 1988. This program provided accelerated entry for top students in Texas in the areas of mathematics and science. Approximately 200…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woolcott, Geoff; Yeigh, Tony
2015-01-01
This article reports on initial findings, including the mathematics components, of a multi-institutional Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) project, "It's part of my life: Engaging university and community to enhance science and mathematics education." This project is focussed on improving the scientific and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevenson, Heidi J.
2014-01-01
The Business Roundtable (2013) website presents a common narrative in regard to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education, "American students are falling behind in math and science. Fewer and fewer students are pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, and American students are performing at…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adler, Jill; Hossain, Sarmin; Stevenson, Mary; Clarke, John; Archer, Rosa; Grantham, Barry
2014-01-01
This article reports an investigation into how students of a mathematics course for prospective secondary mathematics teachers in England talk about the notion of "understanding mathematics in depth", which was an explicit goal of the course. We interviewed eighteen students of the course. Through our social practice frame and in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hottinger, Sara
2010-01-01
There is a widespread awareness in the American culture that women do not pursue careers in mathematics-related fields in equal numbers to men. Efforts to address this disparity by reforming mathematics education have met with some success; recent research shows that girls' achievements in mathematics stay on par with those of boys through…
Motivating Children to Develop Their Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Talent
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andersen, Lori
2013-01-01
Motivation in mathematics and science appears to be more important to STEM occupational choice than ability. Using the expectancy value model, parents may be able to recognize potential barriers to children's selection of a STEM occupation and take actions to help facilitate talent development. These are especially important for parents of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karahan, Engin; Canbazoglu Bilici, Sedef; Unal, Aycin
2015-01-01
Problem Statement: Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education aims at improving students' knowledge and skills in science and math, and thus their attitudes and career choices in these areas. The ultimate goal in STEM education is to create scientifically literate individuals who can survive in the global economy. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koyunlu Unlu, Zeynep; Dokme, Ilbilge; Unlu, Veli
2016-01-01
Problem Statement: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has recently become a remarkable research topic, especially in developed countries as a result of the skilled workforce required in the fields of the STEM. Considering that professional tendencies are revealed at early ages, determining students' interest in STEM…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Paula Christine
2013-01-01
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education curriculum is designed to strengthen students' science and math achievement through project based learning activities. As part of a STEM initiative, SeaPerch was developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. SeaPerch is an innovative underwater robotics program that instructs…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Academies Press, 2011
2011-01-01
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are cultural achievements that reflect our humanity, power our economy, and constitute fundamental aspects of our lives as citizens, consumers, parents, and members of the workforce. Providing all students with access to quality education in the STEM disciplines is important to our nation's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ejiwale, James A.
2014-01-01
Collaboration plays a major role in interdisciplinary activities among Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) disciplines or fields. It also affects the relationships among cluster members on the management team. Although effective collaboration does not guarantee success among STEM disciplines, its absence usually assures…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Jeffry L.; Massiha, G. H.
2015-01-01
As a nation wrestles with the need to train more professionals, persons with disabilities are undereducated and underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The following project was proposed to increase representation of students with disabilities in the STEM disciplines. The program emphasizes an integrated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hacioglu, Yasemin; Yamak, Havva; Kavak, Nusret
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to reveal pre-service science teachers' cognitive structures regarding Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) and science education. The study group of the study consisted of 192 pre-service science teachers. A Free Word Association Test (WAT) consisting of science, technology, engineering, mathematics and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meng, Chew Cheng; Idris, Noraini; Eu, Leong Kwan
2014-01-01
The problems of the decreasing enrolment of science students at secondary school level as well as the lagging science and mathematics achievement and literacy of Malaysian secondary students in international assessment studies point to a serious challenge for the government to improve Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)…
Can Parents Influence Children's Mathematics Achievement and Persistence in STEM Careers?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ing, Marsha
2014-01-01
This study explores the relationship between parental motivational practices, Children's mathematics achievement trajectories, and persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Nationally representative longitudinal survey data were analyzed using latent growth curve analysis. Findings indicate that…
A Norwegian Out-of-School Mathematics Project's Influence on Secondary Students' STEM Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Fredrik; Sjaastad, Jørgen
2013-01-01
Considerable resources are spent on initiatives aiming to increase achievement and participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Drawing on focus group interviews and a questionnaire study with participants in ENT3R, a Norwegian out-of-school mathematics program, we investigated why participants attended and stayed in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dulama, Maria Eliza; Magda?, Ioana
2014-01-01
In this paper, we analyze some aspects related to "Mathematics and Environmental Exploration" subject syllabus for preparatory grade approved by Minister of National Education of Romania. The analysis aim the place of the subject syllabus into the Framework Plan; the syllabus structure and the argumentation of studying this subject; the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne
2014-01-01
Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…
Subject Design and Factors Affecting Achievement in Mathematics for Biomedical Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carnie, Steven; Morphett, Anthony
2017-01-01
Reports such as Bio2010 emphasize the importance of integrating mathematical modelling skills into undergraduate biology and life science programmes, to ensure students have the skills and knowledge needed for biological research in the twenty-first century. One way to do this is by developing a dedicated mathematics subject to teach modelling and…
Teaching Science and Mathematics Subjects Using the Excel Spreadsheet Package
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ibrahim, Dogan
2009-01-01
The teaching of scientific subjects usually require laboratories where students can put the theory they have learned into practice. Traditionally, electronic programmable calculators, dedicated software, or expensive software simulation packages, such as MATLAB have been used to simulate scientific experiments. Recently, spreadsheet programs have…
iSTEM: Promoting Fifth Graders' Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yanik, H. Bahadir; Karabas, Celil
2014-01-01
Modeling requires that people develop representations or procedures to address particular problem situations (Lesh et al. 2000). Mathematical modeling is used to describe essential characteristics of a phenomenon or a situation that one intends to study in the real world through building mathematical objects. This article describes how fifth-grade…
Productive Struggle in Mathematics. Interactive STEM Research + Practice Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pasquale, Marian
2016-01-01
Mathematical problems and puzzles that require commitment and perseverance to solve can help foster deep mathematics understanding in students. In this brief, the author describes factors that influence productive struggle, shares four examples of how teachers often respond to their students' productive struggles, and offers four strategies to…
Subjectivity and Cultural Adjustment in Mathematics Education: A Response to Wolff-Michael Roth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Tony
2012-01-01
In this volume, Wolff-Michael Roth provides a critical but partial reading of Tony Brown's book "Mathematics Education and Subjectivity". The reading contrasts Brown's approach with Roth's own conception of subjectivity as derived from the work of Vygotsky, in which Roth aims to "reunite" psychology and sociology. Brown's book, however, focuses on…
Nix, Samantha; Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby
2015-01-01
Students' perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree choice. Related, students' perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. In this manuscript, we investigate how perceived ability under challenge—in particular in mathematics domains—influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC). Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS) data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type 2 years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women's 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased their probability of selecting PEMC majors over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students' selection of health science majors. Perceptions of ability under challenge in general and verbal domains also influenced retention in and declaration of certain STEM majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women
Nix, Samantha; Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby
2015-01-01
Students' perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree choice. Related, students' perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. In this manuscript, we investigate how perceived ability under challenge-in particular in mathematics domains-influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC). Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS) data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type 2 years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women's 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased their probability of selecting PEMC majors over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students' selection of health science majors. Perceptions of ability under challenge in general and verbal domains also influenced retention in and declaration of certain STEM majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women's perceptions of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Rossi, Dara
2015-01-01
The recent trend to unite mathematically related disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) under the broader umbrella of STEM education has advantages. In this new educational context of integration, however, STEM teachers need to be able to distinguish between sufficient proof and reasoning across different disciplines,…
2015-08-03
AND SUBTITLE Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle...Center program to be able to expose Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) space-inspired science centers for DC Metro beltway schools
Using Space as a Context to Enrich the Teaching and Learning of STEM Subjects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clements, Allan; Curtis, Jeremy; Jackson, Libby; Lyons, Tom
2014-01-01
This article looks at how space can provide a context for the teaching of STEM subjects. It explores how space fits with the new curriculum, and outlines what resources are available for teachers from the National STEM Centre eLibrary. In November 2015, the UK sends its first official astronaut into space, Tim Peake. His mission can provide a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdul Hadi, Normi; Mohd Noor, Norlenda; Abd Halim, Suhaila; Alwadood, Zuraida; Khairol Azmi, Nurul Nisa'
2013-04-01
Mathematics is a basic subject in primary and secondary schools. Early exposure to mathematics is very important since it will affect the student perception towards this subject for their entire life. Therefore, a program called 'Mini Hari Matematik' was conducted to expose the basic mathematics concept through some games which fit the knowledge of Standard four and five students. A questionnaire regarding student perception towards this subject was distributed before and after the program. From the analysis, the program has positively changed the student's perception towards mathematics.
Celebrating the Reality of Inclusive STEM Education: Co-Teaching in Science and Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moorehead, Tanya; Grillo, Kelly
2013-01-01
This article focuses on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education in secondary inclusive classrooms. Co-teaching is increasingly used in inclusive practice by administrators to provide effective instruction in inclusive classrooms. The practical and successful instructional strategies in the article focus on one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; San Pedro, Maria Ofelia; Lai, Huei-yi; Baker, Ryan S.; Borgen, Fred
2016-01-01
Research suggests that trajectories toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emerge early and are influenced by multiple factors. This paper presents a longitudinal study, which uses data from 76 high school students to explore how a student's vocational self-efficacy and interest are related to his or her middle…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Zakiya S.; McGuire, Saundra Y.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Doyle, Michael P.; Marzilli, Luigi G.; Warner, Isiah M.
2014-01-01
For many years, the U.S. has underutilized its human resources, as evidenced by the pervasive underrepresentation of several racial and ethnic groups within academia in general and the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines, in particular. To address this underutilization, academic departments within U.S. universities…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bancroft, Senetta F.; Benson, Susan Kushner; Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia
2016-01-01
Nationally, racial and gender disparities persist in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These disparities are most notable at the doctoral level and are also found in the doctoral outcomes of Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program participants (Scholars) despite opportunities designed to promote…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Shelly J.; Bohn, Dawn M.; Rasmussen, Aaron J.; Sutherland, Elizabeth A.
2012-01-01
The overarching goal of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Initiative is to foster effective STEM teaching and learning throughout the educational system at the local, state, and national levels, thereby producing science literate citizens and a capable STEM workforce. To contribute to achieving this goal, we…
Is Knowing Another Language as Important as Knowing "Core" Subjects Like Mathematics or Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kouritzin, Sandra G.
2012-01-01
This article explores, through interview data with 125 respondents in Canada, whether the study of foreign languages can be considered as important as the study of the "core" STEMM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics, medicine) subjects in school and university curricula. Five categories of interviewees, including those…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ye, Li; Varelas, Maria; Guajardo, Raphael
2011-01-01
This study explored how two mathematics/science subject-matter experts (Fellows) conceptualized urban classrooms and the students they worked with for a year, how they negotiated academic achievement with cultural and sociopolitical competence, and how their identities as educators were co-constructed and enacted. Using grounded theory, Fellows'…
A Multi-Compartment Mathematical Model of Cancer Stem Cell Driven Tumor Growth Dynamics
Weekes, Suzanne L.; Barker, Brian; Bober, Sarah; Cisneros, Karina; Cline, Justina; Thompson, Amanda; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Enderling, Heiko
2014-01-01
Tumors are appreciated to be an intrinsically heterogeneous population of cells with varying proliferation capacities and tumorigenic potentials. As a central tenet of the so-called cancer stem cell hypothesis, most cancer cells have only a limited lifespan and thus cannot initiate or re-initiate tumors. Longevity and clonogenicity are properties unique to the subpopulation of cancer stem cells. To understand the implications of the population structure suggested by this hypothesis - a hierarchy consisting of cancer stem cells and progeny non-stem cancer cells which experience a reduction in their remaining proliferation capacity per division - we set out to develop a mathematical model for the development of the aggregate population. We show that overall tumor progression rate during the exponential growth phase is identical to the growth rate of the cancer stem cell compartment. Tumors with identical stem cell proportions, however, can have different growth rates, dependent on the proliferation kinetics of all participating cell populations. Analysis of the model revealed that the proliferation potential of non-stem cancer cells is likely to be small to reproduce biologic observations. Furthermore, a single compartment of non-stem cancer cell population may adequately represent population growth dynamics only when the compartment proliferation rate is scaled with the generational hierarchy depth. PMID:24840956
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Executive Office of the President, 2011
2011-01-01
The National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Committee on STEM Education (CoSTEM) coordinates Federal programs and activities in support of STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education pursuant to the requirements of Sec. 101 of the America COMPETES (Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology…
2014-05-01
Mathematics (STEM) education in terms of declining enrollment, dropouts , and field-switching (1, 2). Since then, many educators, organizations, schools...system. The report points out that while the United States (U.S.) invests more in kindergarten through high school public education than any other...to carry out its demanding tasks. Simply put, there is a different set of skills needed now than there was 50 years ago and the Department of Defense
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burt, Stacey M.
The problem addressed in this project is the lack of mathematically gifted females choosing to pursue advanced science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in secondary education due to deficiencies in self-efficacy. The purpose of this project was to study the effects of a child-guided robotics program as it relates to the self-efficacy of mathematically gifted 6th grade female students and their future course choices in the advanced STEM content areas. This mixed-model study utilized a STEM attitude survey, artifacts, interviews, field notes, and standardized tests as measurement tools. Significance was found between genders in the treatment group for the standardized science scores, indicating closure in the achievement gap. Research suggests that STEM enrichment is beneficial for mathematically gifted females.
Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W.; Shattuck, Paul; McCracken, Mary; Blackorby, Jose
2012-01-01
Little research has examined the popular belief that individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely than the general population to gravitate toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, a nationally representative sample of students with an ASD in special education. Findings suggest that students with an ASD had the highest STEM participation rates although their college enrollment rate was the third lowest among 11 disability categories and students in the general population. Disproportionate postsecondary enrollment and STEM participation by gender, family income, and mental functioning skills were found for young adults with an ASD. Educational policy implications are discussed. PMID:23114569
Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W; Shattuck, Paul; McCracken, Mary; Blackorby, Jose
2013-07-01
Little research has examined the popular belief that individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely than the general population to gravitate toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, a nationally representative sample of students with an ASD in special education. Findings suggest that students with an ASD had the highest STEM participation rates although their college enrollment rate was the third lowest among 11 disability categories and students in the general population. Disproportionate postsecondary enrollment and STEM participation by gender, family income, and mental functioning skills were found for young adults with an ASD. Educational policy implications are discussed.
Mathematical modelling of phenotypic plasticity and conversion to a stem-cell state under hypoxia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhawan, Andrew; Madani Tonekaboni, Seyed Ali; Taube, Joseph H.; Hu, Stephen; Sphyris, Nathalie; Mani, Sendurai A.; Kohandel, Mohammad
2016-02-01
Hypoxia, or oxygen deficiency, is known to be associated with breast tumour progression, resistance to conventional therapies and poor clinical prognosis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that confers invasive and migratory capabilities as well as stem cell properties to carcinoma cells thus promoting metastatic progression. In this work, we examined the impact of hypoxia on EMT-associated cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, by culturing transformed human mammary epithelial cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and applying in silico mathematical modelling to simulate the impact of hypoxia on the acquisition of CSC attributes and the transitions between differentiated and stem-like states. Our results indicate that both the heterogeneity and the plasticity of the transformed cell population are enhanced by exposure to hypoxia, resulting in a shift towards a more stem-like population with increased EMT features. Our findings are further reinforced by gene expression analyses demonstrating the upregulation of EMT-related genes, as well as genes associated with therapy resistance, in hypoxic cells compared to normoxic counterparts. In conclusion, we demonstrate that mathematical modelling can be used to simulate the role of hypoxia as a key contributor to the plasticity and heterogeneity of transformed human mammary epithelial cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hourigan, Mairéad; O'Donoghue, John
2013-01-01
Given the acknowledged relationship between teachers' knowledge, their teaching and pupil learning, teachers' mathematics subject matter knowledge (MSMK) has received increased attention internationally. As children's early mathematics experiences have been recognized as a critical stage, elementary teachers' MSMK has become a focal point among researchers and policy makers alike. International research findings have uncovered that in many cases, there is a mismatch between what is perceived to be an appropriate MSMK for teaching elementary mathematics and that demonstrated by many qualified and prospective elementary teachers. Following repeated incidences of weak MSMK during interactions with prospective elementary teachers in one Irish College of Education (provider of initial teacher education programme for elementary teachers), this study sought to examine and address the issue purposefully through two cycles of action research. This article focuses on the data collected prospective teachers' MSMK in the initial stage (reconnaissance) of these cycles, i.e. pre-test findings. While considerable differences were evident among the pre-test population, the findings suggest that prior to the intervention stage many participating prospective teachers; regardless of previous mathematics achievements or the level of mathematics study; demonstrate weaknesses and gaps in their 'common' MSMK. Particular difficulties were evident in relation to pre-test items requiring knowledge of rational numbers, conceptual understanding or problem solving. These findings highlight the inadequacy of previous mathematics achievements and indeed minimum entry requirements as predictors of MSMK for teaching. As well as its contribution at a local and national level, the findings provide an Irish perspective on this international issue.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Xianglei
2009-01-01
Rising concern about America's ability to maintain its competitive position in the global economy has renewed interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. To understand who enters into and completes undergraduate programs in STEM fields, this report examined data from three major national studies: the 1995-96…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer; Chen, Wen-Ping
2013-01-01
Many scholars claimed the integration of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education is beneficial to the national economy and teachers and institutes have been working to develop integrated education programs. This study examined a project-based learning (PjBL) activity that integrated STEM using survey and interview…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Catherine
2012-01-01
This study examined the characteristics of 10 science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) focused high schools that were selected from various regions across the United States. In an effort to better prepare students for careers in STEM fields, many schools have been designed and are currently operational, while even more are in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Wolff-Michael; Van Eijck, Michiel
2010-01-01
Challenged by a National Science Foundation-funded conference, 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research, in which participants were asked to recognize science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep, we draw upon 20 years of research across the lifespan to propose a new way…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haruna, Umar Ibrahim
2015-01-01
Collaboration plays a major role in interdisciplinary activities among Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) disciplines or fields. It also affects the relationships among cluster members on the management team. Although effective collaboration does not guarantee success among STEM disciplines, its absence usually assures…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth
Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.
2012-04-01
Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; San Pedro, Maria Ofelia; Lai, Huei-yi; Baker, Ryan S.; Borgen, Fred
2016-12-01
Research suggests that trajectories toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emerge early and are influenced by multiple factors. This paper presents a longitudinal study, which uses data from 76 high school students to explore how a student's vocational self-efficacy and interest are related to his or her middle school behavioral and affective engagement. Measures of vocational self-efficacy and interest are drawn from STEM-related scales in CAPAExplore, while measures of middle school performance and engagement in mathematics are drawn from several previously validated automated indicators extracted from logs of student interaction with ASSISTments, an online learning platform. Results indicate that vocational self-efficacy correlates negatively with confusion, but positively with engaged concentration and carelessness. Interest, which also correlates negatively with confusion, correlates positively with correctness and carelessness. Other disengaged behaviors, such as gaming the system, were not correlated with vocational self-efficacy or interest, despite previous studies indicating that they are associated with future college attendance. We discuss implications for these findings, which have the potential to assist educators or counselors in developing strategies to sustain students' interest in STEM-related careers.
Fornari, Chiara; Beccuti, Marco; Lanzardo, Stefania; Conti, Laura; Balbo, Gianfranco; Cavallo, Federica; Calogero, Raffaele A.; Cordero, Francesca
2014-01-01
The involvement of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in tumor progression and tumor recurrence is one of the most studied subjects in current cancer research. The CSC hypothesis states that cancer cell populations are characterized by a hierarchical structure that affects cancer progression. Due to the complex dynamics involving CSCs and the other cancer cell subpopulations, a robust theory explaining their action has not been established yet. Some indications can be obtained by combining mathematical modeling and experimental data to understand tumor dynamics and to generate new experimental hypotheses. Here, we present a model describing the initial phase of ErbB2+ mammary cancer progression, which arises from a joint effort combing mathematical modeling and cancer biology. The proposed model represents a new approach to investigate the CSC-driven tumorigenesis and to analyze the relations among crucial events involving cancer cell subpopulations. Using in vivo and in vitro data we tuned the model to reproduce the initial dynamics of cancer growth, and we used its solution to characterize observed cancer progression with respect to mutual CSC and progenitor cell variation. The model was also used to investigate which association occurs among cell phenotypes when specific cell markers are considered. Finally, we found various correlations among model parameters which cannot be directly inferred from the available biological data and these dependencies were used to characterize the dynamics of cancer subpopulations during the initial phase of ErbB2+ mammary cancer progression. PMID:25184361
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heaverlo, Carol Ann
Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šilhán, Karel
2016-01-01
Knowledge of past landslide activity is crucial for understanding landslide behaviour and for modelling potential future landslide occurrence. Dendrogeomorphic approaches represent the most precise methods of landslide dating (where trees annually create tree-rings in the timescale of up to several hundred years). Despite the advantages of these methods, many open questions remain. One of the less researched uncertainties, and the focus of this study, is the impact of two common methods of geomorphic signal extraction on the spatial and temporal results of landslide reconstruction. In total, 93 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were sampled at one landslide location dominated by block-type movements in the forefield of the Orlické hory Mts., Bohemian Massif. Landslide signals were examined by the classical subjective method based on reaction (compression) wood analysis and by a numerical method based on eccentric growth analysis. The chronology of landslide movements obtained by the mathematical method resulted in twice the number of events detected compared to the subjective method. This finding indicates that eccentric growth is a more accurate indicator for landslide movements than the classical analysis of reaction wood. The reconstructed spatial activity of landslide movements shows a similar distribution of recurrence intervals (Ri) for both methods. The differences (maximally 30% of the total Ri ranges) in results obtained by both methods may be caused by differences in the ability of trees to react to tilting of their stems by a specific growth response (reaction wood formation or eccentric growth). Finally, the ability of trees to record tilting events (by both growth responses) in their tree-ring series was analysed for different decades of tree life. The highest sensitivity to external tilting events occurred at tree ages from 70 to 80 years for reaction wood formation and from 80 to 90 years for eccentric growth response. This means that
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jablonka, Eva
2015-01-01
This contribution briefly sketches the evolvement of numeracy or mathematical literacy as models for mathematics curricula, which will be described as driven by a weakening of the insulation between discourses, that is, as a process of "declassification". The question then arises as to whether and how coherence of new forms of initially…
Mathematical Models of Pluripotent Stem Cells: At the Dawn of Predictive Regenerative Medicine.
Pir, Pınar; Le Novère, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Regenerative medicine, ranging from stem cell therapy to organ regeneration, is promising to revolutionize treatments of diseases and aging. These approaches require a perfect understanding of cell reprogramming and differentiation. Predictive modeling of cellular systems has the potential to provide insights about the dynamics of cellular processes, and guide their control. Moreover in many cases, it provides alternative to experimental tests, difficult to perform for practical or ethical reasons. The variety and accuracy of biological processes represented in mathematical models grew in-line with the discovery of underlying molecular mechanisms. High-throughput data generation led to the development of models based on data analysis, as an alternative to more established modeling based on prior mechanistic knowledge. In this chapter, we give an overview of existing mathematical models of pluripotency and cell fate, to illustrate the variety of methods and questions. We conclude that current approaches are yet to overcome a number of limitations: Most of the computational models have so far focused solely on understanding the regulation of pluripotency, and the differentiation of selected cell lineages. In addition, models generally interrogate only a few biological processes. However, a better understanding of the reprogramming process leading to ESCs and iPSCs is required to improve stem-cell therapies. One also needs to understand the links between signaling, metabolism, regulation of gene expression, and the epigenetics machinery.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitts, Charles R.
2016-01-01
The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…
2011-12-01
majors, complete STEM credentials or degree programs, or are prepared to enter STEM careers or advanced education. • STEM Careers : Prepare people to...students who enroll in STEM majors, complete STEM credentials or degree programs, or are prepared to enter STEM careers or advanced education. • STEM... Careers : Prepare people to enter STEM workforce with training or certification (where STEM discipline specific knowledge and skills are the primary
Inoue, Kazutoshi; Saito, Mitsuhiro; Chen, Chunlin; Kotani, Motoko; Ikuhara, Yuichi
2016-12-01
A collaborative work between mathematics and atom-resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has been conducted. The grain boundary in a bicrystal of a simple rock-salt oxide can show a complicated arrangement of structural units, which can be well predicted by an algorithm utilizing the Farey sequence. The estimated arrangements had a nice agreement with those observed by STEM in atomic-scale up to several tens of nanometers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caliendo, Julia C.
Problem-based learning in clinical practice has become an integral part of many professional preparation programs. This quasi-experimental study compared the effect of a specialized 90-hour field placement on elementary pre-service teachers' scientific reasoning and attitudes towards teaching STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) subjects. A cohort of 53 undergraduate elementary education majors, concurrent to their enrollment in science and math methods classes, were placed into one of two clinical practice experiences: (a) a university-based, problem-based learning (PBL), STEM classroom, or (b) a traditional public school classroom. Group gain scores on the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (CTSR) and the Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes Toward STEM Survey-Elementary Teachers (T-STEM) survey were calculated. A MANCOVA revealed that there was a significant difference in gain scores between the treatment and comparison groups' scientific reasoning (p = .011) and attitudes towards teaching STEM subjects (p = .004). The results support the hypothesis that the pre-service elementary teachers who experienced STEM mentoring in a PBL setting will have an increase in their scientific reasoning and produce positive attitudes towards teaching STEM subjects. In addition, the results add to the existing research suggesting that elementary pre-service teachers require significant academic preparation and mentored support in STEM content.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A.; Blotnicky, Karen; French, Frederick; Joy, Phillip
2016-01-01
To enhance understanding of factors that might improve STEM career participation, we assessed students' self-perceptions of competency and interest in science/math, engagement in STEM activities outside of school, and knowledge of STEM career requirements. We show that the primary positive influencer directing students to a STEM career is high…
Honda, Arata; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Izu, Haruna; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Honsho, Kimiko; Nakamura, Tomonori; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Takuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Michiko; Sankai, Tadashi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ogura, Atsuo; Saitou, Mitinori
2017-01-01
Experimental animal models have played an indispensable role in the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) research. The derivation of high-quality (so-called “true naïve state”) iPSCs of non-human primates enhances their application and safety for human regenerative medicine. Although several attempts have been made to convert human and non-human primate PSCs into a truly naïve state, it is unclear which evaluation methods can discriminate them as being truly naïve. Here we attempted to derive naïve cynomolgus monkey (Cm) (Macaca fascicularis) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and iPSCs. Several characteristics of naïve Cm ESCs including colony morphology, appearance of naïve-related mRNAs and proteins, leukaemia inhibitory factor dependency, and mitochondrial respiration were confirmed. Next, we generated Cm iPSCs and converted them to a naïve state. Transcriptomic comparison of PSCs with early Cm embryos elucidated the partial achievement (termed naïve-like) of their conversion. When these were subjected to in vitro neural differentiation, enhanced differentiating capacities were observed after naïve-like conversion, but some lines exhibited heterogeneity. The difficulty of achieving contribution to chimeric mouse embryos was also demonstrated. These results suggest that Cm PSCs could ameliorate their in vitro neural differentiation potential even though they could not display true naïve characteristics. PMID:28349944
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stump, Sheryl L.; Bryan, Joel A.; McConnell, Tom J.
2016-01-01
Integrated approaches to education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), especially those set in the context of real-world situations, can motivate and deepen students' learning of the STEM subjects (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council 2014). This article describes two integrated investigations used…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Han, Sunyoung; Capraro, Robert; Capraro, Mary Margaret
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participating in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) project-based learning (PBL) activities effected students who had varied performance levels and to what extent students' individual factors influenced their mathematics achievement. STEM PBL has been a critical challenge…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooper, Robyn; Heaverlo, Carol
2013-01-01
For girls there is a distinct loss in interest, lack of confidence, and decline in positive attitudes toward STEM subject areas that begins early on in their academic experience and increases with age. According to the National Academy of Engineering, students need to begin associating the possibilities in STEM fields with the need for creativity…
Improving Student Engagement in Mathematics Using Simple but Effective Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shearman, Donald; Rylands, Leanne; Coady, Carmel
2012-01-01
A significant proportion of students enrolling in mathematical subjects designed for non-STEM majors in university courses have minimal mathematical skills and poor motivation. This combination of starting attributes often leads to failure in the first mathematical subject encountered. We have been implementing simple, alternative pedagogies in an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Academies Press, 2012
2012-01-01
The ability of the nation's military to prevail during future conflicts, and to fulfill its humanitarian and other missions, depends on continued advances in the nation's technology base. A workforce with robust Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) capabilities is critical to sustaining U.S. preeminence. Today, however, the STEM…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heaverlo, Carol Ann
2011-01-01
Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.
2017-01-01
Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences…
Group by Subject or by Ability? Tertiary Mathematics for Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plank, Michael; James, Alex; Hannah, John
2011-01-01
The mathematics topics taught to engineering students at university are ostensibly no different to those taught to mathematics majors, so should these students be taught together or separately? Should engineering students be segregated by ability in their mathematics classes? This study analyses the grades of over 1000 engineering students, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Mendick, Heather; Epstein, Debbie
2010-01-01
In this paper, based on a project funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council considering how people position themselves in relation to popular representations of mathematics and mathematicians, we explore constructions of mathematicians in popular culture and the ways learners make meanings from these. Drawing on an analysis of popular…
Tosto, Maria G; Asbury, Kathryn; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia
2016-08-01
Drawing on Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation model, perceived classroom environment and three intrapersonal factors (mathematics self-efficacy, maths interest and academic self-concept) were considered as predictors of test performance in two correlated mathematics assessments: a public examination (GCSE) and an on-line test, both taken by UK pupils at age 16 (n = 6689). Intrapersonal factors were significantly associated with both test scores, even when the alternative score was taken into account. Classroom environment did not correlate with mathematics achievement once intrapersonal factors and alternative test performance were included in the model, but was associated with subject interest and academic self-concept. Perceptions of classroom environment may exercise an indirect influence on achievement by boosting interest and self-concept. In turn, these intrapersonal factors have direct relationships with achievement and were found to mediate the relationship between perceived classroom environment and maths performance. Findings and their implications for mathematics education are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irish, Teresa J.
The aim of this study was to provide insights addressing national concerns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by examining how a set of six perimeter urban K-12 schools were transformed into STEM-focused professional learning communities (PLC). The concept of a STEM Academy as a STEM-focused PLC emphasizes the development of a STEM culture where professional discourse and teaching are focused on STEM learning. The STEM Academies examined used the STEM Academy Measurement Tool and Rubric (Tool) as a catalyst for discussion and change. This Tool was developed with input from stakeholders and used for school-wide initiatives, teacher professional development and K-12 student engagement to improve STEM teaching and learning. Two primary goals of this study were to assess the levels of awareness and use of the tool by all stakeholders involved in the project and to determine how the Tool assisted in the development and advancement of these schools as STEM PLCs. Data from the STEM Academy Participant Survey was analyzed to determine stakeholders' perceptions of the Tool in terms of (i) how aware stakeholders were of the Tool, (ii) whether they participated in the use of the Tool, (iii) how the characteristics of PLCs were perceived in their schools, and finally (iv) how the awareness of the Tool influenced teachers' perceptions of the presence of PLC characteristics. Findings indicate that school faculty were aware of the Tool on a number of different levels and evidence exists that the use of the Tool assisted in the development of STEM Academies, however impact varied from school to school. Implications of this study suggest that the survey should be used for a longer period of time to gain more in-depth knowledge on teachers' perceptions of the Tool as a catalyst across time. Additional findings indicate that the process for using the Tool should be ongoing and involve the stakeholders to have the greatest impact on school culture
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beach, Dennis; Player-Koro, Catarina
2012-01-01
Two related ethnographic research projects on mathematics teacher education in Sweden are presented in this paper. They represent a response to recent policy developments that reaffirm the value of authoritative subject studies content as the central and most important component in the professional knowledge base of would-be teachers and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin
2012-01-01
Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gómez, Luis F.
2016-01-01
This review analyzes the experience reported by teachers of mathematics in public junior high schools in Jalisco, México, about the collaborative work of students to learn mathematical content and processes. Weekly logs of 30 teachers were analyzed during one school year to identify modalities of collaborative work, contents or processes taught in…
Evaluation of a Web Based Mathematics Teaching Material on the Subject of Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baki, A.; Guveli, E.
2008-01-01
The aim of the study is to develop a web-based mathematics teaching (WBMT) material and to evaluate the effectiveness of the WBMT material for 9th grade students learning the concept of mathematical function. Firstly, a WBMT material was designed and piloted. As a result of this pilot study the site was revised as a final form. The study was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stohlmann, Micah Stephen
2012-01-01
This case study explored the impact of a standards-based mathematics and pedagogy class on preservice elementary teachers' beliefs and conceptual subject matter knowledge of linear functions. The framework for the standards-based mathematics and pedagogy class in this study involved the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards,…
Yoder, Jeremy B; Mattheis, Allison
2016-01-01
A survey of individuals working in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans*, queer, or asexual (LGTBQA) was administered online in 2013. Participants completed a 58-item questionnaire to report their professional areas of expertise, levels of education, geographic location, and gender and sexual identities and rated their work and social communities as welcoming or hostile to queer identities. An analysis of 1,427 responses to this survey provided the first broad portrait of this population, and it revealed trends related to workplace practices that can inform efforts to improve queer inclusivity in STEM workplaces.
Steppe, Kathy; De Pauw, Dirk J W; Lemeur, Raoul; Vanrolleghem, Peter A
2006-03-01
To date, models for simulating sap flow dynamics in individual trees with a direct link to stem diameter variation include only the diameter fluctuation driven by a change in stem water storage. This paper reports results obtained with a comprehensive flow and storage model using whole-tree leaf transpiration as the only input variable. The model includes radial stem growth based on Lockhart's equation for irreversible cell expansion. It was demonstrated that including growth is essential to obtaining good simulation results. To model sap flow dynamics, capacitance of storage tissues was assumed either constant (i.e., electrical analogue approach) or variable and dependent on the water content of the respective storage tissue (i.e., hydraulic system approach). These approaches resulted in different shapes for the desorption curve used to calculate the capacitance of storage tissues. Comparison of these methods allowed detection of specific differences in model simulation of sap flow at the stem base (F(stem)) and stem diameter variation (D). Sensitivity analysis was performed to select a limited subset of identifiable parameters driving most of the variability in model predictions of F(stem) and D Both the electrical analogue and the hydraulic system approach for the flow and storage model were successfully calibrated and validated for the case of a young beech tree (Fagus sylvatica L.). Use of an objective model selection criterion revealed that the flow and storage model based on the electrical analogue approach yielded better predictions.
Mathematical Modelling at Secondary School: The MACSI-Clongowes Wood College Experience
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charpin, J. P. F.; O'Hara, S.; Mackey, D.
2013-01-01
In Ireland, to encourage the study of STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) subjects and particularly mathematics, the Mathematics Applications Consortium for Science and Industry (MACSI) and Clongowes Wood College (County Kildare, Ireland) organized a mathematical modelling workshop for senior cycle secondary school students.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, Joseph Carl
2013-01-01
The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the characteristics of an academia-industry partnership that works together with industry to meet the education and training needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) field. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, U.S. pursued efforts to compete in STEM fields on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soleimani, Ali
2013-01-01
Immersive 3D worlds can be designed to effectively engage students in peer-to-peer collaborative learning activities, supported by scientific visualization, to help with understanding complex concepts associated with learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Previous research studies have shown STEM learning benefits…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulkerson, William O.; Banilower, Eric R.
2014-01-01
"Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education: A Nation Advancing?" (National Research Council, 2013) describes a set of 14 indicators for assessing and tracking the health of pre-college STEM education in the United States. This 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education (NSSME), is the fifth in a series of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalevitch, Maria; Maurer, Cheryl; Badger, Paul; Holdan, Greg; Sirinterlikci, Arif
2015-01-01
The School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science (SEMS) at Robert Morris University (RMU) was awarded a five-year grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships to 21 academically talented but financially challenged students majoring in the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Each…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalevitch, Maria; Maurer, Cheryl; Badger, Paul; Holdan, Greg; Iannelli, Joe; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Semich, George; Bernauer, James
2012-01-01
The School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science (SEMS) at Robert Morris University (RMU) was awarded a five-year grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships to 21 academically talented but financially challenged students majoring in the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Each…
2013-09-01
of curriculum into diverse classroom settings. In July 2012, thirteen school districts participated in a reallocation program of STEM materials that...Center lessons to enhance classroom connections to service learning that benefits their schools and communities. STEM Fellows helped obtain grants to...Government Industry Nov 2011 6 hours Workshop Elementary STEM Workshop Dayton, OH Elementary Educators Nov 2011 6 hours Workshop Middle School STEM
Lighting up Learning: Mathematics Becoming Less of a "Killer Subject" in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maher, Marguerite
2015-01-01
This paper reports the findings of an evaluative study of an initiative, in its sixth year of implementation, enhancing the learning and teaching of mathematics in 20 disadvantaged secondary schools in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa, twenty years after democracy. Findings highlight the importance of initial and ongoing professional development…
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
2006-07-26
pursuing careers in STEM fields by providing financial assistance at the graduate and postdoctoral levels. Moreover, improving K-12 teacher education in...graduates to pursue careers in STEM fields (131), ! improve teacher education in STEM areas (73), and ! improve or expand the capacity of... teacher education programs and sustainable professional development programs for teachers and administrators, the project is designed to increase K
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gruebel, Robert W.; Childs, Kimberly
2013-01-01
The Texas statewide assessment of academic skills in 1997 indicated that >55 % of the student population failed to master the mathematics objectives set by the test criteria and 42 % of the mathematics teachers at the secondary level in the East Texas region were categorized as underqualified to teach mathematics at that level. The issue of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Costellano, Janet; Scaffa, Matthew
The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents 37 activities designed to develop mathematics concepts and skills utilizing the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on experiencing math models, patterns, problems, and relationships found in an urban environment. Activities…
Evaluation of Spasticity in Upper Limbs of Hemiplegic Subjects Using a Mathematical Model
2007-11-02
Each subject lay on a bed, and his forearm was supported with a jig to measure the elbow joint angle. The subject was instructed to relax and not to...resist the step-like load which was applied to extend the elbow joint. The elbow joint angle and electromyograms of the biceps muscle, tri- ceps muscle...depending on both muscle activities and elbow joint angle. The response of hemiplegic subjects were ap- proximated well with the model. The torque gener
Lundblad, Linda C; Fatouleh, Rania H; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A
2015-08-01
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity.
Diagnostics of Pupils' Meta-Subject Competence during Lessons on Mathematics in Secondary Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khuziakhmetova, Anvar N.; Naumova, Marina V.
2016-01-01
The relevance of diagnostic meta-subject competence measures in secondary schools is caused by the fact that the importance of a meta-subject competence formation was officially defined in educational standards, but there are still no qualitative and informative diagnostic tools for this competence development. The purpose of the article is to…
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
2006-05-22
attract graduates to pursue careers in STEM fields (131), ! improve teacher education in STEM areas (73), and ! improve or expand the capacity of...internship) teacher education programs and sustainable professional development programs for teachers and administrators, the project is designed to...STEM and teacher education departments and the teaching and learning culture in the BCPS. One of the Targeted Partnership grants supports the Promoting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
A mathematical model to predict the strength of aluminum alloys subjected to precipitation hardening
Qureshi, F.S.; Sheikh, A.K.; Rashid, M.
1999-06-01
A number of alloys, notably most of the aluminum alloys, can be heat treated by aging. This aging due to time-dependent precipitation hardening increases the strength and hardness as well as modifying other mechanical properties. Precipitation hardening has been a popular strengthening mechanism for many decades; therefore, extensive information is available in literature about the precipitation-hardening response of various series of aluminum alloys. The age-hardening response of these alloys is usually represented in graphical form as plotted between property changes and aging time for different temperatures. In designing a suitable precipitation-hardening strategy, one can refer to these graphs. However, for automatic control of aging furnaces, as well as for decision making regarding optimal selection of aging conditions (time/temperature combination), it is desirable to express these relationships in a formal mathematical structure. A mathematical model is developed in this article for widely used heat treatable aluminum alloys used in the extrusion industry. This model is a condensed representation of all {sigma} = f(T,t) curves in different series of aluminum alloys, and the parameters of this model characterize the various compositions of the alloys in the series.
Ellis, Jessica; Fosdick, Bailey K; Rasmussen, Chris
2016-01-01
The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence either continue to pursue a STEM major or are dissuaded from STEM disciplines. The data come from a unique, national survey focused on mainstream college calculus. Our analyses show that, while controlling for academic preparedness, career intentions, and instruction, the odds of a woman being dissuaded from continuing in calculus is 1.5 times greater than that for a man. Furthermore, women report they do not understand the course material well enough to continue significantly more often than men. When comparing women and men with above-average mathematical abilities and preparedness, we find women start and end the term with significantly lower mathematical confidence than men. This suggests a lack of mathematical confidence, rather than a lack of mathematically ability, may be responsible for the high departure rate of women. While it would be ideal to increase interest and participation of women in STEM at all stages of their careers, our findings indicate that if women persisted in STEM at the same rate as men starting in Calculus I, the number of women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%.
Ellis, Jessica; Fosdick, Bailey K.; Rasmussen, Chris
2016-01-01
The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence either continue to pursue a STEM major or are dissuaded from STEM disciplines. The data come from a unique, national survey focused on mainstream college calculus. Our analyses show that, while controlling for academic preparedness, career intentions, and instruction, the odds of a woman being dissuaded from continuing in calculus is 1.5 times greater than that for a man. Furthermore, women report they do not understand the course material well enough to continue significantly more often than men. When comparing women and men with above-average mathematical abilities and preparedness, we find women start and end the term with significantly lower mathematical confidence than men. This suggests a lack of mathematical confidence, rather than a lack of mathematically ability, may be responsible for the high departure rate of women. While it would be ideal to increase interest and participation of women in STEM at all stages of their careers, our findings indicate that if women persisted in STEM at the same rate as men starting in Calculus I, the number of women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%. PMID:27410262
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silver, Edward A.; Snider, Rachel B.
2014-01-01
Contemporary interest in STEM education is fueled, in part, by the poor performance of U.S. students on national and international assessments. According to a recent National Research Council (2011) report on STEM education in the United States, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) indicates that approximately 75% of U.S. 8th…
2010-10-18
School Cybercampus ChicTech Tech Ambassadors Competition Arduino Project Lead the Way Pico Crickets™ Workshops MIT Media Lab , STEM Rays, UMASS...Computer Science Equity Alliance Way Arduino “Kids Ahead” SMU Caruth August 2010 14 , STEM Rays, UMASS US FIRST Robotics Competition Autonomous
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pittinsky, Todd L.; Diamante, Nicole
2015-01-01
The United States education system must improve its ability to produce scientists, engineers, and programmers. Despite numerous national, state, and local efforts to make the study of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects more fun in K-12, initial interest in those subjects drops off precipitously in middle and later…
Kelic, Andjelka; Zagonel, Aldo A.
2008-12-01
A system dynamics model was developed in response to the apparent decline in STEM candidates in the United States and a pending shortage. The model explores the attractiveness of STEM and STEM careers focusing on employers and the workforce. Policies such as boosting STEM literacy, lifting the H-1B visa cap, limiting the offshoring of jobs, and maintaining training are explored as possible solutions. The system is complex, with many feedbacks and long time delays, so solutions that focus on a single point of the system are not effective and cannot solve the problem. A deeper understanding of parts of the system that have not been explored to date is necessary to find a workable solution.
Middle-Skill STEM State Policy Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenblum, Ian; Kazis, Richard
2014-01-01
The sector of the economy frequently referred to as STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) is the subject of much national interest and debate. While there is general consensus across various stakeholders such as policymakers, educators, and industry that STEM education and careers are essential to maintaining an innovative and…
Mathematical modelling at secondary school: the MACSI-Clongowes Wood College experience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charpin, J. P. F.; O'Hara, S.; Mackey, D.
2013-12-01
In Ireland, to encourage the study of STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) subjects and particularly mathematics, the Mathematics Applications Consortium for Science and Industry (MACSI) and Clongowes Wood College (County Kildare, Ireland) organized a mathematical modelling workshop for senior cycle secondary school students. Participants developed simple mathematical models for everyday life problems with an open-ended answer. The format and content of the workshop are described and feedback from both students and participating teachers is provided. For nearly all participants, this workshop was an enjoyable experience which showed mathematics and other STEM components in a very positive way.
Women into Science and Engineering? Gendered Participation in Higher Education STEM Subjects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Emma
2011-01-01
This paper considers gendered patterns of participation in post-compulsory STEM education. It examines the trajectory of learning that takes students from A-level qualifications, through undergraduate work and into employment or further study. It also uses a long-term view to look at the best available evidence to monitor participation and…
The View from Schools on Provision of Careers Information, Advice and Guidance in STEM Subjects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collinson, Gill
2014-01-01
This article explores the recent history of careers information, advice and guidance (IAG) and how it has been shaped by successive government policies and initiatives. It looks at the impact of these initiatives, particularly how they have influenced students' attitudes to STEM related careers. It also looks at recommendations for implementing…
Science and Mathematics Advanced Placement Exams: Growth and Achievement over Time
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Judson, Eugene
2017-01-01
Rapid growth of Advanced Placement (AP) exams in the last 2 decades has been paralleled by national enthusiasm to promote availability and rigor of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Trends were examined in STEM AP to evaluate and compare growth and achievement. Analysis included individual STEM subjects and disaggregation…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comeaux, Eddie; Bachman, Tina; Burton, Rena M.; Aliyeva, Aida
2017-02-01
Employing the conceptual model developed by Comeaux and Harrison (Coll Stud Aff J 30(1):75-87, 2011), this study explored the undergraduate experience of Division I athlete STEM graduates. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews with former athletes at two research-intensive, public institutions. Results revealed that pre-college characteristics, involvement in purposeful STEM-related activities, and sport participation, as well as academic support and guidance within athletic departments, play important roles in shaping the experiences of athletes who earn STEM degrees. Implications for student affairs professionals, faculty, and others who frequently interact with college athletes and are committed to creating more equitable educational environments are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comeaux, Eddie; Bachman, Tina; Burton, Rena M.; Aliyeva, Aida
2016-08-01
Employing the conceptual model developed by Comeaux and Harrison (Coll Stud Aff J 30(1):75-87, 2011), this study explored the undergraduate experience of Division I athlete STEM graduates. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews with former athletes at two research-intensive, public institutions. Results revealed that pre-college characteristics, involvement in purposeful STEM-related activities, and sport participation, as well as academic support and guidance within athletic departments, play important roles in shaping the experiences of athletes who earn STEM degrees. Implications for student affairs professionals, faculty, and others who frequently interact with college athletes and are committed to creating more equitable educational environments are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Comeaux, Eddie; Bachman, Tina; Burton, Rena M.; Aliyeva, Aida
2017-01-01
Employing the conceptual model developed by Comeaux and Harrison ("Coll Stud Aff J" 30(1):75-87, 2011), this study explored the undergraduate experience of Division I athlete STEM graduates. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews with former athletes at two research-intensive, public institutions. Results revealed that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holmes, Kimberly Monique
2013-01-01
The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012
2012-01-01
Schools that give students access to STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) studies are accomplishing several objectives: introducing students to higher-level academic and career studies, expanding project-based learning in the curriculum, enticing students to remain in school until graduation, and preparing students for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dieker, Lisa; Grillo, Kelly; Ramlakhan, Nirmala
2012-01-01
New technologies and virtual environments are emerging globally, yet the way these tools can impact the learning and future career paths of students who are gifted is limited in the literature at this time. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) summer camp, based on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chonkaew, Patcharee; Sukhummek, Boonnak; Faikhamta, Chatree
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the analytical thinking abilities and attitudes towards science learning of grade-11 students through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education integrated with a problem-based learning in the study of stoichiometry. The research tools consisted of a pre- and post-analytical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miles, Rhea; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Mensah, Felicia Moore
2015-01-01
TechMath is a professional development program that forms collaborations among businesses, colleges, and schools for the purpose of promoting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers. TechMath has provided strategies for creating highquality professional development by bringing together teachers, students, and business…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Presser, Ashley Lewis; Busey, Amy
2016-01-01
This research brief describes the value of using mobile technologies in and out of elementary mathematics classrooms, and investigates the view that teachers may not be getting the guidance they need to best leverage those technologies. The authors explore three areas of concern: How can teachers use technology in developmentally appropriate ways…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Phillips, Alison; Guzey, S. Selcen; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop, scale, and validate assessments in engineering, science, and mathematics with grade appropriate items that were sensitive to the curriculum developed by teachers. The use of item response theory to assess item functioning was a focus of the study. The work is part of a larger project focused on increasing…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niess, Margaret; Gillow-Wiles, Henry
2013-01-01
This primarily online Master's degree program focused on advancing K-8 teachers' interdisciplinary mathematical and science content knowledge while integrating appropriate digital technologies as learning and teaching tools. The mixed-method, interpretive study examined in-service teachers' technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK)…
Supporting Mathematical Discourse in the Early Grades. Interactive STEM Research + Practice Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stiles, Jennifer
2016-01-01
This research brief discusses the benefits of teachers using mathematical discourse--allowing students to explain, justify, and debate their individual techniques for solving math problems--to enhance learning. Using this strategy requires educators to discard traditional teacher-centered modes of instruction and adopt new student-centered modes…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cole, Darnell; Espinoza, Araceli
2008-01-01
Using a longitudinal sample of 146 Latino students' in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors, the purpose of the study was to examine factors that affect their academic performance. The main premise supporting this study suggested that Latino students perform better academically when they have cultural congruity within their…
2005-05-01
Structure Interaction for Seismic Evaluation of Earth - Retaining Lock and Cantilever Walls " for which Dr. Robert M. Ebeling, Engineering and Informatic...yielding of stem wall and permanent displacement The seismic evaluation of earth retaining wall structures is more complex due to soil-structure...for static earth pressures. This aspect is investigated for older retaining wall systems by examining the margin of safety inherent in the old working 4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burlatsky, S. F.; Gummalla, M.; O'Neill, J.; Atrazhev, V. V.; Varyukhin, A. N.; Dmitriev, D. V.; Erikhman, N. S.
2012-10-01
Under typical Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) fuel cell operating conditions, part of the membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEMFC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane lifetime. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used for lifetime prediction of a GORE-SELECT membrane.
Molina-Peña, Rodolfo; Álvarez, Mario Moisés
2012-01-01
Background The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) hypothesis has gained credibility within the cancer research community. According to this hypothesis, a small subpopulation of cells within cancerous tissues exhibits stem-cell-like characteristics and is responsible for the maintenance and proliferation of cancer. Methodologies/Principal Findings We present a simple compartmental pseudo-chemical mathematical model for tumor growth, based on the CSC hypothesis, and derived using a “chemical reaction” approach. We defined three cell subpopulations: CSCs, transit progenitor cells, and differentiated cells. Each event related to cell division, differentiation, or death is then modeled as a chemical reaction. The resulting set of ordinary differential equations was numerically integrated to describe the time evolution of each cell subpopulation and the overall tumor growth. The parameter space was explored to identify combinations of parameter values that produce biologically feasible and consistent scenarios. Conclusions/Significance Certain kinetic relationships apparently must be satisfied to sustain solid tumor growth and to maintain an approximate constant fraction of CSCs in the tumor lower than 0.01 (as experimentally observed): (a) the rate of symmetrical and asymmetrical CSC renewal must be in the same order of magnitude; (b) the intrinsic rate of renewal and differentiation of progenitor cells must be half an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding intrinsic rates for cancer stem cells; (c) the rates of apoptosis of the CSC, transit amplifying progenitor (P) cells, and terminally differentiated (D) cells must be progressively higher by approximately one order of magnitude. Simulation results were consistent with reports that have suggested that encouraging CSC differentiation could be an effective therapeutic strategy for fighting cancer in addition to selective killing or inhibition of symmetric division of CSCs. PMID:22363395
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Presmeg, Norma; Radford, Luis
2008-01-01
In this response we address some of the significant issues that Tony Brown raised in his analysis and critique of the Special Issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" on "Semiotic perspectives in mathematics education" (Saenz-Ludlow & Presmeg, Educational Studies in Mathematics 61(1-2), 2006). Among these issues are conceptualizations of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbajal, Sandy C.
Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.
Integration and Exploitation of Advanced Visualization and Data Technologies to Teach STEM Subjects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandon, M. A.; Garrow, K. H.
2014-12-01
We live in an age where the volume of content available online to the general public is staggering. Integration of data from new technologies gives us amazing educational opportunities when appropriate narratives are provided. We prepared a distance learning credit bearing module that showcased many currently available data sets and state of the art technologies. It has been completed by many thousands of students with good feedback. Module highlights were the wide ranging and varied online activities which taught a wide range of STEM content. For example: it is well known that on Captain Scott's Terra Nova Expedition 1910-13, three researchers completed the "the worst journey in the world" to study emperor penguins. Using their primary records and clips from location filmed television documentaries we can tell their story and the reasons why it was important. However using state of the art content we can go much further. Using satellite data students can trace the path the researchers took and observe the penguin colony that they studied. Linking to modern Open Access literature students learn how they can estimate the numbers of animals in this and similar locations. Then by linking to freely available data from Antarctic Automatic Weather Stations students can learn quantitatively about the climatic conditions the animals are enduring in real time. They can then download and compare this with the regional climatic record to see if their observations are what could be expected. By considering the environment the penguins live in students can be taught about the evolutionary and behavioural adaptations the animals have undergone to survive. In this one activity we can teach a wide range of key learning points in an engaging and coherent way. It opened some students' eyes to the range of possibilities available to learn about our, and other planets. The addition and integration of new state of the art techniques and data sets only increases the opportunities to
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morales, Hector
2010-01-01
Incorporating business skills such as problem-solving, public presentations, collaboration, and self-direction into STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) subjects is an excellent way to build students' enthusiasm for these disciplines. When educators add workplace internships to the learning experience, they are well on their way…
Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant
2016-01-01
Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soleimani, Ali
Immersive 3D worlds can be designed to effectively engage students in peer-to-peer collaborative learning activities, supported by scientific visualization, to help with understanding complex concepts associated with learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Previous research studies have shown STEM learning benefits associated with the use of scientific visualization tools involving model-based reasoning (MBR). Little is known, however, about collaborative use of scientific visualization, via MBR, within an immersive 3D-world learning environment for helping to improve perceived value of STEM learning and knowledge acquisition in a targeted domain such as geothermal energy. Geothermal energy was selected as the study's STEM focus, because understanding in the domain is highly dependent on successfully integrating science and mathematics concepts. This study used a 2x2 Mixed ANOVA, with repeated measures, design to analyze collaborative usage of a geothermal energy MBR model and its effects on learning within an immersive 3D world. The immersive 3D world used for the study is supported by the Open Simulator platform. Findings from this study can suggest ways to improve STEM learning and inform the design of MBR activities when conducted within an immersive 3D world.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Runyon, C. R.; Hall, C.; Baber, M.
2013-12-01
There are more than 50 million Americans with disabilities, approximately half of whom are students in a mainstreamed classroom. The National Association for Gifted Children estimates that approximately 3 million of those, 6% of the student population, are academically gifted, and 150,000 - 300,000 students of those are twice or triple exceptional (2e and 3e, respectively). The 2e and 3e refers to intellectually gifted children who also have some form(s) of disability. Unfortunately most schools in the US identify children by their giftedness or by their disability, but rarely by both. An apparent trend with 2e children, particularly when autism is paired with gifted, is that students identify with their disability instead of their strengths. 2e students have shown a propensity for interests in the science and technology fields. Few specialized programs and/or resources in STEM exist to engage and involve these exceptional students and fewer still is the number of faculty and staff trained to work with the twice and triple exceptionalities. Palmetto Scholars Academy (PSA), Charleston, SC a school for gifted and talented, provides a differentiated program to meet the educational needs of gifted learners, while also addressing the students' social/emotional needs. The Brown/MIT NASA Lunar Science Institute, in conjunction with the NASA South Carolina Space Grant Consortium, is working directly with educators from the PSA to identify what kinds of materials they need and what mediums work best for the different student (cap)abilities. This partnership will provide a means of 'consciousness raising' for teachers to help students develop their strengths and educators will gain a new understanding of 2e and 3e that will transfer into better instruction. One technique being implemented is the use of STEM-oriented engineering and technology design challenges and problem solving. These tasks allow students to use a variety of integrative and multi-disciplinary skills for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grouws, Douglas A.; Tarr, James E.; Chavez, Oscar; Sears, Ruthmae; Soria, Victor M.; Taylan, Rukiye D.
2013-01-01
This study examined the effect of 2 types of mathematics content organization on high school students' mathematics learning while taking account of curriculum implementation and student prior achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling with 3 levels showed that students who studied from the integrated curriculum were significantly advantaged over…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tossavainen, Timo; Juvonen, Antti
2015-01-01
Based on an expectancy-value theoretical framework and data (n = 1654) collected in 29 Finnish municipalities using a structured questionnaire, this study examines primary (grades 5-6), lower secondary (grades 7-9) and upper secondary (grades 10-12) students' motivation in music and mathematics. It explores in detail the students' interest in…
Supporting STEM in Schools and Colleges in England: The Role of Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoyles, Celia; Reiss, Michael; Tough, Sarah
2011-01-01
STEM is the acronym used in England for science, technology, engineering and mathematics. STEM subjects are a central plank in developing the UK's skills base. Specialist knowledge in these subjects not only underpins many high-tech sectors--such as IT and engineering--but is also important for creativity and developing new ideas. This report…
Robotics Intrigue Middle School Students and Build STEM Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grubbs, Michael
2013-01-01
As science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education demands greater integration across all subject areas, technology teachers can showcase many of the cross-curricular projects already occurring inside their classrooms that intrigue students and build their STEM skills. Robotics, just one of those projects, has become an excellent…
Middle-Skill STEM State Policy Framework. Executive Summary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenblum, Ian; Kazis, Richard
2014-01-01
The sector of the economy frequently referred to as STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) is the subject of much national interest and debate. While there is general consensus across various stakeholders such as policymakers, educators, and industry that STEM education and careers are essential to maintaining an innovative and…
Engaging All Students in the Pursuit of STEM Careers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dou, Remy; Gibbs, Kenneth D., Jr.
2013-01-01
The rapid population growth of under-represented minority groups and the continued under-utilisation of women mean that future growth in the domestic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce is linked to greater diversity. Subject-matter mastery is important but insufficient for a student to pursue a STEM profession --…
Identifying STEM Concepts Associated with Junior Livestock Projects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wooten, Kate; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.
2013-01-01
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is intended to provide students with a cross-subject, contextual learning experience. To more fully prepare our nation's students to enter the globally competitive workforce, STEM integration allows students to make connections between the abstract concepts learned in core subject…
Qualified, but Not Choosing STEM at University: Unconscious Influences on Choice of Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rodd, Melissa; Reiss, Michael; Mujtaba, Tamjid
2014-01-01
This article offers explanations as to why good candidates for mathematics or physics degrees might opt to study subjects other than STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) subjects at university. Results come from analysis, informed by psychoanalytic theory and practice, of narrative-style interviews conducted with first-year…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogue, Barbara A.
Research into women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has become a topic of interest due to the increasing need for employees with technical expertise and a shortage of individuals to fill STEM jobs. The discrepancy in women's representation between STEM and other fields cannot adequately be explained by factors such as women's need to balance work and family (medicine and law are both extremely demanding careers), women's fear of competition (admissions into medical and law schools are highly competitive), or women's inability to excel in science (e.g., entry into medicine requires excellent achievement in the basic sciences). The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role and/or impact a sense of belonging has inside and outside of STEM classrooms. Research questions focused on the role and/or impact of belonging contributes to students' self-efficacy beliefs as a STEM major. Bandura's self-efficacy theory serves as the theoretical framework. Data sources include close-ended surveys of 200 sophomore- and junior-level college students majoring in a STEM discipline. A quantitative exploratory approach allowed participants' responses to be analyzed using both correlation and multiple regression analyses to understand whether a student's sense of belonging is associated with his or her self-efficacy beliefs. Findings suggested that positive support systems impact students' self-efficacy and play a role in fostering students' motivation and decision to major in STEM disciplines. This study contributes to positive social change by providing empirical evidence faculty and administrators may use to promote university-based STEM support programs reflecting the impact belonging has on students' self-efficacy and potentially increasing the number of students majoring in STEM disciplines.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKenna, Rachel Lynn-Pleis
2016-01-01
Over the past decade, there has been a considerable push in emphasizing STEM--an acronym standing for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math--as an integral aspect of educational curriculums. Even though research suggests that females tend to outperform males in standardized testing in STEM areas, they remain underrepresented in STEM careers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Executive Office of the President, 2013
2013-01-01
Given that many jobs of the future will be STEM jobs, that our K-12 system is "middle of the pack" in international comparisons, and that progress on STEM education at multiple levels is critical to building a just and inclusive society, there is an urgent need to continue to improve STEM education in the United States. Much knowledge…
On the dynamics of neutral mutations in a mathematical model for a homogeneous stem cell population.
Traulsen, Arne; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M; Dingli, David
2013-02-01
The theory of the clonal origin of cancer states that a tumour arises from one cell that acquires mutation(s) leading to the malignant phenotype. It is the current belief that many of these mutations give a fitness advantage to the mutant population allowing it to expand, eventually leading to disease. However, mutations that lead to such a clonal expansion need not give a fitness advantage and may in fact be neutral--or almost neutral--with respect to fitness. Such mutant clones can be eliminated or expand stochastically, leading to a malignant phenotype (disease). Mutations in haematopoietic stem cells give rise to diseases such as chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). Although neutral drift often leads to clonal extinction, disease is still possible, and in this case, it has important implications both for the incidence of disease and for therapy, as it may be more difficult to eliminate neutral mutations with therapy. We illustrate the consequences of such dynamics, using CML and PNH as examples. These considerations have implications for many other tumours as well.
Conflicts in Developing an Elementary STEM Magnet School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sikma, Lynn; Osborne, Margery
2014-01-01
Elementary schools in the United States have been the terrain of a highly politicized push for improved reading and mathematics attainment, as well as calls for increased importance to be given to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). With priorities placed on basic skills, however, instructional time in subjects such as…
Terranova, N; Rebuzzini, P; Mazzini, G; Borella, E; Redi, C A; Zuccotti, M; Garagna, S; Magni, P
2014-12-21
Following ionizing radiation, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) undergo both apoptosis and block at G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The dynamics of cell growth and the transition through the apoptotic phases cannot be directly inferred from experimental data, limiting the understanding of the biological response to the treatment. Here, we propose a semi-mechanistic mathematical model, defined by five compartments, able to describe the time curves of untreated and γ-rays irradiated mESCs and to extract the information therein embedded. To this end, mESCs were irradiated with 2 or 5 Gy γ-rays, collected over a period of 48 h and, at each time point, analyzed for apoptosis by using the Annexin V assay. When compared to unirradiated mESCs, the model estimates an additional 0.2 probability to undergo apoptosis for the 5 Gy-treated cells, and only a 0.07 (not statistically significantly different from zero) when a 2 Gy-irradiation dose is administered. Moreover, the model allows us to estimate the duration of the overall apoptotic process and also the time length of its early, intermediate, and late apoptotic phase.
Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim
2013-01-01
Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Carol-Witkowski CW
Even now, women are underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers. The literature shows that one significant approach to address this issue is to work with middle school girls, ages eleven to thirteen, to get them interested and excited about STEM career paths. In addition to appropriate in-school support a review of many different middle school programs indicates that such programs exist in certain service areas but are still missing in others, especially the rural areas. To address this situation, a one-day STEM workshop called "Full STEAHM Ahead!" was implemented spring 2012 in Elmira, New York, to address the career exploration "turning point" for rural middle school girls. The implementation involved pre-workshop, workshop, and post-workshop phases. The success and effectiveness of the workshop was demonstrated by survey comments and verbal feedback from both the girls and educators who attended.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merrill, Jen
2012-01-01
The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.
Wang, Ming-Te; Ye, Feifei; Degol, Jessica Lauren
2016-12-14
Career aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are formulated in adolescence, making the high school years a critical time period for identifying the cognitive and motivational factors that increase the likelihood of future STEM employment. While past research has mainly focused on absolute cognitive ability levels in math and verbal domains, the current study tested whether relative cognitive strengths and interests in math, science, and verbal domains in high school were more accurate predictors of STEM career decisions. Data were drawn from a national longitudinal study in the United States (N = 1762; 48 % female; the first wave during ninth grade and the last wave at age 33). Results revealed that in the high-verbal/high-math/high-science ability group, individuals with higher science task values and lower orientation toward altruism were more likely to select STEM occupations. In the low-verbal/moderate-math/moderate-science ability group, individuals with higher math ability and higher math task values were more likely to select STEM occupations. The findings suggest that youth with asymmetrical cognitive ability profiles are more likely to select careers that utilize their cognitive strengths rather than their weaknesses, while symmetrical cognitive ability profiles may grant youth more flexibility in their options, allowing their interests and values to guide their career decisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lubrica, Joel V.; Abiasen, Jovalson T.; Dolipas, Bretel B.; Ramos, Jennifer Lyn S.
2017-01-01
In this article, we present results of our endeavours as physics educators to facilitate and support pedagogical change and development in the educational system of a developing country, the Philippines. We have discovered that the interaction of junior high school (years 7-10) students with physics apparatus can influence students’ interest in pursuing a career in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). This assertion stems from self-reports of students who gave their views immediately after their exposure to interactive apparatus in their own school, outside of their usual lessons. Participants claimed that their interest in following a STEM career path was ‘greatly increased’ due to their exposure to these apparatus. This was true even for students who were intending to take a non-STEM career path. Thus, we recommend that, in settings that have constraints involving access to practical equipment, ways to introduce school level interactive physics apparatus to secondary school students be conducted in order to attract more students towards STEM courses. Possibly, policies encouraging this type of exposure should also be formulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Christina M.
Maintaining a competitive edge within the 21st century is dependent on the cultivation of human capital, producing qualified and innovative employees capable of competing within the new global marketplace. Technological advancements in communications technology as well as large scale, infrastructure development has led to a leveled playing field where students in the U.S. will ultimately be competing for jobs with not only local, but also international, peers. Thus, the ability to understand and learn from our global competitors, starting with the examination of innovative education systems and best practice strategies, is tantamount to the economic development, and ultimate survival, of the U.S. as a whole. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current state of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and workforce pipelines in the U.S., China, and Taiwan. Two broad research questions examined STEM workforce production in terms of a) structural differences in primary and secondary school systems, including analysis of minimum high school graduation requirements and assessments as well as b) organizational differences in tertiary education and trends in STEM undergraduate and graduate degrees awarded in each region of interest. While each of the systems studied had their relative strengths and weaknesses, each of the Asian economies studied had valuable insights that can be categorized broadly in terms of STEM capacity, STEM interest and a greater understanding of global prospects that led to heightened STEM awareness. In China and Taiwan, STEM capacity was built via both traditional and vocational school systems. Focused and structured curriculum during the primary and early secondary school years built solid mathematics and science skills that translated into higher performance on international assessments and competitions. Differentiated secondary school options, including vocational high school and technical colleges and
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Putnam, Ralph T.; Reineke, James W.
This report considers what it means for one teacher, Elaine Hugo, to teach mathematics for understanding. By looking closely at the goals Hugo has for her students and how these goals are reflected in how she talks about her teaching and what she does in the classroom, the authors explore what teaching for understanding means for her. The authors…
Can human mesenchymal stem cells survive on a NiTi implant material subjected to cyclic loading?
Habijan, T; Glogowski, T; Kühn, S; Pohl, M; Wittsiepe, J; Greulich, C; Eggeler, G; Schildhauer, T A; Köller, M
2011-06-01
Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMAs) exhibit mechanical and chemical properties which make them attractive candidate materials for various types of biomedical applications. However, the high nickel content of NiTi-SMAs may result in adverse tissue reactions, especially when they are considered for load-bearing implants. It is generally assumed that a protective titanium oxide layer separates the metallic alloy from its environment and that this explains the good biocompatibility of NiTi. Cyclic loading may result in failure of the protective oxide layer. The scientific objective of this work was to find out whether cyclic dynamic strain, in a range relevant for orthopedic implants, diminishes the biocompatibility of NiTi-SMAs. In order to analyze the biocompatibility of NiTi-SMA surfaces subjected to cyclic loading, NiTi-SMA tensile specimens were preloaded with mesenchymal stem cells, transferred to a sterile cell culture system and fixed to the pull rods of a tensile testing machine. Eighty-six thousand and four hundred strain cycles at 2% pseudoelastic strain were performed for a period of 24 h or 7 days. Cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF) and nickel ion release were determined within the cell culture medium. Adherent cells on the tensile specimens were stained with calcein-AM and propidium iodide to determine cell viability. Dynamic loading of the tensile specimens did not influence the viability of adherent human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) after 24 h or 7 days compared with the non-strained control. Dynamic cycles of loading and unloading did not affect nickel ion release from the tensile specimens. The release of IL-6 from hMSCs cultured under dynamic conditions was significantly higher after mechanical load (873 pg ml(-1)) compared with static conditions (323 pg ml(-1)). The present work demonstrates that a new type of mechanical in vitro cell culture experiment can provide information which previously could only be obtained in large animal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Executive Office of the President, 2012
2012-01-01
The America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2013 directs the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to create an interagency committee under the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) to develop a 5-year Federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education strategic plan that includes: (1) annual and long-term…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahn, Leah L.
This qualitative phenomenological study explored how eight middle level STEM teachers planned and implemented integrated STEM courses. Narrative inquiry allowed for each participant to tell their unique story. The study results suggested that the teacher participants felt as though they are pioneers and are forging through as other teachers are resisting and holding on to more traditional instructional methods. Other findings from this study suggested that teachers are utilizing a wide variety of methods to accomplish an integrated curriculum. Findings also highlighted the high degree of satisfaction that these teachers feel teaching in this way and also the challenges that they face. This study provides educational leaders insight into what teachers are experiencing as they attempt to integrate STEM subjects, and suggestions for ways to assist and support them.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jayarajah, Kamaleswaran; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abdul
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to explore the research base of STEM education in Malaysia through an analysis review of articles for a 14-year period, from 1999 to 2013. The research base review focuses on identifying four characteristics of STEM education: a) temporal distribution, b) the research areas involved in each discipline, c) the types of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Sidney Kirk
2011-01-01
The objective of this research was to identify specific factors that contribute to underrepresented minority (African American, Hispanic, Native American) undergraduate students' success in STEM disciplines at a regional university during the 2007-2010 timeframe. As more underrepresented minority (URM) students complete STEM degrees, many will…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ricks, Elizabeth Danielle
2012-01-01
According to the 2006 Program for International Assessment (PISA), the United States is behind their international counterparts in the areas of mathematics and science. (Darling-Hammond, 2010). The Unites States is at a critical point in developing future leaders in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. In preparing students for a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kiige, Mwangi James; Atina, James Onywoki
2016-01-01
The changeover of the Kenyan system of education from the 7-4-2-3 to the current 8-4-4 in 1984 made science subjects (Biology, Chemistry and Physics) compulsory to all students up to form two at the secondary school level. This meant increased numbers of students in one class at a time attending the science subjects, which may compromise quality.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McClellan, Kathryn T.
Why mathematics should be learned is discussed. Its role as an important active force in the development of our civilization, and as the most useful subject taught in our schools, next to English, is noted. The primary objective of all mathematics work is to help man study nature, and some practical achievements of this connection are noted.…
STEM Coursetaking among High School Graduates, 1990-2005. MPR Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laird, Jennifer; Alt, Martha; Wu, Joanna
2009-01-01
This research brief examines high school students' coursetaking in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. As technical and scientific innovation increasingly drives the global economy, educators and experts in technical fields have expressed concern about the academic preparation of U.S. students in STEM fields. Using…
Will They Stay or Will They Go?: International STEM Students Are up for Grabs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Han, Xueying; Appelbaum, Richard P.
2016-01-01
If current trends continue, international students will comprise half of U.S. science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) PhD graduates by 2020. The proportion of international PhD-level students on temporary visas to study STEM subjects in the United States has doubled over the past thirty years. Further, these students are much more…
Differential Access to High School Counseling, Postsecondary Destinations, and STEM Careers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nikischer, Andrea B.; Weis, Lois; Dominguez, Rachel
2016-01-01
Background/Context: Policy makers, school district officials, teachers and parents have embraced science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects as a way to promote a stronger pipeline to college and career STEM. In so doing, these varied groups seek to raise job prospects for next-generation workers, increase opportunities for…
Ekinci, Nihat; Acer, Niyazi; Akkaya, Akcan; Sankur, Seref; Kabadayi, Taner; Sahin, Bünyamin
2008-08-01
The Cavalieri estimator using a point grid is used to estimate the volume of three-dimensional structures based on two-dimensional slices of the object. The size of the components of intracranial neural structures should have proportional relations among them. The volume fraction approach of stereological methods provides information about volumetric relations of the components of structures. The purpose of our study is to estimate the volume and volume fraction data related to the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. In this study, volume of the total brain, cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem were estimated in 24 young Turkish volunteers (12 males and 12 females) who are free of any neurological symptoms and signs. The volume and volume fraction of the total brain, cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem were determined on magnetic resonance (MR) images using the point-counting approach of stereological methods. The mean (+/-SD) total brain, cerebrum and cerebellum volumes were 1,202.05 +/- 103.51, 1,143.65 +/- 106.25 cm3 in males and females, 1,060.0 +/- 94.6, 1,008.9 +/- 104.3 cm3 in males and females, 117.75 +/- 10.7, 111.83 +/- 8.0 cm3 in males and females, respectively. The mean brain stem volumes were 24.3 +/- 2.89, 22.9 +/- 4.49 cm3 in males and females, respectively. Our results revealed that female subjects have less cerebral, cerebellar and brain stem volumes compared to males, although there was no statistically significant difference between genders (P > 0.05). The volume ratio of the cerebrum to total brain volume (TBV), cerebellum to TBV and brain stem to TBV were 88.16 and 88.13% in males and females, 9.8 and 9.8% in males and females, 2.03 and 2.03% in males and females, respectively. The volume ratio of the cerebellum to cerebrum, brain stem to cerebrum and brain stem to cerebellum were 11.12 and 11.16% in males and females, 2.30 and 2.31% in males and females, 20.7 and 20.6% in males and females, respectively. The difference between the genders was
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Afterschool Alliance, 2014
2014-01-01
After the school bell rings, young people are learning, exploring, making and questioning. Afterschool programs have long influenced students' personal development and supported their social and emotional growth. Today, the afterschool field has enthusiastically embraced STEM as an integral part of their educational offerings. This handout…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yilmaz, Ismail
2012-01-01
The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rule, Audrey C.; Stefanich, Greg P.; Boody, Robert M.; Peiffer, Belinda
2011-01-01
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, important in today's world, are underrepresented by students with disabilities. Students with visual impairments, although cognitively similar to sighted peers, face challenges as STEM subjects are often taught using visuals. They need alternative forms of access such as enlarged or…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Frances D.
2011-12-01
Low participation and performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields by U.S. citizens are widely recognized as major problems with substantial economic, political, and social ramifications. Studies of collegiate interventions designed to broaden participation in STEM fields suggest that participation in undergraduate research is a key program component that enhances such student outcomes as undergraduate GPA, graduation, persistence in a STEM major, and graduate school enrollment. However, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for these positive effects. The current study hypothesizes that undergraduate research participation increases scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency. This hypothesis was tested using data obtained from a survey of minority students from several STEM intervention programs that offer undergraduate research opportunities. Students were surveyed both prior to and following the summer of 2010. Factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of participants' responses on scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency scales. Difference-in-difference analysis was then applied to the resulting factor score differences to estimate the relationship of summer research participation with scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency. Factor analytic results replicate and further validate previous findings of a general scientific self-efficacy construct (Schultz, 2008). While the factor analytic results for the exploratory scientific research proficiency scale suggest that it was also a measureable construct, the factor structure was not generalizable over time. Potential reasons for the lack of generalizability validity for the scientific research proficiency scale are explored and recommendations for emerging scales are provided. Recent restructuring attempts within federal science agencies threaten the future of STEM intervention programs
Taiwanese Preservice Teachers' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Teaching Intention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Kuen-Yi; Williams, P. John
2016-01-01
This study applies the theory of planned behavior as a basis for exploring the impact of knowledge, values, subjective norms, perceived behavioral controls, and attitudes on the behavioral intention toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education among Taiwanese preservice science teachers. Questionnaires (N = 139)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hasni, Abdelkrim; Lenoir, Yves; Alessandra, Froelich
2015-01-01
New curricular orientations in the secondary schools of many Western countries invite teachers of STEM school subjects (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) to integrate these school subjects (Czerniak, 2008). In Quebec, such interdisciplinarity is not a mere recommendation, but an official component of the curriculum (a…
Caudill, Lester; Hill, April; Hoke, Kathy; Lipan, Ovidiu
2010-01-01
Funded by innovative programs at the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Richmond faculty in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and computer science teamed up to offer first- and second-year students the opportunity to contribute to vibrant, interdisciplinary research projects. The result was not only good science but also good science that motivated and informed course development. Here, we describe four recent undergraduate research projects involving students and faculty in biology, physics, mathematics, and computer science and how each contributed in significant ways to the conception and implementation of our new Integrated Quantitative Science course, a course for first-year students that integrates the material in the first course of the major in each of biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, and physics.
Caudill, Lester; Hill, April; Lipan, Ovidiu
2010-01-01
Funded by innovative programs at the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Richmond faculty in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and computer science teamed up to offer first- and second-year students the opportunity to contribute to vibrant, interdisciplinary research projects. The result was not only good science but also good science that motivated and informed course development. Here, we describe four recent undergraduate research projects involving students and faculty in biology, physics, mathematics, and computer science and how each contributed in significant ways to the conception and implementation of our new Integrated Quantitative Science course, a course for first-year students that integrates the material in the first course of the major in each of biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, and physics. PMID:20810953
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Dimitra L.
2013-01-01
The availability of student support systems and mentee-mentor relationships provide effective ways to increase the representation of women in STEM areas (Creamer & Laughlin, 2005). Support systems allow students the opportunity to engage in discussion and activities with individuals, including family, faculty, staff, or administrators with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butkovich, Nancy J.
2015-01-01
Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caudill, Lester; Hill, April; Hoke, Kathy; Lipan, Ovidiu
2010-01-01
Funded by innovative programs at the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Richmond faculty in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and computer science teamed up to offer first- and second-year students the opportunity to contribute to vibrant, interdisciplinary research projects. The result was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abdullah, Nasarudin; Halim, Lilia; Zakaria, Effandi
2014-01-01
This study aimed to determine the impact of strategic thinking and visual representation approaches (VStops) on the achievement, conceptual knowledge, metacognitive awareness, awareness of problem-solving strategies, and student attitudes toward mathematical word problem solving among primary school students. The experimental group (N = 96)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dierking, Lynn D.
2010-01-01
This paper describes an innovative education program launched in 2004 by Oregon State University Science and Mathematics Education Department, with leadership from Oregon Sea Grant, and funding from NOAA. Program development is described as well as the impact of it on participants. The program represents one vision for how to transform research…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2012
2012-01-01
Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers--STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority…
Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Mathematics IV.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gary City Public School System, IN.
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The subject matter is presented in four columns: major areas, significant outcomes, observations and suggestions, and films and references. The topics include: sets-relations-functions, circular functions, graphs of circular functions, inverses of circular…
Hendry, Jolyon H.
2017-01-01
There is compelling biological data to suggest that cancer arises from a series of mutations in single target cells, resulting in defects in cell renewal and differentiation processes which lead to malignancy. Because much mutagenic damage is expressed following cell division, more-rapidly renewing tissues could be at higher risk because of the larger number of cell replications. Cairns suggested that renewing tissues may reduce cancer risk by partitioning the dividing cell populations into lineages comprising infrequently-dividing long-lived stem cells and frequently-dividing short-lived daughter transit cells. We develop generalizations of three recent cancer-induction models that account for the joint maintenance and renewal of stem and transit cells, also competing processes of partially transformed cell proliferation and differentiation/apoptosis. We are particularly interested in using these models to separately assess the probabilities of mutation and development of cancer associated with “spontaneous” processes and with those linked to a specific environmental mutagen, specifically ionizing radiation or cigarette smoking. All three models demonstrate substantial variation in cancer risks, by at least 20 orders of magnitude, depending on the assumed number of critical mutations required for cancer, and the stem-cell and transition-cell mutation rates. However, in most cases the conditional probabilities of cancer being mutagen-induced range between 7–96%. The relative risks associated with mutagen exposure compared to background rates are also stable, ranging from 1.0–16.0. Very few cancers, generally <0.5%, arise from mutations occurring solely in stem cells rather than in a combination of stem and transit cells. However, for cancers with 2 or 3 critical mutations, a substantial proportion of cancers, in some cases 100%, have at least one mutation derived from a mutated stem cell. Little difference is made to relative risks if competing processes of
Little, Mark P; Hendry, Jolyon H
2017-02-01
There is compelling biological data to suggest that cancer arises from a series of mutations in single target cells, resulting in defects in cell renewal and differentiation processes which lead to malignancy. Because much mutagenic damage is expressed following cell division, more-rapidly renewing tissues could be at higher risk because of the larger number of cell replications. Cairns suggested that renewing tissues may reduce cancer risk by partitioning the dividing cell populations into lineages comprising infrequently-dividing long-lived stem cells and frequently-dividing short-lived daughter transit cells. We develop generalizations of three recent cancer-induction models that account for the joint maintenance and renewal of stem and transit cells, also competing processes of partially transformed cell proliferation and differentiation/apoptosis. We are particularly interested in using these models to separately assess the probabilities of mutation and development of cancer associated with "spontaneous" processes and with those linked to a specific environmental mutagen, specifically ionizing radiation or cigarette smoking. All three models demonstrate substantial variation in cancer risks, by at least 20 orders of magnitude, depending on the assumed number of critical mutations required for cancer, and the stem-cell and transition-cell mutation rates. However, in most cases the conditional probabilities of cancer being mutagen-induced range between 7-96%. The relative risks associated with mutagen exposure compared to background rates are also stable, ranging from 1.0-16.0. Very few cancers, generally <0.5%, arise from mutations occurring solely in stem cells rather than in a combination of stem and transit cells. However, for cancers with 2 or 3 critical mutations, a substantial proportion of cancers, in some cases 100%, have at least one mutation derived from a mutated stem cell. Little difference is made to relative risks if competing processes of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Comp, David
2010-01-01
Of the 205,000 U.S. students abroad during the 2004-2005 academic year, only 6,557 or slightly more than 3% of them studied in Germany. The Ohio Alliance reports that only 13% of all U.S. students who studied abroad during the 2004-2005 academic year were from the STEM fields of study. The Institute of International Education Open Doors Report,…
Discrete Mathematics and the Secondary Mathematics Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dossey, John
Discrete mathematics, the mathematics of decision making for finite settings, is a topic of great interest in mathematics education at all levels. Attention is being focused on resolving the diversity of opinion concerning the exact nature of the subject, what content the curriculum should contain, who should study that material, and how that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tinungki, Georgina Maria
2015-01-01
The importance of learning mathematics can not be separated from its role in all aspects of life. Communicating ideas by using mathematics language is even more practical, systematic, and efficient. In order to overcome the difficulties of students who have insufficient understanding of mathematics material, good communications should be built in…
Lecturers' Experiences of Teaching STEM to Students with Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ngubane-Mokiwa, S. A.; Khoza, S. B.
2016-01-01
Innovative teaching is a concept based on student-centred teaching strategies. Access to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects has not been equitable due to use of traditional teaching strategies. These strategies tend to exclude students with disabilities who can effectively learn in environments that appropriately and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koseki, Jun; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Konno, Masamitsu; Nishida, Naohiro; Kawamoto, Koichi; Kano, Yoshihiro; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Ishii, Hideshi
2016-02-01
Bioinformatics and computational modelling are expected to offer innovative approaches in human medical science. In the present study, we performed computational analyses and made predictions using transcriptome and metabolome datasets obtained from fluorescence-based visualisations of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the human oesophagus. This approach revealed an uncharacterized role for the ornithine metabolic pathway in the survival of chemotherapy-resistant CSCs. The present study fastens this rationale for further characterisation that may lead to the discovery of innovative drugs against robust CSCs.
Koseki, Jun; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Konno, Masamitsu; Nishida, Naohiro; Kawamoto, Koichi; Kano, Yoshihiro; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Ishii, Hideshi
2016-02-11
Bioinformatics and computational modelling are expected to offer innovative approaches in human medical science. In the present study, we performed computational analyses and made predictions using transcriptome and metabolome datasets obtained from fluorescence-based visualisations of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the human oesophagus. This approach revealed an uncharacterized role for the ornithine metabolic pathway in the survival of chemotherapy-resistant CSCs. The present study fastens this rationale for further characterisation that may lead to the discovery of innovative drugs against robust CSCs.
Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane; Hamilton, Jada G.; Isola, Luis; Rowley, Scott; Warbet, Rachel; Winkel, Gary; Redd, William H.; Rini, Christine
2013-01-01
Objective Cognitive problems are commonly reported by hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors, and are associated with poorer physical and mental well-being. It was hypothesized that adverse effects of subjective cognitive impairment occur because cognitive difficulties reduce survivors’ confidence that they can manage HSCT-related symptoms—that is, self-efficacy for symptom management. Methods HSCT survivors (n = 245) 9-months to 3-years post-HSCT completed measures of subjective cognitive functioning, self-efficacy for symptom management, and clinically important outcomes: depressed mood, anxiety, and quality of life. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping were conducted to investigate whether effects of subjective cognitive impairment on these outcomes were mediated by self-efficacy for cognitive (SE-Cognitive), emotional (SE-Emotional), social (SE-Social), and physical (SE-Physical) symptom management. Results Self-efficacy mediated relations between subjective cognitive impairment and depressed mood (total indirect effect = −.0064 and 95% confidence interval [CI] −.0097 to −.0036), anxiety (total indirect effect = −.0045, CI −.0072 to −.0021), and quality of life (total indirect effect = .0952, CI .0901 to .2642). SE-Emotional was a unique mediator when the outcome was depressed mood and anxiety. SE-Social, SE-Physical and SE-Emotional were specific mediators when outcome was quality of life. Conclusions Findings support the conclusion that subjective cognitive impairment reduces HSCT survivors’ confidence in their ability to manage common post-HSCT symptoms, with implications for physical and mental well-being. Interventions that help enhance survivors’ self-efficacy are likely to benefit HSCT survivors who report subjective cognitive impairment. PMID:21739524
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selcen Guzey, S.; Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Peralta, Yadira; Moore, Tamara J.
2016-11-01
The new science education reform documents call for integration of engineering into K-12 science classes. Engineering design and practices are new to most science teachers, meaning that implementing effective engineering instruction is likely to be challenging. This quasi-experimental study explored the influence of teacher-developed, engineering design-based science curriculum units on learning and achievement among grade 4-8 students of different races, gender, special education status, and limited English proficiency (LEP) status. Treatment and control students (n = 4450) completed pretest and posttest assessments in science, engineering, and mathematics as well as a state-mandated mathematics test. Single-level regression results for science outcomes favored the treatment for one science assessment (physical science, heat transfer), but multilevel analyses showed no significant treatment effect. We also found that engineering integration had different effects across race and gender and that teacher gender can reduce or exacerbate the gap in engineering achievement for student subgroups depending on the outcome. Other teacher factors such as the quality of engineering-focused science units and engineering instruction were predictive of student achievement in engineering. Implications for practice are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selcen Guzey, S.; Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Peralta, Yadira; Moore, Tamara J.
2017-04-01
The new science education reform documents call for integration of engineering into K-12 science classes. Engineering design and practices are new to most science teachers, meaning that implementing effective engineering instruction is likely to be challenging. This quasi-experimental study explored the influence of teacher-developed, engineering design-based science curriculum units on learning and achievement among grade 4-8 students of different races, gender, special education status, and limited English proficiency (LEP) status. Treatment and control students ( n = 4450) completed pretest and posttest assessments in science, engineering, and mathematics as well as a state-mandated mathematics test. Single-level regression results for science outcomes favored the treatment for one science assessment (physical science, heat transfer), but multilevel analyses showed no significant treatment effect. We also found that engineering integration had different effects across race and gender and that teacher gender can reduce or exacerbate the gap in engineering achievement for student subgroups depending on the outcome. Other teacher factors such as the quality of engineering-focused science units and engineering instruction were predictive of student achievement in engineering. Implications for practice are discussed.
Understanding STEM: Current Perceptions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Ryan; Brown, Joshua; Reardon, Kristin; Merrill, Chris
2011-01-01
In many ways, the push for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education appears to have grown from a concern for the low number of future professionals to fill STEM jobs and careers and economic and educational competitiveness. The proponents of STEM education believe that by increasing math and science requirements in…
The impact of STEM enrichment programs on California's high school Latino/a seniors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skrotzki, Gretchen
This study seeks to determine if Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) enrichment programs, such as summer camp programs, after-school programs, or STEM-based high schools motivate Latino high school graduates to enter into STEM bachelor programs in college as compared to those students enrolled in non-STEM enrichment programs. A mixed-methods approach consisting of pre- and post- surveys and focus group interviews were used to determine students' level of interest in STEM, confidence in their ability to do well in STEM subjects, consideration to pursue advanced courses in STEM, and consideration to pursue a job in STEM. An average change (Post-Pre) across survey questions was calculated for each student. This provided an overall change across all variables and allowed for one variable called "Total Interest" to be derived.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2014
2014-01-01
A major debate is currently underway in the USA about whether there is, in fact, a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce shortage in the country or not. This is the subject of the "Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate."…
Stillitano, Francesca; Hansen, Jens; Kong, Chi-Wing; Karakikes, Ioannis; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Geng, Lin; Scott, Stuart; Reynier, Stephan; Wu, Ma; Valogne, Yannick; Desseaux, Carole; Salem, Joe-Elie; Jeziorowska, Dorota; Zahr, Noël; Li, Ronald; Iyengar, Ravi; Hajjar, Roger J; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien
2017-01-01
A large number of drugs can induce prolongation of cardiac repolarization and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The prediction of this side effect is however challenging as it usually develops in some genetically predisposed individuals with normal cardiac repolarization at baseline. Here, we describe a platform based on a genetically diverse panel of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that reproduces susceptibility to develop a cardiotoxic drug response. We generated iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from patients presenting in vivo with extremely low or high changes in cardiac repolarization in response to a pharmacological challenge with sotalol. In vitro, the responses to sotalol were highly variable but strongly correlated to the inter-individual differences observed in vivo. Transcriptomic profiling identified dysregulation of genes (DLG2, KCNE4, PTRF, HTR2C, CAMKV) involved in downstream regulation of cardiac repolarization machinery as underlying high sensitivity to sotalol. Our findings offer novel insights for the development of iPSC-based screening assays for testing individual drug reactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19406.001 PMID:28134617
Liu, Qin; Wang, Liping; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yi
2017-02-01
Objective To study the feasibility of isolation and culture of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from SD rat adipose tissues subjected to long-term cryopreservation. Methods We took inguinal fat pads from healthy SD rats. Adipose tissues were stored with 100 mL/L dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) combined with 900 mL/L fetal bovine serum (FBS) in liquid nitrogen. Three months later, the adipose tissues were resuscitated for the isolation and culture of ADSCs. The growth status and morphology were observed. The growth curve and cell surface markers CD29, CD45, CD90 of the 3rd passage cells were analyzed respectively by CCK-8 assay and immunocytochemistry. The 3rd passage cells were induced towards adipogenic lineages and osteogenic lineages by different inducers, and the resulting cells were examined separately by oil red O staining and alizarin red staining. Results The ADSCs obtained from SD rat adipose tissues subjected to long-term cryopreservation showed a spindle-shape appearance and had a good proliferation ability. The cell growth curve was typical "S" curve. Immunocytochemistry showed that the 3rd passage cells were positive for CD29 and CD90, while negative for CD45. The cells were positive for oil red O staining after adipogenic induction, and also positive for alizarin red staining after osteogenic induction. Conclusion The ADSCs can be isolated from SD rat adipose tissues subjected to long-term cryopreservation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reeve, Edward M.
2015-01-01
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straffon, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affect the extent of international secondary students' participation in International Baccalaureate science and mathematics courses. The factors examined were gender, home region, size, percent host culture and age of the program, and coeducational and legal status of the school. Participation in math and science subjects was determined by analyzing the level and number of courses taken by students taking International Baccalaureate exams in 2010. Chi-Square and Cramer's V analysis were used to measure the effect of categorical variables on student participation and One-Way ANOVA and Bonferroni comparison of means were used to analyze the quantitative variables. All categorical variables were statistically significant (p<.01). Home region was the most important factor affecting participation in both math and science. Students from East, Southeast and South-Central Asia; and Eastern Europe have greater participation in math. The highest science participation came from students in East, Southern and Western Africa; and Southeast Asia. Top participators in science came from Australia/New Zealand, Northern Europe, East Africa and South-Central and Western Asia. State schools showed higher math and science participation. Science and math participation was also greater in all-male schools though associations were weak. Boys participated more than girls, especially in math. All quantitative variables were statistically significant. The program size had the largest effect size for both math and science with larger programs showing more participation at the higher level. A decreasing trend for age of the program and percent host culture was found for math participation. Three years of participation data were collected from an international school in Western Europe (n = 194). Variables included the influence of parent occupation, math preparedness (PSAT-Math), student achievement (GPA), and the importance of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCaslin, Stephanie D.
The areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics have long been overrepresented by men. In the workforce, more men work in these fields than women, and in school, more male students select majors in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) than female students. Research has indicated that female students represent less than a third of college students selecting STEM majors. Several recommendations have been made by prominent educational organizations, such as the American Association of University Women (AAUW), including promoting these subjects to female students through STEM initiatives that are innovative and expose female students to careers in these areas. This qualitative research study sought to analyze the effectiveness of these initiatives by determining what factors are considered when a female student selects a STEM field of study at the college level and to examine how these students perceived the effectiveness of the STEM initiatives in which they participated. A series of interviews were conducted with female college students with declared majors in STEM fields who had participated in STEM initiatives in the state of Maryland. After analysis of the data collected, it was determined that STEM initiatives are not necessarily effective in increasing the number of women who enroll in STEM programs at the college level, however, they are effective in encouraging female students who are already interested in STEM. Female students who participated in these STEM initiatives more frequently were more likely to have a better understanding of STEM options, and were also more likely to complete STEM college degrees in less time than those who did not participate frequently in STEM initiatives.
Ziebell, Frederik; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna
2014-01-01
In the adult hippocampus, neurogenesis—the process of generating mature granule cells from adult neural stem cells—occurs throughout the entire lifetime. In order to investigate the involved regulatory mechanisms, knockout (KO) experiments, which modify the dynamic behaviour of this process, were conducted in the past. Evaluating these KOs is a non-trivial task owing to the complicated nature of the hippocampal neurogenic niche. In this study, we model neurogenesis as a multicompartmental system of ordinary differential equations based on experimental data. To analyse the results of KO experiments, we investigate how changes of cell properties, reflected by model parameters, influence the dynamics of cell counts and of the experimentally observed counts of cells labelled by the cell division marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). We find that changing cell proliferation rates or the fraction of self-renewal, reflecting the balance between symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions, may result in multiple time phases in the response of the system, such as an initial increase in cell counts followed by a decrease. Furthermore, these phases may be qualitatively different in cells at different differentiation stages and even between mitotically labelled cells and all cells existing in the system. PMID:24598209
Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee
2015-01-01
Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.’s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:26778893
Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee
2015-08-01
Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.'s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches.
Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C
2010-02-01
Whether tendon inflammation is involved in the development of tendinopathy or degenerative changes of the tendon remains a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing animal and cell culture experiments to determine the production and effects of PGE(2), a major inflammatory mediator in tendons. Mouse tendons were subjected to repetitive mechanical loading via treadmill running, and the effect of PGE(2) on proliferation and differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) was assessed in vitro. Compared to levels in cage control mice, PGE(2) levels in mouse patellar and Achilles tendons were markedly increased in response to a bout of rigorous treadmill running. PGE(2) treatment of TSCs in culture decreased cell proliferation and induced both adipogenesis and osteogenesis of TSCs, as evidenced by accumulation of lipid droplets and calcium deposits, respectively. Effects of PGE(2) on both TSC proliferation and differentiation were apparently PGE(2)-dose-dependent. These findings suggest that high levels of PGE(2), which are present in tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading conditions in vivo as shown in this study, may result in degenerative changes of the tendon by decreasing proliferation of TSCs in tendons and also inducing differentiation of TSCs into adipocytes and osteocytes. The consequences of this PGE(2) effect on TSCs is the reduction of the pool of tenocytes for repair of tendons injured by mechanical loading, and production of fatty and calcified tissues within the tendon, often seen at the later stages of tendinopathy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Etim, James S.; Etim, Alice S.; Heilman, George; Mathiyalakan, S.; Ntukidem, Eno
2016-01-01
The education of girls and women in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) has long been thought of as very crucial for national development. This study investigated whether gender differences might occur in scores attained by Nigerian students on standard subject matter examinations for English Language, Mathematics…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attard, Catherine
2011-09-01
The levels of engagement in mathematics experienced by students during the middle years of schooling (Years 5 to 8 in New South Wales) has been of concern in Australia for some years. Lowered engagement in school has been attributed to factors such as inappropriate teaching strategies, curricula that is unchallenging and irrelevant, and cultural and technological conditions that continue to evolve (Sullivan et al. Australian Journal of Education 53(2):176-191, 2009). There is currently a gap in this field of research in terms of a lack of longitudinal studies conducted in an Australian context that feature students' voices and their perceptions of mathematics teaching and learning during the middle years. As part of a qualitative longitudinal case study spanning 3 school years, 20 students in their final year of primary school (aged between 11 and 12 years) were asked to provide their views on mathematics teaching and learning. The aim of the study was to explore the students' perspectives of mathematics teaching and learning to discover pedagogies that engage the students. During focus group discussions and individual interviews the students discussed qualities of a "good" mathematics teacher and aspects of "good" lessons. These were found to resonate well with current Australian quality teaching frameworks. The findings of this study indicate that students in the middle years are critically aware of pedagogies that lead to engagement in mathematics, and existing standards and frameworks should be used as a starting point for quality teaching of mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sax, Linda J.; Kanny, M. Allison; Riggers-Piehl, Tiffani A.; Whang, Hannah; Paulson, Laura N.
2015-01-01
Math self-concept (MSC) is considered an important predictor of the pursuit of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. Women's underrepresentation in the STEM fields is often attributed to their consistently lower ratings on MSC relative to men. Research in this area typically considers STEM in the aggregate and does not account…
Using Mathematics in Science: Working with Your Mathematics Department
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyon, Steve
2014-01-01
Changes to the mathematics and science curriculums are designed to increase rigour in mathematics, and place greater emphasis on mathematical content in science subjects at key stages 3, 4 and 5 (ages 11-18). One way to meet the growing challenge of providing increased emphasis on mathematics in the science curriculum is greater collaboration…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Julia Link
2015-01-01
How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.
Celebrating Mathematics All Year 'Round
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daire, Sandra Arguelles
2010-01-01
Celebrating mathematics should be a yearlong event in which students in mathematics classes of all levels engage in mathematics activities and competitions that will encourage growth in mathematical knowledge, enthusiasm for the subject, and collaboration among students of different abilities and backgrounds. Pi Day and Pi Week festivities--a good…
Ahlqvist, Sheana; London, Bonita; Rosenthal, Lisa
2013-09-01
Although the perceived compatibility between one's gender and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) identities (gender-STEM compatibility) has been linked to women's success in STEM fields, no work to date has examined how the stability of identity over time contributes to subjective and objective STEM success. In the present study, 146 undergraduate female STEM majors rated their gender-STEM compatibility weekly during their freshman spring semester. STEM women higher in gender rejection sensitivity, or gender RS, a social-cognitive measure assessing the tendency to perceive social-identity threat, experienced larger fluctuations in gender-STEM compatibility across their second semester of college. Fluctuations in compatibility predicted impaired outcomes the following school year, including lower STEM engagement and lower academic performance in STEM (but not non-STEM) classes, and significantly mediated the relationship between gender RS and STEM engagement and achievement in the 2nd year of college. The week-to-week changes in gender-STEM compatibility occurred in response to negative academic (but not social) experiences.
Effect of STEM Faculty Engagement in the Math and Science Partnership Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Xiaodong; McInerney, Joseph; Frechtling, Joy
2011-01-01
The article explores the effect of the engagement of university science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty in the Math and Science Partnership program. The findings suggest that K-12 teachers benefited from the engagement in terms of improved approaches to teaching and learning, increased knowledge of subject matter content,…
Exploring Students' Perspectives of College STEM: An Analysis of Course Rating Websites
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, YunJeong; Park, Seung Won
2014-01-01
One of the crucial goals of higher education is building a scientifically literate citizenry. The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subject areas are indicated as good domains to develop knowledge and skills for becoming future leaders. However, previous research has indicated a constant decline in the number of American…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attard, Catherine
2011-01-01
The levels of engagement in mathematics experienced by students during the middle years of schooling (Years 5 to 8 in New South Wales) has been of concern in Australia for some years. Lowered engagement in school has been attributed to factors such as inappropriate teaching strategies, curricula that is unchallenging and irrelevant, and cultural…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Billiar, Kristen; Hubelbank, Jeanne; Oliva, Thomas; Camesano, Terri
2014-01-01
Developing innovative science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curricula that elicit student excitement for learning is a continuous challenge for K-12 STEM teachers. Generating these lessons while meeting conflicting pedagogical objectives and constraints of time, content, and cost from various parties is truly a challenging task…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berkeihiser, Mike; Ray, Dori
2013-01-01
The interdisciplinary approach that science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) projects inspire in both teachers and students "brings to light a larger picture that promotes real-world scientific applications, which has in turn been shown to increase undergraduate persistence in STEM." The high school students have been…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okonkwo, Charles
This study will explore how science self-efficacy among college students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in Nigeria predicts their innovation. Several reports on African development argue that science, technology and innovation underpin targets for dramatically reducing poverty in its many dimensions---income poverty, hunger, disease, exclusion, lack of infrastructure and shelter---while promoting gender equality, education, health, and environmental sustainability (UN Millennium Project, 2005). If African countries in general, including Nigeria, are to move from the exploitation of natural resources to technological innovation as the foundation for development, stakeholders in these countries must encourage development of individual ability to innovate products, services and work processes in crucial organizations (DeJong & DenHartog, 2010). The common denominator in the scientific and technological development of any country or organization is the individuals that make up these entities. An individual's engagement is the foundation for group motivation, innovation and improvement. These ideas inform the purpose of this study: to investigate how science self-efficacy among college students in various engineering fields in Nigeria predicts self-reported innovative behavior (IB), also referred to as Innovative Work Behavior (IWB). IB involves initiating new and useful ideas, processes, products or procedures, as well as the process of implementing these ideas (Farr & Ford, 1990; Scott & Bruce, 1994). The general findings of this study align with the dictates of social cognitive theory. Specifically, research indicates self-efficacy has the most predictive power for performance when it is measured at a level specific to the expected task (Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 1996). The findings from the hierarchical multiple regressions confirm that individuals' perceived science efficacy plays an important role in their perceived self
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.
2016-01-01
Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vasquez, Jo Anne
2015-01-01
When most educators think of STEM education, they think of fully integrated projects seamlessly combining all four disciplines--science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Although such transdisciplinary STEM units are ideal, writes Vasquez, they are not the only way to give students valuable STEM experiences. She gives examples of two…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Mary Eloise
2013-01-01
Mathematical achievement and interest has declined in the United States as evidenced through national and international assessments. Students were not entering mathematics and science-related fields, even though these fields were the fastest growing industries worldwide. This study examined the effects an integrated Science, Technology,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
KINNIELL, WILLIAM T.; AND OTHERS
A DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM WAS UNDERTAKEN FOR THE PURPOSE OF SHOWING HOW A STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CAN UTILIZE ITS RESOURCES AND SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS IN DEVELOPING OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCIES TO IMPLEMENT SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN THE STATE. SUBJECT SPECIALISTS (26) REPRESENTING 10 COURSE FIELDS WERE BROUGHT TOGETHER AT THE BEGINNING OF…
Wang, Ming-Te; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Kenny, Sarah
2013-05-01
The pattern of gender differences in math and verbal ability may result in females having a wider choice of careers, in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM fields, compared with males. The current study tested whether individuals with high math and high verbal ability in 12th grade were more or less likely to choose STEM occupations than those with high math and moderate verbal ability. The 1,490 subjects participated in two waves of a national longitudinal study; one wave was when the subjects were in 12th grade, and the other was when they were 33 years old. Results revealed that mathematically capable individuals who also had high verbal skills were less likely to pursue STEM careers than were individuals who had high math skills but moderate verbal skills. One notable finding was that the group with high math and high verbal ability included more females than males.
The Current Status of STEM Education Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Josh
2012-01-01
This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…
Li, Ya-jun; Zhao, Bao-lin; Lv, Hao-ze; Qin, Zhi-gang; Luo, Min
2016-01-01
We hypothesized that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft used in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be an effective treatment for long-segment sciatic nerve defects. To test this, we established rabbit models of 30 mm sciatic nerve defects, and treated them using either an autograft or a chemically decellularized allogeneic nerve graft with or without simultaneous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We compared the tensile properties, electrophysiological function and morphology of the damaged nerve in each group. Sciatic nerves repaired by the allogeneic nerve graft combined with stem cell transplantation showed better recovery than those repaired by the acellular allogeneic nerve graft alone, and produced similar results to those observed with the autograft. These findings confirm that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an effective method of repairing long-segment sciatic nerve defects. PMID:27651781
Validity decay versus validity stability in STEM and non-STEM fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westrick, Paul Andrew
The main purpose of this study was to determine if validity coefficients for ACT scores, both composite scores and subject area test scores, and high school grade point average (HSGPA) decayed or held stable over eight semesters of undergraduate study in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields at civilian four-year institutions, and whether the decay patterns differed from those found in non-STEM fields at the same institutions. Data from 62,212 students at 26 four-year institutions were analyzed in a hierarchical meta-analysis in which student major category (SMC), gender, and admission selectivity levels were considered potential moderators. Four sets of analyses were run. The first was by the three SMCs: STEM-Quantitative majors, STEM-Biological majors, and non-STEM majors. The second was SMC by gender. The third was SMC by admission selectivity level. The fourth was SMC by gender by admission selectivity level. The results across all four analyses indicated that ACT score validity coefficients for STEM-Quantitative and STEM-Biological majors decayed less over eight semesters than the validity coefficients for non-STEM majors did. This was true for the uncorrected and corrected validity coefficients. For the HSGPA validity coefficients, this was true for the corrected validity coefficients. Non-STEM majors had very similar validity decay patterns regardless of the level of analysis. However, four of the eight STEM subgroups in the final set of analyses had minimal amounts of decay, and in some instances small amounts of validity growth.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hulme, Julie; Taylor, Jacqui; Davies, Mark N. O.; Banister, Peter
2012-01-01
The Higher Education Academy (HEA) is committed to enhancing the quality of learning and teaching for all university students in the UK, and the inaugural conference for the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects, held in April 2012 at Imperial College, London, aimed to showcase research and evidence-based educational…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette; Møller Madsen, Lene; Ulriksen, Lars
2014-01-01
In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students' choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper-secondary school. In particular, this study focuses on students who held an STEM subject as one of their favourite subjects at secondary educational level, but who chose not to study STEM at the tertiary level. This paper explores how students' perceptions of STEM relate to their identity work. The data used, primarily consist of interviews with 38 students at the end of upper-secondary school. The analysis explores the students' expectations of what higher education STEM might be like. These expectations are contrasted with the first-year experiences of 18 of the 38 students who eventually entered a higher education STEM programme. The results show that the students who did not choose STEM, perceived STEM as stable, rigid and fixed, and, hence, too narrow a platform for developing and constructing desirable identities. The experiences of those students who actually entered a STEM programme turned out to be similar to these expectations. However, many choosers would also prefer their studies as less rigid and fixed. If the institutions could adjust to the form and content of the courses, it might both meet the interests of choosers and non-choosers and thereby both increase recruitment and retention at STEM higher education programmes.
Exploring Collective Mathematical Creativity in Elementary School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levenson, Esther
2011-01-01
This study combines theories related to collective learning and theories related to mathematical creativity to investigate the notion of collective mathematical creativity in elementary school classrooms. Collective learning takes place when mathematical ideas and actions, initially stemming from an individual, are built upon and reworked,…
Identity as a Mathematical Thinker
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Owens, Kay
2008-01-01
I argue in this article that identity as a mathematical thinker develops through self-directed learning within a supportive community of practice. The dynamic nature of identity as a mathematical thinker is illustrated by considering the experiences of primary pre-service teachers who undertook a mathematics and technology subject in their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Kester; Anderson, Judy
2014-01-01
Declining participation rates in advanced mathematics courses and STEM-related occupations has been an issue in Australia for some time, particularly for females. As students continue to disengage with mathematics and complain about its usefulness, it is important to explore what we can do to stem the tide of departing students. One area worthy of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, M. J.; Kitanidis, P. K.; McCarty, P. L.
2003-12-01
Engineered bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation are important options for the cleanup of frequently occurring subsurface contamination by organic compounds. Because the contaminant removal occurs only when the substrates, target contaminants, and degrading bacteria are present simultaneously, the controlling mixing processes of the contaminants and substrates dictate the contaminant removal rate. Due to the complex nature of subsurface environments, in-situ bioremediation often involves many physico-chemical and biological processes concurrently. Thus, mathematical modeling is a useful tool -and probably the only effective tool- to identify the rate controlling processes. As a tool for predicting the environmental impact of a spill and/or for screening the effectiveness of possible remediation technologies, its ability to correctly capture the key processes is important. However, classical modeling involving the discretized form of the governing equations over very large spatial domains and long periods is computationally infeasible at this point. In this research, we investigate the large-time solution behavior of a representative bio-reactive transport model assuming the mixing of two required substrates occurs only in the directions transverse to groundwater flow. The processes are governed by the commonly used advection-dispersion-reaction equations. The microbial growth and decay in the model are described by the double Monod kinetics terms and a linear decay term. The flow field is assumed to be uniform. We have developed a practical approach to estimate the size of the microbial reaction zone and the level of microbial concentration. We have found out that the microbial reaction rates are always limited by the transverse transport of the substrates at steady state, provided that the bulk substrate concentrations are much larger than a characteristic value determined only by the microbial kinetic parameters. Thus the reactions can be considered as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flowers, Reagan D.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how a management service organization can assist schools with reducing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours. Developing a strategic plan through creating a program that provides support services for the implementation of hands-on activities in STEM for children during the after-school hours was central to this purpose. This Project Demonstrating Excellence (PDE), a social action project, also presents historical and current after-school program developments in the nation. The study is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Surveys were utilized to quantitatively capture the opinions of participants in the social action project on three specific education related issues: (1) disparity in academic motivation of students to participate in after-school STEM enrichment programs; (2) whether teachers and school administrators saw a need for STEM after-school enrichment; and (3) developing STEM after-school programs that were centered on problem-solving and higher-order thinking skills to develop students' interest in STEM careers. The sample consisted of 50 participants comprised of students, teachers, and administrators. The focus groups and interviews provided the qualitative data for the study. The qualitative sample consisted of 14 participants comprised of students, parents and teachers, administrators, an education consultant, and a corporate sponsor. The empirical data obtained from the study survey, focus groups, and interviews provided a comprehensive profile on the current views and future expectations of STEM after-school enrichment, student and school needs, and community partnerships with STEM companies. Results of the study and review of the implementation of the social action project, C-STEM (communication, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teacher and Student Support
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, Brittany C.; Hoyer, Kathleen Mulvaney; Sparks, Dinah
2015-01-01
As technical and scientific innovation continue to drive the global economy, educators, policymakers, and scientists seek to promote students' interest and achievement in the STEM fields to maintain the nation's competitive position (National Academy of Sciences 2006; National Science Board 2007; President's Council of Advisors on Science and…
Preparing Students for Middle School Through After-School STEM Activities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory; Newell, Alana D.; Burnett, Christopher A.
2016-12-01
The middle school years are a crucial time for cultivating students' interest in and preparedness for future STEM careers. However, not all middle school children are provided opportunities to engage, learn and achieve in STEM subject areas. Engineering, in particular, is neglected in these grades because it usually is not part of science or mathematics curricula. This study investigates the effectiveness of an engineering-integrated STEM curriculum designed for use in an after-school environment. The inquiry-based activities comprising the unit, Think Like an Astronaut, were intended to introduce students to STEM careers—specifically engineering and aerospace engineering—and enhance their skills and knowledge applicable related to typical middle school science objectives. Results of a field test with a diverse population of 5th grade students in nine schools revealed that Think Like an Astronaut lessons are appropriate for an after-school environment, and may potentially help increase students' STEM-related content knowledge and skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Yi-Hung; Wilson, Mark; Cheng, Ching-Lin
2013-01-01
In teaching, representations are used as ways to illustrate the concepts underlying a specific topic. For example, use symbols (e.g., 1?+?2?=?3) to express the concept of addition. To compare students' abilities to interpret different representations in mathematics, the symbolic representation (SR) test and the pictorial representation (PR) test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stein, David; Ostrander, Peter; Lee, G. Maie
2016-01-01
The Magnet Program at Montgomery Blair High School is an application-based magnet program utilizing a curriculum focused on science, mathematics, and computer science catering to interested, talented, and eager to learn students in Montgomery County, Maryland. This article identifies and discusses some of the unique aspects of the Magnet Program…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subotnik, Rena F.; Tai, Robert H.; Rickoff, Rochelle; Almarode, John
2010-01-01
Specialized public high schools of science, mathematics, and technology are commonly viewed as the "crown jewel" of their respective school districts and, many times, of their respective states. These schools are intended to coalesce the most academically talented, science-focused students in each district or state and typically draw excellent…
Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oxley, Alan
2010-01-01
The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…
Mathematization in introductory physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brahmia, Suzanne M.
Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in
Astronomy and Mathematics Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ros, Rosa M.
There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilby, Alyssa C.; Stripling, Christopher T.; Stephens, Carrie A.
2014-01-01
STEM disciplines will continue to impact school-based agricultural education programs; thus, in order to produce secondary students proficient in science and mathematics, developing preservice agricultural education teachers who are competent in mathematics and teaching mathematics is essential. This study utilized data collected through a focus…
Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin
2011-01-01
In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…
Connecting Mathematics across the Curriculum. 1995 Yearbook.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
House, Peggy A., Ed.; Coxford, Arthur F., Ed.
One of the four cornerstones of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" asserts that connecting mathematics to other subjects in the curriculum and to the everyday world is an important goal of school mathematics. This yearbook is designed to help classroom…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009
2009-01-01
State laws and regulations can either help or hinder the ability of school districts to hire effective teachers for STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) subjects. State officials wanting to tackle this critical problem need to begin with a thorough review of relevant policies, asking themselves: "Are we part of the problem, and…
An Ecological Model of STEM Education: Operationalizing STEM FOR ALL
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basham, James D.; Israel, Maya; Maynard, Kathie
2010-01-01
This article describes a framework for how to provide more accessible, relevant, and effective instruction in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education to all students. The STEM for All initiative asserts that all students, including those with disabilities and other diverse learning needs, should be included in meaningful…
Learning for STEM Literacy: STEM Literacy for Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zollman, Alan
2012-01-01
We are in the STEM generation whose comprehensive purpose is to resolve (1) societal needs for new technological and scientific advances; (2) economic needs for national security; and (3) personal needs to become a fulfilled, productive, knowledgeable citizen. STEM specifically refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but now…
Plumbing the STEM Pipeline: Exploring Areas of Influence for Promoting STEM Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linger, Matthew
The U.S. has enjoyed several decades of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) success but that is changing as U.S. students show less interest in advanced learning in STEM fields. Consequently, U.S. students are less scientifically and mathematically literate than past generations, a state that may negatively impact their chances of educational and career success. The reasons for the decline in STEM interest are unclear as many U.S. students still go on to earn STEM degrees and work in STEM fields. Often, these are students who showed a particular capacity for STEM subjects, identified through existing research as earning higher than average SAT scores, especially SAT-math, or high science and math achievement test scores. This study looked at these and other factors as a means to determine what impact they have on U.S. students' interest in pursuing a STEM line of study. The study aimed to determine in what way the U.S. educational system can positively influence high school students toward pursuing a STEM college education. The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) was used as the data source. More than 21,000 students were part of the observations. Factor analysis was used to turn related variables into larger constructs. Constructs and original HSLS:09 variables were analyzed through logistic regression analysis with STATA software. Few high school level instructional and non-instructional interventions were found to have an impact on a student's career choice in 9 th grade of his or her choice of college major in 12th grade. On the contrary, student attitudinal variables were shown to be most influential.
Engaging Students in STEM Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, T. J.; Odell, M. R. L.
2014-01-01
With the "flattening" of the global economy in the 21st century, the teaching of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has taken on new importance as economic competition has become truly global. STEM education has evolved into a meta-discipline, an integrated effort that removes the traditional barriers between these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillespie, Nicole
2015-01-01
If we want talented young teachers to develop the capacity to get students excited about high-quality science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning, we must develop a network of STEM teachers who can support teachers in their continued learning about their work and enable them to collaborate with others. If we want teachers to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012
2012-01-01
This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cannady, Matthew A.; Greenwald, Eric; Harris, Kimberly N.
2014-01-01
Researchers and policy makers often use the metaphor of an ever-narrowing pipeline to describe the trajectory to a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) degree or career. This study interrogates the appropriateness of the STEM pipeline as the dominant frame for understanding and making policies related to STEM career trajectories.…
Leaving STEM: STEM Ph.D. Holders in Non-STEM Careers. Issue Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Berger, Andrea
2014-01-01
During the last few decades, national, state, and institutional-level initiatives have been implemented to build and expand the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce by recruiting and retaining groups of individuals that have been traditionally underrepresented in STEM in higher education. The underlying theory of…
Mathematical Concepts and Maple Animations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siddique, Mohammad; Mitchell, Kristy
2010-09-01
Maple is a mathematics software package, which contains graphic, computation, and programming tools. Maple animation is a powerful tool that can help in comprehending many fundamental concepts in mathematics and other sciences. This paper deals with the use of maple animation to demonstrate many fundamental concepts in mathematics that are difficult to explain verbally or through static figures. We show Maple animations effectively convey different concepts. We present problems taken from the literature to exemplify and explain Maple animation procedures. Using Maple in teaching mathematics facilitates the students with a tool to experiment and visualize complicated mathematical concepts and thus, strengthen their grasp of the subject.
Expanding STEM Education | Poster
Editor’s note: This article is written as a reflection on experiential STEM education by a student who completed her Werner H. Kirsten internship in June 2015. Here, she advocates for incorporating hands-on experience into STEM curricula. If the only way for high school students to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is through textbooks, then count me out. But how then do you get students to learn STEM outside of the classroom? The focus of this article is to advocate for high school STEM education through experiential learning. Tom Freston, one of the founders and the chief executive officer (CEO) of MTV Productions, said in an interview in Men’s Journal that “innovation is taking two things that already exist and...
A State Policymaker's STEM Playbook. Promising Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zinth, Jennifer; Goetz, Tami
2016-01-01
Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has captured the attention of state policymakers who are concerned about equitable access to high-quality educational experiences and preparing and inspiring students to pursue STEM careers. Yet in many states, STEM policymaking efforts have not achieved their intended return on investment…
Developing Effective STEM Professional Development Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Avery, Zanj K.; Reeve, Edward M.
2013-01-01
To help the United States stay globally competitive in terms of innovation and invention, the teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become a priority in P-12 education today. As the need for students to become stronger in STEM grows, so does the need for well-qualified STEM teachers who understand what is needed…
Advancing STEM Education: A 2020 Vision
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bybee, Rodger W.
2010-01-01
STEM (an acronym for science, technology, engineering and mathematics) had its origins in the 1990s at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and has been used as a generic label for any event, policy, program, or practice that involves one or several of the STEM disciplines. However, a recent survey on the "perception of STEM" found that most…
Harvey, Olivia
2005-01-01
Over 12 months prior to the recent United Nations decision to defer a decision about what type of international treaty should be developed in the global stem-cell research and human cloning debate, the Federal Parliament of Australia passed two separate pieces of legislation relating to both these concerns. After a five-year long process of community consultation, media spectacle and parliamentary debate, reproductive cloning has been banned in Australia and only embryos considered to be excess to assisted reproductive technologies in existence on the 5th of April 2002 are currently valid research material. This paper argues that underpinning both pieces of legislation is a profound belief in the disruptive potential of all types of human cloning for the very nature and integrity of human species being. A belief, moreover, that is based on a presumption that it is apparently possible to conceptualise what being human even means for all Australians.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, C.; Osborne, B.
The UK national STEM Ambassadors programme provides inspiring role models for school students in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) subjects. STEMNET, the national body responsible for STEM Ambassa- dors aims to provide more than 27,000 STEM Ambassadors nationwide by the end of 2011. This paper reports on a project at Kingston University to embed STEM Ambassador training and activity in Year 2 of the undergraduate Aerospace Engineering, Astronautics and Space Technology degree. The project, known as KUSPACE (Kingston University Students Providing Amazing Classroom Experiences), was conceived to develop students' communication, planning and presentation skills and build links between different cohort years, while providing a valuable contribution to local primary schools' STEM programmes and simultaneously raising the public engagement profile of the university. This paper describes the pedagogical conception of the KUSPACE, its implementation in the curriculum, the delivery of it in the university and schools and its effect on the undergraduate students, as well as identifying good practice and drawing attention to lessons learned.STEMNET (www.stemnet.org) is the UK's Science, Technol- ogy, Engineering and Mathematics Network. Working with a broad range of UK partners and funded by the UK govern- ment's Department for Business Innovation and Skills, STEMNET plays a significant role in ensuring that five to nineteen year olds and their teachers can experience a wide range of activities and schemes which enhance and enrich the school curriculum [1]. Covering all aspects of Science, Tech- nology, Engineering and Maths (STEM), these activities and schemes are designed both to increase STEM awareness and literacy in the young people and also to encourage more of them to undertake post-16 STEM qualifications and associated careers [2]. STEMNET operates through forty-five local con- tract holders around the UK which help the network deliver its
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marder, Michael
2013-01-01
Striking differences between physics and biology have important implications for interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The author is a physicist with interdisciplinary connections. The research group in which he works, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin, is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schachter, Ron
2011-01-01
STEM--shorthand for "science, technology, engineering, and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But building and implementing programs that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schachter, Ron
2011-01-01
STEM--the catchy shorthand for "science, technology, engineering and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in preparing students for an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But while the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanh, Vu Duc, Ed.
This document gives a listing of mathematical terminology in both the English and Vietnamese languages. Vocabulary used in algebra and geometry is included along with a translation of mathematical symbols. (DT)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Thomas A.
1983-01-01
Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...
What Is STEM? A Discussion about Conceptions of STEM in Education and Partnerships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Breiner, Jonathan M.; Harkness, Shelly Sheats; Johnson, Carla C.; Koehler, Catherine M.
2012-01-01
Educational reformation has proceeded slowly despite the many calls to improve science and mathematics for our students. The acronym STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) has been adopted by numerous programs as an important focus for renewed global competitiveness for the United States, but conceptions of what STEM entails…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayer Corporation
2012-06-01
Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoachlander, Gary; Yanofsky, Dave
2011-01-01
In too many schools, science and mathematics are taught separately with little or no attention to technology and engineering. Also, science and mathematics tend to function in isolation from other core subjects. In California, Linked Learning: Pathways to College and Career Success connects core academics to challenging professional and technical…
STEM education and Fermi problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holubova, Renata
2017-01-01
One of the research areas of Physics education is the study of the educational process. Investigations in this area are aimed for example on the teaching and learning process and its results. The conception of STEM education (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is discussed - it is one possible approach to the preparation of the curriculum and the focus on the educational process at basic and secondary schools. At schools in the Czech Republic STEM is much more realized by the application of interdisciplinary relations between subjects Physics-Nature-Technique. In both conceptions the aim is to support pupils' creativity, critical thinking, cross-curricular links. In this context the possibility of using Fermi problems in teaching Physics was discussed (as an interdisciplinary and constructivist activity). The aim of our research was the analysis of Fermi problems solving strategies, the ability of pupils to solve Fermi problems. The outcome of our analysis was to find out methods and teaching strategies which are important to use in teaching - how to solve qualitative and interdisciplinary tasks in physics. In this paper the theoretical basis of STEM education and Fermi problems will be presented. The outcome of our findings based on the research activities will be discussed so as our experiences from 10 years of Fermi problems competition that takes place at the Science Faculty, Palacky University in Olomouc. Changes in competencies of solving tasks by our students (from the point of view in terms of modern, activating teaching methods recommended by theory of Physics education and other science subjects) will be identified.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilpatrick, Jeremy
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…
Mathematics, Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). Washington's Community and Technical Colleges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
2014-01-01
Growing Science, Technology, Education, and Mathematics (STEM) talent Washington MESA--Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement--helps under-represented community college students excel in school and ultimately earn STEM bachelor's degrees. MESA has two key programs: one for K-12 students, and the other for community and technical college…
CTE's Role in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hyslop, Alisha
2010-01-01
For the last several years, concern has been brewing about America's underinvestment and underperformance in science, technology, engineering and mathematics--the fields collectively known as STEM. STEM can be described as an initiative for securing America's leadership in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields and identifying…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beswick, Kim
2012-01-01
There is broad acceptance that mathematics teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematics influence the ways in which they teach the subject. It is also recognised that mathematics as practised in typical school classrooms is different from the mathematical activity of mathematicians. This paper presents case studies of two secondary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darlington, Ellie; Bowyer, Jessica
2016-01-01
332 undergraduate chemistry students were surveyed in order to establish whether they had found A-level Mathematics and/or Further Mathematics to be good preparation for their degree. Perceptions of both subjects were found to be positive, with more than 80% of participants describing Mathematics or Further Mathematics as good preparation. In…
Hu, Yue; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Piao; Wang, Ting-Hua
2017-01-01
Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores. We demonstrated that the transplantation of BMSCs (passage 3) via the tail vein into the lung tissues attenuated lung injury. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in lung tissues from the rats with focal cerebral ischemia and transplanted with BMSCs using a Gene microarray. Moreover, the Gene Ontology database was employed to determine gene function. We found that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were downregulated in the BMSC transplantation groups, compared with the control group. These results suggested that BMSC transplantation may attenuate lung injury following focal cerebral ischemia and that this effect is associated with the downregulation of TGF-β, PDGF and the PI3K-AKT pathway. PMID:27922691
Hu, Yue; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Piao; Wang, Ting-Hua
2017-01-01
Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores. We demonstrated that the transplantation of BMSCs (passage 3) via the tail vein into the lung tissues attenuated lung injury. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in lung tissues from the rats with focal cerebral ischemia and transplanted with BMSCs using a Gene microarray. Moreover, the Gene Ontology database was employed to determine gene function. We found that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were downregulated in the BMSC transplantation groups, compared with the control group. These results suggested that BMSC transplantation may attenuate lung injury following focal cerebral ischemia and that this effect is associated with the downregulation of TGF-β, PDGF and the PI3K-AKT pathway.
Idaho Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Overview
2011-01-01
Idaho National Laboratory has been instrumental in establishing the Idaho Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics initiative -- i-STEM, which brings together industry, educators, government and other partners to provide K-12 teachers with support, materials and opportunities to improve STEM instruction and increase student interest in technical careers. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.
Idaho Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Overview
None
2016-07-12
Idaho National Laboratory has been instrumental in establishing the Idaho Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics initiative -- i-STEM, which brings together industry, educators, government and other partners to provide K-12 teachers with support, materials and opportunities to improve STEM instruction and increase student interest in technical careers. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.
Loving and Hating Mathematics: Challenging the Myths of Mathematical Life
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hersh, Reuben; John-Steiner, Vera
2010-01-01
Mathematics is often thought of as the coldest expression of pure reason. But few subjects provoke hotter emotions--and inspire more love and hatred--than mathematics. And although math is frequently idealized as floating above the messiness of human life, its story is nothing if not human; often, it is all too human. "Loving and Hating…
Practicing Engineers' Perspective on Mathematics and Mathematics Education in College
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tosmur-Bayazit, Nermin; Ubuz, Behiye
2013-01-01
This paper reports on a qualitative study focusing on engineers' point of view in regard to university mathematics and mathematics education. An individual interview was conducted with three electrical and two mechanical engineers between the ages of 25-40, all engaged in successful careers. The subjects were requested to reflect upon themselves…
Inclusive STEM High School Design: 10 Critical Components
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peters-Burton, Erin E.; Lynch, Sharon J.; Behrend, Tara S.; Means, Barbara B.
2014-01-01
Historically, the mission of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) schools emphasized providing gifted and talented students with advanced STEM coursework. However, a newer type of STEM school is emerging in the United States: inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs). ISHSs have open enrollment and are focused on preparing…
Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Usiskin, Zalman
2015-01-01
Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…
Mathematics as verbal behavior.
Marr, M Jackson
2015-04-01
"Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.
Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Fathi, Ezzatollah
2016-01-01
Background and Objectives Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for cell therapy and regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and ready availability, but their application can be complicated by the factors such as age of the donors and senescence-associated growth arrest during culture conditions. The latter most likely reflects the fact that aging of hMSCs is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, loss of telomerase activity, decrease in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Over-expression of telomerase in hMSCs leads to telomere elongation and may help to maintain replicative life–span of these cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate of the effect of L-carnitine (LC) as an antioxidant on the telomerase gene expression and telomere length in aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs. Methods For this purpose, cells were isolated from healthy aged volunteers and their viabilities were assessed by MTT assay. Quantitative gene expression of hTERT and absolute telomere length measurement were also performed by real-time PCR in the absence and presence of different doses of LC (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mM). Results The results indicated that LC could significantly increase the hTERT gene expression and telomere length, especially in dose of 0.2 mM of LC and in 48 h treatment for the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs samples. Conclusion It seems that LC would be a good candidate to improve the lifespan of the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs due to over-expression of telomerase and lengthening of the telomeres. PMID:27426092
Steward, Andrew J; Wagner, Diane R; Kelly, Daniel J
2014-10-01
The objective of this study was to explore how the response of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to dynamic compression (DC) depends on their pericellular environment and the development of their cytoskeleton. MSCs were first seeded into 3% agarose hydrogels, stimulated with the chondrogenic growth factor TGF-β3 and exposed to DC (~10% strain at 1Hz) for 1h on either day 7, 14, or 21 of culture. At each time point, the actin, vimentin and tubulin networks of the MSCs were assessed using confocal microscopy. Similar to previous results, MSCs displayed a temporal response to DC; however, no dramatic changes in gross cytoskeletal organization were observed with time in culture. Vinculin (a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesions) staining appeared more intense with time in culture. We next aimed to explore how changes to the pericellular environment, independent of the duration of exposure to TGF-β3, would influence the response of MSCs to DC. To this end, MSCs were encapsulated into either 'soft' or 'stiff' agarose hydrogels that are known to differentially support pericellular matrix (PCM) development. The application of DC led to greater relative increases in the expression of chondrogenic marker genes in the stiffer hydrogels, where the MSCs were found to have a more well developed PCM. These increases in gene expression were not observed following the addition of RGDS, an integrin blocker, suggesting that integrin binding plays a role in determining the response of MSCs to DC. Microtubule organization in MSCs was found to adapt in response to DC, but this effect was not integrin mediated, as this cytoskeletal reorganization was also observed in the presence of RGDS. In conclusion, although the PCM, integrin binding, and cytoskeletal reorganization are all involved in mechanotransduction of DC, none of these factors in isolation was able to completely explain the temporal mechanosensitivity of MSCs to dynamic compression.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Xueli
2015-01-01
This study examines the effect of beginning at a community college on baccalaureate success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. In addition, drawing upon a new concept of "STEM momentum," this research explores whether and how STEM baccalaureate success is related to early STEM momentum, as well as whether…
Understanding Mathematics: Some Key Factors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ali, Asma Amanat; Reid, Norman
2012-01-01
Mathematics is well known as a subject area where there can be problems in terms of understanding as well as retaining positive attitudes. In a large study involving 813 school students (ages approximately 10-12) drawn from two different school systems in Pakistan, the effect of limited working memory capacity on performance in mathematics was…
Troubling STEM: Making a Case for an Ethics/STEM Partnership
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Astrid
2016-01-01
Set against the backdrop of a STEM-based (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) activity in a teacher education science methods class, the author examines the need for ethics education to be partnered with STEM education. To make the case, the origin of the STEM initiative, undertaken and strongly supported by both US government and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nadelson, Louis S.; Callahan, Janet; Pyke, Patricia; Hay, Anne; Dance, Matthew; Pfiester, Joshua
2013-01-01
Student foundational knowledge of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is formed in their elementary education. Paradoxically, many elementary teachers have constrained background knowledge, confidence, and efficacy for teaching STEM that may hamper student STEM learning. The association between teacher preparation to teach…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stöltzner, Michael
Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.
I. SPATIAL SKILLS, THEIR DEVELOPMENT, AND THEIR LINKS TO MATHEMATICS.
Verdine, Brian N; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Newcombe, Nora S
2017-03-01
Understanding the development of spatial skills is important for promoting school readiness and improving overall success in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields (e.g., Wai, Lubinski, Benbow, & Steiger, 2010). Children use their spatial skills to understand the world, including visualizing how objects fit together, and can practice them via spatial assembly activities (e.g., puzzles or blocks). These skills are incorporated into measures of overall intelligence and have been linked to success in subjects like mathematics (Mix & Cheng, 2012) and science (Pallrand & Seeber, 1984; Pribyl & Bodner, 1987). This monograph sought to answer four questions about early spatial skill development: 1) Can we reliably measure spatial skills in 3- and 4-year-olds?; 2) Do spatial skills measured at 3 predict spatial skills at age 5?; 3) Do preschool spatial skills predict mathematics skills at age 5?; and 4) What factors contribute to individual differences in preschool spatial skills (e.g., SES, gender, fine-motor skills, vocabulary, and executive function)? Longitudinal data generated from a new spatial skill test for 3-year-old children, called the TOSA (Test of Spatial Assembly), show that it is a reliable and valid measure of early spatial skills that provides strong prediction to spatial skills measured with established tests at age 5. New data using this measure finds links between early spatial skill and mathematics, language, and executive function skills. Analyses suggest that preschool spatial experiences may play a central role in children's mathematical skills around the time of school entry. Executive function skills provide an additional unique contribution to predicting mathematical performance. In addition, individual differences, specifically socioeconomic status, are related to spatial and mathematical skill. We conclude by exploring ways of providing rich early spatial experiences to children.
Contrasting views on STEM employment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Matthew; Huber, Michael
2015-07-01
In reply to “Unemployed and STEM” (Careers, May pp46-47), in which Penny Jackson described how her efforts to find a job in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) met with little success at first, even though she has a BSc in physics and a Master's in accelerator science. And in reply to “STEM paradox revisited” (Editorial, June p15), on why employers are expressing concerns about STEM shortages at a time when many recent STEM graduates are struggling to find jobs.
Mature Students Studying Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirst, Keith
1999-01-01
Discusses mature students in the single subject area of mathematics in a single institution and makes comparisons with traditional universities. Reviews some features of the age distribution, entry qualifications, degree-class distribution, non-completion rates and gender distribution. (Author/ASK)
Mathematical Intrusions in Literatures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modica, Erasmo
2011-01-01
This article describes an activity that can be carried out in one of the final classes of Italian secondary schools. The aim of the activity is to stimulate pupil curiosity, demonstrating that Mathematics is not a barren subject and allowing the students, according to an interdisciplinary point of view, to investigate some literary works and the…
STEm Minority Graduate Program
Nicholas, Kaen E
2012-09-20
ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years the EAA has
The STEM Initiative: Constraints and Challenges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herschbach, Dennis R.
2011-01-01
There is considerable national interest in STEM initiatives, but yet there is little discussion concerning what STEM means in terms of a curriculum concept to be applied to school programming. This article focuses on STEM as a curriculum concept. First, STEM programming is discussed in terms of separate subjects, correlated and broad fields…
Public Views on the Gendering of Mathematics and Related Careers: International Comparisons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah; Tan, Hazel
2014-01-01
Mathematics continues to be an enabling discipline for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)-based university studies and related careers. Explanatory models for females' underrepresentation in higher level mathematics and STEM-based courses comprise learner-related and environmental variables--including societal beliefs. Using…
Relationship between High School Mathematical Achievement and Quantitative GPA
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Jennifer L.; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald
2015-01-01
The demand for STEM graduates has increased, but the number of incoming freshmen who declare a STEM major has remained stagnant. High school courses, such as calculus, can open or close the gate for students interested in careers in STEM. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school mathematics preparation was a significant…
"Being Good" at Maths: Fabricating Gender Subjectivity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chronaki, Anna; Pechtelidis, Yannis
2012-01-01
Current research in mathematics education places emphasis on the analysis of men and women's accounts about their life trajectories and choices for studying, working and developing a career that involves the learning and teaching of mathematics. Within this realm, the present study aims to highlight how mathematics, gender and subjectivity become…
A Conceptual Metaphor Framework for the Teaching of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danesi, Marcel
2007-01-01
Word problems in mathematics seem to constantly pose learning difficulties for all kinds of students. Recent work in math education (for example, [Lakoff, G. & Nunez, R. E. (2000). "Where mathematics comes from: How the embodied mind brings mathematics into being." New York: Basic Books]) suggests that the difficulties stem from an…
Transitioning to Secondary School: The Case of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carmichael, Colin
2015-01-01
At a time when Australia's international competitiveness is compromised by a shortage of skilled workers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) related careers, reports suggest a decline in Australian secondary school students' performances in international tests of mathematics. This study focuses on the mathematics performance…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, Vicki
2012-01-01
Students do not pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) because of a lack of ability, but rather a lack of positive experiences with mathematics. Research has concluded that attitudes in math directly influence success in mathematics. As many as 75% of high school graduates in the United States suffer from mild to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra
2015-12-01
This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in activities such as an after-school robotics program. Both groups are compared and contrasted with a third group of high school students admitted at the eleventh grade to an academy of mathematics and science. All students were assessed using the same science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) dispositions instrument. Findings indicate that the after-school group whose participants self-selected STEM engagement activities, and the self-selected academy of mathematics and science group, each had highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to those of STEM professionals, while a subset of the middle school whole-classroom energy monitoring group that reported high interest in STEM as a career, also possessed highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to the STEM Professionals group. The authors conclude that several different kinds of hands-on STEM engagement activities are likely to foster or maintain positive STEM dispositions at the middle school and high school levels, and that these highly positive levels of dispositions can be viewed as a target toward which projects seeking to interest mainstream secondary students in STEM majors in college and STEM careers, can hope to aspire. Gender findings regarding STEM dispositions are also reported for these groups.
Beauty as Fit: A Metaphor in Mathematics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raman, Manya; Öhman, Lars-Daniel
2013-01-01
Beauty, which plays a central role in the practice of mathematics (Sinclair 2002), is almost absent in discussions of school mathematics (Dreyfus and Eisenberg 1986). This is problematic, because students will decide whether or not to continue their studies in mathematics without having an accurate picture of what the subject is about. In order to…
Symbolising the Real of Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pais, Alexandre
2015-01-01
This text, occasioned by a critical reading of Tony Brown's new book "Mathematics Education and Subjectivity," aims at contributing to the building of a sociopolitical approach to mathematics education based on Lacanian psychoanalysis and Slavoj Žižek's philosophy. Brown has been bringing into the field of mathematics education the work…
Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palmer, Cynthia E. A.
1995-01-01
The purpose of the 'Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics' program is to interest young women in grades six through twelve in a variety of careers where mathematics and science are important. Progress in encouraging young women to take courses in mathematics, science, and technological subjects is discussed. Also included are adult, student, and organizational information packets used for 'Expanding Your Horizons' conferences.
Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim
2009-06-26
One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nadelson, Louis S.; Seifert, Anne
2013-01-01
As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) continue to grow in economic and social importance, it is critical that citizenry are prepared to be STEM literate. Furthermore, the workforce demands on STEM necessitate students seeking STEM degrees and pursuing STEM careers. Primary and secondary (K-12) teachers play an important role…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prochazka, Helen
2004-01-01
One section of this "scrapbook" section describes Pythagoras' belief in the connections between music and mathematics -- that everything in the universe was a series of harmonies and regulated by music. Another section explains why Phythagoras felt it important for women to be encouraged to learn mathematics. At least 28 women were involved in his…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langbort, Carol, Ed.; Curtis, Deborah, Ed.
2000-01-01
The focus of this special issue is mathematics education. All articles were written by graduates of the new masters Degree program in which students earn a Master of Arts degree in Education with a concentration in Mathematics Education at San Francisco State University. Articles include: (1) "Developing Teacher-Leaders in a Masters Degree Program…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flannery, Carol A.
This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Hope
2007-01-01
"Mathematical literacy" implies that a person is able to reason, analyze, formulate, and solve problems in a real-world setting. Mathematically literate individuals are informed citizens and intelligent consumers. They have the ability to interpret and analyze the vast amount of information they are inundated with daily in newspapers, on…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayer Corporation
2014-10-01
A major debate is currently underway in the USA about whether there is, in fact, a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce shortage in the country or not. This is the subject of the Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage—Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate. An ongoing public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine US STEM education, diversity and workforce issues. The 16th in the series, the newest survey asks talent recruiters at some of the country's largest employers—those included in the Fortune 1000—to weigh in on current and future demand for new hires with 2- and 4-year STEM degrees. As professionals responsible for scouting, recruiting and hiring talent at Fortune 1000 companies, both STEM and non-STEM alike, these individuals are on the frontlines, tasked with assessing and filling their companies' workforce needs. The survey asks the recruiters whether new hires with 2- and 4-year STEM degrees are as, more or less in demand than their peers without STEM degrees? Are more new STEM jobs being created at their companies than non-STEM jobs? Can they find adequate numbers of qualified candidates in a timely manner and how fierce is the competition for STEM degree holders? To answer these and other questions, the survey polled 150 talent recruiters at Fortune 1000 companies, both STEM and non-STEM alike. The survey also asks the recruiters about diversion in STEM, workforce diversity in the pipeline, the role of community colleges in developing the STEM pipeline and the desired skills and competencies of new hires.
Sex and mathematical background as predictors of anxiety and self-efficacy in mathematics.
Lussier, G
1996-12-01
Anxiety and self-efficacy in mathematics as a function of sex and mathematical background were investigated. This study employed an ex post facto 2 x 2 factorial design in which sex and mathematical background were classification variables. It was predicted that men would report lower anxiety scores and higher self-efficacy scores than women and that students with a high mathematical background would report lower anxiety scores and higher self-efficacy scores than those with a low background in mathematics. An interaction between sex and mathematical background was also predicted. 51 subjects were given the revised Mathematics Anxiety Scale and the Mathematics Self-efficacy Scale. Results supported the hypotheses with respect to background in mathematics for anxiety in mathematics, and all of the hypotheses were supported for self-efficacy in mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Amy Bingham; Westenskow, Arla; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.
2011-01-01
Elementary pre-service teachers report high levels of mathematics anxiety (MA), but the construct less widely addressed is their mathematics teaching anxiety (MTA). This study investigated the frequency with which MA stemming from prior experiences leads to MTA. Fifty-three elementary pre-service teachers' written reflections were analyzed, using…
Women in STEM hit by discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randall, Ian
2016-02-01
Almost a third of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Australia are considering leaving their job within the next five years, according to a survey by the employee association Professionals Australia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rule, Audrey C.; Stefanich, Greg P.; Boody, Robert M.; Peiffer, Belinda
2011-04-01
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, important in today's world, are underrepresented by students with disabilities. Students with visual impairments, although cognitively similar to sighted peers, face challenges as STEM subjects are often taught using visuals. They need alternative forms of access such as enlarged or audio-converted text, tactile graphics, and involvement in hands-on science. This project focused on increasing teacher awareness of and providing funds for the purchase of supplemental adaptive resources, supplies, and equipment. We examined attitude and instructional changes across the year of the programme in 15 science and mathematics teachers educating students with visual impairments. Positive changes were noted from pretest to posttest in student and teacher perspectives, and in teacher attitudes towards students with disabilities in STEM classes. Teachers also provided insights into their challenges and successes through a reflective narrative. Several adolescent students resisted accommodations to avoid appearing conspicuous to peers. Teachers implemented three strategies to address this: providing the adaptations to all students in the class; convincing the student of the need for adaptation; and involving the class in understanding and accepting the student's impairment. A variety of teacher-created adaptations for various science and mathematics labs are reported. Another finding was many adaptations provided for the student with visual impairment benefitted the entire class. This study supports the claim that given knowledgeable, supportive teachers, and with appropriate accommodations such as tactile or auditory materials, students with visual impairments can be as successful and engaged as other students in science and mathematics.
Measuring the Ways Significant Persons Influence Attitudes Towards Science and Mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjaastad, Jørgen
2013-01-01
Young people's attitudes towards science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are subject to interpersonal influence of significant persons-defined as those who influence a person's attitudes. This article presents the development of an instrument designed to measure different modes of significant persons' influence on attitudes towards STEM. The questionnaire used in the pilot study was compiled based on Woelfel and Haller's theoretical perspectives on interpersonal influence, Nauta and Kokaly's instrument Influence of Others on Academic and Career Decisions Scale, and focus group interviews with Norwegian adolescents in an STEM mentoring programme. Drawing on Rasch analyses of data material from the 114 participants in the pilot study, the final instrument-Significant Person Influence on Attitudes towards STEM (SPIAS)-is presented. Based on results from the piloting and development of SPIAS, a conceptual discussion of significant persons and the ways they influence attitudes towards STEM is given, and it is suggested that SPIAS may be used in the process of evaluating and improving interventions aimed at changing adolescents' attitudes towards STEM.
STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Impact on Middle Secondary Students' Interest towards STEM
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shahali, Edy Hafizan Mohd; Halim, Lilia; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Osman, Kamisah; Zulkifeli, Mohd Afendi
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study was to identify students' changes of (i) interest toward STEM subjects and (ii) interest to pursuing STEM career after participating in non-formal integrated STEM education programme. The programme exposed students with integrated STEM education through project based learning involving the application of five phases…
Community Partnerships for Fostering Student Interest and Engagement in STEM
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watters, James J.; Diezmann, Carmel M.
2013-01-01
The foundations of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education begins in the early years of schooling when students encounter formal learning experiences primarily in mathematics and science. Politicians, economists and industrialists recognise the importance of STEM in society, and therefore a number of strategies have been…
The M in Stem via the M in Epidemiology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Martin
2011-01-01
It is the case that some activities claiming to reside under the STEM umbrella do not, in fact, give participants the opportunity to engage in anything other than routine mathematics. With this in mind, we explore here the potential for developing and then delivering STEM activities based on the discipline of mathematical epidemiology. We argue…
A Cryptological Way of Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caballero-Gil, Pino; Bruno-Castaneda, Carlos
2007-01-01
This work addresses the subject of mathematics education at secondary schools from a current and stimulating point of view intimately related to computational science. Cryptology is a captivating way of introducing into the classroom different mathematical subjects such as functions, matrices, modular arithmetic, combinatorics, equations,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCammon, Richard B.
1979-01-01
The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayes, R.; Lyford, M. E.; Myers, J. D.
2009-12-01
The Quantitative Reasoning in STEM (QR STEM) project is a state level Mathematics and Science Partnership Project (MSP) with a focus on the mathematics and statistics that underlies the understanding of complex global scientific issues. This session is a companion session to the QR STEM: The Science presentation. The focus of this session is the quantitative reasoning aspects of the project. As students move from understandings that range from local to global in perspective on issues of energy and environment, there is a significant increase in the need for mathematical and statistical conceptual understanding. These understandings must be accessible to the students within the scientific context, requiring the special understandings that are endemic within quantitative reasoning. The QR STEM project brings together interdisciplinary teams of higher education faculty and middle/high school teachers to explore complex problems in energy and environment. The disciplines include life sciences, physics, chemistry, earth science, statistics, and mathematics. These interdisciplinary teams develop open ended performance tasks to implement in the classroom, based on scientific concepts that underpin energy and environment. Quantitative reasoning is broken down into three components: Quantitative Literacy, Quantitative Interpretation, and Quantitative Modeling. Quantitative Literacy is composed of arithmetic concepts such as proportional reasoning, numeracy, and descriptive statistics. Quantitative Interpretation includes algebraic and geometric concepts that underlie the ability to interpret a model of natural phenomena which is provided for the student. This model may be a table, graph, or equation from which the student is to make predictions or identify trends, or from which they would use statistics to explore correlations or patterns in data. Quantitative modeling is the ability to develop the model from data, including the ability to test hypothesis using statistical
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gottfried, Michael A.; Bozick, Robert
2016-01-01
Recently, through the support from the Obama administration, the traditional STEM curricula (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) in high schools are being updated with integrated, applied STEM courses (e.g., technology and engineering) in order to enhance the "real world" applicability of scientific fields and ultimately…
National Survey of STEM High Schools' Curricular and Instructional Strategies and Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forman, Jennifer; Gubbins, Elizabeth Jean; Villanueva, Merzili; Massicotte, Cindy; Callahan, Carolyn; Tofel-Grehl, Colby
2015-01-01
A limited number of highly selective high schools specializing in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education have existed for many decades, encouraging youth with identified STEM talent to pursue careers as STEM leaders and innovators. As members of the National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics,…
Gaber, David; Schlimm, Dirk
2015-01-01
Mathematics is a powerful tool for describing and developing our knowledge of the physical world. It informs our understanding of subjects as diverse as music, games, science, economics, communications protocols, and visual arts. Mathematical thinking has its roots in the adaptive behavior of living creatures: animals must employ judgments about quantities and magnitudes in the assessment of both threats (how many foes) and opportunities (how much food) in order to make effective decisions, and use geometric information in the environment for recognizing landmarks and navigating environments. Correspondingly, cognitive systems that are dedicated to the processing of distinctly mathematical information have developed. In particular, there is evidence that certain core systems for understanding different aspects of arithmetic as well as geometry are employed by humans and many other animals. They become active early in life and, particularly in the case of humans, develop through maturation. Although these core systems individually appear to be quite limited in application, in combination they allow for the recognition of mathematical properties and the formation of appropriate inferences based upon those properties. In this overview, the core systems, their roles, their limitations, and their interaction with external representations are discussed, as well as possibilities for how they can be employed together to allow us to reason about more complex mathematical domains.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen
2016-01-01
Dynamic mathematical environments allow users to reify mathematical concepts through multiple representations, transform mathematical relations and organically explore mathematical properties, investigate integrated mathematics, and develop conceptual understanding. Herein, we integrate Boolean algebra, the functionalities of a dynamic…
Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korshunov, Aleksei D.
2009-10-01
There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.
Boosting STEM Interest in High School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schneider, Barbara; Judy, Justina; Mazuca, Christina
2012-01-01
One of the most critical labor shortages facing the U.S. involves the number of young adults entering careers in what's now commonly referred to as STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). Equally troubling is that the participation of blacks and Hispanics in STEM careers continues to lag that of whites and Asians. High school is…
Universities Conducting STEM Outreach: A Conceptual Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eilam, Efrat; Bigger, Stephen W.; Sadler, Kirsten; Barry, Fiachra; Bielik, Tom
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the positioning of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) outreach programmes within universities' operations. Though universities in many respects form a rather homogenous international community, there is wide diversity in regard to the provision of STEM outreach by different institutions. To explain this…
Another call to increase STEM education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showstack, Randy
2011-07-01
As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Teaching Science, 2016
2016-01-01
Science teachers, whether in primary or secondary schools, are in the front line for creating a more scientifically literate community. This article describes the STEM X Academy, a program created with the following goals: (1) demystify Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM); (2) help teachers transform their teaching with…
In Pursuit of Sustainable STEM Certification Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schuster, Dwight
2013-01-01
The belief that STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education initiatives have the potential to stimulate both regional and national economies has prompted policy makers and funding agencies to revisit how STEM teachers are recruited, prepared, and retained. This article investigates the impact of a unique prescholarship…
STEM Intervention Programs: Funding Practices and Challenges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rincon, Blanca E.; George-Jackson, Casey E.
2016-01-01
This study examines the funding practices and challenges of diversity initiatives found in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Interviews with 55 intervention program administrators, representing 48 unique STEM intervention programs, were conducted at nine large research-intensive universities. The interviews,…
STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeCoito, Isha
2016-01-01
Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wood, Eric
2004-01-01
The history of mathematics is full of rich examples that can help students to see the place of the discipline within our cultural heritage. Valuable as this can be, it also has the unfortunate side-effect of making students think that all the math has already been done and they do not get a sense that the subject is dynamic and growing.…
TDmat--Mathematics Diagnosis Evaluation Test for Engineering Sciences Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pinto, J. S.; Oliveira, M. P.; Anjo, A. B.; Pais, S. I. Vieira; Isidro, R. O.; Silva, M. H.
2007-01-01
Since 1989, the Mathematics Education Project (PmatE--Projecto Matematica Ensino) has developed several strategies to improve the success of students in Mathematics. The most important of these are mathematical games for all grades above primary school. The online evaluation of Mathematics subjects is one of PmatE's goals. The implementation of an…
Wyoming Mathematics Curriculum Guide, Grades 7-12.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.
GRADES OR AGES: 7-12; SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide has an introduction and four chapters: 1) A Sample Mathematics Curriculum; 2) The Exceptional Student in Mathematics; 3) Mathematics Components for Comprehensive Occupational Education; 4) Reference Materials. The guide is printed and spiral bound…
Mathematical wit and mathematical cognition.
Aberdein, Andrew
2013-04-01
The published works of scientists often conceal the cognitive processes that led to their results. Scholars of mathematical practice must therefore seek out less obvious sources. This article analyzes a widely circulated mathematical joke, comprising a list of spurious proof types. An account is proposed in terms of argumentation schemes: stereotypical patterns of reasoning, which may be accompanied by critical questions itemizing possible lines of defeat. It is argued that humor is associated with risky forms of inference, which are essential to creative mathematics. The components of the joke are explicated by argumentation schemes devised for application to topic-neutral reasoning. These in turn are classified under seven headings: retroduction, citation, intuition, meta-argument, closure, generalization, and definition. Finally, the wider significance of this account for the cognitive science of mathematics is discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Heather C.; Blunk, Merrie L.; Charalambous, Charalambos Y.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; Phelps, Geoffrey C.; Sleep, Laurie; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg
2008-01-01
This study illuminates claims that teachers' mathematical knowledge plays an important role in their teaching of this subject matter. In particular, we focus on teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), which includes both the mathematical knowledge that is common to individuals working in diverse professions and the mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warnick, Bryan R.; Stemhagen, Kurt
2007-01-01
Mathematics educators often fail to see that their subject has social and ethical dimensions. If anything, mathematics is seen as a neutral tool that has a social dimension only because it can be used to solve social problems. This study critically examines this idea by arguing that, although school mathematics is indeed a technology, technology…
A Two-Way Street: Multiculturalism in Mathematics and Mathematics in Multiculturalism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridge, H. Laurence
A usual reaction both from those teaching multiculturalism and those teaching mathematics has been that neither subject has a place with the other. With compassion and effort, both generalists and mathematics teachers can enhance multicultural and mathematical studies. Whether with a homogeneous group representing an indigenous culture, or with a…
Studies in Mathematics Education. Volume 6. Out-of-School Mathematics Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, Robert, Ed.
This is the sixth volume in a series designed to improve mathematics instruction by providing resource materials for those responsible for mathematics teaching. Focusing on out-of-school mathematics education, this volume presents a panorama of current practices around the world and suggests future trends. Subjects considered include: (1)…
Glimm, J.
2009-10-14
Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.
Attracting STEM talent: do STEM students prefer traditional or work/life-interaction labs?
DeFraine, William C; Williams, Wendy M; Ceci, Stephen J
2014-01-01
The demand for employees trained in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields continues to increase, yet the number of Millennial students pursuing STEM is not keeping pace. We evaluated whether this shortfall is associated with Millennials' preference for flexibility and work/life-interaction in their careers-a preference that may be inconsistent with the traditional idea of a science career endorsed by many lab directors. Two contrasting approaches to running STEM labs and training students were explored, and we created a lab recruitment video depicting each. The work-focused video emphasized the traditional notions of a science lab, characterized by long work hours and a focus on individual achievement and conducting research above all else. In contrast, the work/life-interaction-focused video emphasized a more progressive view - lack of demarcation between work and non-work lives, flexible hours, and group achievement. In Study 1, 40 professors rated the videos, and the results confirmed that the two lab types reflected meaningful real-world differences in training approaches. In Study 2, we recruited 53 current and prospective graduate students in STEM fields who displayed high math-identification and a commitment to science careers. In a between-subjects design, they watched one of the two lab-recruitment videos, and then reported their anticipated sense of belonging to and desire to participate in the lab depicted in the video. Very large effects were observed on both primary measures: Participants who watched the work/life-interaction-focused video reported a greater sense of belonging to (d = 1.49) and desire to participate in (d = 1.33) the lab, relative to participants who watched the work-focused video. These results suggest Millennials possess a strong desire for work/life-interaction, which runs counter to the traditional lab-training model endorsed by many lab directors. We discuss implications of these findings for STEM
Attracting STEM Talent: Do STEM Students Prefer Traditional or Work/Life-Interaction Labs?
DeFraine, William C.; Williams, Wendy M.; Ceci, Stephen J.
2014-01-01
The demand for employees trained in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields continues to increase, yet the number of Millennial students pursuing STEM is not keeping pace. We evaluated whether this shortfall is associated with Millennials' preference for flexibility and work/life-interaction in their careers-a preference that may be inconsistent with the traditional idea of a science career endorsed by many lab directors. Two contrasting approaches to running STEM labs and training students were explored, and we created a lab recruitment video depicting each. The work-focused video emphasized the traditional notions of a science lab, characterized by long work hours and a focus on individual achievement and conducting research above all else. In contrast, the work/life-interaction-focused video emphasized a more progressive view – lack of demarcation between work and non-work lives, flexible hours, and group achievement. In Study 1, 40 professors rated the videos, and the results confirmed that the two lab types reflected meaningful real-world differences in training approaches. In Study 2, we recruited 53 current and prospective graduate students in STEM fields who displayed high math-identification and a commitment to science careers. In a between-subjects design, they watched one of the two lab-recruitment videos, and then reported their anticipated sense of belonging to and desire to participate in the lab depicted in the video. Very large effects were observed on both primary measures: Participants who watched the work/life-interaction-focused video reported a greater sense of belonging to (d = 1.49) and desire to participate in (d = 1.33) the lab, relative to participants who watched the work-focused video. These results suggest Millennials possess a strong desire for work/life-interaction, which runs counter to the traditional lab-training model endorsed by many lab directors. We discuss implications of these findings for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castleman, Benjamin L.; Long, Bridget Terry; Mabel, Zachary A.
2014-01-01
The fastest growing supply of jobs in the United States today is in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Yet despite the availability of work in STEM, there is not a sufficient supply of workers to fill open positions. Amidst the growing demand for STEM workers, educational achievement and attainment in STEM fields in…
Indicators of Success in STEM Majors: A Cohort Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Ruthanne; Bolin, Greta
2011-01-01
It has become universally known that Americans as a nation have fallen behind other nations in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). According to the National Science and Engineering Indicators, produced by the National Science Foundation in 2006, the United States has one of the lowest STEM to non-STEM degree…
Implementation of STEM Education Policy: Challenges, Progress, and Lessons Learned
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Carla C.
2012-01-01
This is a case study of the implementation of state STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) policy over the period of the first 18 months of building a regional STEM partnership. Fullan's change theory is the framework used to determine progress and associated challenges with building a regional STEM educational partnership and…
STEM in England: Meanings and Motivations in the Policy Arena
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Vicky; Dillon, Justin; King, Heather
2016-01-01
STEM, an acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, is widely used in science education. There is confusion, however, as to its provenance and meaning which is potentially problematic. This study examines the purpose of STEM practice in education in England and asks if there are differences in perceptions of STEM between science…
The Perceptions of Elementary STEM Schools in Missouri
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alumbaugh, Kelli Michelle
2015-01-01
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, or STEM, is an area that is currently growing in popularity with educators (Becker & Park, 2011). A qualitative study consisting of interviews was conducted and data were gathered from three leaders in professional STEM organizations, four principals from elementary STEM schools, and…
STEM and Technology Education: International State-of-the-Art
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ritz, John M.; Fan, Szu-Chun
2015-01-01
This paper reports the perceptions of 20 international technology education scholars on their country's involvement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Survey research was used to obtain data. It was found that the concept of STEM education is being discussed differently by nations. Some consider STEM education…
Professionalizing the Role of Peer Leaders in STEM
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowling, Bethany; Doyle, Maureen; Taylor, Jennifer; Antes, Alison
2015-01-01
Efforts to improve retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors frequently utilize peer mentors and/or leaders. At Northern Kentucky University, the STEM Ambassador (SA) program involves students in the creation of a STEM community through multifaceted roles as mentors, peer-learning facilitators, and social…
STEM Education Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-59)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
US Congress, 2015
2015-01-01
The STEM Education Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-59) was put in place to define Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education to include computer science, and to support existing STEM education programs at the National Science Foundation. The act is organized into the following sections: (1) Short Title; (2) Definition of STEM…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benbow, Camilla Persson
2012-01-01
Calls to strengthen education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are underscored by employment trends and the importance of STEM innovation for the economy. The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) has been tracking over 5,000 talented individuals longitudinally for 40 years, throwing light on critical questions…
... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heilbronner, Nancy N.
2009-01-01
Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Xianglei
2013-01-01
Producing sufficient numbers of graduates who are prepared for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations has become a national priority in the United States. To attain this goal, some policymakers have targeted reducing STEM attrition in college, arguing that retaining more students in STEM fields in college is a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guzey, S. Selcen; Moore, Tamara J.; Harwell, Michael
2016-01-01
Improving K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education has a priority on numerous education reforms in the United States. To that end, developing and sustaining quality programs that focus on integrated STEM education is critical for educators. Successful implementation of any STEM program is related to the curriculum…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Wade; Odhiambo, Eucabeth; El Khateeb, Hebatella
The purpose of this research was to use a Tennessee high school as a research site to assess the impact of H. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (MI) on students' academic successes in 10th grade English, social studies, mathematics, and science classes. The research used a two-part minimally intrusive data collection protocol. The student…
Mathematics university teachers' perception of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khakbaz, Azimehsadat
2016-02-01
Teaching mathematics in university levels is one of the most important fields of research in the area of mathematics education. Nevertheless, there is little information about teaching knowledge of mathematics university teachers. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) provides a suitable framework to study knowledge of teachers. The purpose of this paper is to make explicit the perception of mathematics university teachers about PCK. For this purpose, a phenomenological study was done. Data resources included semi-structured interviews with 10 mathematics university teachers who were in different places of the mathematics university teaching experience spectrum. Data analysis indicated a model consisting of four cognitive themes which are mathematics syntactic knowledge, knowledge about mathematics curriculum planning, knowledge about students' mathematics learning and knowledge about creating an influential mathematics teaching-learning environment. Besides, it was found out that three contextual themes influenced on PCK for teaching mathematics in university levels which were the nature of mathematics subjects, university teachers' features and terms of learning environment.
STEM Education: Proceed with Caution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, P. John
2011-01-01
The STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) movement has developed from a non-educational rationale. Although some think it may enliven the delivery of maths and science in classrooms, the social and economic rationales are those that have initiated this movement. Spurred on by the global financial crisis, it is hoped that…
Quotable Quotes in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lo, Bruce W. N.
1983-01-01
As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogness, Jonathan
2011-01-01
Advances in computer graphics have provided mathematicians with the ability to create stunning visualizations, both to gain insight and to help demonstrate the beauty of mathematics to others. As educators these tools can be particularly important as we search for ways to work with students raised with constant visual stimulation, from video games…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hadlock, Charles R
2013-01-01
The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennard, Jackie
2007-01-01
One of the most interesting developments in teaching has been the growing importance of the outdoor environment. Whether it be playground, garden or field, the outdoors offers a range of challenging experiences, especially in the delivery of early mathematics. Oral feedback to parents, together with photographic displays, can show them that…
Stem cell regulation: Implications when differentiated cells regulate symmetric stem cell division.
Høyem, Marte Rørvik; Måløy, Frode; Jakobsen, Per; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav
2015-09-07
We use a mathematical model to show that if symmetric stem cell division is regulated by differentiated cells, then changes in the population dynamics of the differentiated cells can lead to changes in the population dynamics of the stem cells. More precisely, the relative fitness of the stem cells can be affected by modifying the death rate of the differentiated cells. This result is interesting because stem cells are less sensitive than differentiated cells to environmental factors, such as medical therapy. Our result implies that stem cells can be manipulated indirectly by medical treatments that target the differentiated cells.
Behr, Björn; Ko, Sae Hee; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T
2010-10-01
Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines and are classified according to their origin and their ability to differentiate. Enormous potential exists in use of stem cells for regenerative medicine. To produce effective stem cell-based treatments for a range of diseases, an improved understanding of stem cell biology and better control over stem cell fate are necessary. In addition, the barriers to clinical translation, such as potential oncologic properties of stem cells, need to be addressed. With renewed government support and continued refinement of current stem cell methodologies, the future of stem cell research is exciting and promises to provide novel reconstructive options for patients and surgeons limited by traditional paradigms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentry, Abigail Rose
Mathematics teachers are often challenged by their students to give reasoning for why learning mathematics is necessary. An approach to address this question is to show students the value in learning mathematics by enlightening them on the connections that mathematics has with other disciplines and the real-world applications of mathematics. Integration is a method of teaching that can be used to give students insight as to how mathematics is useful in a variety of different fields. In addition to engaging students with relevant curriculum, leading students to discover the connections between mathematics and science (among other fields) is helpful in showing students why learning mathematics is valuable. This thesis reports on my experiences in developing and implementing an integrated mathematics/science activity in a STEM Technology class at a local high school as well as discusses student feedback about the activity, about their interdisciplinary STEM Technology class, and about the integration of mathematics and science in the classroom.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.
2015-01-01
Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.
Development of the STEM College-Going Expectancy Scale for High School Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oh, Youn Joo; Jia, Yueming; Sibuma, Bernadette; Lorentson, Mhora; LaBanca, Frank
2013-01-01
The STEM College-Going Expectancy Scale (STEM CGES) was developed and validated in two studies conducted during 2010 and 2011. The STEM CGES is a self-report instrument measuring college-going expectancy, specifically for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. In Study 1, 95 students in an urban high school completed an…
Closing the Gaps and Filling the STEM Pipeline: A Multidisciplinary Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doerschuk, Peggy; Bahrim, Cristian; Daniel, Jennifer; Kruger, Joseph; Mann, Judith; Martin, Cristopher
2016-01-01
There is a growing demand for degreed science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professionals, but the production of degreed STEM students is not keeping pace. Problems exist at every juncture along the pipeline. Too few students choose to major in STEM disciplines. Many of those who do major in STEM drop out or change majors.…
Effects of Transferring to STEM-Focused Charter and Magnet Schools on Student Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Judson, Eugene
2014-01-01
There have been strong calls to action in recent years to promote both school choice and the learning of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This has led to the burgeoning development of STEM-focused schools. Nine STEM-focused charter and 2 STEM-focused magnet schools that serve elementary-aged students were examined to…
Women in the Academy: Female Leadership in STEM Education and the Evolution of a Mentoring Web
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorman, Susan T.; Durmowicz, Meredith C.; Roskes, Ellen M.; Slattery, Susan P.
2010-01-01
Women continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and in STEM leadership positions. According to the most recent data available from the National Science Foundation, in academia only 31% of full-time STEM faculty and 27% of STEM deans and department heads are women. By comparison at Stevenson…
Teaching STEM through Historical Reconstructions: The Future Lies in the Past
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slykhuis, David A.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa; Thomas, Christine D.; Barbato, Steven
2015-01-01
Most people know STEM as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Many conversations have taken place about the need to recruit students into STEM fields and STEM careers. As educators work to that end, we find that there is a need to examine how STEM is perceived and practiced by our students and teachers. In the past, educators have…
Connecting the STEM Dots: Measuring the Effect of an Integrated Engineering Design Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hernandez, Paul R.; Bodin, Ralph; Elliott, Jonathan W.; Ibrahim, Badaruddin; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Chen, Thomas W.; de Miranda, Michael A.
2014-01-01
Recent publications have elevated the priority of increasing the integration of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) content for K-12 education. The STEM education community must invest in the development of valid and reliable to scales to measure STEM content, knowledge fusion, and perceptions of the nature of STEM. This brief…
The Development of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kier, Meredith W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Osborne, Jason W.; Albert, Jennifer L.
2014-01-01
Internationally, efforts to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers have been on the rise. It is often the goal of such efforts that increased interest in STEM careers should stimulate economic growth and enhance innovation. Scientific and educational organizations recommend that efforts to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, Tony P.; Mancini-Samuelson, Gina J.
2012-01-01
A collaborative of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and education faculty developed a STEM certificate aimed at elementary education majors. A four-phase process model was used to create and evaluate courses. The certificate is comprised of three interdisciplinary, team-taught, lab-based courses: Environmental Biology,…
Increasing the Number of STEM Graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM Education & Modeling Project
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2010
2010-01-01
The Business-Higher Education Forum's (BHEF's) Securing America's Leadership in STEM Initiative has broken new ground in addressing one of the nation's most critical challenges--increasing the number of students who are interested in and pursue careers in science, technology, engineering or mathematics, the so-called "STEM" fields. The…
From Fearing STEM to Playing with It: The Natural Integration of STEM into the Preschool Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torres-Crespo, Marisel N.; Kraatz, Emily; Pallansch, Lindsey
2014-01-01
The article describes the process of developing and implementing a STEM Summer Camp that allowed Preschoolers to experiment and investigate with materials while learning basic concepts of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through play as part of the educational process. The participants were presented with problems that they…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pantic, Zorica
2007-01-01
Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabalais, Mark E.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between exposure to the arts and performance in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects. STEAM, an integration of arts-based instruction into science and math related fields, is viewed as an alternative to traditional STEM academies. The literature briefly examines the current state of STEM programs and the deficiencies in graduate quality and quantity and the call from employers for a more innovative workforce. Advocates for STEAM argue for arts as a means to improve creativity, collaboration, risk-taking and exploration. Arguments against arts in STEM are grounded in political opinions concerning arts funding and logistical complications of implementing STEAM. However, some schools and STEM programs have embraced the STEAM premise and have begun to integrate arts into the traditional curriculum. The 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) dataset was utilized to determine a correlation between the number of arts credits earned and mathematics/science achievement. Results from the NAEP dataset indicated a correlation between the amount of arts credits and increased achievement scores in science and math. The same correlation was found when controlling for demographic factors such as gender, race, and socio-economic status (SES). Overall, the arts' greatest impact was on students identified as "at-risk" or underrepresented in STEM fields. Controlling for these variable groups, one can note the quantifiable differences in scores. Overall, findings of the study provide empirical support for the addition of arts in STEM.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret J.; Jackson, Christa; Miller, Maranda; Walcott, Bruce; Little, David L.; Speler, Lydia; Schooler, William; Schroeder, D. Craig
2014-01-01
It is a well-known fact that, in general, many students have a lack of interest and proficiency in mathematics and science. Therefore, it is imperative that we prepare and inspire all students, specifically students of underrepresented populations, to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content. Now in its fourth year,…
A Complex Formula: Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Asia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salmon, Aliénor
2015-01-01
What factors might be causing the low participation of women Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields? What can be done to attract more girls and women into STEM in Asia and beyond? The report, "A Complex Formula. Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Asia", answers three fundamental…
Relationships between Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Teaching Practice: The Case of Proof
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.; Cervello Rogers, Kimberly
2012-01-01
Teachers of mathematics orchestrate opportunities for interactions between learners and subject matter. Therefore, mathematics teachers need rich, multidimensional content knowledge for teaching mathematics, which incorporates knowledge of the subject matter, students, and teaching. Studying this mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT)…
Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain
2012-01-01
The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kieschnick, Lauren E.
2013-01-01
This dissertation examines the strategies that promote mathematical self-efficacy in the middle level mathematics classroom. The need for more self-efficacious students to pursue mathematics is prevalent in the United States due to the need of workers in the STEM fields. Finding strategies to promote mathematical self-efficacy will provide…
Designing Technology Activities that Teach Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silk, Eli M.; Higashi, Ross; Shoop, Robin; Schunn, Christian D.
2010-01-01
Over the past three years, the authors have conducted research in middle and high school classrooms in an effort to improve the effectiveness of robotics to teach science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education--their focus has been on math. The authors have found that subtle changes in the design and setup of the lesson make a…
Making Insulation Decisions through Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yanik, H. Bahadir; Memis, Yasin
2014-01-01
Engaging students in studies about conservation and sustainability can support their understanding of making environmental conscious decisions to conserve Earth. This article aims to contribute these efforts and direct students' attention to how they can use mathematics to make environmental decisions. Contributors to iSTEM: Integrating…
Concerns About STEM Education Restructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showstack, Randy
2013-05-01
Several education experts told Eos that they generally favored some improvements in U.S. federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, but they also expressed concern about the Obama administration's proposed STEM reorganization plan as it affects the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). John Farrington, chair of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) panel that issued a review of the NOAA education program in 2010, told Eos that he is confident that a considerable amount of thought went into this proposal to consolidate the K-12 STEM efforts, that consolidation could make for greater efficiencies, and that a positive aspect of having the Department of Education (ED) as a lead is that STEM education should not be considered as separate from the education of the student as a whole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerinsek, Gregor; Hribar, Tina; Glodez, Natasa; Dolinsek, Slavko
2013-11-01
This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to identify different important factors (i.e. key persons, previous school and out-of-school experiences) that influenced their choice of studying STEM. The main data collection method was a questionnaire developed within the Interests and Recruitment in Science project group. The sample consisted of 861 males and 420 female undergraduate STEM students towards the end of their first year of higher education and this represented 60.8% of the whole target population. For data analysis, basic descriptive statistics with one-way analysis of variance was used. Our study demonstrates that all students want to do something interesting and fulfilling using their talents and abilities, nevertheless female STEM students favour inter-personal career priorities (i.e. helping other people, contributing to society and protecting the environment) more than males. Mothers and good teachers were found to influence females' choice of studying STEM significantly more than males' choice. Interest in STEM subjects was found as an important factor influencing the choice of studying STEM, especially for female students. Females have been furthermore found to be more inspired towards STEM by lessons showing the relevance of the subjects to society. Popular science television channels and programmes were found to have a considerable influence, especially on males' educational choice.
Assessment for the Common Core Mathematics Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Hung-Hsi
2012-01-01
This article makes two simple observations about high-stakes assessments. The first is that, because mathematics is a very technical subject, an assessment item can be mathematically flawed regardless of how elementary it is. For this reason, every assessment project needs the active participation of high level mathematicians. A second point is…
Mathematics and Social Justice: A Symbiotic Pedagogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bond, Gareth; Chernoff, Egan J.
2015-01-01
Mathematics can be defined as "the science of pattern and order" (Van de Walle, Folk, Karp, & Bay-Williams, 2009, p. 10). But because there is often a perceived spectrum of approachability to mathematics (based on common misconceptions that envision the subject as a sort of elitist wizardry) it is important to bear in mind different…
Mathematics and Academic Diversity in Japan
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodward, J.; Ono, Y.
2004-01-01
Japanese education has been the subject of considerable research and educational commentary in the United States over the last 20 years. Since the early 1990s, there has been increased interest in Japanese methods for teaching mathematics, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study has accelerated American interest in Japanese…
Synopses for Modern Secondary School Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.
The 1959 Royaumont seminar "New Thinking in School Mathematics," having agreed on the need for modernization, recommended that a second group of experts work out detailed synopses of the entire subject matter of secondary school mathematics. This book is the report of the second seminar and contains the Dubrovnik Program which stimulated…
Mathematical Thinking: From Cacophony to Consensus
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Argyle, Sean F.
2012-01-01
Various standards have demanded that teachers improve "mathematical thinking," but definitions are vague--if present at all. What little research on the subject exists is disjointed and dissenting, leading some researchers to lament the possibility of ever coming to an agreement on how to define "mathematical thinking" as a…
A Mathematical Solution to the Motorway Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Michaelson, Matthew T.
2009-01-01
This article presents a mathematical solution to a motorway problem. The motorway problem is an excellent application in optimisation. As it integrates the concepts of trigonometric functions and differentiation, the motorway problem can be used quite effectively as the basis for an assessment tool in senior secondary mathematics subjects.…
Narrative Pedagogies in Science, Mathematics and Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobbs, Linda; Davis, Rob
2013-01-01
Despite years of research, there remains serious concern regarding the engagement of students in science, mathematics and technology education. In this paper, the authors explore how narrative pedagogies are used in science, mathematics and technology in order to make the subjects meaningful. The paper focuses specifically on the role and…
The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hachey, Alyse C.
2013-01-01
Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…
Improving Intuition Skills with Realistic Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirza, Bonita; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim; Zulkardi
2014-01-01
The intention of the present study was to see the improvement of students' intuitive skills. This improvement was seen by comparing the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME)-based instruction with the conventional mathematics instruction. The subject of this study was 164 fifth graders of elementary school in Palembang. The design of this study…
Mathematics Worth Teaching, Mathematics Worth Understanding.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romberg, Thomas A.; Kaput, James J.
This chapter examines the scope of the mathematical content educators expect students to understand after they have participated in mathematics courses. It is organized under four headings: (1) Traditional School Mathematics, to clarify what the shift is away from; (2) Mathematics as Human Activity, to portray the direction the shift is toward;…
Mathematics, Physics and Music
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šikić, Zvonimir
I discuss the Pythagorean law of small numbers and its use in interpretations of our sensory discriminations of consonance vs. dissonance. It seems that the fact of non-western musical traditions contradicts the law and forces us to interpret the discriminations as acquired and subjective. I would like to show that this is a wrong interpretation, because it is based on the irrelevant empirical evidence. It does not take into account the correct mathematical and physical explanation of the law, provided by Helmholtz's theory in 1877 and corroborated by Plomp-Levelt experiment in 1965.
Mathematics 101: Reconsidering the Axioms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Begg, Andy
2011-01-01
In this article, I present some "axioms" that relate to undergraduate mathematics education. When I first heard the word axiom, it was defined as a "self-evident truth"; but an axiom is not a truth, it is a subjective assumption on which an argument or proof can be based. My purpose in presenting these axioms is to stimulate debate about…
Resource Guide to School Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hudson, Janet, Ed.
A wide variety of materials are listed and described in this resource guide. Listings include textbooks, enrichment materials, manipulative materials, and study units appropriate for students in grades K-12. Materials reviewed cover the full range of mathematical subject matter, and vary widely in their approach. Listings are arranged according to…
Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony
2012-01-01
In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belichesky, Jennifer
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to expand on the current research pertaining to women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, better understand the experiences of undergraduate women in the sciences, identify barriers to female persistence in their intended STEM majors, and understand the impact of the STEM co-educational…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mesa, V.
2011-01-01
Through an analysis of instruction in mathematics classrooms at a community college, the author describes the nature of the interaction and the complexity of the mathematical activities evident in two types of courses: remedial and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) college preparatory courses. Although both types of courses…
An Intersectional Analysis of Latin@ College Women's Counter-Stories in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leyva, Luis A.
2016-01-01
In this article, the author discusses the intersectionality of mathematics experiences for two Latin@ college women pursuing mathematics-intensive STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors at a large, predominantly White university. The author employs intersectionality and poststructural theories to explore and make meaning…
Toward a Framework for Multicultural STEM-Focused Career Interventions.
Byars-Winston, Angela
2014-12-14
Numerous federal and national commissions have called for policies, funds, and initiatives aimed at expanding the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce and education investments to create a significantly larger, more diverse talent pool of individuals who pursue technical careers. Career development professionals are poised to contribute to the equity discourse about broadening STEM participation. However, few are aware of STEM-related career development matters, career opportunities and pathways, or strategies for promoting STEM pursuits. The author summarizes STEM education and workforce trends and articulates an equity imperative for broadening and diversifying STEM participation. The author then offers a multicultural STEM-focused career development framework to encourage career development professionals' knowledge and awareness of STEM education and careers and delineates considerations for practice aimed at increasing the attainment and achievement of diverse groups in STEM fields.
Toward a Framework for Multicultural STEM-Focused Career Interventions
Byars-Winston, Angela
2015-01-01
Numerous federal and national commissions have called for policies, funds, and initiatives aimed at expanding the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce and education investments to create a significantly larger, more diverse talent pool of individuals who pursue technical careers. Career development professionals are poised to contribute to the equity discourse about broadening STEM participation. However, few are aware of STEM-related career development matters, career opportunities and pathways, or strategies for promoting STEM pursuits. The author summarizes STEM education and workforce trends and articulates an equity imperative for broadening and diversifying STEM participation. The author then offers a multicultural STEM-focused career development framework to encourage career development professionals' knowledge and awareness of STEM education and careers and delineates considerations for practice aimed at increasing the attainment and achievement of diverse groups in STEM fields. PMID:25750480
Enriching the Teaching of Biology with Mathematical Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andersen, Janet
2007-01-01
Secondary school educators are told to teach more mathematics and science to their students to help them become more proficient in the two subjects. Coordination of mathematics and science teaching is recognized as another means of improving proficiency. The National Science Foundation has funded the "Mathematics, Science and Technology…
1089 and All That - A Journey into Mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acheson, David
2002-09-01
This book aims to make mathematics accessible to non-experts and the lay reader. Providing an entertaining overview of the subject, the text includes several fascinating mathematical conundrums. The author's writing ability is second to none and Acheson provides a clear, unpatronising explanation of mathematics. The book contains several cartoons, sketches and photos making it entertaining and compulsive reading.
Aspects of Graduate Training in the Mathematical Sciences. Volume II.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jewett, John; And Others
This volume is the second part of a Report of the Survey Committee of the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, and presents data on a number of specific conditions and problems regarding the broad subject of graduate education in the mathematical sciences. Volume I, ASPECTS OF UNDERGRADUATE TRAINING IN THE MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES,…
Effects of Curriculum Reform on Mathematics Achievement in Grade Six.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moray, Joseph
This investigation measured effects of the modern mathematics on achievement in traditional arithmetic and in modern mathematics. Material on Sets, Variables, and Statistics was taught as a separate subject to an experimental group of 207 sixth-grade students. Instruction in the new mathematics content was given over a four-month period, using…
Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.
2014-01-01
Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…
DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Koziol, Natalie; Needham, Mark; Enochs, Larry
2015-01-01
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have a large impact on undergraduate instruction but are often poorly prepared to teach. Teaching self-efficacy, an instructor's belief in his or her ability to teach specific student populations a specific subject, is an important predictor of teaching skill and student achievement. A model of sources of teaching self-efficacy is developed from the GTA literature. This model indicates that teaching experience, departmental teaching climate (including peer and supervisor relationships), and GTA professional development (PD) can act as sources of teaching self-efficacy. The model is pilot tested with 128 GTAs from nine different STEM departments at a midsized research university. Structural equation modeling reveals that K-12 teaching experience, hours and perceived quality of GTA PD, and perception of the departmental facilitating environment are significant factors that explain 32% of the variance in the teaching self-efficacy of STEM GTAs. This model highlights the important contributions of the departmental environment and GTA PD in the development of teaching self-efficacy for STEM GTAs.
DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Koziol, Natalie; Needham, Mark; Enochs, Larry
2015-01-01
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have a large impact on undergraduate instruction but are often poorly prepared to teach. Teaching self-efficacy, an instructor’s belief in his or her ability to teach specific student populations a specific subject, is an important predictor of teaching skill and student achievement. A model of sources of teaching self-efficacy is developed from the GTA literature. This model indicates that teaching experience, departmental teaching climate (including peer and supervisor relationships), and GTA professional development (PD) can act as sources of teaching self-efficacy. The model is pilot tested with 128 GTAs from nine different STEM departments at a midsized research university. Structural equation modeling reveals that K–12 teaching experience, hours and perceived quality of GTA PD, and perception of the departmental facilitating environment are significant factors that explain 32% of the variance in the teaching self-efficacy of STEM GTAs. This model highlights the important contributions of the departmental environment and GTA PD in the development of teaching self-efficacy for STEM GTAs. PMID:26250562
Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus
2013-04-01
Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.
The discursive production of classroom mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Kim; Hodson, Elaine; Brown, Tony
2013-09-01
School mathematics is a function of its discursive environment where the language being used formats mathematical activity. The paper explores this theme through an extended example in which the conduct of mathematical teaching and learning is restricted by regulative educational policies. It considers how mathematics is discursively produced by student teachers within an employment-based model of teacher education in England where there is a low university input. It is argued that teacher reflections on mathematical learning and teaching within the course are patterned discursively in line with formal curriculum framings, assessment requirements and the local demands of their placement school. Both teachers and students are subject to regulative discourses that shape their actions and as a consequence this regulation influences the forms of mathematical activity that can take place. It is shown how university sessions can provide a limited critical platform from which to interrogate these restrictions and renegotiate them.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prochazka, Helen
2004-01-01
At first geometry was a practical subject to be used in the physical world. Then it took on another role as a system of thought and it became geometry for the mind. This issue's "scrapbook" consists mainly of interesting anecdotes related to geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benjamin, Thomas E.; Marks, Bryant; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.; Rose, Jordan; Pollard, Ethen; Thomas, Alicia; Muldrow, Lycurgus L.
2017-01-01
Although a major goal of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education is to develop scientific literacy, prior efforts at measuring scientific literacy have not attempted to link scientific literacy with success in STEM fields. The current Scientific Literacy Survey for College Preparedness in STEM (SLSCP-STEM) scale was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilhelm, Jennifer
2014-01-01
This study documented the means by which STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) educators experienced the mathematics and science associated with understanding lunar phenomena. The article reports how well STEM education graduate students interacted with projectbased materials as they engaged in interdisciplinary teaching and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bottia, Martha Cecilia; Stearns, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Moller, Stephanie; Parker, Ashley Dawn
2015-01-01
Background/Context: Schools are integral to augmenting and diversifying the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce. This is because K-12 schools can inspire and reinforce students' interest in STEM, in addition to academically preparing them to pursue a STEM career. Previous literature emphasizes the importance of…
A Study of Visualization for Mathematics Education
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daugherty, Sarah C.
2008-01-01
Graphical representations such as figures, illustrations, and diagrams play a critical role in mathematics and they are equally important in mathematics education. However, graphical representations in mathematics textbooks are static, Le. they are used to illustrate only a specific example or a limited set. of examples. By using computer software to visualize mathematical principles, virtually there is no limit to the number of specific cases and examples that can be demonstrated. However, we have not seen widespread adoption of visualization software in mathematics education. There are currently a number of software packages that provide visualization of mathematics for research and also software packages specifically developed for mathematics education. We conducted a survey of mathematics visualization software packages, summarized their features and user bases, and analyzed their limitations. In this survey, we focused on evaluating the software packages for their use with mathematical subjects adopted by institutions of secondary education in the United States (middle schools and high schools), including algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. We found that cost, complexity, and lack of flexibility are the major factors that hinder the widespread use of mathematics visualization software in education.
Introductory Programming Subject in European Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aleksic, Veljko; Ivanovic, Mirjana
2016-01-01
Programming is one of the basic subjects in most informatics, computer science mathematics and technical faculties' curricula. Integrated overview of the models for teaching programming, problems in teaching and suggested solutions were presented in this paper. Research covered current state of 1019 programming subjects in 715 study programmes at…
Who Succeeds in Mathematics? Caribbean Perspectives on the Mix of Schools and Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
George, Patricia
2012-01-01
Within the Caribbean, there has been a perception that students are underachieving in mathematics. This assessment has seemingly been based amongst other things upon the proportion of students who are successful in mathematics compared to other subjects in external examinations. This notion was investigated in a case study of secondary schools in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.
This bulletin presents an overview of mathematics education in the sixties, both in the United States and abroad, and suggests similar trends in the seventies. It examines the revolution in mathematics in the past 100 years which led to a unifying reorganization of the subject. Specifically, the authors examine the restructuring of algebra,…
Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arseven, Ayla
2015-01-01
The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…
Mathematical Story: A Metaphor for Mathematics Curriculum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dietiker, Leslie
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting the content found in mathematics curriculum in order to offer teachers and other mathematics educators comprehensive conceptual tools with which to make curricular decisions. More specifically, it describes a metaphor of "mathematics curriculum as story" and defines and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rozek, Christopher S.; Hyde, Janet S.; Svoboda, Ryan C.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.
2015-01-01
A foundation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is critical for students' college and career advancement, but many U.S. students fail to take advanced mathematics and science classes in high school. Research has neglected the potential role of parents in enhancing students' motivation for pursuing STEM courses.…
Granularity analysis for mathematical proofs.
Schiller, Marvin R G
2013-04-01
Mathematical proofs generally allow for various levels of detail and conciseness, such that they can be adapted for a particular audience or purpose. Using automated reasoning approaches for teaching proof construction in mathematics presupposes that the step size of proofs in such a system is appropriate within the teaching context. This work proposes a framework that supports the granularity analysis of mathematical proofs, to be used in the automated assessment of students' proof attempts and for the presentation of hints and solutions at a suitable pace. Models for granularity are represented by classifiers, which can be generated by hand or inferred from a corpus of sample judgments via machine-learning techniques. This latter procedure is studied by modeling granularity judgments from four experts. The results provide support for the granularity of assertion-level proofs but also illustrate a degree of subjectivity in assessing step size.
Mathematics for the Elementary School, Unit 16, Squareville.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luce, Marjory; Muckey, Roy
The Minnesota School Mathematics and Science Teaching (MINNEMAST) Project is characterized by its emphasis on the coordination of mathematics and science in the elementary school curriculum. Units are planned to provide children with activities in which they learn various concepts from both subject areas. Each subject is used to support and…
The Development of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kier, Meredith W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Osborne, Jason W.; Albert, Jennifer L.
2014-06-01
Internationally, efforts to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers have been on the rise. It is often the goal of such efforts that increased interest in STEM careers should stimulate economic growth and enhance innovation. Scientific and educational organizations recommend that efforts to interest students in STEM majors and careers begin at the middle school level, a time when students are developing their own interests and recognizing their academic strengths. These factors have led scholars to call for instruments that effectively measure interest in STEM classes and careers, particularly for middle school students. In response, we leveraged the social cognitive career theory to develop a survey with subscales in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In this manuscript, we detail the six stages of development of the STEM Career Interest Survey. To investigate the instrument's reliability and psychometric properties, we administered this 44-item survey to over 1,000 middle school students (grades 6-8) who primarily were in rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern USA. Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the STEM-CIS is a strong, single factor instrument and also has four strong, discipline-specific subscales, which allow for the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subscales to be administered separately or in combination. This instrument should prove helpful in research, evaluation, and professional development to measure STEM career interest in secondary level students.
S.T.E.M. Initiatives. Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, David
2010-01-01
STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) initiatives represent an extensive and expanding movement across American education. Nationally, funding for K-12 STEM programs increased from $700 million to almost $1 billion from 2005 to 2007 alone (US DOE, Report of the Academic Competitiveness Council, 2007, p. 51). Although there is a…
Report on STEM Graduation and Enrollment Trends. June 2012
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenkins, Rick; Mitchell, Suzanne
2012-01-01
The purpose of this report on Arkansas STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) program activity is to inform education and policy makers about the need to prepare and graduate more students with degrees in STEM related fields as defined by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Arkansas is witnessing a significant…
Shifting Expectations: Bringing STEM to Scale through Expanded Learning Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Donner, Jessica; Wang, Yvonne
2013-01-01
Expanded learning opportunities, such as afterschool and summer programs, are particularly well positioned to help address science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education crisis. A large percentage of youth participating in afterschool programs are members of groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM fields. Additionally,…
Part of What We Do: Teacher Perceptions of STEM Integration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stubbs, Eric A.; Myers, Brian E.
2016-01-01
This study explored three high school agriculture teachers' perceptions of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) integration through interviews. The approach was constructivist and data were analyzed according to the framework of integrated STEM education presented in a National Academy of Sciences report. Each participant…
Developing a National STEM Workforce Strategy: A Workshop Summary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alper, Joe
2016-01-01
The future competitiveness of the United States in an increasingly interconnected global economy depends on the nation fostering a workforce with strong capabilities and skills in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM knowledge and skills enable both individual opportunity and national competitiveness, and the nation needs…
Report on STEM Graduation and Enrollment Trends. April 2013
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenkins, Rick; Butler, Sharon; Mitchell, Suzanne
2013-01-01
The purpose of this report on Arkansas STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) program activity is to inform education and policy makers about the need to prepare and graduate more students with degrees in STEM-related fields as defined by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Arkansas is witnessing a significant…
The STEM Pathway for Women: What Has Changed?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heilbronner, Nancy N.
2013-01-01
In previous decades, researchers have identified a gender gap in the careers and academic achievement of men and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Recently, it has been suggested that some of these gender gaps no longer exist; however, the picture is more nuanced, for women are represented well in some STEM fields…
Report on STEM Graduation and Enrollment Trends. January 2015
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenkins, Rick; Butler, Sharon; Mitchell, Suzanne
2015-01-01
The purpose of this report on Arkansas STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) program activity is to inform education and policy makers about the need to prepare and graduate more students with degrees in STEM related fields as defined by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Arkansas is witnessing a significant…
Report on STEM Graduation and Enrollment Trends. February 2014
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenkins, Rick; Butler, Sharon; Mitchell, Suzanne
2014-01-01
The purpose of this report on Arkansas STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) program activity is to inform education and policy makers about the need to prepare and graduate more students with degrees in STEM related fields as defined by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Arkansas is witnessing a significant…
How Much Can Spatial Training Improve STEM Achievement?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stieff, Mike; Uttal, David
2015-01-01
Spatial training has been indicated as a possible solution for improving Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) achievement and degree attainment. Advocates for this approach have noted that the correlation between spatial ability and several measures of STEM achievement suggests that spatial training should focus on improving…
Promoting STEM Education through Mobile Teaching and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krishnamurthi, Murali; Richter, Stephanie
2013-01-01
The recruitment and retention of more students, especially women and minority students, into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programs is a critical need in technologically advanced countries like the U.S. as there is expected to be shortage of qualified STEM graduates in the future. Educators have to find new ways to…
Advancing STEM Undergraduate Learning: Preparing the Nation's Future Faculty
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pfund, Christine; Mathieu, Robert; Austin, Ann; Connolly, Mark; Manske, Brian; Moore, Katie
2012-01-01
Graduate students and post-doctoral scholars at research universities will shape the future of undergraduate education in the natural and social sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics (the STEM disciplines) in the United States. In 2009 alone, more than 41,000 doctorates were awarded in STEM fields, and if employment trends hold,…
Beyond the Pipeline: STEM Pathways for Youth Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyon, Gabrielle H.; Jafri, Jameela; St. Louis, Kathleen
2012-01-01
As framed by national education policy priorities, the dominant metaphor describing participation and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a "pipeline." The STEM workforce requires a "pipeline" of future scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. This pipeline begins in childhood and…
Diversifying the STEM Pipeline: The Model Replication Institutions Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cullinane, Jenna
2009-01-01
In 2006, the National Science Foundation (NSF) began funding the Model Replication Institutions (MRI) program, which sought to improve the quality, availability, and diversity of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Faced with pressing national priorities in the STEM fields and chronic gaps in postsecondary…
Preparing the Future STEM Workforce for Diverse Environments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daily, Shaundra Bryant; Eugene, Wanda
2013-01-01
Following the belief that diversity breeds innovation in scientific endeavors, there is a national push for more diversity in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce in order to maintain national economic competitiveness. Currently, STEM-related employment is only 28% non-White; however, greater efforts to recruit…
Family Friendly Policies in STEM Departments: Awareness and Determinants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Su, Xuhong; Bozeman, Barry
2016-01-01
Focused on academic departments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the United States, we attempt to map department chairs' awareness of family friendly policies and investigate possible determinants of their knowledge levels. Based on a sample of STEM department chairs in American research universities, we find…
Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jang, Hyewon
2016-01-01
Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM…
Mathematics education for social justice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suhendra
2016-02-01
Mathematics often perceived as a difficult subject with many students failing to understand why they learn mathematics. This situation has been further aggravated by the teaching and learning processes used, which is mechanistic without considering students' needs. The learning of mathematics tends to be just a compulsory subject, in which all students have to attend its classes. Social justice framework facilitates individuals or groups as a whole and provides equitable approaches to achieving equitable outcomes by recognising disadvantage. Applying social justice principles in educational context is related to how the teachers treat their students, dictates that all students the right to equal treatment regardless of their background and completed with applying social justice issues integrated with the content of the subject in order to internalise the principles of social justice simultaneously the concepts of the subject. The study examined the usefulness of implementing the social justice framework as a means of improving the quality of mathematics teaching in Indonesia involved four teacher-participants and their mathematics classes. The study used action research as the research methodology in which the teachers implemented and evaluated their use of social justice framework in their teaching. The data were collected using multiple research methods while analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out throughout the study. The findings of the study indicated that there were a number of challengesrelated to the implementation of the social justice framework. The findings also indicated that, the teachers were provided with a comprehensive guide that they could draw on to make decisions about how they could improve their lessons. The interactions among students and between the teachers and the students improved, they became more involved in teaching and learning process. Using social justice framework helped the teachers to make mathematics more
Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zohar, Anat
2006-01-01
While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts "learning for understanding" and "connected…
STEM Learning Research through a Funds of Knowledge Lens
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Civil, Marta
2016-01-01
This article examines STEM learning as a cultural process with a focus on non-dominant communities. Building on my work in funds of knowledge and mathematics education, I present three vignettes to raise some questions around connections between in-school and out-of-school mathematics. How do we define competence? How do task and environment…
Supporting Middle School Teachers' Implementation of STEM Design Challenges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesseig, Kristin; Nelson, Tamara Holmlund; Slavit, David; Seidel, Ryan August
2016-01-01
We describe and analyze a professional development (PD) model that involved a partnership among science, mathematics and education university faculty, science and mathematics coordinators, and middle school administrators, teachers, and students. The overarching project goal involved the implementation of interdisciplinary STEM Design Challenges…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VanMeter-Adams, Amy; Frankenfeld, Cara L.; Bases, Jessica; Espina, Virginia; Liotta, Lance A.
2014-01-01
What early experiences attract students to pursue an education and career in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)? Does hands-on research influence them to persevere and complete a major course of academic study in STEM? We evaluated survey responses from 149 high school and undergraduate students who gained hands-on research…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Beverly A. King
2013-01-01
This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.
2011-01-01
Today, there are more program options in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) than ever before. Because people are living in an age of increasing globalization, advocates of gifted children must understand that involvement in STEM fields is paramount for the children to be competitive in the job market and for the nation to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eisenhart, Margaret; Weis, Lois; Allen, Carrie D.; Cipollone, Kristin; Stich, Amy; Dominguez, Rachel
2015-01-01
In response to numerous calls for more rigorous STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education to improve US competitiveness and the job prospects of next-generation workers, especially those from low-income and minority groups, a growing number of schools emphasizing STEM have been established in the US over the past decade.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, Michael J.; Wexler, Jade
2013-01-01
Literacy and other content-specific demands presented within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) coursework can overwhelm all students and especially students with learning challenges. Although STEM content is often complex in itself (e.g., numerous multisyllabic words, lengthy expository texts, abstract concepts), some…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Teo, Tang Wee
2014-01-01
In this article, I use the idea of "dyschrony" to describe the multiple disjunctures experienced in a Hispanic woman's life as she struggled to gain full membership in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) community. Despite having earned a doctoral degree in chemistry and a teaching position in a STEM school, she…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dika, Sandra L.; D'Amico, Mark M.
2016-01-01
Representation of diverse groups in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a persistent concern in the United States. Although there have been some strides toward more diverse representation, significant problems of underrepresentation remain in particular STEM fields: physical sciences, engineering, math, and computer…
Programming Retinal Stem Cells into Cone Photoreceptors
2015-12-01
to program human stem cells directly into cones. Using RNA -seq, we identified several genes that are upregulated in advance of the earliest...reverse vision loss. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cone photoreceptor, retina, retinal stem cell, Otx2, Onecut1, Blimp1, RNA -seq., transcription factors, and...1 Keywords: 1. Cone photoreceptor 2. Retina 3. Retinal stem cell 4. Otx2 5. Onecut1 6. Blimp1 7. RNA -seq. 8. Transcription factors 9
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mumcu, Hayal Yavuz
2016-01-01
The purpose of this theoretical study is to explore the relationships between the concepts of using mathematics in the daily life, mathematical applications, mathematical modelling, and mathematical literacy. As these concepts are generally taken as independent concepts in the related literature, they are confused with each other and it becomes…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lo, Jane-Jane; And Others
Calls for increased student involvement in mathematics classroom learning situations are due primarily to the recognition that a traditional lecture/demonstration format within school mathematics instruction is not effective in fostering and promoting students' problem-solving abilities, mathematical reasoning power, and mathematical communication…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ricks, Thomas E.
2010-01-01
Mathematics is motivating; at least, it should be. I argue that mathematical activity is an inherently attractive enterprise for human beings because as intellectual organisms, we are naturally enticed by the intellectual stimulation of mathematizing, and, as social beings, we are drawn to the socializing aspects of mathematical activity. These…