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Sample records for mato grosso 1890-1945

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vânia A.; Terças, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

    2012-01-01

    We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717

  2. Socioeconomic development and agricultural intensification in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    VanWey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie; de Sa, Rebecca; Mahr, Dan; Mustard, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian agro-industrial frontier in Mato Grosso rapidly expanded in total area of mechanized production and in total value of production in the last decade. This article shows the spatial pattern of that expansion from 2000 to 2010, based on novel analyses of satellite imagery. It then explores quantitatively and qualitatively the antecedents and correlates of intensification, the expansion of the area under two crops per year. Double cropping is most likely in areas with access to transportation networks, previous profitable agricultural production, and strong existing ties to national and international commodity markets. The article concludes with an exploration of the relationship between double cropping and socioeconomic development, showing that double cropping is strongly correlated with incomes of all residents of a community and with investments in education. We conclude that double cropping in Mato Grosso is very closely tied to multiple indicators of socioeconomic development. PMID:23610174

  3. Concentration of gold in in situ laterites from Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Dominique

    1987-07-01

    The gold concentration studied is located in lateritic soils overlying Precambrian schists of the Cuiaba Group in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The following five horizons may be recognized from bottom to top: (1) a gray-blue altered schist horizon, (2) a red argillaceous alterite, (3) a horizon characterized by iron oxihydroxide-rich pebbles and quartz fragments in an iron oxihydroxide-rich matrix and clays, (4) an iron crust, and (5) the present soil. The most significant gold content is found in the third horizon just below the iron crust. According to geological study and morphological observations of the gold particles, the gold ore mined today is the result of two combined processes, i.e., the ferrallitic alteration of quartz lodes enclosed in schists and the effect of the red argillaceous alterite which acts as an impervious structure preventing the largest gold grains from migrating downward during their mechanical concentration.

  4. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    PubMed

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000-2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000-2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover.

  5. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    PubMed Central

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000–2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000–2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover. PMID:23610176

  6. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT.

  7. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; NOGUEIRA, Mauricio Lacerda; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702

  8. Deforestation control in Mato Grosso: a new model for slowing the loss of Brazil's Amazon forest.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2003-08-01

    Controlling deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region has long been illusive despite repeated efforts of government authorities to slow the process. From 1997 to 2000, deforestation rates in Brazil's 9-state "Legal Amazon" region continually crept upward. Now, a licensing and enforcement program for clearing by large farmers and ranchers in the state of Mato Grosso appears to be having an effect. The deforestation rate in Mato Grosso was already beginning to slacken before initiation of the program in 1999, but examination of county-level data suggests that deforestation in already heavily cleared areas was falling due to lack of suitable uncleared land, while little-cleared areas were experiencing rapid deforestation. Following initiation of the program, the clearing rates declined in the recent frontiers. Areas with greater enforcement effort also appear to have experienced greater declines. Demonstration of government ability to enforce regulations and influence trends is important to domestic and international debates regarding use of avoided deforestation to mitigate global warming.

  9. Cryptococcus gattii VGII in a Plathymenia reticulata hollow in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Lazéra, Márcia Dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Simi, Walquirya Borges; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the ecology of agents of cryptococcosis in Mato Grosso, without any data regarding to the sources of both agents in the environment. This study aimed to investigate Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans associated with decay in tree hollows within the urban area of three different cities of Mato Grosso. Seventy-two environmental samples collected from 72 living trees in the cities of Cuiabá, Várzea Grande and Chapada dos Guimarães were sampled and analysed. One tree (Plathymenia reticulata, Leguminosae) in the city of Cuiabá yielded 19 colonies identified as C. gattii molecular type VGII. The isolation of C. gattii VGII in the downtown city of Cuiabá is important because it fits in the Northern Macroregion, suggesting expanding and urbanisation of this genotype in different Brazilian cities.

  10. Biplot analysis of phenotypic stability in upland cotton genotypes in Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Farias, F J C; Carvalho, L P; Silva Filho, J L; Teodoro, P E

    2016-05-20

    Seed cotton yield is a trait governed by multiple genes that cause changes in the performance of genotypes depending on the cultivation environment. Breeding programs examine the genotype x environment interaction (GE) using precise statistical methods, such as AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and GGE biplot (genotype main effects + genotype x environment interaction). The AMMI method combines the analysis of variance and principal components, to adjust the main effects (genotypes and environments) and the effects of GE interaction, respectively. The GGE biplot groups the genotype additive effect together with the multiplicative effect of the GE interaction, and submits both of these to the principal components analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the AMMI and GGE biplot methods and select cotton genotypes that simultaneously showed high productivity of seed cotton and stability in Mato Grosso environments. Trials were conducted with cotton cultivars in eight environments across Mato Grosso State in the 2008/2009 crop season. The experiment used a randomized block design with 16 genotypes and four replicates per genotype x environment combination. Data for seeds cotton productivity were analyzed by AMMI and GGE biplot methods. Both methods were concordant in the discrimination of environments and genotypes for phenotypic stability. The genotypes BRS ARAÇÁ and LD 05 CV had high seed cotton productivity and phenotypic stability, and could be grown in all environments across Mato Grosso State.

  11. Virtual and Embedded Nutrient Flows from Soybean Production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The increase in international trade of agricultural products has enabled consumers to take advantage of distant resources to secure their provision of food. However, such a relationship has also distanced consumers from producers, resulting in environmental footprints often externalized to distant countries. For example, half of all soybeans grown in the state of Mato Grosso, the largest Brazilian soybean producer this past decade, were exported to China and Europe in 2009. This study looks at nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) use related to Mato Grosso soybean production and exports to China and Europe in the 2000-2009 period. More specifically we look at 'virtual' and 'embedded' NPK flows to China and Europe, where 'virtual' represents NPK inputs associated with soybean production but not actually embedded in the exported soybeans, and 'embedded' represents the NPK contained within the soybeans. Both virtual and embedded NPK export flows more than doubled between 2000 and 2009, with embedded NPK flows up to 18 times larger than virtual flows on an annual basis. We also quantify nutrient balances resulting from the soybean trade including imported and domestically produced fertilizer. Initial results suggest that the majority of embedded N may cause an issue for importing countries, while virtual P is mostly externalized to Mato Grosso which must rely on limited national production and fertilizer imports to meet P needs. This study contributes towards a more comprehensive understanding of the use of nutrients in soybean production as a component of a more complete environmental impact assessment of this agricultural product.

  12. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  13. Ranching modernization in tropical Brazil: foreign investment and environment in Mato Grosso, 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Accompanying the expansion of modern beef production in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were technologies and methods that proponents assumed were applicable to all ecosystems. successes in Europe, the United States, and Argentina convinced ranchers, investors, and animal scientists that these could be applied in the tropical Americas with ease. This assumption contributed to a wave of foreign ranching investment in semi-tropical Mato Grosso, Brazil, beginning in the early twentieth century. However, such a view failed to consider the specific characteristics of such environments and led to difficulties for several ventures and a re-evaluation of the relationship between ecosystems and the type of ranching appropriate to them. Ultimately, local Brazilian practice and experimentation proved more successful in tropical and semi-tropical Brazil, forcing foreign ranching concerns to adapt their techniques. Following the logic of earlier decades, more recently cattle-raising practices developed in Mato Grosso and similar regions have been applied in the tropical Amazon, resulting in widespread ecological devastation. The uneven experiences of foreign entrepreneurs in Mato Grosso offer valuable lessons for understanding the application of modernization technologies to diverse ecosystems; such knowledge can lead to a more sustainable approach to meat production.

  14. [Association between reported annual gold mining extraction and incidence of malaria in Mato Grosso-Brazil, 1985-1996].

    PubMed

    Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    A secondary data analysis was performed using an ecological design to study the association between malaria incidence rates, the reported annual production of gold mining extraction and monetary investments for the control of malaria from 1985 to 1996 in Mato Grosso, Brazil. A positive and statistically significant (p<0.001) association between the amount of gold extracted and MIR was obtained in multivariate regression analysis, even after allowing for financial investments in malaria control activities. This finding contributes to an understanding of the decrease observed in malaria incidence in Mato Grosso during the last decade, in view of the significant decrease in gold mining within the region during this period.

  15. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ludiele Souza; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Hans Filho, Günther; Higa Júnior, Minoru German; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  16. Detection of Mayaro virus infections during a dengue outbreak in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa; Silva, David José Ferreira da; Barreto, Eriana Serpa; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Ozanic, Katia; Schmidt, Diane Johnson; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Mondini, Adriano; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Morais

    2015-07-01

    Arboviruses are common agents of human febrile illness worldwide. In dengue-endemic areas illness due to other arboviruses have been misdiagnosed as dengue based only on clinical-epidemiological data. In this study we investigated the presence of Brazilian arboviruses in sera of 200 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in Sinop, MT, Brazil. The results showed that 38 samples were positive to Dengue virus (DENV) type 1, two samples to DENV type 4, and six to Mayaro virus. These results indicate that arboviruses others than DENV are circulating in Sinop and the surrounding region, which are going undiagnosed. In addition, molecular and evolutionary analyses indicate that two MAYV genotypes are co-circulating in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Thus, a strong surveillance program must be implemented to evaluate and monitor the distribution and the true importance of non-dengue arboviruses in the etiology of acute febrile illnesses.

  17. Introduction of the dengue virus type 4 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertolacci-Rocha, Lívia Garcia; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Lichs, Gislene Garcia de Castro; Dal Fabbro, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-08-01

    We report on the first isolation of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in February, 2012. The cases were isolated in the city of Campo Grande, the state capital, and presented the classic signs and symptoms of dengue fever. DENV-4 was primarily identified through viral isolation in C6/36 clone lineage of Aedes albopictus cells; followed by indirect immunofluorescence, using type-specific monoclonal antibodies. The results were subsequently confirmed by Nested RT-PCR tests. The first description of the introduction of DENV-4 in a state whose population is susceptible to this serotype and the circulation of three other serotypes in the area is cause for concern due to the increased possibility of severe and lethal cases of the disease, and of huge epidemics.

  18. Microsatellite polymorphisms in cassava landraces from the Cerrado biome, Mato Grosso do sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, M V B M; Pinheiro, T T; Borges, A; Valle, T L; Zatarim, M; Veasey, E A

    2010-10-01

    Using nine microsatellite loci, we investigated genetic structure and diversity in 83 Brazilian cassava accessions, including several landraces, in the Cerrado biome in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. All nine loci were polymorphic, averaging 6.00 alleles per locus. Treating each of seven municipalities as a cassava group or population, they averaged 3.5 alleles per locus, with 97% polymorphic loci, high values for observed heterozygosity (0.32) and gene diversity (0.56). Total genetic variability was high (0.668), and most of this genetic variability was concentrated within municipalities (0.577). Cluster and structure analyses divided accessions into two major clusters or populations (K = 2). Also, a significant genetic versus geographic correlation was found (r = 0.4567; P < 0.0260). Migratory routes in the Cerrado are considered main contributors to the region's high cassava diversity and spatial genetic structure, amplifying interactions between traditional farmers and the evolutionary dynamics of this crop.

  19. Observational descriptive study of cutaneous manifestations in patients from Mato Grosso with viral chronic hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Rostey, Renato Roberto Liberato; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in association with chronic infection by hepatitis B or C virus including cutaneous disorders. The frequency of these findings seems to vary among different places and reports. There is a lack of information about this issue in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of cutaneous findings affecting HBV or HCV carriers from a reference outpatient unit in Mato Grosso. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study. RESULTS 108 patients were studied. 88.9% presented some cutaneous findings but must of them were nonrelated to chronic viral infection. Four patients had cutaneous or autoimmune syndromes that may be HBV or HCV related. CONCLUSION In our study we found no statistical association between viral hepatitis and skin diseases. PMID:26734863

  20. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  1. Thermoluminescence dating of archaeological ceramics collected from state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatumi, S. H.; Martins, G. R.; Kashimoto, E. M.; Ayta, W. E. F.; Watanabe, S.

    Systematic field work has been carried out since 1993, in order to recover the archaeological sites, situated in places which will be inundated directly or indirectly by the installation of the Hydroelectric Complex "Porto Primavera". A total of 14 archaeological sites were discovered in the right margin of the Parana river, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Equivalent doses of ancient ceramics collected from these sites were determined by Additive dose method. The estimated ages were in the range of (239 ± 10) to (1248 ± 100) years. A burned charcoal sample was also collected from the oldest site and dated by 14C dating method (Centre de Faibles Radioactivités, Laboratoire Mixte C.N.R.S. - CEA, France). An age of about (1015 ± 75) BP was obtained and agrees with the one found by TL method.

  2. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Luciana Basili; de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Márcia; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Filho, José Meirelles; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2011-01-01

    Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 160 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei), itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei) analyzed. PMID:24031756

  3. Distribution of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of medical importance in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Zeilhofer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Intense environmental impacts, causing alterations of the natural habitats of fauna, including those of sandfly disease vectors are observed in Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Entomologic survey of phlebotomines was based on light trap and was carried out by entomological nucleus of the FUNASA and SES in the period between 1996 and 2001. Eighty eight species were identified, including the following sandflies with medical importance to leishmaniasis: Lutzomyia amazonensis, L. anduzei, L. antunesi, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. complexa, L. cruzi, L. flaviscutellata, L. intermedia, L. longipalpis, L. migonei, L. paraensis, L. ubiquitalis, L. whitmani and L. yuilli yuilli. Most sandflies of medical importance occurred in the Amazon forest and savannah. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi had high densities in the savannah region. L. flaviscutellata is predominating in both the Amazon forest and the savannah region. L. whitmani and L. antunesi were sampled in the Amazon forest, savannah and marsh land.

  4. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  5. Historic Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1. Source Data Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Sales, Marcio H.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Griscom, Bronson

    2011-01-01

    Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results: Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year trends of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by >20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C/ha, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions: Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.

  6. Historic emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1) source data uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from credited mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year periods of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by > 20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C ha-1, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions Estimates of source data uncertainties are essential for REDD+. Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions. PMID:22208947

  7. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  8. [Triatoma vandae sp.n. of the oliveirai complex from the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)].

    PubMed

    Carcavallo, Rodolfo U; Jurberg, José; Rocha, Dayse da Silva; Galvao, Cleber; Noireau, François; Lent, Herman

    2002-07-01

    There are several specific complexes belonging to the genus Triatoma Laporte, 1832, which are generally associated to specific geographic areas. Recent publications have linked the oliveirai complex to ecosystems of Mato Grosso, which are also present in other Brazilian states and even in other bordering countries as eastern Paraguay. The study of the abundant material collected during the last years allowed the description of several new species of the oliveirai complex: T. jurbergi Carcavallo, Galvão Lent, 1998; T. baratai Carcavallo Jurberg, 2000 and T. klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent Galvão, 2001. Another new species belonging to the same complex is described here as T. vandae sp.n. It originates from the state of Mato Grosso, and has been reared in the insectary of the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro.

  9. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  10. Environmental footprints show China and Europe’s evolving resource appropriation for soybean production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Johnson, Mark S.; Galford, Gillian L.; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2014-07-01

    Mato Grosso has become the center of Brazil’s soybean industry, with production located across an agricultural frontier expanding into savanna and rainforest biomes. We present environmental footprints of soybean production in Mato Grosso and resource flows accompanying exports to China and Europe for the 2000s using five indicators: deforestation, land footprint (LF), carbon footprint (CF), water footprint (WF), and nutrient footprints. Soybean production was associated with 65% of the state’s deforestation, and 14-17% of total Brazilian land use change carbon emissions. The decade showed two distinct production systems illustrated by resources used in the first and second half of the decade. Deforestation and carbon footprint declined 70% while land, water, and nutrient footprints increased almost 30% between the two periods. These differences coincided with a shift in Mato Grosso’s export destination. Between 2006 and 2010, China surpassed Europe in soybean imports when production was associated with 97 m2 deforestation yr-1 ton-1 of soybean, a LF of 0.34 ha yr-1 ton-1, a carbon footprint of 4.6 ton CO2-eq yr-1 ton-1, a WF of 1908 m3 yr-1 ton-1, and virtual phosphorous and potassium of 5.0 kg P yr-1 ton-1 and 0.0042 g K yr-1 ton-1. Mato Grosso constructs soil fertility via phosphorous and potassium fertilizer sourced from third party countries and imported into the region. Through the soybean produced, Mato Grosso then exports both water derived from its abundant, seasonal precipitation and nutrients obtained from fertilizer. In 2010, virtual water flows were 10.3 km3 yr-1 to China and 4.1 km3 yr-1 to Europe. The total embedded nutrient flows to China were 2.12 Mtons yr-1 and 2.85 Mtons yr-1 to Europe. As soybean production grows with global demand, the role of Mato Grosso’s resource use and production vulnerabilities highlight the challenges with meeting future international food security needs.

  11. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  12. [Managerial performance in public health services: a case study in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Ana Rita; Hortale, Virginia Alonso

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents part of a doctoral dissertation that developed a theoretical model capable of identifying managerial performance in various administrative levels of a Municipal Health Secretariat. The methodology was a case study of the Municipal Health Secretariat in Campo Grande, capital of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The theoretical model was based on recent debates emphasizing the need to modernize public administration, with an emphasis on efficacy and efficiency in the organizations as a whole. Some 31 interviews were conducted with the objective of identifying the managers' performance, through questions based on their daily practices in planning, organization, direction, and control. Managers from higher hierarchical levels obtained better results, while those in basic health units generally developed activities and complied with decisions passed down by imposition, with limited capacity to plan, organize, or control activities pertaining to their management sphere. These results stem partially from the charismatic leadership and centralizing administration of the current management in the municipal health system.

  13. Nitrogen nanoinclusions in milky diamonds from Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff-Grund, J.; Brenker, F. E.; Marquardt, K.; Howell, D.; Schreiber, A.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Griffin, W. L.; Kaminsky, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    A unique set of diamonds with a 'milky' optical appearance from the Rio Soriso placer deposit in the Juina area, Mato Grosso, Brazil was studied by combined transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The main characteristics of the studied samples are large numbers of randomly distributed {111}-faceted octahedral defect nanostructures. The dislocation densities of the focused ion beam (FIB) foils are generally low. Dislocation loops are observed only around larger inclusions. The inclusion size shows a bimodal distribution and spreads around values of 20 and 200 nm. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy mapping of both subsets yield high nitrogen contents for all sealed inclusions. In cases where the nanoinclusions touch the surface of the FIB section no nitrogen signal could be detected, indicating the loss of a fluid or gas phase as the carrier of nitrogen. FTIR mapping of the same regions showed a strong correlation between structurally bound nitrogen, hydrogen and the abundance of nanoinclusions. We propose that the most likely phase included in these nanoinclusions is NH3. These nanoinclusions could be the result of a high-temperature episode or of long residence times at shallower depths and lower temperatures. Thus they might represent the last stage of the nitrogen aggregation, or they may be syngenetic trapped NH-bearing source fluids.

  14. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Carbo, Leandro; Ribeiro, Maria L; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2008-08-01

    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso, Brazil during September and December 1998 and April 1999. Different water source sampling stations of groundwater (irrigation water well, drinking water well, and water hole) and surface water (dam and river) are set up based on agricultural land use. A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection is used for the determination of these compounds. All compounds are detected at least once in water samples. A temporal trend of pesticide contamination is observed, with the highest contamination frequency occurring in December during the main application season. Metribuzin shows the highest individual detection frequencies throughout the monitoring period, followed by metolachlor, simazine, and DEA. The maximum mean concentrations of pesticides in this study are in the range from 0.14 to 1.7 microg/L. We deduct that the contamination of water resources is predominantly caused by non-point pollution of pesticides used in intensive cash-crop cultures of the Cerrado area. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of pesticide concentrations in water resources of this tropical region is necessary to detect the longer term contamination trends and developing health risks.

  15. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  16. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil.

  17. [Demographic profile of Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1993-1996].

    PubMed

    Souza, Luciene Guimarães de; Pagliaro, Heloisa; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from 1993 to 1996. Data came from annual collection and registration of vital statistics conducted by the health service in three villages (Garças, Meruri, and Morada dos Boróro). The average annual population growth rate was 2.4%. Nearly half (44%) of the population was younger than 15 years (median 16 years). The crude birth rate was 30.9 per 1,000 and the crude death rate 7.3 per 1,000 inhabitants. The infant mortality rate was high (58.8 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious health conditions in the villages. The results showed that women married younger than men and that there were numerous unmarried adult men (26.7%) and women (13.3%), as compared to data from other indigenous groups. The total fertility rate of Boróro women was 4.3, quite low compared to other indigenous communities in Brazil. The study emphasizes the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data on indigenous populations.

  18. The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in Mato Grosso State, Brazil: implementation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Reinaldo Gaspar da; Barros, Nelson Filice

    2016-09-01

    Although the 224 health professionals engaged by the More Doctors for Brazil Project (Projeto Mais Médicos para o Brazil, PMMB) to strengthen the National Primary Health Care Policy (Política Nacional de Atenção Básica, PNab) in 104 municipalities of Mato Grosso (MT) State have encountered significant problems in the work process, important advances have resulted in the health of populations served by the More Doctors Programme (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM). This article analyses the implementation and development of the PMM in MT, from 2013 to 2015, on the basis of primary data from focus groups and interviews of social stakeholders at the institutions involved and secondary data from reports by supervisors, tutors, managers and institutions on the MT State Coordinating Committee (CCE) of the PMM. Despite political difficulties in managing implementation, the results show that the endeavour was beneficial in that it surmounted previous obstacles, afforded users greater access, prompted discussion of the problem and proposed and experimented with ways to strengthen primary health care. We conclude that there is a need for broader academic discussion of the provision and training of doctors, of the model of care and of human resource capacity-building by continuing professional development with integration among teaching, service and community.

  19. Morphoagronomic and molecular profiling of Capsicum spp from southwest Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A L; Marostega, T N; Cabral, N S S; Araújo, K L; Serafim, M E; Seabra-Júnior, S; Sudré, C P; Rodrigues, R; Neves, L G

    2016-07-15

    The genus Capsicum ranks as the second most exported vegetable in Brazil, which is also considered to be a center of diversity for this genus. The aim of this study was to rescue genetic variability in the genus Capsicum in the southwest region of Mato Grosso, and to characterize and estimate the genetic diversity of accessions based on morphoagronomic descriptors and inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Data were obtained following the criteria of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, renamed Bioversity International for Capsicum. Data were analyzed using different multivariate statistical techniques. An array of binary data was used to analyze molecular data, and the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index was used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among accessions. Six well-defined groups were formed based on the morphological characterization. The most divergent accessions were 142 and 126, with 125 and 126 being the most similar. The groups formed following agronomic characterization differed from those formed by morphological characterization, and there was a need to subdivide the groups for better distinction of accessions. Based on molecular analysis, accessions were divided into two groups, and there was also a need to subdivide the groups. Based on joint analysis (morphological + agronomic + molecular), six groups were formed with no duplicates. For all groups, the cophenetic correlation coefficient was higher than 0.8. These results provide useful information for the better management of the work collection. All correlations between the combined distance matrix were significant by the Mantel test.

  20. Population dynamics of caterpillars on three cover crops before sowing cotton in Mato Grosso (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silvie, P J; Menzel, C A; Mello, A; Coelho, A G

    2010-01-01

    Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems under a preliminary cover crop such as millet are common in some areas of Brazil. Lepidopteran pests that damage cotton, soybean and maize crops can proliferate on cover crops, so preventive chemical treatments are necessary. Very little data is available on these pests on cover crops. This paper presents the dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda, S. eridania, Mocis latipes and Diatraea saccharalis caterpillars monitored at Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso state (Brazil) during the of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons on four cover crops, i.e. finger millet (Eleusine coracana), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis). The pests were visually counted on plants within a 1 m2 transect (wooden frame). Caterpillars were reared to facilitate identification of collected species and parasitoids. Many S. frugiperda caterpillars were observed on millet in 2005, with a maximum of 37 caterpillars/m2. On sorghum, we found 30 caterpillars/m2, or 0.83 caterpillars/plant. The Diatraea borer attacked sorghum later than the other pests. M. latipes was also observed on millet. The millet cover crop had to be dried for at least 1 month before direct drilling the main cotton crop in order to impede S. frugiperda infestations on cotton plantlets, thus avoiding the need for substantial resowing. The comparative methodological aspects are discussed.

  1. Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae) - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Valente, Ana Carolina Dos Santos; Luna-Dias, Antonio Paulino A; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Marchon-Silva, Verônica

    2012-08-01

    A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres). This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C.) subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  2. Prey selection by two benthic fish species in a Mato Grosso stream, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Carla Ferreira; Mazzoni, Rosana; Caramaschi, Erica Pellegrini; Rodrigues, Daniela; Moraes, Maíra

    2011-12-01

    Key to understand predator choice is the relationship between predator and prey abundance. There are few studies related to prey selection and availability. Such an approach is still current, because the ability to predict aspects of the diet in response to changes in prey availability is one of the major problems of trophic ecology. The general objective of this study was to evaluate prey selection by two species (Characidium cf. vidali and Pimelodella lateristriga) of the Mato Grosso stream, in Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Benthos and fishes were collected in June, July and September of 2006 and January and February of 2007. Fish were collected with electric fishing techniques and benthos with a surber net. Densities of benthic organisms were expressed as the number of individuals per/m2. After sampling, the invertebrates were fixed in 90% ethanol, and, in the laboratory, were identified to the lowest taxonomical level. Approximately, seventy individuals from each species were selected randomly in each month. Fishes were fixed in 10% formalin in the field and transferred to 70 degrees GL ethanol in the laboratory. Fishes had their stomachs removed for subsequent analysis. Fish diet was described according to the numeric frequency method. The Manly Electivity Index was applied in order to verify prey selection. The most abundant families in both benthos and diet of both fish species were the same, indicating that these species consume mainly most abundant prey in the environment. We concluded that prey selection occurs even for preys that had small abundance in the environment. However, it is the availability of the macroinvertebrate resources that determines the major composition of items in diet of fish, demonstrating that the abundance is the factor that most influences the choice of prey.

  3. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; SERRA, Otacília Pereira; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; GONDIM, Breno Herman Ferreira; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; SOUTO, Francisco José Dutra; de PAULA, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; DUTRA, Valéria; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV), which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV), which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT. PMID:26200961

  4. Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mirella F. C.; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Andrade-Filho, José D.; Casaril, Aline E.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Fernandes, Carlos E. S.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Oliveira, Alessandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyialongipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself. PMID:24066129

  5. Assessing the MODIS Crop Detection Algorithm for Soybean Crop Area Mapping and Expansion in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo Ducati, Jorge; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R2 = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:24983007

  6. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  7. [Congenital defects in the cities with high use of pesticides in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Noemi Pereira; Moi, Gisele Pedroso; Atanaka-Santos, Marina; Silva, Ageo Mário Candido; Pignati, Wanderlei Antônio

    2014-10-01

    Mato Grosso is the largest agricultural producer and the largest national consumer of pesticides in Brazil. Maternal exposure to pesticides in the periconceptional period has been associated with increased risk of congenital malformations. This article aims to analyze the association between the use of pesticides and congenital malformations in cities with highest exposure to pesticides in Mato Grosso. It was a case-control study conducted with 219 live births with congenital malformations and 862 live births. The average use of pesticides was estimated in the prior and subsequent trimester to the date of fertilization and throughout the periconceptional period per city, month and year of use. Subsequently, these measures were quartilized and transformed into indicator-type (dummy) variables, attributing an exposure level for each interquartile interval. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Significant associations were observed (p < 0.05) in the third (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.79) and fourth quartile (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.24) of the post-fertilization period and the fourth quartile (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.56) throughout the periconceptional period. Maternal exposure to pesticides was associated with higher incidence of congenital malformations.

  8. Chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea waterston (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from the emberizidae and thraupidae (Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the first record of three chewing lice species of the genus Myrsidea collected from one emberizid and two thraupid hosts in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Morphological characters of M. seminuda are added for the last redescription of this species and a new key to males of 'bonariensis species group' is presented.

  9. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the county of Colniza, Mato Grosso, the main limitation for livestock production is the occurrence of "sudden death" in cattle, which affects in some farms up to 50% of the herd. In visits to some of the farms where the problem occurred, in 2004, 2011 and 2012, the presence of Amorimia pubiflora ...

  10. Land-use and environmental changes in the Cerrados of South-Eastern Mato Grosso -- Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina

    The human-induced changes of the Earth's land surfaces have been unprecedented, with outcomes often indicating degradation and loss of environmental quality. Mato Grosso State in Brazil, location of the study area, underwent extensive land-use and land-cover changes in recent decades with the rates, patterns and consequences poorly documented until now. In this context, the aim of the present research is to propose a multidisciplinary approach for quantifying historical land-use and environmental changes in the southeast part of this State, where the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savannas) has been intensively converted into agricultural lands. The methodology includes three parts: remote sensing change detection, land vulnerability mapping, and identification of key environmental indicators. Land-use/cover information was extracted from a temporal remote sensing dataset using an object-oriented classification approach, and the changes quantified employing a post-classification method. In addition, the study area was assessed for its vulnerabilities, focusing mainly on erosion risks, wetlands, and areas with limited or no suitability for crops. Finally, key environmental indicators were identified from the preceding steps and analyzed within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. The results provided an improved mapping of the Cerrados natural vegetation conversion into crops and pastures, and indicate that the Cerrado vegetation was intensively converted and also became more fragmented in the time frame studied. Between 1985 and 2005 the area lost approximately 6491 km 2 of Cerrados (42 %). Modeling based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation indicated significant increase in erosion risk from 1985 to 2005 mainly related to the increase in crop areas and the crops' encroachment into more fragile lands. The identification of environmental indicators rendered complex environmental information more

  11. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-09-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  12. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:25141284

  13. Comparison of sampling designs for estimating deforestation from landsat TM and MODIS imagery: a case study in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  14. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents.

  15. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block. PMID:25258742

  16. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  17. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  18. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea).

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007-2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal.

  19. Molecular detection of feline arthropod-borne pathogens in cats in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, central-western region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natasha Gandolfi; Gavioli, Fernando Antonio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2013-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas, Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT). Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4%) were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2%) for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (0.5%) for 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One cat (0.5%), a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis', based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7%) for B. henselae and one (0.5%) for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showed Cytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas and Bartonella species.

  20. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  1. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-10-14

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  2. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the genital tracts of female dairy cattle in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A

    2017-02-01

    Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.

  3. Ureaplasma diversum as a cause of pustular vulvovaginitis in bovine females in Vale Guapore, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gaeti, João Guilherme L N; Lana, Marconni V C; Silva, Gustavo S; Lerner, Letycia; de Campos, Camila G; Haruni, Fernanda; Colodel, Edson M; Costa, Eduardo F; Corbellini, Luis G; Nakazato, Luciano; Pescador, Caroline A

    2014-08-01

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with various reproductive problems in cattle that include granular vulvovaginitis, weak calves, and abortion. This study was conducted in a beef herd situated in the Middle-West region of Brazil, and the objectives were to verify the presence of U. diversum and to elucidate its possible relationships with independent variables in this bovine herd population. A total of 134 vaginal mucous swabs were taken for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of these, 51 (38 %) were PCR positive for U. diversum. Of the 58 heifers with vulvovaginal lesions characterized by hyperemia, granulated lesions, and edema distributed throughout the vulvar mucosa, 37 (64 %) were U. diversum positive; of the 76 heifers without reproductive lesions, 14 (18 %) were U. diversum positive. All tested samples were negative for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the following two variables were significantly associated with the presence of U. diversum: the presence of vulvar lesions (p = 0.001) and the presence of a progesterone (P4) device (p = 0.001). These findings indicate that U. diversum should be considered a pathogen that is associated with pustular vulvovaginitis in heifers from the Mato Grosso state and that additional studies of the risk factors associated with intravaginal P4 device transmission should be performed.

  4. [HTLV 1/2 infection: prenatal performance as a disease control strategy in State of Mato Grosso do Sul].

    PubMed

    Dal Fabbro, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Portela, Patrícia; Botelho, Carlos Augusto; Freitas, Gisele Maria Brandão de; Soares, Joana; Ferri, Juliana; Lupion, Juliana

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of HTLV 1/2 infection among pregnant women in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul was estimated by means of the ELISA, Western Blot and PCR techniques, in blood samples collected by peripheral venous puncture. 116,689 pregnant women were examined and 153 were diagnosed as presenting HTLV 1/2 infection, with prevalence of 0.13%. Among these 153 pregnant women, 133 (86.9%) had type 1 and 20 (11.1%) had type 2; 73.2% were black, brown or indigenous; about 90% performed domestic activities; and 75.8% (116/153) had been to school for seven years or less. The 153 pregnant women had 172 pregnancies during the study period and 164 pregnancies were followed. Out of pregnancies that were followed, 6.7% (11/164) evolved to abortion, 26.8% (41/153) reported previous abortions and 31.7% (13/41) had had more than two abortions. Comorbidities were found in 17% (26/153), among whom 3.3% (5/153) had HIV (p<0.000002). The authors emphasize the importance of identifying pregnant women with HTLV 1/2 infection, as a strategy for disease control and prevention.

  5. DECREASING PREVALENCE OF THE ACUTE/SUBACUTE CLINICAL FORM OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Larissa Rodrigues; Andrade, Úrsulla Vilella; Santos, Aline Ferreira Dos; Marques, Ana Paula da Costa; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone; Mendes, Rinaldo Pôncio; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda

    2014-01-01

    With the objective to evaluate the behavior of paracoccidioidomycosis in the last three decades, clinical and epidemiological data of 595 patients admitted to clinical services of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul from 1980 to 2009 were investigated. Gender, age distribution, clinical form, comorbidity with tuberculosis or AIDS, and mortality were compared by decades of clinical admission. It was shown that during the three decades there was a decrease in women percentage, and the same manner occurred a reduction in participants in the age group of 20 to 39 years. Moreover, the acute/subacute forms have been diminished in the period. These fluctuations are closely related and can be simultaneously analyzed. Increased AIDS co-infection prevalence from the first to the second decade was also revealed, coinciding with the appearance of the retroviral epidemic and stabilizing during the third decade. No change in the tuberculosis co-infection rate was observed (overall = 6.9%). It reinforces the importance of this co-morbidity. The overall mortality rate remained steady at 6.7%, not varying significantly from one decade to another. The persistent mortality rate calls attention to the importance of this neglected disease. PMID:24626413

  6. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Helen Rezende de; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Infran, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; Ribeiro, Leticia Moraes; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2016-12-08

    The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population.

  7. Soil Oxidation-Reduction Potential and Plant Photosynthetic Capacity in the Northern Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Plant communities of the Pantanal wetland are able to survive long periods of climatic and physiological stress in the dry and wet seasons. During inundation, soil oxygen demand increases dramatically as reducing soil conditions create stress in the root system with possible impacts on photosynthetic capacity of plants. We look at inundation cycles of a tree island (locally known as a cordilheira) in the Northern Pantanal near Poconé, Mato Grosso, and relate soil oxidation-reduction potential and soil oxygen depletion to the photosynthetic capacity of two plant communities of flooded scrub forest (Vochysia divergens and Curatela americana). Results show a drop in soil oxidation-reduction potential of over 400 mV, to levels below the absolute value of -200 mV, following inundation around the tree island. Both plant species showed increased carbon assimilation at highest soil oxygen demand despite a change in stomatal conductance, suggesting adaptation to the inundated environment. Absolute values of soil oxidation-reduction potential also allow for the determination of specific soil chemical reactions characteristic of the tree island environment, namely the reduction of iron(III), or carbon dioxide which in turn produces methane. Our combined analysis of soil chemistry with plant ecophysiology allows for a better understanding of soil-plant interactions in the Pantanal, specifically the drivers of biogeochemical processes between inundation periods.

  8. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs.

  9. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Veruska Nogueira; de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25410993

  10. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Andrea A.; McGrath, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3–5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  11. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  12. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite. PMID:26602870

  13. [Demographic profile of the Xavánte Indian population in Sangradouro-Volta Grande, Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Souza, L G; Santos, R V

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Xavánte population at the Sangradouro-Volta Grande Indigenous Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997. The survey included annual censuses and vital statistics from 7 Xavánte villages. Permanent contact with Brazilian national society, established in the 1940s and 50s, caused a population drop due to epidemics and clashes. In 1995 there were 825 individuals in the community. The crude birth rate (57.7/1,000) and death rate (9.1/1,000) were higher than the national averages. The majority (56%) of the population is under 15 years of age (median: 13 years) and the infant mortality rate is high (87.1 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious sanitary conditions in the villages. Other results included the persistence of polygyny; low levels of migration; a dynamic of splits and formation of new villages; traditional housing patterns maintained in the old villages and abandoned in the new ones. The recent demographic recovery in the data from Sangradouro-Volta Grande is similar to that observed in the Pimentel Barbosa community. The study highlights the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data from indigenous populations.

  14. Detection of Oropouche virus segment S in patients and inCulex quinquefasciatus in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Serra, Otacília Pereira; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; de Souza, Victor Costa; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the circulation of Orthobunyavirus species in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) Brazil. During a dengue outbreak in 2011/2012, 529 serum samples were collected from patients with acute febrile illness with symptoms for up to five days and 387 pools of female Culex quinquefasciatus captured in 2013 were subjected to nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for segment S of the Simbu serogroup followed by nucleotide sequencing and virus isolation in Vero cells. Patients (5/529; 0.9%) from Cuiabá (n = 3), Várzea Grande (n = 1) and Nova Mutum (n = 1) municipalities were positive for the S segment of Oropouche virus (OROV). Additionally, eight/387 Cx. quinquefasciatus pools were positive for the segment, with a minimum infection rate of 2.3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the samples belong to the subgenotype Ia, presenting high homology with OROV strains obtained from humans and animals in the Brazilian Amazon. The present paper reports the first detection of an Orthobunyavirus, possibly OROV, in patients and in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in MT. This finding reinforces the notion that arboviruses frequently reported in the Amazon Region circulate sporadically in MT during dengue outbreaks. PMID:26517653

  15. Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.

  16. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

  17. A new genus of freshwater crab of the tribe Kingsleyini Bott, 1970 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) with description of a new species from Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Manuel; Tavares, Marcos; Magalhães, Célio

    2016-10-02

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Melothelphusa apiaka n. gen., n. sp., from Mato Grosso, Central Brazil is described and illustrated. Brasiliothelphusa dardanelosensis Magalhães & Türkay, 2010, is assigned to the new genus Melothelphusa. Therefore, the genus Brasiliothelphusa Magalhães & Türkay, 1986, is restricted to its type species B. tapajoense Magalhães & Türkay, 1986. The new taxa can be easily separated from their close relatives by a suite of morphological characters from the first gonopod.

  18. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  19. Hyphessobrycon petricolus, a new species of tetra (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian M; Lima, Flávio C T; Barros, Bruno S

    2017-01-17

    A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from the rio Roosevelt, rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon petricolus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following features: a well-defined, relatively narrow dark midlateral stripe on body extending from immediately behind posterior margin of opercle to the middle caudal-fin rays, relatively conspicuous humeral blotch, and 16-20 branched anal-fin rays. Comments on the remaining Hyphessobrycon species presenting a conspicuous dark midlateral stripe are presented.

  20. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture).

  1. Cluster analysis applied to the spatial and temporal variability of monthly rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.

  2. Characterizing a Dynamic Land Cover Change Frontier Using MODIS Phenology Metrics: Cropland Expansion in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Morisette, J.

    2005-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil experienced the most rapid agricultural expansion of any region in the Amazon Basin during the existing MODIS data record. Rapid conversion of Amazon forest, transitional tropical forest, and cerrado woodland-savanna for cattle ranching and grain production continues to fragment large tracts of these biomes. Tropical forest loss is estimated annually, yet the fate of cleared lands and losses of transitional forest or cerrado have not been well characterized in this region. Using phenological information from time series of MODIS 16-day composite data, it is possible to capture the temporal dynamism of land cover change and accurately separate primary and secondary land use transitions. We use time series of cloud-cleaned MODIS NDVI and EVI at 250 m resolution to characterize land cover based on metrics of wet-season, dry-season, and annual phenology from 2000-2004. Distinct phenological signatures for forest, pasture and natural grasslands, cerrado, and cropland enable accurate classification of land cover types when compared to field validation data (overall accuracy = 85%). We estimate that more than 1.6 million hectares were converted to cropland between 2000 and 2004. The majority of new cropland resulted from the direct conversion of cerrado (35%) or forest (29%); conversion of natural grassland areas or planted pasture accounted for 36% of new cropland areas. While secondary transitions from existing cattle pasture to cropland are an important source of new agricultural production, our findings contradict recent statements that cropland agriculture is not directly associated with new deforestation activities. Separation of more seasonal cerrado vegetation from transitional tropical forest based on vegetation phenology highlights land cover dynamics in regions with no previous deforestation monitoring. Phenological information from MODIS is extremely important to monitor land cover dynamics, separate forest types, and estimate

  3. Patterns of Woody Growth for Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) Trees in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappia, A. J.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, locally known as cerrado, is a major ecosystem that covers a vast majority of central Brazil. Little is known about how woody growth within the cerrado is affected by soil properties such as texture and/or nutrient availability. Thus, in this study we assessed the relationship between woody growth and soil properties in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We sampled 4-5 vegetation stands in each site that varied in hydrology, soil type, and vegetation composition and structure, and measured diameter at breast height, wood density, and soil nutrient concentration and physical properties every 5-10 m along a 100 m long transect. We hypothesized that as tree diameter at breast height increases, annual tree growth rate will decrease and that woody carbon (C) storage will increase as a function of soil nutrient availability. Our preliminary data support our hypotheses. Tree growth rates declined with tree size in both the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal. Rates of woody C storage, both on a per tree basis (kgC tree-1 year-1) and on a per unit ground area basis (kgC m-2 year-1) were significantly positively correlated with soil extractable phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and clay content, while only woody C storage on a per tree basis was positively correlated with potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These data suggest that rates of woody C storage in cerrado are nutrient limited, while correspondence between C storage and soil physical properties could indicate both nutrient and water limitations to C storage.

  4. Habitat suitability mapping of Anopheles darlingi in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant reservoir, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Peter; Santos, Emerson Soares dos; Ribeiro, Ana LM; Miyazaki, Rosina D; Santos, Marina Atanaka dos

    2007-01-01

    Background Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Results Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural areas. We suppose that non-significant differences of vector incidences between rainy and dry seasons are associated with the availability of anthropogenic breeding habitat of the reservoir throughout the year. Conclusion Satellite image classification and multitemporal shoreline simulations through DEM-based GIS-analyses consist in a valuable tool for spatial modeling of A. darlingi habitats in the studied hydropower reservoir area. Vector presence is significantly increased in forested areas near reservoirs in bays protected from wind and wave action. Construction of new reservoirs under the tropical, sub-humid climatic conditions should therefore be accompanied by entomologic studies to predict the risk of malaria epidemics. PMID:17343728

  5. [Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infection among puerperae in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, 2006].

    PubMed

    Ydy, Ranuce Ribeiro Aziz; Ferreira, Dalton; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Fontes, Cor Jésus Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infection among puerperae in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, is unknown. Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among puerperae attended at three public maternity hospitals in Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, was defined. Between April and September 2006, 3,831 deliveries took place and 2,965 puerperae underwent serological tests for HTLV-1/2: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot. The mean age of the women studied was 23.9 years. The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was 0.2%, i.e. similar to the prevalence observed in the general population of many developed centers in Brazil. This finding of low prevalence suggests that there is still no justification for introducing public health interventions for the population of pregnant women in our setting, to reduce the vertical transmission of HTLV-1/2.

  6. Soil water and carbon management for agricultural resilience in a key node in the global virtual water trade network: Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Speratti, A. B.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon region is globally connected through agricultural exports, with the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso in particular emerging as a key node in the global virtual water trade network in recent years, based largely on rainfed agriculture. The anticipated growth in the world's population suggests that virtual water trade will only become more important to global food security. In this presentation we will evaluate strategies for improving the resilience of rainfed agriculture in the region, particularly for the nearly 12 million hectares of sandy soil with low water holding capacity within Mato Grosso that has largely been converted to agricultural use. We will review land use change trajectories and present results from soil water balance modeling and carbon fluxes for a range of future scenarios, including continued agricultural extensification, potential strategies for agricultural intensification, and novel water and carbon management strategies including biochar use in sandy soils to improve soil water holding capacities and soil carbon sequestration. We will also consider the role that irrigation might play in the future in the Amazon for improving agricultural resilience to climate change and feedbacks between irrigation and land use change pressures, noting that groundwater resources in the region are presently among the least exploited on the planet.

  7. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  8. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season.

  9. Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate “Phase Egg” in superdeep diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso State, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Richard; Vollmer, Christian; Brenker, Frank; Matsyuk, Stanislav; Kaminsky, Felix

    2007-07-01

    Inclusions in alluvial diamond from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) have been investigated by TEM methods (electron diffraction, HRTEM, AEM, HAADF, EELS) and Raman spectroscopy. The inclusion paragenesis of Juina diamonds is dominated by ultrahigh-pressure ("superdeep") phases. One of these diamonds, sample #1.1/4, contains several micrometer-sized (approximately 200 μm by 50-70 μm) inclusions, which have been studied. TEM foils prepared applying Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique revealed that these inclusions consist of a porous, nanocrystalline groundmass, which is composed of nanometre-sized crystals of a hydrous aluminium silicate phase with Al:Si approximately 1:1 and chemical composition of phase "Egg" (AlSiO 3(OH)), a minor volume fraction of nanocrystalline stishovite and pore space, which was originally filled with a fluid or gas. The nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate phase is idiomorphic, randomly oriented (approximately 20-30 nm in size) predominantly with tetragonal crystal structure ( a0 = 0.743 nm, c0 = 0.706 nm). The monoclinic structure of synthetic phase "Egg" determined at ambient conditions [M.W. Schmidt, L.W. Finger, R.J. Ross, R.E. Dinnebier, Synthesis, crystal structure, and phase relations of AlSiO 3OH, a high-pressure hydrous phase, American Mineralogist 83 (1998) 881 - 888] is only occasionally observed. The fluid filling in the porosity has been released into the vacuum of the FIB during TEM specimen preparation. Quench products of the fluid containing minor concentrations of F- P- S- Cl- K- Ca and Ba were detected at the walls of the pores. In addition phase "Egg" is identified by μ-Raman spectroscopy within a second sample (RS 43a) from the same location. The presence of Phase "Egg" in the inclusions in diamond may suggest that crustal material has been subducted to a depth of the lower Transition Zone. Although, metastable growth of nanocrystalline high-pressure phases or extension of their respective stability fields to lower

  10. Geostatistics as a tool to improve sampling and statistical analysis in wetlands: a case study on dynamics of organic matter distribution in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, F; Couto, E G; Bernardi, C J

    2002-11-01

    The Pantanal of Mato Grosso presents distinct landscape units: permanently, occasionally and periodically flooded areas. In the last ones, sampling is especially difficult due to the high heterogeneity occurring inter and intrastratas. This paper presents a comparison of different methodological approaches showing that they can influence decisively the knowledge of distribution organic matter dynamics. In such an area in order to understand the role of the flood pulse in the distribution dynamics of organic matter in a wetland at the Pantanal, we considered that there is spatial dependence between points. This consideration contradicts the classical statistic principle that focuses on the aleatority, and allowed the obtainment of a larger volume of information from a minor sampling effort, which means better performance, with time and money economy.

  11. Karyotypic description of the stingless bee Oxytrigona cf. flaveola (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina) of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to broaden knowledge on the cytogenetics of the subtribe Meliponina, by furnishing cytogenetic data as a contribution to the characterization of bees from the genus Oxytrigona. Individuals of the species Oxytrigona cf. flaveola, members of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied. The chromosome number was 2n = 34, distributed among four chromosomal morphologies, with the karyotype formula 8m+8sm+16st+2t. Size heteromorphism in the first metacentric pair, subsequently confirmed by sequential staining with fluorochrome (DA/DAPI/CMA3 ), was apparent in all the examined individuals The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are possibly located in this metacentric chromosome pair. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the genus Oxytrigona. Given that species in this group are threatened, the importance of their preservation and conservation can be shown in a sensible, concise fashion through studies such as this. PMID:21637423

  12. Occurrence of Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos-Silva, Evandson J; Camillo, Evandro; Garófalo, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    In a study conducted in the gallery forest of the Vale doVeu de Noiva in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso state, chemical baits were used to attract and sample male orchid bees. From September 2003 to July 2005, male euglossine bees were captured monthly, from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. as they arrived at the baits. Of the 264 males captured, eight males belonged to Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville, a cleptoparasitic euglossine species that presumably occurred only in the Amazon basin. Therefore, the occurrence of A. caerulea in this study area extends its geographical distribution range by approximately 2,400 km southwards in South America, as it is now recorded in both the Amazon and Platina basins.

  13. Land Transformation and Occupation Impacts of Farming Practices for the Production of Soybean in Mato Grosso, Brazil, Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Miranda, E. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soybean in Brazil with production continuously increasing since 2000 through a near tripling of cropland area under soybean cultivation. This increase in production has occurred by land cover transformation (extensification into natural ecosystems, e.g. forest to crop) and land use intensification (increase in area by conversion of already cleared land, e.g. pasture to crop), largely to satisfy international demand. In this study, we assess cradle-to-farm gate impacts of soybean production in Mato Grosso using life cycle impact assessment applied to data collected from 110 farms. We combine 21 impact indicators of land transformation and occupation (i.e. land use and land cover change) to show impacts of life cycle stages of production to land, air, water, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The greatest damage to human health and ecosystem quality came from land transformation which primarily takes place in the tropical forest (Amazon) and savanna (Cerrado/Cerradão) biomes. Soybean production in tropical forest landscapes has greater impacts on climate regulation, biotic production and groundwater recharge compared to production in native savanna areas, while impacts on biodiversity, erosion and soil water purification are roughly equivalent for tropical forest vs. savanna transformation and occupation. Soybean production practices showed hot spots of damage to environmental quality and resources from phosphorous fertilizer application and diesel consumption in machinery through impact pathways such as terrestrial and aquatic acidification and the use of non-renewable energy. Life cycle impact assessment modeling can provide further information into the production process to enlighten decision making with respect to impacts occurring along the soybean product supply chain.

  14. [Study of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, from 1999 to 2000].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2003-01-01

    From February 1999 to February 2000, sand flies were captured weekly with CDC light traps at five sites in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Traps were placed in 11 different ecotopes in the environment (ground level, tree canopies, and forest edge) and the peridomicile (chicken coops and banana trees). A total of 1,245 sand flies were captured, belonging to 28 species: 4 species from genus Brumptomyia Fran a & Parrot, 1921 and 24 from genus Lutzomyia Fran a, 1924. The species were: B. avellari, B. brumpti, B. galindoi, B. pintoi, L. aragaoi, L. bourrouli, L. campograndensis, L. cerradincola, L. christenseni, L. claustrei, L. cortelezzii, L. corumbaensis, L. cruzi, L. damascenoi, L. flaviscutellata, L. hermanlenti, L. lenti, L. longipalpis, L. longipennis, L. migonei, L. punctigeniculata, L. quinquefer, L. renei, L. shannoni, L. sordellii, L. teratodes, L. termitophila, and L. whitmani. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis, and L. whitmani, L. flaviscutellata and L. migonei, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, were captured in the urban area. The most frequent species were L. termitophila, L. aragaoi, L. lenti, L. longipennis, and L. longipalpis.

  15. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis. ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  16. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the municipality of Várzea Grande: an area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2007-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been naturally transmitted in periurban areas due to the emergence and reemergence of its vectors in such areas. Aimed to further knowledge on ecological aspects affecting the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in VL transmission areas in the municipality of Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, sand fly captures were carried out. Monthly collections of sand flies were undertaken with CDC light-traps, which were left in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of ten residences during four consecutive days between January 2004 and June 2006. Twenty-two species of genus Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia were captured. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (65.23%), followed by L. evandroi (16.26%), L. lenti (7.69%), L. whitmani (4.92%), L. sallesi (2.34%) and L. termitophila (1.32%). The highest density of the main VL vector, L. longipalpis, was found in peridomiciliary areas, mostly males. No significant correlation was found between environment (temperature, air relative humidity and rain fall) and phlebotomine density; although a slight increase in sand fly density has been observed in the period following rainfalls, particularly L. longipalpis. No correlation was observed between distribution and density of L. longipalpis, prevalence of human VL cases and the presence of serologically positive dogs. The presence of infected dogs, increased vector density, susceptibility rate and interruption of epidemiological surveillance may raise the risk of VL transmission to man in Várzea Grande.

  17. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.

  18. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region.

  19. HIV Type 1 Molecular Epidemiology in pol and gp41 Genes Among Naive Patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central Western Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Alexsander Augusto; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Francisco, Roberta Barbosa Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Antiretroviral naive patients (n=49) were recruited in central western Brazil (Campo Grande City/Mato Grosso do Sul State, located across the Bolivia and Paraguay borders). HIV-1 protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and env gp41 HR1 fragments were sequenced. Genetic diversity was analyzed by REGA/phylogenetic analyses. Intersubtype recombinants were identified by SimPlot/phylogenetic trees. PR/RT resistance was analyzed by Calibrated Population Resistance/Stanford databases. T-20 resistance in gp41 was assessed by Stanford, Los Alamos, and other sources. Of HIV-1 subtypes 65.3% were BPRBRT, 10.2% were CPRCRT, and 8.2% were F1PRF1RT. Intersubtype recombinants were 16.3%: four B/F1 and four B/C (two were “CRF31_BC-like”). The Pol-RT V75M mutation was detected in two homosexual partners; one patient had the T215S revertant mutation. T-20/gp41 resistance mutations were L44M (n=2) and V38A (n=1). The high percentage of non-B isolates (∼35%) highlights the importance of molecular surveillance studies in settings distant from the origin of the epidemic. Our data help elaborate the molecular epidemiological map of HIV-1 in Brazil. PMID:21790471

  20. Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

  1. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report.

    PubMed

    Costa, I P da; Bonoldi, V L N; Yoshinari, N H

    2002-07-01

    A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  2. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

    2015-07-01

    Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream.

  3. The Low Prevalence of Y Chromosomal Microdeletions is Observed in the Oligozoospermic Men in the Area of Mato Grosso State and Amazonian Region of Brazilian Patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Godoy, Gleice Cristina; Galera, Bianca Borsatto; Araujo, Claudinéia; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva; de Pinho, Max Fernando; Galera, Marcial Francis; de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions on Y chromosome in infertile patients with oligozoospermia or azoospermia in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. METHODS This cross-sectional study enrolled 94 men from infertile couples. Karyotype analysis was performed by lymphocyte culture technique. DNA from each sample was extracted using non-enzymatic method. Microdeletions were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS With the use of cytogenetic analysis, five patients (5.3%) had abnormal karyotype, one azoospermic patient (1.1%) had karyotype 46,XY,t(7;1) (qter-p35), one (1.1%) with mild oligozoospermia had karyotype 46,XY,delY(q), and two other azoospermic patients had karyotype 47,XXY, consistent with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). One of them (1.1%) with severe oligozoospermia had karyotype 46,XY,8p+. Microdeletion on Y chromosome was found in the azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region in only one azoospermic patient (1.1%). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of genetic abnormalities in oligo/azoospermic Brazilian men from infertile couple was 5.3%, and microdeletion on Y chromosome was not a common finding in this population (1.1%). PMID:25210487

  4. FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

  5. Occurrence of co-infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi in a dog in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Nunes, Vania Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Castilho, Tiago Moreno; Araujo, Fernando Shiroma de; Ilha, Iêda Maria Novaes; Camargo, Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria

    2005-11-01

    A natural case of co-infection by Leishmania and Trypanosoma is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) in south- western state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both amastigote and trypomastigote forms were observed after Giemsa staining of cytological preparations of the dog's bone marrow aspirate. No parasite was detected using medium culture inoculation of the sample. DNA obtained from the bone marrow aspirate sample and from the blood buffy coat was submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a set of rDNA-based primers S4/S12. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product was identical to that of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi. The S4/S12 PCR was then used as template in a nested-PCR using a specific Leishmania set S17/S18 as primers, to explain the amastigote forms. The nucleotide sequence of the new PCR product was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. This case, as far as we know, is the first report of a dog co-infected with these parasites, suggesting that besides L. (L.) chagasi, the natural transmission of T. (T.) evansi occurs in the area under study.

  6. [Arthropod community associated with the canopy of Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae) during the flood period of the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Battirola, Leandro D; Adis, Joachim; Marques, Marinêz I; Silva, Fábio H O

    2007-01-01

    Six trees of the palm species Attalea phalerata Mart. were sampled during high water (aquatic phase) of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001), by canopy fogging. The composition, structure, and biomass of the arthropod community associated with their canopies were analysed, as well as the influence the flood pulse renders on it. Each tree was fogged once, followed by three consecutive collections. A total of 63,657 arthropods (643.0 +/-; 259.87 ind./m(2)) were collected, representing 25 orders in the classes Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea. The dominant groups were Acari (40.0%; 257.2 +/- 116.50 ind./m(2)), Coleoptera (12.0%; 77.5 +/- 64.93 ind./m(2)), Psocoptera (9.2%; 59.0 +/- 38.00 ind./m(2)), Diptera (8.4%; 54.1 +/- 18.72 ind./m(2)), Collembola (8.3%; 53.4 +/- 26.24 ind./m(2)) and Hymenoptera (7.9%; 50.6 +/- 21.40 ind./m(2)), the latter mostly represented by Formicidae (49.2%). Arthropod biomass amounted to 8.86 g dry weight and 0.18 mg/m(2). Coleoptera, Blattodea, Orthoptera, Araneae and Hymenoptera were the most representative taxa. The hydrological regime (flood pulse), as well as seasonality, appear to strongly affect the composition and structure of this canopy community.

  7. Gamma spectrometric and magnetic interpretation of Cabaçal copper deposit in Mato Grosso (Brazil): Implications for hydrothermal fluids remobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Vanessa Biondo; Mantovani, Marta Silvia Maria

    2016-12-01

    The Cabaçal Au-Zn-Cu Deposit, Mato Grosso, Brazil, was explored between 1987 and 1991, when 869,279 tons of ore rich in Au and Cu have been extracted. The hydrothermal alteration in the Cabaçal mine suggests a volcanogenic genetic model in which hydrothermal centers generated sericitization, chloritization and silicification alterations at different stages. The hydrothermal alteration affects the radioelements in different ways, generating a characteristic gamma spectrometric signature for the affected area. The eTh/K ratio map evidenced that the hydrothermalized area extends beyond south limits of the Cabaçal gabbro dykes formation, which host Cabaçal and Santa Helena mines. Magnetic data over the region show the same behavior for this formation, indicating that the magnetic source extends in subsurface. This behavior was recovered by the 3D model inverted for the region, which recovered a positive apparent magnetic contrast associated with this body, with an increasing deepness to south. It is possible that the south subsurface portion of the magnetic source may contain economic concentrations of Au remobilized by hydrothermal fluids. However, to confirm this hypothesis it is necessary to develop geochemical and borehole analysis of the area.

  8. Edge effects and landscape matrix use by a small mammal community in fragments of semideciduous submontane forest in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, M; Silva, D J da; Sanaiotti, T M

    2008-11-01

    A community of small mammals was studied in seasonal semideciduous submontane forest in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study evaluated the use of edge and matrix pasture, by different small mammal species. Overall, 31 areas were studied, with a total sampling effort of 33,800 trap x nights. Only seven of the 25 species captured in the study sites were able to use the pasture matrix; we classified these species as generalists. Fourteen species were found to be intermediate in habits, being able to use forest edges. We found only four species habitat specialists, occurring only on transect lines in the interior of the fragment, at least 150 m from the edge. Transects located in the pasture matrix and 50 m from the edge had significantly lower species richness and abundance than transects located in the fragment edge or in the interior of the fragment. All transects located within the fragment had similar species richness and abundance, but transects located 50 m from the edge had slightly lower, but non-significant, species richness than transects located 100 m apart from edges. Rarefaction curves demonstrated that only medium-sized fragments (100-300 ha) reached an asymptote of species accumulation. The other areas require further sampling, or more sampling transect, before species accumulation curves stabilize, due to a continued increase in species number.

  9. Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using multivariate statistics and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Curado, Leone F A; Musis, Carlo R DE; Cunha, Cristiano R DA; Rodrigues, Thiago R; Pereira, Vinicius M R; Nogueira, José S; Sanches, Luciana

    2016-09-01

    The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The study site is located in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where the vegetation is a monodominant forest of Vochysia divergens Phol. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied. An analysis of the hourly variation of the reflected waves also showed the seasonality of these phenomena in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. A predictive model for PAR was developed with a neural network that has a hidden layer, and it showed a determination coefficient of 0.938. This model showed that the Julian day and time of measurements had an inverse association with the wind profile and a direct association with the relative humidity profile.

  10. [Epidemiological trends for malaria in the cities of the upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil 1990-1996].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, W K; Vicente, M G; Silva, M A; de Castro, L L

    1998-01-01

    Through the Regional Office of the Brazilian National Health Foundation in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we obtained numerical data on malaria for the upper Paraguay basin (UPB): 159 cases in 1990, 126 in 1991, 135 in 1992, 61 in 1993, 143 in 1994, 41 in 1995, and 20 in 1996, the majority of which were imported cases. There were no autochthonous cases in 1990, and since 1991 the rates of over 15% dropped to around 1.60%. Imported cases, corresponding to 0. 63% in 1990, increased in 1991 and 1992 to some 1.50%, and to 3.28% in 1993. Induced cases were recorded only in 1991 and 1992 (less than 1%). Most cases were between 16 and 45 years of age. There was a predominance of Plasmodium vivax in the thick blood smears. Although autochthonous cases of malaria are not the majority, the disease is still an important public health problem in the UPB in the presence of the Anopheles (N.) darlingi vector and human migration into the region.

  11. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  12. Temporal Variation in Water Quality Parameters under Different Vegetative Communities in Two Flooded Forests of the Northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, E. G.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Johnson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest flood plains in the world, and is characterized by large variability in vegetative communities and flooding dynamics. Some woody plant species have been observed to colonize large areas forming monospecific stands. We measured chemical parameters of flood waters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as physical parameters such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature (Tw), turbidity (Turb) and water levels (WL). These chemical and physical measurements were conducted with the intent to characterize spatial and temporal differences of monospecific stands in order to understand if these different formations alter the biogeochemistry of the Pantanal waters. Water sample campaigns were conducted during the inundation period of January to May 2013 in two areas located in the Private Reserve of the Brazilian Social Service of Commerce (RPPN-SESC) near Poconé, Mato Grosso. Research sites included: (1) a flooded tall-stature forest (known as Cambarazal) dominated by the Vochysia divergens species; and (2) in a flooded scrub forest (known as Baia das Pedras) dominated by the Combretum lanceolatum species. Results showed three principal factors which explained 80% of variance in aquatic physical and chemical parameters. The first factor (PCA-1) explained 38% of variance (DO, PAR and WL), PCA-2 explained 23% (NO3, Tw, DOC), while PCA-3 explained only 19% of variance (CO2 and Turb). During the entire study period, the major concentration of variables were observed in the flooded forest. Physical variables presented small alterations, with the exception of water levels, that were greater in the flooded forest. With respect to temporal variables, all chemical parameters were greater at the beginning of the inundation and gradually dropped with the water level. With this work, we observed that the different monospecific formations influenced water

  13. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of wheezing in children in the first year of life, living in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Lillian Sanchez Lacerda; Takano, Olga Akiko; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of wheezing in infants aged 12 to 15 months in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Midwest Brazil. METHODS: Parents and/or guardians of infants were interviewed and completed a written standardized questionnaire of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancia en Lactantes (EISL) - phase 3 at primary healthcare clinics at the same day of children vaccination or at home, from August of 2009 to November of 2010. RESULTS: 1,060 parents and/or guardians completed the questionnaire, and 514 (48.5%) infants were male. Among the studied infants, 294 (27.7%) had at least one episode of wheezing during the first year of life, beggining at 5.8±3.0 months of age, with a predominance of male patients. The prevalence of occasional wheezing (<3 episodes of wheezing) was 15.0% and recurrent wheezing (≥3 episodes) was 12.7%. Among the infants with recurrent wheezing, the use of inhaled β2-agonist, oral corticosteroid, leukotriene receptor antagonist, as well as night symptoms, respiratory distress, and hospitalization due to severe episodes were significantly more frequent. Physician-diagnosed asthma was observed in 28 (9.5%) of the wheezing infants. Among the wheezing infants, 80 (27.7%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, of whom 33 (11.2%) required hospitalization; neverthless, no differences between occasional and recurrent wheezing infants were found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of recurrent wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in infants were lower compared with those observed in other Brazilian studies. Recurrent wheezing had early onset and high morbity. PMID:25510994

  14. Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; dos Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two ofCx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks. PMID:26784852

  15. Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal dos; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two of Cx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.

  16. Ixodid fauna and zoonotic agents in ticks from dogs: first report of Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; e Silva, Elaine Araújo; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; Andreotti, Renato

    2013-05-01

    Ticks from 148 dogs from the urban area of the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were collected, classified and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of Rickettsia spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. A total of 2015 ticks were collected. The species Rhipicephalus sanguineus (98.9 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (1.1 %) were identified. Molecular analysis revealed that no tick samples were infected by T. cruzi. Regarding Leishmania spp., tick samples from 36 dogs spread across all regions of the municipality were positive for L. chagasi. One tick sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. (gltA gene) in the PCR reaction. This sample was submitted to further PCR based on the ompA gene and the amplicon was sequenced. Identity of 100 % was found with homologous sequences of R. rickettsii available in GenBank. This paper is the first to report the natural infection of R. sanguineus by R. rickettsii in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil.

  17. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  18. Eastern Borderlands in German Schoolbooks, 1890-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    Continuities and changes in stories, poems and historical texts over several generations of German textbooks, from the final decades of the Kaiserreich through the Weimar Republic to the Third Reich, show how schools encouraged children to imagine Germany's eastern borderlands and to incorporate them into their sense of national belonging. The…

  19. Together and apart: twin beds, domestic hygiene and modern marriage, 1890-1945.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the advent of twin beds as a common sleeping arrangement for English couples. Through an analysis of a range of sources from the late nineteenth to mid twentieth centuries - marketing materials, advertisements, domestic, decorative and marital advice books and novels and films - it argues that while twin beds were initially recommended by proponents of the domestic sanitation movement as part of a raft of hygiene measures, by the 1920s they had become a fashionable item of bedroom furniture for modern couples in "companionate" marriages. It was in this context that Marie Stopes, in her popular marital advice books, railed against them as an "invention of the devil", symptomatic of the evils of modernity, and endangering the happiness of the modern married couple. The article concludes that, despite these changing contexts of consumption, the significance of the history of twin beds needs to be understood through the intersecting discourses of domesticity, health and sexuality.

  20. Monitoring of reforested areas using LANDSAT data. [Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    Imagery obtained with channels 5 and 7 was visually interpreted in an effort to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a 105,000 hectare area of Fazenda Mutum which was reforested with various species of pine and eucalyptus. It was possible to map a reforested area as small as 6 hectare in its initial implantation using contrast with the surrounding targets. Five classes were mapped: nondeforested areas, partially deforested areas, deforested areas, partially reforested areas, and fully reforested areas. In 1979, 12,000 hectare were deforested, 4,330.83 hectare were partially reforested, and 42,744.71 hectare were reforested.

  1. Canine visceral leishmaniosis in Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortada, V M C L; Doval, M E C; Souza Lima, M A A; Oshiro, E T; Meneses, C R V; Abreu-Silva, A L; Cupolilo, E; Souza, C S F; Cardoso, F O; Zaverucha do Valle, T; Brazil, R P; Calabrese, K S; Gonçalves da Costa, S C

    2004-07-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) may be an important factor preceding human outbreaks of the disease. We report that the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniosis infection has been increasing in recent years in Anastácio town, located in the central western region of Brazil. Serological investigations showed that 75.3% of dogs presented antibody titres ranging from 1/40 to 1/160 in the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Bone marrow and lymph node aspirates provided positive cultures and furnished parasites for enzymological and serological typing in 42.5% and 41.1% of the cases, respectively. All the strains were typed as Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is primarily a canine disease that spills over into the human population as a zoonosis. The study showed the epidemiological features of the infection in a region in which the problem of visceral leishmaniosis has been underestimated.

  2. Kimberlitic sources of super-deep diamonds in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Belousova, Elena A.; Andreazza, Paulo; Tremblay, Mousseau; Griffin, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The Juina diamond field, in the 1970-80s, was producing up to 5-6 million carats per year from rich placer deposits, but no economic primary deposits had been found in the area. In 2006-2007, Diagem Inc. discovered a group of diamondiferous kimberlitic pipes within the Chapadão Plateau (Chapadão, or Pandrea cluster), at the head of a drainage system which has produced most of the alluvial diamonds mined in the Juina area. Diamonds from placer deposits and newly discovered kimberlites are identical; they have super-deep origins from the upper-mantle and transition zone. Field observations and petrographic studies have identified crater-facies kimberlitic material at seven separate localities. Kimberlitic material is represented by tuffs, tuffisites and various epiclastic sediments containing chrome spinel, picroilmenite, manganoan ilmenite, zircon and diamond. The diamond grade varies from 0.2-1.8 ct/m 3. Chrome spinel has 30-61 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Picroilmenite contains 6-14 wt.% MgO and 0.2-4 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Manganoan ilmenite has less than 3 wt.% MgO and 0.38-1.41 wt.% MnO. The 176Hf/ 177Hf ratio in kimberlitic zircons is 0.028288-0.28295 with ɛHf = 5.9-8.3, and lies on the average kimberlite trend between depleted mantle and CHUR. The previously known barren and weakly diamondiferous kimberlites in the Juina area have ages of 79-80 Ma. In contrast, zircons from the newly discovered Chapadão kimberlites have a mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 93.6 ± 0.4 Ma, corresponding to a time of magmatic activity related to the opening of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The most likely mechanism of the origin of kimberlitic magma is super-deep subduction process that initiated partial melting of zones in lower mantle with subsequent ascent of proto-kimberlitic magma.

  3. Genetic Divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Progenies in the Savanna Biome in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brito da Costa, Reginaldo; da Silva, Jeane Cabral; Skowronski, Leandro; Constantino, Michel; Pistori, Hemerson; Pinto, Jannaína Velasques da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the parental genetic differences and their subsequent prediction of progeny performance is an important first step to assure the efficiency of any breeding program. In this study, we estimate the genetic divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis based on the morphological traits of 132 progenies grown in a savanna biome. Thus, a field experiment was performed using a randomized block design and five replications to compare divergences in total height, commercial height, diameter at breast height, stem form and survival rate at 48 months. Tocher’s clustering method was performed using the Mahalanobis and Euclidian distances. The Mahalanobis distance seemed more reliable for the assessed parameters and clustered all of the progenies into fourteen major groups. The most similar progenies (86 accessions) were clustered into Group I, while the most dissimilar (1 progeny) represented Group XIV. The divergence analysis indicated that promising crosses could be made between progenies allocated in different groups for high genetic divergence and for favorable morphological traits. PMID:27681225

  4. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858) (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae) from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Edson Lourenço; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Centofante, Liano; Miyazawa, Carlos Suetoshi; Parise-Maltempi, Patrícia Pasquali

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae) is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of Thoracocharax stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for Thoracocharax stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m), 6 submetacentric (sm), 2 subtelocentric (st) and 40 acrocentric (a), for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR) system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family. PMID:24260672

  5. Geologic survey in the south-central region of Mato Grosso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Balieiro, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The field observations made in the Cuiaba Project area are described. Many geologic cross-sections were done in which the stratigraphic units and the geologic structures defined in the literature and observed in the LANDSAT MSS imagery were recognized.

  6. Mesh size and bird capture rates in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piratelli, A

    2003-02-01

    Mist-nets alternating 36-mm and 61-mm mesh in woods and low vegetation of "cerrado" (Brazilian savanna) tested bird-capture efficiency relative to bird length and mass. Of 1,296 birds captured and 102 species, 785 (93 species) were with 36-m mesh and 511 (69 species) with 61-mm mesh. The 61-mm mesh improved capture rates only for some larger species; so, in general, 36-mm mesh mist-nets are more appropriate for field work in "cerrado" areas.

  7. Multispecies resistance of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes to long-acting avermectin formulations in Mato Grosso do Sul.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernando de Almeida; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; Heckler, Rafael Pereira; Neves, Juliana Paniago Lordello; Lopes, Fernando Gonçalves; Onizuka, Marcel Kenzo Vilalba

    2015-09-15

    The use of long-acting avermectins (AVMs) in cattle to treat infections with gastrointestinal nematodes was common in Brazil until its prohibition by state authorities. The prohibition; however, was rescinded in 2015, but a scientific discussion of the pros and cons of the use of these formulations is necessary. We evaluated the levels of resistance to 1.0 and 3.5% doramectin and to 3.15% ivermectin in cattle. The worms in animals treated with 3.5% doramectin were characterized by the suppression of oviposition and by a higher proportion of adult females carrying no eggs. Haemonchus placei, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, C. spatulata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum were resistant to the above compositions. The administration of long-acting AVM formulations did not result in a higher efficacy against these helminth populations.

  8. Floristic analysis and dispersal syndromes of woody species of the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, W M; Sartori, A L B

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a floristic survey of the wood component of cerrado s.s. (eastern face) and gallery forest (western face) areas carried out in the southern part of the Serra de Maracaju. The dispersal syndromes and floristic relations of this portion of the Serra were compared to those of other formations from different regions of Brazil. Between October 2007 and September 2008, monthly collections identified 144 species. As for dispersal syndromes, zoochory prevails, followed by autochory and anemochory. The gallery forest is a heterogeneous formation that shelters floristic elements shared with the Atlantic rain forest, the Amazonian forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forests and dry forests of the Pantanal. Low similarity between the two areas analyzed makes this region unique and suggests that the Serra de Maracaju is greatly influenced by the semi-deciduous seasonal forests of the southeastern region.

  9. Surveying the area of deforestation of the Amazon by LANDSAT satellite imagery. [Mato grosso, Goias and Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A. P.; Lee, D. C. L.; Soaresmaia, F. C.; Mendonca, F. J.; Assuncao, G. V.; Rodrigues, J. E.; Demouraabdon, M.; Novaes, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used to determine the amount of deforestation in a study area comprising 55 million hectares of the Amazon region. Results show that more than 4 million hectares were deforested. Maps and pictures of the deforested area in relation to the total area of the Amazon are included.

  10. An ecological economics approach to estimate the value of a fragmented wetland in Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul state).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A R

    2007-11-01

    The Upper Paraná River floodplain is the last lotic stretch of an ecosystem seriously threatened given that circa 50% of the original ecosystem has been converted into reservoirs. To assess the recreational value of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, 174 tourists were interviewed using the Willingness to Pay--WTP and Travel Cost--TC methods. The annual aggregated WTP attributed by tourists was US$ 122.50 million and the variables which determine the decision in willingness to pay for the Floodplain are: 'consider oneself as a Floodplain natural resources consumer' and 'marital state'. If the single person considers her/himself as a consumer of floodplain natural resources, the WTP increases by a multiplicative factor of 38.8. The value aggregated by the TC method was US$ 234 millions and decreased by zone as the distance increases. Higher income and traveling farther increases the travel cost, which is inversely related to annual trip frequency. The total recreational value (356.5 millions per year) is high and representative since it refers to an environment fragmented by dams and with many anthropogenic effects. Therefore, the progressive changes on the landscape are a threat to local tourism, since half of the visitors are attracted solely by the scenic beauty, thereby overtaking those factors considered more important by public decision makers and managers, such as recreational fishery or boating.

  11. The first report of Rickettsia spp. in Amblyomma nodosum in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Robson F C; Garcia, Marcos V; Cunha, Rodrigo C; Matias, Jaqueline; Labruna, Marcelo B; Andreotti, Renato

    2013-02-01

    Ticks are vectors of various pathogens, including Rickettsia spp., which are responsible for causing an emerging disease of global significance. In the present study, an epidemiological survey was performed to identify Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group (SFG) in ticks and wild hosts in a native forest adjacent to livestock farming activity. The ticks and blood were evaluated by a hemolymph test and by PCR using the primers CS78 and CS323, which target a partial sequence of the enzyme citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Positive samples by PCR were further tested with the primers Rr190.70p and Rr190.602n, which target a 532-bp fragment of the rickettsial 190-kDa outer membrane protein gene (ompA). In addition, an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to detect antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in horses that inhabited the same area. From the 43 animals that were captured, 192 ticks were collected; the ticks belonged to the species Amblyomma cajennense, A. ovale, and A. nodosum. All blood samples and hemolymph tests were negative. Four samples of A. nodosum that were collected from Tamandua tetradactyla were positive for Rickettsia spp. by PCR, and 8 samples of horse serum displayed titers greater than or equal to 1:64 by IFA. The phylogenetic analysis based on the DNA sequence of the ompACG gene demonstrated that Rickettsia spp. CG (the canadensis group) segregate in the same cluster as Rickettsia parkeri strain COOPERI, with a bootstrap value of 78%. These results indicate that Rickettsia spp. CG circulate among the tick population in the study area, which has a constant presence of livestock and humans. This may be the same species of Rickettsia that was recorded in A. nodosum throughout the Atlantic forest.

  12. Rickettsial infection in ticks from wild birds from Cerrado and the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Dirceu G de S; Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Alves, Alvair da S; Pacheco, Thábata dos A; Pinto, Letícia B; Pinho, João B; Labruna, Marcelo B; Dutra, Valéria; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2015-09-01

    The involvement of different species of ticks and wild animals, such as birds, play an important role in the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Birds may serve as reservoirs for some tick-borne diseases, and may carry and spread hematophagous ectoparasites mechanically. This study aimed to show the diversity of ticks on birds and molecular detection of rickettsial infection in ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, two similar Brazilian biomes characterized by hydrological seasons. During two years, August 2012 to May 2014, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in total of 14 visits for collecting samples, distributed in all hydrological seasons. A total of 674 birds were captured representing 113 species from 26 families. In total, 71 birds were parasitized (10.5%), and 155 ticks of the following 7 tick species (in decreasing order of prevalence) were identified: Amblyomma longirostre Koch, Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius sensu lato (s.l.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma triste Koch. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense s.l. was the most common. This is the first occurrence of O. mimon on birds, and of A. triste on Passeriformes in Brazil. Molecular analyses revealed that 6 A. longirostre ticks were infected by 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', whereas 1 A. nodosum was infected by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent, previously reported as Rickettsia sp. strain NOD. Spotted fever group (SFG) agents were, for the first time, reported in ticks from birds captured in Pantanal biome, and the potential involvement of these agents as human pathogens should be considered in further studies.

  13. Seasonal variation in energy balance and canopy conductance for a tropical savanna ecosystem of south-central Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, T. R.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; de Oliveira, R. G.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical savanna (locally known as cerrado) comprises 24% of Brazil and is characterized by high temporal (climatic) and spatial (land cover) variation, biodiversity, and human activity. However, temporal variations in energy exchange are poorly understood, especially for mixed-grasslands (locally known as campo-sujo), making current and future patterns of energy balance highly uncertain. We used eddy covariance to measure latent (Le) and sensible (H) heat flux of a mixed-grassland, and linked meteorological and remote-sensing data to determine the controls on these fluxes. We hypothesized that (1) seasonal variations in H and Le would be large due to variations in precipitation, (2) ecosystem phenology, estimated using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), would be the best predictor of seasonal variation in Le, and (3) cerrado, transitional, and humid evergreen forests would have similar rates of average annual Le despite large seasonal variation in cerrado Le. We found that campo-sujo exhibits large seasonal fluctuations in energy balance that are driven by rainfall, and that responses to rainfall pulses are rapid and dynamic, especially during the dry season. Seasonal variations in the EVI did not affect energy fluxes; however, when energy fluxes were normalized with net radiation (Rn), the EVI was found to significantly affect the amount of available energy dissipated by H, Le, and G, indicating an important ground surface feedback on energy partitioning. Compared to other tropical ecosystems, cerrado exhibited substantially more seasonal variation in energy flux density than forested tropical ecosystems. For example, cerrado had lower rates of Le during the dry season, due to water limitations, but higher rates of wet-season Le than tropical forests, which were likely limited by radiation due to frequent cloud cover. Overall, these seasonal variations caused average annual rates of Le to be similar between cerrado, transitional, and humid evergreen forests.

  14. Epidemiological profile of exogenous poisoning in children and adolescents from a municipality in the state of Mato Grosso☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Felipe Ferreira S.; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology of exogenous intoxications in children and adolescents of Barra Garças, Mato Grosso, from January 2008 to September 2013. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective, and descriptive epidemiological study. Data were collected from the Disease Notification System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação [SINAN]) of the municipality, processed using Microsoft Excel, and evaluated through BIOESTAT statistical software. The variables included were: sex; age; toxic agent; time and place of service; route of administration; circumstance; and classification of intoxication. The age range was established according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, comprising children aged from 0 to 9 years old and adolescents aged from 10 to 19 years old. RESULTS: A total of 125 cases of accidental exogenous poisoning was registered, including 77 children and 48 adolescents. Food and beverages (38.4%) and drugs (24.0%) were the most common groups of toxic agents responsible for the poisoning. The largest age group affected by intoxication was composed of children aged from 0 to 4 years old (43.2%) and adolescents aged from 10 to 14 years old (19.7%). Regarding the circumstances, intoxication occurred due to suicide attempts (16.8%) and accidental events (23.2%) in adolescents and children, respectively. The study revealed a higher frequency of poisoning in girls. CONCLUSION: Exogenous intoxications occurred predominantly in children up to 4 years old, through the accidental consumption of food or drinks. Thus, the adoption of educational prevention programs for children's family members and caregivers is necessary. PMID:25510992

  15. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis was studied in two forested and five domiciliary areas of the urban area of Campo Grande; MS, from December 2003 to November 2005. Weekly captures were carried out with CDC light traps positioned on ground and in the canopy inside a residual forest and on the edge (ground) of a woodland and in at least one of the following ecotopes in peridomiciles-a cultivated area, a chicken coop, a pigsty, a kennel, a goat and sheep shelter and an intradomicile. A total of 9519 sand flies were collected, 2666 during the first year and 6853 during the second. L. longipalpis was found throughout the 2-year period, presenting smaller peaks at intervals of 2-3 months and two greater peaks, the first in February and the second in April 2005, soon after periods of heavy rain. Only In one of the woodlands was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the number of insects and temperature during the first year and the climatic factors (temperature, RHA and rain) was observed. In the domiciliary areas in four domiciles some positive correlations (p< or =0.05) occurred in relation to one or more climatic factors; however, the species shows a clear tendency to greater frequency (72%) in the rainy season than in the dry (28%). Thus, we recommend an intensification of the VL control measures applied in Campo Grande, MS, during the rainy season with a view to reducing the risk of the transmission of the disease.

  16. [Financial and economic sustainability of public spending on health care by local governments: an analysis of data from municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2009-11-01

    Brazil's Unified National Health System is financed according to a model known as fiscal federalism, the fund-sharing rules of the Social Security Budget, Ministry of Health norms, and Constitutional Amendment 29 (EC-29), which links Federal, State, and municipal resources to health. This article discusses the sustainability of public spending on health at the municipal level. Twenty-one municipalities were studied, using municipal budget data. From 1996 to 2006, total current per capita revenues increased by 280% above the accumulated inflation and Gross Domestic Product, varying by size of municipality, which also defined the composition of the municipal budgets. Meanwhile, the budget comprising the basis for EC-29 increased less (178%), thus placing limits on the municipal share of health spending. The results observed in these municipalities are believed to reflect the reality in thousands of other Brazilian municipalities, thus jeopardizing the capacity for municipal investment in health, especially beginning in 2008. The situation may become even worse, considering the repeal of the so-called Bank Transaction Tax (CPMF), Bills of Law 306/08 and 233/08 (currently under review in the National Congress), and the world recession stemming from the U.S. financial crisis.

  17. Chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Mirassol d'Oeste cap dolostones (Mato Grosso, Brazil): An alternative model for Marinoan cap dolostone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, E.; Nédélec, A.; Trindade, R. I. F.; Macouin, M.; Charrière, A.

    2006-10-01

    We have conducted a detailed study of the Neoproterozoic Mirassol d'Oeste cap dolostones that overlay the glacial diamictites of the Puga Formation (˜ 635 Ma, Amazon craton, Brazil) in order to understand the formation of these post-glacial dolostones. Petrographic features indicate that the dolostones are primary to early diagenetic in origin and precipitated in a moderately shallow-water platform corresponding to a carbonate ramp during transgressive conditions. Major and trace element contents, as well as C and O isotopic signatures, are consistent with an anoxic sediment influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Such an environment is known to provide favourable conditions for the precipitation of dolomite as observed nowadays in modern hypersaline lagoons. Isotopic compositions of tube-like structures suggest local upward fluid seepage from the underlying cap dolostone. Our data concur with geochemical data from other Neoproterozoic cap dolostones to support a microbially-mediated model in specific environmental conditions for the formation of these unusual deposits worldwide.

  18. Effects of land-cover change on soil loss in the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disperati, Leonardo; Righini, Gaia; Salvini, Riccardo; Ciali, Alessandro; Coscini, Nicola; Fantozzi, Pier L.; Carmignani, Luigi; Fiori, Alberto P.; Paranhos Filho, Antonio C.; Bocci, Michele

    1999-12-01

    In the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Brazil), since the '60s, zootechnics and farming activities have developed and arable lands and pastures replaced shrubs and forests. The 1966 to 1996 land-cover change was investigated through Remote Sensing and GIS methodologies. The effect on soil loss was evaluated through the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). By integrating supervised classification and visual interpretation techniques, geo-coded land-cover data bases were built from aerial photographs and Landsat TM images (years 1966, 1985, 1996). Multi-temporal land-cover data bases were produced through 'post-classification comparison.' The application of the USLE in the ARC/INFO$CPY Grid environment enabled to perform the multi-temporal analysis of the potential soil loss. The R, K, C and P factors of such equation were assumed from the literature. The flowdirection and flowaccumulation Grid functions and the DEM allowed calculating the L and S factors. The results show that from 1966 to 1985 large extent of forest and shrubs were deforested. After 1985, deforestation rate decreased and part of burnt areas and pastures changed to secondary forest. The land-cover transformations induced a meaningful growth of the computed average soil loss per unit area (A) from 1966 to 1985 ((Delta) A approximately equals 3.7 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1). On the contrary, the reduction of A from 1985 to 1996 ((Delta) A approximately equals 0.8 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1) suggests that more recently the human impact became steady.

  19. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil.

  20. Xingu Project - Integrating Land Use Planning and Water Governance in Amazonia: Towards Improved Freshwater Security in the Agricultural Frontier of Mato Grosso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Neill, C.; Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M. S.; Coe, M. T.; Garavello, M.; Molina, S. G.; Empinotti, V.; Reichardt, F.; Deegan, L.; Harris, L.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this project is to identify how impacts from land conversion, cropland expansion and intensification of both crop and animal production interact to affect regional evapotranspiration, rainfall generation, river flooding, and water quality and stream habitats, allowing us to identify thresholds of change that will endanger agricultural production, livelihoods of non-agricultural settlers and the region's new urban population and infrastructure. We will survey the effects of this on (1) soybean farmers, (2) cattle ranchers, (3) small-scale farm families, (4) rural non-agriculturists, including fishers, and (5) urban residents and map their roles as stakeholders. We will also conduct current water use surveys among the different stakeholder groups, accompanied by questions on desired aspects for future freshwater security to identify targets for desirable outcomes of water governance strategies. These targets, together with the information on land use drivers, water quantity and quality and predicted scenarios for global changes will be incorporated into a fully integrated and interactive geospatially oriented socio-ecological model that can serve as framework for future water governance that enhances Freshwater Security in such systems. This is an international cooperation initiative lead by Brazil and with the participation of Canada, Germany and United States of America.

  1. SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF VIRAL, SYPHILITIC AND TOXOPLASMIC INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME: CASE SERIES FROM MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Silvania França da Silva; Donatti, Teresinha Lermen; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Some infections can be the cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of a Renal Disease Reference Clinic from Central Brazil, in which serological markers of some infectious agents are systematically screened in children with nephrotic syndrome. Data were obtained from the assessment of medical files of all children under fifteen years of age, who matched nephrotic syndrome criteria. Subjects were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii and cytomegalovirus; antibodies against Herpes simplex, hepatitis C virus and HIV; and surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus. The VDRL test was also performed. 169 cases were studied. The median age on the first visit was 44 months and 103 (60.9%) patients were male. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM were found in 70.4% and 4.1%, respectively. IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii were present in 32.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Two patients were positive for HBsAg, but none showed markers for HIV, hepatitis C, or Treponema pallidum. IgG and IgM against herpes simplex virus were performed on 54 patients, of which 48.1% and 22.2% were positive. IgM antibodies in some children with clinical signs of recent infection suggest that these diseases may play a role in the genesis of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25351544

  2. [The perception of urban garbage collectors of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding the biological risks involved in their work routine].

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Michelly Angelina; Reis, Cássia Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    There are several occupational risks inherent to urban garbage collection, and the scope of this study was to identify the biological risks to which urban garbage collectors in Dourados/MS are exposed. A qualitative study using the Lefévre and Lefévre Collective Subject Discourse method was used with 42 urban garbage collectors working for the outsourced provider to the Municipal Department of Urban Services. Data were collected from September 2005 to January 2006. The interviews had an average duration of 40 minutes, and were recorded at the company office when the workers arrived to start their working day and subsequently transcribed. The biological risks mentioned by the garbage pickers were accidents with glass, syringes, thorns, dog bites, and contact with substances found in the garbage. Accidents with sharp and jagged instruments are ways for microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi to infect the human body. Virus contamination, like HIV and Hepatitis B and C, can occur in accidents involving inadequate disposal of contaminated needles. The conclusion reached is that biological risks in urban garbage collection can be reduced by educating the population about adequate garbage disposal.

  3. Leishmania chagasi in Opossums (Didelphis albiventris) in an Urban Area Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Humberg, Roberta M. P.; Oshiro, Elisa T.; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Bonamigo, Raquel A.; Tasso, Norton; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Didelphis albiventris opossums at a wild animal rehabilitation center in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. A total of 54 opossums were tested for L. i. chagasi infection in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. The samples were analyzed by direct examination, culturing in a specific medium, and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Leishmania i. chagasi DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 11 (20.37%) animals. A total of 81.81% of positive opossums were captured in areas of known visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These results suggest a role for D. albiventris in the urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22802435

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors to Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Horta, Maurício C; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2011-12-01

    Sera of 320 dogs from urban and rural areas of a Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for rickettsial (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. rhipicephali, R. felis, and R. bellii) and ehrlichial (Ehrlichia canis) infection by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Risk factors for ehrlichiosis or rickettsiosis were also evaluated. Positive reaction against Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 227 (70.9%) dogs, 119 (74.3%) from an urban area and 108 (67.5%) from rural areas (P>0.05). For Rickettsia spp., 152 (47.5%) dogs were positive, 31 (19.3%) from urban and 121 (75.6%) from rural areas (P<0.05). Highest anti-Rickettsia spp. endpoint titers were observed for R. amblyommii, suggesting homologous reactions to this agent or a very closely related organism. While most of the urban dogs were found parasitized by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, infestations on rural dogs were predominated by Amblyomma cajenennse. Rickettsial infection was significantly higher (P<0.05) in rural dogs, in dogs with hunting practice, or in A. cajennense-infested dogs.

  5. [Habitat heterogeneity, richness and structure of assemblages of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in areas of cerrado in the Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo J da; Diniz, Soraia; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory of habitat heterogeneity and limited niche-similarity assumes that more heterogeneous environments provide a greater amount and diversity of resources than simple environments, resulting in a greater diversity of species. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the habitat heterogeneity on the richness of dung beetles and to examine the spatial patterns of assemblage structure in relation to patterns of habitat heterogeneity. Dung beetles were collected using pitfall traps without bait in 30 points distributed in an area of cerrado sensu lato, in the region of Tangará da Serra, MT, Brazil, including areas of cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, cerradão and gallery forest. A total of 1,291 dung beetles were collected, distributed in 16 genera and 29 species. Overall habitat heterogeneity exerted a negative effect on patterns of dung beetles richness. Higher levels of species richness were observed in areas of cerrado campo sujo, while the areas of gallery forest were the most species poor. Regarding assembly structure, it was found that the dung beetles were separated into two major groups, one formed by the presence of specialized species in forest areas and other composed of species that occurred predominantly in cerrado. In conclusion, it was found that habitat complexity influenced the distribution of dung beetles, but the level of turnover in species composition along the heterogeneity gradient was relatively weak.

  6. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis from Manso Dam, Mato Grosso, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    As well as malaria and yellow fever, schistosomiasis is one of the main endemic diseases associated to environments which suffered some impact related to the development of great economic projects, as for example the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area which suffered impact from the Manso hydroelectric power station a survey was performed during the period of 2002 to 2003 and revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using five B. amazonica colonies (Barão de Melgaço, Poconé, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Manso and Casca rivers), and four B. occidentalis colonies (Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Agua Fria district and Casca river) were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Of 257 snails of B. amazonica used, 17 became infected (infection index of 6.61%) and all specimens of B. occidentalis proved unsusceptible. According to the strains used, of the 158 snails exposed to BH miracidia, 6 became infected (3.79%); of the 44 exposed to SJ miracidia, 6 became infected (13.63%); and of the 55 snails of B. amazonica exposed to EC miracidia, 5 became infected (9.09%). These results point out the low possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis in those areas, but we believe it can not be discarded as due the presence of B. amazonica.

  7. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  8. [Frequency of HIV-1, rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, simple herpes virus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas disease and HTLV I/II infection in pregnant women of State of Mato Grosso do Sul].

    PubMed

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Senefonte, Flávio Renato de Almeida; Lopes, Alessandro Henrique Antunes; de Morais, Orlando Oliveira; Souza Júnior, Virgílio Gonçalves; Maia, Tamara Lemos; Duarte, Geraldo

    2007-01-01

    It was aimed to estimate the frequency of syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, HTLV I/II, simple herpes virus, HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women and to evaluate the relationship between age and the frequency of the infections studied. A transversal study of 32,512 pregnant women submitted to pre-natal screening in the period of November 2002 to October 2003. The frequency of the tried infections among the pregnant women were 0.2% of HIV-1, 0.03% of rubella, 0.8% of syphilis, 0.4% of toxoplasmosis, 0.05% of cytomegalovirus, 0.02% of simple herpes virus, 0.3% of HBsAg, 0.1% of hepatitis C, 0.1% of HTLV and 0.1% of Chagas disease. There was significative statistical association between age and prenatal infection of rubella, cytomegalovirus, Chagas disease and herpes virus. The rates of frequency of rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women studied were lower than the compared rates.

  9. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  10. Between the Remnants of Colonialism and the Insurgence of Self-Narrative in Constructing Participatory Social Maps: Towards a Land Education Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Michèle; Silva, Regina; Jaber, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes a social mapping project conducted by the Environmental Education, Communication and Arts Research Group from the Federal University of Mato Grosso. The primary goals of the project were to map the vulnerable social groups of Mato Grosso, and identify the social and environmental conflicts that put them in situations of…

  11. New species and records of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Anastrepha from Brazil are described and illustrated: A. matogrossensis (Mato Grosso), A. oiapoquensis (Amapá), and A. siculigera (Amapá). Anastrepha rafaeli Norrbom & Korytkowski also is reported from the state of Tocantins....

  12. Longivena, a new robber-fly genus from Brazil (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Rodrigo; Rafael, José Albertino

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Longivena gen. n. and five new species are described and illustrated from caatinga and cerrado habitats from Brazil: Longivena digitata sp. n., type–species (Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul states), Longivena bilobata sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena flava sp. n. (Mato Grosso do Sul state), Longivena limeiraoliverai sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena spatulata sp. n. (Maranhão state). An illustrated key is also provided. PMID:25349498

  13. [Incorporation of controlling dengue by community health agent].

    PubMed

    Cazola, Luiza Helena de Oliveira; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify self-perceived differences in the work processes of community health agents (CHA) in two counties of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding dengue control and Family Health Strategy (FHS) activities. Structured interviews were applied to 57 CHA. The subjects had similar sociodemographic characteristics. Agents in Rio Verde de Mato Grosso county, who performed only FHS tasks, failed to complete essential data of the Form A. In São Gabriel do Oeste county, CHA currently perform tasks pertaining to dengue fever control, previously conducted by Endemic Disease Control Agents (now abolished), while in Rio Verde de Mato Grosso county, dengue control remained assigned to the latter group. In São Gabriel do Oeste county, CHA did not view the double workload of two programs as affecting their professional productivity. The pooling of tasks from the two programs proved to be feasible, with no detrimental effects on performance.

  14. [Surgical classes in the middle of South America (1808-16)].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Nauk Maria de

    2004-01-01

    As a contribution to reflections on the art of curing during the colonial period, the article analyzes the proposal to hold surgical classes in the captaincy of Mato Grosso. This proposal was part of a set of measures taken during the period, measures that reflected the government authorities' concern with the public health.

  15. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep with non-toxic doses of the plant and ruminal content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae), which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) is the main cause of “sudden death” in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses ...

  16. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  17. Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.R.; Via, Alba Valéria; D’Andrea, Paulo; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Lemos, Elba Regina S.

    2011-01-01

    To study the dynamics of wild rodent populations and identify potential hosts for hantavirus, we conducted an eco-epidemiologic study in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We detected and genetically characterized Castelo dos Sonhos virus found in a species of pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys utiaritensis). PMID:21801642

  18. Transcriptional Profiling in Cotton Associated with Bacillus Subtilis (UFLA285) Induced Biotic-stress Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer disease resistance in many agricultural crops. In the case of Bacillus subtilis (UFLA285) isolated from the cotton producing state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), in addition to inducing foliar and root growth, disease resistance against damping-off cause...

  19. Peanut Seed Development: Molecular Mechanisms of Storage Reserve Mobilization and Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Seed Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer disease resistance in many agricultural crops. In the case of Bacillus subtilis (UFLA285) isolated from the cotton producing state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), in addition to inducing foliar and root growth, disease resistance against damping-off cause...

  20. Seasonal and clonal variations in technological and thermal properties of raw Hevea natural rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken over a ten-month period, under the environmental conditions within the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, to evaluate the causes of variation in technological and thermal properties of raw natural rubber from different clones of Hevea brasiliensis (GT 1, PR 255, FX 3864 and RRIM...

  1. Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

  2. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  3. [Food insecurity in households with adolescents in the Brazilian Amazon: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Lúcia Dias da Silva; Espinosa, Mariano Martínez; Bezerra, Aída Couto Dinucci; Guimarães, Lenir Vaz; Lima-Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-02-01

    This cross-sectional population-based study in 2007 focused on prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors in households with adolescents in four towns in the Legal Amazonia located along highway BR-163, from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, to Santarém, Pará State, Brazil. The study applied the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale to a sample of 363 households. Anthropometric assessment was performed on 534 adolescents from 10 to 19 years of age. A Poisson model was used in the multiple regression analysis. The results showed 23.1% prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity, suggesting association with the following: low income, poor sanitation, head of household born in Mato Grosso State, and the adolescent's race (black). The results emphasize the need for improved access to basic sanitation, training of human resources to generate employment/income, and educational activities to improve understanding of food insecurity and its determinants.

  4. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

  5. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-08-05

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability.

  6. Sourcing Brazilian marijuana by applying IRMS analysis to seized samples.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Elisa K; Souza Sarkis, Jorge E; Neto, Osvaldo Negrini; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Victoria, Reynaldo L

    2006-06-27

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabis sativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water availability, factors which impact upon the isotope fractionations of these elements within plants. It was possible to differentiate samples from the dry regions (Marijuana Polygon) from those from Mato Grosso do Sul and Pará, that present heavier rainfall. The results were in agreement with the climatic conditions of the suspected regions of origin and this demonstrates that seized samples can be used to identify the isotopic signatures of marijuana from the main producing regions in Brazil.

  7. New Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) from Brazil and a key for the Neotropical species.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Viviane R DE; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-01-01

    Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. The knowledge of this genus is very poor in the neotropics, with 12 known species, only six of them recorded from Brazil. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from "Cerrado" and "Pantanal" biomes and records three other species represented only by females that could not be identified to species level. We also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states and are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections. The adults were photographed and the male terminalia were dissected and illustrated.

  8. New species of Triplocania Roesler with forewing M3 forked (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-07-16

    Four new Brazilian species of Triplocania with forewing M3 forked are described and illustrated based on male specimens, namely: Triplocania lamasi n.sp. (Mato Grosso: Brazil), Triplocania mariateresae n.sp. (Rio de Janeiro: Brazil), Triplocania newi n.sp. (Tocantins: Brazil) and Triplocania plaumanni n.sp. (Santa Catarina: Brasil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures.

  9. A new species of Phaenostoma d'Orchymont, 1937 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Bruno; Takiya, Daniela Maeda

    2017-02-22

    A new species of Phaenostoma d'Orchymont, 1937 (Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini) from Brazil is des-cribed and illustrated. Phaenostoma tupiniquim sp. nov. is described based on an adult male specimen from the Caatinga biome in Ceará State (Northeastern Brazil) and two specimens from uncertain localities, but most likely Mato Grosso and Pará States (Central-western and Northern Brazil, respectively). An updated key to the five known species is provided.

  10. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Mustard, John F; Cerri, Carlos C

    2010-11-16

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.

  12. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Pityocera Giglio-Tos, 1896 (Diptera: Tabanidae: Scionini).

    PubMed

    Krolow, Tiago Kütter; Henriques, Augusto Loureiro; Gorayeb, Inocêncio De Sousa; Limeira-de-Oliveira, Francisco; Buestán, Jaime

    2015-01-07

    The genus Pityocera Giglio-Tos is revised based on examination of external morphology and genitalia of type material and specimens from Brazilian and foreign institutions. Five currently valid species in three subgenera are recognized: P. (Elaphella) cervus (Wiedemann, 1828); P. (Pityocera) festai Giglio-Tos, 1896; P. (Pseudelaphella) nana (Walker, 1850); P. (Pseudelaphella) nigribasis Fairchild, 1964; P. (Pseudelaphella) patellicornis (Kröber, 1930). Five new species are described: P. (Pseudelaphella) barrosi Gorayeb & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Mato Grosso do Sul); P. (Pseudelaphella) gorayebi Limeira-de-Oliveira & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Maranhão, Tocantins and Bahia); P. (Pseudelaphella) pernaquila Gorayeb & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Pará and Rondônia); P. (Pseudelaphella) rhinolissa Krolow & Henriques sp. nov. (Brazil: Pará, Maranhão, Tocantins, Rondônia, Mato Grosso, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul; Bolivia: Santa Cruz); P. (Pseudelaphella) ecuadorensis Buestán & Krolow sp. nov. (Ecuador: Manabí, Guayas, Santa Elena and Loja). We provide diagnosis, descriptions, redescriptions, distribution records, illustrations and discussion for all species, as well as a key for identification of species. 

  13. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  14. Shifting Patterns of Pasturelands and Stocking Rates of Cattle in Brazil: 1940 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, L. C. P.; Santos, A.; Pimenta, F. M.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the shifting in historical patterns of pastureland (natural and planted) in Brazil using a new high-resolution (approximately 1 km x 1 km) spatially explicit reconstruction of land use from 1940 to 2012 and stocking rate of cattle maps from 1990 to 2012. We also identified the top 5% (highest yields) pixels in the 2010 stocking rate map and we assessed the historical trends in intensification and extensification practices in Brazil. We focus our analyzes in Amazonia and Cerrado biomes, in Mato Grosso and Pará states, and in the new agricultural frontier called MATOPIBA - which is formed by Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Natural pastureland expanded until the 1970s and, after that, most areas with natural pasture were replaced by planted pasture, which is more profitable. In 2012, natural pastures were still predominant in the Pampas (located in southern Rio Grande do Sul) and the Pantanal (located in western Mato Grosso do Sul). On the other hand, planted pastureland expanded in area between 1975 and 2012, especially in the Cerrado biome. Brazilian stocking rate of cattle increased, but remains close to 1.0 head/ha between 1990 and 2010 and the top 5% were about twice as high as the average in all regions analyzed. The yield gap (difference between average and the top 5% pixels) was largest in Pará state, where the stocking rate of cattle was below 50% of the potential given 2010 practices. The increase in cattle production in Amazonia biome and in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará came from both intensification and expansion of pasturelands. In contrast, pasturelands in Cerrado and MATOPIBA decreased in area while stocking rates of cattle increased gradually. Our results provide new insights about land use change and productivity in Brazilian territory that could guide future agricultural and conservation discussions, decisions, and policies.

  15. Reevaluating Suitability Estimates Based on Dynamics of Cropland Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Noojipady, Praveen; Macedo, Marcia M.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural suitability maps are a key input for land use zoning and projections of cropland expansion. Suitability assessments typically consider edaphic conditions, climate, crop characteristics, and sometimes incorporate accessibility to transportation and market infrastructure. However, correct weighting among these disparate factors is challenging, given rapid development of new crop varieties, irrigation, and road networks, as well as changing global demand for agricultural commodities. Here, we compared three independent assessments of cropland suitability to spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural expansion in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001 2012. We found that areas of recent cropland expansion identified using satellite data were generally designated as low to moderate suitability for rainfed crop production. Our analysis highlighted the abrupt nature of suitability boundaries, rather than smooth gradients of agricultural potential, with little additional cropland expansion beyond the extent of the flattest areas (0-2% slope). Satellite-based estimates of the interannual variability in the use of existing crop areas also provided an alternate means to assess suitability. On average, cropland areas in the Cerrado biome had higher utilization (84%) than croplands in the Amazon region of northern Mato Grosso (74%). Areas of more recent expansion had lower utilization than croplands established before 2002, providing empirical evidence for lower suitability or alternative management strategies (e.g., pasture soya rotations) for lands undergoing more recent land use transitions. This unplanted reserve constitutes a large area of potentially available cropland (PAC)without further expansion, within the management limits imposed for pest management and fallow cycles. Using two key constraints on future cropland expansion, slope and restrictions on further deforestation of Amazon or Cerrado vegetation, we found little available flat land for

  16. The incorporation of activities to control dengue by community health agents

    PubMed Central

    Cazola, Luiza Helena de Oliveira; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; de Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of Community Health Agents when dengue control activities were added to their tasks. METHODS Performance was measured comparing the evolution of selected indicators from the Brazilian National Dengue Control Program and the Family Health Strategy for 2002 to 2008 in the municipality of Sao Gabriel do Oeste, MS, Central Western Brazil, with those of Rio Verde de Mato Grosso, neighboring municipality with demographic, socioeconomic and health services similarities. Data were collected from municipal databases of the Information System for Yellow Fever and Dengue and the Information System for Primary Healthcare of the Mato Grosso do Sul State Health Office. The variables selected for the family health strategy activities were: monthly home visits, pregnant women whose antenatal care began in the first trimester, children under one with up-to-date vaccinations and hypertensive patients. Those selected for the Brazilian National Dengue Control Program were: properties inspected with Aedes aegypti and properties not inspected. RESULTS The two municipalities maintained a similar trend in dengue control indicators in the period studied. With regard to the Family Health Strategy, in 2002 Sao Gabriel do Oeste was better off in three of the four indicators studied, however, this situation was reversed at the end of the period when the county was overtaken by Rio Verde de Mato Grosso in three of the four indicators analyzed, including, the monthly average community health worker visits per registered family, the main activity of a Family Health Strategy agent. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the National Dengue Control Program into the Family Health Strategy is viable and developed without prejudice to dengue control activities, however, the same did not occur with the activities of family health in Sao Gabriel do Oeste. The additional workload of the community health workers is the most likely hypothesis for the declining performance of these

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Mustard, John F.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006–2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24–49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2–0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso. PMID:20651250

  18. New species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2015-01-01

    Four species of Triplocania, three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocaniabravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocaniaerwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocaniatrifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rondônia: Brazil) and Triplocanialamasoides sp. n. (Rondônia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. The female is first described for the M3 forked group. The identification key for males of the M3 forked group is updated.

  19. A new genus and species of micro bee flies from Brazil (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Psiloderoidinae).

    PubMed

    Lamas, Carlos J E; Falaschi, Rafaela L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2015-05-05

    A new genus of Mythicomyiidae, Amydrostylus triadicophallus gen. nov. et sp. nov., is described from the Chaco of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The type-series was collected by Malaise traps during the development of the SISBIOTA-Brasil project. Amydrostylus is closely related to the genus Acridophagus Evenhuis in the subfamily Psiloderoidinae, but it is distinguished by the minute apical stylus and the same length of br and bm cells. The species is described and illustrated in detail, including the male terminalia and female spermathecae. This is the first record of the subfamily Psiloderoidinae in South America.

  20. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae).

    PubMed

    Hess, S C; Brum, R L; Honda, N K; Cruz, A B; Moretto, E; Cruz, R B; Messana, I; Ferrari, F; Cechinel Filho, V; Yunes, R A

    1995-07-07

    Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) is a tree commonly found in wet soils of 'Pantanal' of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and used in folk medicine against infections and asthma. We have studied different extracts and some isolated compounds from this plant for antibacterial activity. From the extracts of the stem bark beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid and sericic acid were isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus were: ethanolic extract (MIC = 1.5 mg/ml); ethyl acetate extract (MIC = 2.0 mg/ml); and sericic acid (MIC = 1.0 mg/ml). Escherichia coli was resistant until 5 mg/ml.

  1. Identification of São Paulo metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Central-West region of Brazil: a case study.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Wirlaine Glauce; Silva, Kesia Esther da; Bampi, José Victor Bortolotto; Bet, Graciela Mendonça Dos Santos; Ramos, Ana Carolina; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamase production is an important mechanism for carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which represents an emerging public health challenge. We report the case of a patient admitted to an intensive care unit, with sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant São Paulo Metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing P. aeruginosa . This is the first case of infection by this pathogenic strain in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Thus, infection control measures are required for preventing future spread and outbreaks.

  2. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented.

  3. Natural Infection of the South American Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Da Silveira, Alexandre Welzel; De Oliveira, Gustavo Gomes; Menezes Santos, Leandro; da Silva Azuaga, Lucas Bezerra; Macedo Coutinho, Claudia Regina; Echeverria, Jessica Teles; Antunes, Tamires Ramborger; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Izabel de Souza, Alda

    2017-04-01

    Theileria equi is a tick-borne piroplasm considered endemic in equines in Brazil. The cohabitation of domestic and wild animals in areas of extensive cattle breeding favors the close contact between different species and the sharing of vectors and, consequently, pathogens. We report the natural infection of a young South American tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by T. equi in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Although it was not possible to associate the clinical and hematologic status of the animal with the infection by the protozoan parasite, our report represents an alert on the sharing of pathogens between domestic and wild animals.

  4. Description of a new species of Parotocinclus (Siluriformes, Hypoptopomatinae) from the rio Tapajós basin

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Parotocinclus is described from three small tributaries of the rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following characters: (1) a triangular dark blotch at the anterior base of the dorsal fin, (2) the absence of an adipose fin but presence of one small platelet at typical adipose-fin region, (3) the abdomen completely covered by dermal plates, (4) a pectoral girdle totally exposed, (5) a single series of bicuspid teeth, and (6) the higher number of bicuspid premaxillary and dentary teeth. PMID:27917053

  5. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  6. Intensification of tropical agriculture as seen by satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galford, G. L.; Michelson, H. C.; Spera, S. A.; Hadnott, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present case studies from Latin America and Africa on intensification of tropical agriculture. The Brazilian Amazon of the early 2000s experienced intensification and extensification. We use time series analysis of MODIS vegetation indices to track changes in cropping intensity and crop types over time. The state of Mato Grosso is Brazil's leading producer of soy, corn and cotton. Using 250 m MODIS EVI data and a new decision-tree algorithm tuned to phenological patterns characteristic of Mato Grosso's major natural vegetation and crop rotations, we mapped land-cover across the state over 11 growing seasons (2001-2011). Between 2000 and 2011, a majority of the cultivated land in Mato Grosso transitioned from the cultivation of one commercial crop per growing season (soy or cotton) to two commercial crops (a soy crop followed by a corn or cotton crop). Over our study period, the cultivated area of double cropped land in Mato Grosso steadily increased over 6-fold from .46 million hectares to 2.9 million hectares, 92% of which was in a soy-corn double cropping rotation. In the sub-Saharan country of Malawi, 70% of the land is dedicated to food production yet yields of the primary staple crop, maize, have stagnated around 1 ton ha-1 (developed nations' maize yields are 12-16 tons ha-1). Due to the limited land area, improving yields through intensification is a necessary objective of development. Poverty and food insecurity were widespread and persistent for smallholder farmers cultivating less than 1 hectare of land until the implementation of a government intervention, funded through foreign aid, subsidized allocations of fertilizer and improved seed to small farmers. Since implementation of the policy, the number of food insecure, or people in need of food aid, has decreased from 5 million to half a million people. We present indicators that levels of poverty have decreased since the subsidy. National yields have doubled. Applying modified methods from Brazil, we

  7. Two new species of Acrocephalomyia Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz, 2012 from Brazil (Diptera: Ropalomeridae) and a key to known species.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Edgar; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-20

    Two new species of Acrocephalomyia Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz (Diptera, Ropalomeridae) are described. The genus currently includes three species, the type species from Costa Rica, Acrocephalomyia zumbadoi Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz, and two new species from Brazil herein described, A. torulosa sp. nov., (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest) and A. pulchra sp. nov. (State of Amazonas, North). A key for the known species of Acrocephalomyia is given and characters of the male terminalia are described and discussed for the first time, with special attention to the "epiphallus".

  8. Fasciola hepatica IN BOVINES IN BRAZIL: DATA AVAILABILITY AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    PubMed Central

    Bennema, Sita C.; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Medeiros, Camilla; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a disease of importance for both veterinary and public health. For the first time, georeferenced prevalence data of Fasciola hepatica in bovines were collected and mapped for the Brazilian territory and data availability was discussed. Bovine fasciolosis in Brazil is monitored on a Federal, State and Municipal level, and to improve monitoring it is essential to combine the data collected on these three levels into one dataset. Data were collected for 1032 municipalities where livers were condemned by the Federal Inspection Service (MAPA/SIF) because of the presence of F. hepatica. The information was distributed over 11 states: Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo. The highest prevalence of fasciolosis was observed in the southern states, with disease clusters along the coast of Paraná and Santa Catarina and in Rio Grande do Sul. Also, temporal variation of the prevalence was observed. The observed prevalence and the kriged prevalence maps presented in this paper can assist both animal and human health workers in estimating the risk of infection in their state or municipality. PMID:24553606

  9. Hematological values associated to the serological and molecular diagnostic in cats suspected of Ehrlichia canis infection.

    PubMed

    Braga, Isis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Jaune, Felipe Wolf; Ziliani, Thaysa Felfili; Girardi, Angela Ferronatto; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2013-01-01

    The literature contains several studies on feline ehrlichiosis. However, information about the characteristics of Ehrlichia infection in cats is still scanty. This study evaluated the association between Ehrlichia spp. infection and the hematologic data of 93 cats treated at the Federal University of Mato Grosso Veterinary Hospital in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of or exposure to Ehrlichia spp. infection was evaluated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the dsb and 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia, and by detection of anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA), respectively. Eight (8.6%) cats tested positive by PCR and the partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products was a 100% match to E. canis. Forty-two (45.1%) cats showed antibody reactivity against Ehrlichia spp. Hematological alterations such as low erythrocyte count, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and monocytosis were observed in PCR positive cats. Among them, low erythrocyte counts were associated with IgG antibody titers of 40 to 640 and five cats also tested positive by PCR. Furthermore, PCR-positive cats showed a tendency to be lymphopenic. No correlation was found between age and sex, and no ticks were observed in any of the examined cats.

  10. Fasciola hepatica in bovines in Brazil: data availability and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Bennema, Sita C; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Medeiros, Camilla; Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a disease of importance for both veterinary and public health. For the first time, georeferenced prevalence data of Fasciola hepatica in bovines were collected and mapped for the Brazilian territory and data availability was discussed. Bovine fasciolosis in Brazil is monitored on a Federal, State and Municipal level, and to improve monitoring it is essential to combine the data collected on these three levels into one dataset. Data were collected for 1032 municipalities where livers were condemned by the Federal Inspection Service (MAPA/SIF) because of the presence of F. hepatica. The information was distributed over 11 states: Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo. The highest prevalence of fasciolosis was observed in the southern states, with disease clusters along the coast of Paraná and Santa Catarina and in Rio Grande do Sul. Also, temporal variation of the prevalence was observed. The observed prevalence and the kriged prevalence maps presented in this paper can assist both animal and human health workers in estimating the risk of infection in their state or municipality.

  11. Role of kdr and esterase-mediated metabolism in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Barros, A Thadeu M

    2006-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), has become a problem for Brazilian cattle producers even though its introduction into Brazil is relatively recent. Failure to control this cattle pest is becoming a concern, and horn fly populations from several ranches from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul were surveyed for pyrethroid resistance. Susceptibility bioassays revealed that cypermethrin resistance was widespread and reached high levels in horn fly populations throughout the state, with resistance factors (RFs) ranging from 50.4 to 704.8. Synergist bioassays failed to detect a major role for esterases as a pyrethroid resistance mechanism in these populations, except for the highly pyrethroid-resistant Estrela do Oeste population (RF = 704.8). The kdr sodium channel gene mutation was not detected in eight of the 13 populations, but < 7% of individuals from four populations and 50% of the flies from Estrela do Oeste exhibited this mutation. Neither the superkdr sodium channel gene mutation nor a resistance-associated gene mutation in the HialphaE7 carboxylesterase were found in any of the fly populations. Although target site insensitivity (kdr) and esterase-mediated metabolism occur in horn fly populations from Mato Grosso do Sul state, it seems that they are not the major mechanism causing pyrethroid resistance in most of these populations.

  12. Cytogenetic and Molecular Data Support the Occurrence of Three Gymnotus Species (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) Used as Live Bait in Corumbá, Brazil: Implications for Conservation and Management of Professional Fishing.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Tatiane Pires; Marques, Débora Karla Silvestre; Vitorino, Carla de Andrade; Faria, Karina de Cassia; Braga, Gisele da Silva Ferreira; Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Venere, Paulo Cesar

    2017-04-01

    In the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, electric fish (Gymnotus spp.) are the primary source of live bait, accounting for more than three-quarters of total sales. Based on chromosomal and molecular markers, the present study attempted to identify the Gymnotus species used as bait in the region of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Three species were detected, based on their distinct karyotypes: G. paraguensis (2n = 54), G. sylvius (2n = 40), and G. pantanal (2n = 39-40, X1X2Y/X1X1X2X2), with no evidence being found of interspecific hybrids. All three species presented a single nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) (heterochromatin CMA3(+)/DAPI(-)) and pericentromeric heterochromatin in almost all chromosomes, with a few distal and/or interstitial blocks. G. sylvius and G. pantanal had one and two pairs of chromosomes with 5S rDNA sites, respectively, while G. paraguensis had 17 chromosome pairs with these markers. The three species formed well-defined clusters in the DNA barcoding analysis. The integrated analysis of the cytogenetic and DNA barcoding data confirmed that the diversity of Gymnotus species exploited as live bait in the study region has been underestimated. These findings indicate that the markers analyzed represent valuable tools for the conservation and fishery management of the Gymnotus stocks exploited.

  13. Chemical composition of Brazilian chia seeds grown in different places.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Matyelka, Jessika Camila da Silva; Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-04-15

    This study investigated and compared the occurrence and concentration of macronutrients, moisture, ash, dietary fiber, fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, vitamins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, phytate and tannin in Brazilian chia seeds grown in the states of Mato Grosso (MT) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). High concentrations of lipids (31.2g.100g(-1), on average), proteins (18.9g.100g(-1), on average), dietary fiber (35.3g.100g(-1), on average), vitamin E (8,203.6μg.100g(-1), on average) were observed. Similar values for total phenolic compounds and phytic acid in chia seeds from both regions were observed. Chia grown in RS showed higher antioxidant activity than chia grown in MT, and the tannin concentrations were higher in chia seeds grown in Mato Grosso (19.08±1.08eq.catequina/gsample). In conclusion, Brazilian chia seeds showed high concentrations of lipids, proteins, total dietary fiber, minerals and vitamin E.

  14. Diet and feeding behavior of the White-naped Jay, Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) (Aves, Passeriformes, Corvidae) in a disturbed environment in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, R A M; Costa, C A; Pascotto, M C

    2014-11-01

    The White-naped Jay Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) is an omnivorous and opportunistic species, with a multifarious diet. In view of the scarcity of available data in the literature, the aim was to investigate and describe the bird's diet, location of food items, foraging tactics, actual feeding behavior and intraspecific interactions, as a means of defining the items consumed. The study was carried out in a Cerrado area in the Araguaia Campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, in Pontal do Araguaia, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from August to December, 2006, and from April to October, 2010. All the feeding events were recorded through 136 hours of animal focal sampling, whereby it was shown that these birds predominantly consume animal nutrients, replenished by vegetable items and human food-waste. Arthropods were predominant in the diet, with ants as the most abundant and frequent item. The fruits, flowers and seeds of eleven plant species were also consumed. Food-waste, representing about 1/10 of the total, was constantly consumed even when other food sources were available. Although active among the various strata, foraging is mainly on the ground. In the event of food-scarcity, the strategy employed is the hierarchical deployment of the members of various-sized groups, with the avoidance of direct competition. This versatility during all seasons, confirms total adaptation to the anthropic environment surrounded by native habitats that characterized the study site.

  15. [Surveillance on pesticides: quantification of use and prediction of impact on health, work and the environment for Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Pignati, Wanderlei; Oliveira, Noemi Pereira; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the quantity, type and toxicity of pesticides used per hectare in the State of Mato Grosso as a surveillance strategy for the health of workers, the population in general and the environment, and to serve as a surveillance indicator for Brazilian cities. Brazil cultivated 95 million hectares in 2012, and Mato Grosso was the major consumer of pesticides. In this research, the database of the Agriculture and Livestock Defense Institute was consulted, as it records the prescribed agronomic data and place of use in sales invoices. The results reveal the average consumption of pesticides per hectare per crop: 12 liters for soy; 6 liters for corn; 4.8 liters for sugarcane; and 24 liters for cotton. The toxicological types and classes of pesticides used per hectare per crop were also monitored. Using a matrix of agricultural production and pesticide consumption, it was also found that certain health problems are correlated with the major producing regions. Based on pesticide consumption, agricultural production and pesticide toxicity it is possible to ascertain health problems in Brazilian cities and establish prevention and surveillance strategies for the workers, the environment and the populations exposed to pesticides.

  16. Serological and antigenic profiles of clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. from Central Western Brazil.

    PubMed

    Queiroz Júnior, Luiz de Pádua; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Tadano, Tomoko; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Takarara, Doracilde Terumi; Gegembauer, Gregory; Araujo, Leticia Mendes; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2014-08-01

    Clinical Paracoccidioides spp. isolates from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) in Mato Grosso, Brazil exhibit different patterns of serologic reactivity. The results observed for reactions of radial immunodiffusion against the commonly used exoantigens containing a 43-kDa glycoprotein (gp43) suggest that this fungus exhibits major antigenic variability by geographic region. There is a phylogenetic gap between Paracoccidioides spp. isolates among different regions of Latin America. In particular, those from the central region of Brazil (i.e. Mato Grosso state) exhibit a lower rate of genetic similarity. We aimed at investigating the phylogenetic classification of clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. in Central Brazil and the different antigenic profiles that produce. Exoantigens were obtained from five clinical isolates: two P. brasiliensis (Pb166 and Pb2880) and three P. lutzii (PL2875, PL9840, and PL2912). The protein/glycoprotein profiles of P. lutzii exoantigens were different from each other. Isolate PL9840 exhibited the most distinct bands, and isolates PL2875 and PL2912 exhibited more diffuse bands and a very intense band between 50 and 60 kDa. P. brasiliensis isolates had similar protein profiles, exhibiting a low-intensity band at 220 kDa and a diffuse band between 50 and 60 kDa. P. lutzii isolates exhibit high species-specific antigen variability, which we have already been assessed in proteomic studies.

  17. Selection of soil physical attributes spatially related with the grain yield common bean in Chapadão do Sul, MS, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi, J. T.; Jung, L. H.; Correa, A. R.; Pellin, D. M. P.; Souza, B. R. F.; Roque, C. G.; Teixeira, R. B.; Minotto, V.; Montanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    In Brazil, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is in one of the most representative farms, not only by the area under cultivation as well as the value of production. Thus, in the agricultural year 2010/2011, the Foundation of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) Campus de Chapadão do Sul, we studied the variability and spatial dependence between physical properties of the soil and grain yield common bean under conventional tillage in Oxisol of Chapadão do Sul, Northeast region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We also studied the linear and spatial correlations between these attributes, investigating conditions that provide increased agricultural productivity. For this, the area with the cultivation of common bean under conventional tillage installed a mesh containing 121 sampling points, with spacing of 5.0 x 5.0 m between them, a total area of 1600 m2. The grain yield common bean, with high variability, was found to average national standards. However, variability in soil physical attributes was higher, indicating that conventional tillage is a system that generates the heterogeneity of the environment, and the total porosity at a depth of 0.00 to 0.10 m is the attribute that might explain the average variability of grain yield. Index terms: soil management, conventional tillage, soil physical attributes.

  18. Interannual variability of the Upper Paraguay River dynamics over the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, A.; Girard, P.

    2002-12-01

    The Pantanal, the largest inland wetland on Earth, has a unique aquatic and bird diversity. The existence and functioning of these communities strongly depend on the flood regime of the Upper Paraguay River. Understanding the interannual variability of the river dynamics is therefore essential to the preservation of this wildlife. We analyze 50-year long time series (1935-1995) of annual river height of the Paraguay River at Ladario, and annual mean precipitation over the associated drainage area (313,814 km2). A spectral analysis of the two records shows similar modes of variability (around 2-4, 7 and 15 years). These modes have been previously observed in other hydrographs of the larger Parana River basin. The short-term mode is associated with ENSO, while the two others are linked to SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic. However, the river time series presents a significant increase after 1975 that has no equivalent in the precipitation record. Between 1960 and 1980 the land-use density of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil has drastically increased (by a factor of 2.1). Such land cover change tends to increase annual river discharge, as well as to affect sedimentation dynamics, eroding the river channel upstream and increasing deposition downstream. Our study will test these different hypotheses and conclude on the respective sensitivity of the river flow to climate variability and anthropogenic disturbance such as land-use extension.

  19. Ecology, economy and management of an agroindustrial frontier landscape in the southeast Amazon.

    PubMed

    Brando, Paulo M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth; Azevedo, Andrea A

    2013-06-05

    The papers in this special issue address a major challenge facing our society: feeding a population that is simultaneously growing and increasing its per capita food consumption, while preventing widespread ecological and social impoverishment in the tropics. By focusing mostly on the Amazon's most dynamic agricultural frontier, Mato Grosso, they collectively clarify some key elements of achieving more sustainable agriculture. First, stakeholders in commodity-driven agricultural Amazonian frontiers respond rapidly to multiple forces, including global markets, international pressures for sustainably produced commodities and national-, state- and municipality-level policies. These forces can encourage or discourage deforestation rate changes within a short time-period. Second, agricultural frontiers are linked systems, land-use change is linked with regional climate, forest fires, water quality and stream discharge, which in turn are linked with the well-being of human populations. Thus, land-use practices at the farm level have ecological and social repercussions far removed from it. Third, policies need to consider the full socio-economic system to identify the efficacy and consequences of possible land management strategies. Monitoring to devise suitable management approaches depends not only on tracking land-use change, but also on monitoring the regional ecological and social consequences. Mato Grosso's achievements in reducing deforestation are impressive, yet they are also fragile. The ecological and social consequences and the successes and failures of management in this region can serve as an example of possible trajectories for other commodity-driven tropical agricultural frontiers.

  20. Using artificial neural networks to select upright cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes with high productivity and phenotypic stability.

    PubMed

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Nascimento, A C C; Azevedo, C F; Teixeira, F R F

    2016-11-03

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is grown in three Brazilian regions: the Midwest, North, and Northeast, and is consumed by people on low incomes. It is important to investigate the genotype x environment (GE) interaction to provide accurate recommendations for farmers. The aim of this study was to identify cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability for growing in the Brazilian Cerrado, and to compare the use of artificial neural networks with the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method. Six trials with upright cowpea genotypes were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the States of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The data were subjected to adaptability and stability analysis by the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method and artificial neural networks. The genotypes MNC99-537F-4 and EVX91-2E-2 provided grain yields above the overall environment means, and exhibited high stability according to both methods. Genotype IT93K-93-10 was the most suitable for unfavorable environments. There was a high correlation between the results of both methods in terms of classifying the genotypes by their adaptability and stability. Therefore, this new approach would be effective in quantifying the GE interaction in upright cowpea breeding programs.

  1. Ecology, economy and management of an agroindustrial frontier landscape in the southeast Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Brando, Paulo M.; Coe, Michael T.; DeFries, Ruth; Azevedo, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    The papers in this special issue address a major challenge facing our society: feeding a population that is simultaneously growing and increasing its per capita food consumption, while preventing widespread ecological and social impoverishment in the tropics. By focusing mostly on the Amazon's most dynamic agricultural frontier, Mato Grosso, they collectively clarify some key elements of achieving more sustainable agriculture. First, stakeholders in commodity-driven agricultural Amazonian frontiers respond rapidly to multiple forces, including global markets, international pressures for sustainably produced commodities and national-, state- and municipality-level policies. These forces can encourage or discourage deforestation rate changes within a short time-period. Second, agricultural frontiers are linked systems, land-use change is linked with regional climate, forest fires, water quality and stream discharge, which in turn are linked with the well-being of human populations. Thus, land-use practices at the farm level have ecological and social repercussions far removed from it. Third, policies need to consider the full socio-economic system to identify the efficacy and consequences of possible land management strategies. Monitoring to devise suitable management approaches depends not only on tracking land-use change, but also on monitoring the regional ecological and social consequences. Mato Grosso's achievements in reducing deforestation are impressive, yet they are also fragile. The ecological and social consequences and the successes and failures of management in this region can serve as an example of possible trajectories for other commodity-driven tropical agricultural frontiers. PMID:23610163

  2. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  3. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service

    PubMed Central

    Keys, Patrick W.; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J.

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  4. Biomass Burning Emissions and Deforestation in The Legal Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Vermote, E. F.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning, often concomitant with deforestation, is recognized as a significant source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and has received attention from the scientific community as an important agent in climate change. Earth observing satellites have made significant contributions to fire and deforestation detection, monitoring, and characterization for nearly three decades. In this work, we demonstrate the application of our approach to estimate fire radiative energy (FRE) released from biomass burning to infer CO2 and organic and black carbon aerosol (OCBC) emissions from biomass burning in the Legal Amazon. We then compared emission estimates with deforestation rates produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Our research offers a new approach and insights to the dynamics of fire, deforestation, emissions. The annual mean CO2 and OCBC emitted for the study period (2001-2009) from the Legal Amazon biomass burning was estimated to be 253 Tg and 2.3 Tg, respectively. This represents 9% and 14% of the global CO2 and OCBC, respectively, emitted from fires. In general, the trend in emission estimates mirrored deforestation rates. However, 2007 was an anomalous year in Brazil as it was one of the highest years in emissions from fire, but a relatively low year for deforestation (Fig. 1). This discrepancy is a result of an abnormally dry year which resulted in a greater frequency of fires not directly associated with deforestation, but which may be tied to agricultural and pasture maintenance fires. A similar discrepancy was observed when comparing deforestation and emission rates from Mato Grosso and Pará; the two states responsible for most of the deforestation (71%) and emissions (~65%) from the Legal Amazon during the study period. Although as of 2006 Pará had annually surpassed Mato Grosso in annual forest loss it wasn’t until 2009 that emissions from Pará were greater. Thus, suggesting the importance of non

  5. Historical carbon emissions and uptake from the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Mustard, John F; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C

    2011-04-01

    Tropical ecosystems play a large and complex role in the global carbon cycle. Clearing of natural ecosystems for agriculture leads to large pulses of CO2 to the atmosphere from terrestrial biomass. Concurrently, the remaining intact ecosystems, especially tropical forests, may be sequestering a large amount of carbon from the atmosphere in response to global environmental changes including climate changes and an increase in atmospheric CO2. Here we use an approach that integrates census-based historical land use reconstructions, remote-sensing-based contemporary land use change analyses, and simulation modeling of terrestrial biogeochemistry to estimate the net carbon balance over the period 1901-2006 for the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, which is one of the most rapidly changing agricultural frontiers in the world. By the end of this period, we estimate that of the state's 925 225 km2, 221 092 km2 have been converted to pastures and 89 533 km2 have been converted to croplands, with forest-to-pasture conversions being the dominant land use trajectory but with recent transitions to croplands increasing rapidly in the last decade. These conversions have led to a cumulative release of 4.8 Pg C to the atmosphere, with 80% from forest clearing and 20% from the clearing of cerrado. Over the same period, we estimate that the residual undisturbed ecosystems accumulated 0.3 Pg C in response to CO2 fertilization. Therefore, the net emissions of carbon from Mato Grosso over this period were 4.5 Pg C. Net carbon emissions from Mato Grosso since 2000 averaged 146 Tg C/yr, on the order of Brazil's fossil fuel emissions during this period. These emissions were associated with the expansion of croplands to grow soybeans. While alternative management regimes in croplands, including tillage, fertilization, and cropping patterns promote carbon storage in ecosystems, they remain a small portion of the net carbon balance for the region. This detailed accounting of a region's carbon

  6. Distribution and origin of diamonds in Brazil: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svisero, Darcy P.

    1995-12-01

    Brazil was the first western country to produce diamonds from the washing of alluvial deposits found in central Minas Gerais in the early 1700s. For a century the country remained the world's greatest producer, losing its position only after the discovery of the Kimberley field in South Africa. Currently there are placer deposits (garimpos) scattered throughout the majority of the states with official production averaging 1,000,000 ct/y. Mechanized exploitation using modern dredges has succeeded in only two distinct localities: along the Jequitinhonha River (Diamantina) and at the Fazenda Camargo (Mato Grosso). Large diamonds of several hundred carats have been found periodically in the area of the municipalities of Abaeté and Coromandel in western Minas Gerais State. Carbonado, a polycrystalline variety of diamond, was intensively mined in several localities of the Chapada Diamantina in central Bahia State, mainly in the second half of the last century. Kimberlite-type rocks, on the other hand, were discovered only in the late 1960s, first in the Coromandel area in Minas Gerais and later in Goiás, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Piauí States. Little is yet known about these intrusions, mainly because the discoveries have been made by foreign companies operating in the country. Detailed studies reported during the Kimberlite Conference of Araxá in 1991 revealed that some intrusions of the Coromandel area have mineralogical and petrographical characteristics, as well as major chemical element compositions, similar to worldwide kimberlites. However, their isotopic signatures in terms of Sr and Nd are intermediate between Groups I and II kimberlites of South Africa. As to mineral inclusions, Brazilian diamonds contain the common phases of olivine, garnets, pyroxenes, sulphides and oxides as observed in diamonds elsewhere. Furthermore, diamonds from the São Luis River in northern Mato Grosso contain, in addition to garnet and pyroxene, periclase, ferripericlase, w

  7. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    PubMed

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  8. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  9. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen and carbon in decomposed lower-mantle inclusions in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix; Matzel, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Ben; Hutcheon, Ian; Wirth, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Two carbonatitic mineral assemblages, calcite + wollastonite and calcite + monticellite, which are encapsulated in two diamond grains from the Rio Soriso basin in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied utilizing the NanoSIMS technique. The assemblages were formed as the result of the decomposition of the lower-mantle assemblage calcite + CaSi-perovskite + volatile during the course of the diamond ascent under pressure conditions from 15 to less than 0.8 GPa. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the studied minerals are inhomogeneous. They fractionated during the process of the decomposition of primary minerals to very varying values: δ18O from -3.3 to +15.4 ‰ SMOW and δ13C from -2.8 to +9.3 ‰ VPDB. These values significantly extend the mantle values for these elements in both isotopically-light and isotopically-heavy areas.

  10. What Drives Indirect Land Use Change? How Brazil's Agriculture Sector Influences Frontier Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter

    2015-09-01

    From 2000-2005 high returns to soybeans set off an unprecedented expansion of agricultural production across Brazil. The expansion occurred concurrently to a sharp rise in deforestation, leading academics and policy makers to question the extent and means by which the growing agricultural sector was driving regional forest loss. In this article we consider and question the underlying drivers of indirect land use change, namely the potential impact of soybean expansion on beef prices and of land use displacement, via migration. We then present field level results documenting the displacement process in northern Mato Grosso and western Pará States of the Amazon. Our results question the extent to which tropical Amazon deforestation is attributable to land use displacement; however, we argue that the agricultural sector may drive deforestation through other channels, namely through regional land markets.

  11. SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya) FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    SVOBODA, Walfrido Kühl; SOARES, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; ALVES, Max Moreira; ROCHA, Tatiana Carneiro; GOMES, Eliane Carneiro; MENONCIN, Fabiana; BATISTA, Paulo Mira; da SILVA, Lineu Roberto; HEADLEY, Selwyn Arlington; HILST, Carmen Lúcia Scortecci; AGUIAR, Lucas M.; LUDWIG, Gabriela; PASSOS, Fernando de Camargo; de SOUZA, Júlio Cesar; NAVARRO, Italmar Teodorico

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37) of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated. PMID:26910453

  12. Identification of bacterial infection in neotropical primates.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Costa, Andre; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Voloch, Carolina M; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Seuánez, Hector N; Leoncini, Orilio; Soares, Carlos A G

    2013-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases usually arise from wild animal populations. In the present work, we performed a screening for bacterial infection in natural populations of New World primates. The blood cell bulk DNAs from 181 individuals of four Platyrrhini genera were PCR screened for eubacterial 16S rRNA genes. Bacteria were detected and identified in 13 distinct individuals of Alouatta belzebul, Alouatta caraya, and Cebus apella monkeys from geographically distant regions in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil. Sequence analyses showed that these Platyrrhini bacteria are closely related not only to human pathogens Pseudomonas spp. but also to Pseudomonas simiae and sheep-Acari infecting Pseudomonas spp. The identified Pseudomonas possibly represents a group of bacteria circulating in natural monkey populations.

  13. What Drives Indirect Land Use Change? How Brazil's Agriculture Sector Influences Frontier Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter

    2015-01-01

    From 2000-2005 high returns to soybeans set off an unprecedented expansion of agricultural production across Brazil. The expansion occurred concurrently to a sharp rise in deforestation, leading academics and policy makers to question the extent and means by which the growing agricultural sector was driving regional forest loss. In this article we consider and question the underlying drivers of indirect land use change, namely the potential impact of soybean expansion on beef prices and of land use displacement, via migration. We then present field level results documenting the displacement process in northern Mato Grosso and western Pará States of the Amazon. Our results question the extent to which tropical Amazon deforestation is attributable to land use displacement; however, we argue that the agricultural sector may drive deforestation through other channels, namely through regional land markets. PMID:26985080

  14. Extreme event dynamics in methane ebullition fluxes from tropical reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Fernando M.; Lima, Ivan B. T.; Rosa, Reinaldo R.; Mazzi, Edmar A.; Carvalho, João C.; Rasera, Maria F. F. L.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Assireu, Arcilan T.; Stech, José L.

    2006-11-01

    Tropical hydroelectric reservoirs generally constitute an appreciable source of CH4 (methane), a potent greenhouse gas. In this letter, we investigate the statistical characteristics of methane ebullition fluxes in hydroelectric reservoirs. To this end, we use CH4 flux measurements obtained in Manso (wet season, 2004) and Corumbá (dry and wet seasons, 2005) reservoirs, located respectively in Mato Grosso and Goiás, Brazil. Methane ebullition fluxes were measured using open dynamic chambers, connected to an infrared photo-acoustic trace gas analyzer (TGA). Our main result indicates that when properly rescaled, all methane ebullition data collapse into a single statistic well described by a Generalized Pareto distribution, with shape parameter well above zero. The approach presented here, which combines high-frequency CH4 ebullition data and Extreme Value theory analytical tools, shows that, although bubbling patterns appear to be highly complex and unpredictable, they may still be described by a rather simple (but non trivial) dynamics.

  15. Genetic instability in plants associated with vehicular traffic and climatic variables.

    PubMed

    Spósito, Juliana Caroline Vivian; Crispim, Bruno do Amaral; Mussury, Rosilda Mara; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti

    2015-10-01

    To characterize the effect of vehicular traffic on air quality, the micronuclei of Tradescantia pallida tetrads were counted. Young inflorescences of T. pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt var. purpurea were collected in 2010, 2011, and 2012, from three sites subjected to different intensities of vehicular traffic. The sites were located in the municipality of Dourados, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A standardized methodology was used to analyze the Tradescantia micronuclei, in order to evaluate the mutagenic potential of the local air pollutants. Statistical analyses using the Pearson's linear correlation were employed to determine the relationship between relative humidity and temperature, and the average number of micronuclei. In this study, an increase in the average number of passing vehicles was correlated with an increase in the frequency of micronucleus formation. Climatic factors also influenced micronucleus formation, although vehicular traffic remained the most important factor. Thus, the Tradescantia micronuclei assay may be a useful method of assessing air quality.

  16. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws.

  17. Plant food resources exploited by Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches.

  18. Prevalence of Hyposalivation in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Brazilian Subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Cristhiane Almeida; Galera, Marcial Francis; Espinosa, Mariano Martínez; de Lima, Paulo Ricardo Teles; Fernandes, Vander; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Dias, Eliane Pedra

    2015-01-01

    Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory, multisystem, and autoimmune disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of hyposalivation in SLE patients and evaluate factors associated. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study developed at the Cuiaba University General Hospital (UNIC-HGU), Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study population consisted of female SLE patients treated at this hospital from 06/2010 to 12/2012. Unstimulated salivary flow rates (SFRs) were measured. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed in all cases using a significance level P < 0.05. Results. The results showed that 79% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus suffered from hyposalivation and that the disease activity and age in years were the factors that resulted in statistically significant differences. Conclusion. The activity of the disease, age >27 years, and the drugs used were factors associated with hyposalivation, resulting in a statistically significant decrease in saliva production. PMID:25649631

  19. Occurrence of Trypanosoma caninum in areas overlapping with leishmaniasis in Brazil: what is the real impact of canine leishmaniasis control?

    PubMed

    Barros, J H S; Almeida, A B P F; Figueiredo, F B; Sousa, V R F; Fagundes, A; Pinto, A G S; Baptista, C; Madeira, M F

    2012-07-01

    Trypanosoma caninum is a parasite of the Trypanosoma genus recently described in the natural infection of dogs in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Suspecting the existence of a natural cycle and the circulation of this new species, the objective of this study was the taxonomic identification of samples of Trypanosoma spp. isolated from dogs in different Brazilian regions. Parasites were solely obtained from skin fragments culture and characterized by nested-PCR targeting the partial sequence of 18S rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Thirty-three samples, obtained in São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Rio de Janeiro states were analyzed. PCR and sequencing showed that the isolates were genetically identical or closely similar and confirmed T. caninum identity. This report broadens the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil and discusses the impact of the presence of this parasite in areas of canine leishmaniasis occurrence.

  20. Lerneca inalata beripocone subsp. nov. (Orthoptera: Phalangopsidae; Luzarinae): a new taxon for the northern Pantanal of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raysa Martins; Martins, Luciano De Pinho; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Ganchev, Todor D; Jahn, Olaf; Lhano, Marcos Gonçalves; Marques, Marinêz Isaac; Schuchmann, Karl-L

    2016-10-17

    The first record of the Orthoptera species Lerneca inalata for Brazil is presented here. The taxon is represented by a new subspecies Lerneca inalata beripocone subsp. nov. (Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae), collected in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. This work includes morphological and morphometric data as well as descriptions of female genitalia and calling song. The new subspecies has as diagnostic features the male genitalia with six ventral spines on the B sclerite, the first spine having a subtle bifurcation; the mid-region of the strongly sclerotized pseudepiphallus; inclination of C sclerite with slightly concave curvature; tegmina-length ratio and the speculum (syn. mirror) width approximately three times the length of the apical area. The description of the female genitalia and the calling song is presented for the first time for the species Lerneca inalata. A distribution map covers the local occurrence of its subspecies.

  1. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  2. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae.

  3. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca) IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; KANTEK, Daniel Luis Zanella; CRAWSHAW, Peter Gransden; MORATO, Ronaldo Gonçalves; MAY-JÚNIOR, Joares Adenilson; de MORAIS, Zenaide Maria; FERREIRA, José Soares; de AGUIAR, Daniel Moura

    2015-01-01

     This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  4. Erythrodiplax ana sp. nov. (Odonata: Libellulidae) from Brazilian palm swamps.

    PubMed

    Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer; Vilela, Diogo S; Del-Claro, Kleber; Bispo, Pitágoras C

    2016-08-29

    Erythrodiplax ana sp. nov. (male holotype, six male and three female paratypes), collected in Vereda wetlands (a unique Neotropical savanna environment) in Uberlândia (Minas Gerais) and Chapada dos Guimarães (Mato Grosso), Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species fits in Borror's Basalis Group, and can be distinguished from other species by the combination of the following traits: blue pruinosity dorsally on thorax and third to eighth abdominal segments; sides of the thorax olive-green; face ivory or olive-green; wings hyaline with a small apical brown spot on all four wings, well defined in females; male genitalia with sclerotized erectile posterior lobe and inflatable sac-like median process. Last instar larvae were reared in the laboratory, resulting in the description of the larva. We also followed this population for 13 months and present resulting biological notes and comments on ontogenetic color change in males, as well as longevity.

  5. Chromosome number, microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability in the Brazilian native grass Mesosetum chaseae (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Silva, N; Souza, V F

    2012-11-28

    The genus Mesosetum is a primarily South American genus with 42 species. Mesosetum chaseae, regionally known as 'grama-do-cerrado', is abundant in the Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil); it is a valuable resource for livestock and for environmental conservation. We collected specimens from the Nhecolandia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal, located in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We examined chromosome number, ploidy level, meiotic behavior, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability of 10 accessions. All the accessions were diploid, derived from x = 8, presenting 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes. Chromosomes paired as bivalents showing, predominantly, two terminal chiasmata. Interstitial chiasmata were rare. Meiosis was quite normal producing only a few abnormal tetrads in some accessions. Microgametogenesis, after two mitotic divisions, produced three-celled pollen grains. Pollen viability was variable among plant and accessions and was not correlated with meiotic abnormalities.

  6. [The school census as a search strategy for children and adolescents in epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Sichieri, Rosely; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Pereira, Rosângela Alves; Muraro, Ana Paula; Moreira, Naiara Ferraz; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    Low-cost alternatives that allow for the monitoring of population groups are important strategies in conducting cohort studies. This paper presents the procedures for the use of the National School Census as a search tool for children and adolescents in follow-up studies. The study was conducted among adolescent students who took vaccinations in clinics in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil in 1999. A total of 86.8% were identified in the census and 0.2% in the Mortality Information System. Of those identified, 1,716 were interviewed, representing a follow-up rate of 71.4%. In this study, the school census proved to be an effective method for finding students.

  7. Land Cover Classification in a Complex Urban-Rural Landscape with Quickbird Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Emilio Federico.

    2010-01-01

    High spatial resolution images have been increasingly used for urban land use/cover classification, but the high spectral variation within the same land cover, the spectral confusion among different land covers, and the shadow problem often lead to poor classification performance based on the traditional per-pixel spectral-based classification methods. This paper explores approaches to improve urban land cover classification with Quickbird imagery. Traditional per-pixel spectral-based supervised classification, incorporation of textural images and multispectral images, spectral-spatial classifier, and segmentation-based classification are examined in a relatively new developing urban landscape, Lucas do Rio Verde in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. This research shows that use of spatial information during the image classification procedure, either through the integrated use of textural and spectral images or through the use of segmentation-based classification method, can significantly improve land cover classification performance. PMID:21643433

  8. Evaluating the presence of porosity in Brazilian archaeological pottery associating x-radiography and PIXE

    SciTech Connect

    Curado, J. F.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2013-05-06

    X-Radiography technique has been used effectively for decades to evaluate and identify differences in homogeneities in samples. It is a simple, fast and non-destructive technique that provides a view of internal structure helping investigating manufacturing details of archaeological ceramics. Characteristics of the paste used in the matrix composition can be derived using PIXE technique through the determination of the major elemental composition allowing the calculation of its expected density. Combining this information with x-ray images is possible to check for differences in the average density of material indicating the presence of homogeneously distributed porosity or temper. The present work evaluates the porosity in a set of native Brazilian pottery sherds that were collected in the Aldeia Lalima archaeological site, located at Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  9. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    PubMed Central

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-01-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil. PMID:24714968

  10. Wing geometry of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Ceretti-Junior, Walter; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2017-04-01

    Triatoma sordida has a widespread distribution in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay and is frequently found in peridomestic environments. We investigated size and shape variability of T. sordida wings across Brazil. Field-collected adults from twelve populations were studied. For each individual female, seven landmarks on the right wing were digitalized. Shape variables derived from Procrustes superimposition were used in Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Wing size and shape variations among populations was explored by means of ANOVA. Wing centroid size was significantly different among T. sordida populations; specimens from Bahia (East) were larger than those of Mato Grosso do Sul (West). PCA based on wing shape variables showed low wing shape variability. These results reinforce previous data showing low genetic variability among T. sordida populations from Brazil.

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  12. Multiple types of human papillomavirus in cervical samples in women in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tozetti, Inês Aparecida; Scapulatempo, Ilzia Doraci Lins; Kawski, Vicky Liege; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Levi, José Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    We analyzed 87 cervical samples from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, with a PGMY/GP+ nested PCR system. Positive samples were typed using E7 type-specific primer pairs for HPV 6/11, 16, 18, 45 and 66. Eighteen samples (22%) were infected with HPV6/11, 18 samples (22%) with HPV66, 13 samples (15.9%) with HPV45, 8 samples (9.8%) with HPV18 and 7 samples (8.5%) with HPV16. Seventeen samples (20.7%) were infected by two HPV types, and five samples (6.1%) by three HPV types. We conclude that infection with multiple types is present at a high frequency in our population and that there is a relation between some types and cytological finds.

  13. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  14. Eco-certification and greening the Brazilian soy and corn supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanWey, Leah K.; Richards, Peter D.

    2014-03-01

    Garrett et al’s recent letter (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 044055) shows the trade value of Brazil’s production of non-genetically modified (GM) crops, and argues that production for this niche market laid the foundation for the expansion of a variety of non-GM and eco-certification systems. We argue that the conditions underlying the development and perpetuation of the non-GM certification systems are transient. The expansion of soy production has dampened the conditions that promoted the dominance of non-GM soy in the region. The state at the heart of the production of conventional soy, Mato Grosso, already has transitioned to almost 90% GM soy in the most recent agricultural season. The continued viability of eco-certification systems depends on strengthening institutions on the demand side, and ensuring farm-level costs on the supply side match price premiums reaching the farm level.

  15. SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya) FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Walfrido Kühl; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; Alves, Max Moreira; Rocha, Tatiana Carneiro; Gomes, Eliane Carneiro; Menoncin, Fabiana; Batista, Paulo Mira; Silva, Lineu Roberto da; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Hilst, Carmen Lúcia Scortecci; Aguiar, Lucas M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Passos, Fernando de Camargo; Souza Jr, Júlio Cesar de; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37) of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated.

  16. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-05-17

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed.

  17. [Discourses on the role and representativeness of municipal health conferences in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Müller Neto, Julio Strubing; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Society's participation in health policymaking is an underlying principle of the Brazilian public health system. The study analyzed participants' discourses on the role and representativeness of municipal health conferences. The study was conducted in five municipalities (counties) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Thirty social actors were interviewed, including municipal health council members and health system administrators, planners, city council members, and members of the office of the public prosecutor. Data were analyzed using the Qualiquantisoft software for the elaboration of the collective subject's discourse. The discourses identified by the study showed a consensus on the importance of the municipal health council, even among those who questioned the effectiveness of its planning and administrative decisions. The studied revealed discourses resulting from interpretations based on different theoretical traditions. The collective discourses presented both complementary and conflicting arguments, seeking greater resonance and influence in the public health sphere and political system and greater administrative power.

  18. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala) in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.

  19. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in captive neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids.

    PubMed

    André, M R; Adania, C H; Teixeira, R H F; Silva, K F; Jusi, M M G; Machado, S T Z; de Bortolli, C P; Falcade, M; Sousa, L; Alegretti, S M; Felippe, P A N; Machado, R Z

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to detect antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild captive carnivores maintained in Brazilian zoos. Blood samples were collected from 142 Brazilian wild felids and 19 exotic felids in zoos, and 3 European wolves (Canis lupus) and 94 Brazilian wild canids maintained in captivity in Brazilian zoos of São Paulo, Mato Grosso states and Federal District. One hundred and two (63.4%) and 70 (50.3%) of the 161 wild felids tested were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum by indirect immunofluorescent assay test (IFAT), respectively. Among sampled wild canids, 49 (50.5%) and 40 (41.2%) animals were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum antigens by IFAT, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of antibodies to N. caninum in Brazilian wild captive felids and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus (Lund)).

  20. The advertisement call and geographic distribution of Proceratophrys dibernardoi Brandão, Caramaschi, Vaz-Silva & Campos 2013 (Anura, Odontophrynidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia Márcia Marily; Sugai, José Luiz Massao Moreira; DE Souza, Franco Leandro; DE Andrade, Sheila Pereira; Vaz-Silva, Wilian; Bastos, Rogério Pereira; DE Morais, Alessandro Ribeiro

    2016-12-09

    Proceratophrys dibernardoi Brandão, Caramaschi, Vaz-Silva & Campos 2013 has recently been described and allocated into the P. cristiceps species group, but no information about its advertisement calls has been provided (Brandão et al. 2013). Here, we describe for the first time the advertisement calls of P. dibernardoi based on specimens from Central Brazil. We also expand P. dibernardoi´s geographic distribution by reporting a new population in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, constituting the westernmost record for this species, and extending its known range approximately 330 km westward of the municipality of Aporé, State of Goiás (P. dibernardoi´s former westernmost record).

  1. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  2. Demography and health of the Xavante Indians of Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luciene Guimarães de; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Pagliaro, Heloisa; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Flowers, Nancy May; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the demographic and health behavior of the Xavante Indians of Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Data covering the period 1999 to 2004 was collected using information from household censuses and vital statistics. In addition to standard demographic analyses, survival analysis was carried out. Results show a young age structure, derived from a combination of high fertility rates (7.7 live births per woman) and declining mortality. Mortality rates, especially infant mortality (97 per thousand), remain very high, surpassing regional and national rates. Natural increase is the main contributing factor to population growth. The annual population growth rate is 4.4%. Results suggest that recent declines in mortality and fertility may be related to transformations in the implementation of basic health care services and internal diversity, the latter of which seems to be associated with local history and sociocultural determinants.

  3. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-07-11

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b).

  4. Mapping of land use and geomorphology in the APAPORE project area by LANDSAT satellite data, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Kux, H. J.; Sausen, T. M.; Bueno, A. M. T. R.; Desouza, L. F.; Nunes, J. S. D.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a land use and geomorphological mapping of the so-called Projeto APAPORE area, at Mato Grosso do Sul State are presented. The study was carried out using multispectral scanner (MSS) and return beam vidicon LANDSAT images (channels 5 and 7 for the MSS) at the scale of 1:250,000 from 1980 through visual interpretation. The results indicate that pastureland is the most widespead class and that the agricultural areas re concentrated in the north of the area under study. The area covered with cerradao (arboreous savanna type) has a great areal extention, thus permitting the advance of the agricultural frontier. The geomorphological mapping can be useful to regional planning of future land use within the studied area.

  5. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  6. Environmental resource management of the Munduruku savanna

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffler, E.M.; Southwick, E.E.

    1984-05-01

    For 13 years, the Munduruku were observed living in the savanna region located in South America in the Brazilian state of Para. The area is near the point where the states of Para, Amazonas, and Mato Grosso join their borders, and is utilized by about 200-300 Munduruku Amerindians. Their subsistence staple is manioc (a cassava), with fruits and meat included in the diet. Gold mining by Brazilians is a disruptive element in the resource management of the savanna habitat on the rim of the Amazon Basin. Direct and indirect results of mining interference are described. A study of the manner in which the Munduruku on the Cururu River (a tributary of the Tapajos) have handled the potentially disruptive rubber tapping suggests possible ways of reversing the interference. Several courses of action are discussed. 14 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  7. New species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea, ‘Psocoptera’, Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N. García

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four species of Triplocania, three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocania bravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania erwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania trifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rondônia: Brazil) and Triplocania lamasoides sp. n. (Rondônia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. The female is first described for the M3 forked group. The identification key for males of the M3 forked group is updated. PMID:26052241

  8. [Forum: health and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Welch, James R

    2014-04-01

    This Forum on Health and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil explores contemporary challenges to indigenous health and health politics in Brazil. The short collection of articles that follow are based on presentations, originally given at the Indigenous Health Working Group panel at the 10th Brazilian Public Health Conference in Rio Grande do Sul State, by professors Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr. (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Marina Denise Cardoso (Universidade Federal de São Carlos) and Eliana E. Diehl (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina) with Marcos A. Pellegrini (Universidade Federal de Roraima). In this short Introduction, I introduce these contributions, taking as a point of reference a local example of healthcare inequity derived from a presentation at the same panel by Paulo F. Supretaprã, indigenous community leader from Etênhiritipá village, Mato Grosso State.

  9. Spatial organization of the Brazilian states with respect to human migration.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, N

    1986-01-01

    "Multidimensional scaling technique was applied to the Brazilian migration matrix in order to identify the functional regions of the nation, using the 1970 census data for males. The results obtained from three types of proximity matrices confirmed the key roles of Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso as the core states in addition to Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Substantial circulation of migrants among the core states runs counter to the popular notion about the Northeastern states as the major source of labor in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. The Northeast [was] found to consist of three groups of states: Maranhao, Piaui and Ceara showed a stable clustering, but peripherally located, in all configurations; and, the other two groups failed to form persistent regions across configurations. Though limited in scope, the observed attraction of Espirito Santo and Goias violated the widely held negative effect of distance and deserves further investigation."

  10. Evaluating the presence of porosity in Brazilian archaeological pottery associating x-radiography and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curado, J. F.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    X-Radiography technique has been used effectively for decades to evaluate and identify differences in homogeneities in samples. It is a simple, fast and non-destructive technique that provides a view of internal structure helping investigating manufacturing details of archaeological ceramics. Characteristics of the paste used in the matrix composition can be derived using PIXE technique through the determination of the major elemental composition allowing the calculation of its expected density. Combining this information with x-ray images is possible to check for differences in the average density of material indicating the presence of homogeneously distributed porosity or temper. The present work evaluates the porosity in a set of native Brazilian pottery sherds that were collected in the Aldeia Lalima archaeological site, located at Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  11. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  12. Monthly Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Flies, and Biotic and Abiotic Factors Related to Their Abundance, in an Urban Area to Which Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Endemic in Corumbá, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Ravanelli, Michelle de Saboya; Paranhos Filho, Antônio Conceição; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    The monthly distribution and abundance of sand flies are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of sand flies and the relation between their abundance and environmental parameters, including vegetation and climate. This study was conducted over a 2-year period (April 2012 to March 2014). Monthly distribution was evaluated through the weekly deployment of CDC light traps in the peridomicile area of 5 residences in an urban area of the municipality of Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Meteorological data were obtained from the Mato Grosso do Sul Center for Weather, Climate, and Water Resources. The spectral indices were calculated based on spatial resolution images (GeoEye) and the percentage of vegetal coverage. Differences in the abundance of sand flies among the collection sites were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the strength of correlations between environmental variables was determined by calculating Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia cruzi, Lu. forattinii, and Evandromyia corumbaensis were the most frequently found species. Although no significant association was found among these sand fly species and the tested environmental variables (vegetation and climate), high population peaks were found during the rainy season, whereas low peaks were observed in the dry season. The monthly distribution of sand flies was primarily determined by Lu. cruzi, which accounted for 93.94% of the specimens collected each month throughout the experimental period. The fact that sand flies were detected year-round indicates a continuous risk of infection to humans, demonstrating the need for targeted management and education programs. PMID:27783667

  13. Decoupling of deforestation and soy production in the southern Amazon during the late 2000s.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marcia N; DeFries, Ruth S; Morton, Douglas C; Stickler, Claudia M; Galford, Gillian L; Shimabukuro, Yosio E

    2012-01-24

    From 2006 to 2010, deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) whereas agricultural production reached an all-time high. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001 to 2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared pasture areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006 to 2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10 to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels whereas deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that antideforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of direct leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso during the late 2000s, although indirect land-use changes and leakage to more distant regions are possible. This study provides evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers, provided that land is available and policies promote the efficient use of already-cleared lands (intensification) while restricting deforestation. It remains uncertain whether government- and industry-led policies can contain deforestation if future market conditions favor another boom in agricultural expansion.

  14. Monthly Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Flies, and Biotic and Abiotic Factors Related to Their Abundance, in an Urban Area to Which Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Endemic in Corumbá, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falcão de Oliveira, Everton; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Ravanelli, Michelle de Saboya; Medeiros, Márcio José de; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Paranhos Filho, Antônio Conceição; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The monthly distribution and abundance of sand flies are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of sand flies and the relation between their abundance and environmental parameters, including vegetation and climate. This study was conducted over a 2-year period (April 2012 to March 2014). Monthly distribution was evaluated through the weekly deployment of CDC light traps in the peridomicile area of 5 residences in an urban area of the municipality of Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Meteorological data were obtained from the Mato Grosso do Sul Center for Weather, Climate, and Water Resources. The spectral indices were calculated based on spatial resolution images (GeoEye) and the percentage of vegetal coverage. Differences in the abundance of sand flies among the collection sites were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the strength of correlations between environmental variables was determined by calculating Spearman's correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia cruzi, Lu. forattinii, and Evandromyia corumbaensis were the most frequently found species. Although no significant association was found among these sand fly species and the tested environmental variables (vegetation and climate), high population peaks were found during the rainy season, whereas low peaks were observed in the dry season. The monthly distribution of sand flies was primarily determined by Lu. cruzi, which accounted for 93.94% of the specimens collected each month throughout the experimental period. The fact that sand flies were detected year-round indicates a continuous risk of infection to humans, demonstrating the need for targeted management and education programs.

  15. Ticks and rickettsial infection in the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Soares, Herbert S; Barbieri, Amália R M; Martins, Thiago F; Minervino, Antonio H H; de Lima, Júlia T R; Marcili, Arlei; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals and their ticks were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues, blood, and ticks were molecularly tested for Rickettsia and Coxiella DNA. A total of 182 wild animals were sampled, comprising 28 mammalian, five avian, and three reptilian species. Animal tissues or blood were all negative for Rickettsia or Coxiella DNA. A total of 454 ticks (22 larvae, 226 nymphs, 127 males, 79 females) were collected from 52 (28.6%) animals, and identified into 15 species: Amblyomma cajennense, A. naponense, A. humerale, A. nodosum, A. goeldii, A. oblongoguttatum, A. longirostre, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. pacae, A. geayii, A. rotundatum, A. auricularium, A. ovale, and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi. While no Coxiella DNA was identified in ticks, six Rickettsia species were detected in the ticks. "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" was the most common agent, detected in four tick species, A. cajennense, A. auricularium, A. longirostre, and A. humerale. The second most common agent, R. bellii, was detected in A. humerale and A. naponense. Rickettsia rhipicephali was detected in H. juxtakochi, and R. felis in A. humerale. Two possible new Rickettsia species were detected in A. naponense ticks, namely, a novel spotted fever group agent close-related to R. africae in Pará, and a novel Canadensis group agent in Mato Grosso. Results of the present study expand our knowledge on the tick fauna, and on the yet infantile knowledge of tick-borne rickettsiae in the Amazon biome.

  16. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; DeFries, Ruth S; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Anderson, Liana O; Arai, Egidio; del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-09-26

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001-2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to characterize the fate of large (>25-ha) clearings as cropland, cattle pasture, or regrowing forest in the years after initial clearing in Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate and soybean production since 2001. Statewide, direct conversion of forest to cropland totaled >540,000 ha during 2001-2004, peaking at 23% of 2003 annual deforestation. Cropland deforestation averaged twice the size of clearings for pasture (mean sizes, 333 and 143 ha, respectively), and conversion occurred rapidly; >90% of clearings for cropland were planted in the first year after deforestation. Area deforested for cropland and mean annual soybean price in the year of forest clearing were directly correlated (R(2) = 0.72), suggesting that deforestation rates could return to higher levels seen in 2003-2004 with a rebound of crop prices in international markets. Pasture remains the dominant land use after forest clearing in Mato Grosso, but the growing importance of larger and faster conversion of forest to cropland defines a new paradigm of forest loss in Amazonia and refutes the claim that agricultural intensification does not lead to new deforestation.

  17. Decoupling of Deforestation and Soy Production in the Southern Amazon During the Late 2000s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macedo, Marcia N.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Morton, Douglas C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Galford, Gillian L.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2011-01-01

    From 2006-2010 deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) while agricultural production reached an all time high, achieving the oft-cited objective of increasing production while maintaining forest cover. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001-2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006-2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10% to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels while deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that anti-deforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso or forests in neighboring Amazon states during the late 2000s, although leakage to more distant regions is possible. This study provides empirical evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers through productive use of already cleared lands. It remains uncertain whether government and industry-led policies can contain deforestation when market conditions again favor a boom in agricultural expansion.

  18. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm.

  19. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium bovis from Cattle Reared in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Vasconcellos, Sidra Ezidio Gonçalves; Issa, Marina de Azevedo; Soares Filho, Paulo Martins; Mota, Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Carvalho, Ana Carolina da Silva; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Suffys, Philip Noel; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), the pathogen responsible for serious economic impact on the livestock sector. In order to obtain data on isolated M. bovis strains and assist in the control and eradication program for BTB, a cross sectional descriptive molecular epidemiology study in the Brazilian Midwest was conducted. Through spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR methods, 37 clinical isolates of M. bovis circulating in the region were analyzed, 10 isolated from the state of Mato Grosso, 12 from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and 15 from the state of Goiás. The spoligotyping analysis identified 10 distinct M. bovis profiles (SB0121 n = 14, SB0295 n = 6, SB0140 n = 6, SB0881 n = 3, SB1144 n = 2, SB1145 n = 2, SB0134 n = 1, SB1050 n = 1, SB1055 n = 1, SB1136 n = 1) grouped in six clusters and four orphan patterns. The MIRU-VNTR 24-loci grouped the same isolates in six clusters and 22 unique orphan patterns, showing higher discriminatory power than spoligotyping. When associating the results of both techniques, the isolates were grouped in five clusters and 24 unique M. bovis profiles. Among the 24-loci MIRU-VNTR evaluated, two, ETR-A and QUB 11b loci, showed high discriminatory ability (h = ≥ 0.50), while MIRU 16, MIRU 27, ETR-B, ETR-C, Mtub21 and QUB 26 loci showed moderate ability (h = 0.33 or h = 0.49) and were the most effective in evaluating the genotypic similarities among the clinical M. bovis isolate samples. Herein, the 29 patterns found amongst the 37 isolates of M. bovis circulating in the Brazilian Midwest can be due to the animal movement between regions, municipalities and farms, thus causing the spread of various M. bovis strains in herds from Midwest Brazil. PMID:27631383

  20. The fate of nitrogen fertilizer added to soy-maize agriculture in the Amazon basin: Quantifying N2O flux and losses to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Neill, C.; Davidson, E. A.; Macedo, M.; Costa, C., Jr.; Galford, G. L.; Coe, M. T.; O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Lefebvre, P.; Maracahipes, L.; Nunes, D.; McHorney, R.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural intensification are rapidly changing the landscape of southeastern Amazonia. With international pressure to reduce deforestation, many Brazilian farms have opted to intensify agriculture to a system of soybean-maize double cropping, and it has expanded rapidly in the last 10 years. Maize agriculture requires additional nitrogen (N) fertilizers, whose downstream fate is currently unknown. Typical fertilizer application rates range from 30-120 kg N ha-1, and have the potential to introduce large amounts of N to ecosystems of the Amazon basin, which can alter greenhouse gas flux and nutrient transport to groundwater and streams. Little data on the fate of added fertilizers are available in the tropics in general, especially in this critical region of agricultural expansion. Therefore, we established a field-scale experiment to evaluate the fate of N fertilizer on Tanguro Ranch in Mato Grosso, Brazil, a region of rapidly expanding soy-maize double cropping. We measured greenhouse gas fluxes (N2O, CO2, and CH4), soil N content, losses to groundwater, and corn productivity across five levels of fertilizer addition (0-200 kg N ha-1) throughout an entire growing season. We found that N2O flux increased with fertilizer addition, but was only significantly higher at 200 kg N ha-1. Surface soil N content increased after fertilizer addition, but decreased within weeks, and was quickly observed in subsurface soil water. Modeling results that scale these findings to the state of Mato Grosso suggest that this land use transition could create a substantial new source of N2O and CO2 to the atmosphere and has the potential to leach N fertilizer into groundwater and downstream. It is important to maintain forest code policies that minimize these impacts.

  1. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  2. Decoupling of deforestation and soy production in the southern Amazon during the late 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Marcia N.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Morton, Douglas C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Galford, Gillian L.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2010, deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996–2005) whereas agricultural production reached an all-time high. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001 to 2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared pasture areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006 to 2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10 to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels whereas deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that antideforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of direct leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso during the late 2000s, although indirect land-use changes and leakage to more distant regions are possible. This study provides evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers, provided that land is available and policies promote the efficient use of already-cleared lands (intensification) while restricting deforestation. It remains uncertain whether government- and industry-led policies can contain deforestation if future market conditions favor another boom in agricultural expansion. PMID:22232692

  3. Brycon gouldingi (Teleostei, Characidae): aspects of the embryonic development in a new fish species with aquaculture potential.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Francine; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika

    2011-11-01

    Brycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River - Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum - Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.

  4. Measuring activities in tobacco control across the EU. The MAToC

    PubMed Central

    Thyrian, Jochen René; John, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Background Objectives of this study are (a) to develop a comprehensive and economic tool to estimate tobacco control (TC) activities in single EU member states, (b) to compare TC activities between member states of the EU. This article provides the questionnaire and gives a benchmark of EU member states according to their perceived TC activities. Methods: An international workshop was specifically initiated to develop the questionnaire "Measuring Activities in Tobacco Control (MATOC)". TC experts from 8 European countries participated and chose 40 items to cover 11 general topics of TC. At the World Conference of Tobacco or Health in Helsinki 2003 participants were asked to fill out the questionnaire. N = 142 participants from EU-member states returned questionnaires. Results Subjects from the tobacco field in Finland gave the highest TC values to their country, followed by Sweden, Ireland, the UK and the Netherlands. The least active countries in TC were Greece and Germany, behind Austria, Spain, Belgium and Portugal. Italy, France and Denmark constituted the middle field. Conclusion The MATOC provides a profile of TC across European countries and delivers results that are plausible and fit into the existing findings. The data presented here fulfils the purpose to illustrate what is possible with the MATOC and underlines the value of such an approach in delivering information for policy makers and TC advocates how TC is perceived in each country. Yet, further validity testing is necessary, the number of experts per country differs and is partly rather small. Further research with the MATOC should encounter these limitations. The procedure though could serve as model of practice for alcohol and legal drug policy as well. PMID:16722613

  5. Rapid Intensification of Agriculture in Brazil: Dynamics and Implications of Double Cropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; Rudorff, B.; VanWey, L.; Risso, J.; Adami, M.

    2012-12-01

    Global food production and yield have increased substantially over the past 50 years to keep up with the demands of the world's growing population. At the forefront of some recent developments is Brazil, where Mato Grosso State has contributed to this increase in yield and production by both extensifying (converting forest to pasture or row crops) and intensifying (converting pasture to row crops or one-crop/growing year to two-crops/growing year) large areas of land. Our research reported here is focused on characterizing the land-cover and -use dynamics in this rapidly evolving region. We have developed a new algorithm to quantify both the conversion of land to mechanized agriculture and the character of those crop rotations. We use the systematic MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) product (MODIS13Q1) aggregated from daily observations to a 16-day cloud free measurement. Each pixel's resulting 2000-2011 EVI time series is analyzed with a decision tree-like algorithm created in ENVI+IDL to determine not only the area of agricultural land for each of the past decade's growing seasons, but also the specific crop dynamic of that agricultural land: a soy or cotton single-cropping rotation or a soy/corn or soy/cotton double-cropping rotation. The algorithm is based on analysis of growing season EVI patterns of forest, pasture/cerrado, and annual crops. We define specific thresholds for the magnitude of EVI over the growing season to distinguish between natural vegetation, pasture, and cropland, and then use growing season length and crop calendars to separate specific crop types. Because the intra-annual EVI phenology of forest and pasture/cerrado is relatively constant but cropland shows a large dynamic range, the algorithm uses the standard deviation of a growing season's EVI time series to separate between forest and pasture/cerrado and agricultural land. For pixels identified as agricultural land, the algorithm then uses crop-specific growing season lengths and

  6. Solute and sediment export from Amazon forest and soybean headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Shelby H; Neill, Christopher; Jankowski, KathiJo; Krusche, Alex V; McHorney, Richard; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; Nunes, Darlisson; Porder, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Intensive cropland agriculture commonly increases streamwater solute concentrations and export from small watersheds. In recent decades, the lowland tropics have become the world's largest and most important region of cropland expansion. Although the effects of intensive cropland agriculture on streamwater chemistry and watershed export have been widely studied in temperate regions, their effects in tropical regions are poorly understood. We sampled seven headwater streams draining watersheds in forest (n = 3) or soybeans (n = 4) to examine the effects of soybean cropping on stream solute concentrations and watershed export in a region of rapid soybean expansion in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. We measured stream flows and concentrations of NO3(-) , PO4(3-) , SO4(2-) , Cl(-) , NH4(+) , Ca(2+) , Mg(2+) , Na(+) , K(+) , Al(3+) , Fe(3+) , and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) biweekly to monthly to determine solute export. We also measured stormflows and stormflow solute concentrations in a subset of watersheds (two forest, two soybean) during two/three storms, and solutes and δ(18) O in groundwater, rainwater, and throughfall to characterize watershed flowpaths. Concentrations of all solutes except K(+) varied seasonally in streamwater, but only Fe(3+) concentrations differed between land uses. The highest streamwater and rainwater solute concentrations occurred during the peak season of wildfires in Mato Grosso, suggesting that regional changes in atmospheric composition and deposition influence seasonal stream solute concentrations. Despite no concentration differences between forest and soybean land uses, annual export of NH4(+) , PO4(3-) , Ca(2+) , Fe(3+) , Na(+) , SO4(2-) , DOC, and TSS were significantly higher from soybean than forest watersheds (5.6-fold mean increase). This increase largely reflected a 4.3-fold increase in water export from soybean watersheds. Despite this increase, total solute export per unit watershed area (i.e., yield) remained

  7. Erosion risk assessment in the southern Amazon - Data Preprocessing, data base application and process based modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Herrmann, Marie-Kristin; Herrmann, Anne-Katrin; Schultze, Nico; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The study region along the BR 16 highway belongs to the "Deforestation Arc" at the southern border of the Amazon rainforest. At the same time, it incorporates a land use gradient as colonization started in the 1975-1990 in Central Mato Grosso in 1990 in northern Mato Grosso and most recently in 2004-2005 in southern Pará. Based on present knowledge soil erosion is one of the key driver of soil degradation. Hence, there is a strong need to implement soil erosion control measures in eroding landscapes. Planning and dimensioning of such measures require reliable and detailed information on the temporal and spatial distribution of soil loss, sediment transport and deposition. Soil erosion models are increasingly used, in order to simulate the physical processes involved and to predict the effects of soil erosion control measures. The process based EROSION 3D simulation model is used for surveying soil erosion and deposition on regional catchments. Although EROSION 3D is a widespread, extensively validated model, the application of the model on regional scale remains challenging due to the enormous data requirements and complex data processing operations. In this context the study includes the compilation, validation and generalisation of existing land use and soil data in order to generate a consistent EROSION 3D input datasets. As a part of this process a GIS-linked data base application allows to transfer the original soil and land use data into model specific parameter files. This combined methodology provides different risk assessment maps for certain demands on regional scale. Besides soil loss and sediment transport, sediment pass over points into surface water bodies and particle enrichment can be simulated using the EROSION 3D model. Thus the estimation of particle bound nutrient and pollutant inputs into surface water bodies becomes possible. The study ended up in a user-friendly, timesaving and improved software package for the simulation of soil loss and

  8. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other

  9. TRMM Observations of Convective Regimes in the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. A.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Blakeslee, Robert J.; Hein, P.; Cifelli, R.; Rutledge, S. A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study utilizes TRMM satellite precipitation radar, lightning imaging sensor, and passive microwave imager data together with ground-based lightning data to investigate the vertical structure, lightning, and rainfall characteristics of Amazonian and central South American convection for three separate wet-seasons. These characteristics are partitioned as a function of 850 mb zonal wind direction, motivated by observations collected during the six-week TRMM-LBA field campaign. The TRMM-LBA field campaign observations suggest that systematic variations in Amazonian convective vertical structure, lightning, and rainfall are all linked to bimodal variations in the low-level zonal wind (e.g., easterly and westerly regimes). The more spatially and temporally comprehensive TRMM dataset used in this study extends the TRMM-LBA observations by examining regime variability in Amazonian and South American convective structure over a continental scale domain. On a continental-scale, patterns of east and west regime 850 mb winds combined with LIS lightning flash densities suggest the presence of synoptic-scale controls (e.g., intrusion of extratropical frontal systems and interaction with the SACZ) on regional-scale variability in convective vertical structure. TRMM PR, TMI and ground-based lightning data suggest that regional variability in wet-season convective structure is most evident over the southern Amazon, Mato Grosso, Altiplano, southern Brazil, and eastern coastal regions of central and southern South America. Convective vertical structure, rain fall rates, and lightning activity are all more pronounced during easterly (westerly) regimes over the southern Amazon and Mato Grosso (Altiplano, and southern Brazil). Importantly, when considered with case-study results from TRMM-LBA, the systematic differences in convective structure that occur as a function of regime suggest that associated regime-differences may exist in the vertical distribution of diabatic heating

  10. Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils under different land use in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, Katharina H. E.; Madari, Beata E.; Franko, Uwe; Spott, Oliver; Stange, Claus F.; Jungkunst, Hermann F.

    2015-04-01

    Cropland area has been expanded in Brazil and by now the agricultural sector has been calculated as the major emitter of nitrous oxide (N2O). This state was preceded by the conversion of natural ecosystems, which inevitably causes changes in the carbon and nitrogen cycle of the soil. However, detailed model and measurement approaches are lacking for sound national estimates. Here we present data from model driven measurement campaigns from different ecosystems and the results of a review of available data on annual N2O fluxes. Contrary to expectations, emissions from agricultural land (1.13 kg N ha-1 yr-1) tended to be even lower than from rainforest (2.29 kg N ha-1 yr-1). At the same time, N-fertilization did not lead to a relevant increase in annual N2O emissions. Moreover, pastures showed an age-related decrease in emissions; median annual emissions from young pastures (≤ 10 years) were 2.52 kg N ha-1, whereas old pastures (> 10 years) emitted 0.90 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Since N2O is known to react very sensitive to changes (for example dry-wet changes, our measurement campaigns concentrated on the transitional period from dry to wet season, as predicted by our model simulations. For spatial explanation, model simulations were made for selected locations in the Brazilian state Mato Grosso, where agriculture is practiced since more than two decades. In accordance with the measurement and literature results, modelled emissions maize-soybean and cotton-soybean rotations were lower than from areas fallow areas. At the same time, the location and soil type, respectively, turned out to be an important factor when trying to quantify extensive emission budgets. Although existing models perform quite well based on monthly measurements, better adaptation is inevitable with regard to the possibility of more precise predictions. This requires spatial and temporal higher resolved monitoring, in order to involve soil types, which have so far not been considered sufficiently, and

  11. Description of Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec. and Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec. (Ciliophora, Microthoracida)

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Atef; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Using standard morphological methods, we describe one new Leptopharynx species and a new subspecies of L. costatus, both from soil of the neotropic region. Further, we studied two populations of L. costatus costatus. Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec., which was discovered in the Mato Grosso, Brazil, is a large member (60 μm) of the genus with an enormous oral basket. It differs from similar congeners in having six monokinetids in kinety 6, widely spaced kinetids in kinety 1, and an average of 294 kinetids. Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec., which was discovered in southern Florida, makes a small (35 μm) and a large morph (55 μm) both with narrow oral basket. The small morph is inseparable from the small morph of L. costatus costatus, while the large morph has right-angled adoral membranelles and widely (vs. narrowly) spaced kinetids in kinety 1. The small morphs of a Brazilian and an Austrian L. costatus match Mexican and other European populations, all having on average 181–187 kinetids. As yet, we know four morphs of L. costatus that differ by body size (small vs. large), the oral basket (narrow vs. wide), membranelle 1 (present vs. absent), and the arrangement of the membranelles (flat vs. angled). PMID:21855305

  12. Sandflies in an urban area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cristaldo, Geucira; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião Costa; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment. PMID:27593433

  13. Effects of land cover change on evapotranspiration and streamflow of small catchments in the Upper Xingu River Basin, Central Brazi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. H.; Dias, L. C. P.; Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Neill, C.

    2014-12-01

    This study assess the influence of land cover changes on evapotranspiration and streamflow in small catchments in the Upper Xingu River Basin (Mato Grosso state, Brazil). Streamflow was measured in catchments with uniform land use for September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2010. We used models to simulate evapotranspiration and streamflow for the four most common land cover types found in the Upper Xingu: tropical forest, cerrado (savanna), pasture, and soybean croplands. We used INLAND to perform single point simulations considering tropical rainforest, cerrado and pasturelands, and AgroIBIS for croplands. Converting natural vegetation to agriculture substantially modifies evapotranspiration and streamflow in small catchments. Measured mean streamflow in soy catchments was about three times greater than that of forest catchments, while the mean annual amplitude of flow in soy catchments was more than twice that of forest catchments. Simulated mean annual evapotranspiration was 39% lower in agricultural ecosystems (pasture and soybean cropland) than in natural ecosystems (tropical rainforest and cerrado). Observed and simulated mean annual streamflows in agricultural ecosystems were more than 100% higher than in natural ecosystems. The accuracy of the simulations is improved by using field-measured soil hydraulic properties. The inclusion of local measurements of key soil parameters is likely to improve hydrological simulations in other tropical regions.

  14. Effects of land cover change on evapotranspiration and streamflow of small catchments in the Upper Xingu River Basin, Central Brazi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. H.; Dias, L. C. P.; Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Neill, C.

    2015-12-01

    This study assess the influence of land cover changes on evapotranspiration and streamflow in small catchments in the Upper Xingu River Basin (Mato Grosso state, Brazil). Streamflow was measured in catchments with uniform land use for September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2010. We used models to simulate evapotranspiration and streamflow for the four most common land cover types found in the Upper Xingu: tropical forest, cerrado (savanna), pasture, and soybean croplands. We used INLAND to perform single point simulations considering tropical rainforest, cerrado and pasturelands, and AgroIBIS for croplands. Converting natural vegetation to agriculture substantially modifies evapotranspiration and streamflow in small catchments. Measured mean streamflow in soy catchments was about three times greater than that of forest catchments, while the mean annual amplitude of flow in soy catchments was more than twice that of forest catchments. Simulated mean annual evapotranspiration was 39% lower in agricultural ecosystems (pasture and soybean cropland) than in natural ecosystems (tropical rainforest and cerrado). Observed and simulated mean annual streamflows in agricultural ecosystems were more than 100% higher than in natural ecosystems. The accuracy of the simulations is improved by using field-measured soil hydraulic properties. The inclusion of local measurements of key soil parameters is likely to improve hydrological simulations in other tropical regions.

  15. Comparing how land use change impacts soil microbial catabolic respiration in Southwestern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetto, Andre Mancebo; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes strongly impact soil functions, particularly microbial biomass diversity and activity. We hypothesized that the catabolic respiration response of the microbial biomass would differ depending on land use and that these differences would be consistent at the landscape scale. In the present study, we analyzed the catabolic response profile of the soil microbial biomass through substrate-induced respiration in different land uses over a wide geographical range in Mato Grosso and Rondônia state (Southwest Amazon region). We analyzed the differences among native areas, pastures and crop areas and within each land use and examined only native areas (Forest, Dense Cerrado and Cerrado), pastures (Nominal, Degraded and Improved) and crop areas (Perennial, No-Tillage, Conventional Tillage). The metabolic profile of the microbial biomass was accessed using substrate-induced respiration. Pasture soils showed significant responses to amino acids and carboxylic acids, whereas native areas showed higher responses to malonic acid, malic acid and succinic acid. Within each land use category, the catabolic responses showed similar patterns in both large general comparisons (native area, pasture and crop areas) and more specific comparisons (biomes, pastures and crop types). The results showed that the catabolic responses of the microbial biomass are highly correlated with land use, independent of soil type or climate. The substrate induced respiration approach is useful to discriminate microbial communities, even on a large scale. PMID:26887228

  16. Comparing how land use change impacts soil microbial catabolic respiration in Southwestern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mazzetto, Andre Mancebo; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes strongly impact soil functions, particularly microbial biomass diversity and activity. We hypothesized that the catabolic respiration response of the microbial biomass would differ depending on land use and that these differences would be consistent at the landscape scale. In the present study, we analyzed the catabolic response profile of the soil microbial biomass through substrate-induced respiration in different land uses over a wide geographical range in Mato Grosso and Rondônia state (Southwest Amazon region). We analyzed the differences among native areas, pastures and crop areas and within each land use and examined only native areas (Forest, Dense Cerrado and Cerrado), pastures (Nominal, Degraded and Improved) and crop areas (Perennial, No-Tillage, Conventional Tillage). The metabolic profile of the microbial biomass was accessed using substrate-induced respiration. Pasture soils showed significant responses to amino acids and carboxylic acids, whereas native areas showed higher responses to malonic acid, malic acid and succinic acid. Within each land use category, the catabolic responses showed similar patterns in both large general comparisons (native area, pasture and crop areas) and more specific comparisons (biomes, pastures and crop types). The results showed that the catabolic responses of the microbial biomass are highly correlated with land use, independent of soil type or climate. The substrate induced respiration approach is useful to discriminate microbial communities, even on a large scale.

  17. DENTISTS' KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE REGARDING LEPROSY IN AN ENDEMIC AREA IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ronald Jefferson; Carloni, Maria Emília Oliveira Gomes; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper

    2016-11-03

    This study aims to analyze the dental surgeons' knowledge about leprosy and its ways of transmission, clinical characteristics and treatment, besides analyzing their experience with respect to diagnostic suspicion and case referrals. The study population comprised 242 dental surgeons working in the public dental service of the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. A self-applicable questionnaire containing questions about the dental surgeon's profile was used, including his/her knowledge on leprosy, as well as his/her practices concerning the disease. The results showed a predominance of female dental surgeons (65.7%), with ages ranging between 30 and 39 years old (43%) and professionals having six to 10 years of experience since graduation. Concerning their time working in the Unified Health System (SUS), the highest percentage of dental surgeons referred more than 10 years. Regarding the knowledge about the disease, 30.6% did not know the efficacy of the treatment of leprosy, 47% did not know the disease had to be notified compulsorily and only 8.3% had received information about leprosy at work. Besides that, most of them mentioned feeling little security when treating patients with leprosy (61.6%). Thus, dental surgeons' deficient knowledge on issues related to leprosy may be highlighted.

  18. Landscape configuration is the primary driver of impacts on water quality associated with agricultural expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Hamel, Perrine; Sharp, Richard; Kowal, Virgina; Wolny, Stacie; Sim, Sarah; Mueller, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Corporations and other multinational institutions are increasingly looking to evaluate their innovation and procurement decisions over a range of environmental criteria, including impacts on ecosystem services according to the spatial configuration of activities on the landscape. We have developed a spatially explicit approach and modeled a hypothetical corporate supply chain decision representing contrasting patterns of land-use change in four regions of the globe. This illustrates the effect of introducing spatial considerations in the analysis of ecosystem services, specifically sediment retention. We explored a wide variety of contexts (Iowa, USA; Mato Grosso, Brazil; and Jiangxi and Heilongjiang in China) and these show that per-area representation of impacts based on the physical characterization of a region can be misleading. We found two- to five-fold differences in sediment export for the same amount of habitat conversion within regions characterized by similar physical traits. These differences were mainly determined by the distance between land use changes and streams. The influence of landscape configuration is so dramatic that it can override wide variation in erosion potential driven by physical factors like soil type, slope, and climate. To minimize damage to spatially-dependent ecosystem services like water purification, sustainable sourcing strategies should not assume a direct correlation between impact and area but rather allow for possible nonlinearity in impacts, especially in regions with little remaining habitat and highly variable hydrological connectivity.

  19. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  20. A Morphological and Molecular Study of Spectatus spectatus (Kathlaniidae), Including Redescription of the Species and Amendment of Genus Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Paiva, Fernando; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-08-01

    Spectatus spectatus Travassos, 1923 (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) found in the intestine of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae) from the River Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil is redescribed based on morphological evaluation of newly collected material and examination of type and voucher specimens from the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The following characteristics previously unreported or insufficiently described were observed: morphology of lips, presence of lamellae-like supplementary lips, presence of pharynx and cuticular ring surrounding the oral opening associated with a complex cuticular apparatus anterior to the pharynx, the number and arrangement of caudal papillae (13 pairs plus 1 unpaired), and the position of nerve ring. Since S. spectatus is the type species of Spectatus, the diagnosis of this Neotropical genus is amended. Synonymy of Chabaudinema Díaz-Ungría, 1968 with Spectatus, first proposed in 1980 by Baker, is supported by the present data. Molecular data that include the first sequence of the SSU rDNA for any species of Spectatus indicate a basal position of S. spectatus within Cosmocercoidea, forming a distant lineage from that comprising 2 species of Falcaustra Lane, 1915. This separate position of S. spectatus supports validity of the genus.

  1. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were tittered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of mothers and 8.9% of children before vaccination. After vaccination, seropositivity rates of 81.9% and 83.2%, seroconversion rates of 84.8% and 85.8% and rates of a four-fold increase over the pre-vaccination titre of 77.6% and 81.8% were observed in the 17D-213/77 and 17DD subgroups, respectively. There was no association with maternal immunity. Among children aged 12 months or older, the seroconversion rates of 69% were associated with concomitant vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. The data were not conclusive regarding the interference of maternal immunity in the immune response to the YF vaccine, but they suggest interference from other vaccines. The failures in seroconversion after vaccination support the recommendation of a booster dose in children within 10 years of the first dose. PMID:26517656

  2. Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of an unusual palynological record from the Aquidauana Formation, Late Pennsylvanian of Paraná Basin.

    PubMed

    Souza, Paulo A; Perinotto, José A J; Félix, Cristina M; Araújo, Bruno C

    2015-01-01

    The Aquidauana Formation is a Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary unit, widely stratigraphicaly distributed in the northwestern and northern portions of the Paraná Basin. However, little paleontological data is available from this formation, preventing accurate biostratigraphic and paleoecological interpretations. An abundant, diversified and well preserved assemblage of palynomorphs was recognized from sampling conducted in an outcrop section in Cipolândia District of Aquidauana Municipality, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A total of 35 indigenous palynomorph taxa was recognized, comprising 6 species of spores (related to 5 genera), 28 species of pollen grains (14 genera) and 1 species of chlorophycean algae. Monosaccate pollen grains are exceptionally dominant, representing 90.38% of the association, particularly constituted by species of the genera Cannanoropollis (30.41% of the total assemblage), Potonieisporites (28.14%) and Plicatipollenites (19.52%). This quantitative overrepresentation is not usual from Gondwana deposits, revealing a particular plant dominance of Cordaitales in the terrestrial flora. These results are interpreted as an upland ecology characterized by plants with a moisture-independent reproduction strategy, under a glacial climate influence. Certain species of pollen allow assignment of this assemblage to the Crucisaccites monoletus Zone (Late Pennsylvanian), which had been recognized only in the middle portion of the Itararé Group at the northeastern margin of the basin.

  3. Thermal requirements and estimate number of generations of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in different Eucalyptus plantations regions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, F F; Zanuncio, J C; Oliveira, H N; Grance, E L V; Pastori, P L; Gava-Oliveira, M D

    2011-05-01

    To use Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in a biological control programme of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), it is necessary to study thermal requirements, because temperature can affect the metabolism and bioecological aspects. The objective was to determine the thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations of P. elaeisis in different Eucalyptus plantations regions. After 24 hours in contact with the parasitoid, the pupae was placed in 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C, 70 ± 10% of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was reduced with the increase in the temperature. At 31 °C the parasitoid could not finish the cycle in T. arnobia pupae. The emergence of P. elaeisis was not affected by the temperature, except at 31 °C. The number of individuals was between six and 1238 per pupae, being higher at 16 °C. The thermal threshold of development (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) of this parasitoid were 3.92 °C and 478.85 degree-days (GD), respectively, allowing for the completion of 14.98 generations per year in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, 13.87 in Pompéu and 11.75 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State and 14.10 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  4. Evaluation of soil temperature effect on herbicide leaching potential into groundwater in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa; Cerdeira, Antonio Luiz; da Silva, Enio Fraga; Martins, João Souza; Coutinho, Heitor Luiz da Costa

    2003-12-01

    The effect of annual variations in the daily average soil temperatures, at different depths, on the calculation of pesticide leaching potential indices is presented. This index can be applied to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by a pesticide. It considers the effects of water table depth, daily recharge net rate, pesticide sorption coefficient, and degradation rate of the pesticide in the soil. The leaching potential index is frequently used as a screening indicator in pesticide groundwater contamination studies, and the temperature effect involved in its calculation is usually not considered. It is well known that soil temperature affects pesticide degradation rates, air-water partition coefficient, and water-soil partition coefficient. These three parameters are components of the attenuation and retardation factors, as well as the leaching potential index, and contribute to determine pesticide behavior in the environment. The Arrhenius, van't Hoff, and Clausius-Clapeyron equations were used in this work to estimate the soil temperature effect on pesticide degradation rate, air-water partition coefficient, and water-soil partition coefficient, respectively. The relationship between leaching potential index and soil temperature at different depths is presented and aids in the understanding of how potential pesticide groundwater contamination varies on different climatic conditions. Numerical results will be presented for 31 herbicides known to be used in corn and soybean crops grown on the municipality of São Gabriel do Oeste, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

  5. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    PubMed

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America.

  6. Vatellini Sharp (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) from Brazil: two new species, new records, and a checklist.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rafael Benzi; Ferreira-Jr, Nelson

    2016-05-12

    The tribe Vatellini Sharp, 1882 is composed of 55 species divided in two genera. Even though a recent revision of the tribe was made, Vatellini of the new world are weakly explored with great gaps in the distributions of species. In Brazil the knowledge is based only on a few localities. In this work two new species are described and illustrated, Vatellus caissara sp. nov. and Vatellus yanomami sp. nov.; new records are given for Brazil: Vatellus maculosus Miller, 2005 in the state of Mato Grosso, Derovatellus lentus (Wehncke, 1876) in Amazonas, Pará and Rio de Janeiro, Vatellus lateralis (Sharp, 1882) in Alagoas, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Pará, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Sul, Vatellus sahlbergi (Sharp, 1882) in Rio de Janeiro, and Vatellus tarsatus (Laporte, 1835) in Pará. A checklist with all species of Vatellini occurring in Brazil is provided and steps for identification of the new species are added in the key of Miller (2005).

  7. Trends of the microcephaly and Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, January-July 2016.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Barbosa, Maria Clara de; Prata-Barbosa, Arnaldo; Robaina, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Raymundo, Carlos Eduardo; Lima-Setta, Fernanda; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da

    In the last two months, there have been indications that the Zika virus epidemic is on the decline in Brazil. We reviewed the surveillance data published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health to assess trends of microcephaly and neurological abnormalities suggestive of congenital infection, as well as Zika virus disease in Brazil as a whole and its various regions. From November 2015 to July 2016, 8301 cases of microcephaly were reported in Brazil, mainly in the Northeast region. The number of newly reported cases is declining throughout the country, except in the Southeast region. The numbers of cases that remain under investigation still represent 37.7% of all reported cases in early July. Meanwhile, from January to June, 2016, 165,241 cases of Zika virus disease were reported in Brazil. The state of Rio de Janeiro (Southeast) experienced the third highest incidence, lagging behind only the states of Bahia (Northeast) and Mato Grosso (Midwest). In early June, the number of new Zika virus cases showed a marked decline in all of the regions, except the North. Although the Zika epidemic seems to be diminishing, continued monitoring and surveillance of reported microcephaly and neurological abnormality cases is essential, and investigation efforts need to be vastly improved, as some states still reported high incidences of Zika disease in the first half of 2016.

  8. A Brave New World for an Old World Pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T.; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas. PMID:24260345

  9. Cytogenetic description of the Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Artiodactyla, Cervidae).

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Bruno Ferreto; Sarria-Perea, Javier Adolfo; Abril, Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2013-01-01

    The Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Cuvier, 1817) is a small to medium-sized deer from the Amazon rainforest and ecotones. The first karyotype described was 2n=67 to 69 + 2-7 B and FN= 69-72, in which all chromosomes were acrocentric and the X chromosome was the only submetacentric chromosome. However, important aspects of the species chromosome evolution were not resolved because of the lack of information on chromosome banding. The G-banding pattern of Mazama nemorivaga karyotype showed the presence of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system as a product of an X-autosome tandem fusion, which results in a basic 2n=68, FN=70 in females and 2n= 69, FN=70 in males. The fact that this karyotype only differs from that of Capreolus capreolus pygargus (Pallas, 1771; 2n=70, FN=72+B) by X-autosome tandem fusion may corroborate the basal condition of Mazama nemorivaga and its proximity to the ancestral karyotype of the American Odocoileini. A derived karyotype 2n=67, XY1Y2, FN=70 + 3B from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso (the western Amazon) may be evidence of differentiation between western and eastern populations.

  10. A new species of Bachia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Eastern Brazilian Cerrado, and data on its ecology, physiology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Camacho, Agustín; De Sena, Marco Aurélio; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-02-19

    A new species of Bachia of the bresslaui group, Bachia geralista sp. nov., is described from Planalto dos Gerais, an old and partially dissected plateau extending along the Cerrados of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Tocantins states, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to B. bresslaui, with which it has been confused; however head scalation resembles other species from sandy spots within the Cerrado (B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina). Like in B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina, the shovel-shaped snout of the new species is highly prominent, a typical trait of psammophilous habits in other gymnophthalmids. The examination of specimens of B. bresslaui from several populations within the Cerrado revealed great variation among localities, leading to the reidentification of a specimen from Utiariti, Mato Grosso, previously referred to in the literature as the second record of B. bresslaui, as the recently described B. didactyla, suggesting that cryptic diversity might remain still undiscovered within this genus in the Cerrado. Despite occurring in a relatively open Cerrado, thermal physiology of Bachia geralista sp. nov. restricts its occurrence to shaded microhabitats within this habitat.

  11. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho

    2016-01-01

    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance (‘1’) identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance (‘1’) tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance ‘1’ showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592

  12. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected.

  13. Sexual dimorphism and mating behavior in Anomala testaceipennis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis. Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male's last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found.

  14. Molecular Characteristics of HIV Type 1 Infection Among Prisoners from Central Western Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; da Silveira, Alexsander Augusto; Francisco, Roberta Barbosa Lopes; Reis, Mônica Nogueira da Guarda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study among antiretroviral-experienced prisoners from central western Brazil investigated mutations associated with secondary resistance to nucleoside/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI/NNRTI), protease inhibitors (Stanford HIV-1 Resistance/International Aids Society Databases), and HIV-1 subtypes (REGA/phylogenetic analyses/SimPlot). Twenty-seven prisoners from three prisons (16 males and four females from Mato Grosso do Sul State and seven males from Goiás State) had HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase fragments sequenced after nested PCR. Median age was 35 years. Seven males and two females were intravenous drug users, three males referred homosexual practice. Resistance mutations were present in 37% (10/27): NRTI+NNRTI mutations (n=5), NRTI mutations (n=3), multidrug-resistant mutations (n=2). Subtype B (48%), subtype C (11%), B/F1, B/C, and F1/B/C recombinants (40.7%) were detected. Possible intraprison transmissions were identified: two intravenous drug user females (subtype C); two clusters among homosexual males (subtype B and B/F1). High resistance rate and possible intraprison transmission highlight the need for improved prevention, counseling, and treatment strategies for prisoners. PMID:21732793

  15. Seeing the forest for the streams: a multiscale analysis of land use change and the integrity of freshwater ecosystems in the southeastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, M. N.; Coe, M. T.; DeFries, R. S.; Uriarte, M.; Brando, P. M.; Neill, C.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale cattle ranching and soybean production are the primary drivers of deforestation in the Amazon's agricultural frontier. These land use changes can degrade stream ecosystems by reducing hydrologic connectivity, changing the amount of light and nutrient inputs, and altering the quality and quantity of water flowing within streams. This study integrates government deforestation statistics, field data, and satellite-derived information to examine the land use transitions associated with agricultural expansion in the southeastern Amazon state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We monitored stream temperature in 12 soybean, pasture, and forest watersheds and modeled its relationship with land management (riparian forest buffers, watershed forest cover, and impoundments) and environmental variables (precipitation, air temperature). Streams in pasture and soybean watersheds were significantly warmer than those in forested watersheds, with average daily maxima more than 4°C (16.5%) higher in pasture and 3°C (12.1%) higher in soy. Scaling up to the Xingu River Basin revealed a stream network that was increasingly dominated by agricultural land uses and highly fragmented, with nearly 10,000 impoundments in the headwaters alone. These impacts could be substantially mitigated through improved land use practices, such as the preservation and restoration of riparian areas and management of impoundments in emerging agricultural landscapes.

  16. Genetic diversity of turmeric germplasm (Curcuma longa; Zingiberaceae) identified by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, M S; Pinheiro, J B; Filho, J A Azevedo; Zucchi, M I

    2011-03-09

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a triploid, vegetatively propagated crop introduced early during the colonization of Brazil. Turmeric rhizomes are ground into a powder used as a natural dye in the food industry, although recent research suggests a greater potential for the development of drugs and cosmetics. In Brazil, little is known about the genetic variability available for crop improvement. We examined the genetic diversity among turmeric accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection comprising 39 accessions collected from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Pará. For comparison, 18 additional genotypes were analyzed, including samples from India and Puerto Rico. Total DNA was extracted from lyophilized leaf tissue and genetic analysis was performed using 17 microsatellite markers (single-sequence repeats). Shannon-Weiner indexes ranged from 0.017 (Minas Gerais) to 0.316 (São Paulo). Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated major differences between countries (63.4%) and that most of the genetic diversity in Brazil is found within states (75.3%). Genotypes from São Paulo State were the most divergent and potentially useful for crop improvement. Structure analysis indicated two main groups of accessions. These results can help target future collecting efforts for introduction of new materials needed to develop more productive and better adapted cultivars.

  17. A prevalent alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus sp. in a population of the Cayenne ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Piesman, Joseph; Zeidner, Nordin S; Soares, Carlos A G

    2012-12-01

    As Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the most common tick-borne disease in South America, the presence of Rickettsia sp. in Amblyomma ticks is a possible indication of its endemicity in certain geographic regions. In the present work, bacterial DNA sequences related to Rickettsia amblyommii genes in A. dubitatum ticks, collected in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were discovered. Simultaneously, Paracoccus sp. was detected in aproximately 77% of A. cajennense specimens collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first report of Paracoccus sp. infection in a specific tick population, and raises the possibility of these bacteria being maintained and/or transmitted by ticks. Whether Paracoccus sp. represents another group of pathogenic Rhodobacteraceae or simply plays a role in A. cajennense physiology, is unknown. The data also demonstrate that the rickettsial 16S rRNA specific primers used forRickettsia spp. screening can also detect Paracoccus alpha-proteobacteria infection in biological samples. Hence, a PCR-RFLP strategy is presented to distinguish between these two groups of bacteria.

  18. Land-use-driven stream warming in southeastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marcia N; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth; Uriarte, Maria; Brando, Paulo M; Neill, Christopher; Walker, Wayne S

    2013-06-05

    Large-scale cattle and crop production are the primary drivers of deforestation in the Amazon today. Such land-use changes can degrade stream ecosystems by reducing connectivity, changing light and nutrient inputs, and altering the quantity and quality of streamwater. This study integrates field data from 12 catchments with satellite-derived information for the 176,000 km(2) upper Xingu watershed (Mato Grosso, Brazil). We quantify recent land-use transitions and evaluate the influence of land management on streamwater temperature, an important determinant of habitat quality in small streams. By 2010, over 40 per cent of catchments outside protected areas were dominated (greater than 60% of area) by agriculture, with an estimated 10,000 impoundments in the upper Xingu. Streams in pasture and soya bean watersheds were significantly warmer than those in forested watersheds, with average daily maxima over 4°C higher in pasture and 3°C higher in soya bean. The upstream density of impoundments and riparian forest cover accounted for 43 per cent of the variation in temperature. Scaling up, our model suggests that management practices associated with recent agricultural expansion may have already increased headwater stream temperatures across the Xingu. Although increased temperatures could negatively impact stream biota, conserving or restoring riparian buffers could reduce predicted warming by as much as fivefold.

  19. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  20. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

  1. [Work-related disability among postal employees: incidence, duration, and social security costs in 2008].

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Flávia Alves Neves; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the characteristics of Brazilian postal workers that received sick leave benefits in 2008. The databases were from the Unified Benefits System (SUB) and the National Registry of Social Information (CNIS). The incidence rate was 556.5 benefits per 10,000 employees, and the leading causes of work-related sick leave were injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders. Areas most frequently reported in injuries were knees and legs, wrists and hands, ankles and feet, and shoulders and arms, with higher incidence rates in men. Women were more affected by musculoskeletal disorders and mental disorders. Average sick leave lasted longer in men, and the incidence of benefits increased with age. The States with the highest incidence rates were Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, and Santa Catarina, and security benefits averaged BRL 1,847.00. Postal work may involve additional risk of injuries to the limbs, due to the long distances carrying heavy weight, assault, and dog bites.

  2. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  3. Detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Sales, Érica Bravo; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; de Souza, Natália Mendes; da Silva, Josiane Aparecida Gonçalina; Souza, Giovana Gonçalves; Carani, Fernanda Rezek; Dos Santos, Alyane Figueiredo; Rivetti Júnior, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. Other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of FMD. We report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle with suspected vesicular disease in the Brazilian states of Amazonas (AM), Mato Grosso (MT), and Roraima. Thirty-seven epithelial samples from cattle and 1 sample from a buffalo were sent to the laboratory for testing for FMDV and similar disease agents. All samples from MT were positive for parapoxvirus (Pseudocowpox virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus). In addition, 3 samples were positive for Bluetongue virus, and 5 samples were positive for Bovine herpesvirus 1 Among these samples, 1 was positive for all of these 3 agents. Only 2 samples from AM were negative for parapoxvirus. The molecular tests conducted in this study detected multiple infections, with a high prevalence of parapoxvirus.

  4. A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene).

  5. Recovery of energy, water and carbon exchange in degraded forests in eastern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, Susan; Brando, Paulo; Oliveira dos Santos, Claudinei; Silvério, Divino; Coe, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Large regions in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil have been deforested and converted to pasture and soy agriculture. In addition to deforestation, remnant forests in the region are degraded by repeated fire and edge related effects. We are combining eddy covariance with other measures to study the impact of these changes in land cover on energy, water and carbon balance, in a region that sits at the ecotone between continuous forest and savanna. The degraded forest plot is part of a multi-year experimental fire treatment and had experienced large-scale mortality in the years prior to tower installation. Leaf area was strongly reduced in degraded forest, but surprisingly latent energy fluxes nearly equaled those in the intact forest. Carbon uptake rates in the intact forest exceeded those in the degraded forest, though not when expressed on a leaf-area basis. Overall, these results corroborate those found in experimentally logged tropical forest showing rapid recovery of fluxes, despite losses of biomass. Compared to both forests, the soy field reflected more incoming energy, and lost a greater proportion of absorbed radiation as sensible rather than latent heat.

  6. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  7. Relationship between land use/cover and surface temperatures in the urban agglomeration of Cuiabá-Várzea Grande, Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callejas, Ivan Júlio Apolônio; de Oliveira, Angela Santana; de Moura Santos, Flávia Maria; Durante, Luciane Cleonice; de Jesus Albuquerque Nogueira, Marta Cristina; Zeilhofer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We focus on the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and the spatiotemporal relationship between land use and surface temperatures (Ts) in Cuiabá-Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, one of the major urban agglomerations of central-western Brazil, which has suffered intense urbanization processes since the 1960s. Supervised maximum likelihood classifications of optical bands of Landsat Thematic Mapper (Landsat TM) imagery from 1986 and 2007 are applied to generate land use/cover maps. Surface emissivity is determined using the logarithmic transformation of the normalized difference vegetation index. The Ts is retrieved from the thermal bands utilizing a radiative transfer equation. In both cities, urban expansion followed two main development axes, which are reflected in the spatial patterns of Ts. The highest values of Ts were found in bare soil and urbanized areas. Between 1986 and 2007, Ts increased 0.96°C on average and a maximum of 5.49°C in the urban agglomeration. The SUHI in Várzea Grande suffered intensification with an increase of 1.34°C in the downtown area. This tendency was stronger in the center of Cuiabá, where Ts increased 3.12°C. Slowing this rapid rate of temperature increase would demand decisive intervention by municipal authorities, such as restricting annual occupation taxes, reducing the occupation coefficient in new districts, preserving native vegetation, and designating new green areas.

  8. Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

    2015-02-01

    SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America.

  9. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  10. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity.

  11. How Does Environmental Variation Affect the Distribution of Dragonfly Larvae (Odonata) in the Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Central Brazil?

    PubMed

    Mendes, T P; Luiza-Andrade, A; Cabette, H S R; Juen, L

    2017-03-11

    This study investigated the effects of environmental variation on assemblages of dragonfly larvae (Odonata). We hypothesize that there is a significant correlation between species richness, species composition, and abundance of Odonata individuals, and habitat integrity and abiotic variables. To test this hypothesis, we sampled odonate larvae at 12 streams in the Suiá-Miçú River basin in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during three different periods of the year. Local physical and chemical variables (temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), and oxidation reduction potential (ORP)) were measured at each site using a multi-parameter probe, and integrity was assessed using the Habitat Integrity Index (HII). The variation in richness, abundance, and composition of Odonata species was related to the environmental variables analyzed, primarily by the abiotic factors pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, and oxidation reduction potential. Our hypothesis was corroborated for the suborder Anisoptera, which showed a significant relationship with these variables, whereas Zygoptera was only related to pH. Our results show the importance of physical and chemical conditions in ecological studies using Odonata larvae as tools for the management and conservation of freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Cestode parasites in Potamotrygon motoro (Natterer) (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from southwestern Brazil, including Rhinebothroides mclennanae n. sp. (Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae), and a revised host-parasite checklist for helminths inhabiting neotropical freshwater stingrays.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D R; Amato, J F

    1992-06-01

    Specimens of 5 species of cestodes were collected in 6 specimens of the freshwater stingray species Potamotrygon motoro (Natterer), collected in the vicinity of Corumba, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Acanthobothrium regoi, Potamotrygonocestus orinocoensis, Rhinebothroides venezuelensis, and Rhinebothrium paratrygoni are reported from P. motoro and from southwestern Brazil for the first time. Rhinebothroides mclennanae n. sp. appears to be the sister species of Rhinebothroides glandularis, the only other member of the genus exhibiting darkly staining glandular cells lying free in the parenchyma surrounding the terminal genitalia. The new species resembles Rhinebothroides glandularis, Rhinebothroides freitasi, and Rhinebothroides scorzai by having poral ovarian arms that extend anteriorly beyond the posterior margin of the cirrus sac, coiled vaginae, and vitelline follicles not interrupted on the poral side in the vicinity of the genital pore. It differs from all 6 previously described members of the genus by possessing an average of 31 testes per proglottid, compared with an average of 45 for R. glandularis, 55 for R. freitasi and R. venezuelensis, 77 for Rhinebothroides circularisi and Rhinebothroides moralarai, and 80 for R. scorzai. An updated phylogenetic tree for Rhinebothroides is presented.

  13. Acetamiprid, carbendazim, diuron and thiamethoxam sorption in two Brazilian tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Carbo, Leandro; Martins, Eucarlos L; Dores, Eliana F G C; Spadotto, Cláudio A; Weber, Oscarlina L S; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of acetamiprid ((E)-N1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]-N2-cyano-N1-methylacetamidine), carbendazim (methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate), diuron (N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N, N-dimethyl urea) and thiamethoxam (3-(2-chloro-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-5-methyl-[1,3,5]oxadiazinan-4-ylidene-N-nitroamine) was evaluated in two Brazilian tropical soils, Oxisol and Entisol, from Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. To describe the sorption process, batch experiments were carried out. Linear and Freundlich isotherm models were used to calculate the K(d) and K(f) coefficients from experimental data. The K(d) values were utilized to calculate the partition coefficient normalized to soil organic carbon (K(oc)). For the pesticides acetamiprid, carbendazim, diuron and thiamenthoxan the K(oc) (mL g(- 1)) values ranged in both soils from 98 - 3235, 1024 - 2644, 145 - 2631 and 104 - 2877, respectively. From the studied pesticides, only carbendazim presented correlation (r(2) = 0.82 and p < 0.01) with soil organic carbon (OC) content. Acetamiprid and thiamethoxam showed low sorption coefficients, representing a high risk of surface and ground water contamination.

  14. Bucrates lanista Rehn 1918 (Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae): The First Record from the Brazilian Pantanal, the First Description of the Male, the First Karyotypic Report for the Genus, and the First Telomeric Hybridization of the Subfamily.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Olivier, Renan da Silva; Araujo, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    Bucrates lanista, the most southerly distributed species in the genus Bucrates Burmeister, was originally described from Brazil based on a female collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, but the species has not been recorded since 1918. In this work, we report that B. lanista inhabits the Pantanal Wetland in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, for the first time, describe the male. Individuals of B. lanista are gregarious and present a brown/green color dimorphism; this behavior and color variation are also observed in species of closely related genera. Individuals from the Pantanal vary slightly from those of Rio Grande do Sul. The karyotype was determined to be 2n♂ = 21 = 20 + X0 and 2n♀ = 22 = 20 + XX. The X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, and all of the autosomes are submetacentrics. All chromosomes solely present telomeric (TTAGG)n repeats at their ends, and some chromosomes present positive and negative DAPI bands.

  15. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen and carbon in decomposed lower-mantle inclusions in diamond

    DOE PAGES

    Kaminsky, Felix; Matzel, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Ben; ...

    2015-07-25

    Two carbonatitic mineral assemblages, calcite + wollastonite and calcite + monticellite, which are encapsulated in two diamond grains from the Rio Soriso basin in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied utilizing the NanoSIMS technique. The assemblages were formed as the result of the decomposition of the lower-mantle assemblage calcite + CaSi-perovskite + volatile during the course of the diamond ascent under pressure conditions from 15 to less than 0.8 GPa. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the studied minerals are inhomogeneous. They fractionated during the process of the decomposition of primary minerals to very varying values:more » δ18O from –3.3 to +15.4 ‰ SMOW and δ13C from –2.8 to +9.3 ‰ VPDB. As a result, these values significantly extend the mantle values for these elements in both isotopically-light and isotopically-heavy areas.« less

  16. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen and carbon in decomposed lower-mantle inclusions in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, Felix; Matzel, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Ben; Hutcheon, Ian; Wirth, Richard

    2015-07-25

    Two carbonatitic mineral assemblages, calcite + wollastonite and calcite + monticellite, which are encapsulated in two diamond grains from the Rio Soriso basin in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied utilizing the NanoSIMS technique. The assemblages were formed as the result of the decomposition of the lower-mantle assemblage calcite + CaSi-perovskite + volatile during the course of the diamond ascent under pressure conditions from 15 to less than 0.8 GPa. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the studied minerals are inhomogeneous. They fractionated during the process of the decomposition of primary minerals to very varying values: δ18O from –3.3 to +15.4 ‰ SMOW and δ13C from –2.8 to +9.3 ‰ VPDB. As a result, these values significantly extend the mantle values for these elements in both isotopically-light and isotopically-heavy areas.

  17. TESA-blot for the diagnosis of Chagas disease in dogs from co-endemic regions for Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma evansi and Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, E S; Souza, A I; Pinedo-Cancino, V; Marcondes, M; Marcili, A; Camargo, L M A; Camacho, A A; Stolf, A M S; Teixeira, M M G

    2009-07-01

    We standardized serodiagnosis of dogs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi using TESA (trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen)-blot developed for human Chagas disease. TESA-blot showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, ELISA using TESA (TESA-ELISA) or epimastigotes (epi-ELISA) as antigen yielded 100% sensitivity but specificity of 94.1% and 49.4%, respectively. When used in field studies in an endemic region for Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma evansi (Mato Grosso do Sul state, Central Brazil), positivities were 9.3% for TESA-blot, 10.7% for TESA-ELISA and 32% for epi-ELISA. Dogs from a non-endemic region for these infections (Rondonia state, western Amazonia) where T. cruzi is enzootic showed positivity of 4.5% for TESA-blot and epi-ELISA and 6.8% for TESA-ELISA. Sera from urban dogs from Santos, São Paulo, where these diseases are absent, yielded negative results. TESA-blot was the only method that distinguished dogs infected with T. cruzi from those infected with Leishmania chagasi and/or Trypanosoma evansi.

  18. Use of parasitological culture to detect Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sorte, Eveline da Cruz Boa; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda Aranega; Dutra, Valéria; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, although the domestic dog is a major target for the control actions for visceral leishmaniasis, knowledge gaps of the Leishmania species present in those animals still exist in many endemic areas. The objective of this study was the use of parasitological culture as a diagnosis tool and identification of species of Leishmania and other trypanosomatids in the canine population in the city of Cuiaba/Mato Grosso. Biological samples such as blood, intact skin fragments, cutaneous ulcers, and bone marrow were collected during a cross-sectional study and cultured on biphasic medium (Novy-MacNeil-Nicolle [NNN]/Schneider's). Leishmania isolates were characterized through isoenzyme electrophoresis. Isolates were obtained from 11.2% (n=54) of the 482 animals studied considering the different anatomical sites investigated. Leishmania chagasi was confirmed in 8.3% (n=40) dogs and Trypanosoma caninum in 2.9% (n=14). The sample of intact skin presented a higher chance of isolation of L. chagasi in symptomatic dogs and bone marrow in asymptomatic dogs (p<0.05). The results presented in this study emphasize the value of culture and confirm, for the first time, the circulation of L. chagasi in the canine population in different neighborhoods of the city of Cuiaba and broaden the knowledge of the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil.

  19. Post-crackdown effectiveness of field-based forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities.

  20. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices.

  1. [Health on the borders: access to and demands on the Brazilian National Health System by foreigners and non-resident Brazilians in cities along the border with MERCOSUR countries from the perspective of municipal health secretaries].

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Ligia; Guimarães, Luisa; Nogueira, Vera Maria Ribeiro; Lobato, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    In the context of forming common markets, border areas require special attention, since they anticipate the effects of integration processes. Along borders, different political, monetary, security, and social systems coexist; the intensification of flows resulting from integration raises challenges for the health systems, requiring specific policies focused on guaranteeing the right to health. This article presents the results of a study on the conditions for access to (and demands for) health services in the MERCOSUR border cities. A survey was performed with municipal health secretaries in the 69 Brazilian cities in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, and Mato Grosso do Sul that border on the other MERCOSUR countries. The study attempted to identify the services demanded by the border population, mechanisms used for access, flows between services and systems, response strategies, and local agreements. Initiatives for cooperation between Brazilian and foreign local administrators were identified in nearly half of the municipalities and can orient the formulation of guidelines for border situations, allowing improvement in comprehensive access to health care.

  2. Application of Time Series Landsat Images to Examining Land-use/Land-cover Dynamic Change

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Hetrick, Scott; Moran, Emilio; Li, Guiying

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical-based classification method was designed to develop time series land-use/land-cover datasets from Landsat images between 1977 and 2008 in Lucas do Rio Verde, Mato Grosso, Brazil. A post-classification comparison approach was used to examine land-use/land-cover change trajectories, which emphasis is on the conversions from vegetation or agropasture to impervious surface area, from vegetation to agropasture, and from agropasture to regenerating vegetation. Results of this research indicated that increase in impervious surface area mainly resulted from the loss of cerrado in the initial decade of the study period and from loss of agricultural lands in the last two decades. Increase in agropasture was mainly at the expense of losing cerrado in the first two decades and relatively evenly from the loss of primary forest and cerrado in the last decade. When impervious surface area was less than approximately 40 km2 before 1999, impervious surface area was negatively related to cerrado and forest, and positively related to agropasture areas, but after impervious surface area reached 40 km2 in 1999, no obvious relationship exists between them. PMID:25328256

  3. Detection of urban expansion in an urban-rural landscape with multitemporal QuickBird images

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Hetrick, Scott; Moran, Emilio; Li, Guiying

    2011-01-01

    Accurately detecting urban expansion with remote sensing techniques is a challenge due to the complexity of urban landscapes. This paper explored methods for detecting urban expansion with multitemporal QuickBird images in Lucas do Rio Verde, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Different techniques, including image differencing, principal component analysis (PCA), and comparison of classified impervious surface images with the matched filtering method, were used to examine urbanization detection. An impervious surface image classified with the hybrid method was used to modify the urbanization detection results. As a comparison, the original multispectral image and segmentation-based mean-spectral images were used during the detection of urbanization. This research indicates that the comparison of classified impervious surface images with matched filtering method provides the best change detection performance, followed by the image differencing method based on segmentation-based mean spectral images. The PCA is not a good method for urban change detection in this study. Shadows and high spectral variation within the impervious surfaces represent major challenges to the detection of urban expansion when high spatial resolution images are used. PMID:21799706

  4. The role of microorganisms in a planktonic food web of a floodplain lake.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Bianca Trevizan; Pereira, Danielle Goeldner; Bini, Luis Mauricio; de Meira, Bianca Ramos; Nishida, Verônica Sayuri; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio Amodêo; Velho, Luiz Felipe Machado

    2015-02-01

    Food webs include complex ecological interactions that define the flow of matter and energy, and are fundamental in understanding the functioning of an ecosystem. Temporal variations in the densities of communities belonging to the planktonic food web (i.e., microbial: bacteria, flagellate, and ciliate; and grazing: zooplankton and phytoplankton) were investigated, aiming to clarify the interactions between these organisms and the dynamics of the planktonic food web in a floodplain lake. We hypothesized that hydrological pulse determines the path of matter and energy flow through the planktonic food web of this floodplain lake. Data were collected monthly from March 2007 to February 2008 at three different sites in Guaraná Lake (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil). The path analysis provided evidence that the dynamics of the planktonic food web was strongly influenced by the hydrological pulse. The high-water period favored interactions among the organisms of the microbial loop, rather than their relationships with zooplankton and phytoplankton. Therefore, in this period, the strong interaction among the organisms of the grazing food chain suggests that the microbial loop functions as a sink of matter and energy. In turn, in the low-water period, higher primary productivity appeared to favor different interactions between the components of the grazing food chain and microorganisms, which would function as a link to the higher trophic levels.

  5. Incidence and transmission patterns of tuberculosis among indigenous populations in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Eunice Atsuko; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Riley, Lee W; Basta, Paulo Cesar; Honer, Michael Robert; Maia, Rosalia; da Costa, Izaias Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the Brazilian indigenous population lives in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), where a large number of new cases of tuberculosis (TB) are reported. This study was conducted to assess TB occurrence, transmission and the utility of TB diagnosis based on the Ogawa-Kudoh (O-K) culture method in this remote population. The incidence of TB was estimated by a retrospective review of the surveillance data maintained by the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for the study region. The TB transmission pattern among indigenous people was assessed by genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using the IS 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Of the 3,093 cases identified from 1999-2001, 610 (~20%) were indigenous patients (average incidence: 377/100,000/year). The use of the O-K culture method increased the number of diagnosed cases by 34.1%. Of the genotyped isolates from 52 indigenous patients, 33 (63.5%) belonged to cluster RFLP patterns, indicating recently transmitted TB. These results demonstrate high, on-going TB transmission rates among the indigenous people of MS and indicate that new efforts are needed to disrupt these current transmissions. PMID:24270999

  6. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  7. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacterial agents in Brazilian and exotic captive carnivores.

    PubMed

    André, M R; Dumler, J S; Scorpio, D G; Teixeira, R H F; Allegretti, S M; Machado, R Z

    2012-09-01

    The present study aims to detect and characterize by molecular techniques, the presence of tick-borne pathogens in wild captive carnivore blood samples from Brazil. Blood was collected from 76 Brazilian felids, 23 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and 97 Brazilian canids maintained in captivity in zoos located in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. DNA of each sample was used in PCR reactions for Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia identification. The blood from 10/100 (10%) of canids (1 European wolf, 3 bush dogs, and 6 crab-eating foxes) and from 21/99 (21%) felids (4 pumas, 6 little spotted cats, 4 ocelots, 3 jaguarundis, 1 tiger, and 3 lions) contained fragments of 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia spp. Fragments of Anaplasma spp. groESL and 16S rRNA genes were detected in the blood of 1/100 (1%) canids (1 bush dog) and in 4/99 (3%) felids (4 little spotted cats), respectively. Rickettsia species infections were not identified. The present work showed that new strains of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. circulate among wild carnivores in Brazil.

  8. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development

    PubMed Central

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M.; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23610173

  9. Leprosy incidence, characterization of cases and correlation with household and cases variables of the Brazilian states in 2010*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Abreu, Graziela Basílio; Oliveira, Vanessa Rossato; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leprosy is millenary disease and still persists in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of leprosy in the Brazilian states and for the country in the year 2010; to describe the cases reported according to the studied variables; to verify the correlation between the overall incidence and the studied variables. METHODS: Ecological descriptive study, with population data from the 27 states, 2010. Information about reported cases were collected: gender, race, percentage of patients younger than 15 years old and living conditions. The analysis was performed using percentages, means, incidence rates and the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The states of Mato Grosso and Tocantins recorded the highest incidence rates; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the lowest; there was a higher incidence of leprosy among men; the incidence of leprosy increases proportionally with the nonwhites among the inhabitants; patients younger than 15 years; the average number of residents per household; and a decrease in coverage of water supply and presence of bathrooms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of leprosy is related to factors as gender, race and house conditions (p<0,05 for all). PMID:26982775

  10. Quantifying the effect of fire disturbance on free-living nitrogen fixation in tropical ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Bomfim, B.; Silva, L. C. R.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Marimon, B.; Horwath, W. R.; Neves, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests and savannas are among the most important biomes on Earth, supporting more than half of all plant and animal species on the planet. Despite growing interest in biogeochemical processes that affect tropical forest dynamics, many, including biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), are still poorly understood. Free-living N-fixers are thought to play a key role in tropical ecosystems, alleviating N and P limitation, supporting above and below ground biomass production, as well as carbon storage in plants and soil, but this influence has yet to be quantified. Of particular interest, the spatial distribution and identity of free-living BNF under disturbance regimes that commonly lead to the conversion of forests to savannas is currently unknown. To address this critical gap in knowledge, we measured free-living BNF quantifying rates of N fixation under contrasting fire regimes in the Amazon-Cerrado transition of central Brazil. Samples were collected in 4 ha of floodable forests affected by fire and 1 ha of unburned (seasonally flooded) forest located at the Araguaia State Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Free-living N-fixation rates were measured by both 15N2 (98 atom% 15N) and acethylene reduction assay (ARA). Samples were incubated in the field and left in the dark at room temperature for 12 hours. In the next few weeks we will quantify N fixation rates that will be presented in the upcoming AGU meeting.

  11. Vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly in an urban center in central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Driemeier, Marta; Maria Oliveira de Andrade, Sônia; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Mello Miranda Paniago, Anamaria; Venâncio da Cunha, Rivaldo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As the world population ages with an improved quality of life and sexual longevity, the prevalence of AIDS is rising among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability to AIDS among individuals attending senior community centers in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHOD: This descriptive, exploratory investigation included 329 subjects selected in a probabilistic manner. Individuals with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination indicating cognitive impairment were excluded from the analyses. Barthel's and Lawton's functional assessment scales were applied. Interviews were conducted to evaluate the presence of cognitive and behavioral factors associated with HIV transmission. RESULTS: Most subjects were non-dependent, fell within the 60- to 69-year age bracket and were female. A majority of individuals reported having knowledge about AIDS and were aware that the elderly are vulnerable to the disease. More than a quarter (26.9%) of the sample reported previous HIV testing. No participants reported drug use, homosexual orientation, or alcohol abuse. A minority of participants reported using medication for erectile dysfunction. Casual and multiple partners accounted for 12% and 34% of reported intercourse experiences, respectively. Condom use was reported by 14% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Unprotected sex was the primary factor accounting for vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly. PMID:22249476

  12. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009.

  13. Nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis 1

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Euzeli da Silva; dos Santos, Iraci; Lanzillotti, Regina Serrão; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: identify nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis. Method: a quantitative and descriptive research, carried out in three institutions located in Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using the Client Assessment Protocol in Dermatology during a nursing consultation. Simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Results: 14 subjects participated in the study, nine with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus two and three of bullous pemphigoid. The age ranged between 27 and 82 years, predominantly females (11). 14 nursing diagnoses were discussed and identified from a clinical rationale in all study participants, representing the most common human responses in this sample. The application of the Assessment Protocol in Dermatology facilitated the comprehensive assessment, in addition to providing the identification of diagnostics according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. Conclusion: the nursing diagnoses presented confirm the necessity of interdisciplinary work during the care for this clientele. For better description of the phenomena related to the client in question, it is suggested the inclusion of two risk factors related in three diagnoses of this taxonomy. It is worth noting the contribution of the findings for the care, education and research in nursing in dermatology. PMID:27533274

  14. New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis). PMID:25892925

  15. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho

    2016-08-01

    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance ('1') identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance ('1') tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance '1' showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds.

  16. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of common bean genotypes through Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Barroso, L M A; Nascimento, M; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-04-27

    This study used Bayesian inference to investigate the genotype x environment interaction in common bean grown in Mato Grosso do Sul State, and it also evaluated the efficiency of using informative and minimally informative a priori distributions. Six trials were conducted in randomized blocks, and the grain yield of 13 common bean genotypes was assessed. To represent the minimally informative a priori distributions, a probability distribution with high variance was used, and a meta-analysis concept was adopted to represent the informative a priori distributions. Bayes factors were used to conduct comparisons between the a priori distributions. The Bayesian inference was effective for the selection of upright common bean genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability using the Eberhart and Russell method. Bayes factors indicated that the use of informative a priori distributions provided more accurate results than minimally informative a priori distributions. According to Bayesian inference, the EMGOPA-201, BAMBUÍ, CNF 4999, CNF 4129 A 54, and CNFv 8025 genotypes had specific adaptability to favorable environments, while the IAPAR 14 and IAC CARIOCA ETE genotypes had specific adaptability to unfavorable environments.

  17. Brazil’s Market for Trading Forest Certificates

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  18. Environmental factors related to the occurrence of oral clefts in a Brazilian subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Campos Neves, Ana Thereza de Saboia; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fabio; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Background: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Craniofacial Rehabilitation Center in the General Hospital of the University of Cuiabá, Cuiabá city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Poisson regression model was used to analyze the relationship between antenatal factors and the occurrence of oral clefts in 116 patients. Results: Oral clefts were more common in males (64.66%) and White race (46.02%). The mean age of the children was 21.91 months. The most common type of cleft was cleft lip and palate (CLP, 55.17%). Maternal and paternal smoking in the first trimester of pregnancy and parity were significantly associated with the occurrence of CLP. Parent's age, educational level, and occupation did not interfere in the occurrence of oral clefts. There was also no significant association between maternal illness, medication use, alcohol consumption, and maternal exposure to chemicals in the first trimester of pregnancy and the occurrence of clefts in this population. Conclusion: The analysis of the environmental factors present during the pregnancy of children with oral clefts revealed a significant association between parity (second onward), maternal smoking, and paternal smoking and the occurrence of CL and/or palate in this population. PMID:27397957

  19. Molecular characterization and population structure of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae), ex situ germplasm collection using microsatellites markers.

    PubMed

    Lanes, Éder C M; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Kuki, Kacilda N; Nick, Carlos; Freitas, Renata D

    2015-01-01

    The Acrocomia aculeata is one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy. In order to understand patterns of the distribution of the allelic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ germplasm collection, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the genetic variability of the accessions may match their geographical origin. A genotypic analysis of 77 A. aculeata accessions was conducted with 6 simple sequence repeat markers. A high degree of molecular diversity among the accessions was found, with an average of 9 alleles per locus and a polymorphic information content with a mean of 0.76. A total of 4 clusters was identified by the Bayesian analysis of population structure. The highest subpopulation diversity was identified in Pop1, mainly formed by accessions from State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The populations Pop2A, Pop2B, and Pop2C, all from the State of Minas Gerais, showed high genetic variability as determined by a higher F st, and a wide genetic variance, which were identified within and among the population by analysis of molecular variance. Based on our results and on Vavilov's theory on crop origins, one possible diversity center for A. aculeata is proposed to be in a region in southeast Brazil.

  20. Perception of mercury contamination by Brazilian adolescents in a gold mining community: an ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Novais, Gabriel; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2009-01-01

    This study used ethnographic methods to examine the perception of mercury contamination by adolescents in the mining community of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In Phase I, 53 students aged 13 to 16 years in six schools presented theatrical sketches about community health risks to generate key terms for a pile sorting activity in Phase II. Mercury was reported by four of the 15 groups (26%). In Phase II, researchers conducted semi-structured interviews and pile sorts with 31 students to assess adolescent attitudes about mercury and to generate an ethnomedical model of mercury perception. The lack of consensus evident in the model reveals that while students view mercury as an overall threat, many of them do not understand how its presence can harm human health. Few adolescents felt confident about their knowledge (3%) or could accurately explain how it was used (9%), even though many of them had relatives working as miners (55%). Further analysis of pile sort data suggests that mercury may not belong in a 'typical risks' domain. The authors argue that ethnographic methods are a useful tool for public health research, and hope that these findings can contribute to health education interventions in the field.

  1. Tungiasis in a free-ranging jaguar (Panthera onca) population in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C

    2012-03-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic disease caused by fleas of the genus Tunga. The disease is reported to occur mostly in human populations. In wildlife, however, the occurrence and impact of this disease remains uncertain. We captured and examined 12 free-ranging jaguars for the presence of Tunga penetrans in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Tungiasis prevalence was 100% in the population; lesions were confined to the jaguar's paws. T. penetrans was identified based on the characteristics of the embedded fleas and the morphological identification of a collected free-living flea. The intensity and stage of infestation varied between individual animals. However, in general, all captured jaguars were in good health. The 100% prevalence of tungiasis may be related to the fact that all captures were performed during the dry season. Their high ecological requirements for space make jaguars potential disseminators of T. penetrans in the Pantanal region. Because cattle ranching and ecotourism are the main economic activities in the Pantanal, further studies should evaluate the risks of tungiasis to human and animal health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tungiasis in jaguars.

  2. DENTISTS' KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE REGARDING LEPROSY IN AN ENDEMIC AREA IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, Ronald Jefferson; CARLONI, Maria Emília Oliveira Gomes; MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba; GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba; GARBIN, Artênio José Ísper

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This study aims to analyze the dental surgeons' knowledge about leprosy and its ways of transmission, clinical characteristics and treatment, besides analyzing their experience with respect to diagnostic suspicion and case referrals. The study population comprised 242 dental surgeons working in the public dental service of the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. A self-applicable questionnaire containing questions about the dental surgeon's profile was used, including his/her knowledge on leprosy, as well as his/her practices concerning the disease. The results showed a predominance of female dental surgeons (65.7%), with ages ranging between 30 and 39 years old (43%) and professionals having six to 10 years of experience since graduation. Concerning their time working in the Unified Health System (SUS), the highest percentage of dental surgeons referred more than 10 years. Regarding the knowledge about the disease, 30.6% did not know the efficacy of the treatment of leprosy, 47% did not know the disease had to be notified compulsorily and only 8.3% had received information about leprosy at work. Besides that, most of them mentioned feeling little security when treating patients with leprosy (61.6%). Thus, dental surgeons' deficient knowledge on issues related to leprosy may be highlighted. PMID:27828617

  3. Nycthemeral Rhythm of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Craggy Region, Transitioning Between the Wetland and the Plateau, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Infran, J O M; Souza, D A; Fernandes, W S; Casaril, A E; Eguchi, G U; Oshiro, E T; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Oliveira, A G

    2016-09-29

    Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p.m.-7 a.m. and 6 p.m.-5 a.m., respectively. Both species require particular attention as vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in several regions of Brazil, including MS. However, Lutzomyia dispar was more anthropophilic, and was most active between January and March, from 5 p.m. to 5 a.m. Lutzomyia misionensis (=Pintomyia misionensis, sensu Galati) was present throughout both years, active from 4 p.m. to 5 a.m. Other species were active from 5 p.m. to 6 a.m. Due to intense tourism in the months that coincide with a high number of vectors for leishmaniases in Piraputanga, it is essential to determine vector-monitoring strategies in the area by investigating sand fly rhythm while not neglecting other periods of the year when the insects are present.

  4. Attractiveness of black Shannon trap for phlebotomines.

    PubMed

    Galati, E A; Nunes, V L; Dorval, M E; Cristaldo, G; Rocha, H C; Gonçalves-Andrade, R M; Naufel, G

    2001-07-01

    A white Shannon-type trap was used for captures of female sand flies in the search for natural infection with flagellates, however, due to its low productivity and as a large number of phlebotomines settled on the researchers' black clothes, we decided to compare the relative attractiveness of black and white Shannon-type traps for sand flies. Several pairs of black and white traps were placed side by side in front of caves in four areas in the Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for a total of 12 observations and 44 h of capture. The experiment resulted in 889 phlebotomines captured, 801 on the black and 88 on the white trap, representing 13 species. The hourly Williams' means were 8.67 and 1.24, respectively, and the black/white ratio was 7.0:1.0. Lutzomyia almerioi, an anthropophilic species closely associated with caves, was predominant (89%). Only two other species, Nyssomyia whitmani and Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, also anthropophilic, were significantly attracted to the black rather than to the white trap (chi(2) test; p < or = 0.01). The difference between the diversity index of the two traps was not significant at level 0.05. The black trap in these circumstances was much more productive than the white, especially for anthropophilic species.

  5. Nycthemeral Rhythm of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Craggy Region, Transitioning Between the Wetland and the Plateau, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Infran, J O M; Souza, D A; Fernandes, W S; Casaril, A E; Eguchi, G U; Oshiro, E T; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Oliveira, A G

    2017-01-01

    Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p.m.-7 a.m. and 6 p.m.-5 a.m., respectively. Both species require particular attention as vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in several regions of Brazil, including MS. However, Lutzomyia dispar was more anthropophilic, and was most active between January and March, from 5 p.m. to 5 a.m. Lutzomyia misionensis (=Pintomyia misionensis, sensu Galati) was present throughout both years, active from 4 p.m. to 5 a.m. Other species were active from 5 p.m. to 6 a.m. Due to intense tourism in the months that coincide with a high number of vectors for leishmaniases in Piraputanga, it is essential to determine vector-monitoring strategies in the area by investigating sand fly rhythm while not neglecting other periods of the year when the insects are present.

  6. Introducing the Global Fire Weather Database (GFWED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations beginning in 1980 called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded datasets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC=1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously-identified in MERRA's precipitation and reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models. These applications will be discussed.

  7. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    PubMed

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  8. Impact of Southern Amazonian land use change on spatiotemporal climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Markus; Böhner, Jürgen; Lunkeit, Frank; Lucarini, Valerio; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Göpel, Jan; Schüngel, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The Amazonia river basin is affected by deforestation and increasing land use changes due to an intensified agricultural and industrial land use. These anthropogenic influences may cause major impacts on the regional climate on various spatial and temporal scales. In order to investigate the local impacts on temperature and precipitation we use dynamical downscaling of ECHAM5 data employing the Weather and Research Forecasting Model (WRF) on a 60km and 30km scale. Since previous studies have used simplified assumptions for land use changes or used purely random variations of deforestation, we aim for a realistic representation on the considered spatial scales. We fill this gap with results of the LandSHIFT model provided by the Center for Environmental System Research which accounts for socio-economic and agricultural developments. In this study we focus on the region of Mato Grosso and Pará between 2001 and 2006. The transformation from tropical rain forest to agricultural areas changes the mean and the variability of temperature and precipitation.

  9. Analysis of forest and forest clearings in Amazonia with Landsat and Shuttle Imaging Radar-A data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat and Shuttle Imaging Radar-A L band (23.5 cm wavelength) data from 1981 were used to analyze areas of intact tropical forest and areas recently cleared from forest for agriculture and pasture in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Portions of SIR-A Data Takes #24C and #31 film were digitized using a microdensitometer. Landsat MSS data of July 1981 were also examined. The digital values from SIR-A DT 31 were compared with the normalized difference vegetation index values (NDVI) from the Landsat data for the same sites. Contrary to expectations some cleared areas had brighter radar responses than surrounding forest. The explanation seems to be that a recently cleared forest (cut and burned during the dry season) is texturally very rough as the exposed standing and fallen boles and woody litter may function as effective corner or dihedral reflectors. Combining radar data with NDVI data may help to assess the relative age of forest clearings and determine differences in both woody and green leaf biomass of primary and secondary tropical forests.

  10. Mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arduini, Giovanna Abadia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Letícia Pinto; Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    This work aimed to characterize mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil. The MEDLINE electronic database was searched using the terms 'mortality' and 'sickle cell disease' and 'Brazil' for articles published in the last five years aiming to provide a current analysis of the subject in question. Eight studies on mortality by sickle cell disease were carried out in the Brazilian states of Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul. The majority of the deaths occurred in patients with sickle cell anemia, which is the most common genotype and causes the most severe clinical manifestation of the disease. In summary, there are few published studies on mortality related to sickle cell disease in Brazil, and most are from the state of Minas Gerais. This study emphasizes the importance of developing more studies on sickle cell disease mortality, so that it may be possible to profile gene carriers and give health professionals more data to strategize the delivery of more effective assistance to these individuals. Despite the early diagnosis of sickle cell disease by the Neonatal Screening Program and the use of preventive and therapeutic measures (penicillin, immunization and hydroxyurea), mortality by sickle cell disease on the world stage is still significant.

  11. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009. PMID:26273265

  12. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were titered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of mothers and 8.9% of children before vaccination. After vaccination, seropositivity rates of 81.9% and 83.2%, seroconversion rates of 84.8% and 85.8% and rates of a four-fold increase over the pre-vaccination titre of 77.6% and 81.8% were observed in the 17D-213/77 and 17DD subgroups, respectively. There was no association with maternal immunity. Among children aged 12 months or older, the seroconversion rates of 69% were associated with concomitant vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. The data were not conclusive regarding the interference of maternal immunity in the immune response to the YF vaccine, but they suggest interference from other vaccines. The failures in seroconversion after vaccination support the recommendation of a booster dose in children within 10 years of the first dose.

  13. Population-based study on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jaqueline Costa; Mingarelli, Alexandre Marchezoni; Segri, Neuber José; Zavala, Arturo Alejandro Zavala; Takano, Olga Akiko

    2017-03-01

    Although Brazil has reduced social, economic and health indicators disparities in the last decade, intra- and inter-regional differences in child mortality rates (CMR) persist in regions such as the state capital of Mato Grosso. This population-based study aimed to investigate factors associated with child mortality in five cohorts of live births (LB) of mothers living in Cuiabá (MT), Brazil, 2006-2010, through probabilistic linkage in 47,018 LB. We used hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Of the 617 child deaths, 48% occurred in the early neonatal period. CMR ranged from 14.6 to 12.0 deaths per thousand LB. The following remained independently associated with death: mothers without companion (OR = 1.32); low number of prenatal consultations (OR = 1.65); low birthweight (OR = 4.83); prematurity (OR = 3.05); Apgar ≤ 7 at the first minute (OR = 3.19); Apgar ≤ 7 at the fifth minute (OR = 4.95); congenital malformations (OR = 14.91) and male gender (OR = 1.26). CMR has declined in Cuiabá, however, there is need to guide public healthcare policies in the prenatal and perinatal period to reduce early neonatal mortality and further studies to identify the causes of preventable deaths.

  14. A prevalent alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus sp. in a population of the Cayenne ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Piesman, Joseph; Zeidner, Nordin S.; Soares, Carlos A.G.

    2012-01-01

    As Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the most common tick-borne disease in South America, the presence of Rickettsia sp. in Amblyomma ticks is a possible indication of its endemicity in certain geographic regions. In the present work, bacterial DNA sequences related to Rickettsia amblyommii genes in A. dubitatum ticks, collected in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were discovered. Simultaneously, Paracoccus sp. was detected in aproximately 77% of A. cajennense specimens collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first report of Paracoccus sp. infection in a specific tick population, and raises the possibility of these bacteria being maintained and/or transmitted by ticks. Whether Paracoccus sp. represents another group of pathogenic Rhodobacteraceae or simply plays a role in A. cajennense physiology, is unknown. The data also demonstrate that the rickettsial 16S rRNA specific primers used forRickettsia spp. screening can also detect Paracoccus alpha-proteobacteria infection in biological samples. Hence, a PCR-RFLP strategy is presented to distinguish between these two groups of bacteria. PMID:23271948

  15. Evapotranspiration estimates using remote sensing in a tropical forest in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biudes, M. S.; Machado, N. G.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Geli, H. M. E.; Neale, C. M. U.; Nogueira, J. D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests exchange large amounts of water with the atmosphere and play a key role in global hydrological cycles. The Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest exhibits little seasonal variation in evapotranspiration (ET) due to its ability to extract water from deep soil profiles and water tables. Seasonal variability of ET over the transitional forest was monitored using an eddy covariance (EC) tower that acquired energy balance flux measurements from about 45 m above the ground surface near Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The remote sensing based surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model was applied to test its ability to provide estimates of ET that can be used to account for the spatial and temporal variability over such regions. SEBAL-based estimates of ET were compared with EC measurements during the 2006 season using multiple Landsat 5 TM images. Our results indicate that the SEBAL algorithm is capable to reproducing the seasonal variation in ET of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest and areas surrounding the EC tower. M.S.B. acknowledges a grant from CAPES (9750/13-4). N.G.M. acknowledges a grant from CAPES (9768/13-0). Partial support was provided by the Remote Sensing Services Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Utah State University.

  16. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Araujo, A C

    2011-08-01

    The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  17. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area. Results Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detected Leishmania spp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%). Conclusions The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis. PMID:24565284

  18. A primary natrocarbonatitic association in the Deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Ryabchikov, Igor D.; Wirth, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In addition to ultramafic and mafic associations, a primary natrocarbonatitic association occurs in the lower mantle. To date, it was identified as inclusions in diamonds from the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. It comprises almost 50 mineral species: carbonates, halides, fluorides, phosphates, sulfates, oxides, silicates, sulfides and native elements. In addition, volatiles are present in this association. Among oxides, coexisting periclase and wüstite were identified, pointing to the formation of the natrocarbonatitic association at a depth greater than 2000 km. Some iron-rich (Mg,Fe)O inclusions in diamond are attributed to the lowermost mantle. The initial lower-mantle carbonatitic melt formed as a result of low-fraction partial melting of carbon-containing lower-mantle material, rich in P, F, Cl and other volatile elements, at the core-mantle boundary. During ascent to the surface, the initial carbonatitic melt dissociated into two immiscible parts, a carbonate-silicate and a chloride-carbonate melt. The latter melt is parental to the natrocarbonatitic lower-mantle association. Diamonds with carbonatitic inclusions were formed in carbonatitic melts or high-density fluids.

  19. Cropping frequency and area response to climate variability can exceed yield response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Avery S.; Vanwey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie A.; Mustard, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural output to climate change has often been estimated by modelling crop yields under climate change scenarios or with statistical analysis of the impacts of year-to-year climatic variability on crop yields. However, the area of cropland and the number of crops harvested per growing season (cropping frequency) both also affect agricultural output and both also show sensitivity to climate variability and change. We model the change in agricultural output associated with the response of crop yield, crop frequency and crop area to year-to-year climate variability in Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, a key agricultural region. Roughly 70% of the change in agricultural output caused by climate was determined by changes in frequency and/or changes in area. Hot and wet conditions were associated with the largest losses and cool and dry conditions with the largest gains. All frequency and area effects had the same sign as total effects, but this was not always the case for yield effects. A focus on yields alone may therefore bias assessments of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts to agriculture should seek to limit production losses not only from crop yield, but also from changes in cropland area and cropping frequency.

  20. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  1. Land-use-driven stream warming in southeastern Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Marcia N.; Coe, Michael T.; DeFries, Ruth; Uriarte, Maria; Brando, Paulo M.; Neill, Christopher; Walker, Wayne S.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale cattle and crop production are the primary drivers of deforestation in the Amazon today. Such land-use changes can degrade stream ecosystems by reducing connectivity, changing light and nutrient inputs, and altering the quantity and quality of streamwater. This study integrates field data from 12 catchments with satellite-derived information for the 176 000 km2 upper Xingu watershed (Mato Grosso, Brazil). We quantify recent land-use transitions and evaluate the influence of land management on streamwater temperature, an important determinant of habitat quality in small streams. By 2010, over 40 per cent of catchments outside protected areas were dominated (greater than 60% of area) by agriculture, with an estimated 10 000 impoundments in the upper Xingu. Streams in pasture and soya bean watersheds were significantly warmer than those in forested watersheds, with average daily maxima over 4°C higher in pasture and 3°C higher in soya bean. The upstream density of impoundments and riparian forest cover accounted for 43 per cent of the variation in temperature. Scaling up, our model suggests that management practices associated with recent agricultural expansion may have already increased headwater stream temperatures across the Xingu. Although increased temperatures could negatively impact stream biota, conserving or restoring riparian buffers could reduce predicted warming by as much as fivefold. PMID:23610164

  2. Tin resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Annual tin production in Brazil, most of it from cassiterite placer deposits in Rondonia Territory, amounts to about 4,000 metric tons (4,400 short tons) of concentrate containing 66 percent tin, much of which is consumed by Brazilian industry. Reserves of cassiterite concentrate in the placers of Rondonia district are estimated at about 160,000 (176,000 short tons) containing 66 percent tin. Extensive undiscovered resources of cassiterite possibly exist in southern Rondonia Territory and to the east of the Territory in northern Mato Grosso, southern Amazonas, and southern Para. Numerous occurrences have been reported in these regions and as far to the east as the headwaters of the Tapajos and the Xingo Rivers. Minor deposits or occurrences of cassiterite (or lode deposits about which there is only minimal information available) are located in Para, Amapa, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goias, Sao Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul. All the lode tin deposits are dated or enclosed in rocks that date as Precambrian B (900 to 1,300 m.y.).

  3. Description of Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec. and Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec. (Ciliophora, Microthoracida).

    PubMed

    Omar, Atef; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Using standard morphological methods, we describe one new Leptopharynx species and a new subspecies of L. costatus, both from soil of the neotropic region. Further, we studied two populations of L. costatus costatus. Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec., which was discovered in the Mato Grosso, Brazil, is a large member (60μm) of the genus with an enormous oral basket. It differs from similar congeners in having six monokinetids in kinety 6, widely spaced kinetids in kinety 1, and an average of 294 kinetids. Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec., which was discovered in southern Florida, makes a small (35μm) and a large morph (55μm) both with narrow oral basket. The small morph is inseparable from the small morph of L. costatus costatus, while the large morph has right-angled adoral membranelles and widely (vs. narrowly) spaced kinetids in kinety 1. The small morphs of a Brazilian and an Austrian L. costatus match Mexican and other European populations, all having on average 181-187 kinetids. As yet, we know four morphs of L. costatus that differ by body size (small vs. large), the oral basket (narrow vs. wide), membranelle 1 (present vs. absent), and the arrangement of the membranelles (flat vs. angled).

  4. Infestation of Mauritia flexuosa palms by triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Cura, Carolina; Schijman, Alejandro G; Cuba, César A Cuba

    2012-02-01

    To determine the infestation and trypanosome infection of triatomines captured in Mauritia flexuosa palm trees across its geographic distribution in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), we sampled 42 localities in eight states and in the Federal District, Brazil, between July 2005 and January 2010. Overall, 2154 specimens of the species Rhodnius neglectus, Psammolestes tertius, Triatoma sordida, and Microtriatoma borbai, were collected. Among the 341 palms sampled, 182 (53.3%) were infested with R. neglectus, which resulted in the capture of 1639 specimens (9.0 insects per infested palm). P. tertius occurred in 26 palms (8%), which resulted in the capture of 484 specimens (19 insects per infested palm). T. sordida (n=30) and M. borbai (n=1) occurred in only one location. From 537 R. neglectus examined, 44 were infected (8%) with Trypanosoma rangeli and/or Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc Id). M. flexuosa was previously recognized as a suitable breeding ecotope for R. neglectus in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Goiás, Tocantins and the Federal District. Our results expand this distribution to other states (São Paulo, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Maranhão and Piauí), and also show that this particular palm tree harbors other triatomine species. Finally, we show that R. neglectus plays an important role in maintaining the enzootic circulation of T. cruzi and T. rangeli in the Brazilian savanna.

  5. [Vulnerability during adolescence: the experience and the expression of the adolescent].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Flávia Barbosa; Lima, Fernanda Cristina Aguiar; Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy; de Matos, Karla Fonseca; de Souza, Solange Pires Salomé

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional quantitative study aims to identify situations of vulnerability experienced by adolescents of public secondary schools in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, during the second semester of 2009. A closed questionnaire was used in the research. The results show that 10.5% of the boys and 5.8% of the girls had already used illegal drugs at the age of 15--cocaine (28.9%) and marijuana (15.7%) were the most reported; and that 45.2% of the boys and 52.4% of the girls drink alcoholic beverages, beer being the most common. Among self-declared smokers (16.0%), the majority began smoking at the age of 15. Sexual violence was reported, but only 33.3% of the boys and 25.0% of the girls sought help. Fear and shame were the reported reasons for not seeking help. The need for specific prevention and treatment services for adolescents in vulnerable situations stands out, in view of the occurrence and the consequences of this kind of harm.

  6. Remote sensing applied to forest resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandezfilho, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The development of methodologies to classify reforested areas using remotely sensed data is discussed. A preliminary study was carried out in northeast of the Sao Paulo State in 1978. The reforested areas of Pinus spp and Eucalyptus spp were based on the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics fo LANDSAT imagery. Afterwards, a more detailed study was carried out in the Mato Grosso do Sul State. The reforested areas were mapped in functions of the age (from: 0 to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years, 3 to 4 years, 4 to 5 years and 5 to 6 years) and of the heterogeneity stand (from: 0 to 20%, 20 to 40%, 40 to 60%, 60 to 80% and 80 to 100%). The relative differences between the artificial forest areas, estimated from LANDSAT data and ground information, varied from -8.72 to +9.49%. The estimation of forest volume through a multistage sampling technique, with probability proportional to size, is also discussed.

  7. Distribution, management and diversity of the endangered Amerindian yam (Dioscorea trifida L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, W F; Siqueira, M V B M; Ferreira, A B; Ming, L C; Peroni, N; Veasey, E A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of Dioscorea trifida in Brazil and to obtain information concerning its distribution, management and diversity. Farmers from 21 communities were interviewed in the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Mato Grosso. During the visits, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, management and diversity data for this crop. Fifty-one collected accessions, plus two accessions obtained at local markets of Amazonas, were characterized using 12 morphological traits. Most the interviewed farmers were men (75%) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Just a few young people and labor force were available for agricultural activities, with an average of only three individuals per farm. Most farmers (56%) grew only one variety of D. trifida, although 44% had more than one variety in their fields, which aims to provide greater assurance at harvest. Many popular names were observed for D. trifida, and cará roxo (purple yam) was the name most used by farmers (43.4%). Characters referring to the tuber, such as skin and flesh color, were most relevant for the distinction of the accessions. The results of this study may collaborate to develop strategies for conservation, both ex situ and in situ, within the view of on farm conservation.

  8. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  9. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

    PubMed

    Holsback, Luciane; Cardoso, Mauro José Lahm; Fagnani, Rafael; Patelli, Thaís Helena Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.

  10. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Shelby H.; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km2 soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha−1 yr−1 (30 kg P ha−1 yr−1 above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  11. Post-Crackdown Effectiveness of Field-Based Forest Law Enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities. PMID:25875656

  12. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A

    2013-06-05

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon.

  13. Two new species of Melanorivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae) from Rio Verde drainage, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Volcan, Matheus Vieira; Klotzel, Bruno; Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause

    2017-02-21

    Two new species of the genus Melanorivulus are herein described from the middle Rio Verde drainage, upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both new species are members of the Melanorivulus pictus clade, diagnosed by having ventral process of angulo-articular vestigial and flanks intense greenish blue or greenish golden to purplish blue above anal fin base in males. Melanorivulus nigropunctatus, new species, from wetlands of a small drainage tributary of right side of the Rio Verde, differs from all other congeners by possessing black dots over the head and body in both sexes and pectoral fin orange with a dark grey margin in males. Melanorivulus ofaie, new species, is found in a similar environment, but at the opposite margin of the Rio Verde. It is distinguished by males presenting flank greenish blue to light blue, with seven to nine oblique chevron-like red bars, ventral portion of head whitish with dark brown spots, dorsal fin yellow with two to three transverse broad red oblique stripes and distal region red, anal fin light orangish yellow, basal area light blue with short red bars and distal portion with a dark red margin, and caudal fin yellow or orangish yellow with three to four vertical red bars in the dorsal and middle portions, sometimes with a orange distal margin. Both new species are considered endangered due to the loss and degradation of their habitat.

  14. Variation in Venoms of Polybia Paulista Von Ihering and Polybia Occidentalis Olivier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), Assessed by the FTIR-PAS Technique.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, A; Paula, M C; Fernandes, W D; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M; Antonialli-Junior, W F

    2017-02-01

    Wasps are able to synthesize toxic compounds known as venoms, which form a part of a mechanism to overcome prey and also to defend their colonies. Study of the compounds that constitute these substances is essential in order to understand how this defense mechanism evolved, since there is evidence that the venoms can vary both intra- and interspecifically. Some studies have used liquid and gas chromatography as a reliable technique to analyze these compounds. However, the use of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to analyze the variations in venom's chemical profile has been proposed recently. This study evaluated whether the FTIR-PAS technique is effective for assessing the role of environmental factors on intra- and interspecific differences in the venom of the wasps Polybia paulista Von Ihering and Polybia occidentalis Olivier by FTIR-PAS. The colonies were collected in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in different types of environments. The results showed that the venoms of P. paulista and P. occidentalis differed significantly in profile. In addition, the intraspecific differences in the venom's chemical profile of P. paulista are related to the type of environment where they nested, regardless of the geographical distance between the nests. The FTIR-PAS technique proved to be reliable and effective to evaluate the variations in the venom's chemical profile in social wasps.

  15. Eight years of monitoring aquatic Oligochaeta from the Baía and Ivinhema Rivers.

    PubMed

    Behrend, R D L; Fernandes, S E P; Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that influence spatial and temporal variations of the Oligochaeta assemblage in the Baía and Ivinhema Rivers, located in the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil). Samples of Oligochaeta were collected between February 2000 and November 2007. A total of 27 Oligochaeta species were identified. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the physical and chemical variables was used to summarize the total variation in the data and to identify major environmental gradients. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was conducted to verify possible spatial and temporal gradients in the Oligochaeta species distribution. The highest Oligochaeta species densities and richness values were recorded during limnophases. The intensity and amplitude of the potamophase influenced the density, richness and composition of Oligochaeta since many species were transported by high water current velocities and/or died due to the low oxygen levels that are characteristic of this phase. L. hoffmeisteri, P. descolei and A. pigueti were recorded in the potamophase and in the limnophase and we concluded that they are adapted to different conditions of rivers (lotic and lentic) due to the presence of these species during the entire study period in both rivers. Nevertheless, these species were dominant in the potamophase periods of these rivers as they have body adaptations to survive in these conditions.

  16. Démarche pour la mise à niveau d’un secteur de soins pharmaceutiques : le cas de l’hémato-oncologie pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, Jean-François; Robelet, Antoine; Therrien, Roxane; Touzin, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Contexte : Bien que le concept de pharmacie clinique ait été développé dans les années soixante, il existe une grande variété de programmes et une grande disparité entre les programmes en clinique externe et en hospitalisation, bénéficiant de la présence d’un pharmacien dans un secteur de soins. Objectif: Éprouver une méthode de mise à niveau des secteurs de soins pharmaceutiques en établissement de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive se déroulant au Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère-enfant de 500 lits. Le secteur de soins pharmaceutiques ciblé pour illustrer la méthode de mise à niveau est l’hématologie-oncologie pédiatrique. La méthode comporte trois étapes, soit une revue de la documentation scientifique, un profil du secteur et une mise à jour du niveau de pratique selon un profil des activités pharmaceutiques dans le secteur avant et après la mise à niveau. Résultats : Au total, 108 articles ont été recensés et 22 ont été retenus à partir d’une recherche dans PubMed. Après une recherche manuelle complémentaire, 36 articles ont finalement été évalués. Parmi les articles retenus, on compte trois lignes directrices, 11 études de développement, une revue de la littérature scientifique, six études pré- et post-interventions et 15 études quasi expérimentales. Bien que les patients de ce secteur ne comptent que pour 5 % des admissions de l’hôpital, la complexité des cas est élevée tant sur le plan de la codification de l’épisode de soins que du potentiel d’intervention pharmaceutique par admission. Conclusion : Il existe peu de données illustrant une démarche de mise à niveau de la pratique dans un secteur de soins pharmaceutiques. Cette étude a éprouvé une méthode de mise à niveau dans un service d’hématologie-oncologie pédiatrique et comporte une revue de la documentation scientifique, un profil du secteur et une description des tâches des pharmaciens de ce secteur avant et après la mise à niveau. PMID:22478967

  17. 76 FR 62395 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Grosso at matthew.grosso@hq.doe.gov , or http://energy.gov/oe/technology-development/smart-grid/recovery-act-smart-grid-investment-grants/smart-grid-investment . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This...

  18. Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7 days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries. PMID:22682392

  19. Cytogenetic data on Ancistrus sp. (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) of the Paraguay River basin (MS) sheds light on intrageneric karyotype diversification

    PubMed Central

    Prizon, Ana Camila; Borin-Carvalho, Luciana Andreia; Bruschi, Daniel Pacheco; Ribeiro, Marcos Otávio; Barbosa, Ligia Magrinelli; Ferreira, Greicy Ellen de Brito; Cius, Andréa; Zawadzki, Claudio Henrique; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ancistrus Kner, 1854 is a diverse catfish genus, currently comprising 66 valid species, but karyotype data were recorded for 33 species, although only ten have their taxonomic status defined. Considerable karyotype diversity has been found within this genus, with 2n varying from 34 to 54 and structural variability including heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In many cases, uncertainty on the taxonomic status of the study populations hampers reliable interpretation of the complex chromosomal evolutionary history of the group. This study aims to present the first karyotype data for a population of the Ancistrus sp. collected in Criminoso stream (tributary of the Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil) in which a combination of different chromosomal markers was used and results integrated in broad discussion on karyotype evolution in the genus. The specimens presented 2n=42 with 18m+16sm+8st and a single NOR revealed by silver nitrate and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe, located in pair No. 10. Clusters of 5S rDNA were located in the pericentromeric region of three chromosomes: pair No. 1 (metacentric) and one of the homologues of the nucleolar pair No. 10. Heterogeneity in the molecular composition of the heterochromatin was confirmed by the association of C-banding and fluorochrome CMA3/DAPI-staining. Exploring the differential composition of constitutive heterochromatin in Ancistrus may provide an important perspective to understand genome organization and evolution within this group. Our data reinforce the chromosomal diversity present in Ancistrus genus and we discuss the potential sources these variation. The karyotype structure of Ancistrus sp. “Criminoso stream” appears to be consistent with the existence of a new candidate species. PMID:28123683

  20. Late diagnosis: a factor associated with death from visceral leishmaniasis in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Polliana Alvarenga; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lopes Brum, Laís Ferreira; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is among the seven global endemic diseases assigned a high priority by the World Health Organization. In Latin America, most cases occur in Brazil. Despite the availability of intensive treatment resources and protocols for specific treatment, lethality rates for VL have increased in several regions in the country over the past 10 years, particularly in patients under one and over 50 years of age. As the growth of the elderly population accelerates in Brazil, VL poses a greater challenge to public health. Given the scarcity of studies addressing the disease in this age group, the purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with VL lethality among the elderly. Methods/Key findings This analytical, cross-sectional epidemiological study comprised 80 elderly patients who sought treatment at the teaching hospital of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, in the period 2000–2013.Clinical, laboratory and treatment variables were investigated from records of elderly patients with VL diagnosis confirmed by at least one laboratory test positive (culture for parasite or direct parasitological examination; reactive immunofluorescence; immunochromatographic test with recombinant antigens) or patients without laboratory confirmation who lived in endemic areas and responded favorably to therapeutic trial, as defined by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Of the 80 patients included, 78 tested positive to at least one exam; in two cases, diagnosis was based on clinical and epidemiological criteria. The lethality rate was 20%. Multivariate analysis revealed an association between death and time elapsed from symptom onset. PMID:26257311

  1. Parasite load induces progressive spleen architecture breakage and impairs cytokine mRNA expression in Leishmania infantum-naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Amanda S; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pereira, Luiza de O R; Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; Ferreira, Anna Beatriz Robottom; Morgado, Fernanda N; Boité, Mariana C; Cupolillo, Elisa; Moraes, Milton O; Porrozzi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) shares many aspects with the human disease and dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of L. infantum in zoonotic VL. Infected dogs develop progressive disease with a large clinical spectrum. A complex balance between the parasite and the genetic/immunological background of the host are decisive for infection evolution and clinical outcome. This study comprised 92 Leishmania infected mongrel dogs of various ages from Mato Grosso, Brazil. Spleen samples were collected for determining parasite load, humoral response, cytokine mRNA expression and histopathology alterations. By real-time PCR for the ssrRNA Leishmania gene, two groups were defined; a low (lowP, n = 46) and a high parasite load groups (highP, n = 42). When comparing these groups, results show variable individual humoral immune response with higher specific IgG production in infected animals but with a notable difference in CVL rapid test optical densities (DPP) between highP and lowP groups. Splenic architecture disruption was characterized by disorganization of white pulp, more evident in animals with high parasitism. All cytokine transcripts in spleen were less expressed in highP than lowP groups with a large heterogeneous variation in response. Individual correlation analysis between cytokine expression and parasite load revealed a negative correlation for both pro-inflammatory cytokines: IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6; and anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TGFβ. TNF showed the best negative correlation (r2 = 0.231; p<0.001). Herein we describe impairment on mRNA cytokine expression in leishmania infected dogs with high parasite load associated with a structural modification in the splenic lymphoid micro-architecture. We also discuss the possible mechanism responsible for the uncontrolled parasite growth and clinical outcome.

  2. Evaluation of soybean lines and environmental stratification using the AMMI, GGE biplot, and factor analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Sousa, L B; Hamawaki, O T; Nogueira, A P O; Batista, R O; Oliveira, V M; Hamawaki, R L

    2015-10-19

    In the final phases of new soybean cultivar development, lines are cultivated in several locations across multiple seasons with the intention of identifying and selecting superior genotypes for quantitative traits. In this context, this study aimed to study the genotype-by-environment interaction for the trait grain yield (kg/ha), and to evaluate the adaptability and stability of early-cycle soybean genotypes using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis, genotype main effects and genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot, and factor analysis methods. Additionally, the efficiency of these methods was compared. The experiments were carried out in five cities in the State of Mato Grosso: Alto Taquari, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sinop, Querência, and Rondonópolis, in the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons. Twenty-seven early-cycle soybean genotypes were evaluated, consisting of 22 lines developed by Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU) soybean breeding program, and five controls: UFUS Carajás, MSOY 6101, MSOY 7211, UFUS Guarani, and Riqueza. Significant and complex genotype-by-environment interactions were observed. The AMMI model presented greater efficiency by retaining most of the variation in the first two main components (61.46%), followed by the GGE biplot model (57.90%), and factor analysis (54.12%). Environmental clustering among the methodologies was similar, and was composed of one environmental group from one location but from different seasons. Genotype G5 presented an elevated grain yield, and high adaptability and stability as determined by the AMMI, factor analysis, and GGE biplot methodologies.

  3. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  4. Integrative taxonomy of Metrichia Ross (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Ochrotrichiinae) microcaddisflies from Brazil: descriptions of twenty new species

    PubMed Central

    Takiya, Daniela M.; Nessimian, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Metrichia is assigned to the Ochrotrichiinae, a group of almost exclusively Neotropical microcaddisflies. Metrichia comprises over 100 described species and, despite its diversity, only one species has been described from Brazil so far. In this paper, we provide descriptions for 20 new species from 8 Brazilian states: M. acuminata sp. nov., M. azul sp. nov., M. bonita sp. nov., M. bracui sp. nov., M. caraca sp. nov., M. circuliforme sp. nov., M. curta sp. nov., M. farofa sp. nov., M. forceps sp. nov., M. formosinha sp. nov., M. goiana sp. nov., M. itabaiana sp. nov., M. longissima sp. nov., M. peluda sp. nov., M. rafaeli sp. nov., M. simples sp. nov., M. talhada sp. nov., M. tere sp. nov., M. ubajara sp. nov., and M. vulgaris sp. nov. DNA barcode sequences (577 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) were generated for 13 of the new species and two previously known species of Metrichia resulting in 64 sequences. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for other genera of Ochrotrichiinae (Angrisanoia, Nothotrichia, Ochrotrichia, Ragatrichia, and Rhyacopsyche). DNA sequences and morphological data were integrated to evaluate species delimitations. K2P pairwise distances were calculated to generate a neighbor-joining tree. COI sequences also were submitted to ABGD and GMYC methods to assess ‘potential species’ delimitation. Analyses showed a conspicuous barcoding gap among Metrichia sequences (highest intraspecific divergence: 4.8%; lowest interspecific divergence: 12.6%). Molecular analyses also allowed the association of larvae and adults of Metrichia bonita sp. nov. from Mato Grosso do Sul, representing the first record of microcaddisfly larvae occurring in calcareous tufa (or travertine). ABGD results agreed with the morphological delimitation of Metrichia species, while GMYC estimated a slightly higher number of species, suggesting the division of two morphological species, each one into two potential species. Because this could be due to unbalanced sampling and

  5. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  6. Is Ongoing Sulfluramid Use in South America a Significant Source of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)? Production Inventories, Environmental Fate, and Local Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt Gilljam, John; Leonel, Juliana; Cousins, Ian T; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-01-19

    Despite international phase-out initiatives, production and use of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related substances continues in some countries. In Brazil, the PFOS-precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) is used in Sulfluramid, a pesticide for controlling leaf-cutting ants. New data on production, environmental fate, and occurrence of Brazilian Sulfluramid are reported herein. From 2003 to 2013, Brazilian Sulfluramid manufacturing increased from 30 to 60 tonnes yr(-1) EtFOSA. During this time <1.3 tonnes yr(-1) were imported, while exports increased from ∼0.3 to 2 tonnes yr(-1). From 2004 to 2015, most EtFOSA was exported to Argentina (7.2 tonnes), Colombia (2.07 tonnes), Costa Rica (1.13 tonnes), Equador (2.16 tonnes), and Venezuela (2.4 tonnes). Within Brazil, sales occurred primarily in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Espírito Santo, and Bahia. Model simulations predict EtFOSA will partition to soils, while transformation products perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS are sufficiently mobile to leach into surface waters. In support of these predictions, up to 3400 pg L(-1) of FOSA and up to 1100 pg L(-1) of PFOS were measured in Brazilian surface water, while EtFOSA was not detected. The high FOSA/PFOS ratio observed here (up to 14:1) is unprecedented in the scientific literature to our knowledge. Depending on the extent of conversion of EtFOSA, cumulative Brazilian Sulfluramid production and import from 2004 to 2015 may contribute between 167 and 487 tonnes of PFOS/FOSA to the environment. These levels are clearly nontrivial and of concern since production is continuing unabated.

  7. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.

    PubMed

    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

    2013-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations.

  8. Niche Partitioning among Mesocarnivores in a Brazilian Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Gompper, Matthew E.; Mourão, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the home range size, habitat selection, as well as the spatial and activity overlap, of four mid-sized carnivore species in the Central Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From December 2005 to September 2008, seven crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous, seven brown-nosed coatis Nasua nasua, and six ocelots Leopardus pardalis were radio-collared and monitored. Camera trap data on these species were also collected for the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus. We hypothesized that there would be large niche differentiation in preferred habitat-type or active period between generalist species with similar diet, and higher similarity in habitat-type or activity time between the generalist species (crab-eating foxes and coatis) and the more specialized ocelot. Individual home ranges were estimated using the utilization distribution index (UD– 95% fixed Kernel). With data obtained from radio-collared individuals, we evaluated habitat selection using compositional analysis. Median home range size of ocelots was 8 km2. The proportion of habitats within the home ranges of ocelots did not differ from the overall habitat proportion in the study area, but ocelots preferentially used forest within their home range. The median home range size of crab-eating foxes was 1.4 km2. Foxes showed second-order habitat selection and selected savanna over shrub-savanna vegetation. The median home range size for coati was 1.5 km2. Coati home ranges were located randomly in the study area. However, within their home range, coatis occurred more frequently in savanna than in other vegetation types. Among the four species, the overlap in activity period was the highest (87%) between ocelots and raccoons, with the least overlap occurring between the ocelot and coati (25%). We suggest that temporal segregation of carnivores was more important than spatial segregation, notably between the generalist coati, crab-eating fox and crab-eating raccoon. PMID:27685854

  9. The DURAMAZ indicator system: a cross-disciplinary comparative tool for assessing ecological and social changes in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Le Tourneau, François-Michel; Marchand, Guillaume; Greissing, Anna; Nasuti, Stéphanie; Droulers, Martine; Bursztyn, Marcel; Léna, Philippe; Dubreuil, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the Amazon region has been at the same time a place of massive ecological and social change and a laboratory of experiments aimed at promoting sustainable development. Policies and project initiatives involving diverse social groups and environmental contexts have been implemented across the region. They have resulted in mixed outcomes and trade-offs between social and environmental dimensions, making their impact at the local level difficult to assess and their successes difficult to generalize. The objective of the DURAMAZ research project was to provide a better understanding of these impacts. It produced a multi-dimensional indicator system designed to allow a holistic view of sustainable development at local and subregional levels and a comparative perspective across 12 research sites, from an isolated indigenous village to smallholders and agribusiness areas in Mato Grosso. The results of the first observation campaign (2007–2009) show that despite the claim of promoting sustainable development, no project was able to untie the ‘Gordian knot’ of development in the Amazon. Communities continue to face the old dilemma of either enjoying a preserved ecosystem but enduring adverse life conditions, or enjoying better living at the expense of forest cover. Another finding is that the subregional context is very important in shaping the impacts of regional policies. Thus, the same policy will not always have the same effect, depending on in which context it is applied. Finally, we found that cultural factors and a sense of place play a more important role than economic factors when it comes to the way people evaluate their own situation. This research provides the basis for a second phase of the project (2012–2016) in which we will continue to expand our sample and to refine our methodologies with the goal of transforming the initiative into a network of observatories of sustainable development in the Amazon. PMID:23610180

  10. Oxidation potential in the Earth's lower mantle as recorded by ferropericlase inclusions in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Ryabchikov, Igor D.; McCammon, Catherine A.; Longo, Micaela; Abakumov, Artem M.; Turner, Stuart; Heidari, Hamed

    2015-05-01

    Ferropericlase (fPer) inclusions from kimberlitic lower-mantle diamonds recovered in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and the flank method. The presence of exsolved non-stoichiometric Fe3+-enriched clusters, varying in size from 1-2 nm to 10-15 nm and comprising ∼3.64 vol.% of fPer was established. The oxidation conditions necessary for fPer formation within the uppermost lower mantle (P = 25 GPa, T = 1960 K) vary over a wide range: Δlog ⁡fO2 (IW) from 1.58 to 7.76 (Δ = 6.2), reaching the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) oxygen buffer position. This agrees with the identification of carbonates and free silica among inclusions within lower-mantle Juina diamonds. On the other hand, at the base of the lower mantle Δlog ⁡fO2 values may lie at and below the iron-wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer. Hence, the variations of Δlog ⁡fO2 values within the entire sequence of the lower mantle may reach ten logarithmic units, varying from the IW buffer to the FMQ buffer values. The similarity between lower- and upper-mantle redox conditions supports whole mantle convection, as already suggested on the basis of nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions in lower- and upper-mantle diamonds. The mechanisms responsible for redox differentiation in the lower mantle may include subduction of oxidized crustal material, mechanical separation of metallic phase(s) and silicate-oxide mineral assemblages enriched in ferric iron, as well as transfer of fused silicate-oxide material presumably also enriched in ferric iron through the mantle.

  11. Optimal use of land surface temperature data to detect changes in tropical forest cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Frank, Andrew J.; Jin, Yufang; Smyth, Padhraic; Goulden, Michael L.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Randerson, James T.

    2011-06-01

    Rapid and accurate assessment of global forest cover change is needed to focus conservation efforts and to better understand how deforestation is contributing to the buildup of atmospheric CO2. Here we examined different ways to use land surface temperature (LST) to detect changes in tropical forest cover. In our analysis we used monthly 0.05° × 0.05° Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of LST and Program for the Estimation of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES) estimates of forest cover change. We also compared MODIS LST observations with an independent estimate of forest cover loss derived from MODIS and Landsat observations. Our study domain of approximately 10° × 10° included the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. For optimal use of LST data to detect changes in tropical forest cover in our study area, we found that using data sampled during the end of the dry season (˜1-2 months after minimum monthly precipitation) had the greatest predictive skill. During this part of the year, precipitation was low, surface humidity was at a minimum, and the difference between day and night LST was the largest. We used this information to develop a simple temporal sampling algorithm appropriate for use in pantropical deforestation classifiers. Combined with the normalized difference vegetation index, a logistic regression model using day-night LST did moderately well at predicting forest cover change. Annual changes in day-night LST decreased during 2006-2009 relative to 2001-2005 in many regions within the Amazon, providing independent confirmation of lower deforestation levels during the latter part of this decade as reported by PRODES.

  12. Using spatial statistics to identify emerging hot spots of forest loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Nancy L.; Goldman, Elizabeth; Gabris, Christopher; Nordling, Jon; Minnemeyer, Susan; Ansari, Stephen; Lippmann, Michael; Bennett, Lauren; Raad, Mansour; Hansen, Matthew; Potapov, Peter

    2017-02-01

    As sources of data for global forest monitoring grow larger, more complex and numerous, data analysis and interpretation become critical bottlenecks for effectively using them to inform land use policy discussions. Here in this paper, we present a method that combines big data analytical tools with Emerging Hot Spot Analysis (ArcGIS) to identify statistically significant spatiotemporal trends of forest loss in Brazil, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) between 2000 and 2014. Results indicate that while the overall rate of forest loss in Brazil declined over the 14-year time period, spatiotemporal patterns of loss shifted, with forest loss significantly diminishing within the Amazonian states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia and intensifying within the cerrado biome. In Indonesia, forest loss intensified in Riau province in Sumatra and in Sukamara and West Kotawaringin regencies in Central Kalimantan. Substantial portions of West Kalimantan became new and statistically significant hot spots of forest loss in the years 2013 and 2014. Similarly, vast areas of DRC emerged as significant new hot spots of forest loss, with intensified loss radiating out from city centers such as Beni and Kisangani. While our results focus on identifying significant trends at the national scale, we also demonstrate the scalability of our approach to smaller or larger regions depending on the area of interest and specific research question involved. When combined with other contextual information, these statistical data models can help isolate the most significant clusters of loss occurring over dynamic forest landscapes and provide more coherent guidance for the allocation of resources for forest monitoring and enforcement efforts.

  13. Genetic Diversity Strategy for the Management and Use of Rubber Genetic Resources: More than 1,000 Wild and Cultivated Accessions in a 100-Genotype Core Collection

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernardo Moreno; Silva, Carla Cristina; Mantello, Camila Campos; Conson, Andre Ricardo Oliveira; Vianna, João Paulo Gomes; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; Fialho, Josefino de Freitas; de Moraes, Mario Luis Teixeira; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for subsequent genetic

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus in Brazil’s inmate population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Pinto, Walkyria Pereira; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Tengan, Fátima Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population. METHODS Systematic review on hepatitis C virus infection in the inmate population. Brazilian studies published from January 1, 1989 to February 20, 2014 were evaluated. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a scale of 0 to 8 points. RESULTS Eleven eligible studies were analyzed and provided data on hepatitis C virus infection among 4,375 inmates from seven states of Brazil, with a mean quality classification of 7.4. The overall hepatitis C virus prevalence among Brazilian inmates was 13.6% (ranging from 1.0% to 41.0%, depending on the study). The chances of inmates being seropositive for hepatitis C virus in the states of Minas Gerais (MG), Sergipe (SE), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Goiás (GO) and Espirito Santo (ES) were 84.0% (95%CI 0.06;0.45), 92.0% (95%CI 0.04;0.13), 88.0% (95%CI 0.09;0.18), 74.0% (95%CI 0.16;0.42), 84.0% (95%CI 0.08;0.31) and 89.0% (95%CI 0.01;0.05) respectively, lower than that observed in the Sao Paulo state (seroprevalence of 29.3%). The four studies conducted in the city of Sao Paulo revealed a lower prevalence in more recent studies compared to older ones. CONCLUSIONS The highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population was found in Sao Paulo, which may reflect the urban diversity of the country. Despite Brazilian studies having good methodological quality to evaluate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus, they are scarce and lack data on risk factors associated with this infection, which could support decisions on prevention and implementation of public health policies for Brazilian prisons. PMID:26247383

  15. Effects of high-frequency understorey fires on woody plant regeneration in southeastern Amazonian forests

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Jennifer K.; Massad, Tara J.; Brando, Paulo M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic understorey fires affect large areas of tropical forest, yet their effects on woody plant regeneration post-fire remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of repeated experimental fires on woody stem (less than 1 cm at base) mortality, recruitment, species diversity, community similarity and regeneration mode (seed versus sprout) in Mato Grosso, Brazil. From 2004 to 2010, forest plots (50 ha) were burned twice (B2) or five times (B5), and compared with an unburned control (B0). Stem density recovered within a year after the first burn (initial density: 12.4–13.2 stems m−2), but after 6 years, increased mortality and decreased regeneration—primarily of seedlings—led to a 63 per cent and 85 per cent reduction in stem density in B2 and B5, respectively. Seedlings and sprouts across plots in 2010 displayed remarkable community similarity owing to shared abundant species. Although the dominant surviving species were similar across plots, a major increase in sprouting occurred—almost three- and fourfold greater in B2 and B5 than in B0. In B5, 29 species disappeared and were replaced by 11 new species often present along fragmented forest edges. By 2010, the annual burn regime created substantial divergence between the seedling community and the initial adult tree community (greater than or equal to 20 cm dbh). Increased droughts and continued anthropogenic ignitions associated with frontier land uses may promote high-frequency fire regimes that may substantially alter regeneration and therefore successional processes. PMID:23610167

  16. Soil erosion and associated organic carbon transfer along the southern Amazon land use frontier - status quo and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Herrmann, Marie-Kristin; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Amazon deforestation arc is one of the world's most dynamically changing landscapes mainly caused by global demands on animal products. Already more than 50 % of the savanna vegetation in Mato Grosso is converted to agricultural land. Following the BR-163 highway to the north deforestation is continuing, where former tropical rainforest is converted to pastures. Consequences are expected to be negative and highly relevant concerning soil functions. Soil losses and related carbon transfer by water erosion are likely to occur on a larger scale. Within the Carbiocial project, the impact of land use changes on soil loss was measured by applying artificial rainfall simulations. Experimental results were used to parameterize the physical based EROSION 3D simulation model in two meso-scale watersheds. The impact of future land use and climate scenarios on soil erosion and particle bound organic carbon transfer were simulated in addition to present day effects. Our results allow different predictions: Land use changes from natural vegetation to pasture lead to increased surface runoffs and soil losses. Due to the predominant no-tillage management, croplands do not reveal a similar behaviour; runoff and sediment yields are close to the initial level. Particle bound organic carbon losses are negligible compared to the removal of biomass during deforestation. Compared to the land use change effect more significant differences appear concerning the predominant soil types of the study region. Deterioration of soil functions are less pronounced for Ferralsols with a stable microstructure than for Acrisols. Additionally, our data suggest, that the main soil losses are related to the narrow time windows of land use conversion. Consequently, intensifying production on existing agricultural land rather than creating new production area (deforestation) might be the most practical way of preserving soils of the Southern Amazon.

  17. N2O Emissions in Southeastern Amazonia: The Effect of Agricultural Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Cerri, C. E.; Coe, M. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Galford, G. L.; Macedo, M.; Neill, C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the last 30 years, Amazonia has been home to extraordinary growth in agricultural production, in part from agricultural expansion, but also due to more intense management on Amazonia's existing croplands. We use a year-long campaign and approximately 500 field chamber measurements to estimate how cropland intensification in Mato Grosso, Brazil affects the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil N dynamics. In this system, soybean cropland intensification occurs when double cropping is introduced, in which maize is planted directly after soybean harvest and fertilized twice with inorganic N. We find that dry season N2O emissions in single-cropped (soybean only) fields, double-cropped (soybean/maize) fields and reference tropical forest are uniformly near zero, or ~0-0.5 ngN/cm^2/hr. Surprisingly, wet season emissions rates remain low as well, between 1-4 ngN/cm^2/hr, for both cropland types and reference forest. By contrast, isolated post-fertilization spikes in N2O emissions are large, with a maximum increase of ~800% and a mean increase of ~400%, though these flux increases resolve rapidly and rates return to their low baseline within days. Finally, we explore the role that soil moisture, soil N availability, and soil C availability play in regulating N2O fluxes in reference forest, soybean fields and intensified soybean-maize fields. Open questions surround how the Amazon's land resources can be leveraged to increase agricultural production at the least harm to the environment. Here, we quantify the consequences of land use change on N2O, a powerful greenhouse gas, in a critical ecosystem undergoing novel agricultural intensification. These results may inform both greenhouse gas accounting and our understanding of the effects of Amazonia's changing agricultural landscape on the nitrogen cycle.

  18. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia—the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km2) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km2. Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  19. Variations in evapotranspiration and climate for an Amazonian semi-deciduous forest over seasonal, annual, and El Niño cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, George L.; de Souza Nogueira, José; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Pinto, Osvaldo Borges

    2015-02-01

    Tropical forests exchange large amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are important in controlling regional and global climate; however, climate and evaportranspiration ( E) vary significantly across multiple time scales. To better understand temporal patterns in E and climate, we measured the energy balance and meteorology of a semi-deciduous forest in the rainforest-savanna ecotone of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil, over a 7-year period and analyzed regional climate patterns over a 16-year period. Spectral analysis revealed that E and local climate exhibited consistent cycles over annual, seasonal, and weekly time scales. Annual and seasonal cycles were also apparent in the regional monthly rainfall and humidity time series, and a cycle on the order of 3-5.5 years was also apparent in the regional air temperature time series, which is coincident with the average return interval of El Niño. Annual rates of E were significantly affected by the 2002 El Niño. Prior to this event, annual E was on average 1,011 mm/year and accounted for 52 % of the annual rainfall, while after, annual E was 931 mm/year and accounted for 42 % of the annual rainfall. Our data also suggest that E declined significantly over the 7-year study period while air temperature significantly increased, which was coincident with a long-term, regional warming and drying trend. These results suggest that drought and warming induced by El Niño and/or climate change cause declines in E for semi-deciduous forests of the southeast Amazon Basin.

  20. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia-the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km(2)) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km(2). Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  1. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s-1), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m-2. Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    PubMed

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2016-12-12

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m(2), planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  3. Monitoring of artificial water reservoirs in the Southern Brazilian Amazon with remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvor, Damien; Daher, Felipe; Corpetti, Thomas; Laslier, Marianne; Dubreuil, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    The agricultural expansion in the Southern Brazilian Amazon has long been pointed out due to its severe impacts on tropical forests. But the last decade has been marked by a rapid agricultural transition which enabled to reduce pressure on forests through (i) the adoption of intensive agricultural practices and (ii) the diversification of activities. However, we suggest that this new agricultural model implies new pressures on environment and especially on water resources since many artificial water reservoirs have been built to ensure crop irrigation, generate energy, farm fishes, enable access to water for cattle or just for leisure. In this paper, we implemented a method to automatically map artificial water reservoirs based on time series of Landsat images. The method was tested in the county of Sorriso (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil) where we identified 521 water reservoirs by visual inspection on very high resolution images. 68 Landsat-8 images covering 4 scenes in 2015 were pre-classified and a final class (Terrestrial or Aquatic) was determined for each pixel based on a Dempster-Shafer fusion approach. Results confirmed the potential of the methodology to automatically and efficiently detect water reservoirs in the study area (overall accuracy = 0.952 and Kappa index = 0.904) although the methodology underestimates the total area in water bodies because of the spatial resolution of Landsat images. In the case of Sorriso, we mapped 19.4 km2 of the 20.8 km2 of water reservoirs initially delimited by visual interpretation, i.e. we underestimated the area by 5.9%.

  4. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  5. The importance of remnant native vegetation of Amazonian submontane forest for the conservation of lizards.

    PubMed

    Silva, D J; Santos-Filho, M; Canale, G R

    2014-08-01

    Forest fragmentation affects animal population dynamics mainly by loss of habitat and disruption of animal movement. Lizard assemblages are affected by environmental changes, but, depending on their ecological needs, some species might be more vulnerable than others. The southern Amazon suffers accelerated anthropic actions replacing natural environments by farmland (crops and pasture). This region is considerably drier than most of the northern Amazon, with stational semi-deciduous forests fragmented and isolated by pasture, and crops to a lesser extent. Here we report data on lizard assemblages using semi-deciduous forests, forest edge and the surrounding pasture in the southern Amazon in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lizards were collected in 21 forest fragments (41 to 7,035 ha) surrounded by pasture; using pitfall traps placed on a degradation gradient - from pasture inwards forest fragment (up to 200 m). We collected 242 individuals (14 species, seven families) in 6,300 trap-days. The pattern of species occurrence was largely nested and this nesting was associated with three habitat guilds (generalist, edge-tolerant, and forest species). Although there was no obvious fragmentation effect on lizards diversity community-wise, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia dorbignyi, Micrablepharus maximiliani and Kentropyx calcarta were more vulnerable to such effects than all other ten species collected. We verified that assemblages inhabiting pasture and forest edge are a nested subset of assemblages from the forest core. The remnant native vegetation is not distributed homogeneously and lizards species can persist in different parts of the landscape, therefore we recommend the protection of forest remnants as an important conservation action for lizards of the southern Amazon.

  6. Variations in evapotranspiration and climate for an Amazonian semi-deciduous forest over seasonal, annual, and El Niño cycles.

    PubMed

    Vourlitis, George L; de Souza Nogueira, José; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Pinto, Osvaldo Borges

    2015-02-01

    Tropical forests exchange large amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are important in controlling regional and global climate; however, climate and evaportranspiration (E) vary significantly across multiple time scales. To better understand temporal patterns in E and climate, we measured the energy balance and meteorology of a semi-deciduous forest in the rainforest-savanna ecotone of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil, over a 7-year period and analyzed regional climate patterns over a 16-year period. Spectral analysis revealed that E and local climate exhibited consistent cycles over annual, seasonal, and weekly time scales. Annual and seasonal cycles were also apparent in the regional monthly rainfall and humidity time series, and a cycle on the order of 3-5.5 years was also apparent in the regional air temperature time series, which is coincident with the average return interval of El Niño. Annual rates of E were significantly affected by the 2002 El Niño. Prior to this event, annual E was on average 1,011 mm/year and accounted for 52% of the annual rainfall, while after, annual E was 931 mm/year and accounted for 42% of the annual rainfall. Our data also suggest that E declined significantly over the 7-year study period while air temperature significantly increased, which was coincident with a long-term, regional warming and drying trend. These results suggest that drought and warming induced by El Niño and/or climate change cause declines in E for semi-deciduous forests of the southeast Amazon Basin.

  7. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  8. Infectious disease surveillance in animal movement networks: An approach based on the friendship paradox.

    PubMed

    Amaku, Marcos; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique de Hildebrand; Negreiros, Rísia Lopes; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Cipullo, Rafael Ishibashi; Marques, Fernando Silveira; Ossada, Raul

    2015-10-01

    The network of animal movements among livestock premises is an important topological structure for the spread of infectious diseases. The central focus of this study was to analyze strategies for selecting premises based on the friendship paradox ("your friends have more friends than you do") - in which premises that neighbor randomly selected premises are sampled for surveillance or control - to determine whether these strategies are viable alternatives for the surveillance and control of diseases in scenarios with insufficient data on animal movement. To test the effectiveness of these strategies, we performed three sets of simulations. In the first set, we examined the risk of spreading an infectious disease using the cattle movement network of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. All tested strategies based on the friendship paradox have comparable performance to the hub control strategy (controlling premises that sold more animals) and superior performance to random sampling in terms of both reducing the risk of purchasing infected animals and the number of premises that need to be controlled. In the second and third sets of simulations, we observed that the friendship paradox strategies were more sensitive than the random sampling strategy to detect cases and disease, respectively. The survey of the entire animal movement network to identify animal premises with a key role in trade is not always possible, either because the data are insufficient or because informal trade is significant. If surveying the network is not possible, all approaches based on knowledge of the network become useless. As an alternative, knowing that there is a hidden movement network that follows rules inherent to all networks, such as the friendship paradox, can be used to our advantage. Strategies based on the friendship paradox do not assume knowledge of the animal movement network and therefore may be viable alternatives for the surveillance or control of infectious diseases in the

  9. Detection of impervious surface change with multitemporal Landsat images in an urban-rural frontier

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mapping and monitoring impervious surface dynamic change in a complex urban-rural frontier with medium or coarse spatial resolution images is a challenge due to the mixed pixel problem and the spectral confusion between impervious surfaces and other non-vegetation land covers. This research selected Lucas do Rio Verde County in Mato Grosso State, Brazil as a case study to improve impervious surface estimation performance by the integrated use of Landsat and QuickBird images and to monitor impervious surface change by analyzing the normalized multitemporal Landsat-derived fractional impervious surfaces. This research demonstrates the importance of two step calibrations. The first step is to calibrate the Landsat-derived fraction impervious surface values through the established regression model based on the QuickBird-derived impervious surface image in 2008. The second step is to conduct the normalization between the calibrated 2008 impervious surface image with other dates of impervious surface images. This research indicates that the per-pixel based method overestimates the impervious surface area in the urban-rural frontier by 50-60%. In order to accurately estimate impervious surface area, it is necessary to map the fractional impervious surface image and further calibrate the estimates with high spatial resolution images. Also normalization of the multitemporal fractional impervious surface images is needed to reduce the impacts from different environmental conditions, in order to effectively detect the impervious surface dynamic change in a complex urban-rural frontier. The procedure developed in this paper for mapping and monitoring impervious surface area is especially valuable in urban-rural frontiers where multitemporal Landsat images are difficult to be used for accurately extracting impervious surface features based on traditional per-pixel based classification methods as they cannot effectively handle the mixed pixel problem. PMID:21552379

  10. Effect of fragmentation on the natural genetic diversity of Theobroma speciosum Willd. ex Spreng. populations.

    PubMed

    Varella, T L; Rossi, A A B; Dardengo, J F E; Silveira, G F; Souza, M D A; Carvalho, M L S

    2016-11-21

    Forest fragmentation reduces the effective size of natural populations, isolates individuals in the landscape, and, consequently, changes species' mating systems by increasing the degree of relatedness between individuals and inbreeding. Investigating the impact of habitat degradation on forest fragments helps to assess the genetic and ecological consequences of these changes, and allows the development of effective and sustainable conservation strategies to manage the genetic resources of species living in degraded landscapes. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of fragmented Theobroma speciosum populations using microsatellite markers. Three urban forest fragments were selected in the municipality of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, namely C/E park, J park, and Zoo Botanical park. Seventy-five individuals (25 in each fragment) were sampled by collecting their leaves for genomic DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction amplifications were performed using nine polymorphic simple sequence repeat primers, which amplified 84 alleles. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.970, and it was always higher than the observed heterozygosity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most variability occurred within populations (64%) rather than between them (36%). The Structure software and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram revealed three distinct groups, showing that individuals were allocated to their correct populations. Genotype number 3 from C/E park, number 45 from J park, and number 51 from Zoo Botanical park could be used as stock plants in breeding programs, because they were the most dissimilar within the populations studied. The high genetic diversity levels detected in all three populations studied emphasize the importance of protecting this species in its natural habitat.

  11. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest.

    PubMed

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s(-1)), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m(-2). Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  12. Introducing the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations beginning in 1980 called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded datasets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC=1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously-identified in MERRA's precipitation and reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED is being used by researchers around the world for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at large scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models. These applications will be discussed. More information on GFWED can be found at http://data.giss.nasa.gov/impacts/gfwed/

  13. The traditional knowledge on stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponina) used by the Enawene-Nawe tribe in western Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gilton Mendes dos; Antonini, Yasmine

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. Methods The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Results and Discussion Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. Conclusion We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species. PMID:18793393

  14. Metabolic and behavior changes in surubim acutely exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide.

    PubMed

    Sinhorin, Valéria D G; Sinhorin, Adilson P; Teixeira, Jhonnes Marcos S; Miléski, Kelly Márcia L; Hansen, Paula Carine; Moeller, Paulo Rafael; Moreira, Paula Sueli A; Baviera, Amanda M; Loro, Vânia L

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the effect of glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup Original), the major herbicide used in soybean crops in Mato Grosso state, at concentrations of 0, 2.25, 4.5, 7.5, and 15 mg L(-1) on metabolic and behavior parameters of the hybrid fish surubim in an acute exposure lasting 96 h. Glycogen content, glucose, lactate, and protein levels were measured in different tissues. Plasma levels of cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also determined. Ventilatory frequency (VF) and swimming activity (SA) were considered behavior parameters. Results showed that herbicide exposure decreased plasma glucose levels and increased it in surubim liver. Lactate increased in both plasma and liver but decreased in muscle. Protein levels decreased in plasma and muscle but increased in liver. After herbicide exposure, liver and muscle glycogen was decreased. Cholesterol levels decreased in plasma at all concentrations tested. Plasma ALT increased, and no alterations were recorded for AST levels. VF increased after glyphosate exposure (5 min) and decreased after 96 h. SA showed differences among all groups (5 min). At the end of 96 h, SA was altered by the 7.5 mg L(-1) concentration. Fish used anaerobic glycolysis as indicated by generally decreased glycogen levels and decreased lactate levels in muscle but increased ones in plasma and liver. We suggest that the studied parameters could be used as indicators of herbicide toxicity in surubim and may provide extremely important information for understanding the biology of the animal and its responsiveness to external stimuli (stressors).

  15. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  16. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasmataceae agents in free-ranging Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).

    PubMed

    Sacchi, A B V; Duarte, J M B; André, M R; Machado, R Z

    2012-07-01

    Anaplasmataceae organisms comprise a group of obligate intracellular gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that can infect both animals and humans. In the present work we investigate the presence of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia species in blood samples from Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), using both molecular and serologic techniques. Blood was collected from 143 deer captured along floodplains of the Paraná River, near the Porto Primavera hydroelectric power plant. Before and after flooding, marsh deer were captured for a wide range research program under the financial support of São Paulo State Energy Company (CESP), between 1998 and 2001. Samples were divided into four groups according to time and location of capture and named MS01 (n=99), MS02 (n=18) (Mato Grosso do Sul, before and after flooding, respectively), PX (n=9; Peixe River, after flooding), and AGUA (n=17; Aguapeí River, after flooding). The seroprevalences for Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 76.76% and 20.2% in MS01, 88.88% and 5.55% in MS02, 88.88% and 22.22% in PX, and 94.12% and 5.88% in AGUA, respectively. Sixty-one animals (42.65% of the total population) were PCR-positive for E. chaffeensis PCR (100.0% identity based on 16S rRNA, dsb, and groESL genes). Seventy deer (48.95% of the total population) were PCR-positive for Anaplasma spp. (99.0% of identity with A. platys, and in the same clade as A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis, and A. platys based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis). Our results demonstrate that Brazilian marsh deer are exposed to E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma spp. and may act as reservoirs for these rickettsial agents, playing a role in disease transmission to humans and other animals.

  17. Niche Partitioning among Mesocarnivores in a Brazilian Wetland.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; Olifiers, Natalie; Gompper, Matthew E; Mourão, Guilherme

    We investigated the home range size, habitat selection, as well as the spatial and activity overlap, of four mid-sized carnivore species in the Central Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From December 2005 to September 2008, seven crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous, seven brown-nosed coatis Nasua nasua, and six ocelots Leopardus pardalis were radio-collared and monitored. Camera trap data on these species were also collected for the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus. We hypothesized that there would be large niche differentiation in preferred habitat-type or active period between generalist species with similar diet, and higher similarity in habitat-type or activity time between the generalist species (crab-eating foxes and coatis) and the more specialized ocelot. Individual home ranges were estimated using the utilization distribution index (UD- 95% fixed Kernel). With data obtained from radio-collared individuals, we evaluated habitat selection using compositional analysis. Median home range size of ocelots was 8 km2. The proportion of habitats within the home ranges of ocelots did not differ from the overall habitat proportion in the study area, but ocelots preferentially used forest within their home range. The median home range size of crab-eating foxes was 1.4 km2. Foxes showed second-order habitat selection and selected savanna over shrub-savanna vegetation. The median home range size for coati was 1.5 km2. Coati home ranges were located randomly in the study area. However, within their home range, coatis occurred more frequently in savanna than in other vegetation types. Among the four species, the overlap in activity period was the highest (87%) between ocelots and raccoons, with the least overlap occurring between the ocelot and coati (25%). We suggest that temporal segregation of carnivores was more important than spatial segregation, notably between the generalist coati, crab-eating fox and crab-eating raccoon.

  18. Direct Costs of Dengue Hospitalization in Brazil: Public and Private Health Care Systems and Use of WHO Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Vieira Machado, Alessandra A.; Estevan, Anderson Oliveira; Sales, Antonio; Brabes, Kelly Cristina da Silva; Croda, Júlio; Negrão, Fábio Juliano

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue, an arboviral disease, is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In Brazil, epidemics have become increasingly important, with increases in the number of hospitalizations and the costs associated with the disease. This study aimed to describe the direct costs of hospitalized dengue cases, the financial impact of admissions and the use of blood products where current protocols for disease management were not followed. Methods and Results To analyze the direct costs of dengue illness and platelet transfusion in Brazil based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional census study on hospitalized dengue patients in the public and private Brazilian health systems in Dourados City, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The analysis involved cases that occurred from January through December during the 2010 outbreak. In total, we examined 8,226 mandatorily reported suspected dengue cases involving 507 hospitalized patients. The final sample comprised 288 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients, who accounted for 56.8% of all hospitalized cases. The overall cost of the hospitalized dengue cases was US $210,084.30, in 2010, which corresponded to 2.5% of the gross domestic product per capita in Dourados that year. In 35.2% of cases, blood products were used in patients who did not meet the blood transfusion criteria. The overall median hospitalization cost was higher (p = 0.002) in the group that received blood products (US $1,622.40) compared with the group that did not receive blood products (US $550.20). Conclusion The comparative costs between the public and the private health systems show that both the hospitalization of and platelet transfusion in patients who do not meet the WHO and Brazilian dengue guidelines increase the direct costs, but not the quality, of health care. PMID:25188295

  19. The DURAMAZ indicator system: a cross-disciplinary comparative tool for assessing ecological and social changes in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Le Tourneau, François-Michel; Marchand, Guillaume; Greissing, Anna; Nasuti, Stéphanie; Droulers, Martine; Bursztyn, Marcel; Léna, Philippe; Dubreuil, Vincent

    2013-06-05

    During the last 20 years, the Amazon region has been at the same time a place of massive ecological and social change and a laboratory of experiments aimed at promoting sustainable development. Policies and project initiatives involving diverse social groups and environmental contexts have been implemented across the region. They have resulted in mixed outcomes and trade-offs between social and environmental dimensions, making their impact at the local level difficult to assess and their successes difficult to generalize. The objective of the DURAMAZ research project was to provide a better understanding of these impacts. It produced a multi-dimensional indicator system designed to allow a holistic view of sustainable development at local and subregional levels and a comparative perspective across 12 research sites, from an isolated indigenous village to smallholders and agribusiness areas in Mato Grosso. The results of the first observation campaign (2007-2009) show that despite the claim of promoting sustainable development, no project was able to untie the 'Gordian knot' of development in the Amazon. Communities continue to face the old dilemma of either enjoying a preserved ecosystem but enduring adverse life conditions, or enjoying better living at the expense of forest cover. Another finding is that the subregional context is very important in shaping the impacts of regional policies. Thus, the same policy will not always have the same effect, depending on in which context it is applied. Finally, we found that cultural factors and a sense of place play a more important role than economic factors when it comes to the way people evaluate their own situation. This research provides the basis for a second phase of the project (2012-2016) in which we will continue to expand our sample and to refine our methodologies with the goal of transforming the initiative into a network of observatories of sustainable development in the Amazon.

  20. Genetic variability within and among populations of an invasive, exotic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Sueme; Rodrigues, Jucelene Fernandes; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Pansarin, Emerson Ricardo; Veasey, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that invasive species are of great evolutionary interest because of their success in colonizing and spreading into new areas, the factors underlying this success often remain obscure. In this sense, studies on population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of invasive species could offer insights into mechanisms of invasions. Originally from Africa, the terrestrial orchid Oeceoclades maculata, considered an invasive plant, is the only species of the genus throughout the Americas. Considering the lack of information on population genetics of this species, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian populations of O. maculata. We used 13 inter-simple sequence repeat primers to assess the genetic diversity of 152 individuals of O. maculata distributed in five sampled sites from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Mato Grosso and Paraná). Low diversity was found within samples, with estimates of the Shannon index (H) ranging from 0.0094 to 0.1054 and estimates of Nei's gene diversity (He) ranging from 0.0054 to 0.0668. However, when evaluated together, the sampling locations showed substantially higher diversity estimates (H = 0.3869, He = 0.2556), and most of the genetic diversity was found among populations (ΦST = 0.933). Both clustering and principal coordinate analysis indicate the existence of five distinct groups, corresponding to the sampled localities, and which were also recovered in the Bayesian analysis. A substructure was observed in one of the localities, suggesting a lack of gene flow even between very small distances. The patterns of genetic structure found in this study may be understood considering the interaction of several probable reproductive strategies with its history of colonization involving possible genetic drift, selective pressures and multiple introductions. PMID:26162896

  1. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  2. Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sy, V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Beuchle, R.; Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Lindquist, E.; Verchot, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land use change in South America, mainly deforestation, is a large source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Identifying and addressing the causes or drivers of anthropogenic forest change is considered crucial for global climate change mitigation. Few countries however, monitor deforestation drivers in a systematic manner. National-level quantitative spatially explicit information on drivers is often lacking. This study quantifies proximate drivers of deforestation and related carbon losses in South America based on remote sensing time series in a systematic, spatially explicit manner. Deforestation areas were derived from the 2010 global remote sensing survey of the Food and Agricultural Organisation Forest Resource Assessment. To assess proximate drivers, land use following deforestation was assigned by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. To estimate gross carbon losses from deforestation, default Tier 1 biomass levels per country and eco-zone were used. Pasture was the dominant driver of forest area (71.2%) and related carbon loss (71.6%) in South America, followed by commercial cropland (14% and 12.1% respectively). Hotspots of deforestation due to pasture occurred in Northern Argentina, Western Paraguay, and along the arc of deforestation in Brazil where they gradually moved into higher biomass forests causing additional carbon losses. Deforestation driven by commercial cropland increased in time, with hotspots occurring in Brazil (Mato Grosso State), Northern Argentina, Eastern Paraguay and Central Bolivia. Infrastructure, such as urban expansion and roads, contributed little as proximate drivers of forest area loss (1.7%). Our findings contribute to the understanding of drivers of deforestation and related carbon losses in South America, and are comparable at the national, regional and continental level. In addition, they support the development of national REDD+ interventions and forest monitoring systems, and provide valuable input

  3. Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Laguna Negra hantavirus in an Indian reserve in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. Methods The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging vegetation in grassland or woodland along the peridomestic environment of the Indian reserve. Wild rodents were live-trapped in an area bordering the reserve limits, due the impossibility of capturing wild animals in the Indian reserve. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and karyotype. DNA was extracted from spleen or liver samples of rodents and from invertebrate (tick and louse) pools, and the molecular characterization of the rickettsia was through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA). In relation to hantavirus, rodent serum samples were serologically screened by IgG ELISA using the Araraquara-N antigen and total RNA was extracted from lung samples of IgG-positive rodents. The amplification of the complete S segment was performed. Results A total of 153 wild rodents, 121 louse, and 36 tick specimens were collected in 2010. Laguna Negra hantavirus was identified in Calomys callidus rodents and Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii were identified in Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Conclusions Zoonotic diseases such as HCPS and spotted fever rickettsiosis are a public health threat and should be considered in outbreaks and acute febrile illnesses among Indian populations. The presence of the genome of rickettsias and hantavirus in animals in this Indian reserve reinforces the need to include these infectious agents in outbreak investigations of febrile cases in Indian populations. PMID:24742108

  4. Proechimys (Rodentia, Echimyidae): characterization and taxonomic considerations of a form with a very low diploid number and a multiple sex chromosome system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proechimys is the most diverse genus in family Echimyidae, comprising 25 species (two of which are polytypic) and 39 taxa. Despite the numerous forms of this rodent and their abundance in nature, there are many taxonomic problems due to phenotypic similarities within the genus and high intraspecific variation. Extensive karyotypic variation has been noted, however, with diploid numbers (2n) ranging from 14 to 62 chromosomes. Some heteromorphism can be found, and 57 different karyotypes have been described to date. Results In the present work, we describe a cytotype with a very low 2n. Specimens of Proechimys cf. longicaudatus were collected from two different places in northern Mato Grosso state, Brazil (12°54″S, 52°22″W and 9°51′17″S, 58°14′53″W). The females and males had 16 and 17 chromosomes, respectively; all chromosomes were acrocentric, with the exception of the X chromosome, which was bi-armed. The sex chromosome system was found to be XY1Y2, originating from a Robertsonian rearrangement involving the X and a large acrocentric autosome. Females had two Neo-X chromosomes, and males had one Neo-X and two Y chromosomes. NOR staining was found in the interstitial region of one autosomal pair. Conclusions Comparison of this karyotype with those described in the literature revealed that Proechimys with similar karyotypes had previously been collected from nearby localities. We therefore suggest that this Proechimys belongs to a different taxon, and is either a new species or one that requires reassessment. PMID:23496787

  5. The influence of trees on the thermal environment and behaviour of grazing heifers in Brazilian Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luciano Bastos; Eckstein, Camila; Pina, Douglas Santos; Carnevalli, Roberta Aparecida

    2016-04-01

    The intensification of the livestock production system has gained prominence over the last decades. In addition to the reduction of grazing areas and increased productivity per hectare, the intercropping involving forest tree species and ruminants has been established as a sustainable production model, generating income and valuation of natural capital. Besides the social, economic, and environmental aspects, the animal welfare is a noteworthy factor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microclimatic conditions in an open-pasture and in silvopastoral systems, considering the Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and alterations in animal behavior. Three different pasture arrangements were analyzed in this study: total absence of trees in an open-pasture (ArrA), presence of peripheral trees (Eucalyptus spp.) along the border fences (ArrB), and an intensive wooded area aggregated with pasture (ArrC). A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Girolando breed) was evaluated. Behavior data were collected every 15 min starting at 08 h00 with readings ending at 16 h00. THI was used to evaluate the environmental comfort. The THI found in the system with open-pasture and in the two systems with silvopastoral arrangement reached critical levels. The two arrangements with eucalyptus rows were not capable of eliminating heat stress in the conditions found in the north region of Mato Grosso State although better conditions were obtained under the tree canopy. The differences between the microclimatic variables for the three arrangements modified the behavior of the animals regarding their location and activity, except for water consumption.

  6. The Frequency and Fate of Understory Forest Fires in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; le page, Y.; Wang, D.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Giglio, L.; Hurtt, G. C.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires for deforestation or agricultural management frequently escape their intended boundaries and burn standing Amazon forests. The extent and frequency of understory forest fires are critical to assess forest carbon emissions and the long-term legacy of understory fires in Amazonia. Patterns of understory fire activity under current climate conditions also offer a blueprint for potential changes in Amazon forests under scenarios of future climate and land use. Here, we estimated of the extent and frequency of understory forest fires for the entire arc of deforestation in southern Amazonia using a time series of annual Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Understory forest fires burned more than 80,000 km2 during 1999-2010. Fires were widespread along the southern and eastern extents of Amazon forests during the four years with highest fire activity (1999, 2005, 2007, 2010). The interannual variability in understory fires offered new insights into fire-climate dynamics in Amazonia over a range of temporal scales, based on the combination of burned area, MODIS active fire detections, and reanalysis climate data. Initial fire exposure reduces aboveground carbon stocks, and frequent fires are one possible mechanism for long-term changes the structure of Amazon forests. Repeated burning was concentrated in southeastern Amazonia, and >95% of all repeated fires occurred in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Forests that burned two or more times during this period accounted for 16% of understory fire activity. Finally, deforestation of burned forests was rare, suggesting that forest degradation from understory fires was an independent source of carbon emissions during this period. Modeling the time scales of carbon loss and recovery in burned forests is therefore critical to estimate the net carbon emissions from these fires. The results of this study suggest that understory fires operate as a large-scale edge effect in Amazonia, as

  7. Checklist of aquatic and marshy Monocotyledons from the Araguaia River basin, Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Araguaia River basin runs through the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Tocantins, and Pará, covering 373,000 Km2, mostly within the Brazilian Cerrado. The region has a wide variety of wetlands. The climate is characterized by high temperatures and strongly seasonal precipitation. There are two well defined seasons: the dry season (winter-spring) and the rainy season (summer- fall). The Araguaia River basin is dominated by plinthosoils that are found in low flat areas, poorly drained and prone to flooding, yielding wetland habitats of high plant diversity. Since the 1970s, human activities have led to reduction in both the diversity and area of wetlands. The construction of the Belém-Brasília highway and hydroelectric dams, as well as the expansion of agricultural and mining activities, have had major impacts on the region. New information The flora diversity data of the Araguaia River basin was developed through field work, herbarium research, and use of a database (Species Link). The resulting checklist of 162 aquatic and marshy monocotyledons from the Araguaia River basin represents 20 families and 50 genera. Cyperaceae (51 spp.), Poaceae (39 spp.), and Eriocaulaceae (16 spp.) are the most representative families. Life form analysis indicates that helophytes predominate (98 spp.; 60.5%). One hundred one species are native to tropical and/or subtropical America and twenty one are endemic to Brazil. Ninety-three species are new occurrences for the Araguaia River basin. Among them, three species are reported in the Brazilian Cerrado for the first time. This work contributes to the understanding of aquatic plant diversity in the Cerrado and other savanna-like vegetation physiognomies; environments and habitats poorly understood taxonomically and undercollected generally. PMID:27099550

  8. Coendutermes tucum Fontes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae): description of the imago caste and additional notes.

    PubMed

    Cuezzo, Carolina

    2016-12-09

    Coendutermes Fontes, 1985 is a monotypic South American termite genus. Coendutermes tucum Fontes, 1985, was described based on morphological characters from soldiers and workers collected in Mato Grosso, Brazil, and Jodensavanne, Suriname. Herein, I describe the imago caste of C. tucum for the first time with additional notes on soldiers, workers, and new distributional records. The studied material is deposited at the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). I use the terminology of Fontes (1987) to describe worker mandibles, and that of Noirot (2001) for the different parts of the digestive tube of workers. I measured the imagoes morphometric characters following Roonwal (1970): LH, length of head capsule (9); WH, width of head capsule without eyes (18); OF, occipito-fontanelle distance (23); DE, diameter of eye (48); LO, length of ocellus (55); WO, width of ocellus (56); EOD, eye-ocellus distance (57); LP, length of pronotum (65); WP, width of pronotum (68); LT, length of hind tibia (85). I took photographs of all castes with a stereomicroscope (Leica M205C) attached to a video camera (Leica DFC295) and images of gizzard and enteric valve under a microscope (Leica DM750B) attached to a video camera (Leica ICC50HD), then I combined the stacks of images with the software Leica LAS EZ 2.0 or Helicon Focus 5.2.11 X64. For the scanning electron micrographs (SEM), one soldier was dried to critical point while directly mounted on a stub with double face adhesive tape, then coated with gold and photographed with the SEM (Zeiss LEO 440 ®).

  9. Leaf area index of a tropical semi-deciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Júnior, Osvaldo Borges; Sanches, Luciana; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Brandão, Adilson Amorim; de Souza Nogueira, José

    2011-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important ecophysiological variable because leaves are the organs responsible for gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. This variable can be calculated from primary values of leaf area assessed by destructive or non-destructive methods, which is relatively easy when crop species are investigated, but is not the case when the focus is on natural wood plants communities. In this paper, we analyze the seasonality of LAI estimated by three different methods in the Amazonia-savannah transitional forest, located 50 km north-east of Sinop city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In the first method, we combine Monsi and Saekis' original method [Monsi M, Saeki T (1953) Jpn J Bot 14:22-52], which measures LAI using the Beer-Lambert extinction law, and the proposition of Goudriaan [Goudriaan J (1988) Agric For Meteorol 43:155-169] to estimate the extinction coefficient from solar height. The second method differed from the first only in the way in which the daily fraction of intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (FPAR) was calculated, as proposed by Charles-Edwards and Lawn (Charles-Edwards DA, Lawn RJ (1984) Plant Cell Environ 7:247-251]. In the third method, we used a remote sensing technique [MOD15_BU-collection 4, produced and distributed by EROS Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (EDC DAAC)]. We found that the first and the second methods revealed the expected LAI dynamics, which increased during the dry-wet transition and wet season, and decreased during the wet-dry transition and dry season. From 20 randomly distributed sets in a 1.0 ha area, only 3 showed significant differences in LAI estimated from the first two methods; conversely, LAI was overestimated by the third method.

  10. Leaf area index of a tropical semi-deciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Júnior, Osvaldo Borges; Sanches, Luciana; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Brandão, Adilson Amorim; de Souza Nogueira, José

    2011-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important ecophysiological variable because leaves are the organs responsible for gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. This variable can be calculated from primary values of leaf area assessed by destructive or non-destructive methods, which is relatively easy when crop species are investigated, but is not the case when the focus is on natural wood plants communities. In this paper, we analyze the seasonality of LAI estimated by three different methods in the Amazonia-savannah transitional forest, located 50 km north-east of Sinop city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In the first method, we combine Monsi and Saekis' original method [Monsi M, Saeki T (1953) Jpn J Bot 14:22-52], which measures LAI using the Beer-Lambert extinction law, and the proposition of Goudriaan [Goudriaan J (1988) Agric For Meteorol 43:155-169] to estimate the extinction coefficient from solar height. The second method differed from the first only in the way in which the daily fraction of intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (FPAR) was calculated, as proposed by Charles-Edwards and Lawn (Charles-Edwards DA, Lawn RJ (1984) Plant Cell Environ 7:247-251]. In the third method, we used a remote sensing technique [MOD15_BU-collection 4, produced and distributed by EROS Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (EDC DAAC)]. We found that the first and the second methods revealed the expected LAI dynamics, which increased during the dry-wet transition and wet season, and decreased during the wet-dry transition and dry season. From 20 randomly distributed sets in a 1.0 ha area, only 3 showed significant differences in LAI estimated from the first two methods; conversely, LAI was overestimated by the third method.

  11. Genetic Diversity Strategy for the Management and Use of Rubber Genetic Resources: More than 1,000 Wild and Cultivated Accessions in a 100-Genotype Core Collection.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Livia Moura; Le Guen, Vincent; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernardo Moreno; Silva, Carla Cristina; Mantello, Camila Campos; Conson, Andre Ricardo Oliveira; Vianna, João Paulo Gomes; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; Fialho, Josefino de Freitas; de Moraes, Mario Luis Teixeira; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza; Souza, Anete Pereira de

    2015-01-01

    The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for subsequent genetic

  12. The effects of Fire Disturbance on Soil Water Cycling of a Southeast Amazonian Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, C.; Coe, M. T.; Trumbore, S.; Lefebvre, P.; Silverio, D. V.; Macedo, M.; Brando, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire disturbances can reduce the capacity of tropical forests to cycle water from the soil to the atmosphere, but our understanding of this process remains poor. To address this gap, we studied the effects of fire-related changes in vegetation structure and dynamics on soil water cycling of a transitional forest located between Amazônia and Cerrado, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In particular, we measured monthly soil moisture (from 1 to 9 m depth) using seven soil water pits that were distributed across three 50-ha plots: a plot that represented an unburned control; a plot that was burned in 2004, 2007 and 2010; and, a plot that was burned annually from 2004 to 2010, with exception of 2008. Measurements of soil moisture began after the experimental fires of 2010 (in mid September) and continued until December 2013. We hypothesized that soil moisture would be higher in the burned plots than in the control due to fire-induced reductions in evapotranspiration. Our preliminary results provide only partial support for this hypothesis. We observed a high variability in soil moisture between treatments, among months, and across years. For example, the unburned control tended to hold more soil water throughout the soil profile in wet-season months. However, soil moisture tended to be higher in the experimentally burned plots during the driest months of the year (August and September), but this pattern was no consistant across drought and non-drought years. These results show that fires exert complex influences on the soil water cycling of this transitional forest, perhaps even promoting increased evapotranspiration in the burned plots due to reduced competition among trees for resources.

  13. Evolution of HLA-class I compared to HLA-class II polymorphism in Terena, a South-American Indian tribe.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, A M; Moraes, M E; Marcos, C Y; Moraes, J R; Fernández-Viña, M A; Stastny, P

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the HLA alleles of 60 unrelated healthy Terena and 10 Terena families. They are members of an isolated Brazilian tribe located in Mato Grosso do Sul (South Central Brazil). Six novel alleles were found in this population: HLA-A*0219 (gf = 0.02), A*0222 (gf = 0.15), HLA-B* 3520 (gf = 0.01), B*3521 (gf = 0.03), B*3912 (gf = 0.03) and B*4803 (gf = 0.16). Five of the six novel alleles differ from their putative progenitors by amino acid replacements in residues that contribute to the pockets of the peptide-binding site. Many of the variants defined by molecular methods were not identified correctly by serological typing. We calculated heterozygosity values (H) for HLA-A, -B, -C, DRB1, DQB1 and DPB . The highest values were observed at the HLA-B locus, followed by HLA-A, -DRB1 and DQB1. Residue positions 9, 24, 45, 62, 67, 95, 114, 116, 156, and 163 of HLA class I showed heterozygosity values greater than 0.50. Nine of them contribute to the peptide-binding specificity pockets and one to the T cell receptor binding site. If HLA antigens are useful for defense against pathogenic agents, heterozygosity would offer an advantage by allowing binding of a larger repertoire of peptides to the class I molecules. Individuals that are heterozygous at these positions would probably have a wider repertoire of peptide presentation to T cells. The observed results including the presence of novel alleles in the class I HLA loci suggest a functionally significant, more rapid evolution of class I compared to class II loci in this South American isolated population.

  14. Tracing Forest Change through 40 Years on Two Continents with the BULC Algorithm and Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardille, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    With the opening of the Landsat archive, researchers have a vast new data source teeming with imagery and potential. Beyond Landsat, data from other sensors is newly available as well: these include ALOS/PALSAR, Sentinel-1 and -2, MERIS, and many more. Google Earth Engine, developed to organize and provide analysis tools for these immense data sets, is an ideal platform for researchers trying to sift through huge image stacks. It offers nearly unlimited processing power and storage with a straightforward programming interface. Yet labeling forest change through time remains challenging given the current state of the art for interpreting remote sensing image sequences. Moreover, combining data from very different image platforms remains quite difficult. To address these challenges, we developed the BULC algorithm (Bayesian Updating of Land Cover), designed for the continuous updating of land-cover classifications through time in large data sets. The algorithm ingests data from any of the wide variety of earth-resources sensors; it maintains a running estimate of land-cover probabilities and the most probable class at all time points along a sequence of events. Here we compare BULC results from two study sites that witnessed considerable forest change in the last 40 years: the Pacific Northwest of the United States and the Mato Grosso region of Brazil. In Brazil, we incorporated rough classifications from more than 100 images of varying quality, mixing imagery from more than 10 different sensors. In the Pacific Northwest, we used BULC to identify forest changes due to logging and urbanization from 1973 to the present. Both regions had classification sequences that were better than many of the component days, effectively ignoring clouds and other unwanted signal while fusing the information contained on several platforms. As we leave remote sensing's data-poor era and enter a period with multiple looks at Earth's surface from multiple sensors over a short period of

  15. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Sérgio Luís; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs) living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso) in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration, consistent with a dose

  16. Iron oxidation state in (Mg,Fe)O: Calibration of the flank method on synthetic samples and application to natural inclusions in Lower Mantle diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, M.; McCammon, C.; Bulanova, G.; Kaminsky, F.

    2008-12-01

    Ferropericlase (Mg,Fe)O and (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 perovskite are believed to form the bulk of the Lower Mantle (LM). The interval of redox conditions in the LM is still debatable. It was shown that the Fe3+ concentration in perovskite is insensitive to oxygen fugacity, therefore we have turned our attention to (Mg,Fe)O. Our work involves calibrating the so-called "flank method" for synthetic (Mg,Fe)O, and applying the results to determine Fe3+/Fetot in ferropericlase inclusions from LM diamonds, as a direct tool for investigating LM redox conditions during diamond formation. Experiments were performed in a multi anvil apparatus to obtain ferropericlase crystals with high quality surfaces, and Fe3+/Fetot in them was determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Samples were subsequently analyzed using the EMP. The flank method sensu strictu consists of measuring two pre-defined energy positions FeLAlfa and FeLBeta, whose ratio is sensitive to Fe2+/Fe3+. Positive correlations of LBeta/LAlfa as a function of Fetot (wt percent) and Fe2+ (wt percent) were observed for (Mg,Fe)O similar to those reported in the literature for garnets. We applied a least-squares regression model to fit the three variables Fetot, LBeta/LAlfa and Fe2+, and chose the simplest equation that fit the data. Our calibration for (Mg,Fe)O with xFe between 2 and 36.6 wt percent shows an agreement of 1 sigma with Fe3+/Fetot determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy, but with the additional advantage of a spatial resolution on the order of 10 microns (compared to no smaller than 100 microns for Moessbauer). We applied the flank method calibration to 6 ferropericlase inclusions from ultra deep diamonds (4 from Mato Grosso and 2 from Machado River, Brazil). Results show that LBeta/LAlfa ratios are consistent with the trend observed for synthetic (Mg,Fe)O, with no obvious evidence for magnesioferrite exsolution. The obtained Fe3+/Fetot values between 8 and 13 percent, and their correlations with Na, Cr and Al show that

  17. Structural quality of on Oxisol in recovery for 18 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Batista Bonini, C.; Alves, M. C.; Marchini, D. C.; Garcia de Arruda, O.; Nilce Souto Filho, S.

    2012-04-01

    Incorrect use of soil and large buildings construction in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In this sense we investigated the positive changes in the structural quality of a soil that was beheaded in human intervention techniques for recovery for 18 years, having been used green manures, gypsum and pasture. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was a completely randomized with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments were: control (tilled soil without culture); Stizolobium aterrium; Cajanus cajan; lime+S. aterrimum; lime+C. cajan; lime+gypsum+S. aterrimum; lime+gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all treatments. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with the control bare soil and native vegetation (savannah). We evaluated the distribution and aggregate stability in water, soil samples were collected in 2010 in the depths: 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0,20-0.40 m. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance, following Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Evaluating the results is noted that in the depth of 0.00-0.10 m, the control bare soil and savannah soil had lower and higher DMP, respectively. All recovery treatments were DMP greater than found for the bare soil control. Treatments: S. aterrimum, lime + gypsum + C. cajan and lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum and the savannah control were similar in the depth of 0.00-0.10 m. All of the recovery treatment in the depth from 0.00-0.10 m with values is close to the native vegetation of the savannah. Depths of 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m results obtained for DMP treatments in recovery are similar to the bare soil, except for treatments with S. aterrimum and lime + gypsum + S

  18. Identification of kimberlite bodies in Brazil from a 3D audio-magnetotelluric survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lugao, P. P.; Eric, C. D. O.; Loureiro, F. O.; Arantes, P. R.; Pastana, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a succesfull identification of kimberlite bodies in Brazil through the use of the electromagnetic technique audio-magnetotelluric (AMT). Macnae (1979) writes that "In one large survey in South Africa, electromagnetic (EM) techniques have proven to be remarkably effective in detecting the presence of weathered clays or epiclastic kimberlite contained within the pipes." Full tensor AMT data were acquired at 65 points (stations) in a 3D configuration with frequencies ranging from 10kHz to 1Hz. The survey was located in the NW portion of the Mato Grosso state, Brazil, in na area of thick jungle coverage. During the AMT survey, few outcrops were seen because of the dense forest cover. Usually, the occurrences found were of sand deposits, indicating the occurence of Fazenda Casa Branca and Utiariti Formations and gravel from Salto das Nuvens Formation, widely used in paving trails n this region. In the area of the survey, three main targets were confirmed/identified: Kimberlite Area 1 - a classic kimberlite in the region, with the crater facies with different clasts and distinct size. We noted the occurrence of a red-brown soil and an unusual vegetation in this area. The resistivity model provided confirmed the presence of Kimberlite Area 1 and was used to identify other two areas. Area of Interest 1 - area with atypical vegetation along a trail. There is an excavation that displays soil of white color with several blocks present, there are small quartz crystal agglomerates in these blocks. The resistivity model cleary shows a conductive body here, indicative of the presence of a kimberlite. Area of Interest 2 - the presence of a kimberlite was confirmed, not exactly where the targeted Area 2 was, but the southwest of it. Close to this area, there was a very fine rock and a few blocks of pure silica, probably indicating a kimberlitic intrusion. In summary, the 3D resistivity model in depth obtained from inversion of the AMT data confirmed and identified

  19. Airborne measurements of aerosols from burning biomass in Brazil related to the TRACE A experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. B.; Setzer, A. W.; Gerab, F.; Artaxo, P. E.; Pereira, M. C.; Monroe, G.

    1996-10-01

    Results are reported from an airborne campaign to investigate the impacts of burning biomass upon the loading of lower-tropospheric aerosols and its composition over the Brazilian tropics. The flights, conducted as part of the NASA/Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) mission, started on September 1, 1992, when the dry (fire) season still prevailed in the central part of Brazil, and ended on September 29. Of the total number of burnings detected in Brazil by the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR)/NOAA satellite sensor, 74% were concentrated in the states of Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Roraima, and Tocantins during this period. Aerosol particles were sampled from a twin-engine aircraft in transit and vertical profile flights were made up to 4,000 m altitude. Black carbon measurements made in real time and in areas of burning biomass peaked at ˜2,500 m above the ground, increasing to ˜12,000 ng/m3. In other areas these values were lower by 1 order of magnitude. A condensation nuclei counter measuring small particles (>0.014 μm) produced values ranging from 2,000 to 16,000/cm3 for areas with low and high burning biomass, respectively. Deposition filters in a two-stage cascade impactor, and Nuclepore filters collected aerosols for analysis of 13 elements through particle-induced X ray emissions (PIXE). Primary elements associated with soil dust (Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Ni) prevailed in the aerosol coarse mode (>1 μm) while the fine mode aerosols were enriched in S, K, Br, and Rb, which are tracers normally associated with burning of biomass. The good correlation between fire spot counts, obtained via AVHRR aboard NOAA satellites, and black carbon, counts of small particles and total aerosol mass, suggests the determining of local concentrations of fire-derived aerosol fire emissions by satellite to be a new and useful approach.

  20. Detecting Land Cover Change by Trend and Seasonality of Remote Sensing Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. C.; Epiphanio, J. N.; Mello, M. P.

    2013-05-01

    Natural resource managers demand knowledge of information on the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use and land cover change, and detection and characteristics change over time is an initial step for the understanding of the mechanism of change. The propose of this research is the use the approach BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) for detects trend and seasonal changes within Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series. BFAST integrates the decomposition of time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components with methods for detecting change within time series without the need to select a reference period, set a threshold, or define a change trajectory. BFAST iteratively estimates the time and number of changes, and characterizes change by its magnitude and direction. The general model is of the form Yt = Tt + St + et (t= 1,2,3,…, n) where Yt is the observed data at time t, Tt is the trend component, St is the seasonal component, and et is the remainder component. In this study was used MODIS NDVI time series datasets (MOD13Q1) over 11 years (2000 - 2010) on an intensive agricultural area in Mato Grosso - Brazil. At first it was applied a filter for noise reduction (4253H twice) over spectral curve of each MODIS pixel, and subsequently each time series was decomposed into seasonal, trend, and remainder components by BFAST. Were detected one abrupt change from a single pixel of forest and two abrupt changes on trend component to a pixel of the agricultural area. Figure 1 shows the number of phonological change with base in seasonal component for study area. This paper demonstrated the ability of the BFAST to detect long-term phenological change by analyzing time series while accounting for abrupt and gradual changes. The algorithm iteratively estimates the dates and number of changes occurring within seasonal and trend components, and characterizes changes by extracting the magnitude and direction of change. Changes occurring in the

  1. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  2. Tiny Bird, Huge Mystery-The Possibly Extinct Hooded Seedeater (Sporophila melanops) Is a Capuchino with a Melanistic Cap.

    PubMed

    Areta, Juan Ignacio; Piacentini, Vítor de Q; Haring, Elisabeth; Gamauf, Anita; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Machado, Erika; Kirwan, Guy M

    2016-01-01

    Known with certainty solely from a unique male specimen collected in central Brazil in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) Hooded Seedeater Sporophila melanops has been one of the great enigmas of Neotropical ornithology, arguably the only one of a host of long-lost species from Brazil to remain obstinately undiscovered. We reanalysed the morphology of the type specimen, as well as a female specimen postulated to represent the same taxon, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA (COI and Cyt-b) from both individuals. Furthermore, we visited the type locality, at the border between Goiás and Mato Grosso, and its environs on multiple occasions at different seasons, searching for birds with similar morphology to the type, without success. Novel genetic and morphological evidence clearly demonstrates that the type of S. melanops is not closely related to Yellow-bellied Seedeater S. nigricollis, as has been frequently postulated in the literature, but is in fact a representative of one of the so-called capuchinos, a clade of attractively plumaged seedeaters that breed mostly in the Southern Cone of South America. Our morphological analysis indicates that S. melanops has a hitherto unreported dark-coffee throat and that it is probably a Dark-throated Seedeater S. ruficollis collected within its wintering range, acquiring breeding plumage and showing melanism on the cap feathers. Alternatively, it may be a melanistic-capped individual of a local population of seedeaters known to breed in the Esteros del Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina, to which the name S. ruficollis might be applicable, whilst the name S. plumbeiceps might be available for what is currently known as S. ruficollis. A hybrid origin for S. melanops cannot be ruled out from the available data, but seems unlikely. The purported female specimen of S. melanops pertains either to S. nigricollis or to Double-collared Seedeater S. caerulescens based on genetic and

  3. Epigeal fauna of a degraded soil treated with mineral fertilizer and compound cellulose cultivated of tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giácomo, R. G.; de Arruda, O. G.; Souto Filho, S. N.; Alves, M. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Frigério, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the epigeal fauna in a degraded soil in the recovery process after one year of cultivated with tree species. The experiment was established in February 2010 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with five treatments and four replications. In the main plots, pure cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis (exotic species - hybrids) and Mabea fistulifera Mart. (native species) and the subplot treatments: Control; D0 - without fertilization; DM - mineral fertilizer according to crop need; DC - with compost manure according to crop need (10 t ha-1); D15 - 15 t ha-1 and D20 - 20 t ha-1 of the compound. In February of the years 2010 and 2011 were installed in the central region of each treatment two traps "pitt fall" which remained for seven days in the field. We calculated Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices, and richness of wildlife activity groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scott Knott test at 5% significance level. In 2010, the area with M. fistulifera, was captured a total of 2697 organisms distributed mainly in: Hymenoptera with 45.83% of the total collected, Collembola (36.93%), Hemiptera Heteroptera (6.56%). In the area with E. urograndis, 1938 organisms were captured, being 50.67% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 26.83%, 7.59% Hemiptera Heteroptera. It was found that there was no significant difference between treatments and between species for all variables. Collected in 2011 were 4970 organisms in 56.22% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 18.49% and 7.12% beetle in the area of M. fistulifera. In the area of E. urograndis were 4200 organisms, 55.29% (Hymenoptera), 23.79% (Collembola) and 5.86% (Coleoptera). It appears that the activity values and richness of the fauna groups were significantly higher in treatments with organic fertilization in both cultive. It is concluded that after one year there was a variation of the dominant

  4. Chemical, green and organic manure effects on chemical properties on a savannah oxisol and on corn under conventional tillage and no-tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannigel, Anny R.; Alves, Marlene C.; Valério Filho, Walter V.

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture, in general, has always been based on the concept that natural resources are endless; however, this concept is changing. Concern for the environment is increasingly becoming part of farming practices, either by the awareness of society, or because the high cost of fertilizers or even the exhaustion of soils. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the green manure and mineral fertilizer and/or organic manure and, on the chemical properties of an Oxisol, on "Savannah" (cerrado) area in Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil, cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.) on the following management conditions: no-tillage and conventional tillage, on area previously under pasture (Brachiaria decumbens). The experimental design was a randomized blocks and the tested treatments were: control (without organic manure or chemical fertilizer); chemical fertilizer, as recommended for the culture and based on the chemical soil analysis; organic manure (cow manure); organic manure + half of the mineral fertilizer recommended rate; and the green manure Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum. The chemical analyses were the soil chemical analysis to the intent of soil fertility. Corn yield was evaluated. The collect of soil samples were realized in depths of 0.00-0.05 m and 0.05-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m. The organic manure and the organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate increased P, Ca, Mg, K and Organic Matter in the first depth (0.00 - 0.05 m). These treatments also increased K and Mg at the second depth analyzed (0.05 - 0.10 m) and K in the depth from 0.10 - 0.20 m. Under conventional tillage management presents better crop results with an average grain yield of 3649 kg ha-1 versus 2374 kg ha-1 obtained under no-tillage. The use of chemical fertilizer, organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate, Crotalaria juncea, organic manure and Pennisetum americanum increased corn yield by 84, 79, 58, 44 and 41 %, respectively.

  5. Distance metric-based forest cover change detection using MODIS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoman; Friedl, Mark A.

    2014-06-01

    More than 12 years of global observations are now available from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). As this time series grows, the MODIS archive provides new opportunities for identification and characterization of land cover at regional to global spatial scales and interannual to decadal temporal scales. In particular, the high temporal frequency of MODIS provides a rich basis for monitoring land cover dynamics. At the same time, the relatively coarse spatial resolution of MODIS (250-500 m) presents significant challenges for land cover change studies. In this paper, we present a distance metric-based change detection method for identifying changed pixels at annual time steps using 500 m MODIS time series data. The approach we describe uses distance metrics to measure (1) the similarity between a pixel's annual time series to annual time series for pixels of the same land cover class and (2) the similarity between annual time series from different years at the same pixel. Pre-processing, including gap-filling, smoothing and temporal subsetting of MODIS 500 m Nadir BRDF-adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) time series is essential to the success of our method. We evaluated our approach using three case studies. We first explored the ability of our method to detect change in temperate and boreal forest training sites in North America and Eurasia. We applied our method to map regional forest change in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, and in tropical forests of the Xingu River Basin in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results from these case studies show that the method successfully identified pixels affected by logging and fire disturbance in temperate and boreal forest sites. Change detection results in the Pacific Northwest compared well with a Landsat-based disturbance map, yielding a producer's accuracy of 85%. Assessment of change detection results for the Xingu River Basin demonstrated that detection accuracy improves as the fraction of

  6. Seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Valdespino, Iván A.; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A. de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginella alstonii, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucronata, Selaginella mucugensis, Selaginella saltuicola, and Selaginella sematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginella alstonii and Selaginella saltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, and Selaginella mucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginella alstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginella mucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginella saltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginella sematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginella alstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucugensis, and Selaginella sematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginella mucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginella saltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginella sematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new

  7. Tiny Bird, Huge Mystery—The Possibly Extinct Hooded Seedeater (Sporophila melanops) Is a Capuchino with a Melanistic Cap

    PubMed Central

    Areta, Juan Ignacio; Piacentini, Vítor de Q.; Haring, Elisabeth; Gamauf, Anita; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Machado, Erika; Kirwan, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    Known with certainty solely from a unique male specimen collected in central Brazil in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) Hooded Seedeater Sporophila melanops has been one of the great enigmas of Neotropical ornithology, arguably the only one of a host of long-lost species from Brazil to remain obstinately undiscovered. We reanalysed the morphology of the type specimen, as well as a female specimen postulated to represent the same taxon, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA (COI and Cyt-b) from both individuals. Furthermore, we visited the type locality, at the border between Goiás and Mato Grosso, and its environs on multiple occasions at different seasons, searching for birds with similar morphology to the type, without success. Novel genetic and morphological evidence clearly demonstrates that the type of S. melanops is not closely related to Yellow-bellied Seedeater S. nigricollis, as has been frequently postulated in the literature, but is in fact a representative of one of the so-called capuchinos, a clade of attractively plumaged seedeaters that breed mostly in the Southern Cone of South America. Our morphological analysis indicates that S. melanops has a hitherto unreported dark-coffee throat and that it is probably a Dark-throated Seedeater S. ruficollis collected within its wintering range, acquiring breeding plumage and showing melanism on the cap feathers. Alternatively, it may be a melanistic-capped individual of a local population of seedeaters known to breed in the Esteros del Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina, to which the name S. ruficollis might be applicable, whilst the name S. plumbeiceps might be available for what is currently known as S. ruficollis. A hybrid origin for S. melanops cannot be ruled out from the available data, but seems unlikely. The purported female specimen of S. melanops pertains either to S. nigricollis or to Double-collared Seedeater S. caerulescens based on genetic and

  8. Seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We describe seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaalstonii, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucronata, Selaginellamucugensis, Selaginellasaltuicola, and Selaginellasematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginellaalstonii and Selaginellasaltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, and Selaginellamucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginellaalstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginellamucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginellasaltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginellasematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginellaalstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucugensis, and Selaginellasematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginellamucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginellasaltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginellasematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new synonymy for Selaginellapalmiformis

  9. Large net CO2 loss from a grass-dominated tropical savanna in south-central Brazil in response to seasonal and interannual drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Santanna, F. B.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Lobo, F. D. A.; Nogueira, J. D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The savanna vegetation of Brazil (Cerrado), accounts for 20-25% of the total land cover of Brazil; however, little is still known about the spatial and temporal variations in mass and energy exchange of Cerrado. Our goal was to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variations in CO2 exchange for a grass-dominated Cerrado stand over a three-year period and to elucidate the biophysical controls on CO2 exchange. We hypothesized that soil water availability (SWA) would be a key control over the direction and magnitude of CO2 exchange. Field measurements were conducted Mar 2011- Dec 2013 at the Fazenda Miranda, located 15 km SSE of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Net CO2 (NEE), latent, and sensible heat fluxes were quantified using eddy covariance. NEE was strongly affected by SWA; however, other biophysical variables were also important in controlling temporal patterns of CO2 exchange. Step-wise regression revealed four variables that explained 69% of the seasonal and interannual variation in gross primary production (GPP), and GPP increased as a function of the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), solar radiation (Rs), and soil water content (θs) but declined as a function of the vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Similarly, stepwise regression identified six variables that explained 78% of the variance in ecosystem respiration (Reco), and Reco was positively related to air temperature, the EVI, Rs, and θs and negatively correlated with VPD and precipitation. Consistent net CO2 losses during the dry season caused a cumulative net CO2 loss of 840 gC/m2 over the 3 year study period. Periods of accumulated net loss occurred when the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration declined, which typically occurred between March and November of each year. The annual net CO2 losses are in contrast to rates of NEE reported for other cerrado ecosystems, and the differences between our results and those reported for other cerrado ecosystems may reflect the low average

  10. Multiple relationships between fire and land-use types in the Brazilian Amazon - rethinking the fire-deforestation paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano Crespo, Ana; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cardoso, Manoel; Oliveira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities alter the spatial extent of wildfires. Land conversions outweigh climatic drivers of wildfire burned area in South America. In the Amazon, fire is widely used for the initial conversion of extensive areas of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture areas, and for the subsequent maintenance of deforested areas. Natural fire occurrences are extremely rare, with the vast majority of burning events resulting from deliberate fire use. So how does fire occurrence and extent relate to land-use type in the Brazilian Amazon? Our study area comprised the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia, with similar hot-humid climate. Temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall and burned area was analysed in 2008 and 2010, and processes taking place in the forest that can induce burning incidents were also examined. Predictably, the peak of burned area coincided with the months of lowest rainfall at the end of the dry season (August-September), showing a marked annual periodicity. In 2010, the fire season was longer and a larger amount of burned area was detected, as a consequence of the drought that struck the Amazon basin in that year. However, the satellite-derived standardized anomalies for dry-season rainfall showed that there were spatial disparities in the influence of the 2010's extreme drought. Moreover, we observed that the areas with the largest rainfall anomaly did not match the burned area distribution, which is a sign of fire connection to anthropogenic factors in the study area. The proportion of burned area in the different land-use types is presented, indicating large variation depending on the state under evaluation. We found that the largest proportion of burning was not happening in deforested areas, but in pasture and forest or secondary vegetation (excluding savannah-like ecosystems). While land-use distribution in the states remained similar in 2010, significant differences were noted in the burned area location

  11. Inter-annual Variability of Biomass Burning Aerosol Optical Depth in Southern Amazonia, and the Impact of These Aerosols on the Diurnal Cycle of Solar Flux Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Artaxo, P.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Procopio, A. S.; Prins, E. M.; Feltz, J. M.; Smirnov, A.; Dubovik, O.; Reid, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    The inter-annual variability of the magnitude of biomass burning in southern Amazonia has been relatively large over the last decade. The extent of the burning in the latter half of a given dry season (July-October) depends largely on the rainfall amount and timing, with drought years exhibiting many more fires and smoke than average. Additionally, new regulations aimed at controlling burning may also affect inter-annual variability. We present measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from biomass burning smoke as measured by AERONET sites in Rondonia and Mato Grosso from 1993-2002. These AOD measurements are shown to follow similar inter-annual variability as the fire counts determined by the multi-spectral radiance measurements obtained with GOES-8. However, the AOD at these sites exhibit relatively little diurnal variation despite a very large diurnal cycle in satellite detected fire counts. In order to quantify the changes in the diurnal cycle of solar flux reduction as a result of aerosol attenuation at the peak of the burning season, we model the diurnal cycle of total shortwave (SW; 300-4000 nm), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), and Ultraviolet- A (UVA; 320-400 nm) fluxes in mid-September using the AERONET monthly average AOD measurements (AOD(550 nm) = 1.11). These average diurnal cycle flux reductions show significant temporal delays in the morning for equivalent flux levels in all three spectral bands, of ~50 min to 2 hr 15 min at mid-morning (midpoint between sunrise and solar noon). The largest time delays in flux occur in the UVA band and the smallest in the total SW broadband due to a rapid decrease in AOD as wavelength increases for the accumulation mode smoke aerosols. The time delays in solar flux have implications for possible delay of the onset of cumulus convection, the shortening of the photo-period when plants photosynthesize, and reduced time interval for UVA fluxes which may have implications for photochemical

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of the zoobenthos community during the filling up period of Porto Primavera Reservoir (Paraná River, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Jorcin, A; Nogueira, M G; Belmont, R

    2009-02-01

    This study is part of the limnological monitoring undertaken by the Energy Company of the State of São Paulo (CESP) during the filling up process of the Porto Primavera Reservoir (Hydroelectric Power Plant Engenheiro Sérgio Motta). This reservoir, located in the high Paraná River between the States of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, is the fourth largest in the country. The first filling up phase started in December 1998 and the second phase in March 2001. Samples for benthic community and sediment characteristics analysis were quarterly collected between August of 1999 and November 2001 and also in August of 2002 (11 sampling campaigns). Samplings were carried out at 13 stations distributed in the reservoir, and at one point located downstream of the dam. 128 invertebrate taxa were identified, being Mollusca, Annelida, Insecta and Nematoda the dominant groups during almost the whole study period. Insecta was the best represented class (9 different orders), and Diptera contributed with higher number of taxa, 63. The exotic species of bivalve Corbicula fluminea was recorded in all sampling stations showing its great capacity to colonize new habitats in the neotropical region. Noticeable variations in the fauna density were observed, considering both different periods and locations. The maximum density of organisms (mean value of 7812 ind.m-2) was recorded in the center of the reservoir, and the minimum (mean value 9 ind.m-2) in the more lacustrine area near the dam. The greatest species richness per sample (24 taxa) was observed in the reservoir upstream (fluvial zone). The maximum diversity (Shannon-Wiener Index) per station/period, 3.82 and 3.86 bits.ind-1, were calculated in the transitional river/reservoir zone during the beginning (August 1999) and in the reservoir central zones in the end (August 2002) of the filling up period, respectively. There was no clear relation between the distribution of the different faunistic groups and the sediment

  13. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic

  14. Transuterine embryo migration, distribution of sexes within uterine horns, and fetometry in Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriel B O; Oliveira, Rodrigo A; Pivato, Ivo

    2017-03-01

    There is no consensus about the occurrence of transuterine embryo migration under natural breeding circumstances, neither data related to this phenomenon for zebu cattle. In this study, 5431 reproductive tracts of Nellore cows and heifers were evaluated in an abattoir in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 1030 animals (19.0%) were pregnant at the time of slaughter (including 2 twin pregnancies). Regarding singleton pregnancies (n = 1028), 39.5% of them, the fetus was located in the left uterine horn and the remaining 60.5% in the right. These frequencies differed statistically from parity. In all 1028 (100.0%) cases, the presence of a single CL was perceived in the ovary ipsilateral (whether right or left) to the pregnant uterine horn, indicating the absence of transuterine embryo migration of the conceptus. The overall sex ratio found was 51.5%, considering only pregnancies with sex identified, not differing significantly between the number of males and the number of females. The sex frequencies obtained from the total number of singleton pregnancies were 46.5% males, 43.9% females, and the remaining 9.6% corresponding to unknown sex fetuses. The supposed sex predilection for uterine horns was not observed because the difference between the numbers of males and females for the same uterine horn was not statistically significant. The crown-rump (CR) and crown-nose (CN) measures, for the conceptus with CR length 2.00 cm to 15.00 cm, showed a high linear correlation coefficient (r = 0.990865), being CN = (0.3027 × CR) + 0.4491, r(2) = 0.9818, the equation that describes the behavior between the variables for this length interval. In conclusion, in Nellore cattle, the transuterine migration of conceptus may not exist, or consists of a rare event. In addition, the sex ratio and predilection are not distinguished from the symmetrical distribution, and regarding fetometry, an equation that involves CR and CN, could be useful for the veterinary field

  15. Time-series analysis of multi-resolution optical imagery for quantifying forest cover loss in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew C.; Potapov, Peter; Adusei, Bernard; Lindquist, Erik; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2011-04-01

    Monitoring loss of humid tropical forests via remotely sensed imagery is critical for a number of environmental monitoring objectives, including carbon accounting, biodiversity, and climate modeling science applications. Landsat imagery, provided free of charge by the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS/EROS), enables consistent and timely forest cover loss updates from regional to biome scales. The Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan are a center of significant forest cover change within the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity maintenance and local livelihoods. Sumatra and Kalimantan feature poor observational coverage compared to other centers of humid tropical forest change, such as Mato Grosso, Brazil, due to the lack of ongoing acquisitions from nearby ground stations and the persistence of cloud cover obscuring the land surface. At the same time, forest change in Indonesia is transient and does not always result in deforestation, as cleared forests are rapidly replaced by timber plantations and oil palm estates. Epochal composites, where single best observations are selected over a given time interval and used to quantify change, are one option for monitoring forest change in cloudy regions. However, the frequency of forest cover change in Indonesia confounds the ability of image composite pairs to quantify all change. Transient change occurring between composite periods is often missed and the length of time required for creating a cloud-free composite often obscures change occurring within the composite period itself. In this paper, we analyzed all Landsat 7 imagery with <50% cloud cover and data and products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify forest cover loss for Sumatra and Kalimantan from 2000 to 2005. We demonstrated that time-series approaches examining all good land observations are more accurate in mapping forest cover change in

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  17. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  18. The phosphorus cost of agricultural intensification in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Eric D; Richards, Peter D; Martinelli, Luiz A; Coletta, Luciana Della; Lins, Silvia Rafaela Machado; Vazquez, Felipe Ferraz; Willig, Edwin; Spera, Stephanie A; VanWey, Leah K; Porder, Stephen

    2016-04-18

    Agricultural intensification in the tropics is one way to meet rising global food demand in coming decades(1,2). Although this strategy can potentially spare land from conversion to agriculture(3), it relies on large material inputs. Here we quantify one such material cost, the phosphorus fertilizer required to intensify global crop production atop phosphorus-fixing soils and achieve yields similar to productive temperate agriculture. Phosphorus-fixing soils occur mainly in the tropics, and render added phosphorus less available to crops(4,5). We estimate that intensification of the 8-12% of global croplands overlying phosphorus-fixing soils in 2005 would require 1-4 Tg P yr(-1) to overcome phosphorus fixation, equivalent to 8-25% of global inorganic phosphorus fertilizer consumption that year. This imposed phosphorus 'tax' is in addition to phosphorus added to soils and subsequently harvested in crops, and doubles (2-7 Tg P yr(-1)) for scenarios of cropland extent in 2050(6). Our estimates are informed by local-, state- and national-scale investigations in Brazil, where, more than any other tropical country, low-yielding agriculture has been replaced by intensive production. In the 11 major Brazilian agricultural states, the surplus of added inorganic fertilizer phosphorus retained by soils post harvest is strongly correlated with the fraction of cropland overlying phosphorus-fixing soils (r(2) = 0.84, p < 0.001). Our interviews with 49 farmers in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, which produces 8% of the world's soybeans mostly on phosphorus-fixing soils, suggest this phosphorus surplus is required even after three decades of high phosphorus inputs. Our findings in Brazil highlight the need for better understanding of long-term soil phosphorus fixation elsewhere in the tropics. Strategies beyond liming, which is currently widespread in Brazil, are needed to reduce phosphorus retention by phosphorus-fixing soils to better manage the Earth

  19. Dispersal of Lutzomyia longipalpis and expansion of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Agda Maria; Vieira, Carolina Portugal; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Rodas, Lilian Aparecida Colebrusco; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected disease, is a serious public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Lutzomyia longipalpis and canine VL (CVL) autochthony early detection and describe the spatial and temporal dispersal of vector and expansion of VL in a Brazilian state. We obtained data on the leishmaniasis vector and VL cases in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil, from the Division of Endemic Disease Control and from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center of the São Paulo State Department of Health. Data were analyzed for 645 municipalities and 63 microregions and presented as thematic and flow maps. Following the verified presence of L. longipalpis in Araçatuba in 1997, the first autochthonous cases of canine VL (CVL) (1998) and of human VL (HVL) (1999) in São Paulo were reported, both in Araçatuba. From 1997 to 2014, the urban presence of the leishmaniasis vector was verified in 167 (25.9%) municipalities with cases of CVL reported in 108 (16.7%) and cases of HVL in 84 (13%). The sensitivities for vector presence early detection in relation to the identification of CVL and HVL autochthony were, respectively, equal to 76.4 and 92.5%. The sensitivity for CVL autochthony early detection in relation to the HVL autochthony identification was 75.8%. Vector dispersal and expansion of CVL and HVL were from the northwest to the southeast of the state, primarily flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at a constant rate of progression of 10, seven, and six new municipalities affected per year, respectively. We concluded that the sensitivity for vector presence and CVL autochthony presented reasonable accuracy and most of the time the vector presence and, specially, the CVL and HVL autochthony were identified in the main cities of the microregions of SP. Vector dispersal and expansion of VL started in 1997 near the state border of SP with the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has advanced

  20. Pore size distribution of a deeply excavated Oxisol after 19 years reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; de Cássia Marchini, Débora; Alves, Marlene Cristina; García de Arruda, Otton; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Digging of the local soil and using it as a raw material for construction purposes has been identified as a non-negligible source of land degradation. Techniques aimed at soil profile reconstruction and ecological restoration of soils truncated by mechanical excavation using heavy machinery have been investigated Both, total soil porosity and pore size distribution are important properties for soil management as well as for assessing the recovery of soil function after land degradation. In this way, macropores are responsible for aeration, whereas water storage depends on soil meso- and micropores in the soil and the optimal pore-size distribution is also an indicator of soil quality. We investigated the changes in the pore size distribution of a soil that was beheaded to extract raw materials after a 19 year period of reclamation, which involved the use of green manures, gypsum and pasture for the purpose of profile recovery. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brzil. A field trial was performed following a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and four replications. Starting 1992, the initial treatments were: 1) control (tilled bare soil), 2)Stizolobium aterrium, 3)Cajanus cajan, 4)lime+S. aterrimum, 5) lime+C. cajan, 6) lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum, 7) lime + gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all the experimental plots. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with bare soil (control) and native vegetation (Savannah). Soil samples were collected in 2011 at the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m depths. Treatment differences were assessed by analysis of variance, following the Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Macroporosity of the 0.00-0.10 m top layer was above the 0.10 m3m-3 threshold considered as critical for plant growth. On the 0.10-0.20 m layer only treatments with C

  1. Nutritional status and growth of indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth") and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), and weight-for-height (W/H) using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3%) were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children < 2 years of age, H/A index variability was found to be directly related to child's age and inversely related to the proportion of adults in the household. Maternal BMI was positively associated with growth for children from 2 to 4 years of age, explaining 11.5% of the z-score variability for the H/A index. For children 5 years of age and older, the wealth index and maternal height were positively associated with H/A. No significant associations were found using W/A as the dependent variable. Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed

  2. Contrasting Patterns of Damage and Recovery in Logged Amazon Forests From Small Footprint LiDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Keller, M.; Cook, B. D.; Hunter, Maria; Sales, Marcio; Spinelli, L.; Victoria, D.; Andersen, H.-E.; Saleska, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests ecosystems respond dynamically to climate variability and disturbances on time scales of minutes to millennia. To date, our knowledge of disturbance and recovery processes in tropical forests is derived almost exclusively from networks of forest inventory plots. These plots typically sample small areas (less than or equal to 1 ha) in conservation units that are protected from logging and fire. Amazon forests with frequent disturbances from human activity remain under-studied. Ongoing negotiations on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) have placed additional emphasis on identifying degraded forests and quantifying changing carbon stocks in both degraded and intact tropical forests. We evaluated patterns of forest disturbance and recovery at four -1000 ha sites in the Brazilian Amazon using small footprint LiDAR data and coincident field measurements. Large area coverage with airborne LiDAR data in 2011-2012 included logged and unmanaged areas in Cotriguacu (Mato Grosso), Fiona do Jamari (Rondonia), and Floresta Estadual do Antimary (Acre), and unmanaged forest within Reserva Ducke (Amazonas). Logging infrastructure (skid trails, log decks, and roads) was identified using LiDAR returns from understory vegetation and validated based on field data. At each logged site, canopy gaps from logging activity and LiDAR metrics of canopy heights were used to quantify differences in forest structure between logged and unlogged areas. Contrasting patterns of harvesting operations and canopy damages at the three logged sites reflect different levels of pre-harvest planning (i.e., informal logging compared to state or national logging concessions), harvest intensity, and site conditions. Finally, we used multi-temporal LiDAR data from two sites, Reserva Ducke (2009, 2012) and Antimary (2010, 2011), to evaluate gap phase dynamics in unmanaged forest areas. The rates and patterns of canopy gap

  3. Palaeoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Alto Tererê Group, southernmost Amazonian Craton, based on field mapping, zircon dating and rock geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda Filho, J. V.; Fuck, R. A.; Ruiz, A. S.; Dantas, E. L.; Scandolara, J. E.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Nascimento, N. D. C.

    2016-01-01

    New geochemical and geochronological U-Pb and Sm-Nd data from amphibolites of the Alto Tererê Group, which are of Palaeoproterozoic age, are presented. The amphibolites are exposed in the central-eastern portion of the Rio Apa Block, southern Amazonian Craton, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and are composed of hornblende, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, cummingtonite and epidote. The amphibolites are subdivided into three lithofacies: (i) thinly banded amphibolites (metabasalts), (ii) coarse- and medium-grained amphibolites with relic subophitic texture (metagabbros), and (iii) amphibolites with relic cumulate texture (metapyroxenites). Chemical data also suggest the subdivision of the amphibolites into three different types. These rocks yield a U-Pb zircon age of 1768 ± 6 Ma and are therefore older than rocks of part of the Rio Apa Complex. Their Sm-Nd model ages range between 2.89 and 1.88 Ga, and their ɛNd (T) values range between -3.40 and + 3.74. Chemical analyses of these rocks indicate SiO2 concentrations between 45.23 and 50.65 wt.%, MgO concentrations between 4.34 and 8.01 wt.%, TiO2 concentrations between 0.91 and 1.74 wt.%, weakly fractionated rare-earth element (REE) patterns with mild depletion in heavy REEs, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs), negative Nb, Ta and Co anomalies, positive Ba and Pb anomalies, low Ce concentrations, high Rb/Y ratios and low Th/La and Hf/Sm ratios. These features reflect metasomatism of the mantle wedge produced by sediments from the subducted plate. Various degrees of melting mark the evolution of the parent basic magmas, although subordinate crustal contamination may also have occurred. The geochemical signature of the amphibolites corresponds to that of tholeiitic basalts generated in an extensional back-arc-basin environment. The deposition in the basin apparently ceased during the first episode of compression and deformation at approximately 1.68 Ga, and the main

  4. Taxonomic and Numerical Resolutions of Nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) in Cerrado Streams

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation

  5. Demographic crisis and recovery: a case study of the Xavante of Pimentel Barbosa.

    PubMed

    Flowers, N

    1994-03-01

    This case study of the Xavante of Pimentel Barbosa is an example of an Amazonian Indian group that, when exposed to White society, experienced the common history of diseases and social disruption, and then eventually, recovered from the demographic shock, increased fertility, and reduced mortality. Early contact for the Xavante was during the early 18th century in Goias state, Brazil; by the end of the 19th century the Xavante had migrated west into Mato Grosso in isolation. Brazilian government interests (1940s) and a research expeditionary group (1962) resulted in health posts and extensive genetic, epidemiologic, and demographic studies. The results showed good physical and nutritional status, but stress from epidemic disease and social disruption. Conditions had improved by 1976, and the battle was with encroaching ranchers. Strong indian political action led to the securing of boundaries within the Pimentel Barbosa reservation by 1977. The population doubled from 249 in 1977 to 411 in 1988, and increased to 3 villages. There was evidence of a return to more traditional practices. Data collection for this analysis occurred during 1976-77 and 1988 and 1990. Results were provided for recent demographic change, recent births and deaths, factors affecting fertility, fertility change, parity and infant mortality, life expectancy changes, infanticide, population growth, marriage patterns, and health changes. Fertility histories were collected from 71 women in 1971 and 109 women in 1990. Difficulties were encountered due to Xavante differences in enumeration of children. In the comparison of the surveys in 1977 and 1990, there was close correspondence of reported births, and discrepancies of 4-9 births and in age at death. The difficulties encountered were attributed to problems with interpreters. The demographic analysis showed evidence of introduced diseases, which increased infant mortality and threatened population replacement, followed by decreased infant

  6. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joaquim Varela Rangel, Joao Manuel Martins, Joao Ernesto dos Santos, Jose Cesar Augusto Joao Ernesto Saraiva de Carvalho, Jose Teixeira de Matos...Moises Justine) Pedro de Castro van Dunem, Paulo Miguel Junior, Roberto Leal Ramos Monteiro Rui Guilherme Cardoso de Matos, Rafael Sapilinha

  7. A Historian Will Lead a Community College in the Bronx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In July 2009, Felix V. Matos Rodriguez will take over as president of Hostos Community College of the City University of New York, which in 1970 opened in a converted tire factory in the South Bronx to educate members of a primarily Puerto Rican community. Like Mr. Matos Rodriguez, who moved to the mainland United States at age 18, many of those…