Science.gov

Sample records for matricaria recutita plantago

  1. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.).

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2006-07-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., Chamomilla recutita L., Matricaria chamomilla) is one of the most popular single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Chamomile tea, brewed from dried flower heads, has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Evidence-based information regarding the bioactivity of this herb is presented. The main constituents of the flowers include several phenolic compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, patuletin, luteolin and their glucosides. The principal components of the essential oil extracted from the flowers are the terpenoids alpha-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene. Chamomile has moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and significant antiplatelet activity in vitro. Animal model studies indicate potent antiinflammatory action, some antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering activities, as well as antispasmotic and anxiolytic effects. However, human studies are limited, and clinical trials examining the purported sedative properties of chamomile tea are absent. Adverse reactions to chamomile, consumed as a tisane or applied topically, have been reported among those with allergies to other plants in the daisy family, i.e. Asteraceae or Compositae.

  2. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  3. Improvement of Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Oral Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, a Combination of Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, Bismuth, and Antimonite: A Pediatric Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Madeleyn, René; Kiene, Helmut; Kienle, Gunver S.; Vagedes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma, although well established in adults, is less strong in the pediatric age group. Benefits of proton pump therapy are limited across age ranges. While there is a growing body of literature on the use of complementary treatments for both asthma and GERD, few studies have focused on treatment benefits for the GERD-asthma association. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with asthma and GERD who was not responding to inhaled, low-dose corticosteroids, beta-mimetic therapy, and a 6-week course of proton pump inhibitor treatment. We noted a gradual disappearance of symptoms when he was given an oral preparation of Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, an anthroposophic medication containing Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, bismuth, and antimonite. Matricaria recutita and bismuth have known gastric protective properties, and Atropa belladonna contains anticholinergic agents that have a bronchodilatory effect. These complementary medications appear promising in terms of relieving the symptoms of GERD-associated asthma. PMID:26937321

  4. Improvement of Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Oral Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, a Combination of Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, Bismuth, and Antimonite: A Pediatric Case Report.

    PubMed

    von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Madeleyn, René; Kiene, Helmut; Kienle, Gunver S; Vagedes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma, although well established in adults, is less strong in the pediatric age group. Benefits of proton pump therapy are limited across age ranges. While there is a growing body of literature on the use of complementary treatments for both asthma and GERD, few studies have focused on treatment benefits for the GERD-asthma association. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with asthma and GERD who was not responding to inhaled, low-dose corticosteroids, beta-mimetic therapy, and a 6-week course of proton pump inhibitor treatment. We noted a gradual disappearance of symptoms when he was given an oral preparation of Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, an anthroposophic medication containing Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, bismuth, and antimonite. Matricaria recutita and bismuth have known gastric protective properties, and Atropa belladonna contains anticholinergic agents that have a bronchodilatory effect. These complementary medications appear promising in terms of relieving the symptoms of GERD-associated asthma.

  5. Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico.

  6. [Comparative cytogenetic study of the tetraploid Matricaria chamomilla L. and Matricaria inodora L].

    PubMed

    Samatadze, T E; Amosova, A V; Mel'nikova, N V; Suslina, S N; Zagumennikova, T N; Zelenin, A V; Bykov, V A; Muravenko, O N

    2014-01-01

    A comparative cytogenetic study of the autotetraploid breed of Matricaria chamomilla L. (M. recutita L.) and Matricaria inodora L. was carried out by DAPI-banding, fluorescent hybridization in situ (FISH) with 26S and 5S rDNA probes, and analysis of meiosis. All chromosomes were identified in both karyotypeson the basis of DAPI-banding images and 26S and 5S rDNA distribution, and species-specific idiograms were composed for both M. chamomilla and M. indora taking into account the polymorphous variants of DAPI-banding images, showing the location of the 26S and 5S rDNA sites.

  7. Hydroxylated bisabolol oxides: evidence for secondary oxidative metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) is one of the most popular medicinal plants used in Western medicine. Among the various phytochemicals present in essential oils of German chamomile, bisabolol and its oxidative metabolites are considered as marker compounds for distinguishing different chem...

  8. Antibacterial activity of Chamomilla recutita oil extract against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Kvetnaya, Asya S

    2008-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of an oil extract of Chamomilla recutita flowers against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was evaluated by the agar dilution method using Colombia agar with 10% sheep blood, an inoculum of McFarland 0.5 and incubation in an anaerobic atmosphere at 37 degrees C for 3 days. The oil extract was prepared by olive oil extraction of Chamomilla recutita flowers using rotary pulsation. The MIC(90) (minimal inhibitory concentration) and MIC(50) were 125 mg/mL and 62.5 mg/mL, respectively. It was shown that the Chamomilla recutita oil extract inhibited the production of urease by H. pylori. In addition, it was found that the morphological and fermentative properties of H. pylori were affected by application of the Chamomilla recutita oil extract.

  9. Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert; Pilote, Louise

    2006-04-25

    No cases have been reported of Matricaria chamomilla potentiating the effects of warfarin. Nevertheless there is a theoretical risk for potentiation, since the herb is thought to be a coumarin constituent. We describe the case of a 70-year-old woman who, while being treated with warfarin, was admitted to hospital with multiple internal hemorrhages after having used chamomile products (tea and body lotion) to soothe upper respiratory tract symptoms. Patient education on the potential risk of taking chamomile products while being treated with warfarin is necessary to avoid such occurrences.

  10. Matricaria chamomilla attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ragaa H M

    2012-07-01

    Matricaria chamomilla is extensively consumed as a tea or tonic. Despite its widespread use as a home remedy, relatively few trials evaluated its benefits in nephro protection. Hence, this study evaluates the protective role of M. chamomilla in cisplatin nephrotoxicity rat model. The study was conducted on 32 rats divided into four groups. The first group (G1) was injected with saline intra-peritoneally (IP); G2 was injected with 5 mg/kg cisplatin on day 0 of the experiment and repeated four times, with five days free interval. G3 and G4 were injected daily with M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg) IP, starting five days before the experiment (-5 day); in addition, G4 was injected with cisplatin. On day 16, animals were scarified and serum and/or kidney tissue was used to determine: (a) kidney function tests (serum urea, creatinine, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), NAG, β-gal), (b) oxidative stress indices (NO, LPO), (c) antioxidant activities (SOD, GSH, total thiols), (d) apoptotic indices (Cathepsin D, DNA fragmentation) and (e) mineral (calcium). M. chamomilla significantly increased the body weight, normalized the kidney functions, improved the apoptotic markers, reduced the oxidative stress markers and corrected the hypo-calcemia that resulted from cisplatin nephrotoxicity. M. chamomilla is a promising nephro-protective compound reducing cisplatin nephrotoxicity most probably by its antioxidant activities and inhibition of gamma glutamyl transferase activity.

  11. Capillary electrochromatography of selected phenolic compounds of Chamomilla recutita.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fabiana N; Tavares, Marina F M; Horváth, Csaba

    2007-06-22

    This article explores the use of capillary electrochromatography for the analysis of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) extracts. After a thorough study of analytical parameters such as mobile and stationary phase composition, applied voltage, and temperature, a methodology to determine 11 bioactive phenolic compounds (coumarins: herniarin, umbelliferone; phenylpropanoids: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid; flavones: apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside; flavonols: quercetin, rutin and flavanone: naringenin) in chamomile extracts was proposed. The method was performed in a Hypersil SCX/C18 column with pH 2.8 phosphate buffer at 50 mmol L(-1) containing 50% acetonitrile (pH adjusted before the addition of the organic solvent). All compounds were separated in less than 7.5 min under isocratic conditions. Figures of merit include linearity (peak area versus apigenin concentration) from 50.0-1000 microg/mL (r2=0.995), and intra-day precision of retention time and peak area better than 1.3% CV and 15%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification for apigenin were 35.0 microg/mL and 150.0 microg/mL, respectively. This article also describes an NMR 1H study, carried out to monitor a new clean-up procedure for extracts containing propyleneglycol, whose components are poorly retained in conventional octadecyl silica cartridges.

  12. Clinical application of Chamomilla recutita in phlebitis: dose response curve study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz Dos; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2011-01-01

    This experimental and dose-response curve study aimed to carry out the quality control of the Chamomilla recutita sample, as well as to estimate the ideal dose, for anti-inflammatory effect, of the extract of its capitula, in patients with phlebitis due to peripheral intravenous infusion of antineoplastic chemotherapy and to evaluate the toxicity of this extract in human beings. The therapeutic efficacy, concerning the anti-inflammatory potential, of different doses of Chamomilla recutita extract were analyzed and compared in 25 patients. The time of regression of phlebitis was shorter for groups with 2.5% concentration (mean=29.2h, standard deviation = 8.98) and 5% concentration (mean = 38.8h, standard deviation = 17.47). Local toxicity was almost not observed. This research contributes to the innovation of the nursing clinical practice, since it suggests an alternative for the treatment of phlebitis through the clinical use of phytotherapeutic drugs.

  13. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ompal; Khanam, Zakia; Misra, Neelam; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a well-known medicinal plant species from the Asteraceae family often referred to as the “star among medicinal species.” Nowadays it is a highly favored and much used medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicine. Its multitherapeutic, cosmetic, and nutritional values have been established through years of traditional and scientific use and research. Chamomile has an established domestic (Indian) and international market, which is increasing day by day. The plant available in the market many a times is adulterated and substituted by close relatives of chamomile. This article briefly reviews the medicinal uses along with botany and cultivation techniques. Since chamomile is a rich source of natural products, details on chemical constituents of essential oil and plant parts as well as their pharmacological properties are included. Furthermore, particular emphasis is given to the biochemistry, biotechnology, market demand, and trade of the plant. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of chamomile and highlight the need for research and development. PMID:22096322

  14. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ompal; Khanam, Zakia; Misra, Neelam; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a well-known medicinal plant species from the Asteraceae family often referred to as the "star among medicinal species." Nowadays it is a highly favored and much used medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicine. Its multitherapeutic, cosmetic, and nutritional values have been established through years of traditional and scientific use and research. Chamomile has an established domestic (Indian) and international market, which is increasing day by day. The plant available in the market many a times is adulterated and substituted by close relatives of chamomile. This article briefly reviews the medicinal uses along with botany and cultivation techniques. Since chamomile is a rich source of natural products, details on chemical constituents of essential oil and plant parts as well as their pharmacological properties are included. Furthermore, particular emphasis is given to the biochemistry, biotechnology, market demand, and trade of the plant. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of chamomile and highlight the need for research and development.

  15. TNF-alpha expression, evaluation of collagen, and TUNEL of Matricaria recutita L. extract and triamcinolone on oral ulcer in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    OLIVEIRA, Bruna Vasconcelos; BARROS SILVA, Paulo Goberlânio; NOJOSA, Jacqueline de Santiago; BRIZENO, Luiz André Cavalcante; FERREIRA, Jamile Magalhães; SOUSA, Fabrício Bitú; MOTA, Mário Rogério Lima; ALVES, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease associated with delayed wound healing of oral ulcers by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and cellular apoptosis. Objective to evaluate the influence of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and apoptosis in rats with DM treated with chamomile extract or triamcinolone. Material and Methods Wistar male rats (210.0±4.2 g) were divided into five groups: negative control group (NCG) without diabetes; positive control group (PCG) with DM (alloxan, 45 mg/kg); and groups treated with chamomile extract (normoglycemic= NCG group and diabetic= DCG group) and with triamcinolone (TG). Traumatic ulcers were performed on all animals that received topical triamcinolone, chamomile extract or saline 12/12 hours for ten days. Results On days five and ten the animals were euthanized and the ulcers were analyzed by light microscopy, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemically (TNF-α). The NCG (p=0.0062), PCG (p=0.0285), NCG (p=0.0041), and DCG (p<0.0001) groups were completely healed on the 10th day, however, there was no healing on the TG (p=0.5127) group. The TNF-α expression showed a significant reduction from the 5th to the 10th day in NCG (p=0.0266) and DCG (p=0.0062). In connective tissue, the TUNEL assay showed a significant reduction in the number of positive cells in NCG (p=0.0273) and CNG (p=0.0469) and in the epithelium only in CDG (p=0.0320). Conclusions Chamomile extract can optimize the healing of traumatic oral ulcers in diabetic rats through the reduction of apoptosis in the epithelium and TNF-α expression. PMID:27383710

  16. Validation of a RP-HPLC-DAD Method for Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) Preparations and Assessment of the Marker, Apigenin-7-glucoside, Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Felipe Galeti; Cavalheiro, Amanda Henriques; Spinola, Nathália Favaretto; Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Hori, Juliana Issa; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Rocha, Bruno Alves; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Chamomile is a medicinal plant, which presents several biological effects, especially the anti-inflammatory effect. One of the compounds related to this effect is apigenin, a flavonoid that is mostly found in its glycosylated form, apigenin-7-glucoside (APG), in natural sources. However, the affectivity and safety of this glycoside have not been well explored for topical application. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-DAD) method to quantify APG in chamomile preparations. Additionally, the safety and the anti-inflammatory potential of this flavonoid were verified. The RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated with linearity at 24.0–36.0 μg/mL range (r = 0.9994). Intra- and interday precision (RSD) were 0.27–2.66% and accuracy was 98.27–101.21%. The validated method was applied in the analysis of chamomile flower heads, glycolic extract, and Kamillen cream, supporting the method application in the quality control of chamomile preparations. Furthermore, the APG safety was assessed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and mutagenic protocols and the anti-inflammatory activity was confirmed by a diminished TNF-α production showed by mice macrophages treated with APG following LPS treatment. PMID:26421053

  17. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract inhibits in vitro intestinal glucose absorption and attenuates high fat diet-induced lipotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Sakly, Mohsen; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sebai, Hichem

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of chamomile decoction extract (CDE) on intestinal glucose absorption as well as its protective role against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and lipotoxicity in rats. We used the Ussing chamber system to investigate the effect of CDE on intestinal transport of glucose. Male Wistar rats were fed HFD for six weeks to provoke obesity. CDE (100mg/kg, b.w. p.o.) has been per orally administered to HFD fed rats. Ex vivo, we found that CDE significantly and dose-dependently increased intestinal absorption of glucose. In vivo, HFD increased the body, liver and kidney weights, while CDE treatment showed a significant protective effects. High fat diet induced also a lipid profiles disorder and a disturbances in kidney and liver function parameters. Moreover liver and kidney lipotoxicity is accompanied by an oxidative stress status characterized by increased lipoperoxidation, depletion of antioxidant enzymes activity and non-enzymatic antioxidant (-SH groups and GSH) levels as well as increased levels of free iron, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium. However, treatment with CDE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD feed. These findings suggest that chamomile decoction extract can be used as functional beverage against obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.

  18. Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves.

    PubMed

    Reis, Luis Souza Lima de Souza; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo; Oba, Eunice; Kronka, Sergio do Nascimento; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria

    2006-06-01

    Matricaria chamomilla CH12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH12 in diet and the other the 'control' was not. Animals in both groups were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days. Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels. These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH12, suggesting that this product reduces stress. These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects.

  19. Phytoremediation of cyanophos insecticide by Plantago major L. in water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cyanophos is commonly used in Egypt to control various agricultural and horticultural pests. It is not easily hydrolyzed and thus they are highly persistent and accumulate in various aquatic compartments such as rivers and lakes. Such issues may be solved by phytoremediation, which is the use of plants for the cleanup of pollutants. Here, we tested Plantago major L. to clean water polluted with cyanophos insecticide under laboratory conditions.The biosorption capacity (KF) of cyanophos were 76.91, 26.18 and 21.09 μg/g for dry roots, fruit (seeds with shells) and leaves of the Plantago major L., respectively. Viable Plantago major L. in water significantly reduced cyanophos by 11.0% & 94.7% during 2 hours & 9 days of exposure as compared with 0.8% & 36.9% in water without the plantain. In water with plantain, cyanophos significantly accumulated in plantain roots and leaves to reach maximum levels after two and four hours of treatment, respectively. After 1 day, the concentration of cyanophos decreased in roots and shoots until the end of testing. Three major degradation products were detected at roots and leaf samples. Here we demonstrate that plantago major L. removes efficiently cyanophos residue in water and has a potential activity for pesticide phytoremediation. PMID:24447385

  20. Development of phytophotodermatitis in two cases related to Plantago lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Ozkol, Halil; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Calka, Omer

    2012-03-01

    Plantago lanceolata, also known as snake's tongue, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the family Plantaginaceae. It is a species widely distributed both in Turkey and all over the world. Today, its fresh leaves are still used to soothe and suppress cough, externally for wound healing and draining abscesses. Phytophotodermatitis (PPD) is a dermal photosensitive reaction induced by the contact to or oral intake of a plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight. Its acute course is called phototoxic. In this paper, two cases developed phototoxic reaction with the consumption of Plantago lanceolata and subsequent exposure to the sunlight. These cases were presented since such effect of the plant has not been known previously and there is no resembling case in the literature.

  1. Microbiologic Evaluation of Matricaria and Chlorhexidine against E. faecalis and C. albicans

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hena; Chandra, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Matricaria chamomilla and Chlorhexidine gel against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 15%, 25% Matricaria chamomilla in aq. base and 2% chlorhexidine gel against C. albicans (ATCC 24433) and E. faecalis (ATCC 24212) strains. Vancomycin was used as the positive control for E. faecalis and fluconazole for C. albicans . The agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h after which the zone of inhibition were measured separately for each material. Data thus obtained were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank–order test. Results: 2% chlorhexidine showed maximum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (33.26 mm) and E. faecalis (24.54 mm). 25% Matricaria showed zones of 24.16 mm and 20.62 mm for C. albicans and E. faecalis, respectively. 15% Matricaria did not show any antimicrobial activity (0 mm). Conclusion: The results of the current in vitro study suggest that 25% Matricaria can be used as an antimicrobial agent, but it is less effective than 2% chlorhexidine gluconate gel against C. albicans and E. faecalis. Matricaria at a lesser concentration of 15% aq. base is ineffective against both the microorganisms. PMID:26097333

  2. Coumarins of Matricaria chamomilla L.: aglycones and glycosides.

    PubMed

    Petruľová-Poracká, Veronika; Repčák, Miroslav; Vilková, Mária; Imrich, Ján

    2013-11-01

    The identity and quantity of coumarin-like compounds in leaves and anthodia of Matricaria chamomilla L. were studied by LC-DAD and NMR. So far, two monosubstituted coumarins, herniarin and umbelliferone, and two herniarin precursors were identified therein. In this paper, two other coumarin glycosides and one aglycone were confirmed. Skimmin (umbelliferone-7-O-β-d-glucoside), daphnin (daphnetin-7-O-β-d-glucoside) and daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin) were found for the first time in diploid and tetraploid leaves and anthodia of M. chamomilla L. Daphnetin is known as a strong sensitizer, so this compound and its glycosidic derivative can contribute to the allergic potential of chamomile. Commercial chamomile preparations were tested for their presence.

  3. Content and composition of the essential oil of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from some European countries.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain; Arak, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from different European countries were determined. A total of 39 components were identified, representing over 92% of the total oil yield. The principal biologically active compounds in chamomile oils were bisabolol oxide A (3.1-56.0%), alpha-bisabolol (0.1-44.2%), bisabolol oxide B (3.9-27.2%), cis-enyne-bicycloether (8.8-26.1%), bisabolon oxide A (0.5-24.8%), chamazulene (0.7-15.3%), spathulenol (1.7-4.8%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (2.3-6.6%). In 8 chamomile samples from 13, bisabolol oxide A (27.5-56.0%) was predominant (among them in three Estonian samples). alpha-Bisabolol (23.9-44.2%) was predominant in the samples from Moldova, Russia and the Czech Republic. The sample from Armenia was rich in bisabolol oxide B (27.2%) and chamazulene (15.3%). The oils were obtained in yields of 0.7-6.7 mL kg(-1) and the minimum limit of 4 mL kg(-1) stated by the European Pharmacopoeia was exceeded only in 13 samples from 13 analysed drugs.

  4. A systematic review study of therapeutic effects of Matricaria recuitta chamomile (chamomile)

    PubMed Central

    Miraj, Sepide; Alesaeidi, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Matricaria recuitta chamomilla is a plant that grows and is cultivated in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to overview the therapeutic effects of this valuable plant. This systematic review was aimed to introduce Matricaria recuitta chamomile, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages. Methods This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified about 87 references. In this study, 69 studies were accepted for further screening and met all our inclusion criteria [in English, full text, therapeutic effects of Matricaria recuitta chamomilla L and dated mainly from the year 1990 to 2016]. The search terms were “Matricaria recuitta chamomilla L.,” “therapeutic properties,” “pharmacological effects.” Result It is commonly used for its antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal activities, angiogenesis activity, anticarcinogenic, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Besides, it is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis, premenstrual syndrome, and gastrointestinal disorders. Conclusion Matricaria recuitta chamomilla L. is widely used for therapeutic and nontherapeutic purposes that trigger its significant value. Various combinations and numerous medicinal properties of its extract, oil, and leaves demand further studies about other useful and unknown properties of this multipurpose plant. PMID:27790360

  5. Enzymatic activities and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in a soil root zone under heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Fojcik, Barbara; Chmura, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the present field study were to examine the soil enzyme activities in the soil root zones of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in different heavy metal contaminated stands. Moreover, the investigations concerned the intensity of root endophytic colonization and metal bioaccumulation in roots and shoots. The investigated Plantago species exhibited an excluder strategy, accumulating higher metal content in the roots than in the shoots. The heavy metal accumulation levels found in the two plantain species in this study were comparable to other plants suggested as phytostabilizers; therefore, the selected Plantago species may be applied in the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated areas. The lower level of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) as well as the higher bioavailability of metals in the root zone soil of the two plantain species were found in an area affected by smelting activity, where organic matter content in the soil was also the smallest. Mycorrhizal colonization on both species in the contaminated area was similar to colonization in non-contaminated stands. However, the lowest arbuscule occurrence and an absence of dark septate endophytes were found in the area affected by the smelting activity. It corresponded with the lowest plant cover observed in this stand. The assessment of enzyme activity, mycorrhizal colonization, and the chemical and physical properties of soils proved to be sensitive to differences between sites and between Plantago species.

  6. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology.

  7. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    PubMed

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  8. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species

    PubMed Central

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P.; Donat-Torres, María P.; Llinares, Josep V.; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus–both halophytes–and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600–800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants. PMID:27490924

  9. Activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oil against anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria del Carmen; Valero, Adela; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina; Navarro-Moll, María Concepción

    2012-04-15

    The increase in diagnosed cases of anisakiasis and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the search for new active compounds against Anisakis L(3) larvae. The biocidal efficacy against different pathogens shown by various essential oils (EO) led us to study the Matricaria chamomilla EO and two of its main components (chamazulene and α-bisabolol) against the L(3) larvae of Anisakis type I. The activity of M. chamomilla EO, chamazulene and α-bisabolol was established by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The EO (125μg/ml) caused the death of all nematodes, which showed cuticle changes and intestinal wall rupture. In the in vivo assays, only 2.2%±1.8 of infected rats treated with M. chamomilla EO showed gastric wall lesions in comparison to 93.3%±3.9 of control. Chamazulene was ineffective, while α-bisabolol showed a high activity to that of the EO in vitro tests but proved less active in vivo. These findings suggest that the larvicidal activity may result from the synergistic action of different compounds of M. chamomilla EO. Neither of the tested products induces irritative damage in the intestinal tissues. In conclusion, M. chamomilla EO is a good candidate for further investigation as a biocidal agent against Anisakis type I.

  10. Pharmacological profile of apigenin, a flavonoid isolated from Matricaria chamomilla.

    PubMed

    Avallone, R; Zanoli, P; Puia, G; Kleinschnitz, M; Schreier, P; Baraldi, M

    2000-06-01

    Dried flowers of Matricaria chamomilla L. are largely used to provide sedative as well as spasmolytic effects. In the present study, we examined in particular the pharmacological property of a fraction isolated from a methanolic extract of M. chamomilla, which was identified by HPLC-MS-MS analysis as apigenin. By radioreceptor binding assays, we demonstrated the ability of the flavone to displace a specific radioligand, [(3)H]Ro 15-1788, from the central benzodiazepine binding site. Electrophysiological studies performed on cultured cerebellar granule cells showed that apigenin reduced GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-activated Cl(-) currents in a dose-dependent fashion. The effect was blocked by co-application of Ro 15-1788, a specific benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Accordingly, apigenin reduced the latency in the onset of picrotoxin-induced convulsions. Moreover, apigenin injected i.p. in rats reduced locomotor activity, but did not demonstrate anxiolytic, myorelaxant, or anticonvulsant activities. The present results seem to suggest that the inhibitory activity of apigenin on locomotor behaviour in rats cannot be ascribed to an interaction with GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor but to other neurotransmission systems, since it is not blocked by Ro 15-1788.

  11. Phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to nickel.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Backor, Martin

    2009-09-01

    We examined accumulation of phenolic acids, total soluble phenolics and flavonoids, and activities of phenolic metabolism-related enzymes (shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO)) in Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to 3, 60 and 120 microM of nickel (Ni) for 10 days. Ni showed low toxicity as indicated by unaltered content of total soluble phenolics in the leaf rosettes. In the roots, the effects of Ni were more visible, including increased total phenolics and PAL activity, but a decrease in PPO activity was observed. CAD activity was not affected by any of the Ni concentrations. Cinnamic acid derivatives were affected more than benzoic acid derivatives. Accumulation of chlorogenic acid, an important antioxidant compound, was enhanced by Ni treatment (ca. 4-fold in 120 microM Ni). Accumulation of protocatechuic acid, a phenol with high chelating strength, even decreased in the leaf rosettes. These observations are discussed in connection to antioxidative properties of phenolic metabolites and previously tested metals (cadmium and copper).

  12. Physiology of Matricaria chamomilla exposed to nickel excess.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Kaduková, Jana; Backor, Martin

    2009-02-01

    Influence of nickel (Ni) excess on selected physiological aspects of Matricaria chamomilla metabolism after 10 days of presence was studied. Biomass, water content, assimilation pigments and lignin contents were not affected by any of the doses tested. High Ni doses elevated root-soluble proteins. The highest Ni concentration stimulated accumulation of soluble phenolics in both the rosettes and roots, and hydrogen peroxide in the roots. Malondialdehyde content was unaltered, but proline content increased more pronouncedly in the rosettes. Histidine was elevated in the roots, suggesting its involvement in Ni retention. Roots contained 3.4, 7.3 and 6.1 times more Ni than leaf rosettes with 3, 60 and 120 microM treatments, indicating that chamomile is a Ni excluder. Leaf rosettes accumulated 174.1 microg Ni g(-1) DW at 120 microM treatment. The results suggest chamomile tolerance to Ni excess and its considerable accumulation in above-ground biomass (ca. 30% of whole plant Ni content).

  13. Electron beam irradiation of Matricaria chamomilla L. for microbial decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemţanu, Monica R.; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Mazilu, Elena; Setnic, Silvia; Bucur, Marcela; Duliu, Octavian G.; Meltzer, Viorica; Pincu, Elena

    2008-05-01

    Wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most popular herbal materials with both internal and external use to cure different health disturbances. As a consequence of its origin, chamomile could carry various microbial contaminants which offer different hazards to the final consumer. Reduction of the microbial load to the in force regulation limits represents an important phase in the technological process of vegetal materials, and the electron beam treatment might be an efficient alternative to the classical methods of hygienic quality assurance. The purpose of the study was to analyze the potential application of the electron beam treatment in order to assure the microbial safety of the wild chamomile. Samples of chamomile dry inflorescences were treated in electron beam (e-beam) of 6 MeV mean energy, at room temperature and ambient pressure. Some loss of the chemical compounds with bioactive role could be noticed, but the number of microorganisms decreased as a function on the absorbed dose. Consequently, the microbial quality of studied vegetal material inflorescences was improved by e-beam irradiation.

  14. Physiological responses of Matricaria chamomilla to cadmium and copper excess.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Backor, Martin; Kaduková, Jana

    2008-02-01

    Physiological responses of Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) excess (3, 60, and 120 microM for 7 days) with special emphasis on phenolic metabolism were studied. Cu at 120 microM reduced chamomile growth, especially in the roots where it was more abundant than Cd. Notwithstanding the low leaf Cu amount (37.5 microg g(-1) DW) in comparison with Cd (237.8 microg g(-1) DW) at 120 microM, it caused reduction of biomass accumulation, F(v)/F(m) ratio and soluble proteins. In combination with high accumulation of phenolics, strong reduction of proteins and high GPX activity in the roots, this supports severe redox Cu properties. In terms of leaf phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, it seems that Cd had a stimulatory effect during the course of the experiment, whereas Cu was found to stimulate it after 7-day exposure. The opposite trend was visible in the roots, where Cd had a stimulatory effect at high doses but Cu mainly at the highest dose. This supports the assumption of different PAL time dynamics under Cd and Cu excess. A dose of 60 and 120 microM Cu led to 2- and 3-times higher root lignin accumulation while the same Cd doses increased it by 33 and 68%, respectively. A Cu dose of 120 microM can be considered as limiting for chamomile growth under conditions of present research, while resistance to high Cd doses was confirmed. However, PAL and phenolics seemed to play an important role in detoxification of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress.

  15. Validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantitative determination of free and total apigenin in extracts of Chamomilla recutita.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fabiana N; Tavares, Marina F M

    2004-01-01

    A capillary electrophoretic method for the quantification of free and total apigenin in methanolic, ethanolic and glycolic extracts of Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert (Asteraceae) is described. The method was validated for measurement of apigenin in the range 5.00-300 microg/mL (r2 = 0.993) and showed coefficients of intra-day (replicability) and inter-day (repeatability) variability of better than 2%. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.80 and 11.5 microg/mL, respectively, and the average recovery was 102.0 +/- 0.8% at three concentration levels of apigenin. Free and total apigenin contents in the extracts were, respectively, determined as 106 and 903 microg/g (methanolic extract), 77 and 817 microg/g (ethanolic extract) and 11.0 and 247 microg/g (glycolic extract).

  16. Photosynthetic activity of vascular bundles in Plantago media leaves.

    PubMed

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Silina, Ekaterina; Dymova, Olga; Golovko, Tamara; Kornas, Andrzej; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2016-10-01

    Photosynthetic processes in the leaf lamina and midribs of Plantago media were investigated using plants grown in high light (HL) or low light (LL) conditions. The fluorescence parameters, which indicate photochemical/photosynthetic activity, were different in HL and LL grown plants, but no major differences between lamina and midribs were found. An OJIP test (chlorophyll a fluorescence transient induction) of LL grown plants, indicative of the chloroplast electron transport chain, also showed both tissues to be similar. In HL plants, a partial blockage of electron flow between QA (the primary plastoquinone electron acceptor of PSII) and QB (the secondary plastoquinone acceptor of PSII) was found, and this was less visible in midribs. The effective dissipation of quantum energy per reaction center (DI0/RC) was similar in both tissues of HL grown plants, while in the midribs of LL leaves, this process seemed to be less effective. Measurements of (13)C discrimination showed that the midrib tissues of LL and HL leaves effectively used β-carboxylation products to accumulate their biomass. Thus, the well protected activity of electron transport in midribs with their limited capacity to fix CO2 from the air may indicate the involvement of this tissue in β-carboxylation, transport or signaling. Carbon accumulated in roots showed a lower (13)C discrimination value (more negative) than the values observed in lamina. This could indicate that roots are supplied with assimilates mostly during the light phase of the day cycle with intensive C3 photosynthesis.

  17. Polysaccharide from Plantago as a green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1M HCl solution.

    PubMed

    Mobin, Mohammad; Rizvi, Marziya

    2017-03-15

    Polysaccharide from Plantago ovata was investigated for its inhibition characteristics for carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl. The mucilage of the Plantago is comprised of a highly branched polysaccharide, arabinosyl (galaturonic acid) rhamnosylxylan (AX), which is mainly responsible for the corrosion inhibition of the carbon steel. The techniques that were used to assess the inhibition and adsorption properties of the AX in the acid solution are gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. Thermodynamic and activation parameters revealed that the spontaneous adsorption of AX on carbon steel was mixed type and predominantly chemical in nature. Quantum chemical analysis supports the proposed mechanism of inhibition. AX from Plantago could serve as a green corrosion inhibitor for the carbon steel in hydrochloric medium with good inhibition efficiency but low risk of environmental pollution.

  18. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  19. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  20. Evaluation of the Association Metformin: Plantago ovata Husk in Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Láiz, Raquel; García-Vieitez, Juan J.; Diez-Liébana, M. José; Sierra-Vega, Matilde; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M.; Calle-Pardo, Ángela P.; Fernández-Martínez, Nélida

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study we have investigated whether the inclusion of the dietary fiber Plantago ovata husk could be recommended as coadjuvant in treatments with oral hypoglycemic drugs. We evaluated the use of Plantago ovata husk-metformin association in diabetic rabbits by determining its effects on glucose and insulin concentrations. Six groups of 6 rabbits were used. Groups 1 to 3 were fed with standard chow and groups 4 to 6 with chow supplemented with Plantago ovata husk (3.5 mg/kg/day). Two groups (numbers 1 and 4) were used as controls (receiving standard or supplemented chow), two groups (numbers 2 and 5) received metformin orally, and the other two (numbers 3 and 6) were treated orally with metformin and psyllium. Plasma glucose concentrations were lower in groups fed with fiber-supplemented chow whereas insulin levels showed important interindividual variations. Glucose pharmacokinetics parameters showed significant differences in Cmax and tmax in relation to fiber intake. Insulin pharmacokinetics parameters after treatment with oral metformin showed an important increase in Cmax, AUC, and tmax in animals fed with fiber. We conclude that Plantago ovata husk intake can contribute to the oral antihyperglycemic treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26576433

  1. Allelopathic Potential of Invasive Plantago virginica on Four Lawn Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huatian; Zhou, Yumei; Chen, Yang; Wang, Quanxi; Jiang, Lifen; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-01-01

    Plantago virginica L. has invaded many lawn ecosystems in the Eastern part of China. The invasion has incurred an economic cost to remove them. In order to prevent the invasion, it is critical to understand the invasive mechanisms of this species. However, few studies have been conducted on the allelopathic mechanisms of its invasion. In this study, we examined allelopathic effects of P. virginica on germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of four widely used lawn species. We found extensive allelopathic potential of P. virginica on other lawn species, which varied with species and developmental stage. While most effects of the extracts of P. virginica were inhibitory, some variables in some species were promoted by the addition of the extracts. The extracts of P. virginica significantly inhibited seed germination of Agrostis matsumurae. While the overall differences in seed germination rate of Poa annua were significant among treatments, difference between control and any of the treatments was not significant. The height of seedlings of A. matsumurae and Cynodon dactylon was significantly lower under the treatments of adding extracts of P. virginica. In contrast, growth of seedlings of Festuca elata and P. annua did not show significant differences among treatments. The root length of A. matsumurae, C. dactylon and P. annua was suppressed by the extracts of P. virginica whereas root length of F. elata was not affected. Aboveground biomass of A. matsumurae and F. elata was significantly higher than control, except for F. elata at the concentration of 50mg/mL, whereas aboveground biomass of C. dactylon and P. annua was reduced at higher concentrations of the extracts. Except for A. matsumurae, root biomass of the other three lawn species declined under the treatments with the extracts of P. virginica. Our results revealed that P. virginica had allelopathic potential on four lawn species and supported the theory of “novel weapons hypothesis”. Invasion by P

  2. Comparative analysis between Chamomilla recutita and corticosteroids on wound healing. An in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Martins, Manoela Domingues; Marques, Márcia Martins; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Pavesi, Vanessa Christina Santos; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos

    2009-02-01

    The comparison of chamomile and corticosteroids for treating ulcers was done in vitro and in vivo. The experimental groups were: control; chamomile recutita; triamcinolone acetonide and clobetasol propionate. For the in vitro study the cell viability of fibroblasts cultured for 24 h in media conditioned by the substances was obtained by the MTT reduction analysis. For the in vivo study, 125 male rats were submitted to experimental ulcers treated or not (control) by the substances tested. At 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days later 5 animals of each group were sacrificed. The lesions were analyzed by means of clinical observation and histological wound-healing grading. Data were compared by ANOVA (p

  3. Isolation, identification and stability of acylated derivatives of apigenin 7-O-glucoside from chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert).

    PubMed

    Svehliková, Vanda; Bennett, Richard N; Mellon, Fred A; Needs, Paul W; Piacente, Sonia; Kroon, Paul A; Bao, Yongping

    2004-08-01

    The major flavonoids in the white florets of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert) were rapidly purified using a combination of polyamide solid-phase extraction and preparative HPLC. From the combined LC/MS, LC/MS/MS, and NMR data the apigenin glucosides were identified as apigenin 7-O-glucoside (Ap-7-Glc), Ap-7-(6"-malonyl-Glc), Ap-7-(6"-acetyl-Glc), Ap-7-(6"-caffeoyl-Glc), Ap-7-(4"-acetyl-Glc), Ap-7-(4"-acetyl,6"-malonyl-Glc), and a partially characterised apigenin-7-(mono-acetyl/mono-malonylglucoside) isomer. Malonyl and caffeoyl derivatives of Ap-7-Glc have not previously been identified in chamomile. The two mono-acetyl/mono-malonyl flavonoids have not previously been reported in any plant species. These acylated glucosides are unstable and degrade to form acetylated compounds or Ap-7-Glc. The degradation products formed are dependent on the extraction and storage conditions, i.e. temperature, pH and solvent.

  4. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle.

    PubMed

    de Souza Reis, Luis Souza; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; de Lima Paoli, Rosana; Giuffrida, Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after 60 days. In conclusion, the use of chamomile did not alter the humoral immune response in cattle, and two vaccine doses are suggested for achieving protective antibody titers.

  5. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; de Lima Paoli, Rosana; Giuffrida, Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after 60 days. In conclusion, the use of chamomile did not alter the humoral immune response in cattle, and two vaccine doses are suggested for achieving protective antibody titers. PMID:19043320

  6. Role of plant β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of iridoid glycosides and their hydrolyzing enzymes in Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major.

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Buschmann, Torsten; Müller, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    The typical defense compounds of Plantaginaceae are the iridoid glycosides, which retard growth and/or enhance mortality of non-adapted herbivores. In plants, glycosidic defense compounds and hydrolytic enzymes often form a dual defense system, in which the glycosides are activated by the enzymes to exert biological effects. Yet, little is known about the activating enzymes in iridoid glycoside-containing plants. To examine the role of plant-derived β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of two common plantain species, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major, we determined the concentration of iridoid glycosides as well as the β-glucosidase activity in leaves of different age. To investigate the presence of other leaf metabolites potentially involved in plant defense, we used a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. According to the optimal defense hypothesis, more valuable parts such as young leaves should be better protected than less valuable parts. Therefore, we expected that both, the concentrations of defense compounds as well as the β-glucosidase activity, should be highest in younger leaves and decrease with increasing leaf age. Both species possessed β-glucosidase activity, which hydrolyzed aucubin, one of the two most abundant iridoid glycosides in both plant species, with high activity. In line with the optimal defense hypothesis, the β-glucosidase activity in both Plantago species as well as the concentration of defense-related metabolites such as iridoid glycosides correlated negatively to leaf age. When leaf extracts were incubated with bovine serum albumin and aucubin, SDS-PAGE revealed a protein-denaturing effect of the leaf extracts of both plantain species, suggesting that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidase interact in a dual defense system.

  7. Characterization and Physical Mapping of Ribosomal RNA Gene Families in Plantago

    PubMed Central

    DHAR, MANOJ K.; FRIEBE, BERND; KAUL, SANJANA; GILL, BIKRAM S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The organization of rRNA genes in cultivated Plantago ovata Forsk. and several of its wild allies was analysed to gain insight into the phylogenetic relationships of these species in the genus which includes some 200 species. • Methods Specific primers were designed to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions from seven Plantago species and the resulting fragments were cloned and sequenced. Similarly, using specific primers, the 5S rRNA genes from these species were amplified and subsequently cloned. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 45S ribosomal RNA genes. • Results The ITS1 region is 19–29 bp longer than the ITS2 in different Plantago species. The 5S rRNA gene-repeating unit varies in length from 289 to 581 bp. Coding regions are highly conserved across species, but the non-transcribed spacers (NTS) do not match any database sequences. The clone from the cultivated species P. ovata was used for physical mapping of these genes by FISH. Four species have one FISH site while three have two FISH sites. In P. lanceolata and P. rhodosperma, the 5S and 45S (18S-5·8S-25S) sites are coupled. • Conclusions Characterization of 5S and 45S rRNA genes has indicated a possible origin of P. ovata, the only cultivated species of the genus and also the only species with x = 4, from a species belonging to subgenus Psyllium. Based on the studies reported here, P. ovata is closest to P. arenaria, although on the basis of other data the two species have been placed in different subgenera. FISH mapping can be used as an efficient tool to help determine phylogenetic relationships in the genus Plantago and show the interrelationship between P. lanceolata and P. lagopus. PMID:16481363

  8. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study.

  9. Acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of camomile flowers, Matricaria chamomilla, against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Macchioni, F; Perrucci, S; Cecchi, F; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I; Pampiglione, S

    2004-06-01

    Arcaricidal properties of decoctions, infusions and macerates of dried flower heads of camomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in vitro against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi Delafond (Parasitiformes: Psoroptidae). This mite species is responsible for otoacariasis in domestic animals. Mites were exposed to the extracts for 24, 48 or 72 h. All the extracts tested showed highly significant acaricidal activity when compared with controls. Among them, a decoction of 10% was the only formulation which gave 100% activity at all the three observations times.

  10. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Nadwodnik, Jan; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2008-04-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem.

  11. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens

    PubMed Central

    Nadwodnik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem. PMID:18188589

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain Mc5Re-14, an Antagonistic Root Endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla

    DOE PAGES

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; ...

    2015-08-06

    Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Mc5Re-14 revealed promising in vitro antagonistic activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. The 6.0-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively involved in pathogen suppression and direct and indirect plant growth promotion.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Paenbacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14, an antagonistic root endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Paenbacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (e.g German chamomile). The draft genome of Paenbacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 revealed promising antagonistic in vitro activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. Putative genes involved in plant pathogen suppression and plant growth-promotion were identified.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain Mc5Re-14, an Antagonistic Root Endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Jansson, Janet K; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Mc5Re-14 revealed promising in vitro antagonistic activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. The 6.0-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively involved in pathogen suppression and direct and indirect plant growth promotion.

  15. The weak effects of climatic change on Plantago pollen concentration: 17 years of monitoring in Northwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Parrado, Zulima; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa Ma.; Vega-Maray, Ana Ma.; Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; Fernández-González, Delia

    2014-09-01

    Plantago L. species are very common in nitrified areas such as roadsides and their pollen is a major cause of pollinosis in temperate regions. In this study, we sampled airborne pollen grains in the city of León (NW, Spain) from January 1995 to December 2011, by using a Burkard® 7-day-recording trap. The percentage of Plantago pollen compared to the total pollen count ranged from 11 % (1997) to 3 % (2006) in the period under study. Peak pollen concentrations were recorded in May and June. Our 17-year analysis failed to disclose significant changes in the seasonal trend of plantain pollen concentration. In addition, there were no important changes in the start dates of pollen release and the meteorological parameters analyzed did not show significant variations in their usual trends. We analyzed the influence of several meteorological parameters on Plantago pollen concentration to explain the differences in pollen concentration trends during the study. Our results show that temperature, sun hours, evaporation, and relative humidity are the meteorological parameters best correlated to the behavior of Plantago pollen grains. In general, the years with low pollen concentrations correspond to the years with less precipitation or higher temperatures. We calculated the approximate Plantago flowering dates using the cumulative sum of daily maximum temperatures and compared them with the real bloom dates. The differences obtained were 4 days in 2009, 3 days in 2010, and 1 day in 2011 considering the complete period of pollination.

  16. Hydroxylated bisabolol oxides: evidence for secondary oxidative metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla.

    PubMed

    Avonto, Cristina; Wang, Mei; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avula, Bharathi; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-10-25

    German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) is one of the most popular medicinal plants used in Western herbal medicine. Among the various phytochemicals present in the essential oil of the flowers of German chamomile, bisabolol and its oxidized metabolites are considered as marker compounds for distinguishing different chemotypes. These compounds are influential in mediating the aroma of the essential oil of M. chamomilla and contribute to the therapeutic properties (anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, insecticidal, and antiulcer) of this species. In order to find other possible bisabolol derivatives as marker compounds for authentication of German chamomile in botanical and commercial products, an in-depth investigation using a GC-assisted fractionation procedure was performed on nonpolar fractions. As a result of this approach, three new hydroxylated derivatives of bisabolol oxides A and B (1-3) have been isolated from M. chamomilla. Plausible biogenetic pathways are presented.

  17. Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Adel; Hashem, Tahia; Mohamed, Mahmoud; Ashry, Esraa

    2003-05-01

    The effect of Matricaria chamomilla (M. chamomilla) on the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence was investigated in rats. The frequencies of withdrawal behavioral signs (paw tremor, rearing, teeth chattering, body shakes, ptosis, diarrhea, and urination) and weight loss induced by naloxone challenge were demonstrated in morphine-dependent rats receiving M. chamomilla extract or saline. The withdrawal behavioral manifestations and weight loss were inhibited significantly by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. Administration of a single dose of M. chamomilla before the naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent animals abolished the withdrawal behavioral manifestations. The dramatic increase of plasma cAMP induced by naloxone-precipitated abstinence was prevented by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. These results suggest that M. chamomilla extract inhibits the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome.

  18. Quantitative changes of secondary metabolites of Matricaria chamomilla by abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Eliasová, Adriana; Repcák, Miroslav; Pastírová, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The responses of young plants of diploid and tetraploid Matricaria chamomilla cultivars to abiotic stress were studied. The course of quantitative changes of main leaf secondary metabolites was evaluated within an interval from 6 h before to 54 h after spraying the leaf rosettes with aqueous CuCl2 solution. The content of herniarin in the treated plants rose approximately 3 times, simultaneously with a decline of its precursor (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid. The highest amounts of umbelliferone in stressed plants exceeded 9 times and 20 times those observed in control plants of the tetraploid and diploid cultivar, respectively. Due to stress the concentration of ene-yne-dicycloether in leaves decreased by more than 40%. The pattern of quantity changes of the examined compounds in tetraploid and diploid plants was similar.

  19. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla cv. BONA.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus; Guggenberger, Manuela; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The altitudinal variation of the contents of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) was assessed. Plants of M. chamomilla cultivar BONA were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck/Austria. The amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC/DAD. For both flavonoids and phenolic acids positive (r = 0.559 and 0.587) and statistically significant (both p < 0.001) correlations with the altitude of the growing site were observed. The results are compared to previous results on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Moreover, various ecological factors, which change with the altitude of the growing site, are discussed as potential causes for the observed variation.

  20. Protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cemek, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ezgi; Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet Emin

    2010-07-01

    The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant properties of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Compositae) hydroalcoholic extract (MCE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury were investigated in rats. After the induction of gastric mucosal injury, all groups were sacrificed; the gastric ulcer index was calculated, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole blood and gastric tissue, and serum ascorbic acid, retinol, and beta-carotene levels were measured in all groups. Pretreatment with MCE at some doses significantly reduced gastric lesions. Again, some doses of MCE significantly reduced the MDA, and significantly increased GSH levels in gastric tissue or whole blood. Serum beta-carotene and retinol levels were significantly higher in the 200 mg/kg MCE-administered group with respect to control. As a result, MCE clearly has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in antioxidant activity.

  1. Clinical cross-reactivity between Artemisia vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile).

    PubMed

    de la Torre Morín, F; Sánchez Machín, I; García Robaina, J C; Fernández-Caldas, E; Sánchez Triviño, M

    2001-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is a common weed and an important source of allergens on the subtropical island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It pollinates mainly from July to September, although, due to some local climatic conditions, it may flower throughout the year. Cross-reactivity with hazelnut, kiwi, birch, several Compositae (Ambrosia, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Solidago) and grass allergens has been suggested. Few studies have addressed the issue of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla. The objective of this study was to perform conjunctival and bronchial challenges with A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla and oral challenge with chamomile in 24 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized primarily to A. vulgaris. Skin prick tests with M. chamomilla were positive in 21 patients. Eighteen patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a A. vulgaris pollen extract and 13 patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a M. chamomilla pollen extract. Bronchial provocation tests with A. vulgaris were positive in 15 patients and with M. chamomilla pollen in another 16 individuals. Oral provocation tests, conducted with a commercial chamomile infusion were positive in 13 patients. Nine of these individuals were skin test positive to food allergens and 17 to others pollens of the Compositae family. This study confirms a high degree of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla. Sensitization to A. vulgaris seems to be a primary risk factor for experiencing symptoms after the ingestion of chamomile infusions. Based on the results of bronchial provocation tests, M. chamomilla pollen could be a relevant inhalant allergen.

  2. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Trace Element Content of the Leaves and Roots of Three Plantago Species.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Suliburska, Joanna; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Regula, Julita; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the trace element content of the leaves and roots of three Plantago species (P. maxima Juss. ex Jacq., P. major L., and P. lanceolata L.). Trace element levels were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data indicate that the leaves of P. lanceolata are characterized by the highest Co, Cr, and Se content, whereas P. maxima leaves contained the greatest levels of Si and Zn. In contrast, the highest concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Si, and V were detected in the roots of P. major. Zn content was also higher in P. maxima roots than in the other species analyzed. The toxic trace elements were differentially distributed across the studied species. In particular, P. lanceolata leaves contained significantly higher Al, As, Li, Ni, Pb, and Sr levels, whereas the B and Cd content was elevated in P. major as compared to the other species. Surprisingly, the leaf Hg level was the lowest in P. major, whose levels of Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Li, and Sr were significantly higher than the other two species. The data indicate that the concentration of most of the essential trace elements was higher in the leaves and roots of P. major and P. lanceolata than in P. maxima, while P. maxima had less toxic metals. The obtained data on trace elements content in Plantago tissues may be taken into account while using plant preparations in practical medicine.

  4. Quantitative determination of seven chemical constituents and chemo-type differentiation of chamomiles using high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matricaria recutita L. (German Chamomile), Anthemis nobilis L. (Roman Chamomile) and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat are commonly used chamomiles. High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for estimation of six flavonoids (rutin, luteolin-7-O-ß-glucoside, chamaemeloside...

  5. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress induced by lead in the leaves of Plantago major L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakhnina, Tamara I.; Borkowska, Aneta; Nosalewicz, Magdalena; Nosalewicz, Artur; Włodarczyk, Teresa M.; Kosobryukhov, Anatoly A.; Fomina, Irina R.

    2016-07-01

    Fluctuation of the summer day-time temperatures in the mid-latitudes in a range from 16 to 30°C should not have irreversible negative effects on plants, but may influence metabolic processes including the oxidative stress. To test the effect of moderately high temperature on oxidative stress induced by lead in the leaves of Plantago major L.; the plants were incubated in a water solution of 0, 150, 450, and 900 μM Pb (NO3)2 at 20 and 28°C. Plant reactions were evaluated by the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in leaves after 2, 24, 48, and 72 h. The Pb concentration in the leaves rose with the increase in the Pb content and was higher at 20°C. The increase in stomatal resistance caused by Pb was higher at 28°C. The contents of TBARS increased after 2 h of plant exposure to Pb and the increase was the highest at 900 μM Pb, 28°C. The AsP activity increased up to 50% after 24 h of Pb-treatment at 28°C; the highest increase in glutathione reductase activity was observed after 72 h at 20°C. Thus, the moderately high temperature 28°C compared with optimal 20°C caused a decrease in Pb accumulation in Plantago leaves but amplified the negative effects of lead, especially in the beginning of stress development.

  6. Short-term UV-B dose stimulates production of protective metabolites in Matricaria chamomilla leaves.

    PubMed

    Petruľová, Veronika; Dučaiová, Zuzana; Repčák, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Physiological response of two cultivars of Matricaria chamomilla plants on UV irradiation was studied. The impact of used short-time UV dose was evaluated in three time points; 2, 24 and 48 h after irradiation. Used UV irradiation immediately resulted in changes in plant oxidative status monitored as increased concentration of H2 O2 . Decrease in chlorophyll a and b indicated the impact on photosynthetic apparatus. For phenolic secondary metabolites, an increase in total soluble phenols and AlCl3 -reactive flavonols was observed. The activity of main phenolic enzyme, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, increased with time after irradiation. Significant changes, mainly decreasing trends, in the content of free coumarins and their glycosidic precursors were observed. Enhanced accumulation in chlorogenic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and in (Z)-isoform of dicycloethers was detected. From these results, the redirecting precursors of coumarin biosynthesis to biosynthesis of substances with higher antioxidative potential can be assumed. Different reactions in diploid and tetraploid plants were recorded, too.

  7. Evaluation of topical Matricaria chamomilla extract activity on linear incisional wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Miladi, Hossein; Rashidi Pour, Ali

    2010-05-01

    In this investigation, the effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on linear incisional wound healing was studied. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3 cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups, as control, olive oil, and treatment. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Olive oil group received topical olive oil once a day from beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment group were treated topically by M. chamomilla extract dissolved in olive oil at the same time. For computing the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 days. The percentage of wound healing was calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between treatment and olive oil animals (p < 0.05) in most of the days. We conclude that the extract of M. chamomilla administered topically has wound healing potential in linear incisional wound model in rats.

  8. Role of ploidy in cadmium and nickel uptake by Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Grúz, Jirí; Malcovská, Silvia; Hedbavny, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium and nickel uptake by diploid and tetraploid chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) cultivars (Novbona and Lutea, respectively) exposed to 60 microM solutions of individual metals over 7 days was studied. Diploid plants accumulated higher amount of Cd in both shoots and roots compared to tetraploid plants while Ni accumulation was ploidy-independent. Cd presence caused higher accumulation of total soluble phenols and flavonoids and higher phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and guaiacol-peroxidase activities in diploid cultivar in comparison with tetraploid but phenolic acids did not show direct correlation with metal accumulation and even decreased in the leaves of Ni-exposed plants. Lignin content was preferentially elevated in the roots of diploid cultivar. Among 17 free amino acids, their sum increased mainly in the leaves of Cd-exposed plants (owing to increase in serine, alanine and proline). Potassium decrease in both cultivars in response to Cd was ploidy-independent and Ca, Mg and Fe accumulation were almost unaffected. It is concluded that Cd accumulation in chamomile may be mediated by the accumulation of phenols but they have no active role in shoot Ni accumulation. Present findings in the context of our previous studies and limited available literature about ploidy effect on metal accumulation are discussed.

  9. Salicylic acid alleviates NaCl-induced changes in the metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Backor, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Influence of 100 mM NaCl and 50 microM salicylic acid (SA) and their combination on the metabolism of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) during 7 days was studied. NaCl reduced growth and selected physiological parameters and SA in combined treatment (NaCl + SA) reversed majority of these symptoms. Application of SA reduced NaCl-induced increase of Na+ in the rosettes, but not in the roots. Accumulation of total amino acids was stimulated in NaCl-treated roots, especially due to exceptional increase of proline (4.4-fold). Among phenolic acids, accumulation of protocatechuic acid was the most enhanced in NaCl-exposed leaf rosettes (ca. 3-fold) while chlorogenic and caffeic acids in the roots (2.4- and 2.8-fold, respectively). Total soluble phenols increased after NaCl and SA treatments, but root lignin content was not affected. Activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and shikimate dehydrogenase increased in response to NaCl, but cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase was not affected and polyphenol oxidase decreased. Stress parameters were elevated by NaCl treatment (superoxide radical and malondialdehyde content, activities of catalase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) and substantially prevented by SA, while accumulation of hydrogen peroxide decreased. Overall, SA showed strong beneficial properties against NaCl-induced negative symptoms. Protective effect of SA was the most visible at the level of guaiacol-peroxidase and through amelioration of stress parameters and mineral nutrient contents.

  10. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of Matricaria chamomilla L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cemek, Mustafa; Kağa, Sadik; Simşek, Nejdet; Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet Emin; Konuk, Muhsin

    2008-07-01

    Plants with antidiabetic activities provide important sources for the development of new drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated possible antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activities of the aerial part of the Matricaria chamomilla L. ethanolic extract (MCE) in streptozotocin (STZ; 70 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabetic rats. The following groups were assigned; sham (did not receive any substance), STZ + distilled water (control), STZ + 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, STZ + 20 mg/kg MCE, STZ + 50 mg/kg MCE, STZ + 100 mg/kg MCE. Diabetic rats were treated for 14 days by gavage. Postprandial blood glucose levels, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid, retinol, beta-carotene, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were measured, and immunohistochemical studies were performed in all of the groups. The obtained data showed that STZ resulted in oxidative stress and affected the antioxidant status. Treatment with different doses of MCE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, and augmented the antioxidant system. In histological investigations, MCE treatment protected the majority of the pancreatic islet cells, with respect to the control group. As a result, MCE exhibited significant antihyperglycemic effect and protected beta-cells in STZ-diabetic rats, in a dose-dependent manner, and diminished the hyperglycemia-related oxidative stress.

  11. Effect of metabolic regulators on aluminium uptake and toxicity in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Stork, František; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Grúz, Jiři; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-05-01

    Phenolic metabolism of Al-exposed Matricaria chamomilla plants was modulated with four regulators: 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), salicylic acid (SA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and dithiothreitol (DTT). Physiological parameters (tissue water content, soluble proteins, reducing sugars, K+ content), root lignin content and free amino acids (increase in root proline and alanine) were the most affected in SA + Al variant, indicating negative impact of SA on Al-induced changes. SNP showed the least visible impact, suggesting protective effect of nitric oxide. Complex comparison between Al alone and combined treatments revealed that SA and DTT stimulated increase in shoot phenolic acids (mainly vanillic acid), sum of flavonols and soluble phenols but decreased the levels of coumarin-related compounds (Z- and E-2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids), leading to elevation of shoot Al. Positive correlation between phenolic acids (mainly ferulic and chlorogenic acids), soluble phenols and total Al was found in the roots of SA and DTT variants. These events were not observed in AIP and SNP treatments. These data, to our knowledge for the first time, exactly confirm that phenolic metabolites may affect shoot Al uptake and this relation is rather positive in terms of simple phenols (and negative in terms of coumarin-related compounds).

  12. Analysis of phenolic compounds in Matricaria chamomilla and its extracts by UPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Haghi, G; Hatami, A; Safaei, A; Mehran, M

    2014-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a widely used medicinal plant possessing several pharmacological effects due to presence of active compounds. This study describes a method of using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detector for the separation of phenolic compounds in M. chamomilla and its crude extracts. Separation was conducted on C18 column (150 mm × 2 mm, 1.8 μm) using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 4% aqueous acetic acid at 25°C. The method proposed was validated for determination of free and total apigenin and apigenin 7-glucoside contents as bioactive compounds in the extracts by testing sensitivity, linearity, precision and recovery. In general, UPLC produced significant improvements in method sensitivity, speed and resolution. Extraction was performed with methanol, 70% aqueous ethanol and water solvents. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents ranged from 1.77 to 50.75 gram (g) of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g and 0.82 to 36.75 g quercetin equivalent (QE)/100 g in dry material, respectively. There was a considerable difference from 40 to 740 mg/100 g for apigenin and 210 to 1110 mg/100 g for apigenin 7-glucoside in dry material.

  13. Simultaneous determination of eight flavonoids in the flowers of Matricaria chamomilla by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Fang-Fang; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2014-01-01

    An HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of five flavones (apigenin, three apigenin 7-O-glucoside acylated derivatives, and luteolin) and three methoxylated flavonols in Matricaria chamomilla. Full validation of the assay was carried out including linearity, LODs, LOQs, precision, repeatability, stability, and accuracy. The results demonstrated that the method developed was simple, accurate, and reliable. Five batches of M. chamomilla samples were determined using the developed method, and total contents of the eight flavonoids ranged from 1.843 to 2.134 mg/g. Among them, the content of apigenin was the highest with values of 0.538 to 0.618 mg/g. In addition, the extract solution from M. chamomilla exhibited a significant dose-dependent inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, with a 50% inhibition (SC50) at a concentration of 3.06 +/- 0.09 mg/mL, and the flavonoids apigenin-7-O-(6"-acetyl)-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin, eupatolitin, and chrysosplenol D played an important role in the antioxidant activities of the extract solution from M. chamomilla.

  14. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Backor, Martin; Strnad, Miroslav; Repcák, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) doses of 50 and 250 microM, for a period of up to 7 days, on selected physiological aspects and the phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants was studied. SA exhibited both growth-promoting (50 microM) and growth-inhibiting (250 microM) properties, the latter being correlated with decrease of chlorophylls, water content and soluble proteins. In terms of phenolic metabolism, it seems that the higher SA dose has a toxic effect, based on the sharp increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity (24 h after application), which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics, lignin accumulation and the majority of the 11 detected phenolic acids. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity was elevated throughout the experiment in 250 microM SA-treated plants. In turn, some responses can be explained by mechanisms associated with oxidative stress tolerance; these mitigate acute SA stress (which is indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde content). However, PAL activity decreased with prolonged exposure to SA, indicating its inhibition. Accumulation of coumarin-related compounds (umbelliferone and herniarin) was not affected by SA treatments, while (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids increased in the 250 microM SA-treated rosettes. Free SA content in the rosettes increased significantly only in the 250 microM SA treatment, with levels tending to decrease towards the end of the experiment and the opposite trend was observed in the roots.

  15. The influence of conjugates isolated from Matricaria chamomilla L. on platelets activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michał; Saluk, Joanna; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta; Komorowska, Halina; Wachowicz, Barbara; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Czechowski, Franciszek; Nowak, Paweł; Pawlaczyk, Izabela

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the principal cause of death in both advanced and developing countries of the world. Blood platelets are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Platelet adhesion and aggregation are critical events that occur in unstable coronary syndromes. The current research is focused on the role of polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates isolated from chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) at concentrations of 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL on blood platelets (obtained from healthy donors and from patients received combined anti-platelet therapy complex with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid) aggregation and experimentally induced cell toxicity. The treatment of PRP obtained from healthy donors with polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from M. chamomilla (L.) (MC) resulted in a dose-dependent, decrease of platelet aggregation induced by multiple agonists (ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid). In this study we also observed that the MC reduced platelet aggregation in PRP obtained from patients with cardiovascular disorders. The result of testing the MC on human blood platelets, mouse fibroblast cultures L929 and human lung cells A549 did not show any cytotoxicity effects. Compounds obtained from M. chamomilla L. are potential composite to the development of a new anti-platelet agent, which could be an alternative to the currently used anti-platelet drugs.

  16. Oxidative status of Matricaria chamomilla plants related to cadmium and copper uptake.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Backor, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) uptake by the plants of Matricaria chamomilla and relation to activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) up to 7 days of exposure to 3, 60 and 120 microM Cd or Cu was studied. Cd content in rosettes was ca. 10-fold higher in comparison to Cu while Cu was preferentially accumulated in the roots. In line with this observation, increase of CAT and GPX activity was similar in rosettes of Cd and Cu-treated plants, indicating non-redox active properties of Cd and low Cu accumulation. In the roots, Cu showed strong pro-oxidant effect, as judged from extreme stimulation of CAT and GPX, followed by increase of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. However, GPX seemed to be more important for alleviation of oxidative stress (ca. 93-250-fold higher activity in 120 microM Cu-treated roots). Cd had substantially lower influences and stimulated GR activity more than Cu. Activities of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes in relation to its accumulation are also discussed.

  17. Radical scavenging and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal B; Zbikowska, Halina M; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta; Pawlaczyk, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria chamomilla L. (MC), a member of the Asteraceae family, is one of the oldest medicinal plants, widely used worldwide for a variety of healing applications. Its recommendations, derived from both traditional and modern medicine, include numerous disorders such as inflammation, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, stomach ache, pharyngitis, rheumatic pain, as well as the other ailments. This work is focused on another aspect of the biological activity of chamomile polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates--their antioxidant properties in the protection of blood plasma components against in vitro oxidative stress. Measurements of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging indicated considerable anti-free radical action of MC. Pre-incubation of blood plasma with MC considerably diminished the extent of ONOO(-)-induced oxidative modifications such as protein carbonyl groups, SH groups, 3-nitrotyrosine, as well as the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The analysis of the FRAP assay result shows a considerable increase of ferric reducing ability of blood plasma in the presence of MC. The results obtained in this study indicate that polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from M. chamomilla substances possess antioxidant properties. The M. chamomilla macromolecular glycoconjugates may be useful in the creation of new natural-based medications or dietary supplements, helpful in the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-mediated disorders.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of Matricaria chamomilla.L in paraquat induced rat liver injury.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, H S; Farzad, K; Fariba, M; Abdolkarim, C; Hassan, G; Seyed-Mostafa, H Z; Akram, R

    2015-02-01

    Paraquat (PQ), an effective and widely used herbicide, has been proven to be safe when appropriately applied to eliminate weeds. However, PQ poisoning is an extremely frustrating clinical condition with a high mortality and with a lack of effective treatments in humans. PQ is known to induce injury via a redox cyclic reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract Matricaria chamomilla.L (M. chamomilla) against PQ-induced liver injury in association with its antioxidant activity.The male rats were treated by gastric gavage daily with PQ (5 mg/kg/day) and M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination for 7 days. After treatments, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules (TTG) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in liver tissue were measured. At the end of the experiment, plasma and lung tissue of the animals was separated. The activity of enzymatic scavengers such as CAT, TAC and TTG were measured in liver homogenate.In this sample, the TAC and TTG were lower in the PQ group as compared with control group. Co-administration of PQ with M. chamomilla extract increased TAC and TTG in liver tissue as compared with PQ group.In conclusion, M. chamomilla as natural antioxidant may be considered beneficial for the protection oxidative liver injury in PQ poisoning.

  19. Accumulation of tetracoumaroyl spermine in Matricaria chamomilla during floral development and nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Eliasová, Adriana; Poracká, Veronika; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Imrich, Ján; Repcák, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The new natural polyamine conjugate 1N,5N,10N,14N-tetracoumaroyl spermine (tetracoumaroyl spermine) recently isolated from chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) flower heads is applicable for the treatment of several human disorders such as depression and anxiety. High variability in the level of tetracoumaroyl spermine is found in commercial tisanes. Accumulation of tetracoumaroyl spermine was tested during floral development, and nitrogen deficiency was chosen as its putative limiting environmental factor. It was observed that tetracoumaroyl spermine is present mainly in tubular flowers, reaching its maximal content during the 3rd phase of flowering when the corollae of tubular flowers start to open. The later observed decrease could result from a release of pollen that also contains a considerable amount of tetracoumaroyl spermine. It is likely that tetracoumaroyl spermine plays an important role in pollen development, and so, despite overall N-deficiency in the plants, tetracoumaroyl spermine is accumulated at the same or even higher rate than in the flowers of the N-sufficient control.

  20. Antigenotoxic effect of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert essential oil in mouse spermatogonial cells, and determination of its antioxidant capacity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José Antonio; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Cassani-Galindo, Martha; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2010-09-30

    Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert (Asteraceae), popularly known as chamomile, is a plant used in traditional medicine for various therapeutic purposes. Chamomile essential oil (CEO) is particularly known to inhibit the genotoxic damage produced by mutagens in mice somatic cells. The aim of this research was to determine the inhibitory potential of CEO on the genotoxic damage produced by daunorubicin (DAU) in mice germ cells. We evaluated the effect of 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg of essential oil on the rate of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induced in spermatogonia by 10 mg/kg of the mutagen. We found no genotoxicity of CEO, but detected an inhibition of SCE after the damage induced by DAU; from the lowest to the highest dose of CEO we found an inhibition of 47.5%, 61.9%, and 93.5%, respectively. As a possible mechanism of action, the antioxidant capacity of CEO was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method and ferric thiocyanate assays. In the first test we observed a moderate scavenging potential of the oil; nevertheless, the second assay showed an antioxidant capacity similar to that observed with vitamin E. In conclusion, we found that CEO is an efficient chemoprotective agent against the damage induced by DAU in the precursor cells of the germinal line of mice, and that its antioxidant capacity may induce this effect.

  1. Effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations in winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Jaunard, D; Bizoux, J P; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Vancutsem, F; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2012-01-01

    Currently, economic, agronomic and environmental concerns lead to reduce the use of herbicides. Mechanical weeding can help to reach this objective. Dynamics and biology of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations were assessed as well as dynamic of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for four level of application of a weeder-harrow (0, 1, 2, 3 treatment(s)). After each treatment, an effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile density was observed. Density of wild chamomile decreased significantly with intensification of mechanical weeding. A third treatment allowed eliminating late emerged plants.

  2. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of geraniol-inducible genes in cultured shoot primordia of Matricaria chamomilla.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Yoshiyuki; Nishimoto, Masaki; Matsushima, Akihito; Watanabe, Junko; Hirata, Toshifumi

    2002-11-01

    Genes for two geraniol-responsive factors, designated McEREBP1 and McWRKY1, from cultured shoot primordia of Matricaria chamomilla were cloned. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were highly similar to those of the family of ethylene-responsive element binding proteins and elicitor-induced DNA-binding proteins containing a WRKY domain, respectively. The levels of McEREBP1 and McWRKY1 mRNAs were maximum when measured 1 h after treatment of the cultured cells with geraniol.

  3. NMR characterisation of inulin-type fructooligosaccharides as the major water-soluble carbohydrates from Matricaria maritima (L.).

    PubMed

    Cérantola, Stéphane; Kervarec, Nelly; Pichon, Roger; Magné, Christian; Bessieres, Marie-Anne; Deslandes, Eric

    2004-10-04

    By use of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy including 2D 1H,1H DQF-COSY/TOCSY and 1H,13C HMQC/HMBC experiments, the main water-soluble carbohydrate components extracted from leaves of Matricaria maritima were identified as oligofructans composed of a linear chain of (2-->1)-linked beta-D-fructofuranosyl residues specifying an inulin-type structure. Alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->2)-[beta-D-Fruf-(2-->1)-beta-D-Frucf]n-(2-->1)-beta-D-Fruf.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain Mc5Re-14, an Antagonistic Root Endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla

    SciTech Connect

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Mc5Re-14 revealed promising in vitro antagonistic activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. The 6.0-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively involved in pathogen suppression and direct and indirect plant growth promotion.

  5. Cadmium and nickel uptake are differentially modulated by salicylic acid in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Hedbavny, Josef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-10-28

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) is a widely used medicinal plant which also accumulates heavy metals in its above-ground organs. We investigated the effect of the important plant signaling molecule, salicylic acid (SA), on the accumulation of Ni or Cd, by exposing plants over 7 days to 60 microM solutions of individual heavy metals with or without 50 microM SA. Special emphasis was focused on phenolic metabolism-related parameters, not only because of their importance for growth and stress tolerance but also because phenolics are potent antioxidants in human diet. In combined treatments, SA stimulated an increase in soluble proteins of roots and reduced their water content. SA reduced total Cd in the shoot and increased Ni. Total and "intraroot" Ni decreased in Ni + SA treatment, while in the case of Cd, only "intraroot" content decreased in Cd + SA treatment, being correlated with cell wall-bound phenolic acids and lignin. SA was strongly accumulated in roots from the Ni + SA treatment, being correlated with an increase in hydrogen peroxide. In both Cd + SA and Ni + SA treatments, SA enhanced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and accumulation of total soluble phenols, particularly in the roots. Here, we report for the first time that soluble phenols may be involved in Cd shoot-to-root translocation. In the case of Ni, it seems that phenols serve as a root barrier in order to prevent Ni from reaching the above-ground organs. The effects of SA on phenolic metabolism, and the signaling role of ROS in the accumulation of phenols, are discussed.

  6. Exogenously applied calcium alleviates cadmium toxicity in Matricaria chamomilla L. plants.

    PubMed

    Farzadfar, Soudeh; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Hojati, Mostafa

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity in plants leads to serious disturbances of physiological processes, such as inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis, oxidative injury to the plant cells and water and nutrient uptake. Response of Matricaria chamomilla L. to calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) enrichment in growth medium for reducing Cd toxicity were studied in this study. Hydroponically cultured seedlings were treated with 0, 0.1, 1, and 5 mM CaCl(2), under 0, 120, and 180 μM CdCl(2) conditions, respectively. The study included measurements pertaining to physiological attributes such as growth parameters, Cd concentration and translocation, oxidative stress, and accumulation of phenolics. Addition of CaCl(2) to growth media decreased the Cd concentration, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reactive oxygen species accumulation in the plants treated with different CdCl(2), but increased the growth parameters. Malondialdehyde and total phenolics in shoots and roots were not much affected when plants were treated only with different CaCl(2) levels, but it showed a rapid increase when the plants were exposed to 120 and 180 CdCl(2) levels. CaCl(2) amendment also ameliorated the CdCl(2)-induced stress by reducing oxidative injury. The beneficial effects of CaCl(2) in ameliorating CdCl(2) toxicity can be attributed to the Ca-induced reduction of Cd concentration, by reducing the cell-surface negativity and competing for Cd(2+) ion influx, activity enhancement of antioxidant enzymes, and biomass accumulation.

  7. Dynamics of phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in metal-treated Matricaria chamomilla roots.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj

    2008-03-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, 11 phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla roots exposed to low (3 microM) and high (60 and 120 microM) levels of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) for 7 days were investigated. Five derivatives of cinnamic acid (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) and six derivatives of benzoic acid (protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic acids and protocatechuic aldehyde) were detected. Accumulation of glycoside-bound phenolics (revealed by acid hydrolysis) was enhanced mainly towards the end of the experiment, being more expressive in Cu-treated roots. Interestingly, chlorogenic acid was extremely elevated by the highest Cu dose (21-fold higher than control) suggesting its involvement in antioxidative protection. All compounds, with the exception of chlorogenic acid, were detected in the cell wall bound fraction, but only benzoic acids were found in the ester-bound fraction (revealed by alkaline hydrolysis). Soluble phenolics were present in substantially higher amounts in Cu-treated roots and more Cu was retained there in comparison to Cd. Cu strongly elevated PAL activity (by 5.4- and 12.1-fold in 60 and 120 microM treatment, respectively) and lignin content (by 71 and 148%, respectively) after one day of treatment, indicating formation of a barrier against metal entrance. Cd had slighter effects, supporting its non-redox active properties. Taken together, different forms of phenolic metabolites play an important role in chamomile tolerance to metal excess and participate in active antioxidative protection.

  8. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D

    2014-12-06

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems.

  9. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk; Kim, Okjin

    2016-03-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites.

  10. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk

    2016-01-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:27051444

  11. “Sticky invasion” – the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata L. seed mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    The mucilage envelope of seeds has various functions including the provision of different ways for the dispersal of diaspores. Chemical composition and water content of the mucilage yield particular adhesive and frictional properties in the envelope that also influence the dispersal of seeds. To determine the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage we studied (1) composition, (2) desiccation, (3) adhesion, and (4) friction properties of the mucilage under different hydration conditions. We revealed the presence of cellulose fibrils in the mucilage, which are responsible for a continuous and even distribution of the mucilaginous layer on the seed surface. The measured values of adhesive and frictional properties differed significantly in comparison to the previously studied pectic mucilage of Linum usitatissimum. Also, the water loss from the cellulose mucilage was more rapid. The obtained different values can result from the presence of cellulose fibrils and their interaction with pectins in the mucilage. Because of this feature the mucilage of P. lanceolata may represent a more regularly ordered and stabile system than the pectic mucilage of flax, which lacks cellulose. In spite of the fact that P. lanceolata mucilage revealed different adhesive and frictional properties than the pectic mucilage, it still demonstrates an effective system promoting zoochoric seed dispersal. Cellulose may additionally prevent the mucilage against loss from the seed surface. PMID:28144540

  12. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F.; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind–stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. PMID:25297315

  13. Artificial simulated saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Min, Fang-Fang; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2013-02-15

    The saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. seeds was investigated in vitro. It was found that salivary amylase had no effect on the polysaccharide; however, the polysaccharide was influenced in later gastrointestinal digestion. A steady decrease in molecular weight (M(w)) of the polysaccharide from 1903.1±93.0 to 4.7±0.2 kDa was observed as digestion time increased. Meanwhile, the reducing ends were increased from 0.157±0.009 to 0.622±0.026 mM, indicating the decrease of M(w) may due to the breakdown of glycosidic bonds. In addition, there was no monosaccharide released throughout the whole digestion period, suggesting that the gastrointestinal digestion did not result in a production of free monosaccharide. These results may provide some information on the digestion of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. in vitro, and may contribute to the methods of studying the digestion of other carbohydrates.

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Medicinally Important Plantago ovata Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Shivanjali; Kaul, Sanjana; Sharma, Pooja; Gupta, Mehak; Shankar, Rama; Jain, Mukesh; Dhar, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Plantago ovata is an economically and medicinally important plant of the family Plantaginaceae. It is used extensively for the production of seed husk for its application in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the transcriptome of P. ovata ovary was sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer platform to characterize the mucilage biosynthesis pathway in the plant. De novo assembly was carried out using Oases followed by velvet. A total of 46,955 non-redundant transcripts (≥100 bp) using ~29 million high-quality paired end reads were generated. Functional categorization of these transcripts revealed the presence of several genes involved in various biological processes like metabolic pathways, mucilage biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and antioxidants. In addition, simple sequence-repeat motifs, non-coding RNAs and transcription factors were also identified. Expression profiling of some genes involved in mucilage biosynthetic pathway was performed in different tissues of P. ovata using Real time PCR analysis. The study has resulted in a valuable resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics and functional genomics in P. ovata. PMID:26943165

  15. Complete genome sequences of two highly divergent Japanese isolates of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ken; Yamashita, Kazuo; Sugawara, Kota; Verbeek, Martin; Fujita, Naoko; Hanada, Kaoru; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Fuji, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-01

    Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus and has an exceptionally wide host range. It causes severe damage to lilies. Here we report on the complete nucleotide sequences of two new Japanese PlAMV isolates, one from the eudicot weed Viola grypoceras (PlAMV-Vi), and the other from the eudicot shrub Nandina domestica Thunb. (PlAMV-NJ). Their genomes contain five open reading frames (ORFs), which is characteristic of potexviruses. Surprisingly, the isolates showed only 76.0-78.0 % sequence identity with each other and with other PlAMV isolates, including isolates from Japanese lily and American nandina. Amino acid alignments of the replicase coding region encoded by ORF1 showed that the regions between the methyltransferase and helicase domains were less conserved than other regions, with several insertions and/or deletions. Phylogenetic analyses of the full-length nucleotide sequences revealed a moderate correlation between phylogenetic clustering and the original host plants of the PlAMV isolates. This study revealed the presence of two highly divergent PlAMV isolates in Japan.

  16. Association of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' with yellowing and phyllody of Plantago lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Fránová, J; Simková, M

    2009-09-01

    Long plantains (Plantago lanceolata L.) with symptoms resembling those associated with phytoplasma infection were observed repeatedly during the period 2000-2008 in southern Bohemia (Czech Republic). The symptoms of the plants were leaf yellowing, stunted growth, flower phyllody and lack of seed production. Transmission electron microscopy showed phytoplasmas in the sieve cells of affected plants but not in healthy ones. Association of phytoplasmas with the disease was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using phytoplasma-specific universal ribosomal primers R16F2n/R16R2. An amplification product of the expected size (1.2 kb) was observed in all samples of the symptomatic long plantains. The restriction profiles obtained from digestion of the PCR products with three endonucleases (AluI, HhaI, MseI) showed that the phytoplasmas infecting long plantains in the Czech Republic were indistinguishable from those belonging to the aster yellows group (subgroup 16SrI-B). Sequence analysis of 1748 bp of the ribosomal operon indicated that the closest related phytoplasma was that associated with 'Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea', originating also in Bohemia. This is the first report of the natural occurrence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' in plants of P. lanceolata.

  17. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics.

  18. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  19. Ontogenetic patterns in the mechanisms of tolerance to herbivory in Plantago

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Kasey E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Herbivory and plant defence differ markedly among seedlings and juvenile and mature plants in most species. While ontogenetic patterns of chemical resistance have been the focus of much research, comparatively little is known about how tolerance to damage changes across ontogeny. Due to dramatic shifts in plant size, resource acquisition, stored reserves and growth, it was predicted that tolerance and related underlying mechanisms would differ among ontogenetic stages. Methods Ontogenetic patterns in the mechanisms of tolerance were investigated in Plantago lanceolata and P. major (Plantaginaceae) using the genetic sib-ship approach. Pot-grown plants were subjected to 50 % defoliation at the seedling, juvenile and mature stages and either harvested in the short-term to look at plasticity in growth and photosynthesis in response to damage or allowed to grow through seed maturation to measure phenology, shoot compensation and reproductive fitness. Key Results Tolerance to defoliation was high in P. lanceolata, but low in P. major, and did not vary among ontogenetic stages in either species. Mechanisms underlying tolerance did vary across ontogeny. In P. lanceolata, tolerance was significantly related to flowering (juveniles) and pre-damage shoot biomass (mature plants). In P. major, tolerance was significantly related to pre-damage root biomass (seedlings) and induction of non-photochemical quenching, a photosynthetic parameter (juveniles). Conclusions Biomass partitioning was very plastic in response to damage and showed associations with tolerance in both species, indicating a strong role in plant defence. In contrast, photosynthesis and phenology showed weaker responses to damage and were related to tolerance only in certain ontogenetic stages. This study highlights the pivotal role of ontogeny in plant defence and herbivory. Additional studies in more species are needed to determine how seedlings tolerate herbivory in general and whether

  20. Composition and Bioactivities of an (E)-β-Farnesene Chemotype of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Essential Oil from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Shrestha, Samon; Setzer, William N

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla, collected from Nepal, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components in Nepalese chamomile oil were (E)-β-famesene (42.2%), α-bisabolol oxide A (22.3%), (E,E)-α-famesene (8.3%), cis-bicycloether (5.0%), α-bisabolol oxide B (4.5%), and α-bisabolone oxide A (4.0%). A cluster analysis based on the chemical compositions of 48 samples of chamomile oil reported in the literature has revealed seven chemotypes, and the oil from Nepal represents the (E)-β-farnesene chemotype. The chamomile oil was screened for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, and toxicity toward MCF-7 breast tumor cells, Artemia salina, Chaoborus plumicornis, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster.

  1. [Callose content in cell walls of leaf epidermis and mesophyll in Alisma plantago-aquatica L. plants growing in different conditions of water supply].

    PubMed

    Ovruts'ka, I I

    2014-01-01

    The relative callose content in Alisma plantago-aquatica leaves has been studied at the phases of budding and flowering--fruiting. The callose content in cell walls was shown to vary depending on the type of tissue, phase of ontogenesis and of water supply.

  2. [Polar lipid pool modification in leaves of hoary plantain (Plantago media L.) plants during their light adaptation under natural conditions].

    PubMed

    Rozentsvet, O A; Golovko, T K; Bogdanova, E S; Tabalenkova, G N; Nesterov, V N; Dymova, O V

    2013-01-01

    Polar glycerolipids and photosynthetic pigments of Plantago media L. plants, growing on limestone outcrops of the Southern Timan, have been studied. Leaves of plants growing on well insolated and heated slopes are characterized by an intensive lipoperoxidation; the accumulation of chlorophylls and carotenoids in these plants is 1.5-2 times less and the content of polar lipids is 15-20% less than in plants growing in dense grass at the bottom of slopes. The accumulation of some classes of glycerolipids in leaves in the daytime provides for stabilization of photosystem complexes and the formation of the pool of zeaxanthin, a protective xanthophyll. Changes in the content and ratio of lipids represent an important part of the adaptive reorganizations of the photosynthetic apparatus caused by excess radiation under natural conditions.

  3. Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area.

    PubMed

    Baroni, F; Boscagli, A; Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2000-08-01

    Preliminary data of a biogeochemical survey concerning antimony transfer from soil to plants in an abandoned Sb-mining area are presented. Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris can strongly accumulate antimony when its extractable fraction in the soil is high (139-793 mg/kg). A. ageratum accumulates in basal leaves (1367 mg/kg) and inflorescences (1105 mg/kg), P. lanceolata in roots (1150 mg/kg) and S. vulgaris in shoots (1164 mg/kg). In these plant species, the efficiency of antimony accumulation decreases when the antimony availability in the soil is high. In A. ageratum and S. vulgaris, the death of the epigeal target part at the end of the growing season contributes to a reduction of the antimony load in the plant. A study to test the use of these species as bioindicators of antimony availability in soil is suggested by our results.

  4. The peculiarities of water crystallization and ice melting processes in the roots of one-year plants (Plantago major L.).

    PubMed

    Bakradze, N; Kiziria, E; Sokhadze, V; Gogichaishvili, S

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented of a water phase transition study in plantain (Plantago major L.) roots, which were used as a model system to research the peculiarities of water crystallization and ice melting processes in complex heterogeneous biological systems. It was confirmed that water in such systems is crystallized in two clearly distinguished temperature ranges: -10 to -25 degree capital ES, Cyrillic and -25 to -45 degree capital ES, Cyrillic. These water fractions are conditionally attributed to extracellular (-10 to -25 degree capital ES, Cyrillic) and intracellular (-25 to -45 degree capital ES, Cyrillic) solutions. A possible explanation is given for such significant supercooling of the intracellular solution. The values of osmotic pressures of extra- and intracellular solutions were determined according to ice melting curves. It is noted that the intracellular solution, which crystallized at lower temperatures, had a lower osmotic pressure.

  5. Influence of restoration on arbuscular mycorrhiza of Biscutella laevigata L. (Brassicaceae) and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) from calamine spoil mounds.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, E; Zubek, Sz; Jurkiewicz, A; Szarek- Łukaszewska, G; Turnau, K

    2002-06-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of two plant species, Biscutella laevigata L. and Plantago lanceolata L., was investigated on calamine spoil mounds in Bolesław (southern Poland). Although B. laevigata is a member of the Brassicaceae, a family generally accepted as non-mycorrhizal, this species formed AM symbioses on both heavy metal-contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Besides vesicles and coils, arbuscules were also observed, especially in roots collected prior to seed maturity. Relative mycorrhizal root length and relative arbuscular richness were usually much higher in P. lanceolata than in B. laevigata but not absolute arbuscule richness. Roots of P. lanceolata showed higher colonisation than B. laevigata. Although roots were collected from plants in close proximity, no correlation in mycorrhizal parameters was found between the two species.

  6. Hexaconazole induces antioxidant protection and apigenin-7-glucoside accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla plants subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Hojati, Mostafa; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Ghanati, Faezeh; Panahi, Mehdi

    2011-05-15

    In this experiment, the possibility of enhancing the water deficit stress tolerance of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) during two growth stages by the exogenous application of hexaconazole (HEX) was investigated. To improve water deficit tolerance, HEX was applied in three concentrations during two different stages (50 and 80 days after sowing). After HEX applications, the plants were subjected to water deficit stress. Although all HEX concentrations improved the water deficit stress tolerance in chamomile plants, the application of 15 mg L(-1) provided better protection when compared to the other concentration. The exogenous application of HEX provided significant protection against water deficit stress compared to non-HEX-treated plants, significantly affecting the morphological characteristics and aspects of productivity, the relative water, protein and proline contents; non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; and the flower's apigenin-7-glucoside content. These results suggest that the HEX-induced tolerance to water deficit stress in chamomile was related to the changes in growth variables, antioxidants and the apigenin-7-glucoside content.

  7. Fast gas chromatography characterisation of purified semiochemicals from essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) and Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Heuskin, Stéphanie; Godin, Bruno; Leroy, Pascal; Capella, Quentin; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Verheggen, François; Haubruge, Eric; Lognay, Georges

    2009-04-03

    The chemical composition of Matricaria chamomilla L. and Nepeta cataria L. essential oils was determined by GC-MS on an apolar stationary phase by comparison of the characteristic fragmentation patterns with those of the Wiley 275L database. The GC-MS chromatograms were compared with those obtained by fast GC equipped with a direct resistively heated column (Ultra Fast Module 5% phenyl, 5 mx 0.1 mm, 0.1 microm film thickness). Analytical conditions were optimised to reach a good peak resolution (split ratio=1:100), with analysis time lower than 5 min versus 35-45 min required by conventional GC-MS. The fast chromatographic method was completely validated for the analysis of mono- and sesquiterpene compounds. Essential oils were then fractionated by column chromatography packed with silica gel. Three main fractions with high degree of purity in E-beta-farnesene were isolated from the oil of M. chamomilla. One fraction enriched in (Z,E)-nepetalactone and one enriched in beta-caryophyllene were obtained from the oil of N. cataria. These semiochemical compounds could act as attractants of aphid's predators and parasitoids.

  8. Improved antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) florets fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Hye; Bae, Won-Young; Eom, Su-Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidative and cytotoxic effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum were investigated to improve their biofunctional activities. Total polyphenol (TP) content was measured by the Folin-Denis method, and the antioxidant activities were assessed by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching method. AGS, HeLa, LoVo, MCF-7, and MRC-5 (normal) cells were used to examine the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The TP content of fermented chamomile reduced from 21.75 to 18.76 mg gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g, but the DPPH radical capturing activity of fermented chamomile was found to be 11.1% higher than that of nonfermented chamomile after 72 h of fermentation. Following the β-carotene bleaching, the antioxidative effect decreased because of a reduction in pH during fermentation. Additionally, chamomile fermented for 72 h showed a cytotoxic effect of about 95% against cancer cells at 12.7 mg solid/ml of broth, but MRC-5 cells were significantly less sensitive against fermented chamomile samples. These results suggest that the fermentation of chamomile could be applied to develop natural antioxidative and anticancer products. PMID:28124843

  9. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza

    2008-03-20

    Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats.

  10. Improved antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) florets fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Hye; Bae, Won-Young; Eom, Su-Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    Antioxidative and cytotoxic effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum were investigated to improve their biofunctional activities. Total polyphenol (TP) content was measured by the Folin-Denis method, and the antioxidant activities were assessed by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching method. AGS, HeLa, LoVo, MCF-7, and MRC-5 (normal) cells were used to examine the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The TP content of fermented chamomile reduced from 21.75 to 18.76 mg gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g, but the DPPH radical capturing activity of fermented chamomile was found to be 11.1% higher than that of nonfermented chamomile after 72 h of fermentation. Following the β-carotene bleaching, the antioxidative effect decreased because of a reduction in pH during fermentation. Additionally, chamomile fermented for 72 h showed a cytotoxic effect of about 95% against cancer cells at 12.7 mg solid/ml of broth, but MRC-5 cells were significantly less sensitive against fermented chamomile samples. These results suggest that the fermentation of chamomile could be applied to develop natural antioxidative and anticancer products.

  11. Fast quality assessment of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) by headspace solid-phase microextraction: influence of flower development stage.

    PubMed

    Rafieiolhossaini, Mohammad; Adams, An; Sodaeizadeh, Hamid; Van Damme, Patrick; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    For an adequate quality evaluation of aromatic plants grown under different conditions, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the analysis of volatile constituents is indispensable. The main objective of the present study was to compare fast screening of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with conventional isolation of the essential oil (steam distillation-solvent extraction (SDSE)) for the differentiation of chamomile essential oil constituents. Flowers were harvested at two distinct development stages: stage I, when ligulate flowers start to develop and tubular flowers are still closed, and stage II, when tubular flowers are partially to completely opened. Dried chamomile flowers at two development stages were extracted by means of both SDSE and HS-SPME, followed by GC-MS analysis. Among 30 compounds detected, (E)-beta-farnesene (49%), artemisia ketone (10%) and germacrene D (9%) were the predominant volatile components in the HS-SPME-extract, while alpha-bisabolol oxide A (42%), chamazulene (21%) and (Z)-spiroether (8%) were the main essential oil constituents among the 13 compounds obtained by SDSE. After statistical analysis of the data, both techniques enabled the same conclusion: (E)-beta-farnesene was the only compound which showed significant differences between the two flower development stages. These results suggest that HS-SPME-GC-MS can be used as a sensitive technique for the rapid screening and quality assessment of M. chamomilla.

  12. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David J; Moran, Bridget M; Otte, Marinus L

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin.

  13. Effect of Matricaria chamomilla L. flower essential oil on the growth and ultrastructure of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem.

    PubMed

    Tolouee, Marziyeh; Alinezhad, Soheil; Saberi, Reza; Eslamifar, Ali; Zad, Seyed Javad; Jaimand, Kamkar; Taeb, Jaleh; Rezaee, Mohammad-Bagher; Kawachi, Masanobu; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2010-05-15

    The antifungal activity of Matricaria chamomilla L. flower essential oil was evaluated against Aspergillus niger with the emphasis on the plant's mode of action at the electron microscopy level. A total of 21 compounds were identified in the plant oil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) accounting for 92.86% of the oil composition. The main compounds identified were alpha-bisabolol (56.86%), trans-trans-farnesol (15.64%), cis-beta-farnesene (7.12%), guaiazulene (4.24%), alpha-cubebene (2.69%), alpha-bisabolol oxide A (2.19%) and chamazulene (2.18%). In the bioassay, A. niger was cultured on Potato Dextrose Broth medium in 6-well microplates in the presence of serial two fold concentrations of plant oil (15.62 to 1000 microg/mL) for 96 h at 28 degrees C. Based on the results obtained, A. niger growth was inhibited dose dependently with a maximum of approximately 92.50% at the highest oil concentration. A marked retardation in conidial production by the fungus was noticed in relation to the inhibition of hyphal growth. The main changes of hyphae observed by transmission electron microscopy were disruption of cytoplasmic membranes and intracellular organelles, detachment of plasma membrane from the cell wall, cytoplasm depletion, and complete disorganization of hyphal compartments. In scanning electron microscopy, swelling and deformation of hyphal tips, formation of short branches, and collapse of entire hyphae were the major changes observed. Morphological alterations might be due to the effect on cell permeability through direct interaction of M. chamomilla essential oil with the fungal plasma membrane. These findings indicate the potential of M. chamomilla L. essential oil in preventing fungal contamination and subsequent deterioration of stored food and other susceptible materials.

  14. Phloem Loading by the PmSUC2 Sucrose Carrier from Plantago major Occurs into Companion Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, R.; Brandner, J.; Schulz, A.; Gahrtz, M.; Sauer, N.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of mRNA for the sucrose-H+ symporter PmSUC2 have been found in the vascular bundles of petioles from Plantago major. The possible role of PmSUC2 in phloem loading was studied with antiserum raised against the recombinant PmSUC2 protein. This antiserum labeled a single 35-kD protein band in detergent extracts of P. major vascular bundles. It showed no cross-reaction with the P. major sucrose carrier PmSUC1, which was tested with detergent extracts from plasma membranes of transgenic yeast strains containing either the P. major sucrose transporter PmSUC1 or PmSUC2. The antiserum was used to determine the site of PmSUC2 expression in leaves, petioles, and roots of P. major. In cross-sections and longitudinal sections, the PmSUC2 protein was found in only one single cell type. These cells were identified as companion cells because they are nucleated, contain a dense cytoplasm, and are always adjacent to a sieve element. The labeled cells had the same longitudinal extension as did their sister sieve elements and always ended next to the sieve plates, which were characterized by specific staining. PmSUC2 mRNA and PmSUC2 protein were also detected in P. major roots. The function of PmSUC2 in the different organs and its role in phloem loading are discussed. PMID:12242355

  15. Comparative Study on the Effect of Plantago psyllium and Ocimum basilicum Seeds on Anthropometric Measures in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Shahab-Aldin; Asgary, Sedigheh; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. Methods: All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial. They randomly assigned into four groups receiving (1) OB 10 g/day; (2) PP 10 g/day; (3) mix of OB and PP 10 g/day; and (4) control group without placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were assessed during study baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. The data were analyzed using paired sample t-test for within group and analysis of covariance for between groups. Results: In within group analysis, weight and body mass index show a significant reduction after 12 weeks intervention. In addition, soft lean mass and lean body mass were decreased in PP and mixed of PP and OB groups significantly; another group (OB) shows the same result for mass body fat. Although in intervention groups, we see considerable reduction, between group changes did not demonstrate the same consequences. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that administration of OB, PP, or mix of them for 12 weeks does not affect any of the anthropometric measures in NAFLD. PMID:27761216

  16. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) and an understory herbaceous plant Plantago asiatica.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We investigated communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the fine roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, and Plantago asiatica to consider the relationship between orchard trees and herbaceous plants in AMF symbioses. The AMF communities were analyzed on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), which were amplified using the AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained AMF sequences were divided into 23 phylotypes. Among them, 12 phylotypes included AMF from both host plants, and most of the obtained sequences (689/811) were affiliated to them. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the host plant species did not have a significant effect on the distribution of AMF phylotypes, whereas the effects of sampling site, soil total C, soil total N and soil-available P were significant. It was also found that the mean observed overlaps of AMF phylotypes between the paired host plants in the same soil cores (27.1% of phylotypes shared) were significantly higher than the mean 1,000 simulated overlaps (14.2%). Furthermore, the same AMF sequences (100% sequence identity) were detected from both host plants in 8/12 soil cores having both roots. Accordingly, we concluded that Py. pyrifolia and Pl. asiatica examined shared some AMF communities, which suggested that understory herbaceous plants may function as AMF inoculum sources for orchard trees.

  17. Evaluation of drug uptake and deactivation in plant: Fate of albendazole in ribwort plantain (Plantago laceolata) cells and regenerants.

    PubMed

    Stuchlíková Raisová, Lucie; Podlipná, Radka; Szotáková, Barbora; Syslová, Eliška; Skálová, Lenka

    2017-03-13

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole anthelmintic widely used especially in veterinary medicine. Along with other drugs, anthelmintics have become one of a new class of micro-pollutants that disturb the environment but the information about their fate in plants remains limited. The present study was designed to test the uptake and biotransformation of ABZ in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lancelota), a common meadow plant, which can come into contact with this anthelmintic through the excrements of treated animals in pastures. Two model systems were used and compared: cell suspensions and whole plant regenerants. In addition, time-dependent changes in occurrence of ABZ and its metabolites in roots, basal parts of the leaves and tops of the leaves were followed up. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) led to the identification of 18 metabolites of ABZ formed in the ribwort. In both model systems, the same types of ABZ biotransformation reactions were found, but the spectrum and abundance of the ABZ metabolites detected in cell suspensions and regenerants differed significantly. Cell suspensions seem to be suitable only for qualitative estimations of drug biotransformation reactions while regenerants were shown to represent an adequate model for the qualitative as well as quantitative evaluation of drug uptake and metabolism in plants.

  18. Intraspecific variation in temperature dependence of gas exchange characteristics among Plantago asiatica ecotypes from different temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazumasa; Onoda, Yusuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2007-01-01

    There are large inter- and intraspecific differences in the temperature dependence of photosynthesis, but the physiological cause of the variation is poorly understood. Here, the temperature dependence of photosynthesis was examined in three ecotypes of Plantago asiatica transplanted from different latitudes, where the mean annual temperature varies between 7.5 and 16.8 degrees C. Plants were raised at 15 or 30 degrees C, and the CO(2) response of photosynthetic rates was determined at various temperatures. When plants were grown at 30 degrees C, no difference was found in the temperature dependence of photosynthesis among ecotypes. When plants were grown at 15 degrees C, ecotypes from a higher latitude maintained a relatively higher photosynthetic rate at low measurement temperatures. This difference was caused by a difference in the balance between the capacities of two processes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (J(max)) and carboxylation (V(cmax)), which altered the limiting step of photosynthesis at low temperatures. The organization of photosynthetic proteins also varied among ecotypes. The ecotype from the highest latitude increased the J(max) : V(cmax) ratio with decreasing growth temperature, while that from the lowest latitude did not. It is concluded that nitrogen partitioning in the photosynthetic apparatus and its response to growth temperature were different among ecotypes, which caused an intraspecific variation in temperature dependence of photosynthesis.

  19. Studies on the individual and combined diuretic effects of four Vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus).

    PubMed

    Doan, D D; Nguyen, N H; Doan, H K; Nguyen, T L; Phan, T S; van Dau, N; Grabe, M; Johansson, R; Lindgren, G; Stjernström, N E

    1992-06-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used in Vietnam alongside modern drugs. We assessed the diuretic effect of four traditional Vietnamese herbal remedies from Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus, all claimed to produce an increase of diuresis. No influence was recorded for the 12- and 24-h urine output or on the sodium excretion for any of the drugs when tested under standardized conditions in a placebo controlled double-blind crossover model. The present study indicates the need for critical review of the present recommendations regarding therapy with plant materials in countries relying on empiric traditions.

  20. Effects of extreme weather events and legume presence on mycorrhization of Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus in the field.

    PubMed

    Walter, J; Kreyling, J; Singh, B K; Jentsch, A

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about direct and indirect effects of extreme weather events on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under field conditions. In a field experiment, we investigated the response of mycorrhization to drought and heavy rain in grassland communities. We quantified AMF biomass in soil, mycorrhization of roots of the grass Holcus lanatus and the forb Plantago lanceolata, as well as plant performance. Plants were grown in four-species communities with or without a legume. We hypothesised that drought increases and heavy rain decreases mycorrhization, and that higher mycorrhization will be linked to improved stress resistance and higher biomass production. Soil AMF biomass increased under both weather extremes. Heavy rain generally benefitted plants and increased arbuscules in P. lanceolata. Drought neither reduced plant performance nor root mycorrhization. Arbuscules increased in H. lanatus several weeks after drought, and in P. lanceolata several weeks after heavy rain spells. These long-lasting effects of weather events on mycorrhization highlight the indirect influence of climate on AMF via their host plant. Legume presence increased plant community biomass, but had only minor effects on mycorrhization. Arbuscule colonisation was negatively correlated with senescence during the dry summer. Mycorrhization and biomass production in P. lanceolata were positively related. However, increased mycorrhization was related to less biomass in the grass. AMF mycelium in soil might generally increase under extreme events, root colonisation, however, is host species specific. This might amplify community shifts in grassland under climate change by further increasing stress resistance of species that already benefit from changed precipitation.

  1. Light and Nutrient Dependent Responses in Secondary Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata Offspring Are Due to Phenotypic Plasticity in Experimental Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Miehe-Steier, Annegret; Roscher, Christiane; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B.

    2015-01-01

    A few studies in the past have shown that plant diversity in terms of species richness and functional composition can modify plant defense chemistry. However, it is not yet clear to what extent genetic differentiation of plant chemotypes or phenotypic plasticity in response to diversity-induced variation in growth conditions or a combination of both is responsible for this pattern. We collected seed families of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) from six-year old experimental grasslands of varying plant diversity (Jena Experiment). The offspring of these seed families was grown under standardized conditions with two levels of light and nutrients. The iridoid glycosides, catalpol and aucubin, and verbascoside, a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside, were measured in roots and shoots. Although offspring of different seed families differed in the tissue concentrations of defensive metabolites, plant diversity in the mothers' environment did not explain the variation in the measured defensive metabolites of P. lanceolata offspring. However secondary metabolite levels in roots and shoots were strongly affected by light and nutrient availability. Highest concentrations of iridoid glycosides and verbascoside were found under high light conditions, and nutrient availability had positive effects on iridoid glycoside concentrations in plants grown under high light conditions. However, verbascoside concentrations decreased under high levels of nutrients irrespective of light. The data from our greenhouse study show that phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation rather than genetic differentiation in response to plant community diversity is responsible for variation in secondary metabolite concentrations of P. lanceolata in the six-year old communities of the grassland biodiversity experiment. Due to its large phenotypic plasticity P. lanceolata has the potential for a fast and efficient adjustment to varying environmental conditions in plant communities of

  2. Dissecting the Genetic Basis for Seed Coat Mucilage Heteroxylan Biosynthesis in Plantago ovata Using Gamma Irradiation and Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Matthew R.; Ma, Chao; Phan, Jana; Neumann, Kylie; Shirley, Neil J.; Hahn, Michael G.; Cozzolino, Daniel; Burton, Rachel A.

    2017-01-01

    Seeds from the myxospermous species Plantago ovata release a polysaccharide-rich mucilage upon contact with water. This seed coat derived mucilage is composed predominantly of heteroxylan (HX) and is utilized as a gluten-free dietary fiber supplement to promote human colorectal health. In this study, a gamma-irradiated P. ovata population was generated and screened using histological stains and Fourier Transform Mid Infrared (FTMIR) spectroscopy to identify putative mutants showing defects in seed coat mucilage HX composition and/or structure. FTMIR analysis of dry seed revealed variation in regions of the IR spectra previously linked to xylan structure in Secale cereale (rye). Subsequent absorbance ratio and PCA multivariate analysis identified 22 putative mutant families with differences in the HX IR fingerprint region. Many of these showed distinct changes in the amount and subtle changes in structure of HX after mucilage extrusion, while 20% of the putative HX mutants identified by FTMIR showed no difference in staining patterns of extruded mucilage compared to wild-type. Transcriptional screening analysis of two putative reduced xylan in mucilage (rxm) mutants, rxm1 and rxm3, revealed that changes in HX levels in rxm1 correlate with reduced transcription of known and novel genes associated with xylan synthesis, possibly indicative of specific co-regulatory units within the xylan biosynthetic pathway. These results confirm that FTMIR is a suitable method for identifying putative mutants with altered mucilage HX composition in P. ovata, and therefore forms a resource to identify novel genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. PMID:28377777

  3. Non-targeted Metabolite Profiling and Scavenging Activity Unveil the Nutraceutical Potential of Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manish K.; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolomics implies that psyllium (Plantago ovata) is a rich source of natural antioxidants, PUFAs (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids) and essential and sulfur-rich amino acids, as recommended by the FAO for human health. Psyllium contains phenolics and flavonoids that possess reducing capacity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. In leaves, seeds, and husks, about 76, 78, 58% polyunsaturated, 21, 15, 20% saturated, and 3, 7, 22% monounsaturated fatty acids were found, respectively. A range of FAs (C12 to C24) was detected in psyllium and among different plant parts, a high content of the nutritive indicators ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid (57%) and ω-6 linoleic acid (18%) was detected in leaves. Similarly, total content of phenolics and the essential amino acid valine were also detected utmost in leaves followed by sulfur-rich amino acids and flavonoids. In total, 36 different metabolites were identified in psyllium, out of which 26 (13 each) metabolites were detected in leaves and seeds, whereas the remaining 10 were found in the husk. Most of the metabolites are natural antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids, or alkaloids and can be used as nutrient supplements. Moreover, these metabolites have been reported to have several pharmaceutical applications, including anti-cancer activity. Natural plant ROS scavengers, saponins, were also detected. Based on metabolomic data, the probable presence of a flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was inferred, which provides useful insight for metabolic engineering in the future. Non-targeted metabolomics, antioxidants and scavenging activities reveal the nutraceutical potential of the plant and also suggest that psyllium leaves can be used as a green salad as a dietary supplement to daily food. PMID:27092153

  4. Polymorphisms in LEP and NPY genes modify the response to soluble fibre Plantago ovata husk intake on cardiovascular risk biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Crescenti, Anna; Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M; Anguera, Anna; Arola, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The satiating effect of fibre consumption has been related to gut hormones, such as peptide YY and leptin. These peptides may also influence cardiovascular (CVD) risk biomarkers. Nevertheless, there is wide interindividual variation in metabolic responses to fibre consumption. The objective was to investigate differences in the effects of soluble fibre, in the form of Plantago ovata husk (Po-husk) treatment, on CVD risk biomarkers according to selected polymorphisms in genes related to satiety. The study was a multi-centred, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel and randomised trial in mild-moderate hypercholesterolaemic patients (age range: 43-67 years). Eight polymorphisms in three genes related to satiety (LEP, NPY and PYY) were identified in 178 participants; 88 patients in the placebo (microcrystalline cellulose 14 g/day) group and 90 in the Po-husk (14 g/day) group, which had added to a low-saturated-fat diet for 8 weeks. The CVD biomarkers measured included the following: lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), glucose, insulin, hs-CRP, oxidised LDL and IL-6. Relative to the placebo, Po-husk consumption lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration by 3.3 % according to rs7799039 polymorphism in the LEP gene (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the Po-husk reduced systolic BP (mean [95 % CI]) by -8 mmHg (-14.16; -1.90) and hs-CRP by 24.9 % in subjects with the AA genotype of the rs16147 polymorphism in the NPY gene (32 % of our total population; p < 0.05), which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the LEP and NPY genes potentiate the response to Po-husk, particularly the effects on systolic BP and the hs-CRP plasma concentration.

  5. Phloem-Specific Expression of Yang Cycle Genes and Identification of Novel Yang Cycle Enzymes in Plantago and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Feussner, Kirstin; Zierer, Wolfgang; Rabinovych, Valentyna; Klebl, Franz; Feussner, Ivo; Sauer, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) or Yang cycle is a set of reactions that recycle MTA to Met. In plants, MTA is a byproduct of polyamine, ethylene, and nicotianamine biosynthesis. Vascular transcriptome analyses revealed phloem-specific expression of the Yang cycle gene 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE KINASE1 (MTK1) in Plantago major and Arabidopsis thaliana. As Arabidopsis has only a single MTK gene, we hypothesized that the expression of other Yang cycle genes might also be vascular specific. Reporter gene studies and quantitative analyses of mRNA levels for all Yang cycle genes confirmed this hypothesis for Arabidopsis and Plantago. This includes the Yang cycle genes 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE-1-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE1 and DEHYDRATASE-ENOLASE-PHOSPHATASE-COMPLEX1. We show that these two enzymes are sufficient for the conversion of methylthioribose-1-phosphate to 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In bacteria, fungi, and animals, the same conversion is catalyzed in three to four separate enzymatic steps. Furthermore, comparative analyses of vascular and nonvascular metabolites identified Met, S-adenosyl Met, and MTA preferentially or almost exclusively in the vascular tissue. Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the Yang cycle in higher plants and demonstrate that the Yang cycle works primarily in the vasculature. Finally, expression analyses of polyamine biosynthetic genes suggest that the Yang cycle in leaves recycles MTA derived primarily from polyamine biosynthesis. PMID:21540433

  6. Quantitative Gene Expression of ERG9 in Model Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Chamomile Extract For Human Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpour, Maryam; Mobini-Dehkordi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over expression of squalene synthase gene causes induction of growth tumour and reduction of apoptosis. This gene which is conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and humans, is named (ERG9). Aim In this work, we studied the effect of Matricaria recutita extract on ERG9 gene (squalene synthase) expression in S.cerevisiae which was used as organism model in cancer therapy. Materials and Methods S. cerevisiae was cultured in YPD medium plus 0,250, 1000 and 3000 μg/ml of Matricaria recutita extract and we evaluated the (ERG9) gene expression by Real-time RT-PCR method after 24 hours. Statistical analysis used At least 3 independent experiments were done. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s test. A p-value of less than 0.01 was considered as significant. Results We found that 250, 1000 and 3000 μg/ml of Matricaria recutita extract could reduce expression of ERG9 gene significantly (p<0.01). Interestingly, the expression of this gene was completely inhibited in 1000 and 3000 μg/ml concentrations. Conclusion This study predicted that Matricaria recutita extract produced anti-cancer effects in humans, because it could inhibit the expression of an analogue key gene in this malignant disease. Further investigations should be made, to study its molecular mechanism of action at the mammal cell level. PMID:27630863

  7. Plasiatine, an Unprecedented Indole–Phenylpropanoid Hybrid from Plantago asiatica as a Potent Activator of the Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Shp2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhong-Hua; Shi, Yi-Ming; Qiang, Zhe; Wang, Xia; Shang, Shan-Zhai; Yang, Yan; Du, Bao-Wen; Peng, Hui-Pan; Ji, Xu; Li, Honglin; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2016-04-01

    Plasiatine (1), isolated from the seeds of Plantago asiatica, is an unprecedented indole analogue linked to a phenylpropanoid moiety via a carbon bond that builds up a novel heteromeric construction with a C19N2 scaffold. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic data and computational evidence. Notably, experimental assay demonstrated that 1 significantly enhanced the activity of the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 0.97 μM, and activated phosphorylation of ERK, a known target of Shp2. Moreover, plasiatine (1) promoted hepatocellular HepG2 cells migration. Molecular docking suggested that plasiatine (1) binds to the catalytic cleft of Shp2. These results identified plasiatine (1) as the first small molecule Shp2 activator, and it warrants further investigation as a novel pharmaceutical tool to study the function of Shp2 in tumorigenesis.

  8. Effects of the Timing of Herbivory on Plant Defense Induction and Insect Performance in Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) Depend on Plant Mycorrhizal Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Bezemer, T Martijn; van der Putten, Wim H; Biere, Arjen

    2015-11-01

    Plants often are exposed to antagonistic and symbiotic organisms both aboveground and belowground. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms may occur either simultaneously or sequentially, and jointly can determine plant responses to future enemies. However, little is known about time-dependency of such aboveground-belowground interactions. We examined how the timing of a 24 h period of aboveground herbivory by Spodoptera exigua (1-8 d prior to later arriving conspecifics) influenced the response of Plantago lanceolata and the performance of later arriving conspecifics. We also examined whether these induced responses were modulated by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae. The amount of leaf area consumed by later arriving herbivores decreased with time after induction by early herbivores. Mycorrhizal infection reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of later arriving herbivores, associated with a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food rather than a reduction in relative consumption rates. In non-mycorrhizal plants, leaf concentrations of the defense compound catalpol showed a linear two-fold increase during the eight days following early herbivory. By contrast, mycorrhizal plants already had elevated levels of leaf catalpol prior to their exposure to early herbivory and did not show any further increase following herbivory. These results indicate that AMF resulted in a systemic induction, rather than priming of these defenses. AMF infection significantly reduced shoot biomass of Plantago lanceolata. We conclude that plant responses to future herbivores are not only influenced by exposure to prior aboveground and belowground organisms, but also by when these prior organisms arrive and interact.

  9. Does the direct effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration on leaf respiration vary with temperature? Responses in two species of Plantago that differ in relative growth rate.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on leaf respiration in darkness (R) over a broad range of measurement temperatures. Our aim was to further elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) of the often-reported inhibition of leaf R by a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Experiments were conducted using two species of Plantago that differed in maximum relative growth rate (fast-growing Plantago lanceolata L. and the slow-growing P. euryphylla Briggs, Carolin & Pulley). Rates of leaf respiration (R) were measured at atmospheric CO2 concentrations ranging from 75 to 2000 &mgr;mol mol-1 at temperatures from 12 to 42 degrees C. R was measured as CO2 release with a portable gas exchange system with infrared gas analysers. Our hypothesis was that the changes in temperature alter the flux coefficient (i.e. the extent to which changes in potential enzyme activity has an effect on the rate of a reaction) of enzymes potentially affected by CO2. Initial analysis of our results suggested that R was inhibited by elevated CO2 in both species, with the apparent degree of inhibition being greatest at low temperature. Moreover, the apparent degree of inhibition following a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 350 to 700 &mgr;mol mol-1 was similar to that reported by several previous studies (approximately 14% and 26% for P. lanceolata and P. euryphylla, respectively) at a temperature equal to the mean of the previous studies. However, subsequent correction for diffusion leaks of CO2 across the gas exchange's cuvette gaskets revealed that no significant inhibition had occurred in either species, at any temperature. The inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on leaf respiratory CO2 release reported by previous studies may therefore have been overestimated.

  10. Biological and molecular analysis of the pathogenic variant C3 of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) evolved during adaptation to chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla).

    PubMed

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Stehlík, Jan; Procházková, Jitka; Orctová, Lidmila; Wullenweber, Julia; Füssy, Zoltan; Kováčik, Josef; Duraisamy, Ganesh S; Ziegler, Angelika; Schubert, Jörg; Steger, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Viroid-caused pathogenesis is a specific process dependent on viroid and host genotype(s), and may involve viroid-specific small RNAs (vsRNAs). We describe a new PSTVd variant C3, evolved through sequence adaptation to the host chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) after biolistic inoculation with PSTVd-KF440-2, which causes extraordinary strong ('lethal') symptoms. The deletion of a single adenine A in the oligoA stretch of the pathogenicity (P) domain appears characteristic of PSTVd-C3. The pathogenicity and the vsRNA pool of PSTVd-C3 were compared to those of lethal variant PSTVd-AS1, from which PSTVd-C3 differs by five mutations located in the P domain. Both lethal viroid variants showed higher stability and lower variation in analyzed vsRNA pools than the mild PSTVd-QFA. PSTVd-C3 and -AS1 caused similar symptoms on chamomile, tomato, and Nicotiana benthamiana, and exhibited similar but species-specific distributions of selected vsRNAs as quantified using TaqMan probes. Both lethal PSTVd variants block biosynthesis of lignin in roots of cultured chamomile and tomato. Four 'expression markers' (TCP3, CIPK, VSF-1, and VPE) were selected from a tomato EST library to quantify their expression upon viroid infection; these markers were strongly downregulated in tomato leaf blades infected by PSTVd-C3- and -AS1 but not by PSTVd-QFA.

  11. Clinical efficacy of a 1% Matricaria chamomile L. mouthwash and 0.12% chlorhexidine for gingivitis control in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Goes, Paula; Dutra, Caio S; Lisboa, Mário R P; Gondim, Delane V; Leitão, Renata; Brito, Gerly A C; Rego, Rodrigo O

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash containing 1% Matricaria chamomilla L. (MTC) extract in reducing gingival inflammation and plaque formation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled a total of 30 males and females (age, 10-40 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances and a minimum of 20 natural teeth. The participants were allocated to three groups (n = 10 each) and asked to rinse with 15 mL of a placebo, 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), or 1% MTC mouthwash, immediately after brushing for 1 min, in the morning and evening, for 15 days. Data (mean ± SD) on visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded on days 1 and 15. The placebo group exhibited increases in VPI and GBI (10.2% and 23.1%, respectively) from day 1 to day 15. As compared with placebo, VPI and GBI significantly decreased in the MTC group (-25.6% and -29.9%, respectively) and the CHX group (-39.9% and -32.0%, respectively). In summary, MTC reduced biofilm accumulation and gingival bleeding in patients with gingivitis, probably because of its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.(J Oral Sci 58, 569-574, 2016).

  12. Circadian rhythm of Z- and E-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acids and herniarin in leaves of Matricaria chamomilla.

    PubMed

    Repcák, Miroslav; Smajda, Benadik; Kovácik, Jozef; Eliasová, Adriana

    2009-07-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) in the above-ground organs synthesizes and accumulates (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acids (GMCA), the precursors of phytoanticipin herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin). The diurnal rhythmicity of the sum of GMCA (maximum before daybreak) and herniarin (acrophase at 10 h 21 min of circadian time) was observed under artificial lighting conditions LD 12:12. The acrophase is the time point of the maximum of the sinusoidal curve fitted to the experimental data. In continuous light, the circadian rhythms of both compounds were first described with similar acrophases of endogenous rhythms; a significantly different result from that in synchronized conditions. The rhythms' mesor (the mean value of the sinusoidal curve fitted to the experimental data) under free-running conditions was not influenced. Abiotic stress under synchronized conditions decreased the average content of GMCA to half of the original level and eliminated the rhythmicity. In contrast, the rhythm of herniarin continued, though its content significantly increased. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in a significant increase in GMCA content, which did not manifest any rhythmicity while the rhythm of herniarin continued. Circadian control of herniarin could be considered as a component of the plant's specialized defence mechanisms.

  13. The Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria chamomilla Suppresses Migration and Invasion of Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Kamali, Ali Mohammad; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Matricaria chamomilla is an aromatic plant with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the inhibitory role of M. chamomilla on migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells remains unclear. Objective: This study investigated the methods to evaluate these anticancer mechanisms of M. chamomilla on human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines. Materials and Methods: The cells were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla at different concentrations (50–1300 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h in a culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. This study quantified the 50% growth inhibition concentrations (IC50) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; apoptosis and necrosis through Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining; cell proliferation and clone formation by clonogenic assay as well as cellular migration, invasion, and attachment. After 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment, the IC50levels were 992 ± 2.3 μg/mL, 893 ± 5.4 μg/mL, and 785 ± 4.8 μg/mL against MDA-MB-468, respectively, and 1288 ± 5.6 μg/mL, 926 ± 2.5 μg/mL, and 921 ± 3.5 μg/mL, against MCF-7, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the extract concentrations induced cellular apoptosis and necrosis and decreased cellular invasion or migration through 8 μm pores, colonization and attachment in a dose-dependent manner. Results: It indicated time- and dose-dependent anti-invasive and antimigrative or proliferative and antitoxic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of chamomile on breast cancer cells. Conclusion: This study demonstrated an effective plant in preventing or treating breast cancer. SUMMARY Antioxidant compounds in Matricaria chamomilla have anticancer effects.Hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla controls cellular proliferation and apoptosis induction.Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining suggested that the extract induces apoptosis more than necrosis.Hydroalcoholic extract of M

  14. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Quercetin, Luteolin, and Apigenin in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Matricaria chamomilla L. Extract by HPLC-UV

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoxv; Lan, Wei; Yin, Xingbin; Yang, Chunjing; Wang, Wenping

    2017-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin in rat plasma after oral administration of Matricaria chamomilla L. extract. The flow rate was set at 1.0 ml/min and the detection wavelength was kept at 350 nm. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.11–11.36 μg/ml for quercetin, 0.11–11.20 μg/ml for luteolin, and 0.11–10.60 μg/ml for apigenin, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions (RSD) were less than 8.32 and 8.81%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of the three compounds were 0.11 μg/ml. The mean recoveries for quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin were 99.11, 95.62, and 95.21%, respectively. Stability studies demonstrated that the three compounds were stable in the preparation and analytical process. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.29 ± 0.06, 3.04 ± 0.60, and 0.42 ± 0.10 μg/ml, respectively. The time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) was 0.79 ± 0.25, 0.42 ± 0.09, and 0.51 ± 0.13 h, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics study of quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin in rat plasma after oral administration of M. chamomilla extract. PMID:28373891

  15. In Vivo Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells on Electrospun Poly-L-Lactide Acid Scaffolds Coated with Matricaria chamomilla L. Oil

    PubMed Central

    Fazili, Afsaneh; Gholami, Soghra; Minaie Zangi, Bagher; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Gholami, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the in vivo differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin producing cells (IPCs) on electrospun poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) scaffolds coated with Matricaria chammomila L. (chamomile) oil. Materials and Methods In this interventional, experimental study adipose MSCs (AMSCs) were isolated from 12 adult male New Zealand white rabbits and characterized by flow cytometry. AMSCs were subsequently differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lines. Cells were seeded onto either a PLLA scaffold (control) or PLLA scaffold coated with chamomile oil (experimental). A total of 24 scaffolds were inserted into the pancreatic area of each rabbit and placement was confirmed by ultrasound. After 21 days, immunohistochemistry analysis of insulin-producing like cells on protein levels confirmed insulin expression of insulin producing cells (IPSCs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) determined the expressions of genes related to pancreatic endocrine development and function. Results Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed the existence of oil on the surface of the PLLA scaffold. The results showed a new peak at 2854 cm-1 for the aliphatic CH2 bond. Pdx1 expression was 0.051 ± 0.007 in the experimental group and 0.009 ± 0.002 in the control group. There was significantly increased insulin expression in the scaffold coated with chamomile oil (0.09 ± 0.001) compared to control group (0.063 ± 0.009, P≤0.05). Both groups expressed Ngn3 and Pdx1 specific markers and pancreatic tissue was observed at 21 days post transplantation. Conclusion The pancreatic region is an optimal site for differentiation of AMSCs to IPCs. Chamomile oil (as an antioxidant agent) can affect cell adhesion to the scaffold and increase cell differentiation. In addition, the oil may lead to increased blood glucose uptake in pathways in the muscles, liver and fatty tissue of a diabetic animal model by some probable molecular mechanisms

  16. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Quercetin, Luteolin, and Apigenin in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Matricaria chamomilla L. Extract by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoxv; Lan, Wei; Yin, Xingbin; Yang, Chunjing; Wang, Wenping; Ni, Jian

    2017-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin in rat plasma after oral administration of Matricaria chamomilla L. extract. The flow rate was set at 1.0 ml/min and the detection wavelength was kept at 350 nm. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.11-11.36 μg/ml for quercetin, 0.11-11.20 μg/ml for luteolin, and 0.11-10.60 μg/ml for apigenin, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions (RSD) were less than 8.32 and 8.81%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of the three compounds were 0.11 μg/ml. The mean recoveries for quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin were 99.11, 95.62, and 95.21%, respectively. Stability studies demonstrated that the three compounds were stable in the preparation and analytical process. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.29 ± 0.06, 3.04 ± 0.60, and 0.42 ± 0.10 μg/ml, respectively. The time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) was 0.79 ± 0.25, 0.42 ± 0.09, and 0.51 ± 0.13 h, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics study of quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin in rat plasma after oral administration of M. chamomilla extract.

  17. Isolation, identification and molecular docking as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors of the main constituents of Matricaria chamomilla L. extract and its synergistic interaction with diclofenac on nociception and gastric damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario I; Fernández-Martínez, Eduardo; Soria-Jasso, Luis Enrique; Lucas-Gómez, Isaac; Villagómez-Ibarra, Roberto; González-García, Martha P; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Salinas-Caballero, Mireya

    2016-03-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant widely used as remedy for pain and gastric disorders. The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with medicinal plant extracts may increase its antinociceptive activity, permit the use of lower doses and limit side effects. The aim was to isolate and identify the main chemical constituents of Matricaria chamomilla ethanolic extract (MCE) as well as to explore their activity as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors in silico; besides, to examine the interaction between MCE and diclofenac on nociception in the formalin test by isobolographic analysis, and to determine the level of gastric injury in rats. Three terpenoids, α-bisabolol, bisabolol oxide A, and guaiazulene, were isolated and identified by (1)H NMR. Docking simulation predicted COX inhibitory activity for those terpenoids. Diclofenac, MCE, or their combinations produced an antinociceptive effect. The sole administration of diclofenac and the highest combined dose diclofenac-MCE produced significant a gastric damage, but that effect was not seen with MCE alone. An isobologram was constructed and the derived theoretical ED35 for the antinociceptive effect was significantly different from the experimental ED35; hence, the interaction between diclofenac and MCE that mediates the antinociceptive effect is synergist. The MCE contains three major terpenoids with plausible COX inhibitory activity in silico, but α-bisabolol showed the highest affinity. Data suggest that the diclofenac-MCE combination can interact at the systemic level in a synergic manner and may have therapeutic advantages for the clinical treatment of inflammatory pain.

  18. Microbial short-chain fatty acid production and extracellular enzymes activities during in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. treated with microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chang; Fu, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2013-06-26

    Effects of microwave irradiation on microbial short-chain fatty acid production and the activites of extracellular enzymes during in vitro fermentation of the polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. were investigated in this study. It was found that the apparent viscosity, average molecular weight, and particle size of the polysaccharide decreased after microwave irradiation. Reducing sugar amount increased with molecular weight decrease, suggesting the degradation may derive from glycosidic bond rupture. The polysaccharide surface topography was changed from large flakelike structure to smaller chips. FT-IR showed that microwave irradiation did not alter the primary functional groups in the polysaccharide. However, short-chain fatty acid productions of the polysaccharide during in vitro fermentation significantly increased after microwave irradiation. Activities of microbial extracellular enzymes xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylosidase, and glucuronidase in fermentation cultures supplemented with microwave irradiation treated polysaccharide were also generally higher than those of untreated polysaccharide. This showed that microwave irradiation could be a promising degradation method for the production of value-added polysaccharides.

  19. Effects of medicinal herbs "Plantago asiatica", "Houttuynia cordata" and "Mentha haplocalyx" on non-specific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Yin-Yu; Ueng, Pien-Sheng; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of orally administered Plantago asiatica, Houttuynia cordata, and Mentha haplocalyx on the growth and nonspecific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The nonspecific immune parameters assessed were weight gain, feed conversion ratio, superoxide anion (O2(-)) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic rate, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, serum albumin and globulin, and albumin:globulin (A/G) ratio. The growth experiment indicated that 6-week dietary treatments did not significantly affect on the growth of cobia. Nonspecific immune responses showed that O2(-) production, SOD and lysozyme activity, and phagocytosis were significantly increased after the oral administration of P. asiatica and H. cordata, and the serum albumin:globulin ratio (A/G) gradually decreased. In this study, treatment of the Mentha haplocalyx on the cobia didn't present with the inducing of the phagocytosis ability compared with the treatment of P. asiatica and H. cordata. We suggest that oral administration of the 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg of the P. asiatica and H. cordata is exactly inducing the phagocytosis, ROS production, lysozyme activity and SOD production in the cobia.

  20. Assessment of hormone-like activities in Ginkgo biloba, Elettaria cardamomum and Plantago ovata extracts using in vitro receptor-specific bioassays.

    PubMed

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jimenez, Jesús; Diéguez, Horacio R; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of diseases and for the development of new drugs. This study was designed to determine the presence of hormone-like activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in methanol extracts prepared from three medicinal plants historically and currently used for therapeutic purposes: Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL), Elettaria cardamomum seeds (ECS) and Plantago ovata seeds (POS). After a solid-liquid extraction (SLE) step, their effects on hERa function were assessed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using the E-Screen bioassay, and their ability to induce hAR-mediated reporter gene expression was evaluated using the androgen-sensitive stable prostatic PALM cell line. Unlike POS extracts, GBL and ECS extracts showed estrogenic (0.07 and 0.20 nM E2Eq mg(-1), respectively) and anti-estrogenic (0.01 and 0.02 μM ICI182780Eq mg(-1), respectively) activities. ECS extracts evidenced androgenic activity (0.30 nM R1881Eq mg(-1)) and POS extracts anti-androgenic activity (22.30 μM ProcEq mg(-1)). According to these findings, these plant extracts may interfere with the endocrine system via one or more hormonal receptors, and further investigation is warranted into their role as endocrine disrupters in humans.

  1. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  2. Analysis of trace elements during different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis in Plantago ovata Forssk using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Saha, Priyanka; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Chakraborty, Anindita

    2010-06-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique has been used for the determination of trace element profile during different developmental stages of somatic embryogenic callus of an economically important medicinal plant, Plantago ovata Forssk. Somatic embryogenesis is a plant tissue culture-based technique, which is used for plant regeneration and crop improvement. In the present investigation, elemental content was analysed using ED-XRF technique during different developmental stages and also determine the effect of additives--casein hydrolysate and coconut water on the trace elemental profile of embryogenic callus tissue of P. ovata. Subsequent experiments showed significant alteration in the concentration of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Br, and Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. Higher K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn accumulation was in embryogenic tissue stage compared to other stages, suggesting these elements are crucial for successful embryogenesis. The results suggest that this information could be useful for formulating a media for in vitro embryo induction of P. ovata.

  3. Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 can colonize and improve P uptake of Plantago lanceolata after exposure to ionizing gamma radiation in root organ culture.

    PubMed

    Kothamasi, David; Wannijn, Jean; van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; van Gompel, Axel; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2016-04-01

    Long-lived radionuclides such as (90)Sr and (137)Cs can be naturally or accidentally deposited in the upper soil layers where they emit β/γ radiation. Previous studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can accumulate and transfer radionuclides from soil to plant, but there have been no studies on the direct impact of ionizing radiation on AMF. In this study, root organ cultures of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 were exposed to 15.37, 30.35, and 113.03 Gy gamma radiation from a (137)Cs source. Exposed spores were subsequently inoculated to Plantago lanceolata seedlings in pots, and root colonization and P uptake evaluated. P. lanceolata seedlings inoculated with non-irradiated AMF spores or with spores irradiated with up to 30.35 Gy gamma radiation had similar levels of root colonization. Spores irradiated with 113.03 Gy gamma radiation failed to colonize P. lanceolata roots. P content of plants inoculated with non-irradiated spores or of plants inoculated with spores irradiated with up to 30.35 Gy gamma radiation was higher than in non-mycorrhizal plants or plants inoculated with spores irradiated with 113.03 Gy gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that spores of R. irregularis MUCL 41833 are tolerant to chronic ionizing radiation at high doses.

  4. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activity on Salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and Chemical Characterisation of the Phenolic Content of a Plantago lanceolata Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Lia; Ingenito, Aniello; Roscetto, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves) on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse with a P. lanceolata mouth rinse, and Group B received a placebo mouth rinse for seven days. The salivary colonisation by streptococci and lactobacilli was investigated prior to treatment and on the fourth and seventh days. Finally, the P. lanceolata tea was analysed for its polyphenolic content, and major phenolics were identified. Results and Discussion. P. lanceolata teas demonstrate good in vitro antimicrobial activity. The in vivo test showed that Group A subjects presented a significant decrease in streptococci compared to Group B. The phytochemical analysis revealed that flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, cinnamic acids, lignans, and phenolic compounds are present in P. lanceolata infusions. Conclusions. P. lanceolata extract could represent a natural anticariogenic agent via an antimicrobial effect and might be useful as an ancillary measure to control the proliferation of cariogenic flora. PMID:25767805

  5. Growth, respiration and nutrient acquisition by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and its host plant Plantago lanceolata in cooled soil.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, T; Hodge, A; Fitter, A H

    2012-04-01

    Although plant phosphate uptake is reduced by low soil temperature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are responsible for P uptake in many plants. We investigated growth and carbon allocation of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and a host plant (Plantago lanceolata) under reduced soil temperature. Plants were grown in compartmented microcosm units to determine the impact on both fungus and roots of a constant 2.7 °C reduction in soil temperature for 16 d. C allocation was measured using two (13)CO(2) pulse labels. Although root growth was reduced by cooling, AM colonization, growth and respiration of the extraradical mycelium (ERM) and allocation of assimilated (13)C to the ERM were all unaffected; the frequency of arbuscules increased. In contrast, root respiration and (13)C content and plant P and Zn content were all reduced by cooling. Cooling had less effect on N and K, and none on Ca and Mg content. The AM fungus G. mosseae was more able to sustain activity in cooled soil than were the roots of P. lanceolata, and so enhanced plant P content under a realistic degree of soil cooling that reduced plant growth. AM fungi may therefore be an effective means to promote plant nutrition under low soil temperatures.

  6. UHPLC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of plantamajoside in rat plasma after oral administration of single plantamajoside and Plantago asiatica extract.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lizhi; Han, Li; Lu, Xiaoguang; Kang, Xin; Fan, Zhiwei; Xing, Rong; Zhou, Dangxia

    2017-05-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantitation of plantamajoside in rat plasma. First, this study compared the pharmacokinetic properties of plantamajoside after oral administration of Plantago asiatica extract and pure plantamajoside in rat plasma with approximately the same dosage of 8.98 mg/kg. Second, chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity HSS C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, p.d.1.7 μm) with isocratic elution using methanol-water (80:20, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.1-100 ng/mL for plantamajoside. At different time points (0, 0.083, 0.167, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 h) after administration, the concentrations of plantamajoside in plasma were measured and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. The study indicates that the pharmacokinetics of plantamajoside in rat plasma have significant differences between two groups.

  7. Impact of the dual defence system of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) on performance, nutrient utilisation and feeding choice behaviour of Amata mogadorensis larvae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Gehring, René; Müller, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Iridoid glycosides are plant defence compounds with potentially detrimental effects on non-adapted herbivores. Some plant species possess β-glucosidases that hydrolyse iridoid glycosides and thereby release protein-denaturing aglycones. To test the hypothesis that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidases form a dual defence system, we used Plantago lanceolata and a polyphagous caterpillar species. To analyse the impact of leaf-age dependent differences in iridoid glycoside concentrations and β-glucosidase activities on insect performance, old or young leaves were freeze-dried and incorporated into artificial diets or were provided freshly to the larvae. We determined larval consumption rates and the amounts of assimilated nitrogen. Furthermore, we quantified β-glucosidase activities in artificial diets and fresh leaves and the amount of iridoid glycosides that larvae feeding on fresh leaves ingested and excreted. Compared to fresh leaves, caterpillars grew faster on artificial diets, on which larval weight gain correlated positively to the absorbed amount of nitrogen. When feeding fresh young leaves, larvae even lost weight and excreted only minute proportions of the ingested iridoid glycosides intact with the faeces, indicating that the hydrolysis of these compounds might have interfered with nitrogen assimilation and impaired larval growth. To disentangle physiological effects from deterrent effects of iridoid glycosides, we performed dual choice feeding assays. Young leaves, their methanolic extracts and pure catalpol reduced larval feeding in comparison to the respective controls, while aucubin had no effect on larval consumption. We conclude that the dual defence system of P. lanceolata consisting of iridoid glycosides and β-glucosidases interferes with the nutrient utilisation via the hydrolysis of iridoid glycosides and also mediates larval feeding behaviour in a concentration- and substance-specific manner.

  8. Asian plantain (Plantago asiatica) essential oils suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-co-enzyme A reductase expression in vitro and in vivo and show hypocholesterolaemic properties in mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Park, Kuen Woo; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Baek, Jun Pill; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Choi, Young-Mi; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2008-01-01

    Asian plantain (Plantago asiatica) essential oil (PAEO) contains multiple bioactive compounds, but its potential effects on lipid metabolism have not been examined. PAEO was found to be mostly composed of oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool as the major component (82.5 %, w/w), measured using GC-MS. Incubation of 0-200 microg PAEO/ml with HepG2 cells for 24 h resulted in no significant toxicity. Incubation with 0.2 mg PAEO/ml altered the expression of LDL receptor (+83 %; P < 0.05) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase ( - 37 %; P < 0.05), as assessed using RT-PCR. LDL oxidation was markedly inhibited by PAEO treatment due to the prevalence of linalool compounds in PAEO. Oral administration of PAEO for 3 weeks in C57BL/6 mice significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations by 29 and 46 %, respectively. The mRNA (+58 %; P < 0.05), but not protein, levels of the LDL receptor were significantly higher, whereas both mRNA and protein levels of HMG-CoA reductase were significantly lower ( - 46 and - 11 %, respectively; P < 0.05) in the liver of PAEO-fed than of control mice. The mRNA levels of CYP7A1 were marginally reduced in HepG2 cells, but not in mouse liver after PAEO treatment. Thus, PAEO may have hypocholesterolaemic effects by altering the expression of HMG-CoA reductase. Reduced TAG and oxidised LDL may provide additional cardiovascular protective benefits.

  9. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  10. RESISTANCE TO ALS-INHIBITING HERBICIDES IN WEED POPULATIONS FROM BELGIAN WHEAT FIELDS.

    PubMed

    S, Claerhout; B, De Cauwer

    2015-01-01

    In modern agriculture, most farmers rely on herbicides for weed control. The intensive use of herbicides in crops has led to the development of herbicide resistance in numerous weeds worldwide. In Belgium, farmers have encountered problems with controlling populations of Alopecurus myosuroides, Matricaria recutita, Stellaria media and Popover rhoeas in some wheat fields with the conventionally used acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Dose response assays were conducted in the greenhouse to test the sensitivity of these populations to the key ALS-inhibiting herbicides mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl for A. myosuroides and metsulfuron-methyl and florasulam for M. recutita, S. media and P. rhoeas. The ED₉₀- and ED₅₀-values (effective dose for resp. 90% and 50% biomass reduction) were compared with those of sensitive reference populations and the resistance index (RI) was calculated. High levels of resistance were detected forA. myosuroides (RI: 24.3) after treatment with mesosulfuron-methyl and for M. recutita (RI: 36.4 to 49.5), S. media (RI > 20) and P. rhoeas (RI: 23.6) after treatment with metsulfuron-methyl. However, the metsulfuron-methyl resistant populations of M. recutita and S. media were sufficiently controlled with florasulam at the maximum authorised field dose. This was not the case for P. rhoeas. The metsulfuron-methyl resistant P. rhoeas population were also high-level resistant against florasulam (RI: 29.5). Integrated weed management practices (crop rotation, herbicide mixing, ...) should be applied to reduce the selection pressure for resistant weeds.

  11. Assessment of some Herbal Drugs for Prophylaxis of Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Gohar, Ahmed A; Zaki, Ahmed A

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous (hydrophilic) and chloroform (Lipophilic) extracts of nine medicinal plants currently used in Egyptian traditional medicine to treat some gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders were tested for their gastro-protective effect against the incidence of peptic ulcer. Indomethacin-induced ulcer in a rat model was used for this testing. Mentha microphylla, Brassica oleracea Capitata (Cabbage), B. oleracea Botrytis (cauliflower) aqueous fraction, Portolaca oleracea polysaccharide fraction, Oreganum marjoranum, Matricaria recutita, Solanum nigrum hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions, in addition to the chloroform fraction of Portolaca oleracea and Cicorium intybus afforded high protection against the incidence of gastric ulcer (~95%). O. syriacum hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions and gum arabic afforded moderate prophylactic effect. L. sicerarea, C. intybus hydrophilic fractions and M. microphylla lipophilic fraction were inactive. Herbs represent excellent resources for cost-effective and readily available gastro-protective remedies without side effects. PMID:25276211

  12. [Surveillance of phytotherapeutic drugs in the state of Minas Gerais. Quality assessment of commercial samples of chamomile].

    PubMed

    Brandão, M G; Freire, N; Vianna-Soares, C D

    1998-01-01

    Marketing of medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products is spreading all over the world. In order to assess the commercialization of medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products in the State of Minas Gerais, we identified and tested for the presence of adulterants and active ingredients in 27 samples of chamomile. All the samples consisted of Matricaria recutita flowers, but they were badly fragmented, a result of excessive handling and poor preservation. All samples contained contaminants, and insects were observed in 63% of the samples sold in drugstores. Only 50% of the samples in each group had the essential oils needed to produce antiinflammatory activity. Flavonoids and other phenolic constituents with a spasmolytic effect were detected in only 20% of the samples from each group. Results with chamomile indicated the poor quality with which medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products are marketed and confirm the need for surveillance of such products in Brazil.

  13. Comparison of various extraction techniques for isolation and determination of isoflavonoids in plants.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Tomás; Adam, Martin; Galla, Lubomír; Ventura, Karel

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the following extraction techniques have been used for extracting isoflavonoids from the species Matricaria recutita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Agrimonia eupatoria L.: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized fluid extraction, matrix solid phase dispersion, ultrasonic extraction in an ultrasonic bath (USE) and by means of an ultrasonic homogeniser (HOM), extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus (SOX), and solid phase extraction. Experimental optimization of all techniques has been carried out using a soybean flour. Subsequent analyses of the extracts were carried out by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The maximum yields of daidzein and genistein were obtained by extraction with the SOX, USE, and HOM techniques. The maximum yields of apigenin and biochanin A from herb samples were obtained by SFE.

  14. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Beatriz P P Oliveira, M; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-15

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated into cottage cheese to achieve an extended bioactivity. Plain cottage cheese, and cheese functionalized by direct addition of free decoctions, were prepared and compared. Independently of plant species, "functionalization type" factor did not show a significant effect on the nutritional parameters, as also confirmed in the linear discriminant analysis, where these parameters were not selected as discriminating variables. Furthermore, samples functionalized with microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the 7th day, thereby demonstrating that the main purpose of this experimental work was achieved.

  15. Application of poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber sol-gel coated onto NiTi alloy electrodeposited with zirconium oxide for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in herbal infusions.

    PubMed

    Budziak, Dilma; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    A PDMS fiber sol-gel coated onto an NiTi alloy previously electrodeposited with zirconium oxide (named NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS) was applied to the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), and anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.). Salting-out effect, extraction time, and extraction temperature were optimized firstly by means of a full-factorial design and then using a Doehlert matrix. No salt addition and 50 min of extraction at 70 degrees C were the optimum conditions. Satisfactory LODs in the range of 2-17 ng/L, as well as good correlation coefficients (at least 0.9981) in the linear range studied, were obtained. Calibration was successfully applied using an infusion of M. recutita L. and recovery tests were performed to ensure the accuracy of the method, with values in the range of 77-120%. Comparison of the NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS with commercially available PDMS fibers showed that the proposed fiber has an extraction efficiency comparable to that of PDMS 30 microm for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating its potential applicability.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia using a plant assay.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2011-02-01

    Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, or roots) from four plant species-Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae)-were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined in unwashed plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal pollution by ICP-AES. All these elements were found to be at high levels in samples collected from an industrial area. Maximum Pb concentration was 174.52 ± 1.04 mg kg⁻¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled from the Veles area, where lead and zinc metallurgical activities were present. In all control samples, the Cd concentrations were found to be under the limit of detection (LOD <0.1 mg kg⁻¹) except for R. pseudoacacia flowers and T. officinale roots. The maximum Cd concentration was 7.97 ± 0.15 mg kg⁻¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers from the Veles area. Nickel concentrations were in the range from 1.90 ± 0.04 to 5.74 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹. For U. dioica leaves and R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled near a lead-smelting plant, concentrations of 465.0 ± 0.55 and 403.56 ± 0.34 mg kg⁻¹ Zn were detected, respectively. In all control samples, results for Zn were low, ranging from 10.2 ± 0.05 to 38.70 ± 0.18 mg kg⁻¹. In this study, it was found that the flower of R. pseudoacacia was a better bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution than other plant parts. Summarizing the results, it can be concluded that T. officinale, U. dioica, and R. pseudoacacia were better metal accumulators and M. recutita was a metal avoider.

  17. Effect of aluminium uptake on physiology, phenols and amino acids in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef

    2010-06-15

    Chamomile is a widely used medicinal plant and, as observed in our previous studies, also accumulates some metals in its above-ground biomass. We therefore tested selected metabolic responses after treatments with 60 and 120 microM Al for 7 days. Shoot Al content was not elevated in comparison with control (12.3-14.1 microg g(-1) DW) while total root Al increased strongly, reaching 2680 and 4400 microg g(-1) DW in 60 and 120 microM treatments, respectively. "Intra-root" Al represented 83.6 (60 microM treatment) and 75.8% (120 microM treatment) of total root Al. Soluble proteins were not significantly affected. Free amino acids were almost unaffected in shoots while in roots the highest content was found in 60 microM Al. Ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase activities were the highest in 60 microM Al-exposed roots. On the other hand, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, total soluble phenols, flavonoids, a sum of 13 phenolic acids and partially two flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) increased in the shoots. Present study has shown lower Al toxicity and unaltered shoot Al content seems to be the most positive outcome in comparison with previously tested metals (Cd, Ni and Cu). Our results indicate that phenols in shoots and free amino acids in roots are influenced by Al excess in chamomile plants. Possible mechanisms in the context of available literature are suggested and discussed.

  18. Modulation of copper uptake and toxicity by abiotic stresses in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Stork, František; Grúz, Jiří

    2012-07-11

    The impact of salinity (S) or nitrogen deficiency (-N) on copper (Cu) uptake and changes to metabolism were studied in the combined treatments after 7 days of exposure. S suppressed growth, water content, soluble proteins, and reducing sugars more negatively than -N. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) were differentially but relatively slightly affected while peroxidase activities were strongly elevated mainly in Cu+NaCl variant. Total soluble phenols and individual phenolic acids (free and cell wall-bound fraction) were accumulated the most in Cu-N while, among free amino acids, proline sharply increased in Cu+NaCl; this suggests a compensatory mechanism between the syntheses of antioxidants aimed to maintain antioxidative protection because numerous root phenolic acids were even depressed by S. Salinity also suppressed accumulation of coumarin herniarin, but its glucosidic precursors ((Z)- and (E)-2-ß-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids) increased. Activities of selected phenolic enzymes were rather suppressed by S after a given exposure period while lignin content increased, suggesting different time dynamics if S and -N variants are compared. Selected mineral nutrients (K, Fe, and partially Mg) were more reduced by S than by -N. Shoot and root Cu amounts were depressed by -N but elevated by S. Significance and possible role of observed metabolic changes in relation to Cu accumulation are discussed.

  19. Identification of a compound isolated from German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) with dermal sensitization potential.

    PubMed

    Avonto, Cristina; Rua, Diego; Lasonkar, Pradeep B; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-03-01

    German chamomile is one of the most popular herbal ingredients used in cosmetics and personal care products. Allergic skin reactions following topical application of German chamomile have been occasionally reported, although it is not fully understood which of the chemical constituents is responsible for this adverse effect. In the present work, three candidate sensitizers were isolated from German chamomile based on activity-guided fractionation of chamomile extracts tested using the in vitro KeratinoSens™ assay. The compounds were identified as the polyacetylene tonghaosu (1), and both trans- and cis-glucomethoxycinnamic acids (2 and 3). These three compounds were classified as non- to weakly reactive using in chemico methods; however, aged tonghaosu was found to be more reactive when compared to freshly isolated tonghaosu. The polyacetylene (1) constituent was determined to be chemically unstable, generating a small electrophilic spirolactone, 1,6-dioxaspiro[4.4]non-3-en-2-one (4), upon aging. This small lactone (4) was strongly reactive in both in chemico HTS- and NMR-DCYA methods and further confirmed as a potential skin sensitizer by Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA).

  20. Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Bianco, María I; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A

    2008-02-10

    Nowadays, infant botulism is the most important form of human botulism in some countries. This illness affects infants younger than 52 weeks of age. The infection occurs in the intestinal tract; therefore, ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores with food is proposed. In some countries, people use chamomile tea as a household remedy for intestinal colics and given this tea to infants. Chamomile can be contaminated with C. botulinum and could be a vehicle of its spores. Our aim was to study the prevalence and spore-load of C. botulinum in chamomile. We analysed 200 samples; the 7.5% of them were contaminated with botulinum spores. However, prevalence of these spores was significantly higher in chamomile sold by weight in herbal stores (unwrapped chamomile) than prevalence in chamomile sold in tea bags (p=0.0055). The spore-load detected in all positive samples was 0.3-0.4 spores per gram of chamomile. We identified C. botulinum types A, B, and F in the 53.3%, 6.7%, and 13.3%, respectively. Chamomile (principally, unwrapped chamomile) is a potencial vehicle of C. botulinum spores, and ingestion of chamomile tea could represent a risk for infant botulism.

  1. Integrated management of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations by tillage.

    PubMed

    Jaunard, D; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, environmental, health and economic concerns encourage reviewing our weed management in agriculture. Integrated pest management is one key element in the development of weed management strategies less dependent from herbicides. To reach this goal, impact of different methods of tillage (Combinations of stubble cultivator and moldboard plow) on biology and dynamic of wild chamomile populations was studied in experimental plots of experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech. In summer 2012, wild chamomile densities were significantly lower in plots tilled with a moldboard plow. The use of a stubble cultivator did not significantly affect M. chamomilla density. In addition, we found higher wheat yields in plowed plots, indicating that the decrease in M. chamomilla densities reduces competition for wheat. These results show well long run impact of plowing and his effect on densities of wild chamomile and the seedbank.

  2. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  3. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  5. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants.

  6. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W. Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  7. "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Carmona, M D; Llorach, R; Obon, C; Rivera, D

    2005-12-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae).

  8. Development and validation of an HPTLC method for apigenin 7-O-glucoside in chamomile flowers and its application for fingerprint discrimination of chamomile-like materials.

    PubMed

    Guzelmeric, Etil; Vovk, Irena; Yesilada, Erdem

    2015-03-25

    Brewed tea of chamomile flowers (Matricaria recutita L.) (Asteraceae) has been extensively consumed for centuries due to either its pleasant taste or medicinal purposes. On the other hand, the major problem is difficulty in distinguishing the genuine specimen when supplying chamomile through nature-picking. Consequently flowers of other Asteraceae members resembling to chamomile in appearance may frequently be practiced by lay people or marketed in spice shops or bazaars. Evidently detection of such adulterations plays a vital role in terms of public health to avoid risk of toxicity (i.e. pyrazolidin alkaloids) and ineffective treatments (lack or insufficient concentration of the active constituents). This work presents either development and validation of a high performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for apigenin 7-O-glucoside which is one of the active markers in chamomile flowers or its application for the fingerprint discrimination of chamomile-like materials i.e. Anthemis spp., Bellis spp., Chrysanthemum sp. and Tanacetum sp. gathered by local people assuming as chamomile. Separation was performed on the silica gel 60 NH2 F254s HPTLC plates using the developing solvent system of ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (30:1.5:1.5:3, v/v/v/v). The proposed HPTLC method may also be a leading guide for the quality assessment of chamomile tea products on the market.

  9. TLC-Direct Bioautography and LC/MS as Complementary Methods in Identification of Antibacterial Agents in Plant Tinctures from the Asteraceae Family.

    PubMed

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi; Choma, Irena M

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) are very common herbs growing in meadows, pathways, crop fields, and home gardens. Preparations from these plants, e.g., infusions or alcohol extracts, are widely used as remedies. Both chamomile and yarrow have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Most microbiological assays used today give information only on activity of whole extracts and do not provide information on the composition and activity of individual components. This problem can be solved by using TLC with direct microbiological detection, i.e., TLC-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), followed by LC/MS of active fractions. The aim of our study was chemical and microbiological screening of plant components of chamomile and yarrow tinctures using derivatization reagents and TLC-DB against eight bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Xanthomonas campestis pv. vesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, and Bacillus subtilis. The identity of compounds exhibiting the widest range of activity (apigenin and α-linolenic acid) was confirmed by LC/MS.

  10. Vegetative and generative maintenance of self-incompatibility in six accessions of German chamomile

    PubMed Central

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Wagner, Sarah; Franz, Chlodwig

    2016-01-01

    Self-incompatible (SI) plants are able to form ideal mother lines for hybrid crossing in hermaphroditic plants, assuring fertilization from the desired father line. To find out suitable ways to maintain SI was the aim of this study. Among 220 plants of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita (L.) Rauschert) within six accessions SI-genotypes were selected. SI was determined as staying seedless in three flower heads per plant. Initial SI-plants formed the basic paternal generation (P1) of i) maintaining the same genotypes over six months and repeating seed set analysis (P2) and of ii) conducting crossings in three versions (SI × SI, SI × NSI (not SI evaluated plants) and NSI × SI), thereby producing the F1 population. F1 exhibited 78% SI and P2 62% SI, indicating a higher environmental than genetic influence on SI. But heritability, calculated from the results of SI × SI crossings, showed high values (h2 = 0.71). Within generative propagation, the influence of generation/crossing version was highly significant (p = 0.001) and the cultivar ‘Degumille’ explored the highest value of SI (86%) after SI × NSI crossings. Therefore, the intra-cultivar combination of ‘Degumille’ SI mother plants crossed with NSI father plants can be recommended as the most promising version to maintain SI in chamomile. PMID:27436956

  11. An Approach Based on HPLC-Fingerprint and Chemometrics to Quality Consistency Evaluation of Matricaria chamomilla L. Commercial Samples

    PubMed Central

    Viapiana, Agnieszka; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Konieczynski, Pawel; Wesolowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication since ancient times and is still popular because it contains various bioactive phytochemicals that could provide therapeutic effects. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of nineteen chamomile samples through establishing a chromatographic fingerprint, quantification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity. For fingerprint analysis, 12 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of commercial samples of chamomile obtained from different manufacturers. A similarity analysis was performed to assess the similarity/dissimilarity of chamomile samples where values varied from 0.868 to 0.990 what indicating that samples from different manufacturers were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic) and four flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin and keampferol) was performed to interpret the quality consistency. In quantitative analysis, the nine individual phenolic compounds showed good regression (r > 0.9975). Inter- and intra-day precisions for all analyzed compounds expressed as relative standard deviation (CV) ranged from 0.05% to 3.12%. Since flavonoids and other polyphenols are commonly recognized as natural antioxidants, the antioxidant activity of chamomile samples was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between antioxidant activity and phenolic composition, and multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA) were applied to distinguish chamomile samples. Results shown in the study indicate high similarity of chamomile samples among them, widely spread in the market and commonly used by people as infusions or teas, as well as that there were no statistically significant differences among them, which in turn is a proof of high quality of commercially available samples of chamomile. The study indicated that the combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantitative analysis can be readily utilized as a quality consistency method for chamomile and related medicinal preparations. Moreover, the applied strategy seems to be the most promising for the assessment of the investigated plant material. PMID:27818668

  12. An Approach Based on HPLC-Fingerprint and Chemometrics to Quality Consistency Evaluation of Matricaria chamomilla L. Commercial Samples.

    PubMed

    Viapiana, Agnieszka; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Konieczynski, Pawel; Wesolowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication since ancient times and is still popular because it contains various bioactive phytochemicals that could provide therapeutic effects. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of nineteen chamomile samples through establishing a chromatographic fingerprint, quantification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity. For fingerprint analysis, 12 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of commercial samples of chamomile obtained from different manufacturers. A similarity analysis was performed to assess the similarity/dissimilarity of chamomile samples where values varied from 0.868 to 0.990 what indicating that samples from different manufacturers were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic) and four flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin and keampferol) was performed to interpret the quality consistency. In quantitative analysis, the nine individual phenolic compounds showed good regression (r > 0.9975). Inter- and intra-day precisions for all analyzed compounds expressed as relative standard deviation (CV) ranged from 0.05% to 3.12%. Since flavonoids and other polyphenols are commonly recognized as natural antioxidants, the antioxidant activity of chamomile samples was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between antioxidant activity and phenolic composition, and multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA) were applied to distinguish chamomile samples. Results shown in the study indicate high similarity of chamomile samples among them, widely spread in the market and commonly used by people as infusions or teas, as well as that there were no statistically significant differences among them, which in turn is a proof of high quality of commercially available samples of chamomile. The study indicated that the combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantitative analysis can be readily utilized as a quality consistency method for chamomile and related medicinal preparations. Moreover, the applied strategy seems to be the most promising for the assessment of the investigated plant material.

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75-36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation.

  14. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75–36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  15. Plants and other natural products used in the management of oral infections and improvement of oral health.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-02-01

    Challenges of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have opened new vistas in the search for natural products. This article rigorously reviews plants and other natural products used in oral health: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile), Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), chewing sticks made from Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.D.C., Diospyros lycioides Desf., and Salvadora persica L. (miswak), honey and propolis from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.), rhein from Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb), dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. (raisins), essential oils, probiotics and mushrooms. Further, the review highlights plants from Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico, Europe, and the Middle East. Some of the plants' antimicrobial properties and chemical principles have been elucidated. While the use of natural products for oral health is prominent in resource-poor settings, antimicrobial testing is mainly conducted in the following countries (in decreasing order of magnitude): India, South Africa, Brazil, Japan, France, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, Kenya, Switzerland, Nigeria, Australia, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. While the review exposes a dire gap for more studies on clinical efficacy and toxicity, the following emerging trend was noted: basic research on plants for oral health is mainly done in Brazil, Europe and Australia. Brazil, China, India and New Zealand generally conduct value addition of natural products for fortification of toothpastes. African countries focus on bioprospecting and primary production of raw plants and other natural products with antimicrobial efficacies. The Middle East and Egypt predominantly research on plants used as chewing sticks. More research and funding are needed in the field of natural products for oral health, especially in Africa where oral diseases are fuelled by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).

  16. Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Christopher; Wowro, Sylvia J; Rousseau, Morten; Freiwald, Anja; Kodelja, Vitam; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Kelber, Olaf; Sauer, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita) flowers extract (CFE) for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml) led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders.

  17. Antidiabetic Effects of Chamomile Flowers Extract in Obese Mice through Transcriptional Stimulation of Nutrient Sensors of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Family

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Christopher; Wowro, Sylvia J.; Rousseau, Morten; Freiwald, Anja; Kodelja, Vitam; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Kelber, Olaf; Sauer, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita) flowers extract (CFE) for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml) led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders. PMID:24265809

  18. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Panossian, Alexander; Schweitzer, Isaac; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic herbal medicines. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain mechanisms of action of these botanicals, in addition to a systematic review of controlled clinical trials for treatment of mood, anxiety and sleep disorders, which are common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Specific emphasis was given to emerging phytomedicines. Analysis of evidence levels was conducted, as were effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available. Results provided evidence of a range of neurochemical, endocrinological, and epigenetic effects for 21 individual phytomedicines, which are detailed in this paper. Sixty six controlled studies were located involving eleven phytomedicines. Several of these provide a high level of evidence, such as Hypericum perforatum for major depression, and Piper methysticum for anxiety disorders. Several human clinical trials provide preliminary positive evidence of antidepressant effects (Echium amoenum, Crocus sativus, and Rhodiola rosea) and anxiolytic activity (Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Passiflora incanata, E. amoenum, and Scutellaria lateriflora). Caution should however be taken when interpreting the results as many studies have not been replicated. Several herbal medicines with in vitro and in vivo evidence are currently unexplored in human studies, and along with use of emerging genetic technologies "herbomics", are areas of potential future research.

  19. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E; Allen, S; Chang, A P Y; Henderson, H; Hobson, G C; Karania, B; Morgan, K N; Pek, A S Y; Raghvani, K; Shee, C Y; Shikotra, J; Street, E; Abbas, Z; Ellis, K; Heer, J K; Alexander, S P H

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (-)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3-30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (-)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (-)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium.

  20. Development of a stable low-fat yogurt gel using functionality of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) husk gum.

    PubMed

    Ladjevardi, Zhaleh Sadat; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mousavi, Mohammad

    2015-07-10

    Psyllium husk gum (PHG) as an ideal fat replacer was utilized to improve the production of an industrial low-fat yogurt gel. The combined effects of critical structural components (PHG concentration (0.072-0.128%) and fat content (0.29-1.71%)) on the textural (firmness and syneresis), rheological (viscosity), and chemical (pH and total titratable acidity (TTA)) attributes of developed set-yogurts were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The second-order polynomial equations with high R(2) demonstrated a good agreement between experimental and predicted data. The optimal formulation for achieving optimal pH (4.39) and TTA (81% lactic acid), maximizing firmness (0.172 N) and viscosity (6.40 Pa s) and minimizing whey separation (36.21 mL/100g) was 0.12% PHG and 0.63% fat. Sensory characterization also revealed that the yogurts manufactured at optimal point had more aroma, texture and overall acceptability than the control yogurts.

  1. First report of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus in imported Asiatic and Oriental lilies (Lilium hybrids) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic and Oriental hybrid lilies (Lilium hybrids, Liliaceae) are bulbous ornamentals valued for their prominent flowers. Bulbs of several varieties of each lily type, imported from the Netherlands, were purchased in spring 2013 from retail nurseries and grown in a cool greenhouse; additional bulb...

  2. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  3. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomila L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(−)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(−)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol under normal and heat stress conditions. PMID:28231151

  4. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-08-27

    The chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L(-1)), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(-)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(-)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabolol under normal and heat stress conditions.

  5. Nitric oxide signals ROS scavenger-mediated enhancement of PAL activity in nitrogen-deficient Matricaria chamomilla roots: side effects of scavengers.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Backor, Martin

    2009-06-15

    Owing to the abundance of phenolic metabolites in plant tissue, their accumulation represents an important tool for stress protection. However, the regulation of phenolic metabolism is still poorly known. The regulatory role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in nitrogen (N)-deficient chamomile roots treated for 24 h was studied using three ROS scavengers [dithiothreitol (DTT), salicylhydroxamic acid, and sodium benzoate]. Scavengers decreased the level of hydrogen peroxide and/or superoxide (and up-regulated ascorbate/guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione reductase), but, surprisingly, stimulated PAL activity. This up-regulation was correlated with increases in nitric oxide (NO) content, total soluble phenols, selected phenolic acids, and, partially, lignin (being expressed the most in DTT-exposed roots). We therefore tested the hypothesis that NO may be involved in these changes. Application of 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) decreased PAL activity and the accumulation of soluble phenols in all treatments. Exogenous H(2)O(2) and NO also stimulated PAL activity and the accumulation of phenols. We conclude that NO, in addition to hydrogen peroxide, may regulate PAL activity during N deficiency. The anomalous effect of PTIO on NO content and possible mechanism of ROS scavenger-evoked NO increases in light of the current knowledge are also discussed.

  6. Biological activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomile) flowers’ extract against the survival and egg laying of the cattle fever tick (Acari Ixodidae)*

    PubMed Central

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the potential of acaricidal activity of chamomile flowers’ extract was studied against engorged Rhipicephalus annulatus tick under laboratory condition. For this purpose, the engorged females of Rhipicephalus annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of chamomile flowers’ extract (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0% and 8.0%) using “dipping method” in vitro. The engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (five ticks for each dilution) for 1 min and they were immediately incubated in separate Petri dishes for each replicate at 26 °C and 80% relative humidity. Mortality rate for each treatment was recorded 5 d after incubation. The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of chamomile flowers’ extract ranged from 6.67% to 26.7%, whereas no mortality was recorded for non-treated control group. The mass of produced eggs varied from 0.23 g (in 8.0% solution) to 0.58 g (in control), with no statistical differences between the treatments and control (P>0.05). Also the chamomile flowers’ extract in highest concentration used (8.0%) caused 46.67% failure in egg laying in engorged females while no failure was observed for non-treated control group. Macroscopic observations indicated that in effective concentrations of plant (4.0% and 8.0%), patchy hemorrhagic swelling appeared on the skin of treated ticks. The results presented for the first time in this study imply that chamomile may be considered as a promising plant for biocontrol of cattle fever tick disease in the field condition. PMID:17726752

  7. Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

    2013-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma

  8. Ethnoveterinary herbal remedies used by farmers in four north-eastern Swiss cantons (St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few ethnoveterinary surveys have been conducted in central Europe. However, traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants might be an option for future concepts in treatment of livestock diseases. Therefore the aim of this study was to document and analyse the traditional knowledge and use of homemade herbal remedies for livestock by farmers in four Swiss cantons. Methods Research was conducted in 2012. Fifty farmers on 38 farms were interviewed with the aid of semistructured interviews. Detailed information about the plants used and their mode of preparation were documented as well as dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with the treatment. Results In total, 490 homemade remedies were collected. Out of these, 315 homemade remedies contained only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedies, HSHR), which are presented in this paper. Seventy six species from 44 botanical families were mentioned. The most HSHR were quoted for the families of Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Urticaceae. The plant species with the highest number of HSHRs were Matricaria recutita L., Calendula officinalis L., Rumex obtusifolius L. and Urtica dioica L. For each HSHR, one to eight different applications were enumerated. A total of 428 applications were documented, the majority of which were used to treat cattle. The main applications were in treatment of skin afflictions and sores, followed by gastrointestinal disorders and metabolic dysfunctions. Topical administration was most frequently used, followed by oral administration. In nearly half of the cases the knowledge on preparing and using herbal remedies was from forefathers and relatives. More than one third of the applications were used more than ten times during the last five years, and in about sixty percent of the cases, the last application was during the last year preceding the interviews. Conclusions Traditional knowledge of

  9. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.E. Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  10. Potential of Endophytic Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 Isolated from Plantago asiatica L. for Reduction of PAH Contamination in Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Jin, Li; Sun, Kai; Li, Shuang; Ling, Wanting; Li, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are ubiquitous in plants, and they may have a natural capacity to biodegrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In our study, a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 was isolated from P. asiatica L. grown in a PAH-contaminated site. The effects of environmental variables on phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 were studied, and the ability of strain PHE-3 to use high molecular weight PAH (HMW-PAH) as a sole carbon source was also evaluated. Our results indicated that pH value of 4.0–8.0, temperature of 30 °C–42 °C, initial phenanthrene concentration less than 100 mg·L−1, and some additional nutrients are favorable for the biodegradation of phenanthrene by strain PHE-3. The maximum biodegradation efficiency of phenanthrene was achieved at 99.9% after 84 h cultivation with additional glutamate. Moreover, the phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 was positively correlated with the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity (ρ = 0.981, p < 0.05), suggesting that strain PHE-3 had the capability of degrading HMW-PAHs. In the presence of other 2-, 3-ringed PAHs, strain PHE-3 effectively degraded HMW-PAHs through co-metabolism. The results of this study are beneficial in that the re-colonization potential and PAH degradation performance of endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 may be applied towards reducing PAH contamination in plants. PMID:27347988

  11. Fecal microbiome of growing pigs fed a cereal based diet including chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) forage

    SciTech Connect

    Dicksved, Johan; Jansson, Janet K.; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2015-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inclusion of chicory forage or ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet influenced the fecal microbial community (microbiome) in newly weaned (35 days of age) piglets. The piglets were fed a cereal-based diet without (B) and with inclusion (80 and 160 g/kg air-dry forage) of vegetative shoots of chicory (C) and leaves of ribwort (R) forage in a 35-day growth trial. Fecal samples were collected at the start (D0), 17 (D17) and 35 (D35) days after weaning and profiles of the microbial consortia were generated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). 454-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to analyze the microbial composition in a subset of the samples already analyzed with T-RFLP. RESULTS: The microbial clustering pattern was primarily dependent on age of the pigs, but diet effects could also be observed. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria were more abundant at D0, whereas the genera Streptococcus, Treponema, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae1 and Coprococcus were present in higher abundances at D35. Pigs fed ribwort had an increased abundance of sequences classified as Treponema and a reduction in lactobacilli. However, the abundance of Prevotellaceae increased with age in on both the chicory and the ribwort diet. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the abundance of Bacteroides and the digested amount of galactose, uronic acids and total non-starch polysaccharides, and between the abundance of Bacteroidales and the digested amount of xylose. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both chicory and ribwort inclusion in the diet of newly weaned pigs influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota and that digestion of specific dietary components was correlated with species composition of the microbiota. Moreover, this study showed that the gut will be exposed to a dramatic shift in the microbial community structure several weeks after weaning.

  12. Potential of Endophytic Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 Isolated from Plantago asiatica L. for Reduction of PAH Contamination in Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Jin, Li; Sun, Kai; Li, Shuang; Ling, Wanting; Li, Xuelin

    2016-06-24

    Endophytes are ubiquitous in plants, and they may have a natural capacity to biodegrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In our study, a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 was isolated from P. asiatica L. grown in a PAH-contaminated site. The effects of environmental variables on phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 were studied, and the ability of strain PHE-3 to use high molecular weight PAH (HMW-PAH) as a sole carbon source was also evaluated. Our results indicated that pH value of 4.0-8.0, temperature of 30 °C-42 °C, initial phenanthrene concentration less than 100 mg·L(-1), and some additional nutrients are favorable for the biodegradation of phenanthrene by strain PHE-3. The maximum biodegradation efficiency of phenanthrene was achieved at 99.9% after 84 h cultivation with additional glutamate. Moreover, the phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 was positively correlated with the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity (ρ = 0.981, p < 0.05), suggesting that strain PHE-3 had the capability of degrading HMW-PAHs. In the presence of other 2-, 3-ringed PAHs, strain PHE-3 effectively degraded HMW-PAHs through co-metabolism. The results of this study are beneficial in that the re-colonization potential and PAH degradation performance of endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 may be applied towards reducing PAH contamination in plants.

  13. Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

    2011-02-01

    Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P < 0.05) from piglets fed diets B, R40 and R80. There were no differences in DFI and DWG between the chicory diets and diet B. Inclusion of chicory or ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05), and the CTTAD of uronic acid was higher for diets C40, C80, C160, R80 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05). Age affected the CTTAD for all parameters (P < 0.05) except for NDF, with higher values at 5 than at 3 weeks post-weaning. The coliform counts decreased with increasing age (P < 0.05), but was not affected by treatment. The results indicate that inclusion of up to 160 g/kg of chicory do not negatively affect performance, whereas high inclusion of ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of fibre compared to cereal fibre. Chicory and ribwort are both promising as feedstuffs to weaned piglets, but the low palatability of ribwort limits the inclusion level.

  14. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera

  15. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., APHIS will arrange for destruction of the cut flowers, and the importer, owner, or agent or... chrysanthemum and arctic daisy. Chrysanthemum boreale (Makino) Makino Chrysanthemum indicum L. var. boreale... Matricaria morifolia Ramat Florist's chrysanthemum, chrysanthemum, and mum. Chrysanthemum pacificum...

  16. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., APHIS will arrange for destruction of the cut flowers, and the importer, owner, or agent or... chrysanthemum and arctic daisy. Chrysanthemum boreale (Makino) Makino Chrysanthemum indicum L. var. boreale... Matricaria morifolia Ramat Florist's chrysanthemum, chrysanthemum, and mum. Chrysanthemum pacificum...

  17. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., APHIS will arrange for destruction of the cut flowers, and the importer, owner, or agent or... chrysanthemum and arctic daisy. Chrysanthemum boreale (Makino) Makino Chrysanthemum indicum L. var. boreale... Matricaria morifolia Ramat Florist's chrysanthemum, chrysanthemum, and mum. Chrysanthemum pacificum...

  18. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., APHIS will arrange for destruction of the cut flowers, and the importer, owner, or agent or... chrysanthemum and arctic daisy. Chrysanthemum boreale (Makino) Makino Chrysanthemum indicum L. var. boreale... Matricaria morifolia Ramat Florist's chrysanthemum, chrysanthemum, and mum. Chrysanthemum pacificum...

  19. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., APHIS will arrange for destruction of the cut flowers, and the importer, owner, or agent or... chrysanthemum and arctic daisy. Chrysanthemum boreale (Makino) Makino Chrysanthemum indicum L. var. boreale... Matricaria morifolia Ramat Florist's chrysanthemum, chrysanthemum, and mum. Chrysanthemum pacificum...

  20. Bioassay-directed isolation and identification of phytotoxic and fungitoxic acetylenes from Conyza canadensis.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Sonia C N; Cantrell, Charles L; Duke, Stephen O; Wedge, David E; Nandula, Vijay K; Moraes, Rita M; Cerdeira, Antonio L

    2012-06-13

    Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist syn. (horseweed) is a problematic and invasive weed with reported allelopathic properties. To identify the phytotoxic constituents of the aerial parts, a systematic bioactivity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract was performed. Three active enyne derivatives, (2Z,8Z)-matricaria acid methyl ester, (4Z,8Z)-matricaria lactone, and (4Z)-lachnophyllum lactone, were identified. The lactones inhibited growth of the monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) at 1 mg mL(-1), while the (2Z,8Z)-matricaria acid methyl ester was less active. In a dose-response screening of the lactones for growth inhibitory activity against Lemna paucicostata , (4Z)-lachnophyllum lactone was the most active with an IC50 of 104 μM, while the (4Z,8Z)-matricaria lactone was less active (IC50 of 220 μM). In a fungal direct bioautography assay, the two lactones at 10 and 100 μg/spot inhibited growth of the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum acutatum , Colletotrichum fragariae , and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides . In a dose-response screening of the lactones against six different plant pathogenic fungi, (4Z,8Z)-matricaria lactone was more active than the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin on Col. acutatum , Col. fragariae , and Col. gloeosporioides at 30 μM and about as active as the commercial fungicide captan against Col. gloeosporioides , while (4Z)-lachnophyllum lactone was less active.

  1. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis.

  2. Steam distillation extraction kinetics regression models to predict essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of chamomile oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most widely spread and used medicinal and essential oil crop in the world. Chamomile essential oil is extracted via steam distillation of the inflorescences (flowers). In this study, distillation time (DT) was found to be a crucial determinant of yi...

  3. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI...

  4. Resource allocation patterns of two California-Sonoran desert ephemerals.

    PubMed

    Clark, D D; Burk, J H

    1980-07-01

    The patterns of allocation of structural and nonstructural carbon were followed in the co-occurring desert ephemerals Plantago insularis and Camissonia boothii. Patterns of biomass distribution were determined from material harvested at biweekly intervals as were levels of nonstructural sugar and starch. Seasonal patterns of growth and reproduction differed markedly with Plantago allocating significantly more structural and nonstructural carbon to reproduction early in the season. Plantago completed its life cycle in less than 60 days but Camissonia continued both vegetative and reproductive growth to over 100 days. The longer growing season of Camissonia was possible because more energy was allocated to vegetative tissues and storage presumably as investment toward longer life and higher levels of reproduction.

  5. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black seeds, with no brown... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin... devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve. (ii) Bulblets which show...

  6. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... but are slightly swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin...) Bulblets which are completely devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve....

  7. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... but are slightly swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin...) Bulblets which are completely devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve....

  8. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black seeds, with no brown... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin... devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve. (ii) Bulblets which show...

  9. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... but are slightly swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin...) Bulblets which are completely devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve....

  10. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Potential of a High Fiber Diet in Healthy versus Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Raquel; García, Juan J.; Diez, M. José; Sierra, Matilde; Sahagún, Ana M.; Calle, Ángela P.; Fernández, Nélida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of Plantago ovata husk included in the diet, in healthy and diabetic rabbits. We also examined the effects of this fiber in other biochemical parameters. Two groups of 18 rabbits were used. The first group was fed with standard chow and the second with chow supplemented with Plantago ovata husk (3.5 mg/kg/day). On day 14 diabetes mellitus was induced by the intravenous administration of alloxan (80 mg/kg). After an oral glucose load (3 g), glucose, insulin, and other biochemical parameters were determined on day 14 (healthy rabbits) and on day 28 (diabetic rabbits). In healthy rabbits, fiber did not modify glucose or insulin levels but decreased significantly total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, and glycosylated hemoglobin. In diabetic rabbits, fiber was more beneficial in mild diabetics than in severe diabetics with significant decreases in glucose levels and increases in insulin concentrations. In these animals fiber caused an important reduction in cholesterol, indicating a beneficial effect of Plantago ovata husk in diabetic rabbits. Although further studies in patients are necessary, we think that Plantago ovata husk offers interesting perspectives to be administered to patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:23762869

  11. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  12. Template free synthesis of natural carbohydrates functionalised fluorescent silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Berenjian, Aydin; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Template-assisted synthesis is one of the most recognised techniques for fabrication of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs). However, this process is time consuming, toxic and expensive. In this study, the authors report a completely novel approach for the green and facile synthesis of AgNCs using Matricaria chamomilla, without any additional template. Fluorescent and colloidally stable AgNCs with average particle size of 2.4 nm were successfully produced. They found that carbohydrates from Matricaria chamomilla act as an ideal template to generate fluorescent AgNCs. Moreover, oxygen-bearing functional groups were validated to be the active groups for anchoring and reducing of Ag(+) ions. The novel carbohydrate coating method makes the prepared nanoclusters completely hydrophilic and stable in aqueous matrices.

  13. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and β-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-β-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

  14. Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Esma; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem

    2006-11-24

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in Turkish folk medicine, including Citrillus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. (seed), Jasminum fruticans L. (branches), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (fruits), Juniperus nana L. (fruit and leaves), Juniperus oxcycedrus L (fruit and leaves), Mentha longifolia L. (herba), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Richt. (fruits), Plantago lanceolata L. (leaves), and Zea mays L. (seed) were evaluated for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Among the plant extracts studied, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, the aqueous extracts of Zea mays, the ethanolic extracts of Citrillus lanatus, Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, in mice. Rest of the extracts from plants did not show any remarkable anthelmintic activity. The results were considered significant at p<0.05.

  15. Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients alter competitive performance of California annual grassland species

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, H.L.; Chapin, F.S. III; Field, C.B.

    1995-06-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients altered interspecific competitive performance of three grassland annuals, all exhibiting the C{sub 3} metabolic pathway. Plantago erecta, an herbaceous dicot dominant in low-fertility serpentine grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at low soil nutrients. Bromus hordeaceus, an introduced grass dominant in higher fertility sandstone grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Plantago was slightly enhanced under elevated CO{sub 2}, but only at high soil nutrients, whereas interspecific competitive ability of Bromus was stimulated under elevated CO{sub 2} at both low and high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Lasthenia californica, another herbaceous dicot common in serpentine grassland, was low in all treatments, and tended to decrease with elevated CO{sub 2} at low soil nutrients. Our results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} may shift plant species abundance of serpentine grassland in favor of Bromus hordeaceus.

  16. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake.

    PubMed

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-08-01

    Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant litter, as suggested by theory, we grew individuals of three grassland plants-Holcus lanatus, Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus-in soils into which (15)N-labelled litter of either Holcus, Plantago or Lotus was added. We measured the effects of live roots and litter of each species on soil microbes and their protozoan and nematode feeders, and to link decomposer growth and plant nutrient uptake, we measured the amount of N taken up by plants from the added litter. We hypothesised that those species that induce the highest growth of microbes, and especially that of microbial feeders, will also take up the highest amount of N from the litter. We found, however, that although numbers of bacterial-feeding Protozoa and nematodes were on average lower after addition of Holcus than Plantago or Lotus litter, N uptake was higher from Holcus litter. Further, although the effects on Protozoa and bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes did not differ between the live plants, litter-N uptake differed, with Holcus being the most efficient compared to Plantago and Lotus. Hence, although microbes and their feeders unquestionably control N mineralization in the soil, and their growth differs among plant species, these differences cannot predict differences in litter-N uptake among plant species. A likely reason is that for nutrient uptake, other species-specific plant traits, such as litter chemistry, root proliferation ability and competitiveness for soil N, override in significance the species-specific ability of plants to induce decomposer growth.

  17. A review of the efficacy of traditional Iranian medicine for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Roja; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-09-28

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet known, but many factors such as defects in the immune system, oxidative stress, microbial content in the gastrointestinal tract, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), and leukotriene B4 (LB4) are thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants are thought to be effective for the treatment of IBD. In this study, information on all of these remedies were derived from all available old sources such as documents or notes and books and were added to the information derived from modern medical databases covering all in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials. For some of these plants, only one or two mechanisms of action have been found such as in Cassia fistula, Lepidium sativum, and Bunium persicum. However, for some plants various mechanisms of action are known. For example, Commiphora mukul is effective in IBD due to its immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties and it decreases NF-κB, NO and Cox-2. Another herb, Plantago ovata, has immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities and decreases NO and LB4. Considering the mechanisms of action of these plants, the combination of some of them may be useful because of their many mechanisms of action such as Pistacia lentiscus, Bunium persicum, Solanum nigrum, Plantago ovata, Boswellia, Solanum nigrum, Plantago ovata and Commiphora mukul. For some of the herbal products used in TIM such as oleogum resin from Commiphora myrrha, seeds of Ocimum basilicum, seeds of Linum usitatissimum, gum resin of Dracaena cinnabari, seeds of Plantago major, seeds of Lallementia royleana, and seeds of Allium porrum, there is no or not enough studies to confirm their benefits in IBD. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different aspects of IBD should be performed.

  18. A review of the efficacy of traditional Iranian medicine for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Roja; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet known, but many factors such as defects in the immune system, oxidative stress, microbial content in the gastrointestinal tract, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), and leukotriene B4 (LB4) are thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants are thought to be effective for the treatment of IBD. In this study, information on all of these remedies were derived from all available old sources such as documents or notes and books and were added to the information derived from modern medical databases covering all in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials. For some of these plants, only one or two mechanisms of action have been found such as in Cassia fistula, Lepidium sativum, and Bunium persicum. However, for some plants various mechanisms of action are known. For example, Commiphora mukul is effective in IBD due to its immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties and it decreases NF-κB, NO and Cox-2. Another herb, Plantago ovata, has immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities and decreases NO and LB4. Considering the mechanisms of action of these plants, the combination of some of them may be useful because of their many mechanisms of action such as Pistacia lentiscus, Bunium persicum, Solanum nigrum, Plantago ovata, Boswellia, Solanum nigrum, Plantago ovata and Commiphora mukul. For some of the herbal products used in TIM such as oleogum resin from Commiphora myrrha, seeds of Ocimum basilicum, seeds of Linum usitatissimum, gum resin of Dracaena cinnabari, seeds of Plantago major, seeds of Lallementia royleana, and seeds of Allium porrum, there is no or not enough studies to confirm their benefits in IBD. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different aspects of IBD should be performed. PMID:20857519

  19. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  20. Nutrient Availability and Atmospheric CO2 Partial Pressure Modulate the Effects of Nutrient Heterogeneity on the Size Structure of Populations in Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    MAESTRE, FERNANDO T.; REYNOLDS, JAMES F.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Size-asymmetric competition occurs when larger plants have a disproportionate advantage in competition with smaller plants. It has been hypothesized that nutrient heterogeneity may promote it. Experiments testing this hypothesis are inconclusive, and in most cases have evaluated the effects of nutrient heterogeneity separately from other environmental factors. The aim of this study was to test, using populations of Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus, two hypotheses: (a) nutrient heterogeneity promotes size-asymmetric competition; and (b) nutrient heterogeneity interacts with both atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) and nutrient availability to determine the magnitude of this response. • Methods Microcosms consisting of monocultures of the three species were grown for 90 d in a factorial experiment with the following treatments: PCO2 (37·5 and 70 Pa) and nutrient availability (NA; 40 and 120  mg of N added as organic material) combined with different spatial distribution of the organic material (NH; homogeneous and heterogeneous). Differences in the size of individual plants within populations (size inequality) were quantified using the coefficient of variation of individual above-ground biomass and the combined biomass of the two largest individuals in each microcosm. Increases in size inequality were associated with size-asymmetric competition. • Key Results Size inequality increased when the nutrients were heterogeneously supplied in the three species. The effects of NH on this response were more pronounced under high nutrient supply in both Plantago and Holcus (significant NA × NH interactions) and under elevated PCO2 in Plantago (significant PCO2 × NA × NH interaction). No significant two- and three-way interactions were found for Lolium. • Conclusions Our first hypothesis was supported by our results, as nutrient heterogeneity promoted size-asymmetric competition in the three species evaluated

  1. Short term effects of airborne pollen concentrations on asthma epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, A; Galan, I; Banegas, J; Aranguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Methods: This study, based on time series analysis adjusting for meteorological factors and air pollution variables, assessed the short term effects of different types of allergenic pollen on asthma hospital emergencies in the metropolitan area of Madrid (Spain) for the period 1995–8. Results: Statistically significant associations were found for Poaceae pollen (lag of 3 days) and Plantago pollen (lag of 2 days), representing an increase in the range between the 99th and 95th percentiles of 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2 to 32.8) and 15.9% (95% CI 6.5 to 26.2) for Poaceae and Plantago, respectively. A positive association was also observed for Urticaceae (lag of 1 day) with an 8.4% increase (95% CI 2.8 to 14.4). Conclusions: There is an association between pollen levels and asthma related emergencies, independent of the effect of air pollutants. The marked relationship observed for Poaceae and Plantago pollens suggests their implication in the epidemic distribution of asthma during the period coinciding with their abrupt release into the environment. PMID:12885991

  2. Short-term effects of experimental fires on a Mojave Desert seed bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esque, Todd C.; Young, James A.; Tracy, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    A Mojave Desert shrub community was experimentally burned to understand changes in seed bank of desert annual plant species in response to wildfire. Seed mortality ranged from 55 to 80%, and fire caused significant losses of native and alien annual seeds. Schismus arabicus, Schismus barbatus, Bromus madritensis, Bromus tectorum, Erodium cicutarium and Plantago spp. made up >95% of the seed bank. Bromus spp. and Plantago spp. had proportionately greater mortality of seeds than did Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium. Schismus spp. can be lodged into soil cracks thus avoiding lethal temperatures. E. cicutarium has a self-drilling mechanism that places the seeds at greater depth in the soil. Greater seed mortality occurred beneath shrub canopies than interspaces for most species (Plantago, spp., Bromus spp., and E. cicutarium), but microsite had little effect on Schismus spp. Fire reduced the perennial Ambrosia dumosa densities under canopies. Fire reduced the mean number of species found in samples by about one species per plot and no species was extirpated on experimental plots. The relative abundances of common species did not change dramatically as a result of fire or microsite, however; seed densities varied by treatment and affected interpretations of species compositions.

  3. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  4. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    PubMed Central

    Harnly, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI/MS profiling method was used to identify 51 flavonoids and 17 hydroxycinnamates. Many of the identifications were confirmed with authentic standards or through references in the literature or the laboratory’s database. More than half of the phenol compounds for each spice had not been previously reported. The phenolic profile can be used for plant authentication and to correlate with biological activities. PMID:22816299

  5. LC-PDA-ESI/MS identification of the phenolic components of three compositae spices: chamomile, tarragon, and Mexican arnica.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI/MS profiling method was used to identify 51 flavonoids and 17 hydroxycinnamates. Many of the identifications were confirmed with authentic standards or through references in the literature or the laboratory's database. More than half of the phenol compounds for each spice had not been previously reported. The phenolic profile can be used for plant authentication and to correlate with biological activities.

  6. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and allelopathic activity of Tunisian Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.WALKER essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Samia; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Elaissi, Ameur; Jlaiel, Lobna; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Aouni, Mahjoub; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2013-02-01

    Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.WALKER (Asteraceae) is a spontaneous annual herb, fairly widespread throughout Tunisia, which has rarely been studied or valued in any sector. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of different parts (flower heads, leaves, stems, and roots) of C. sumatrensis plants, which were collected in autumn (November 2007) at the flowering stage in the area of Monastir, Tunisia. In total, 98 compounds, representing 88.1-99.3% of the oil composition, were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was distinguished by its high content in acetylenes (matricaria ester, 4; 74.3%), while those from flower heads and leaves were dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.1 and 50.3%, resp.). The oils of C. sumatrensis from Tunisia belonged to a matricaria ester/caryophyllene oxide chemotype. All the oils were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and allelopathic activities. The results indicate that the leaf oil exhibited significant in vitro antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Proteus mirabilis and that the C. sumatrensis oils isolated from the aerial parts presented high mycelia-growth inhibition of Candida albicans and the filamentous fungi tested. Moreover, the essential oils of the different plant parts inhibited the shoot and root growth of Raphanus sativus (radish) seedlings. Indeed, the inhibition of the hypocotyl growth varied from 28.6 to 90.1% and that of the radicle from 42.3 to 96.2%.

  8. Effects of migratory geese on plant communities of an Alaskan salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zacheis, Amy B.; Hupp, J.W.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2001-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on two salt marsh plant communities in Cook Inlet, Alaska, a stopover area used during spring migration. From 1995 to 1997 we compared plant species composition and biomass on plots where geese were excluded from feeding with paired plots where foraging could occur. 2. Foraging intensity was low (650-1930 goose-days km-2) compared to other goose-grazing systems. 3. Canada geese fed mainly on above-ground shoots of Triglochin maritimum, Puccinellia spp. and Carex ramenskii, whereas the majority of the snow goose diet consisted of below-ground tissues of Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritimum. 4. Plant communities responded differently to goose herbivory. In the sedge meadow community, where feeding was primarily on above-ground shoots, there was no effect of grazing on the dominant species Carex ramenskii and Triglochin maritimum. In the herb meadow community, where snow geese fed on Plantago maritima roots and other below-ground tissues, there was a difference in the relative abundance of plant species between treatments. Biomass of Plantago maritima and Potentilla egedii was lower on grazed plots compared with exclosed, whereas biomass of Carex ramenskii was greater on grazed plots. There was no effect of herbivory on total standing crop biomass in either community. The variable effect of herbivory on Carex ramenskii between communities suggests that plant neighbours and competitive interactions are important factors in a species' response to herbivory. In addition, the type of herbivory (above- or below-ground) was important in determining plant community response to herbivory. 5. Litter accumulation was reduced in grazed areas compared with exclosed in both communities. Trampling of the previous year's litter into the soil surface by geese incorporated more litter into soils in grazed areas. 6. This study illustrates that even light herbivore

  9. Cultural Resources Survey, Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir Project, Missouri. Volume 10. Environmental Study Papers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    fall. The other edible plants found in the prairie include greens (Silphium, Asclepias, Oxalis, Plantago), fruit ( Fragaria , Physalis), and seeds...platy breaking out to weak to moderate medium subangular blocky; friable; pH 6.4; plentiful fine roots; clear wavy boundary to: A 18 - 41 Very dark gray...brown (10 yr. 3/2 moist; 10 yr. 5/2 dry) silt loam; 3oderate medium subangular blocky; friable; pH 6.45; plentiful to few fine roots; clear wavy

  10. [Does mugwort pollenosis occur in children in the northern region?].

    PubMed

    Lelong, M; Henard, J; Bras, C; Castelain, C; Thelliez, P; Miersman, R; Duprey, J

    1986-10-01

    Is Mugwort pollenosis frequent among children in North of France? In North of France where no ragweed grows, mugwort (artemisia) is after grasses and plantago, the third pollenosis in children. Among 184 children with summer clinical signs, positive cutaneous tests with a mugwort extract are noted in 40 patients (21%). RAST are positive only in 23 on 34 children with positive cutaneous test. Among the 40 children only two are less 5 years old and 26 are more 10 years old. Respiratory provocation tests confirm in 13/19 cases a sensitization of upper or lower respiratory tract. No food allergy exists among those children.

  11. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%.

  12. The Effects of Tactical Vehicle Training on the Lands of Fort Carson, Colorado. An Ecological Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    ponderosa P P Plantago purshii P .39 1.66 .20 1.50 .55 3.70 Polygonum sp. P .40 .60 Pseudocymopterus sp. P P P P * Ratibida tagetes 15.34 11.56 P P .15...of total vegetative ground cover). The next most common species was a forb (Ratibda tagetes ), which comprised 15.3 percent of the cover. Mountain...Muhlenbergia torreyi Bouteloua, gracilis Ratibida tagetes Diversity 70 (similar) 57 Plant production 30 g/m 2 (different) 126 g/m 2 Percent ground cover 11

  13. Determination of the content of elements in some wild medicinal plants of Uzbekistan by radioactivation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhammedov, S.; Tillaeva, K.; Badalov, N.B.

    1987-06-01

    The authors have developed a complex of activation methods of analysis using a nuclear reactor (nuclear activation analysis) and a cyclotron (charged-particle activation analysis). The methods have been used to determine the concentrations of more than 20 elements in five medicinal plants native to Uzbekistan: Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), peppermint (Mentha piperata L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and ziziphora (Ziziphora bungeana Yur.). The results of radio-activation analysis were compared with the results of standard spectral analysis performed in another laboratory and the accuracy of the procedures developed was evaluated on the basis of the results.

  14. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-05

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  15. Induction of apoptosis by Saussurea lappa and Pharbitis nil on AGS gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seong-Gyu; Koh, Seung-Hee; Jun, Chan-Yong; Nam, Chang-Gyu; Bae, Hyun-Su; Shin, Min-Kyu

    2004-10-01

    We performed this study to understand the molecular basis underlying the antitumor effects of Saussurea lappa, Pharbitis nil, Plantago asiatica and Taraxacum mongolicum, which have been used for herbal medicinal treatments against cancers in East Asia. We analyzed the effects of these medicinal herbs on proliferation and on expression of cell growth/apoptosis related molecules, with using an AGS gastric cancer cell line. The treatments of Saussurea lappa and Pharbitis nil dramatically reduced cell viabilities in a dose and time-dependent manner, but Plantago asiatica and Taraxacum mongolicum didn't. FACS analysis and Annexin V staining assay also showed that both Saussurea lappa and Pharbitis nil induce apoptotic cell death of AGS. Expression analyses via RT-PCR and Western blots revealed that Saussurea lappa, but not Pharbitis nil, increased expression of the p53 and its downstream effector p21Waf1, and that the both increased expression of apoptosis related Bax and cleavage of active caspase-3 protein. We also confirmed the translocation of Bax to mitochondria. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Saussurea lappa and Pharbitis nil induce growth inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells, and these effects are correlated with down- and up-regulation of growth-regulating apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes, respectively.

  16. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples.

  17. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  18. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  19. Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Plantaginis Semen Ameliorates Diabetic Retinal Injury in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liu, Wayne Young; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Hong, Tang-Yao; Liu, I-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plantaginis semen, the dried ripe seed of Plantago asiatica L. or Plantago depressa Willd. (Plantaginaceae), has been traditionally used to treat blurred vision in Asia. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) on the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. PSEE has abundant polyphenols with strong antioxidant activity. PSEE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) was oral administrated to the diabetic rats once daily consecutively for 8 weeks. Oral administration of PSEE resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in diabetic rats. In addition, PSEE administration increased the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) level in diabetic retinae. PSEE treatment inhibited the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the phosphorylation of Akt without altering the Akt protein expression in diabetic retinae. PSEE not only down-regulated the gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but also reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in diabetic retinae. Moreover, PSEE reduced the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and corrected imbalance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) activities in diabetic retinae. In conclusion, phenolic antioxidants extract from plantaginis semen has potential benefits in the prevention and/or progression of DR. PMID:27649243

  20. Dynamic trajectories of growth and nitrogen capture by competing plants.

    PubMed

    Trinder, Clare; Brooker, Rob; Davidson, Hazel; Robinson, David

    2012-03-01

    Although dynamic, plant competition is usually estimated as biomass differences at a single, arbitrary time; resource capture is rarely measured. This restricted approach perpetuates uncertainty. To address this problem, we characterized the competitive dynamics of Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata as continuous trajectories of biomass production and nitrogen (N) capture. Plants were grown together or in isolation. Biomass and N content were measured at 17 harvests up to 76 d after sowing. Data were fitted to logistic models to derive instantaneous growth and N capture rates. Plantago lanceolata was initially more competitive in terms of cumulative growth and N capture, but D. glomerata was eventually superior. Neighbours reduced maximum biomass, but influenced both maximum N capture and its rate constant. Timings of maximal instantaneous growth and N capture rates were similar between species when they were isolated, but separated by 16 d when they were competing, corresponding to a temporal convergence in maximum growth and N capture rates in each species. Plants processed N and produced biomass differently when they competed. Biomass and N capture trajectories demonstrated that competitive outcomes depend crucially on when and how 'competition' is measured. This potentially compromises the interpretation of conventional competition experiments.

  1. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Tarrega, Amparo; Quiles, Amparo; Morell, Pere; Fiszman, Susana; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-02-22

    Sponge cakes enriched with fiber from different sources (maltodextrin, wheat, apple, blackcurrant and a mixture of potato and Plantago ovata) were studied. Profiling of the different cakes was carried out, first using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question then evaluating the consumers' likings using a hedonic scale. The consumers also completed a nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire that was used to classify them according to their NK level. The instrumental texture of the cakes was evaluated by the texture profile analysis (TPA) method. The consumers' response was not linked to their NK level, but it mainly depended on the importance they gave to the cakes' distinctive sensory characteristics. In general, liking increased for samples considered easy to chew, spongy, soft and sweet, and decreased for samples perceived as tasteless, dry or having a fruity or an odd flavor. The sponge cakes containing maltodextrin or wheat fiber, which mostly resembled a conventional cake, were the most liked in general. Those containing the other three fibers were rejected by part of the consumers, for being tasteless in the case of potato plus Plantago ovata fiber, for being dry and doughy in the case of apple fiber and for having an odd flavor in the case of blackcurrant fiber.

  2. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    PubMed Central

    Veres, Katalin; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Lázár, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus) by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis PMID:23049473

  3. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-10-27

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  4. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  5. Tissue and method specificities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase assay.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj

    2012-09-01

    A large number of studies have estimated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity because it strongly reacts to various stimuli. Activity of this enzyme has been assayed mainly by means of spectrophotometry, but the precision of this method is poorly known. We compared assays of PAL activity using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in two species (Matricaria chamomilla and Arabidopsis thaliana). Additionally, copper-exposed M. chamomilla plants and buffer with additive were also tested. Our data indicate that spectrophotometry both overestimates (leaves of M. chamomilla) and underestimates (leaves and roots of A. thaliana) PAL activity in comparison with HPLC, suggesting interference of UV-absorbing metabolites. HPLC also showed more accurate detection of cinnamic acid in Cu-exposed chamomile roots. Addition of dithiothreitol to the extraction buffer enhanced PAL activity but reduced proteins, indicating an artificial negative effect. A comparison of PAL activity in selected species is also provided.

  6. Urease Inhibitory Activities of some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Mahernia, Shabnam; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Urease enzyme has a crucial role in the persistent habitation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) that induces gastrointestinal diseases, in particular gastritis, duodenal, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plants have long been utilized as the biggest source of substances with medicinal properties from natural origin and therefore result in less toxicity and adverse side effects upon usage. 15 medicinal plant extracts were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Three plant extracts including Ginkgo biloba, Rhus coriaria, and Matricaria inodora were found to be the most effective ones with IC50 values of 36.17, 80.29, and 100.6 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26330884

  7. Investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Razić, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavković, Latinka

    2008-07-01

    Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union.

  8. Urease Inhibitory Activities of some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Mahernia, Shabnam; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Urease enzyme has a crucial role in the persistent habitation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) that induces gastrointestinal diseases, in particular gastritis, duodenal, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plants have long been utilized as the biggest source of substances with medicinal properties from natural origin and therefore result in less toxicity and adverse side effects upon usage. 15 medicinal plant extracts were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Three plant extracts including Ginkgo biloba, Rhus coriaria, and Matricaria inodora were found to be the most effective ones with IC50 values of 36.17, 80.29, and 100.6 μg/mL, respectively.

  9. Contact allergy to Compositae plants in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Marina; Poljacki, Mirjana; Duran, Verica; Vujanović, Ljuba; Sente, Ruza; Stojanović, Slobodan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of Compositae sensitivity is one of the most important goals of current dermatology and allergology. We have patch tested 30 adult patients suffering from "extrinsic" atopic dermatitis with sesquiterpene lactone mix and Compositae mix including Compositae mix individual ingredients, extracts of arnica (Arnica montana), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), fever few (Tanacetum parthenium) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) as well as with specific series for patients with atopic dermatitis. All allergens were purchased from Hermal-Trolab (Reinbek, Germany). There were 6 (20%) patients positive to Compositae mix only, and 3 (10%) patients positive to both Compositae mix and sesquiterpene lactone mix. Among 9 Compositae mix-sensitive patients 8 (88.8%) were positive to at least 1 of its individual ingredients: 5 (55.5%) to chamomile, 4 (44.4%) to arnica, 2 (22.2%) to tansy, and 2 (22.2%) to fever few. Among Compositae-sensitive patients 78.8% had other contact allergies, most often to nickel (33.3%). Since our study represents the first report on contact allergy to Compositae among patients with "extrinsic" type of atopic dermatitis, it substantiates the statement that atopy represents a risk factor for Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall prevalence of 30% Compositae-sensitive among patients with "extrinsic" atopic dermatitis detected in our study represents a basal sesquiterpene lactone mix detection rate of 10%, reinforced and safely supplemented by 20% by testing with the Compositae mix.

  10. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  11. Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ruth; Köberl, Martina; Mostafa, Amr; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Monschein, Marlene; Jensen, Kenneth B; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host's microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14) from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18) already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as to influence the plant metabolome.

  12. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential.

  13. Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ruth; Köberl, Martina; Mostafa, Amr; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Monschein, Marlene; Jensen, Kenneth B.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host's microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14) from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18) already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as to influence the plant metabolome. PMID:24600444

  14. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent.

  15. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, ore exploitation, particularly that of mixed sulphides, has been abandoned since the final thirty years of the last century, and a quantity of mine dumps has been discharged in wide areas of the land, provoking evident environmental damages to landscape, soil and vegetation, with potential risk for human health. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Soils and wild plants were sampled from mixed sulphides mine dumps in Imperina valley (Belluno, Italy), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Chemical analyses carried out on 10 soil profiles (mostly entisols) of the mineralised area revealed metal concentrations generally above the international target levels (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). The concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn, instead, are below the reference limits. Moreover, a highly significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of metals in soils (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu). Metal concentration in selected wild plants of the mineralized area is moderately high, in particolar Cu, Pb, Zn in the roots of Plantago major, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale, Zn and Pb in Salix spp. The translocation coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant (hypogean portion), and within the plant (epigean portion) vary from 0,37 in Plantago major to 2,97 in Silene dioica, two known accumulator plants. Salix spp present high translocation coefficients from soil to plant, and from roots to leaves. In particular, essential metals present a translocation coefficient ≥1 (with the order Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe), while toxic metals have coefficients <1 (Pb

  16. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  17. Industrial Application Of Psyllium: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliq, Rehana; Tita, Ovidiu; Antofie, Maria Mihaela; Sava, Camelia

    2015-09-01

    Plantago ovata is economically an important medicinal plant commonly cultivated in different parts of India, Pakistan and Iran and some part of Europe. It has a long history of traditional uses with healing properties. There are various applications of seed husk and its marketable products for medicine and industrial uses. The seed husk is commonly called as psyllium or isabgol has a potential role in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal and bowel diseases. The intent of this review was to highlight the industrial uses of psyllium for the food products and therapeutic purposes. There is also considerable interest of local people, scientific communities and industries in the medical and food supplement application of psyllium husk and mucilage with specific health benefits.

  18. Distribution of platinum group elements and other traffic related elements among different plants along some highways in Germany.

    PubMed

    Djingova, Rumiana; Kovacheva, Petya; Wagner, Gerhard; Markert, Bernd

    2003-06-01

    Using ICP-MS and ICP-AES platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru and Ir) and Ce, La, Nd, Pb and Zr have been determined in street dust, Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Plantago lanceolata (plantain), Lolium multiflorum (annual ryegrass), Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (moss) and Vascellum pratense (mushrooms) collected along highways and streets in Germany during 1999. Among the plants Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) reflects most adequately the pollution with the investigated elements matching the results from street dust. A strong positive correlation between all elements determined in the plants is established. Transfer factor for Pt between soil and plants has been determined in an agricultural experiment ranging between 0.004 and 0.008 for two types of soils.

  19. Determination of heavy metal concentrations in plants exposed to different degrees of pollution using ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Kos, V; Budic, B; Hudnik, V; Lobnik, F; Zupan, M

    1996-03-01

    Plant samples (Plantago lanceolata - narrow leaf plantain and Cichorium endiviae - endive) were collected in the surroundings of heavy metal emission sources and in other less contaminated areas. After digestion in a closed microwave system using HNO(3), the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined using ICP-AES. Detection limits for all the elements of interest are given. Differences in heavy metal uptake rate between both plant species were observed. The uptake is more intensive for endive than for narrow leaf plantain. High concentrations of some heavy metals were determined in the unwashed plant samples as a result of exposure to aerosols. Tukey's statistical test was used to confirm the discrepancy of Cr concentration in plant samples from various areas. Washing the leaves with water was found to remove a large amount of water-soluble aerosols.

  20. [Biodegradable polymer microparticles with entraped herbal extracts: preparation with supercritical carbon dioxide and use for tissue repair].

    PubMed

    Markvicheva, E A; Antonov, E N; Popova, A V; Bogorodskiĭ, S E; Likhareva, V V; Fel'dman, B M; Strukova, S M; Popov, V K; Rumsh, L D

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable microparticles based on poly-D,L-lactide with entrapped mixture of herbal water-soluble extracts of Plantago major and Calendula officinalis were prepared. For preparation of these microparticles the previously developed method based on the usage of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was proposed. Microparticles were obtained by two techniques: 1) by preparing porous polymer monolith containing entrapped mixture of herbal extracts, which was then reduced to fine microparticles (ca. 0.1 mm) by dry ice grinding (called here as "monolithisation technique") and 2) by spraying of this polymer/extracts mixture through a jet (spray technique). In vitro release kinetic profile of herbal extract mixture was found to depend on the microparticle preparation technique, on the microparticle structure as well as on the initial ratio polymer/extracts (w/w). The microparticles were used for gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model. The extracts released from microparticles were found to accelerate tissue repair.

  1. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Native Plant Distributions in the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Upson, Rebecca; Williams, Jennifer J; Wilkinson, Tim P; Clubbe, Colin P; Maclean, Ilya M D; McAdam, Jim H; Moat, Justin F

    2016-01-01

    The Falkland Islands are predicted to experience up to 2.2°C rise in mean annual temperature over the coming century, greater than four times the rate over the last century. Our study investigates likely vulnerabilities of a suite of range-restricted species whose distributions are associated with archipelago-wide climatic variation. We used present day climate maps calibrated using local weather data, 2020-2080 climate predictions from regional climate models, non-climate variables derived from a digital terrain model and a comprehensive database on local plant distributions. Weighted mean ensemble models were produced to assess changes in range sizes and overlaps between the current range and protected areas network. Target species included three globally threatened Falkland endemics, Nassauvia falklandica, Nastanthus falklandicus and Plantago moorei; and two nationally threatened species, Acaena antarctica and Blechnum cordatum. Our research demonstrates that temperature increases predicted for the next century have the potential to significantly alter plant distributions across the Falklands. Upland species, in particular, were found to be highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. No known locations of target upland species or the southwestern species Plantago moorei are predicted to remain environmentally suitable in the face of predicted climate change. We identify potential refugia for these species and associated gaps in the current protected areas network. Species currently restricted to the milder western parts of the archipelago are broadly predicted to expand their ranges under warmer temperatures. Our results emphasise the importance of implementing suitable adaptation strategies to offset climate change impacts, particularly site management. There is an urgent need for long-term monitoring and artificial warming experiments; the results of this study will inform the selection of the most suitable locations for these. Results are also helping

  2. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

  3. Plants as bioindicators for archaeological prospection: a case of study from Domitian's Stadium in the Palatine (Rome, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, S; Caneva, G

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between buried archaeological remains (masonries, pavements, and ancient ruins) and spontaneous vegetation growing above them. We carried out several vegetation surveys in the Domitian's Stadium at the archaeological site of the Palatine (Rome). Vegetation data were collected using the Braun-Blanquet approach and elaborated using statistical analyses (cluster analysis) to assess the similarity among surveys. Structural, chorological, and ecological features of the plant communities were analyzed. Results showed that the vegetation responds significantly to the presence of sub-emerging ancient remains. The plant bioindication of this phenomenon occurs through the following floristic-vegetation variations: phenological alterations in single individuals (reduction in height, displacement of flowering/fruiting period), increase of annual species and decrease of perennial ones, decrease of total plant coverage, reduction of maturity level of the vegetation which remains blocked at a pioneer evolutive stage. The presence of sub-surfacing ruins manifests itself through the dominant occurrence of xerophilous and not-nitrophilous species (e.g., Hypochaeris achyrophorus L., Aira elegantissima Schur, Trifolium scabrum L. ssp. scabrum, Trifolium stellatum L., Plantago lagopus L., Medicago minima (L.) L., and Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony ssp. rigidum) and in a rarefaction of more mesophilous and nitrophilous species (e.g., Plantago lanceolata L., Trifolium pratense L. ssp. pratense, Trifolium repens L. ssp. repens, and Poa trivialis L.). Therefore, the vegetation can be used as bioindicator for the detection of buried ruins, contributing in the archaeological prospection for a general, fast, and inexpensive interpretation of the underground.

  4. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Native Plant Distributions in the Falkland Islands

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Rebecca; Williams, Jennifer J.; Wilkinson, Tim P.; Maclean, Ilya M. D.; McAdam, Jim H.; Moat, Justin F.

    2016-01-01

    The Falkland Islands are predicted to experience up to 2.2°C rise in mean annual temperature over the coming century, greater than four times the rate over the last century. Our study investigates likely vulnerabilities of a suite of range-restricted species whose distributions are associated with archipelago-wide climatic variation. We used present day climate maps calibrated using local weather data, 2020–2080 climate predictions from regional climate models, non-climate variables derived from a digital terrain model and a comprehensive database on local plant distributions. Weighted mean ensemble models were produced to assess changes in range sizes and overlaps between the current range and protected areas network. Target species included three globally threatened Falkland endemics, Nassauvia falklandica, Nastanthus falklandicus and Plantago moorei; and two nationally threatened species, Acaena antarctica and Blechnum cordatum. Our research demonstrates that temperature increases predicted for the next century have the potential to significantly alter plant distributions across the Falklands. Upland species, in particular, were found to be highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. No known locations of target upland species or the southwestern species Plantago moorei are predicted to remain environmentally suitable in the face of predicted climate change. We identify potential refugia for these species and associated gaps in the current protected areas network. Species currently restricted to the milder western parts of the archipelago are broadly predicted to expand their ranges under warmer temperatures. Our results emphasise the importance of implementing suitable adaptation strategies to offset climate change impacts, particularly site management. There is an urgent need for long-term monitoring and artificial warming experiments; the results of this study will inform the selection of the most suitable locations for these. Results are also helping

  5. Phenological records as a complement to aerobiological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormo, Rafael; Silva, Inmaculada; Gonzalo, Ángela; Moreno, Alfonsa; Pérez, Remedios; Fernández, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies in combination with aerobiological studies enable one to observe the relationship between the release of pollen and its presence in the atmosphere. To obtain a suitable comparison between the daily variation of airborne pollen concentrations and flowering, it is necessary for the level of accuracy of both sets of data to be as similar as possible. To analyse the correlation between locally observed flowering data and pollen counts in pollen traps in order to set pollen information forecasts, pollen was sampled using a Burkard volumetric pollen trap working continuously from May 1993. For the phenological study we selected the main pollen sources of the six pollen types most abundant in our area: Cupressaceae, Platanus, Quercus, Plantago, Olea, and Poaceae with a total of 35 species. We selected seven sites to register flowering or pollination, two with semi-natural vegetation, the rest being urban sites. The sites were visited weekly from March to June in 2007, and from January to June in 2008 and 2009. Pollen shedding was checked at each visit, and recorded as the percentage of flowers or microsporangia in that state. There was an association between flowering phenology and airborne pollen records for some of the pollen types ( Platanus, Quercus, Olea and Plantago). Nevertheless, for the other types (Cupressaceae and Poaceae) the flowering and airborne pollen peaks did not coincide, with up to 1 week difference in phase. Some arguments are put forward in explanation of this phenomenon. Phenological studies have shown that airborne pollen results from both local and distant sources, although the pollen peaks usually appear when local sources are shedding the greatest amounts of pollen. Resuspension phenomena are probably more important than long-distance transport in explaining the presence of airborne pollen outside the flowering period. This information could be used to improve pollen forecasts.

  6. A quantitative ethnopharmacological documentation of natural pharmacological agents used by pediatric patients in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, M Fawzi; Sreekeesoon, D Priyamka

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric population constitutes the most vulnerable patients due to a dearth of approved drugs. Consequently, there is a pressing need to probe novel natural pharmacological agents in an endeavour to develop new drugs to address pediatric illnesses. To date, no studies have explored the use of natural therapies for pediatric health care in Mauritius. Parents (n = 325) from different regions of the island were interviewed. Quantitative indexes such as fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (F IC), and use-value (UV) were calculated. Thirty-two plants were reported to be used by pediatric patients. Gastrointestinal disorders (F IC = 0.97) encompassing regurgitation, infantile colic, and stomach aches were the most common ailments managed with herbs. Matricaria chamomilla used for infantile colic and its pharmacological properties has previously been documented for pediatric patients. Product from A. mellifera (UV = 0.75) was the most utilized zootherapy for managing cough. Most plants and animal products reported in this study have bioactive constituents supported by existing scientific literature but their use for the pediatric population is scant. The present ethnopharmacological study has opened new perspectives for further research into their pharmacology, which can subsequently support and facilitate timely pediatric medicinal product development.

  7. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  8. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Milić, Natasa; Milosević, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozić, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients.

  9. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Grażyna; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality.

  10. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-12-20

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  11. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.

  12. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity.

  13. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU)-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis), Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe), Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla), Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare). The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%), linalool (42%), α-pinene (27.87%), α-pinene (22.10%), and zingiberene (31.79%) were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P<0.05). The main finding was that the susceptibilities of FLU-resistant C. albicans to essential oils were higher than those of the FLU-susceptible yeasts. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that the oils from medicinal plants could be used as potential anti FLU-resistant C. albicans agents. PMID:27222835

  15. Antigenotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis induction by apigenin, bisabolol, and protocatechuic acid.

    PubMed

    Anter, Jaouad; Romero-Jiménez, Magdalena; Fernández-Bedmar, Zahira; Villatoro-Pulido, Myriam; Analla, Mohamed; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés

    2011-03-01

    Medicinal plants represent an important resource in new drug research. Antioxidant properties of plants can help to scavenge reactive oxygen species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genotoxic, antigenotoxic, tumoricidal, and apoptotic effect of some major phenols (apigenin, bisabolol, and protocatechuic acid) from two medicinal plants, Matricaria chamomilla and Uncaria tomentosa. The wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of the three phenols. The human model of HL-60 leukemia cells was used for the assessment of the cytotoxic effect, growth, and cellular viability. The apoptotic effect was evaluated using a DNA fragmentation assay based on the formation of internucleosomal units. Protocatechuic acid (0.25 and 1 mM), apigenin (0.46 and 1.85 mM), and bisabolol (0.56 and 2.24 mM) did not exhibit any genotoxic effect. The three phenols showed an antigenotoxic effect against the hydrogen peroxide effect and also exhibited tumoricidal activity. Apigenin (2.24-35.96 mM) showed a lower 50% inhibitory concentration (0.75 and 3.87 mM for the trypan blue test and WST-8 colorimetric assay, respectively) than bisabolol and protocatechuic acid. These phenolics also induced apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells. This study suggests that the antioxidant activity of Chamomilla and Uncaria could be partially responsible of their beneficial activity.

  16. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in Jordan, the Ajloun Heights region.

    PubMed

    Aburjai, Talal; Hudaib, Mohammad; Tayyem, Rabab; Yousef, Mohammed; Qishawi, Maher

    2007-03-21

    The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation of medicinal plants. This study therefore sought to collect information from local population concerning the use of Ajloun Heights region medicinal plants; identify the most important species used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) in relation to medicinal plant use. Data collection relied predominantly on qualitative tools to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. Our results revealed that 46 plant species grown in the study region are still in use in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Achillea falcata, Matricaria aurea, Majorana syriaca, Allium sativum and Allium cepa. The use of moderately unsafe or toxic plants was noted to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the locals. These plants include Ecballium elaterium, Euphorbia hierosolymitana, Mandragora autumnalis and Citrullus colocynthis. Kidney problems scored the highest ICF while Crocus hyemalis was the plant of highest use value. Searching the literature evidenced some concordance with the solicited plant uses mentioned by the informants.

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  18. Study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Kismányoky, T

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out in Keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in April of 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. The weed survey was made on the 20th of April at the end of tillering. For the weed survey used the Balázs-Ujvárosi method. After that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. We counted, measured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial parts. Winter wheat sampels were taken also from all plots (1 running meter per plot). In the experiment 10 weed species were found, 9 annual: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Consolida regalis, Galium aparine, Lamiunt amplexicaule, Matricaria inodora, Papaver rhoeas, Stellaria media, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica triphyllos, and 1 perennial: Cirsium arvense. Veronica hederifolia was the dominant species in both fertilized plots, Stellaria media has the second highest weed coverage. The manuring treatments, and the N-dosis has important and significantly effect to the weedeness and the biomass production of winter wheat. On the control plots was the relation of biomass weight of weeds the highest. This relation reduced to the effect of N treatments, wich had an favorable effect on the winter wheat.

  19. A Quantitative Ethnopharmacological Documentation of Natural Pharmacological Agents Used by Pediatric Patients in Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi; Sreekeesoon, D. Priyamka

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric population constitutes the most vulnerable patients due to a dearth of approved drugs. Consequently, there is a pressing need to probe novel natural pharmacological agents in an endeavour to develop new drugs to address pediatric illnesses. To date, no studies have explored the use of natural therapies for pediatric health care in Mauritius. Parents (n = 325) from different regions of the island were interviewed. Quantitative indexes such as fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (FIC), and use-value (UV) were calculated. Thirty-two plants were reported to be used by pediatric patients. Gastrointestinal disorders (FIC = 0.97) encompassing regurgitation, infantile colic, and stomach aches were the most common ailments managed with herbs. Matricaria chamomilla used for infantile colic and its pharmacological properties has previously been documented for pediatric patients. Product from A. mellifera (UV = 0.75) was the most utilized zootherapy for managing cough. Most plants and animal products reported in this study have bioactive constituents supported by existing scientific literature but their use for the pediatric population is scant. The present ethnopharmacological study has opened new perspectives for further research into their pharmacology, which can subsequently support and facilitate timely pediatric medicinal product development. PMID:24949418

  20. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Kalle, Raivo; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kolosova, Valeria; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Petkevičius, Rolandas; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet

    2013-08-13

    This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad.

  1. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad. PMID:23941692

  2. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    PubMed

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of the Jack-Bean Urease Inhibition by Randomly Selected Traditionally Used Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL). PMID:24250509

  4. Unexpected behavior of some nitric oxide modulators under cadmium excess in plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Jarošová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Various nitric oxide modulators (NO donors--SNP, GSNO, DEA NONOate and scavengers--PTIO, cPTIO) were tested to highlight the role of NO under Cd excess in various ontogenetic stages of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla). Surprisingly, compared to Cd alone, SNP and PTIO elevated Cd uptake (confirmed also by PhenGreen staining) but depleted glutathione (partially ascorbic acid) and phytochelatins PC2 and PC3 in both older plants (cultured hydroponically) and seedlings (cultured in deionised water). Despite these anomalous impacts, fluorescence staining of NO and ROS confirmed predictable assumptions and revealed reciprocal changes (decrease in NO but increase in ROS after PTIO addition and the opposite after SNP application). Subsequent tests using alternative modulators and seedlings confirmed changes to NO and ROS after application of GSNO and DEA NONOate as mentioned above for SNP while cPTIO altered only NO level (depletion). On the contrary to SNP and PTIO, GSNO, DEA NONOate and cPTIO did not elevate Cd content and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3) were rather elevated. These data provide evidence that various NO modulators are useful in terms of NO and ROS manipulation but interactions with intact plants affect metal uptake and must therefore be used with caution. In this view, cPTIO and DEA NONOate revealed the less pronounced side impacts and are recommended as suitable NO scavenger/donor in plant physiological studies under Cd excess.

  5. Aphid Parasitoid Mothers Don't Always Know Best through the Whole Host Selection Process

    PubMed Central

    Chesnais, Quentin; Ameline, Arnaud; Doury, Géraldine; Le Roux, Vincent; Couty, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid host selection behaviour has been extensively studied in experimentally simplified tritrophic systems formed by one single food chain (one plant, one herbivore and one parasitoid species). The "Mother knows best" hypothesis predicts that the preference for a plant-host complex should be positively correlated with plant quality for offspring performance. We studied the host selection behaviour of the generalist endoparasitoid Aphidius matricariae towards the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in the intercrop system including Vicia faba as a focal plant and its companion plant Camelina sativa. Dual-choice laboratory bioassays revealed that parasitoid females preferred to orientate towards (1) the plant-aphid complex over the non-infested plant whatever the complex (2) the C. sativa-A. fabae complex over the V. faba-A. fabae complex. In dual choice attack rate bioassays, parasitoid females showed more interest towards the aphids on C. sativa but paradoxically chose to oviposit more in aphids on V. faba. Ultimately, parasitoids that had developed on the V. faba-A. fabae complex exhibited better fitness parameters. By demonstrating that parasitoid females were able to discriminate the aphid host that offered the highest fitness to their offspring but selected beforehand the least suitable plant-aphid complex, we provide key insight into the disruption in their host selection behaviour potentially triggered by diverse habitats. This suggests that the "Mother knows best" hypothesis could be thwarted by increasing the complexity of the studied systems. PMID:26270046

  6. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  7. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  8. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage.

  9. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization–confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. PMID:26705571

  10. Patterns of self-medication with medicinal plants and related adverse events--a South American survey.

    PubMed

    Consolini, Alicia E; Ragone, Maria I

    2010-10-01

    Medicinal plants are useful as a natural therapy to treat minor illnesses, as gastrointestinal disorders or as topic antiinflammatories. Also, they have been increasingly used as a coadjuvant in cronic diseases as hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipidemias. Nevertheless, many of the plants have active principles which are contraindicated or need precaution in certain illnesses as coagulation disorders or in certain states as pregnancy or breastfeeding. In this review we had compiled the side-effects, precautions and interactions with other medicines of many plants which are used in self-medication in our region. A previous population study gave us information on the consumption of medicinal plants in 73 pharmacies of the Buenos Aires province, in Argentina. During a period of one year, there were 37102 self-medicated plants, while only 1532 were prescribed by the physician. Among the most frequently self-medicated plants are Malva sylvestris L., Matricaria chamomile L, and Quassia amara. Among the most frequently prescribed are also "malva" and "chamomile", Tilia cordata Mill. and Valeriana officinalis. Based in the most consumed medicinal plants in our region, we reviewed the risks of such plants and the precautions that should be taken for a rational use. Also, we detected 15 adverse-reactions reported by the pharmacists through a pharmaceutical vigilance program, which are described and analyzed here. The results of the study and other reports suggest that adverse reactions of herbal medicines could be avoided if preventing self-medication, and taking into consideration possible contraindications and interactions.

  11. Manganese-induced oxidative stress in two ontogenetic stages of chamomile and amelioration by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef; Švec, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    Impact of manganese (Mn(2+)) excess (100, 500 and 1000 μM over 7 days) on two ontogenetic stages (7-week-old plants and 7-day-old seedlings) of Matricaria chamomilla was compared. Mn excess depressed growth of seedlings (but not germination) and stimulated oxidative stress (ROS and lipid peroxidation) in both plants and seedlings. Growth inhibition could be evoked by higher Mn uptake and higher translocation factor in seedlings than in plants. Total thiols staining revealed elevation in almost all treatments. In 7-week-old plants, activity of peroxidases increased slightly and rather decreased under high Mn doses. Superoxide rather than hydrogen peroxide contributed to visualized ROS presence. Fluorescence of nitric oxide (NO) showed stimulation in plants but decrease in seedlings. Impact of exogenous nitric oxide donor (sodium nitroprusside/SNP) was therefore tested and results showed amelioration of 1000 μM Mn-induced oxidative stress in seedlings (decrease in H2O2 and increase in NO content while antioxidative enzyme activities were variably affected) concomitantly with depleted Mn accumulation. It is concluded that NO participates in tolerance to Mn excess but negative effects of the highest SNP dose were also observed. Extensive fluorescence microscopy is also explanatively discussed.

  12. Chamomile and oregano extracts synergistically exhibit antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and renal protective effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Rajagopalan; Ashraf, Elbessoumy A; Essam, Mahmoud A

    2017-01-01

    The bio-activities of separate Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) are well studied; however, the combined effects of both natural products in animal diabetic models are not well characterized. In this study, alloxan-induced male albino rats were treated with single dose aqueous suspension of chamomile or oregano at dose level of either 150 or 300 mg/kg body mass or as equal parts as combination by stomach tube for 6 weeks. After treatment, blood samples were assessed for diabetic, renal, and lipid profiles. Insulin, amylase activity, and diabetic renal apoptosis were further evaluated. Treatment with higher dose of the extracts (300 mg/kg) as individual or as mixture of low doses (150 mg/kg of both the extracts) had significant mass gain, hypoglycemic effect (p ≤ 0.05) with decreased amylase activity and increased serum insulin levels. Restoration of renal profile, lipid profile with increase in HDL-c (p ≤ 0.05) along with reversal of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were well observed with 300 mg/kg mixture, showing synergistic activity of the extracts compared with individual low dose of 150 mg/kg. Collectively, our results indicate that combination of chamomile and oregano extracts will form a new class of drugs to treat diabetic complications.

  13. Aphid Parasitoid Mothers Don't Always Know Best through the Whole Host Selection Process.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Quentin; Ameline, Arnaud; Doury, Géraldine; Le Roux, Vincent; Couty, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid host selection behaviour has been extensively studied in experimentally simplified tritrophic systems formed by one single food chain (one plant, one herbivore and one parasitoid species). The "Mother knows best" hypothesis predicts that the preference for a plant-host complex should be positively correlated with plant quality for offspring performance. We studied the host selection behaviour of the generalist endoparasitoid Aphidius matricariae towards the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in the intercrop system including Vicia faba as a focal plant and its companion plant Camelina sativa. Dual-choice laboratory bioassays revealed that parasitoid females preferred to orientate towards (1) the plant-aphid complex over the non-infested plant whatever the complex (2) the C. sativa-A. fabae complex over the V. faba-A. fabae complex. In dual choice attack rate bioassays, parasitoid females showed more interest towards the aphids on C. sativa but paradoxically chose to oviposit more in aphids on V. faba. Ultimately, parasitoids that had developed on the V. faba-A. fabae complex exhibited better fitness parameters. By demonstrating that parasitoid females were able to discriminate the aphid host that offered the highest fitness to their offspring but selected beforehand the least suitable plant-aphid complex, we provide key insight into the disruption in their host selection behaviour potentially triggered by diverse habitats. This suggests that the "Mother knows best" hypothesis could be thwarted by increasing the complexity of the studied systems.

  14. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  15. Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Traditional Herbs Commonly Consumed in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Dghaim, Rania; Al Khatib, Safa; Rasool, Husna; Ali Khan, Munawwar

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1–1.11 mg·kg−1 for cadmium, less than 1.0–23.52 mg·kg−1 for lead, 1.44–156.24 mg·kg−1 for copper, 12.65–146.67 mg·kg−1 for zinc, and 81.25–1101.22 mg·kg−1 for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits (PL). PMID:26000023

  16. Unexpected Behavior of Some Nitric Oxide Modulators under Cadmium Excess in Plant Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Jarošová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Various nitric oxide modulators (NO donors - SNP, GSNO, DEA NONOate and scavengers – PTIO, cPTIO) were tested to highlight the role of NO under Cd excess in various ontogenetic stages of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla). Surprisingly, compared to Cd alone, SNP and PTIO elevated Cd uptake (confirmed also by PhenGreen staining) but depleted glutathione (partially ascorbic acid) and phytochelatins PC2 and PC3 in both older plants (cultured hydroponically) and seedlings (cultured in deionised water). Despite these anomalous impacts, fluorescence staining of NO and ROS confirmed predictable assumptions and revealed reciprocal changes (decrease in NO but increase in ROS after PTIO addition and the opposite after SNP application). Subsequent tests using alternative modulators and seedlings confirmed changes to NO and ROS after application of GSNO and DEA NONOate as mentioned above for SNP while cPTIO altered only NO level (depletion). On the contrary to SNP and PTIO, GSNO, DEA NONOate and cPTIO did not elevate Cd content and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3) were rather elevated. These data provide evidence that various NO modulators are useful in terms of NO and ROS manipulation but interactions with intact plants affect metal uptake and must therefore be used with caution. In this view, cPTIO and DEA NONOate revealed the less pronounced side impacts and are recommended as suitable NO scavenger/donor in plant physiological studies under Cd excess. PMID:24626462

  17. Beverage and culture. "Zhourat", a multivariate analysis of the globalization of a herbal tea from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Obón, Concepción; Rivera, Diego; Alcaraz, Francisco; Attieh, Latiffa

    2014-08-01

    The "Zhourat" herbal tea consists of a blend of wild flowers, herbs, leaves and fruits and is a typical beverage of Lebanon and Syria. We aim to evaluate cultural significance of "Zhourat", to determine cultural standards for its formulation including key ingredients and to determine acceptable variability levels in terms of number of ingredients and their relative proportions, in summary what is "Zhourat" and what is not "Zhourat" from an ethnobotanical perspective. For this purpose we develop a novel methodology to describe and analyse patterns of variation of traditional multi-ingredient herbal formulations, beverages and teas and to identify key ingredients, which are characteristics of a particular culture and region and to interpret health claims for the mixture. Factor analysis and hierarchical clustering techniques were used to display similarities between samples whereas salience index was used to determine the main ingredients which could help to distinguish a standard traditional blend from a global market-addressed formulation. The study revealed 77 main ingredients belonging to 71 different species of vascular plants. In spite of the "Zhourat's" highly variable content, the salience analysis resulted in a determined set of key botanical components including Rosa x damascena Herrm., Althaea damascena Mouterde, Matricaria chamomilla L., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Zea mays L. and Elaeagnus angustifolia L. The major health claims for "Zhourat" as digestive, sedative and for respiratory problems are culturally coherent with the analysis of the traditional medicinal properties uses of its ingredients.

  18. Vegetation change, goats, and religion: a 2000-year history of land use in southern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Helen V.; Dupont, Lydie; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Kuhlmann, Holger

    2009-07-01

    Understanding past human-climate-environment interactions is essential for assessing the vulnerability of landscapes and ecosystems to future climate change. This is particularly important in southern Morocco where the current vegetation is impacted by pastoralism, and the region is highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we present a 2000-year record of vegetation, sedimentation rate, XRF chemical element intensities, and particle size from two decadal-resolved, marine sediment cores, raised from offshore Cape Ghir, southern Morocco. The results show that between 650 and 850 AD the sedimentation rate increased dramatically from 100 cm/1000 years to 300 cm/1000 years, and the Fe/Ca and pollen flux doubled, together indicating higher inputs of terrestrial sediment. Particle size measurements and end-member modelling suggest increased fluvial transport of the sediment. Beginning at 650 AD pollen levels from Cichorioideae species show a sharp rise from 10% to 20%. Pollen from Atemisia and Plantago, also increase from this time. Deciduous oak pollen percentages show a decline, whereas those of evergreen oak barely change. The abrupt increase in terrestrial/fluvial input from 650 to 850 AD occurs, within the age uncertainty, of the arrival of Islam (Islamisation) in Morocco at around 700 AD. Historical evidence suggests Islamisation led to population increase and development of southern Morocco, including expanded pastoralism, deforestation and agriculture. Livestock pressure may have changed the vegetation structure, accounting for the increase in pollen from Cichorioideae, Plantago, and Artemisia, which include many weedy species. Goats in particular may have played a dominant role as agents of erosion, and intense browsing may have led to the decline in deciduous oak; evergreen oak is more likely to survive as it re-sprouts more vigorously after browsing. From 850 AD to present sedimentation rates, Fe/Ca ratios and fluvial discharge remain stable, whereas

  19. Vegetational response to human colonisation of the coastal and volcanic environments of Ketilsstaðir, southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Edwards, Kevin J.; Buckland, Paul C.

    2009-09-01

    Tephra-dated, high-resolution pollen profiles from Ketilsstaðir, southern Iceland, indicate a largely unwooded pre-settlement environment, a probable consequence of the exposed coastal location. The degree of change associated with the Norse landnám is more limited than in many Icelandic pollen diagrams. There are three main periods of change in the post-settlement vegetational development of the area. Firstly, Norse settlement affected the hydrology of the bog, resulting in the near-disappearance of Sphagnum and agricultural activity led to a reduction of some species (e.g. Angelica spp. and, Salix). Secondly, the establishment of probable permanent settlement in the mid-11th century AD initiated expansion of such apophytic taxa as Plantago spp. Lactuceae, Ranunculus spp. and Pteridophytes. Thirdly, the ≥ 10 cm thick Katla tephra, deposited in AD 1357, enhanced drainage of the bog surface, favouring dryland taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Galium and Lactuceae). The tephra deposit and the associated drainage probably caused or contributed to the local extinction of the wetland beetle Hydraena britteni. The study has enabled a series of natural and humanly-related issues to be addressed including tephra-vegetation relationships, the anthropogenic reduction in plant diversity, and comparisons between historical and environmental settlement records.

  20. Spatial variation in soil biota mediates plant adaptation to a foliar pathogen.

    PubMed

    Mursinoff, Sini; Tack, Ayco J M

    2017-01-02

    Theory suggests that below-ground spatial heterogeneity may mediate host-parasite evolutionary dynamics and patterns of local adaptation, but this has rarely been tested in natural systems. Here, we test experimentally for the impact of spatial variation in the abiotic and biotic soil environment on the evolutionary outcome of the interaction between the host plant Plantago lanceolata and its specialist foliar pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis. Plants showed no adaptation to the local soil environment in the absence of natural enemies. However, quantitative, but not qualitative, plant resistance against local pathogens was higher when plants were grown in their local field soil than when they were grown in nonlocal field soil. This pattern was robust when extending the spatial scale beyond a single region, but disappeared with soil sterilization, indicating that soil biota mediated plant adaptation. We conclude that below-ground biotic heterogeneity mediates above-ground patterns of plant adaptation, resulting in increased plant resistance when plants are grown in their local soil environment. From an applied perspective, our findings emphasize the importance of using locally selected seeds in restoration ecology and low-input agriculture.

  1. Plants increase arsenic in solution but decrease the non-specifically bound fraction in the rhizosphere of an alkaline, naturally rich soil.

    PubMed

    Obeidy, Carole; Bravin, Matthieu N; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Conord, Cyrille; Moutte, Jacques; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We aimed at determining the major physical-chemical processes that drive arsenic (As) dynamic in the rhizosphere of four species (Holcus lanatus, Dittrichia viscosa, Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata) tested for phytostabilization. Experiments were performed with an alkaline soil naturally rich in As. Composition of the soil solution of planted and unplanted pots was monitored every 15 days for 90 days, with a focus on the evolution of As concentrations in solution and in the non-specifically bound (i.e. easily exchangeable) fraction. The four species similarly increased As concentration in solution, but decreased As concentration in the non-specifically bound fraction. The major part (60%) of As desorbed from the non-specifically bound fraction in planted pots was likely redistributed on the less available fractions of As on the solid phase. A second part (35%) of desorbed As was taken up by plants. The minor part (5%) of desorbed As supplied As increase in solution. To conclude, plants induced a substantial redistribution of As on the less available fractions in the rhizosphere, as expected in phytostabilization strategies. Plants however concomitantly increased As concentration in the rhizosphere solution which may contribute to As transfer through plant uptake and leaching.

  2. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  3. Review of the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Rehmannia Six Formula on diabetes mellitus and its complications.

    PubMed

    Poon, Terry Yam Chuen; Ong, Kwok Leung; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2011-09-01

    Rehmannia Six Formula (RF) is a formula that is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat patients with diabetes. A literature search was performed in PubMed for the years 2000-2009 using the key words RF, Rehmannia glutinosa, Fructus Corni, Dioscorea sp. (D. alata, D. opposita, D. batatas), Poria cocos, Alisma sp. (A. orientalis, A. plantago aquatica), and Paeonia suffruticosa/Cortex Moutan. On the basis of the publications found, RF appears to have beneficial effects on blood glucose, neuropathy, and nephropathy. There is also evidence of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Although there are many studies on compounds extracted from individual herbs, there are not many studies on RF as a whole. Because there is preliminary evidence that RF may be a useful supplement for the prevention of diabetic complications, clinical studies are warranted. For future clinical studies, it is recommended that details are provided regarding the preparation of RF and that the ratio of the individual components in RF is standardized so that results across studies can be compared.

  4. Ecological and evolutionary implications of spatial heterogeneity during the off-season for a wild plant pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Ayco JM; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While recent studies have elucidated many of the factors driving parasite dynamics during the growing season, the ecological and evolutionary dynamics during the off-season (i.e. the period between growing seasons) remain largely unexplored. We combined large-scale surveys and detailed experiments to investigate the overwintering success of the specialist plant pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis on its patchily distributed host plant Plantago lanceolata in the Åland Islands. Twelve years of epidemiological data establish the off-season as a crucial stage in pathogen metapopulation dynamics, with c. 40% of the populations going extinct during the off-season. At the end of the growing season, we observed environmentally mediated variation in the production of resting structures, with major consequences for spring infection at spatial scales ranging from single individuals to populations within a metapopulation. Reciprocal transplant experiments further demonstrated that pathogen population of origin and overwintering site jointly shaped infection intensity in spring, with a weak signal of parasite adaptation to the local off-season environment. We conclude that environmentally mediated changes in the distribution and evolution of parasites during the off-season are crucial for our understanding of host–parasite dynamics, with applied implications for combating parasites and diseases in agriculture, wildlife and human disease systems. PMID:24372358

  5. Effects of Mulching Tolerant Plant Straw on Soil Surface on Growth and Cadmium Accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming’an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:25490210

  6. Do fungivores trigger the transfer of protective metabolites from host plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae?

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Marie; Pel, Roel; Ooms, Astra; Bücking, Heike; Jansa, Jan; Ellers, Jacintha; van Straalen, Nico M; Wouda, Tjalf; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Kiers, E Toby

    2013-09-01

    A key objective in ecology is to understand how cooperative strategies evolve and are maintained in species networks. Here, we focus on the tri-trophic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, host plants, and fungivores to ask if host plants are able to protect their mutualistic mycorrhizal partners from being grazed. Specifically, we test whether secondary metabolites are transferred from hosts to fungal partners to increase their defense against fungivores. We grew Plantago lanceolata hosts with and without mycorrhizal inoculum, and in the presence or absence of fungivorous springtails. We then measured fungivore effects on host biomass and mycorrhizal abundance (using quantitative PCR) in roots and soil. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure host metabolites in roots, shoots, and hyphae, focusing on catalpol, aucubin, and verbascoside. Our most striking result was that the metabolite catalpol was consistently found in AM fungal hyphae in host plants exposed to fungivores. When fungivores were absent, catalpol was undetectable in hyphae. Our results highlight the potential for plant-mediated protection of the mycorrhizal hyphal network.

  7. Analysis of arsenic and antimony distribution within plants growing at an old mine site in Ouche (Cantal, France) and identification of species suitable for site revegetation.

    PubMed

    Jana, Ulrike; Chassany, Vincent; Bertrand, Georges; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse; Aubry, Emmanuel; Boudsocq, Simon; Laffray, Daniel; Repellin, Anne

    2012-11-15

    One of the objectives of this study was to assess the contamination levels in the tailings of an old antimony mine site located in Ouche (Cantal, France). Throughout the 1.3 ha site, homogenous concentrations of antimony and arsenic, a by-product of the operation, were found along 0-0.5 m-deep profiles. Maximum concentrations for antimony and arsenic were 5780 mg kg(-1) dry tailings and 852 mg kg(-1) dry tailings, respectively. Despite the presence of the contaminants and the low pH and organic matter contents of the tailings, several patches of vegetation were found. Botanical identification determined 12 different genera/species. The largest and most abundant plants were adult pines (Pinus sylvestris), birches (Betula pendula) and the bulrush (Juncus effusus). The distribution of the metalloids within specimens of each genera/species was analysed in order to deduce their concentration and translocation capacities. This was the second goal of this work. All plant specimens were highly contaminated with both metalloids. Most were root accumulators with root to shoot translocation factors <1. Whereas contamination levels were high overall, species with both a low translocation factor and a low root accumulation coefficient were identified as suitable candidates for the complete revegetation of the site. Species combining those characteristics were the perennials P. sylvestris, B. pendula, Cytisus scoparius and the herbaceous Plantago major, and Deschampsia flexuosa.

  8. Fire occurrence and tussock size modulate facilitation by Ampelodesmos mauritanicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incerti, Guido; Giordano, Daniele; Stinca, Adriano; Senatore, Mauro; Termolino, Pasquale; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2013-05-01

    Facilitation has been reported for a wide range of plant communities, with evidence of interactions between protégé and nurse plants shifting during their ontogenetic cycles. This study showed that large Ampelodesmos mauritanicus tussocks can act as nurse for different species, but only after fire occurrence. Large tussocks are typically composed by an external belt of living tillers surrounding dead standing tillers in the inner area, thus being arranged as a “ring” shape. A low plant diversity in unburned sites, dominated by intact Ampelodesmos tussocks, was related to the intense aboveground competition due to space physical limitation by standing tillers, as well as to the reduction of light availability at ground level. In contrast, after burning, tussocks resprouted only in their external belts, leaving empty inner areas. During post-fire recovery, several species (e.g. Plantago spp., Trifolium spp., Carlina spp.) recolonize the bare soil among different tussocks. On the other hand, a moss (Funaria hygrometrica) and several herbaceous and woody plants (e.g. Spartium junceum, Calicotome villosa, Quercus pubescens subsp. pubescens) were selectively distributed within the ash-full central areas of burned Ampelodesmos tussocks. In summary, the study reported evidence of changing prevalence in the interplay of competition and facilitation effects between small and large Ampelodesmos tussocks, respectively. These results suggest a broad significance of the interactions between fire occurrence and ontogenetic phases of the dominant species in affecting the restoration dynamics of natural plant communities.

  9. Channel Response to Low-Elevation Desert Fire: The King Valley Fire of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boyer, Diane E.

    2007-01-01

    In late September to early October 2005, a fire swept north from the Yuma Proving Grounds and into the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), traveling mainly along desert wash systems and low-relief alluvial fans. This fire burned 9,975 ha, moving through xeroriparian systems in washes as well as low-elevation desert ecosystems in King Valley, a major area of designated wilderness in the southern part of the Kofa NWR. Using satellite imagery, we determined that 9,255 ha of the Kofa NWR in King Valley burned. The fine-fuel loading for the fire was mostly a native forb (Plantago insularis), and the desert environment that was burned was mostly low-cover creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) scrub with scattered palo verde (Cercidium microphyllum). The wash environments had significant tree cover, including ironwood (Olneya tesota), blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), and/or smoke tree (Psorothamnus spinosa). This report presents monitoring data collected in June 2006 and January-February 2007 on the effects of this fire on channel morphology in King Valley.

  10. Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  11. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  12. Diurnal variation of airborne pollen at two different heights.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, P; Galán, C; Cariñanos, P; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    1999-01-01

    The diurnal variation in airborne pollen concentrations in the air of Córdoba at two different heights (1.5 m and 15 m) was studied during 2 consecutive years with the help of two Hirst volumetric samplers. According to pollen percentages obtained every hour, we determined whether every taxon studied presented a morning or an afternoon pattern, and whether this model was homogeneous (with a slight difference between the time of maximum and minimum reading) or heterogeneous (with a large difference between the two readings). We observed that the taxa that had many species in the area, such as Plantago, Poaceae, and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae showed a homogeneous model, while those taxa with few species present, such as Cupressaceae and Urticaceae showed a more heterogeneous model. Furthermore, the pattern of the plants with a large presence in the study area was more heterogeneous at 1.5 m because the pollen collected at this height is released from anthers. In the sampler placed at 15 m we detected airborne pollen, found that the curves were smoother and also observed a slight time delay for the taxa that were highly present in the area of study.

  13. Transcriptomic resources and marker validation for diploid and polyploid Veronica (Plantaginaceae) from New Zealand and Europe1

    PubMed Central

    Mayland-Quellhorst, Eike; Meudt, Heidi M.; Albach, Dirk C.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polyploidy may generate novel variation, leading to adaptation and species diversification. An excellent natural system to study polyploid evolution in a comparative framework is Veronica (Plantaginaceae), which comprises several parallel, recently evolved polyploid series. Methods: Over 105 million Illumina paired-end sequence reads were generated from cDNA libraries of leaf tissue from eight individuals representing three European and four New Zealand species. Forty-eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 48 low-copy nuclear (LCN) markers were developed and validated with Fluidigm microfluidic PCR and Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing on 48 different individuals each. Results: Individual Trinity assemblies were similar regarding annotated transcripts (13,009–14,271), mean contig length (635–742 bp), N50 value (916–1133 bp), E90N50 value (1099–1308 bp), contigs with positive BLAST hits (42–63%), and gene ontology terms. Analyses of 29,738 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (8746 phylogenetically informative) mined from these transcriptomes plus two outgroups (Picrorhiza kurrooa and Plantago ovata) showed moderate to high bootstrap support for all branches and reticulation among sampled European Veronica. Discussion: The transcriptome sequences themselves, as well as the validated SSR (40/48) and LCN (11/48) markers derived from them, show inter- and intraspecific genetic variation. These resources will be invaluable for future population genetic, phylogenetic, and functional genetic investigations in polyploid Veronica. PMID:27785388

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of thermal degradation of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Jamshed; Iqbal, Mohammad S; Massey, Shazma; Masih, Rashid

    2012-10-15

    This work aims at study of thermal degradation kinetics and mechanism of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers isolated from Plantago ovata (PO), Salvia aegyptiaca (SA) and Ocimum basilicum (OB). The analysis was performed by isoconversional method. The materials exhibited mainly two-stage degradation. The weight loss at ambient-115°C characterized by low activation energy corresponds to loss of moisture. The kinetic triplets consisting of E, A and g(α) model of the materials were determined. The major degradation stage represents a loss of high boiling volatile components. This stage is exothermic in nature. Above 340°C complete degradation takes place leaving a residue of 10-15%. The master plots of g(α) function clearly differentiated the degradation mechanism of hexose-based OB and SA polymers and pentose-based PO polymer. The pentose-based carbohydrate polymer showed D(4) type and the hexose-based polymers showed A(4) type degradation mechanism.

  15. In Planta Recognition of a Double-Stranded RNA Synthesis Protein Complex by a Potexviral RNA Silencing Suppressor[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Yukari; Senshu, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Neriya, Yutaro; Netsu, Osamu; Minato, Nami; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Maejima, Kensaku; Oshima, Kenro; Komatsu, Ken; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2014-01-01

    RNA silencing plays an important antiviral role in plants and invertebrates. To counteract antiviral RNA silencing, most plant viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). TRIPLE GENE BLOCK PROTEIN1 (TGBp1) of potexviruses is a well-characterized VSR, but the detailed mechanism by which it suppresses RNA silencing remains unclear. We demonstrate that transgenic expression of TGBp1 of plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) induced developmental abnormalities in Arabidopsis thaliana similar to those observed in mutants of SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6) required for the trans-acting small interfering RNA synthesis pathway. PlAMV-TGBp1 inhibits SGS3/RDR6-dependent double-stranded RNA synthesis in the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway. TGBp1 interacts with SGS3 and RDR6 and coaggregates with SGS3/RDR6 bodies, which are normally dispersed in the cytoplasm. In addition, TGBp1 forms homooligomers, whose formation coincides with TGBp1 aggregation with SGS3/RDR6 bodies. These results reveal the detailed molecular function of TGBp1 as a VSR and shed new light on the SGS3/RDR6-dependent double-stranded RNA synthesis pathway as another general target of VSRs. PMID:24879427

  16. Capulavirus and Grablovirus: two new genera in the family Geminiviridae.

    PubMed

    Varsani, Arvind; Roumagnac, Philippe; Fuchs, Marc; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Idris, Ali; Briddon, Rob W; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael; Murilo Zerbini, F; Martin, Darren P

    2017-02-17

    Geminiviruses are plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that occur in most parts of the world. Currently, there are seven genera within the family Geminiviridae (Becurtovirus, Begomovirus, Curtovirus, Eragrovirus, Mastrevirus, Topocuvirus and Turncurtovirus). The rate of discovery of new geminiviruses has increased significantly over the last decade as a result of new molecular tools and approaches (rolling-circle amplification and deep sequencing) that allow for high-throughput workflows. Here, we report the establishment of two new genera: Capulavirus, with four new species (Alfalfa leaf curl virus, Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus, French bean severe leaf curl virus and Plantago lanceolata latent virus), and Grablovirus, with one new species (Grapevine red blotch virus). The aphid species Aphis craccivora has been shown to be a vector for Alfalfa leaf curl virus, and the treehopper species Spissistilus festinus is the likely vector of Grapevine red blotch virus. In addition, two highly divergent groups of viruses found infecting citrus and mulberry plants have been assigned to the new species Citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus and Mulberry mosaic dwarf associated virus, respectively. These species have been left unassigned to a genus by the ICTV because their particle morphology and insect vectors are unknown.

  17. Early vs. asymptotic growth responses of herbaceous plants to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. . Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

    1999-07-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant growth,'' the dynamics of growth involve at least two parameters, namely, an early rate of exponential size increase and an asymptotic size reached late in plant ontogeny. The common practice of quantifying CO[sub 2] responses as a single response ratio thus obscures two qualitatively distinct kinds of effects. The present experiment examines effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on both early and asymptotic growth parameters in eight C[sub 3] herbaceous plant species (Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia, Plantago major, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Panicum dichotomoflorum). Plants were grown for 118--172 d in a factorial design of CO[sub 2] (350 and 700 [micro]L/L) and plant density (individually grown vs. high-density monocultures) under edaphic conditions approximating those of coastal areas in Massachusetts. For Abutilon theophrasti, intraspecific patterns of plant response were also assessed using eight genotypes randomly sampled from a natural population and propagated as inbred lines.

  18. Elevated CO{sub 2} and leaf shape: Are dandelions getting toothier?

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    Heteroblastic leaf development in Taraxacum officinale is compared between plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) vs. elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} levels. Leaves of elevated CO{sub 2} plants exhibited more deeply incised leaf margins and relatively more slender leaf laminae than leaves of ambient CO{sub 2} plants. These differences were found to be significant in allometric analyses that controlled for differences in leaf size, as well as analyses that controlled for leaf development order. The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on leaf shape were most pronounced when plants were grown individually, but detectable differences were also found in plants grown at high density. Although less dramatic than in Taraxacum, significant effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on leaf shape were also found in two other weedy rosette species, Plantago major and Rumex crispus. These observations support the long-standing hypothesis that leaf carbohydrate level plays an important role in regulating heteroblastic leaf development, though elevated CO{sub 2} may also affect leaf development through direct hormonal interactions or increased leaf water potential. In Taraxacum, pronounced modifications of leaf shape were found at CO{sub 2} levels predicted to occur within the next century. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  19. The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

  20. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn's disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted.

  1. In situ stomatal responses to long-term CO 2 enrichment in calcareous grassland plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, Wolfgang; Körner, Christian

    A calcareous grassland community growing under full season CO 2 enrichment at low altitude in the Swiss Jura mountains was investigated for diurnal and seasonal variations of leaf diffusive conductance. A new CO 2 enrichment method (Screen aided CO 2 control, SACC) permitted in situ leaf porometry under natural climatic conditions without disturbance of plants. At 600 ppm CO 2, leaf conductance in the dominant species, Bromus erectus (a species so far not showing a growth response to elevated CO 2) was reduced to half the values measured in controls. In contrast, leaf conductance in Carex flacca, a species of low cover (the only species so far exhibiting a dramatic growth stimulation by CO 2 fertilization) remained almost unaffected by elevated CO 2. Sanguisorba minor, Plantago media, and Cirsium acaule showed intermediate responses. Trifolium montanum, studied only on a single day, showed a reduction like Bromus. Differences between treatments were largest under humid conditions and disappeared during dry periods. In none of the species studied did stomatal density or stomatal index differ between treatments. A parallel investigation of whole ecosystem evapotranspiration indicated only small (<10%) and non significant CO 2 responses, suggesting that both aerodynamic effects at the canopy level and a great interspecific variation of leaf level responses overshadow the clear CO 2 response of Bromus stomata. The different stomatal responses to CO 2 enrichment are likely to alter species specific water consumption, and may thus affect community structure in the long run.

  2. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations, rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  3. Impact of plant species evenness, dominant species identity and spatial arrangement on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities in a model grassland.

    PubMed

    Massaccesi, L; Bardgett, R D; Agnelli, A; Ostle, N; Wilby, A; Orwin, K H

    2015-03-01

    Plant communities, through species richness and composition, strongly influence soil microorganisms and the ecosystem processes they drive. To test the effects of other plant community attributes, such as the identity of dominant plant species, evenness, and spatial arrangement, we set up a model mesocosm experiment that manipulated these three attributes in a full factorial design, using three grassland plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Plantago lanceolata, and Lotus corniculatus). The impact of the three community attributes on the soil microbial community structure and functioning was evaluated after two growing seasons by ester-linked phospholipid fatty-acids analysis, substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, and nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates. Our results suggested that the dominant species identity had the most prevalent influence of the three community attributes, with significant effects on most of the measured aspects of microbial biomass, composition and functioning. Evenness had no effects on microbial community structure, but independently influenced basal respiration. Its effects on nitrogen cycling depended on the identity of the dominant plant species, indicating that interactions among species and their effects on functioning can vary with their relative abundance. Systems with an aggregated spatial arrangement had a different microbial community composition and a higher microbial biomass compared to those with a random spatial arrangement, but rarely differed in their functioning. Overall, it appears that dominant species identity was the main driver of soil microorganisms and functioning in these model grassland communities, but that other plant community attributes such as evenness and spatial arrangement can also be important.

  4. Natural variation of fecundity components in a widespread plant with dimorphic seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braza, Rita; Arroyo, J.; García, M. B.

    2010-09-01

    The number and size of seeds are the basis of the quantity and quality components of female reproductive fitness in plants, playing a central role in the evolutionary ecology of life history diversification. In this study we show and analyze the natural variability of several fecundity variables (fruit set, seed production per fruit, seed size, total seed production per plant, and proportion of small seeds) in Plantago coronopus, a widespread, short-lived herb with dimorphic seeds. The structure of such variability was examined at the individual, population (eight locations with different environments within the same region), and life history levels (annual vs perennial), and correlated to soil fertility. There was no divergence associated to the life history for any of the variables studied. Total seed production (the quantity component of female fitness) was correlated with maternal resources, while the size of the large mucilaginous, basal seeds, and the proportion of the small apical seeds (quality component) were more associated to environmental resources. Thus, internal and external resources shape different fitness components, maximizing seed production, and fitting the size and proportion of different kind of seeds to local conditions irrespective of life history. P. coronopus illustrates the versatility of short-lived widespread plants to combine fecundity traits in a flexible manner, in order to increase fitness at each of the many possible habitats they occupy over heterogeneous environments.

  5. Common plants as alternative analytical tools to monitor heavy metals in soil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbaceous plants are common vegetal species generally exposed, for a limited period of time, to bioavailable environmental pollutants. Heavy metals contamination is the most common form of environmental pollution. Herbaceous plants have never been used as natural bioindicators of environmental pollution, in particular to monitor the amount of heavy metals in soil. In this study, we aimed at assessing the usefulness of using three herbaceous plants (Plantago major L., Taraxacum officinale L. and Urtica dioica L.) and one leguminous (Trifolium pratense L.) as alternative indicators to evaluate soil pollution by heavy metals. Results We employed Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to assess the concentration of selected heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr and Pd) in soil and plants and we employed statistical analyses to describe the linear correlation between the accumulation of some heavy metals and selected vegetal species. We found that the leaves of Taraxacum officinale L. and Trifolium pratense L. can accumulate Cu in a linearly dependent manner with Urtica dioica L. representing the vegetal species accumulating the highest fraction of Pb. Conclusions In this study we demonstrated that common plants can be used as an alternative analytical tool for monitoring selected heavy metals in soil. PMID:22594441

  6. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B.; Buhmann, Anne K.; Seal, Charlotte E.; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. PMID:25125698

  7. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms.

  8. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming'an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  9. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.

  10. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a Cactus virus X strain from Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Liou, M R; Chen, Y R; Liou, R F

    2004-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of Cactus virus X (CVX-Hu) isolated from Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae) has been determined. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the sequence is 6614 nucleotides in length and contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). The genome organization of CVX is similar to that of other potexviruses. ORF1 encodes the putative viral replicase with conserved methyltransferase, helicase, and polymerase motifs. Within ORF1, two other ORFs were located separately in the +2 reading frame, we call these ORF6 and ORF7. ORF2, 3, and 4, which form the "triple gene block" characteristic of the potexviruses, encode proteins with molecular mass of 25, 12, and 7 KDa, respectively. ORF5 encodes the coat protein with an estimated molecular mass of 24 KDa. Sequence analysis indicated that proteins encoded by ORF1-5 display certain degree of homology to the corresponding proteins of other potexviruses. Putative product of ORF6, however, shows no significant similarity to those of other potexviruses. Phylogenetic analyses based on the replicase (the methyltransferase, helicase, and polymerase domains) and coat protein demonstrated a closer relationship of CVX with Bamboo mosaic virus, Cassava common mosaic virus, Foxtail mosaic virus, Papaya mosaic virus, and Plantago asiatica mosaic virus.

  12. Biosorption and bioreduction of copper from different copper compounds in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Bento, Fátima M; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2013-06-01

    High copper concentration is toxic for living organisms including humans. Biosorption is a bioremediation technique that can remove copper and other pollutants from aqueous medium and soils, consequently cleaning the environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the influence of different copper compounds (Cu(II) as CuCl2; Cu(II) as CuSO4; and Cu(I) as CuCl) on copper bioreduction and biosorption using four copper-resistant bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of two plants (Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata) in aqueous matrix. Copper resistance profile, bioreduction, and biosorption after 48 h of incubation were evaluated. The isolates displayed high copper resistance. However, isolate A1 did not grow very well in the CuCl2 and isolate T5 was less resistant to copper in aqueous solutions amended with CuCl (Cu(I)). The best copper source for copper bioreduction and biosorption was CuSO4 and the isolates removed as much as ten times more copper than in aqueous solutions amended with the other copper compounds. Moreover, Cu(I) did not succumb to biosorption, although the microbes were resistant to aqueous solutions of CuCl. In summary, Cu(II) from CuSO4 was furthermost susceptible to bioreduction and biosorption for all isolates. This is an indication that copper contamination of the environment from the use of CuSO4 as an agrochemical is amenable to bioremediation.

  13. Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species.

    PubMed

    Sabais, Alexander C W; Eisenhauer, Nico; König, Stephan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Scheu, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Decomposers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) both determine plant nutrition; however, little is known about their interactive effects on plant communities. We set up a greenhouse experiment to study effects of plant competition (one- and two-species treatments), Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Protaphorura armata), and AMF (Glomus intraradices) on the performance (above- and belowground productivity and nutrient uptake) of three grassland plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Plantago lanceolata) belonging to three dominant plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, and herbs). Generally, L. perenne benefited from being released from intraspecific competition in the presence of T. pratense and P. lanceolata. However, the presence of AMF increased the competitive strength of P. lanceolata and T. pratense against L. perenne and also modified the effects of Collembola on plant productivity. The colonization of roots by AMF was reduced in treatments with two plant species suggesting that plant infection by AMF was modified by interspecific plant interactions. Collembola did not affect total colonization of roots by AMF, but increased the number of mycorrhizal vesicles in P. lanceolata. AMF and Collembola both enhanced the amount of N and P in plant shoot tissue, but impacts of Collembola were less pronounced in the presence of AMF. Overall, the results suggest that, by differentially affecting the nutrient acquisition and performance of plant species, AMF and Collembola interactively modify plant competition and shape the composition of grassland plant communities. The results suggest that mechanisms shaping plant community composition can only be understood when complex belowground interactions are considered.

  14. The investigation of antibacterial activity of selected native plants from North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Koohsari, H; Ghaemi, EA; Sadegh Sheshpoli, M; Jahedi, M; Zahiri, M

    2015-01-01

    Plant derived products have been used for medicinal purposes during centuries. Bacterial resistance to currently used antibiotics has become a concern to public health. The development of bacterial super resistant strains has resulted in the currently used antibiotic agents failing to end many bacterial infections. For this reason, the search is ongoing for new antimicrobial agents, both by the design and by the synthesis of new agents, or through the search of natural sources for yet undiscovered antimicrobial agents. Herbal medications in particular have seen a revival of interest due to a perception that there is a lower incidence of adverse reactions to plant preparations compared to synthetic pharmaceuticals. Coupled with the reduced costs of plant preparations, this makes the search for natural therapeutics an attractive option. This research was carried out to assess the antibacterial activity aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six Azadshahr township Native plants in north of Iran against six species of pathogen bacteria by using three methods of Disk diffusion, Well method and MBC. The results of this research indicated that the effect of ethanol extracts were more than aqueous extract and among six plants, Lippia citriodora and Plantago major ethanol extract had the most antibacterial activity in any of the three methods. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. The effects on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration: An assessment of the response of Trifolium Repens L. cv. Blanca grown at F.A.C.E.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.E.

    1994-11-01

    Understanding how photosynthetic capacity acclimates to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations is vital in predicting the response of important grassland species such as Trifolium repens. Previous studies of acclimatization have been carried out in artificial experimental conditions, such as acrylic greenhouses or controlled environment chambers. The advent of FACE technology has enabled a large area of crop to be fumigated in the field, providing more realistic growing conditions. Pure stands of Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca grown at either 355 or 600{mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were examined, and their photosynthetic response to elevated Ca determined via gas exchange studies. Rates of photosynthesis of young, fully expanded leaves were increased between 21 and 36% when grown and measured at elevated CO{sub 2}. This increase in A corresponded to a decrease in g{sub S} of between 18 and 52%. No acclimation effect was observed in the most frequently cut stands, whilst the response of stands clipped only 4 times per year was more variable. When down regulation of V{sub cmax} did occur, this was not nearly as marked as that which occurred in 3 other temperate species (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Ranunculus friesianus, Plantago lanceolata (L.) J. & C. Presl.), at similar growth regimes. No acclimation of stomatal frequency, SI or pore length was found to occur in the enriched clover stands.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced shifts in foliar metabolism and photosynthesis mirror the developmental stage of the symbiosis and are only partly driven by improved phosphate uptake.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Rabea; Baier, Markus C; Müller, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, the plant delivers photoassimilates to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), whereas the mycosymbiont contributes, in addition to other beneficial effects, to phosphate (PO4(3-)) uptake from the soil. Thereby, the additional fungal carbon (C) sink strength in roots and improved plant PO4(3-) nutrition may influence aboveground traits. We investigated how the foliar metabolome of Plantago major is affected along with the development of root symbiosis, whether the photosynthetic performance is affected by AM, and whether these effects are mediated by improved PO4(3-) nutrition. Therefore, we studied PO4(3-)-limited and PO4(3-)-supplemented controls in comparison with mycorrhizal plants at 20, 30, and 62 days postinoculation with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis. Foliar metabolome modifications were determined by the developmental stage of symbiosis, with changes becoming more pronounced over time. In a well-established stage of mature mutualism, about 60% of the metabolic changes and an increase in foliar CO2 assimilation were unrelated to the significantly increased foliar phosphorus (P) content. We propose a framework relating the time-dependent metabolic changes to the shifts in C costs and P benefits for the plant. Besides P-mediated effects, the strong fungal C sink activity may drive the changes in the leaf traits.

  17. The effects of tropospheric ozone on the species dynamics of calcareous grassland.

    PubMed

    Thwaites, R H; Ashmore, M R; Morton, A J; Pakeman, R J

    2006-11-01

    Although ozone has been shown to reduce the growth of individual species and to alter the composition of simple species mixtures, there is little understanding of its long-term effects on species dynamics and composition in real communities. Intact turfs of calcareous grassland were exposed to four different ozone regimes in open-top chambers over three consecutive summers. Treatments provided a mean seasonal AOT40 ranging from approximately zero to 15 ppm h. Cumulative ozone exposure was a significant factor in compositional change, but only explained 4.6% of the variation. The dominant grass species (Festuca rubra) showed a consistent decline in cover in the high ozone treatment over time and the forb Campanula rotundifolia was lost from all three ozone treatments. The frequency of some species (Galium verum and Plantago lanceolata) increased with ozone exposure. Long-term effects of ozone on species composition in chalk grassland may be a function of both the sensitivity of individual species and the response of the dominant species.

  18. Evaluation of two Brazilian indigenous plants for phytostabilization and phytoremediation of copper-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, R; Bortolon, L; Pieniz, S; Bento, F M; Camargo, F A O

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous plants have been grown naturally and vigorously in copper contaminated soils. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation ability of two indigenous plants naturally grown in two vineyard soils copper contaminated, and in a copper mining waste. However, it was evaluated the macro and micronutrient uptake and the potential of phytoremediation. So, a greenhouse study was carried out with Bidens pilosa and Plantago lanceolata in samples of vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) copper contaminated, and in a copper mining waste. Plant growth, macro and micronutrient up take, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), metal extraction ratio (MER), bioaccumulation factor (BCF), plant effective number of the shoots (PENs), and plant effective number of the total plant (PENt) were analyzed. Both plants grown in vineyard soils showed high phytomass production and TI. P. lanceolata plants cultivated in the Inceptisol showed the highest copper concentrations in the shoots (142 mg kg-1), roots (964 mg kg-1) and entire plants (1,106 mg kg-1). High levels of copper were phytoaccumulated from the Inceptisol by B. pilosa and P. lanceolata with 3,500 and 2,200 g ha-1 respectively. Both B. pilosa and P. lanceolata plants showed characteristics of high copper hyperaccumulator. Results showed that both species play an important role in the natural copper phytoaccumulation in both vineyard soils contaminated with copper, being important to its phytoremediation.

  19. The Anthelmintic Ingredient Moxidectin Negatively Affects Seed Germination of Three Temperate Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Eichberg, Carsten; Wohde, Manuel; Müller, Kerstin; Rausch, Anja; Scherrmann, Christina; Scheuren, Theresa; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Donath, Tobias W.

    2016-01-01

    In animal farming, anthelmintics are regularly applied to control gastrointestinal nematodes. There is plenty of evidence that also non-target organisms, such as dung beetles, are negatively affected by residues of anthelmintics in faeces of domestic ungulates. By contrast, knowledge about possible effects on wild plants is scarce. To bridge this gap of knowledge, we tested for effects of the common anthelmintic formulation Cydectin and its active ingredient moxidectin on seed germination. We conducted a feeding experiment with sheep and germination experiments in a climate chamber. Three wide-spread plant species of temperate grasslands (Centaurea jacea, Galium verum, Plantago lanceolata) were studied. We found significant influences of both, Cydectin and moxidectin, on germination of the tested species. Across species, both formulation and active ingredient solely led to a decrease in germination percentage and synchrony of germination and an increase in mean germination time with the formulation showing a more pronounced response pattern. Our study shows for the first time that anthelmintics have the potential to negatively affect plant regeneration. This has practical implications for nature conservation since our results suggest that treatments of livestock with anthelmintics should be carefully timed to not impede endozoochorous seed exchange between plant populations. PMID:27846249

  20. Communities of endophytic sebacinales associated with roots of herbaceous plants in agricultural and grassland ecosystems are dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Riess, Kai; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores) that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity.

  1. Sequential effects of root and foliar herbivory on aboveground and belowground induced plant defense responses and insect performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Biere, Arjen; Van der Putten, Wim H; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Plants are often simultaneously or sequentially attacked by multiple herbivores and changes in host plants induced by one herbivore can influence the performance of other herbivores. We examined how sequential feeding on the plant Plantago lanceolata by the aboveground herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the belowground herbivore Agriotes lineatus influences plant defense and the performance of both insects. Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in the food consumption by the aboveground herbivore independent of whether it was initiated before, at the same time, or after that of the aboveground herbivore. By contrast, aboveground herbivory did not significantly affect belowground herbivore performance, but significantly reduced the performance of later arriving aboveground conspecifics. Interestingly, belowground herbivores negated negative effects of aboveground herbivores on consumption efficiency of their later arriving conspecifics, but only if the belowground herbivores were introduced simultaneously with the early arriving aboveground herbivores. Aboveground-belowground interactions could only partly be explained by induced changes in an important class of defense compounds, iridoid glycosides (IGs). Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in IGs in roots without affecting shoot levels, while aboveground herbivory increased IG levels in roots in the short term (4 days) but only in the shoots in the longer term (17 days). We conclude that the sequence of aboveground and belowground herbivory is important in interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores and that knowledge on the timing of exposure is essential to predict outcomes of aboveground-belowground interactions.

  2. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics.

  3. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  4. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  5. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  6. Impact of an invasive nitrogen-fixing tree on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the development of native species

    PubMed Central

    Guisande-Collazo, Alejandra; González, Luís; Souza-Alonso, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate soil biotrophs that establish intimate relationships with 80 % of terrestrial plant families. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi obtain carbon from host plants and contribute to the acquisition of mineral nutrients, mainly phosphorus. The presence of invasive plants has been identified as a soil disturbance factor, often conditioning the structure and function of soil microorganisms. Despite the investigation of many aspects related to the invasion of Acacia dealbata, the effect produced on the structure of AMF communities has never been assessed. We hypothesize that A. dealbata modifies the structure of AMF community, influencing the establishment and growth of plants that are dependent on these mutualisms. To validate our hypothesis, we carried out denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and also grew plants of Plantago lanceolata in pots using roots of native shrublands or from A. dealbata, as inoculum of AMF. Cluster analyses from DGGE indicated an alteration in the structure of AMF communities in invaded soils. After 15 weeks, we found that plants grown in pots containing native roots presented higher stem and root growth and also produced higher biomass in comparison with plants grown with A. dealbata inoculum. Furthermore, plants that presented the highest biomass and growth exhibited the maximum mycorrhizal colonization and phosphorus content. Moreover, fluorescence measurements indicated that plants grown with A. dealbata inoculum even presented higher photosynthetic damage. Our results indicate that the presence of the invader A. dealbata modify the composition of the arbuscular fungal community, conditioning the establishment of native plants. PMID:26984185

  7. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  8. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  9. Photoperiod-induced geographic variation in plant defense chemistry.

    PubMed

    Reudler, J H; Elzinga, Jelmer A

    2015-02-01

    Spatial variation in chemical defense of plants can be caused by genetic, biotic, and abiotic factors. For example, many plants exhibit a latitudinal cline in chemical defense, potentially due to latitudinal variation in abiotic environmental factors such as the light regime during the growing season. In the worldwide distributed Plantago lanceolata, the levels of deterrent iridoid glycosides (IGs), aucubin and catalpol, vary geographically, including latitudinally. To examine whether latitudinal variation in photoperiod can explain part of this geographic variation, plants from the Netherlands and Finland were exposed to two different photoperiods, simulating the Dutch (middle European) and Finnish (northern European) light period during the growing season. The experiment showed that although most variation in IG content was genetic, plants from both Dutch and Finnish origin produce relatively more catalpol under a northern European than under a middle European photoperiod. Our results confirm that latitudinal effects on photoperiod can contribute to geographic variation in plant defense chemistry, which should be considered when studying latitudinal clines in plant-enemy interactions.

  10. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  11. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  12. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  13. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  14. Ecological and evolutionary implications of spatial heterogeneity during the off-season for a wild plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Tack, Ayco J M; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2014-04-01

    While recent studies have elucidated many of the factors driving parasite dynamics during the growing season, the ecological and evolutionary dynamics during the off-season (i.e. the period between growing seasons) remain largely unexplored. We combined large-scale surveys and detailed experiments to investigate the overwintering success of the specialist plant pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis on its patchily distributed host plant Plantago lanceolata in the Åland Islands. Twelve years of epidemiological data establish the off-season as a crucial stage in pathogen metapopulation dynamics, with c. 40% of the populations going extinct during the off-season. At the end of the growing season, we observed environmentally mediated variation in the production of resting structures, with major consequences for spring infection at spatial scales ranging from single individuals to populations within a metapopulation. Reciprocal transplant experiments further demonstrated that pathogen population of origin and overwintering site jointly shaped infection intensity in spring, with a weak signal of parasite adaptation to the local off-season environment. We conclude that environmentally mediated changes in the distribution and evolution of parasites during the off-season are crucial for our understanding of host-parasite dynamics, with applied implications for combating parasites and diseases in agriculture, wildlife and human disease systems.

  15. Interactive effects of mycorrhizae and a root hemiparasite on plant community productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudia; Rissmann, Cornelia; Hempel, Stefan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald

    2009-02-01

    Plant communities can be affected both by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and hemiparasitic plants. However, little is known about the interactive effects of these two biotic factors on the productivity and diversity of plant communities. To address this question, we set up a greenhouse study in which different AMF inocula and a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor) were added to experimental grassland communities in a fully factorial design. In addition, single plants of each species in the grassland community were grown with the same treatments to distinguish direct AMF effects from indirect effects via plant competition. We found that AMF changed plant community structure by influencing the plant species differently. At the community level, AMF decreased the productivity by 15-24%, depending on the particular AMF treatment, mainly because two dominant species, Holcus lanatus and Plantago lanceolata, showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency. Concomitantly, plant diversity increased due to AMF inoculation and was highest in the treatment with a combination of two commercial AM strains. AMF had a positive effect on growth of the hemiparasite, and thereby induced a negative impact of the hemiparasite on host plant biomass which was not found in non-inoculated communities. However, the hemiparasite did not increase plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of interactions with soil microbes for plant community structure and that these indirect effects can vary among AMF treatments. We conclude that mutualistic interactions with AMF, but not antagonistic interactions with a root hemiparasite, promote plant diversity in this grassland community.

  16. Desert fires fueled by native annual forbs: effects of fire on communities of plants and birds in the lower Sonoran Desert of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esque, Todd C.; Webb, Robert H.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Van Riper, Charles; McCreedy, Chris; Smythe, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, fire ignited by humans swept from Yuma Proving Grounds into Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, burning ca. 9,255 ha of Wilderness Area. Fuels were predominantly the native forb Plantago ovata. Large fires at low elevations were rare in the 19th and 20th centuries, and fires fueled by native vegetation are undocumented in the southwestern deserts. We estimated the area damaged by fire using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, which are more accurate and reduce subjectivity of aerial surveys of perimeters of fires. Assemblages of upland and xeroriparian plants lost 91 and 81% of live cover, respectively, in fires. The trees Olneya tesota and Cercidium had high amounts of top-kill. King Valley was an important xeroriparian corridor for birds. Species richness of birds decreased significantly following the fire. Numbers of breeding birds were lower in burned areas of King Valley 3 years post-fire, compared to numbers in nearby but unburned Alamo Wash. Although birds function within a large geographic scale, the extent of this burn still influenced the relative abundance of local species of breeding birds. This suggests that breeding birds respond to conditions of localized burns and slow recovery of vegetation contributes to continued lower numbers of birds in the burned sites in King Valley.

  17. Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

    Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

  18. Phenotypical Temperature Adaptation of Protein Turnover in Desert Annuals 1

    PubMed Central

    Smrcka, Alan V.; Szarek, Stan R.

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and protein degradation rates were measured in three desert annual species at four different experimental temperatures. The taxa chosen for this study were the C3 winter annuals, Bowlesia incana Ruiz & Pavon and Plantago insularis Eastw., and a C4 summer annual, Atriplex elegans (Moq.) D. Dietr. Peak rates of protein synthesis correlated well with the preferred habitat temperatures of B. incana and A. elegans; optima occurred at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Plants of P. insularis showed an optimum protein synthesis rate at 35°C; however, this optimum rate was considerably lower than for the other two species. Higher activation energies for protein synthesis tended to parallel adaptation to higher temperature habitats. Responses of protein degradation to temperature in A. elegans and B. incana were consistent with their natural thermal regimes, when evaluated for the transition from 25 to 35°C. Again, protein degradation in P. insularis shows an intermediate response to temperature during the 25 to 35°C transition. PMID:16664583

  19. Communities of Endophytic Sebacinales Associated with Roots of Herbaceous Plants in Agricultural and Grassland Ecosystems Are Dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Kai; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores) that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity. PMID:24743185

  20. Aided phytostabilization of a trace element-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Bouchardon, Jean Luc; Faure, Olivier; Moutte, Jacques; Mench, Michel

    2016-12-15

    Aided phytostabilization of a barren, alkaline metal(loid)-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes, with high soluble Cr and Mo concentrations, was assessed in a pot experiment using (1) Ni/Cd-tolerant populations of Festuca pratensis Huds., Holcus lanatus L., and Plantago lanceolata L. sowed in mixed stand and (2) six soil treatments: untreated soil (UNT), ramial chipped wood (RCW, 500m(3)ha(-1)), composted sewage sludge (CSS, 120t DW ha(-1)), UNT soil amended with compost (5% w/w) and either vermiculite (5%, VOM) or iron grit (1%, OMZ), and an uncontaminated soil (CTRL). In the CSS soil, pH and soluble Cr decreased whereas soluble Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni and P increased. The RCW treatment enhanced soluble Fe, Mn, and Mg concentrations. After 15 weeks, shoot DW yield and shoot Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, and Mg removals peaked for F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, with lowest shoot Cr, Ni and Mo concentrations. Holcus lanatus only grew on the CTRL, UNT, and CSS soils and P. lanceolata on the CTRL soil. Best treatment, F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, led to a dense grass cover but its shoot Mo concentration exceeded the maximum permitted concentration in forage.

  1. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  2. The effects of enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres on plant--insect herbivore interactions.

    PubMed

    Fajer, E D; Bowers, M D; Bazzaz, F A

    1989-03-03

    Little is known about the effects of enriched CO(2) atmospheres, which may exist in the next century, on natural plant-insect herbivore interactions. Larvae of a specialist insect herbivore, Junonia coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), were reared on one of its host plants, Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae), grown in either current low (350 parts per million) or high (700 ppm) CO(2) environments. Those larvae raised on high-CO(2) foliage grew more slowly and experienced greater mortality, especially in early instars, than those raised on low-CO(2) foliage. Poor larval performance on high-CO(2) foliage was probably due to the reduced foliar water and nitrogen concentrations of those plants and not to changes in the concentration of the defensive compounds, iridoid glycosides. Adult pupal weight and female fecundity were not affected by the CO(2) environment of the host plant. These results indicate that interactions between plants and herbivorous insects will be modified under the predicted CO(2) conditions of the 21st century.

  3. Flocculation behaviour of model textile wastewater treated with a food grade polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anuradha; Bajpai, Malvika

    2005-02-14

    In this study, the application of a food grade polysaccharide namely Plantago psyllium mucilage has been assessed for the removal of dyes from model textile wastewater containing golden yellow (C.I. Vat Yellow 4) and reactive black (C.I. Reactive Black 5). A series of contact time experiments were conducted to assess the system variables such as concentrations of mucilage and dyes and pH. This mucilage reduces the dye concentration by flocculation and settling. The optimal flocculant concentration required to affect flocculation is independent of dye concentration within the range examined. The dye removal obtained was influenced by the salts concentrations in the wastewater sample. The flocculation efficiency was sensitive to pH when pure aqueous solutions of dyes were used, but it was relatively unaffected by pH change when salts were added to the dye solutions. The experimental results show that the mucilage is more effective for removal of solubilised vat dye than for reactive black.

  4. Deficiency of the eIF4E isoform nCBP limits the cell-to-cell movement of a plant virus encoding triple-gene-block proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Keima, Takuya; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Neriya, Yutaro; Koinuma, Hiroaki; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Nishida, Shuko; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2017-01-01

    One of the important antiviral genetic strategies used in crop breeding is recessive resistance. Two eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E family genes, eIF4E and eIFiso4E, are the most common recessive resistance genes whose absence inhibits infection by plant viruses in Potyviridae, Carmovirus, and Cucumovirus. Here, we show that another eIF4E family gene, nCBP, acts as a novel recessive resistance gene in Arabidopsis thaliana toward plant viruses in Alpha- and Betaflexiviridae. We found that infection by Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), a potexvirus, was delayed in ncbp mutants of A. thaliana. Virus replication efficiency did not differ between an ncbp mutant and a wild type plant in single cells, but viral cell-to-cell movement was significantly delayed in the ncbp mutant. Furthermore, the accumulation of triple-gene-block protein 2 (TGB2) and TGB3, the movement proteins of potexviruses, decreased in the ncbp mutant. Inoculation experiments with several viruses showed that the accumulation of viruses encoding TGBs in their genomes decreased in the ncbp mutant. These results indicate that nCBP is a novel member of the eIF4E family recessive resistance genes whose loss impairs viral cell-to-cell movement by inhibiting the efficient accumulation of TGB2 and TGB3. PMID:28059075

  5. Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants.

    PubMed

    Janeček, S; Lanta, V; Klimešová, J; Doležal, J

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of cessation of management on carbohydrate reserves of plants in meadows with different environmental characteristics and plant composition. We recorded storage carbohydrates and seasonal changes for 40 plant species. We asked whether there are differences in responses of carbohydrate reserves in forbs versus graminoids and in plants storing starch versus plants storing osmotically active carbohydrates. We analysed belowground organs before the meadows were mown and at the end of the vegetation season in mown versus recently abandoned plots. Whereas starch and fructans were widely distributed, raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main carbohydrate reserves of the Lamiaceae and Plantago lanceolata. Properties of carbohydrate reserves differed between forbs and graminoids but no difference was found between plants storing starch versus osmotically active carbohydrates. Graminoids had lower carbohydrate concentrations than forbs. We observed a positive effect of mowing on carbohydrate concentrations of graminoids in the dry, calcium-rich meadow and higher seasonal fluctuations of these values in the acid, wet meadow, suggesting that local factors and/or the species pool affect carbohydrate reserves. Despite local conditions, graminoids represent a distinct functional group in meadows from the point of view of their storage economy. We suggest that as well as growth, storage processes should also be considered for understanding the functioning of meadow plant communities.

  6. Taurocholic acid adsorption during non-starch polysaccharide fermentation: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gelissen, I C; Eastwood, M A

    1995-08-01

    The association of radiolabelled taurocholic acid with the solid fraction of a faecal fermentation mixture was measured. A human faecal inoculum was incubated with [24-14C]taurocholic acid and several non-starch polysaccharide sources (pectin, wheat bran, ispaghula (Plantago ovata) husk and seed), glucose or a substrate-free control. Portions of fermentation mixture were taken at 0, 3, 6, 21 and 24 h and centrifuged to acquire a supernatant fraction and a pellet containing the fermentation residue. 14C was measured in supernatant fractions and pellets at all time points. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured at 0 and 24 h to confirm bacterial growth. Radioactivity in the pellet increased over time for all substrates. Glucose resulted in the greatest incorporation of taurocholic acid into the pellet, followed by pectin. At 24 h the proportion of the total radioactivity found in the pellet was 92% for glucose, 79% for pectin, 60% for wheat bran, 59% for ispaghula seed, 53% for ispaghula husk and 26% for the control (mean of duplicates). Glucose and pectin produced the greatest quantity of VFA at 24 h. VFA production was highly correlated with radioactivity in the pellet (r0.976, P < 0.005). These results suggest that the bile acid binding capacity of a faecal culture mixture may be strongly influenced by the fermentability of the available substrate and hence related to bacterial metabolic activity.

  7. Biomass responses to elevated CO2, soil heterogeneity and diversity: an experimental assessment with grassland assemblages.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Fernando T; Reynolds, James F

    2007-03-01

    While it is well-established that the spatial distribution of soil nutrients (soil heterogeneity) influences the competitive ability and survival of individual plants, as well as the productivity of plant communities, there is a paucity of data on how soil heterogeneity and global change drivers interact to affect plant performance and ecosystem functioning. To evaluate the effects of elevated CO(2), soil heterogeneity and diversity (species richness and composition) on productivity, patterns of biomass allocation and root foraging precision, we conducted an experiment with grassland assemblages formed by monocultures, two- and three-species mixtures of Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and was conducted on microcosms built out of PVC pipe (length 38 cm, internal diameter 10 cm). When nutrients were heterogeneously supplied (in discrete patches), assemblages exhibited precise root foraging patterns, and had higher total, above- and belowground biomass. Greater aboveground biomass was observed under elevated CO(2). Species composition affected the below:aboveground biomass ratio and interacted with nutrient heterogeneity to determine belowground and total biomass. Species richness had no significant effects, and did not interact with either CO(2) or nutrient heterogeneity. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, the two- and three-species mixtures showed a clear trend towards underyielding. Our results show that differences among composition levels were dependent on soil heterogeneity, highlighting its potential role in modulating diversity-productivity relationships.

  8. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris + sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality.

  9. Effect of heavy metal contaminated shooting range soils on mycorrhizal colonization of roots and metal uptake by leek.

    PubMed

    Mozafar, A; Ruh, R; Klingel, P; Gamper, H; Egli, S; Frossard, E

    2002-10-01

    We grew leek (Allium porrum) in soils of two shooting ranges heavily contaminated with heavy metals in the towns of Zuchwil and Oberuzwil in Switzerland as a bioassay to test the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in these soils. Soil samples were taken from (1) front of the shooting house (HOUSE), (2) the area between house and target (FIELD) and (3) the berm (BACKSTOP). Samples of Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) growing naturally within the shooting ranges were also collected and the colonization of its roots by mycorrhizal fungi was measured. The number of AM spores in the soils was significantly reduced concomitant with the increase in the degree of soil contamination with metals. In Zuchwil, mycorrhizal fungi equally colonized roots of Ribwort plantain sampled from BACKSTOP and HOUSE. In Oberuzwil, however, plants from BACKSTOP had lower colonization when compared with those sampled from HOUSE. Colonization of leek was strongly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Zuchwil and slightly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Oberuzwil when compared with plants grown in respective HOUSE soil. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the leaves of leek grown in the BACKSTOP soil was within the range considered toxic for human consumption. This points to the high degree of bioavailability of these metal in these soils. Significant decrease in the number of mycorrhizal spores in the BACKSTOP soils in Zuchwil and the low colonization of leek roots grown in these soils point to possible changes in the species diversity of mycorrhizal fungi in these soils.

  10. Pharmaceutical prerequisites for a multi-target therapy.

    PubMed

    Kroll, U; Cordes, C

    2006-01-01

    The quality of a phytomedicine is defined by the quality of the herbal drug, the manufacturing of the drug preparations and the properties of the finished product, taking into account the special requirements of the individual herbal species in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards [2003. Medicinal Products for Human and Veterinary Use. Eudralex, vol. 4 (2003/94/EC)]. The quality control of the complete process is based on pharmacognostic methods, characteristic fingerprint chromatograms, defined amounts of marker substances, physicochemical characteristics and microbiological monitoring. For a herbal multi-component preparation used in multi-target therapy, these pharmaceutical prerequisites have to be ensured for all components and for their combination, as is exemplified by Iberogast((R)) (STW 5) a fixed combination of hydroethanolic extracts of bitter candytuft (Iberis amara), angelica root (Angelicae radix), milk thistle fruit (Silybi mariani fructus), celandine herb (Chelidonii herba), caraway fruit (Carvi fructus), liquorice root (Liquiritiae radix), peppermint herb (Menthae piperitae folium), balm leaf (Melissae folium) and chamomile flower (Matricariae flos) using in the therapy of gastrointestinal complaints (Rösch et al., 2006). The prerequisites for the quality of each of its components according to actual standards are at first the cultivation of the plant material according to the Guidelines for Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) conditions of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants [1998. Z. Arzn. Gew. Pfl. 3, 166-178] to yield a defined raw material of high quality. Characteristic compounds of the extracts had to be identified and different analytical methods such as HPLC, with low coefficients of variation had to be developed to analyze each of the standardized ethanolic extracts and the finished product. At the example of the extract of I. amara these necessary investigations are described. The variability of the plant material in its

  11. Reliability of fibres in solid-phase microextraction for routine analysis of the headspace of aromatic and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2007-06-08

    This article evaluates the HS-SPME recovery repeatability, intermediate precision and their performance over time when applied to HS-SPME sampling for quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. Experiments were carried out on two sets of fibres coated with two different coatings and belonging to different lots (i.e 100 microm polydimethylsyloxane (PDMS) and Carboxen/divinylbenzene/PDMS 50/30 microm, l: 1 cm (CAR/DVB/PDMS)) and on chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), sage (Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl.) and a standard solution containing 3-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and menthol in diisobutyl phthalate. The performance of each set of fibres was evaluated by determining a group of complementary statistical parameters including: (i) repeatability of the absolute areas of each marker from each matrix with each fibre; (ii) intra-fibre repeatability of the total absolute areas of the markers of each matrix obtained with each fibre of each set; (iii) inter-fibre intermediate precision of the total absolute areas of the markers of each matrix obtained with all fibres of each set; and (iv) analysis of variance by one-way ANOVA with Fisher and Tukey tests. The influence of the number of analyses on fibre effectiveness (fibre life-time) was studied by linear regression analysis (LRA). The results proved that HS-SPME can successfully be used for routine control analysis of aromatic ad medicinal plants since both types of fibres showed good repeatability and intermediate precision of analytes recovery and consistency over time. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, CAR/DVB/PDMS coated fibres gave better results than those coated with PDMS. The fibre-life seemed mainly to be influenced by the number and conditions of samplings and nature of the matrix investigated.

  12. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  13. Antioxidant Supplements and Gastrointestinal Diseases: A Critical Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Khan, Islam; Samson, Sue E; Grover, Ashok Kumar

    2017-03-08

    The gastrointestinal tract digests and absorbs dietary nutrients; protects the body against physical and chemical damage from contents in its lumen; provides immunity against external antigens and keeps an optimum environment for the gut microbiota. These functions cannot be performed normally in several diseases of which the following are discussed here: irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Because these diseases are associated with oxidative stress, a host of antioxidant supplements are used for maintenance and recovery of the gut functions. However, the benefits of these supplements are not established. The available 80 human trials were rated for levels of confidence and for benefits of the antioxidant supplements. For Crohn's disease, the supplements for which clear benefits occurred in at least two studies were: allopurinol, Boswellia serrata (frankincense or shallaki), Artemesia species (wormwood), Tripterygium wilfordii (Léi gōng téng) and omega-3-fatty acids. Similar beneficial supplements for ulcerative colitis were: allopurinol, Matricaria chamomilia (chamomile), Curcuma longa (curcumin in turmeric) and omega-3-fatty acids. There was also a clear benefit for ulcerative colitis in two studies where a multiherbal Chinese medicine preparation and an Ayurvedic medicine preparation were used. For irritable bowel syndrome, there was only a marginal benefit of some of the antioxidant supplements. Thus, some antioxidant supplements may be beneficial at certain stages of specific diseases. This is consistent with the current concept that antioxidants act by inhibiting oxidative stress pathways in a tissue and environment specific manner and not by simply acting as scavengers.

  14. Soil influence on the performance of 26 native herbaceous plants suitable for sustainable Mediterranean landscaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretzel, Francesca; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Benvenuti, Stefano; Bravi, Alessio; Malorgio, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Native herbaceous plants have the potential for renaturalizing and recovering derelict soils, such as urban or anthropized soils. Ecological restoration following the establishment of a native wildflower meadow should lead to a reduction in management costs and to the preservation of native plant populations. This study was aimed at determining the ecological characteristics and the cultivation needs of 26 herbaceous species native to Italy and southern Europe in order to identify their landscape potential in low-maintenance conditions. The species were selected on the basis of their adaptation to unproductive soils in semi-natural and rural areas, and on their ornamental value, including their ability to attract insects. Mono-specific plots were set up in three different soils. Seed germination, seedling emergence, flowering dynamics, and plant growth were determined. Dormancy-breaking treatments were effective in improving the germination of most species. The percentage of field establishment and biomass appeared to be affected by the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. Soil texture slightly affected seedling emergence, whereas soil texture and the C and N levels affected plant growth, the number of flowers and the duration of flowering. Dianthus carthusianorum, Verbascum blattaria, Matricaria chamomilla and Hypochoeris radicata developed a higher biomass per plant in the soils with a low nutrient content, indicating their adaptability to infertile soils. Daucus carota, Papaver rhoeas, Verbascum sinuatum, Coleostephus myconis produced a higher biomass per plant in the most fertile soil, where they appeared to show a higher potential when competing with other species. The ecological characteristics shown by the native plants are extremely important in terms of combining seeds of different species to create and to maintain semi-natural herbaceous communities in low-maintenance landscapes.

  15. Effects of Chamomile Extract on Biochemical and Clinical Parameters in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zafari Zangeneh, Farideh; Minaee, Bagher; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Ahangarpour, Akram; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction. Presently, little is known about the primary factors that initiate PCOS. Chamomile flowers are used in alternative medicine for its anti-spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory effects. Antispasmodic properties of chamomile ease menstrual cramps and lessen the possibility of premature labor. This medicinal herb also stimulates menstruation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Chamomile alcoholic-extract on the biochemical and clinical parameters in a rat model of PCOS. Materials and Methods Estrous cyclicity of 30 virgin adult cycling rats was monitored by vaginal smears obtained between 0800 and 1200 hours. After about 4 days, each rat received an i.m. injection of Estradiol Valerate (Aburaihan Co., Iran), 2 mg in 0.2 ml of corn oil, to induce PCO. Corn oil was injected to the rats in the control group. All the rats in the experimental group were evaluated for follicular cysts 60 days after the injection. Rats with PCOS were treated by multiple doses (25, 50, 75 mg/kg) of intraperitoneal injections of Chamomile alcoholic-extract for ten days. The data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05 by ANOVA, followed by the Student Newman-Keuls post hoc test. Results The histological and hormonal results showed that Chamomile can decrease the signs of PCOS in the ovarian tissue and help LH secretion in rats (p<0.05). Conclusion The alcoholic-extract of dried Matricaria chamomilla L. flowers can not only induce recovery from a PCO induced state in rats, but also increase dominant follicles. Additionally better endometrial tissue arrangements can be regarded as another therapeutic effect of Chamomile. PMID:23926485

  16. Responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep-fed forage herb plantain and exposed to heat.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamun, M; Shibuya, K; Kajita, M; Tamura, Y; Sano, H

    2017-01-16

    The use of herbal plants as traditional medicines has a century long history. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) is a perennial herb containing bioactive components with free radical scavenging activities. An isotope dilution technique using [U-13C]glucose was conducted to determine the effect of plantain on the responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep. Six crossbred sheep (three wethers and three ewes; mean initial BW=40±2 kg) were fed either a mixed hay of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) (MH-diet) or mixed hay and fresh plantain (1 : 1 ratio, dry matter basis, PL-diet) and exposed to a thermoneutral (TN, 20°C; 70% relative humidity (RH)) environment or a heat exposure (HE, 30°C; 70% RH) for 5 days using a crossover design for two 23-day periods. The isotope dilution was conducted on days 18 and 23 of the experimental period during TN and HE, respectively. Plasma concentration of α-tocopherol was greater (P<0.0001) for the PL-diet than the MH-diet and remained comparable between environmental treatments. Plasma glucose concentration before isotope dilution technique was reduced for sheep (P=0.05) during HE compared with TN and remained comparable between diets. Plasma glucose turnover rate during the preinfusion period of insulin did not differ (P=0.10) between dietary treatments and between environments (P=0.65). The response of plasma glucose utilization to exogenous insulin administration was lower (P=0.04) for the PL-diet than the MH-diet. Under present experimental conditions, the plantain group was found to be resistant to the effects of insulin infusion.

  17. Responses of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Erica cinerea and Vaccinium macrocarpon to Glomus mosseae.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Kenneth; Mitchell, Derek T

    2004-02-01

    An investigation was carried out on the mycorrhizal colonisation, growth and nutrition of two members of the Ericaceae in close proximity to an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association. This was undertaken by separating mycorrhizal (EM) and non-mycorrhizal (NEM) Erica cinerea and Vaccinium macrocarpon from AM (inoculated by Glomus mosseae) and non-mycorrhizal (NAM) Plantago lanceolata using a 30 micro m nylon mesh in a sand culture/pot system. Ericoid mycorrhizal colonisation by Hymenoscyphus ericae on root systems of E. cinerea and V. macrocarpon was in the range 14-22% and 58-69%, respectively. The presence of AM P. lanceolata had no effect on the ericoid mycorrhizal colonisation of E. cinerea and V. macrocarpon. NEM E. cinerea showed reductions in shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentrations after exposure to AM P. lanceolata after incubations of 6 and 9 weeks but there were no differences in dry mass, length, and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of the root systems between the treatment combinations. Reductions were also found, after incubations of 6 and 9 weeks, in shoot dry mass, leaf area and shoot nitrogen concentrations of NEM V. macrocarpon in the presence of AM P. lanceolata but no changes occurred in the length and dry mass of the root systems. There were no differences in maximum photosynthesis in V. macrocarpon between treatment combinations but NEM V. macrocarpon in the presence of AM P. lanceolata had the lowest transpiration rates and stomatal conductance and the highest nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies compared with the other treatment combinations. These results are discussed in relation to the type of interaction found in these compatible and incompatible mycorrhizal associations.

  18. Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Iqbal; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of soil pH by soil additives and / or rhizosphere processes may enhance the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. Here we report on the effect of nitric acid additions to four polluted soils on Cd and Zn concentrations in soil solution (C(soln)) and 0.005M Ca(NO(3))(2) extracts, and related changes in the diffusive fluxes and resupply of the metals as assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The responses of these chemical indicators of bioavailability were compared to metal uptake in two indicator plant species, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg) and narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) grown for 75days in a pot experiment. Lowering soil pH increased C(soln), the 0.005M Ca(NO(3))(2)-soluble fractions and the DGT-measured Cd and Zn concentrations (C(DGT)) in the experimental soils. This was associated with enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn on soils acidified to pH 4.5 whereas plants did not survive at pH 3.5. Toxicity along with decreased kinetics of metal resupply (calculated by the 2D DIFS model) in the strong acidification treatment suggests that moderate acidification is more appropriate to enhance the phytoextraction process. Each of the chemical indicators of bioavailability predicted well (R(2)>0.70) the Cd and Zn concentrations in plantain shoots but due to metal toxicity not for dandelion. Concentration factors, i.e. the ratio between metal concentrations in shoots and in soil solution (CF) indicate that Cd and Zn uptake in plantain was not limited by diffusion which may explain that DGT did not perform better than C(soln). However, DGT is expected to predict plant uptake better in diffusion-limited conditions such as in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating phytoextraction crops.

  19. Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Wubshet, Sileshi G.; Nyberg, Nils T.; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of five halophytes from southern Portugal (Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Mesembryanthemum edule, Juncus acutus, Plantago coronopus and Halimione portulacoides), were studied for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and in vitro antitumor properties. The most active extracts towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were the methanol extracts of M. edule (IC50 = 0.1 mg/mL) and J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL), and the ether extracts of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.2 mg/mL) and A. macrostachyum (IC50 = 0.3 mg/mL). The highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) against the 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical was obtained in the ether extract of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL) and H. portulacoides (IC50 = 0.9 mg/mL). The maximum total phenolic content (TPC) was found in the methanol extract of M. edule (147 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g) and in the ether extract of J. acutus (94 mg GAE/g). Significant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production were observed after incubation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the chloroform extract of H. portulacoides (IC50 = 109 µg/mL) and the hexane extract of P. coronopus (IC50 = 98.0 µg/mL). High in vitro cytotoxic activity and selectivity was obtained with the ether extract of J. acutus. Juncunol was identified as the active compound and for the first time was shown to display selective in vitro cytotoxicity towards various human cancer cells. PMID:24727393

  20. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be

  1. A phytogeochemical study of the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal): possible species for plant-based soil remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Díez Lázaro, J; Kidd, P S; Monterroso Martínez, C

    2006-02-01

    Phytoremediation techniques are now considered to be promising alternatives to conventional techniques for the remediation of diffused or moderately contaminated soils. Despite their growing acceptance relatively few plant species have been studied for phytoremediation purposes. Further geobotanical surveys and plant screenings are necessary since these could lead to the identification of additional species with potential value for such applications. Serpentine areas could prove valuable sources of such plants. In this study heavy metal accumulation was determined in the flora associated with ultramafic and non-ultramafic soils of the Trás-os-Montes region of NE Portugal. Study sites were selected to represent a wide range of soil-forming rocks (serpentinized (S), ultrabasic (UB), basic (B) and acid (migmatite, M and schists, SC) rocks) and plant metal accumulation was related to soil metal bioavailability. Nine plant species (representing 7 families) were sampled including the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum. The greatest metal accumulation, transport (leaf[metal]:root[metal]) and bioaccumulation (leaf[metal]/soil[metal]) was found in four of the non metal-hyperaccumulating species: Cistus ladanifer, Lavandula stoechas, Plantago subulata subsp. radicata and Thymus mastichina. Metal accumulation depended on both the plant species and the edaphic conditions at its provenance. While P. subulata is of less interest due to its low biomass the remaining three species could be of use in phytoremediation technologies such as phytoextraction, and particularly in soils contaminated with Cr, Mn and Zn. These three species are also of economic interest due to their oil and fragrance producing biomass.

  2. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Triclosan- Containing, Herbal and Homeopathy Toothpastes- An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Fawaz, Mohammed Alimullah; Narahari, Rao; Shahela, Tanveer; Syed, Afroz

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of antimicrobial agents is one of the important strategies to prevent oral diseases. These agents vary in their abilities to deliver preventive and therapeutic benefits. Objectives This invitro study was conducted to assess antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes against various oral pathogens. Materials and Methods A total of nine toothpastes in three groups were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 0266P) and Candida albicans (Laboratory Strain) by modified agar well diffusion method. Statistical Analysis was performed using Minitab Software. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Triclosan-based dental formulation with combination of fluoride (1000ppm) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against test organisms than the combination of lower fluoride-concentration or sodium monofluorophosphate. Among herbal dentifrices, formulation containing Neem, Pudina, Long, Babool, Turmeric and Vajradanti showed significant antimicrobial activity against all the four tested microorganisms (p<0.05). However, against Streptococcus mutans, all three herbal products showed significant antimicrobial activity. Homeo products showed least antimicrobial activity on the tested strains. Formulation with kreosotum, Plantago major and calendula was significantly effective only against Streptococcus mutans. Conclusion In the present study, antimicrobial activity of the toothpaste containing both triclosan and fluoride (1000ppm) as active ingredients showed a significant difference (p< 0.05) against all four tested microflora compared to that of with lower fluoride-concentration or sodium monofluorophosphate. Of herbal groups, the only dentifrice containing several phytochemicals was found to be significantly effective and comparable to triclosan-fluoride (1000ppm) formulation. Thus, this herbal toothpaste can be used as alternative to

  3. Soil nutrient effects on oviposition preference, larval performance, and chemical defense of a specialist insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Prudic, Kathleen L; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Bowers, M Deane

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the effects of increased leaf nitrogen in natural host-plants (Plantago spp.) on female oviposition preference, larval performance, and larval chemical defense of the butterfly Junonia coenia. Increased availability of soil nutrients caused the host-plant's foliar nitrogen to increase and its chemical defense to decrease. Larval performance did not correlate with increases in foliar nitrogen. Larval growth rate and survival were equivalent across host-plant treatments. However, larvae raised on fertilized host-plants showed concomitant decreases in chemical defense as compared to larvae reared on unfertilized host-plants. Since most butterfly larvae cannot move long distances during their first few instars and are forced to feed upon the plant on which they hatched, J. coenia larval chemical defense is determined, in large part, by female oviposition choice. Female butterflies preferred host-plants with high nitrogen over host-plants with low nitrogen; however, this preference was also mediated by plant chemical defense. Female butterflies preferred more chemically defended host-plants when foliar nitrogen was equivalent between host-plants. J. coenia larvae experience intense predation in the field, especially when larvae are not chemically well defended. Any qualitative or quantitative variation in plant allelochemical defense has fitness consequences on these larvae. Thus, these results indicate that females may be making sub-optimal oviposition decisions under a nutrient-enriched regime, when predators are present. Given the recent increase in fertilizer application and nitrogen deposition on the terrestrial landscape, these interactions between female preference, larval performance, and larval chemical defense may result in long-term changes in population dynamics and persistence of specialist insects.

  4. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27840507

  5. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27516674

  6. The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

  7. Rapid genetic divergence in response to 15 years of simulated climate change.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Catherine H; Whitlock, Raj; Fridley, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity may play an important role in allowing individual species to resist climate change, by permitting evolutionary responses. Our understanding of the potential for such responses to climate change remains limited, and very few experimental tests have been carried out within intact ecosystems. Here, we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data to assess genetic divergence and test for signatures of evolutionary change driven by long-term simulated climate change applied to natural grassland at Buxton Climate Change Impacts Laboratory (BCCIL). Experimental climate treatments were applied to grassland plots for 15 years using a replicated and spatially blocked design and included warming, drought and precipitation treatments. We detected significant genetic differentiation between climate change treatments and control plots in two coexisting perennial plant study species (Festuca ovina and Plantago lanceolata). Outlier analyses revealed a consistent signature of selection associated with experimental climate treatments at individual AFLP loci in P. lanceolata, but not in F. ovina. Average background differentiation at putatively neutral AFLP loci was close to zero, and genomewide genetic structure was associated neither with species abundance changes (demography) nor with plant community-level responses to long-term climate treatments. Our results demonstrate genetic divergence in response to a suite of climatic environments in reproductively mature populations of two perennial plant species and are consistent with an evolutionary response to climatic selection in P. lanceolata. These genetic changes have occurred in parallel with impacts on plant community structure and may have contributed to the persistence of individual species through 15 years of simulated climate change at BCCIL.

  8. Impact of land cover changes and climate on the main airborne pollen types in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Mozo, Herminia; Oteros, Jose Antonio; Galán, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Airborne pollen concentrations strongly correlate with flowering intensity of wind-pollinated species growing at and around monitoring sites. The pollen spectrum, and the variations in its composition and concentrations, is influenced by climatic features and by available nutritional resources but it is also determined by land use and its changes. The first factor influence is well known on aerobiological researches but the impact of land cover changes has been scarcely studied until now. This paper reports on a study carried out in Southern Spain (Córdoba city) examining airborne pollen trends over a 15-year period and it explores the possible links both to changes in land use and to climate variations. The Seasonal-Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL) which decomposes long-term data series into smaller seasonal component patterns was applied. Trends were compared with recorded changes in land use at varying distances from the city in order to determine their possible influence on pollen-count variations. The influence of climate-related factors was determined by means of non-parametric correlation analysis. The STL method proved highly effective for extracting trend components from pollen time series, because their features vary widely and can change quickly in a short term. Results revealed mixed trends depending on the taxa and reflecting fluctuations in land cover and/or climate. A significant rising trend in Olea pollen counts was observed, attributable both to the increasing olive-growing area but also to changes in temperature and rainfall. Poaceae pollen concentrations also increased, due largely to an expansion of heterogeneous agricultural areas and to an increase in pollen season length positively influenced by rainfall and temperature. By contrast, the significant declining trend observed for pollen from ruderal taxa, such as Amaranthaceae, Rumex, Plantago and Urticaceae, may be linked to changes in urban planning strategies with a

  9. The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands.

  10. Phloem Loading Strategies in Three Plant Species That Transport Sugar Alcohols1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Reidel, Edwin J.; Rennie, Emilie A.; Amiard, Véronique; Cheng, Lailiang; Turgeon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Many plants translocate sugar alcohols in the phloem. However, the mechanism(s) of sugar alcohol loading in the minor veins of leaves are debated. We characterized the loading strategies of two species that transport sorbitol (Plantago major and apple [Malus domestica]), and one that transports mannitol (Asarina scandens). Plasmodesmata are abundant at all interfaces in the minor vein phloem of apple, and in one of two types of phloem in the minor veins of A. scandens. Few plasmodesmata are present in the minor veins of P. major. Apple differs from the other two species in that sugar alcohol and sucrose (Suc) are present in much higher concentrations in leaves. Apple leaf tissue exposed to exogenous [14C]sorbitol, [14C]Suc, or 14CO2 did not accumulate radiolabel in the minor veins, as determined by macroautoradiography. P. major minor veins accumulated radiolabel from [14C]Suc, [14C]sorbitol, and 14CO2. A. scandens minor veins accumulated 14C from [14C]Suc and 14CO2, but not from [14C]mannitol. We conclude that the movement of sugar alcohol from the mesophyll into the phloem in apple and A. scandens is symplastic and passive, but in P. major it involves an apoplastic step and is energized. We also suggest that apple leaves transport sorbitol in high concentrations to avoid the feedback limitation of photosynthesis that would result from driving passive movement of solute into the phloem with high levels of Suc alone. The loading pathways and the mechanisms by which hydrostatic pressure is maintained in the minor vein phloem of these species are discussed. PMID:19129415

  11. Spatial variation in disease resistance: from molecules to metapopulations

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Anna-Liisa; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Dodds, Peter N.; Thrall, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Variation in disease resistance is a widespread phenomenon in wild plant-pathogen associations. Here, we review current literature on natural plant-pathogen associations to determine how diversity in disease resistance is distributed at different hierarchical levels – within host individuals, within host populations, among host populations at the metapopulation scale and at larger regional scales. We find diversity in resistance across all spatial scales examined. Furthermore, variability seems to be the best counter-defence of plants against their rapidly evolving pathogens. We find that higher diversity of resistance phenotypes also results in higher levels of resistance at the population level. Overall, we find that wild plant populations are more likely to be susceptible than resistant to their pathogens. However, the degree of resistance differs strikingly depending on the origin of the pathogen strains used in experimental inoculation studies. Plant populations are on average 16% more resistant to allopatric pathogen strains than they are to strains that occur within the same population (48 % vs. 32 % respectively). Pathogen dispersal mode affects levels of resistance in natural plant populations with lowest levels detected for hosts of airborne pathogens and highest for waterborne pathogens. Detailed analysis of two model systems, Linum marginale infected by Melampsora lini, and Plantago lanceolata infected by Podosphaera plantaginis, show that the amount of variation in disease resistance declines towards higher spatial scales as we move from individual hosts to metapopulations, but evaluation of multiple spatial scales is needed to fully capture the structure of disease resistance. Synthesis: Variation in disease resistance is ubiquitous in wild plant-pathogen associations. While the debate over whether the resistance structure of plant populations is determined by pathogen-imposed selection versus non-adaptive processes remains unresolved, we do

  12. Proposal for field sampling of plants and processing in the lab for environmental metabolic fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Samples for plant metabolic fingerprinting are prepared generally by metabolism quenching, grinding of plant material and extraction of metabolites in solvents. Further concentration and derivatisation steps follow in dependence of the sample nature and the available analytical platform. For plant material sampled in the field, several methods are not applicable, such as, e.g., collection in liquid nitrogen. Therefore, a protocol was established for sample pre-treatment, grinding, extraction and storage, which can be used for analysis of field-collected plant material, which is further processed in the laboratory. Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., Plantaginaceae) was used as model plant. The quality criteria for method suitability were high reproducibility, extraction efficiency and handling comfort of each subsequent processing step. Results Highest reproducibility of results was achieved by sampling fresh plant material in a solvent mixture of methanol:dichloromethane (2:1), crushing the tissue with a hand-held disperser and storing the material until further processing. In the laboratory the material was extracted threefold at different pH. The gained extracts were separated with water (2:1:1 methanol:dichloromethane:water) and the aqueous phases used for analysis by LC-MS, because the polar metabolites were in focus. Chromatograms were compared by calculating a value Ξ for similarities. Advantages and disadvantages of different sample pre-treatment methods, use of solvents and solvent mixtures, influence of pH, extraction frequency and duration, and storing temperature are discussed with regard to the quality criteria. Conclusions The proposed extraction protocol leads to highly reproducible metabolic fingerprints and allows optimal handling of field-collected plant material and further processing in the laboratory, which is demonstrated for an exemplary field data-set. Calculation of Ξ values is a useful tool to judge similarities between

  13. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Monica R. P.; Warrier, Deepa U.; Rao, Shivani H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model. PMID:26798177

  14. The role of cis-carotenoids in abscisic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Parry, A D; Babiano, M J; Horgan, R

    1990-08-01

    Evidence has been obtained which is consistent with 9'-cis-neoxanthin being a major precursor of abscisic acid (ABA) in higher plants. A mild, rapid procedure was developed for the extraction and analysis of carotenoids from a range of tissues. Once purified the carotenoids were identified from their light-absorbance properties, reactions with dilute acid, high-performance liquid chromatography Rts, mass spectra and the quasiequilibria resulting from iodine-catalysed or chlorophyllsensitised photoisomerisation. Two possible ABA precursors, 9'-cis-neoxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin, were identified in extracts of light-grown and etiolated leaves (of Lycopersicon esculentum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Zea mays, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, Plantago lanceolata and Digitalis purpurea), and roots of light-grown and etiolated plants (Lycopersicon, Phaseolus and Zea). The 9,9'-di-cisisomer of violaxanthin was synthesised but its presence was not detected in any extracts. Levels of 9'-cis-neoxanthin and all-trans-violaxanthin were between 20- to 100-fold greater than those of ABA in light-grown leaves. The levels of 9-cis-violaxanthin were similar to those of ABA but unaffected by water stress. Etiolated Phaseolus leaves contained reduced amounts of carotenoids (15-20% compared with light-grown leaves) but retained the ability to synthesise large amounts of ABA. The amounts of ABA synthesised, measured as increases in ABA and its metabolites phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, were closely matched by decreases in the levels of 9'-cis-neoxanthin and all-trans-violaxanthin. In etiolated seedlings grown on 50% D2O, deuterium incorporation into ABA was similar to that into the xanthophylls. Relative levels of carotenoids in roots and light-grown and etiolated leaves of the ABA-deficient mutants, notabilis, flacca and sitiens were the same as those found in wild-type tomato tissues.

  15. The role of acoustic screens in distribution of technogenic magnetic particles and chemical pollution in roadside soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawer, Małgorzata; Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Roads constructed nowadays should by all means be functional for their motorized users but at the same time their effect on the environment ought to be limited to the minimum. Despite the existence of various methods for preventing from negative influence of roads on the environment, there is still lack of adequate techniques to monitor and reduce the spreading of roadside pollution in the air and soils. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of acoustic screens on spreading and deposition of solid pollutants deriving from car emissions, based on their quantitative and qualitative analysis. During this study, measurements of magnetic susceptibility and analyses of heavy metals as well as Pt and Rh contents in soil and plant samples (Taraxacum officinale, Plantago major, Parthenocissus quinquefolia) collected near different kinds of acoustic screens ("green walls", Plexiglass, sawdust concrete, steel panels and earth embankments) have been done. Previous investigations showed showed that most of traffic emission is deposited in the close vicinity of the roads (up to 10 m) and the level of contamination decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. However, the results of this project indicate that, in the area where the acoustic screens are located, this distribution is disturbed and the additional enrichment of heavy metals in soil about 10 - 15 m behind screens is observed. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contents in soil samples corresponds to its magnetic susceptibility values. High contents of Fe, Zn, Mn and Pb was observed next to acoustic screens made of sawdust concrete and steel panels. Additionally, concentration of Zn in soil samples collected close to these screens exceeded threshold value. Analyses of plants showed that the highest content of examined elements and highest values of magnetic susceptibility were recorded near road edge. What is more, samples of Parthenocissus quinquefolia collected at height 0.2 m were characterized

  16. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  17. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants.

  18. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susan; Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed “horizontal transmission”). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

  19. Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speak, A. F.; Rothwell, J. J.; Lindley, S. J.; Smith, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    Urban particulate pollution in the UK remains at levels which have the potential to cause negative impacts on human health. There is a need, therefore, for mitigation strategies within cities, especially with regards to vehicular sources. The use of vegetation as a passive filter of urban air has been previously investigated, however green roof vegetation has not been specifically considered. The present study aims to quantify the effectiveness of four green roof species - creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), red fescue (Festuca rubra), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and sedum (Sedum album) - at capturing particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10). Plants were grown in a location away from major road sources of PM10 and transplanted onto two roofs in Manchester city centre. One roof is adjacent to a major traffic source and one roof is characterised more by urban background inputs. Significant differences in metal containing PM10 capture were found between sites and between species. Site differences were explained by proximity to major sources. Species differences arise from differences in macro and micro morphology of the above surface biomass. The study finds that the grasses, A. stolonifera and F. rubra, are more effective than P. lanceolata and S. album at PM10 capture. Quantification of the annual PM10 removal potential was calculated under a maximum sedum green roof installation scenario for an area of the city centre, which totals 325 ha. Remediation of 2.3% (±0.1%) of 9.18 tonnes PM10 inputs for this area could be achieved under this scenario.

  20. Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speak, A.; Rothwell, J.; Lindley, S.; Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    Urban particulate pollution in the UK remains at levels which have the potential to cause negative impacts on human health. There is a need, therefore, for mitigation strategies within cities, especially with regards to vehicular sources. The use of vegetation as a passive filter of urban air has been previously investigated, however green roof vegetation has not been specifically considered. The present study aims to quantify the effectiveness of four green roof species - creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), red fescue (Festuca rubra), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and sedum (Sedum album) - at capturing particulate matter smaller than 10μm (PM10). Plants were grown in a location away from major road sources of PM10 and transplanted onto two roofs in Manchester city centre. One roof is adjacent to a major traffic source and one roof is characterised more by urban background inputs. Significant differences in metal containing PM10 capture were found between sites and between species. Site differences were explained by proximity to major sources. Species differences arise from differences in macro and micro morphology of the above surface biomass. The study finds that the grasses, A. stolonifera and F. rubra, are more effective than P. lanceolata and S. album at PM10 capture. Quantification of the annual PM10 removal potential was calculated under a maximum sedum green roof installation scenario for an area of the city centre, which totals 325 ha. Remediation of 2.3% (±0.1%) of 9.18 tonnes PM10 inputs for this area could be achieved under this scenario.

  1. Habitats as Complex Odour Environments: How Does Plant Diversity Affect Herbivore and Parasitoid Orientation?

    PubMed Central

    Wäschke, Nicole; Hardge, Kristin; Hancock, Christine; Hilker, Monika; Obermaier, Elisabeth; Meiners, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity is known to affect success of host location by pest insects, but its effect on olfactory orientation of non-pest insect species has hardly been addressed. First, we tested in laboratory experiments the hypothesis that non-host plants, which increase odour complexity in habitats, affect the host location ability of herbivores and parasitoids. Furthermore, we recorded field data of plant diversity in addition to herbivore and parasitoid abundance at 77 grassland sites in three different regions in Germany in order to elucidate whether our laboratory results reflect the field situation. As a model system we used the herb Plantago lanceolata, the herbivorous weevil Mecinus pascuorum, and its larval parasitoid Mesopolobus incultus. The laboratory bioassays revealed that both the herbivorous weevil and its larval parasitoid can locate their host plant and host via olfactory cues even in the presence of non-host odour. In a newly established two-circle olfactometer, the weeviĺs capability to detect host plant odour was not affected by odours from non-host plants. However, addition of non-host plant odours to host plant odour enhanced the weeviĺs foraging activity. The parasitoid was attracted by a combination of host plant and host volatiles in both the absence and presence of non-host plant volatiles in a Y-tube olfactometer. In dual choice tests the parasitoid preferred the blend of host plant and host volatiles over its combination with non-host plant volatiles. In the field, no indication was found that high plant diversity disturbs host (plant) location by the weevil and its parasitoid. In contrast, plant diversity was positively correlated with weevil abundance, whereas parasitoid abundance was independent of plant diversity. Therefore, we conclude that weevils and parasitoids showed the sensory capacity to successfully cope with complex vegetation odours when searching for hosts. PMID:24416354

  2. The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  3. Relationships between airborne pollen grains, wind direction and land cover using GIS and circular statistics.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, J M; Sadyś, M; Tormo-Molina, R; Fernández-Rodríguez, S; Oteros, J; Silva-Palacios, I; Gonzalo-Garijo, A

    2017-04-15

    Airborne bio-aerosol content (mainly pollen and spores) depends on the surrounding vegetation and weather conditions, particularly wind direction. In order to understand this issue, maps of the main land cover in influence areas of 10km in radius surrounding pollen traps were created. Atmospheric content of the most abundant 14 pollen types was analysed in relation to the predominant wind directions measured in three localities of SW of Iberian Peninsula, from March 2011 to March 2014. Three Hirst type traps were used for aerobiological monitoring. The surface area for each land cover category was calculated and wind direction analysis was approached by using circular statistics. This method could be helpful for estimating the potential risk of exposure to various pollen types. Thus, the main land cover was different for each monitoring location, being irrigated crops, pastures and hardwood forests the main categories among 11 types described. Comparison of the pollen content with the predominant winds and land cover shows that the atmospheric pollen concentration is related to some source areas identified in the inventory. The study found that some pollen types (e.g. Plantago, Fraxinus-Phillyrea, Alnus) come from local sources but other pollen types (e.g. Quercus) are mostly coming from longer distances. As main conclusions, airborne particle concentrations can be effectively split by addressing wind with circular statistics. By combining circular statistics and GIS method with aerobiological data, we have created a useful tool for understanding pollen origin. Some pollen loads can be explained by immediate surrounding landscape and observed wind patterns for most of the time. However, other factors like medium or long-distance transport or even pollen trap location within a city, may occasionally affect the pollen load recorded using an air sampler.

  4. Plant adaptation or acclimation to rising CO2 ? Insight from first multigenerational RNA-Seq transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Watson-Lazowski, Alexander; Lin, Yunan; Miglietta, Franco; Edwards, Richard J; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) directly determines the rate of plant photosynthesis and indirectly effects plant productivity and fitness and may therefore act as a selective pressure driving evolution, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Using Plantago lanceolata L. seed collected from a naturally high CO2 spring and adjacent ambient CO2 control site, we investigated multigenerational response to future, elevated atmospheric CO2 . Plants were grown in either ambient or elevated CO2 (700 μmol mol(-1) ), enabling for the first time, characterization of the functional and population genomics of plant acclimation and adaptation to elevated CO2 . This revealed that spring and control plants differed significantly in phenotypic plasticity for traits underpinning fitness including above-ground biomass, leaf size, epidermal cell size and number and stomatal density and index. Gene expression responses to elevated CO2 (acclimation) were modest [33-131 genes differentially expressed (DE)], whilst those between control and spring plants (adaptation) were considerably larger (689-853 DE genes). In contrast, population genomic analysis showed that genetic differentiation between spring and control plants was close to zero, with no fixed differences, suggesting that plants are adapted to their native CO2 environment at the level of gene expression. An unusual phenotype of increased stomatal index in spring but not control plants in elevated CO2 correlated with altered expression of stomatal patterning genes between spring and control plants for three loci (YODA, CDKB1;1 and SCRM2) and between ambient and elevated CO2 for four loci (ER, YODA, MYB88 and BCA1). We propose that the two positive regulators of stomatal number (SCRM2) and CDKB1;1 when upregulated act as key controllers of stomatal adaptation to elevated CO2 . Combined with significant transcriptome reprogramming of photosynthetic and dark respiration and enhanced growth in spring plants, we have

  5. Impact of γ-rays on seed germination/short-term storage in four native alpine species: Correlation with free radical and antioxidant profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zani, Deborah; Dondi, Daniele; Araújo, Susana; Mondoni, Andrea; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the impact of gamma (γ) radiation on seeds was investigated in four native alpine species, Campanula barbata L., Cirsium spinosissinum (L.) Scop., Plantago alpina L., and Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke. Seeds were γ-irradiated with 100 and 200 Gy total doses delivered at a high dose rate of 2.7 Gy min-1. Irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were used immediately, and subsequently 7 and 14 days after drying (15% Relative Humidity, 15 °C) to assess their response to standard seed bank processing. Germination rates, seedling length and weight, antioxidant activity and phenolics content were measured, while free radical accumulation profiles were acquired by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Germination was only hampered in irradiated C. barbata seeds. C. barbata and C. spinosissinum seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds suffered a decrease in length and weight, while growth was not affected in P. alpina and S. vulgaris, when compared to non-irradiated control. Although profiles of seed antioxidant activity were not influenced immediately after γ-irradiation, subsequent drying under seed bank standards induced changes in seed antioxidant activity, depending on the species. According to EPR data, C. barbata and C. Spinosissinum seeds revealed high free radical levels in non-irradiated samples, which were further enhanced by γ-irradiation. An opposite behaviour was observed in P. alpina and S. vulgaris. The four alpine species showed different profiles of γ-ray sensitivity. The reported data encourage future research to test inter-specific variability in the plant response to γ-rays based on a multidisciplinary approach which integrates environmental data. Considering that seeds of alpine plants are short-lived in storage, γ-irradiation could emerge as a promissory priming tool for native endangered species.

  6. Discovery of diversity in xylan biosynthetic genes by transcriptional profiling of a heteroxylan containing mucilaginous tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jacob K.; Johnson, Nathan; Wilkerson, Curtis G.

    2013-01-01

    The exact biochemical steps of xylan backbone synthesis remain elusive. In Arabidopsis, three non-redundant genes from two glycosyltransferase (GT) families, IRX9 and IRX14 from GT43 and IRX10 from GT47, are candidates for forming the xylan backbone. In other plants, evidence exists that different tissues express these three genes at widely different levels, which suggests that diversity in the makeup of the xylan synthase complex exists. Recently we have profiled the transcripts present in the developing mucilaginous tissue of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk). This tissue was found to have high expression levels of an IRX10 homolog, but very low levels of the two GT43 family members. This contrasts with recent wheat endosperm tissue profiling that found a relatively high abundance of the GT43 family members. We have performed an in-depth analysis of all GTs genes expressed in four developmental stages of the psyllium mucilagenous layer and in a single stage of the psyllium stem using RNA-Seq. This analysis revealed several IRX10 homologs, an expansion in GT61 (homologs of At3g18170/At3g18180), and several GTs from other GT families that are highly abundant and specifically expressed in the mucilaginous tissue. Our current hypothesis is that the four IRX10 genes present in the mucilagenous tissues have evolved to function without the GT43 genes. These four genes represent some of the most divergent IRX10 genes identified to date. Conversely, those present in the psyllium stem are very similar to those in other eudicots. This suggests these genes are under selective pressure, likely due to the synthesis of the various xylan structures present in mucilage that has a different biochemical role than that present in secondary walls. The numerous GT61 family members also show a wide sequence diversity and may be responsible for the larger number of side chain structures present in the psyllium mucilage. PMID:23761806

  7. Interactive effects between diet and genotypes of host and pathogen define the severity of infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji; Friman, Ville-Petri; Laakso, Jouni; Mappes, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Host resistance and parasite virulence are influenced by multiple interacting factors in complex natural communities. Yet, these interactive effects are seldom studied concurrently, resulting in poor understanding of host-pathogen-environment dynamics. Here, we investigated how the level of opportunist pathogen virulence, strength of host immunity and the host condition manipulated via diet affect the survival of wood tiger moth Parasemia plantaginis (Arctidae). Larvae from “low cuticular melanin” and “high cuticular melanin” (considered as low and high pathogen resistance, respectively) selection lines were infected with moderately and highly virulent bacteria strains of Serratia marcescens, while simultaneously manipulating host diet (with or without antibacterial compounds). We measured host survival and food preference before and after infection to test whether the larvae “self-medicate” by choosing an anti-infection diet (Plantago major, i.e., plantain leaf) over lettuce (Lactuca sativa). “High melanin” larvae were more resistant than “low melanin” larvae to the less virulent strain that had slower growth and colonization rate compared with the more virulent strain. Cuticular melanin did not enhance survival when the larvae were infected with the highly virulent strain. Anti-infection diet enhanced survival of the “high melanin” but not the “low melanin” hosts. Survival was dependent on family origin even within the melanin selection lines. Despite the intrinsic preference for lettuce, no evidence of self-medication was found. These results demonstrate that the relative benefit of host cuticular melanin depends on both diet and pathogen virulence: plantain diet only boosted the immunity of already resistant “high melanin” hosts, and cuticular melanin increased host survival only when infected with moderately virulent pathogen. Moreover, there was considerable variation in host survival between families within both melanin lines

  8. Long-term deforestation in NW Spain: linking the Holocene fire history to vegetation change and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Carrión Marco, Yolanda; Asouti, Eleni; Martín Seijo, Maria; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Costa Casáis, Manuela; Criado Boado, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The Holocene fire regime is thought to have had a key role in deforestation and shrubland expansion in Galicia (NW Spain) but the contribution of past societies to vegetation burning remains poorly understood. This may be, in part, due to the fact that detailed fire records from areas in close proximity to archaeological sites are scarce. To fill this gap, we performed charcoal analysis in five colluvial soils from an archaeological area (Campo Lameiro) and compared the results to earlier studies from this area and palaeo-ecological literature from NW Spain. This analysis allowed for the reconstruction of the vegetation and fire dynamics in the area during the last ca 11 000 yrs. In the Early Holocene, Fabaceae and Betula sp. were dominant in the charcoal record. Quercus sp. started to replace these species around 10 000 cal BP, forming a deciduous forest that prevailed during the Holocene Thermal Maximum until ˜5500 cal BP. Following that, several cycles of potentially fire-induced forest regression with subsequent incomplete recovery eventually led to the formation of an open landscape dominated by shrubs (Erica sp. and Fabaceae). Major episodes of forest regression were (1) ˜5500-5000 cal BP, which marks the mid-Holocene cooling after the Holocene Thermal Maximum, but also the period during which agropastoral activities in NW Spain became widespread, and (2) ˜2000-1500 cal BP, which corresponds roughly to the end of the Roman Warm Period and the transition from the Roman to the Germanic period. The low degree of chronological precision, which is inherent in fire history reconstructions from colluvial soils, made it impossible to distinguish climatic from human-induced fires. Nonetheless, the abundance of synanthropic pollen indicators (e.g. Plantago lanceolata and Urtica dioica) since at least ˜6000 cal BP strongly suggests that humans used fire to generate and maintain pasture.

  9. 231 Pattern of Positive Sensitization in Patient with Asthma and Rhinitis to 3600 MSNM (La Paz, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    Moncada Alcon, Abel Marcelo; Rios Mora, Roxana Ivon

    2012-01-01

    Background In the high altitude exists very few studies about allergies, we seek to give to know our sensitization in population with breathing problems (asthma and Allergic Rhinitis). Methods They were carried out allergy tests to 94 patients between 6 and 13 years with breathing symptoms predominantly allergic rhinitis and asthma. They were carried out allergy tests to foods like peanut, wheat, almond, tomato, milk, fish, soya, nuts, corn egg, chocolate, dog epithelia, cat, rabbit, feathers, horse, dermatophagoides spp, blatella, periplaneta pollens: lolium, poa, cynodon, festuca, ambrosia, artemisa, plantago, chenopodium, rumex, zea mays, populus, cupressus, platanus, fraxinus, schinus, dactylis, and mushrooms like it would alternate, aspergillus and cladosporium. They took positive all hives bigger than 3 mm of diameter. Results Of the 94 patients 9 gave negative to the tests, 88 positive%. In the foods, milk prevails (lactoglobuline 39%; casein 21%), tomato 33%, fish, almond and wheat; 23% peanut and nuts less than 10%. In the epithelia: cat 20%. Dermatophagoides 46%, pollens grasses lolium 13% and poa 14%, other pollens important festuca, chenopodium and dactylis with 21 to 23%, trees less than 15% and mushrooms with less than 15%. You begin handling predominantly according to these tests to dematophagoides, poa, lolium, festuca, dactylis, mushrooms and cat epithelium since their reactions were similar to the positive challenge of histamine. It is necessary to mention that the diagnoses were alone allergic Rinitis on the whole in 60%, asthma allergic single 10% and asthma and rinitis 30%. Conclusions Although this is a closed population, it guides us that to 3600 m.s.n.m. the allergen more frequent is dermatophagoides, and many articles refers that to high altitude we are liberated of the mites but it is not this way. Another important discovery is the positive to milk, tomato and very little to other foods that it is part of our population's diet. They are

  10. Availability and temporal heterogeneity of water supply affect the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore and consequently plant growth.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Tomonori; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2014-01-01

    We examined how the volume and temporal heterogeneity of water supply changed the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore, and consequently affected plant biomass. Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) seedlings were grown at one per pot under different combinations of water volume (large or small volume) and heterogeneity (homogeneous water conditions, watered every day; heterogeneous conditions, watered every 4 days) in the presence or absence of a larva of the belowground herbivorous insect, Anomala cuprea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The larva was confined in different vertical distributions to top feeding zone (top treatment), middle feeding zone (middle treatment), or bottom feeding zone (bottom treatment); alternatively no larva was introduced (control treatment) or larval movement was not confined (free treatment). Three-way interaction between water volume, heterogeneity, and the herbivore significantly affected plant biomass. With a large water volume, plant biomass was lower in free treatment than in control treatment regardless of heterogeneity. Plant biomass in free treatment was as low as in top treatment. With a small water volume and in free treatment, plant biomass was low (similar to that under top treatment) under homogeneous water conditions but high under heterogeneous ones (similar to that under middle or bottom treatment). Therefore, there was little effect of belowground herbivory on plant growth under heterogeneous water conditions. In other watering regimes, herbivores would be distributed in the shallow soil and reduced root biomass. Herbivore mortality was high with homogeneous application of a large volume or heterogeneous application of a small water volume. Under the large water volume, plant biomass was high in pots in which the herbivore had died. Thus, the combinations of water volume and heterogeneity affected plant growth via the change of a belowground herbivore.

  11. Intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates

    PubMed Central

    Jandová, Kateřina; Dostál, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kameník, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Allelopathy may drive invasions of some exotic plants, although empirical evidence for this theory remains largely inconclusive. This could be related to the large intraspecific variability of chemically mediated plant–plant interactions, which is poorly studied. This study addressed intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed), an invasive species with a considerable negative impact on native communities and ecosystems. Methods Bioassays were carried out to test the alleopathic effects of H. mantegazzianum root exudates on germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and Plantago lanceolata. Populations of H. mantegazzianum from the Czech Republic were sampled and variation in the phytotoxic effects of the exudates was partitioned between areas, populations within areas, and maternal lines. The composition of the root exudates was determined by metabolic profiling using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the relationships between the metabolic profiles and the effects observed in the bioassays were tested using orthogonal partial least-squares analysis. Key Results Variance partitioning indicated that the highest variance in phytotoxic effects was within populations. The inhibition of germination observed in the bioassay for the co-occurring native species P. lanceolata could be predicted by the metabolic profiles of the root exudates of particular maternal lines. Fifteen compounds associated with this inhibition were tentatively identified. Conclusions The results present strong evidence that intraspecific variability needs to be considered in research on allelopathy, and suggest that metabolic profiling provides an efficient tool for studying chemically mediated plant–plant interactions whenever unknown metabolites are involved. PMID:25714817

  12. Water-extractable magnesium, manganese and copper in leaves and herbs of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Paweł; Wesołowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes.

  13. Response of endangered plant species to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zubek, Szymon; Turnau, Katarzyna; Tsimilli-Michael, Merope; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-02-01

    Three endangered plant species, Plantago atrata and Pulsatilla slavica, which are on the IUCN red list of plants, and Senecio umbrosus, which is extinct in the wild in Poland, were inoculated with soil microorganisms to evaluate their responsiveness to inoculation and to select the most effective microbial consortium for application in conservation projects. Individuals of these taxa were cultivated with (1) native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from natural habitats of the investigated species, (2) a mixture of AMF strains available in the laboratory, and (3) a combination of AMF lab strains with rhizobacteria. The plants were found to be dependent on AMF for their growth; the mycorrhizal dependency for P. atrata was 91%, S. umbrosus-95%, and P. slavica-65%. The applied inocula did not significantly differ in the stimulation of the growth of P. atrata and S. umbrosus, while in P. slavica, native AMF proved to be the less efficient. We therefore conclude that AMF application can improve the ex situ propagation of these three threatened taxa and may contribute to the success of S. umbrosus reintroduction. A multilevel analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients by the JIP test permitted an in vivo evaluation of plant vitality in terms of biophysical parameters quantifying photosynthetic energy conservation, which was found to be in good agreement with the results concerning physiological parameters. Therefore, the JIP test can be used to evaluate the influence of AMF on endangered plants, with the additional advantage of being applicable in monitoring in a noninvasive way the acclimatization of reintroduced species in nature.

  14. Septoglomus fuscum and S. furcatum, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    PubMed

    Blaszkowski, Janusz; Chwat, Gerard; Kovács, Gábor M; Gáspár, Bence K; Ryszka, Przemyslaw; Orlowska, Elzbieta; Pagano, Marcela C; Araújo, Francisca S; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François

    2013-01-01

    Two new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, (Glomeromycota) Septoglomus fuscum and S. furcatum, are described and illustrated. Spores of S. fuscum usually occur in loose hypogeous clusters, rarely singly in soil or inside roots, and S. furcatum forms only single spores in soil. Spores of S. fuscum are brownish orange to dark brown, globose to subglobose, (20-)47(-90) μm diam, rarely ovoid, 21-50 × 23-60 μm. Their spore wall consists of a semi-persistent, semi-flexible, orange white to golden yellow, rarely hyaline, outer layer, easily separating from a laminate, smooth, brownish orange to dark brown inner layer. Spores of S. furcatum are reddish brown to dark brown, globose to subglobose, (106-) 138(-167) μm diam, rarely ovoid, 108-127 × 135-160 μm, usually with one subtending hypha that is frequently branched below the spore base, or occasionally with two subtending hyphae located close together. Spore walls consists of a semipermanent, hyaline to light orange outermost layer, a semipermanent, hyaline to golden yellow middle layer, and a laminate, smooth, reddish brown to dark brown innermost layer. None of the spore-wall layers of S. fuscum and S. furcatum stain in Melzer's reagent. In the field, S. fuscum was associated with roots of Arctotheca populifolia colonizing maritime dunes located near Strand in South Africa and S. furcatum was associated with Cordia oncocalyx growing in a dry forest in the Ceará State, Brazil. In single-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as host plant, S. fuscum and S. furcatum formed arbuscular mycorrhizae. Phylogenetic analyses of the SSU, ITS and LSU nrDNA sequences placed the two new species in genus Septoglomus and both new taxa were separated from described Septoglomus species.

  15. Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and terminal MIS 3 (˜24 000-29 450 14C yr BP). Plant macrofossils include at least 60 plant taxa, including diverse graminoids ( Poa, Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides), steppe forbs ( Penstemon gormanii, Anemone patens var. multifida, Plantago cf. canescens), tundra forbs ( Draba spp., Bistorta vivipara), dwarf shrubs ( Salix cf. arctica, S. cf. polaris), sage ( Artemisia frigida) and rare trees ( Picea mariana). Many of these taxa identified in the middens represent the first recorded fossils for these plants in Eastern Beringia and add to our knowledge of the floristic composition of Pleistocene vegetation and biogeography in this region. Fossil beetles include typical members of the Eastern Beringian steppe-tundra fauna ( Lepidophorus lineaticollis and Connatichela artemisiae) and others suggesting predominantly dry, open habitats. Cache forage selection is suggested by some plant taxa which were particularly frequent and abundant in the middens ( Bistorta vivipara, Kobresia myosuroides, Ranunculus spp., Potentilla, Erysimum cf. cheiranthoides, Poa, Carex and Draba). Factors such as proximity of vegetation to burrows and abundance of fruits and seeds per plant were probably important in cache selection. Glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrels to form widespread and dense populations in regions such as the Klondike in which they are rare or absent at present. This fossil midden record supports previous hypotheses that suggest arctic ground squirrels evolved in and are well-adapted to the open, steppe

  16. Impact of temperature on the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis: growth responses of the host plant and its AM fungal partner.

    PubMed

    Heinemeyer, A; Fitter, A H

    2004-02-01

    The growth response of the hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi has been determined, both when plant and fungus together and when only the fungus was exposed to a temperature change. Two host plant species, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus, were grown separately in pots inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae at 20/18 degrees C (day/night); half of the pots were then transferred to 12/10 degrees C. Plant and fungal growth were determined at six sequential destructive harvests. A second experiment investigated the direct effect of temperature on the length of the extra-radical mycelium (ERM) of three mycorrhizal fungal species. Growth boxes were divided in two equal compartments by a 20 micro m mesh, allowing only the ERM and not roots to grow into a fungal compartment, which was either heated (+8 degrees C) or kept at ambient temperature. ERM length (LERM) was determined on five sampling dates. Growth of H. lanatus was little affected by temperature, whereas growth of P. lanceolata increased with temperature, and both specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) increased independently of plant size. Percentage of colonized root (LRC) and LERM were positively correlated with temperature when in symbiosis with P. lanceolata, but differences in LRC were a function of plant biomass. Colonization was very low in H. lanatus roots and there was no significant temperature effect. In the fungal compartment LERM increased over time and was greatest for Glomus mosseae. Heating the fungal compartment significantly increased LERM in two of the three species but did not affect LRC. However, it significantly increased SRL of roots in the plant compartment, suggesting that the fungus plays a regulatory role in the growth dynamics of the symbiosis. These temperature responses have implications for modelling carbon dynamics under global climate change.

  17. Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Mäder, Paul; Dubois, David; Ineichen, Kurt; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

    2004-03-01

    Previous work has shown considerably enhanced soil fertility in agroecosystems managed by organic farming as compared to conventional farming. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in nutrient acquisition and soil fertility. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of AMF in the context of a long-term study in which replicated field plots, at a single site in Central Europe, had been cultivated for 22 years according to two "organic" and two "conventional" farming systems. In the 23rd year, the field plots, carrying an 18-month-old grass-clover stand, were examined in two ways with respect to AMF diversity. Firstly, AMF spores were isolated and morphologically identified from soil samples. The study revealed that the AMF spore abundance and species diversity was significantly higher in the organic than in the conventional systems. Furthermore, the AMF community differed in the conventional and organic systems: Glomus species were similarly abundant in all systems but spores of Acaulospora and Scutellospora species were more abundant in the organic systems. Secondly, the soils were used to establish AMF-trap cultures using a consortium of Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne as host plants. The AMF spore community developing in the trap cultures differed: after 12 months, two species of the Acaulosporaceae (A. paulinae and A. longula) were consistently found to account for a large part of the spore community in the trap cultures from the organic systems but were found rarely in the ones from the conventional systems. The findings show that some AMF species present in natural ecosystems are maintained under organic farming but severely depressed under conventional farming, indicating a potentially severe loss of ecosystem function under conventional farming.

  18. Safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation for the management of dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zarvandi, Mahdi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Abazari, Mohammad; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-02-16

    The present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) consisted of Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, Plantago psyllium, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum for controlling dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes. An open-label phase I trial was carried out on 30 patients who had hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia before the beginning of the trial in spite of receiving statins and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Patients were given one PHF sachet two times daily for 40 consecutive days. All subjects also continuously received their statins and oral hypoglycemic agents. Clinical assessments and laboratory findings were evaluated before starting treatment and at day 40. Treatment with PHF had no significant effects on serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney functions, on hematological parameters related to erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and on body weight and blood pressure. After consumption of PHF, 2 patients complained of mild nausea, and 2 patients reported diarrhea. PHF significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and HbA1c from 162±40mg/dL to 146±37mg/dL and from 8.4±1.5% to 7.7±1.1%, respectively. Also, it significantly decreased the level of LDL from 138±25mg/dL to 108±36mg/dL, and the level of triglycerides from 203±47mg/dL to 166±58mg/dL. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that the PHF was safe and efficacious in lowering the levels of blood glucose and serum lipids in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes.

  19. Impact of Leaf Traits on Temporal Dynamics of Transpired Oxygen Isotope Signatures and Its Impact on Atmospheric Vapor

    PubMed Central

    Dubbert, Maren; Kübert, Angelika; Werner, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen isotope signatures of transpiration (δE) are powerful tracers of water movement from plant to global scale. However, a mechanistic understanding of how leaf morphological/physiological traits effect δE is missing. A laser spectrometer was coupled to a leaf-level gas-exchange system to measure fluxes and isotopic signatures of plant transpiration under controlled conditions in seven distinct species (Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris, Acacia longifolia, Quercus suber, Coffea arabica, Plantago lanceolata, Oxalis triangularis). We analyzed the role of stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water content (W) on the temporal dynamics of δE following changes in relative humidity (rH). Changes in rH were applied from 60 to 30% and from 30 to 60%, which is probably more than covering the maximum step changes occurring under natural conditions. Further, the impact of gs and W on isotopic non-steady state isofluxes was analyzed. Following changes in rH, temporal development of δE was well described by a one-pool modeling approach for most species. Isofluxes of δE were dominantly driven by stomatal control on E, particularly for the initial period of 30 min following a step change. Hence, the deviation of isofluxes from isotopic steady state can be large, even though plants transpire near to isotopic steady state. Notably, not only transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but also the leaf traits stomatal density (as a measure of gmax) and leaf water content are significantly related to the time constant (τ) and non-steady-state isofluxes. This might provide an easy-to-access means of a priori assumptions for the impact of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration in various ecosystems. We discuss the implications of our results from leaf to ecosystem scale. PMID:28149303

  20. Arctic arbuscular mycorrhizal spore community and viability after storage in cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Varga, Sandra; Finozzi, Chiara; Vestberg, Mauritz; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form probably the most widespread symbiosis on earth and are found across all ecosystems including the Arctic regions. In the Arctic, the prevalent harsh cold conditions experienced by both host plants and fungi may have selected for AMF species with long-surviving spores, the principal means for dispersal and survival. However, basic knowledge about their viability is lacking. AMF spore assembly from two Arctic sites was examined in soil samples collected across an 11-year period and stored at -20 °C for up to 10 years. AMF spore viability and ability to colonize plants were investigated in the greenhouse using Plantago lanceolata. It was predicted that Arctic AMF spores would survive in cold conditions for several years, with an expected decrease in viability over time as suggested by other experiments with temperate material. Results show that even though the two study sites differed in AMF spore density, the relative abundance of spore morphotypes was rather similar across sites and years. Furthermore, spore viability over time was site-dependent as it decreased only in one site. Although spores were viable, only a very small proportion of hosts and roots became colonized in the greenhouse even 21 months after inoculation. Taken together, these results suggest a certain site-dependent variability in AMF spore communities and the ability of Arctic AMF spores to remain viable after a long-term storage in cold conditions. The lack of host colonization in the greenhouse may be related to the inability to overcome spore dormancy under these conditions.

  1. Responses of serpentine plants to pine invasion: Vegetation diversity and nickel accumulation in species with contrasting adaptive strategies.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Federico; Carrari, Elisa; Colzi, Ilaria; Coppi, Andrea; Gonnelli, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Introduction of non-native trees is one of the major threats to ecosystem integrity and biodiversity. Stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) introduced decades ago represent a threat to the specialized plant communities of serpentine outcrops in Italy. This study investigates the effects of such invasions at the community and species level, based on vegetation sampling in three selected sites with comparable environmental conditions. Pine cover caused a decrease of α-diversity by lowering the species evenness of the community, though species richness was not negatively affected. Compositional changes between the two habitats were significant but not clearly associated with a decrease in taxonomic distinctness in the pine stands. As many as nine indicator species were found in the open vegetation, along with the obligate endemics Odontarrhena bertolonii and Armeria denticulata. Both of them declined in the pine stands. Here, an increase in the phytoavailable nickel fraction was associated with a decrease in total nickel concentration in the soil, via mobilization of the metal caused by lowering of pH induced by the conifer litter. The nickel-hyperaccumulator O. bertolonii was able to maintain high metal concentrations in the shoots despite a decrease in root concentration, resulting in a higher shoot/root ratio in the pine stands (~20). Conversely, shoot/root ratio in the non-accumulator Plantago holosteum was <1 and not affected by the conifer, as well as its abundance in this anthropogenic habitat. Contrasting responses of the two species were likely due to their different sensitivity to modified light and soil conditions, whereas stability of shoot nickel-concentration in O. bertolonii did not support increased predation by natural enemies as one of the causes for its decline under the conifer. Progressive thinning of these stands is advocated to limit soil nickel mobilization and to restore a unique ecosystem with its endemic metallophytes.

  2. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K+/Na+ ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na+, Cl−, K+ and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However—except for P. crassifolia—proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its ‘osmoprotectant’ functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  3. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-08-19

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  4. The accumulation of elements in plants growing spontaneously on small heaps left by the historical Zn-Pb ore mining.

    PubMed

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the levels of nine metals, namely Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, Tl, and Zn, in soils and tissues of ten plant species growing spontaneously on heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn in heap soils were much higher than in control soils. Plants growing on heaps accumulated excessive amounts of these elements in tissues, on average 1.3-52 mg Cd kg(-1), 9.4-254 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.06-23 mg Tl kg(-1) and 134-1479 mg Zn kg(-1) in comparison to 0.5-1.1 mg Cd kg(-1), 2.1-11 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.02-0.06 mg Tl kg(-1), and 23-124 mg Zn kg(-1) in control plants. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in the roots of Euphorbia cyparissias, Fragaria vesca, and Potentilla arenaria, and Tl in Plantago lanceolata. Many species growing on heaps were enriched in K and Mg, and depleted in Ca, Fe, and Mn. The concentrations of all elements in plant tissues were dependent on species, organ (root vs. shoot), and species-organ interactions. Average concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were generally higher in shoots than in roots or similar in the two organs, whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn were accumulated predominantly in the roots. Our results imply that heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores may pose a potential threat to the environment and human health.

  5. The effects of ispaghula on rat caecal fermentation and stool output.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C A; Bowen, J; Brydon, W G; Eastwood, M A

    1992-09-01

    The colonic fermentation of ispaghula, a mucilage from Plantago ovata composed mainly of arabinoxylans, and its effects on stool output and caecal metabolism were investigated. Four groups of eight rats were fed on a basal diet (45 g non-starch polysaccharides/kg) for 28 d. The diet was then supplemented with ispaghula (g/kg; 0, 5, 15 or 50) for 28 d. Ispaghula increased stool dry weight and apparent wet weight but faecal water-holding capacity (amount of water held per g dry faecal material at 0.2 mPa) was unchanged. The extent of faecal drying in the metabolism cages was measured for rats fed on the basal diet and 50 g ispaghula/kg diet. At the faecal output levels encountered, only an 8% loss of wet weight would be predicted over 24 h and this was independent of diet. Faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration did not change but SCFA output increased. The molar proportion of SCFA as propionic acid increased and faecal pH was reduced. Values from pooled faecal samples suggested that approximately 50% of the ingested ispaghula was excreted by the 50 g ispaghula/kg diet group. Diaminopimelic acid (a constituent of bacterial cells) concentrations fell but output was unchanged indicating no change in bacterial mass. Similar changes were seen in the caecal contents but caecal pH and SCFA were unaffected. Ispaghula increased both caecal and colonic tissue wet weight and colonic length. Our results suggest that ispaghula is partly fermented in the rat caecum and colon, and loses its water-holding capacity. However, it is still an effective stool bulker and acts mainly by increasing faecal water by some unknown mechanism.

  6. Enhancing agents for phytoremediation of soil contaminated by cyanophos.

    PubMed

    Ali Romeh, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Cyanophos is commonly used in Egypt to control various agricultural and horticultural pests. It is a strong contaminant in the crop culturing environments because it is highly persistent and accumulates in the soil. This contaminant can be removed by phytoremediation, which is the use of plants to clean-up pollutants. Here we tested several several strategies to improve the effectiveness of this technology, which involved various techniques to solubilize contaminants. The phytoremediation efficiency of Plantago major L. was improved more by liquid silicon dioxide (SiO₂) than by other solubility-enhancing agents, resulting in the removal of significant amounts of cyanophos from contaminated soil. Liquid SiO₂ increased the capacity of P. major L. to remove cyanophos from soil by 45.9% to 74.05%. In P. major L. with liquid SiO₂, leaves extracted more cyanophos (32.99 µg/g) than roots (13.33 µg/g) over 3 days. The use of solubilization agents such as surfactants, hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD), natural humic acid acid (HA), and Tween 80 resulted in the removal of 60 convergents of cyanophos from polluted soil. Although a batch equilibrium technique showed that use of HPßCD resulted in the efficient removal of cyanophos from soil, a greater amount of cyanophos was removed by P. major L. with SiO₂. Moreover, a large amount of cyanophos was removed from soil by rice bran. This study indicates that SiO₂ can improve the efficiency of phytoremediation of cyanophos.

  7. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of

  8. Environmental History on a Central Mediterranean Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambin, Belinda; Medail, Frederic; Andrieu-Ponel, Valerie; Djamali, Morteza; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Gambin, Timmy

    2013-04-01

    Through the PaleoMed project a number of cores have been taken from key locations on the Maltese Islands with the aim of establishing various aspects related to the archipelago's historical environment. A multi-disciplinary team have been investigating a number of bodies of evidence including sediments, charcoal and shells. Through this poster I will present the results from pollen samples extracted from a section of one of the cores. The core, taken from Burmarrad, has a section that has been carbon dated to 7200-3200BP. Preliminary results from this site, one of the largest flood plains on Malta, will provide an indication of the local vegetation during this chronological window. Pollen was extracted from sediment deposits following the classical treatment method (eg Moore et al., 1990). Furthermore, identification was undertaken through the use of pollen atlases of Europe and North Africa (Reille, 1992, 1995, 1998) and Beug (2004) along with IMBE's international pollen reference collection. Pollen percentages were calculated in TILIA and the pollen percentage diagram constructed using TGView software (Grimm 2004, 2005). Current results indicate that prior to 7000BP there was a high percentage of aquatic plants, while tree and shrub counts were low. At 6900BP a large increase in Pistacia pollen is recorded, with moderate increase in Plantago (especially lanceolata), Asphodelus, Dinaflagelates and Mirco Foraminifera. At this time there is also a reduction in Cichorioideae & Charcoal in the section. A similar increase in Pistacia at around this time has also been recorded from another core in Burmarrad (Djamali et al., 2012) and in southern Sicily (Tinner et al., 2009). The date of this increase corresponds to the first recorded settlement on the Maltese Islands (circa 5500BC) as well as the climatic optimum of forest cover in the Mediterranean region (Noti et al., 2009).

  9. Ni speciation in tea infusions by monolithic chromatography--ICP-MS and Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ščančar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Žigon, Dušan; Milačič, Radmila

    2013-02-01

    For humans, Ni is not considered to be an essential trace element. Its compounds, at levels present in foodstuffs and drinks, are generally considered to be safe for consumption, but for individuals who already suffer from contact allergy to Ni and may be subject to develop systemic reactions from its dietary ingestion, dietary exposure to Ni must be kept under control. Being the second most popular beverage, tea is a potential source of dietary Ni. Present knowledge on its speciation in tea infusions is poor. Therefore, complete speciation analysis, consisting of separation by liquid chromatography using a weak CIM DEAE-1 monolithic column, "on-line" detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and "off-line" identification of ligands by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS), was implemented for the first time to study Ni speciation in tea infusions. Total concentrations of Ni in dry leaves of white, green, oolong and black tea (Camellia sinensis) and flowers of herbal chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa) tea were determined after microwave digestion by ICP-MS. They lay between 1.21 and 14.4 mg kg(-1). Good agreement between the determined and the certified values of the Ni content in the standard reference material SRM 1573a tomato leaves confirmed the accuracy of the total Ni determination. During the infusion process, up to 85 % of Ni was extracted from tea leaves or flowers. Separation of Ni species was completed in 10 min by applying aqueous linear gradient elution with 0.6 mol L(-1) NH(4)NO(3). Ni was found to be present in the chromatographic fraction in which quinic acid was identified by Q-TOF in all the tea infusions analysed, which had pH values between 5.6 and 6.0. The only exception was the infusion of hibiscus tea with a pH of 2.7, where results of speciation analysis showed that Ni is present in its divalent ionic form.

  10. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

    2010-10-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon

  11. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  12. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Donders, Timme H; Hagemans, Kimberley; Dekker, Stefan C; de Weger, Letty A; de Klerk, Pim; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values), and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1), as well as in the growing season (T), are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001]) in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001). The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural archives reflect

  13. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    . Accumulations of the Chenopodiaceae in the interfluve areas probably indicate local saline swampy environments during sea level fall. The increasing amounts of herbs indicate the existence of wet prairie areas (Thalictrum, Rumex, Valeriana, Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, Galium) or steppes (Artemisia - up to 17%, Asteraceae, Campanula, Fabaceae, Daucaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Plantago). This is the contribution to the projects ESF -EC-009-07, APVT 51-011305, APVV-0280-07 (Slovakia) and MSM0021622427 (Czech republic).

  14. In vitro Screening and Evaluation of 37 Traditional Chinese Medicines for Their Potential to Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Die; Zhang, Yonglan; Yang, Fengqing; Lin, Yexin; Zhang, Qihui; Xia, Zhining

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ is widely used as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones, the agonists of PPARγ, has been popularly utilized as insulin sensitizers in the therapy of type 2 diabetes whereas numerous severe side-effects may also occur concomitantly. Objective: The PPARγ activation activity of different polar extracts, including petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, residual of ethanol, the precipitate part of water and the supernatant of water extracts, from 37 traditional Chinese medicines were systematically evaluated. Materials and Methods: HeLa cells were transiently co-transfected with the re-constructed plasmids of GAL4-PPARγ-ligand binding domain and pGL4.35. The activation of PPARγ by different polarity extracts were evaluated based on the PPARγ transactivation assay and rosiglitazone was used as positive control. Results: Seven medicines (root bark of Lycium barbarum, Anoectochilus sroxburghii, the rhizome of Phragmites australis, Pterocephalus hookeri, Polygonatum sibiricum, fruit of Gleditsia sinensis, and Epimedium brevicornu) were able to significantly activate PPARγ. Conclusion: As seven medicines were able to activate PPARγ, the anti-diabetic activity of them is likely to be mediated by this nuclear receptor. SUMMARY Lots of the tested medicinal products had activation effects on activating PPARγEthyl acetate extracts of root bark of L.barbarum, rhizome of P.saustralis and fruit of G.siasinensis showed good PPARγ activation effect similar or higher than that of positive control, 0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazonePetroleum ether extracts of A.roxburghii, P. hookeri, P. sibiricum, E.brevicornu also can significantly activate PPARγ, the effects of them were higher than t0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazoneSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., the fruit Cornus officinalis Siebold and Zucc., Alisma plantago-aquatica L. and the root of Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maxim

  15. [A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert].

    PubMed

    Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    Weberbauerella brongniartioides are the characteristic species of Nolanion spathulatae alliance. The Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis order presents characteristic plants don't linked with eutrophic soils, as Calandrinia alba, Cryptantha limensis, Dyschoriste repens, Monnina macrostachya, Oxalis lomana, Palaua malvifolia, Pectocarya lateriflora, Plantago limensis or Tetragonia crystallina, with a distribution that claps the geographical area of the new alliances. On the other hand, the vegetation of the desert ravines is discussed in the context of the coastal river plant communities and its disturbance by the dunes. After the application of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index on the synthetic table columns, we can deduce that an increase in Andean and European ruderal species is linked to an intensive livestock activity. The transhumance between the Andes and the coast from pre-Inca times until now, produces the plant dispersion of high Andean plants toward the coast; the Spanish colonization was the origin of the presence of European plants in the "lomas" vegetation of Peru.

  16. The first report of Pb and Zn accumulation in some native plants from the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sánchez, Isidoro; Barceló, Juan; Roca, Núria; Boluda, Rafael; Roca-Pérez, Luís.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Until recent decades little has been known about the remediation of mining sites using metalophytes in Latin America. Metal mining has helped to create severe and diverse environmental problems. The present study proposed to identify and characterize spontaneously growing heavy metal tolerant plant species in the area around the polimetalic mine in Hualgayoc (Cajamarca, Peru). These species are potentially useful for phytorremediation. Plant and soils from their rhizosphere were sampled and analized for concentration of As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. Translocation Factor (TF) defined the metals concentrations ratio between shoots and root biomass and Shoot Accumulation Factor (SAF) the metal concentration ratio between shoot and soil concentration were determined and used to measure the effectiveness of a plant in concentrating metals into its biomass. The soils were neutral pH (7,4±0,5) with variable content of organic carbon (2,4±1,1) and loam texture: sand (42,9±10,8) and clay (16,7±4,6). According to the total metals, all samples exceeded toxicity thresholds, high Pb (20016 ± 32559 mg•kg-1) and Zn (22512 ± 13056 mg•kg-1) concentrations were detected. High shoot Pb and Zn concentrations were found in Plantaginaceae Plantago orbignyana (6998 and 9617 μg/g); Brassicaceae Lepidium bipinnatifidum (6886 and 5034 mg•kg-1) and Asteraceae Senecio sp (4253 and 3870 mg•kg-1) and Baccharis latifolia (2554 and 1284 mg•kg-1 respectively). The high values of TFs indicates that the plants effectively traslocated metales. Lepidium bipinnatifidum shows the highest TFs values (143 in Pb and 21,5 in Zn). The SAF values were much lower than those reported for other species such as Paspalum sp in the Peruvian copper mine, which may be due to a high top soil Pb and Zn concentrations. These species can surely be considered as interesting for phytoextraction, due not only to its accumulative capacity but also since they showed an elevated transfer factor and grew in the

  17. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed Central

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  18. Region-Specific Sensitivity of Anemophilous Pollen Deposition to Temperature and Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Donders, Timme H.; Hagemans, Kimberley; Dekker, Stefan C.; de Weger, Letty A.; de Klerk, Pim; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values), and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1), as well as in the growing season (T), are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001]) in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001). The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural archives reflect

  19. Herbal preparation extract for skin after radiotherapy treatment. Part One--Preclinical tests.

    PubMed

    Skalska-Kamińska, Agnieszka; Woźniak, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Kocjan, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Naran R is a herbal composition made of Plantago lanceolate folium, Malvae arboreae flos, Calendulae flos, Chamomillae inflorescentia, Lamii albi flos to prepare compresses or to wash skin with inflammations. The extract of this preparation is mixed to be applied as an ointment on patients' skin after radiotherapy. Experiments performed in vitro are part of pre-clinical tests with Naran R ointment. This study examined the impact of the plant composition for ethanol-water extract on human skin fibroblasts (HSF) culture. Samples of extract, prepared from patented amounts of herbs, were in the range of 25-225 μg/mL. Six methods were applied: standard spectrophotometric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) uptake assay, DPPH free radical scavenging test, labeling of cytoskeleton F-actin, staining of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and trypan blue coloration. The extract concentration 75 μg/mL was established as safe for application on human skin. In labeling of F-actin with rhodamine-phalloidin dye at this concentration the cytoskeleton was stable. The extract did not influence the membrane stability and had positive influence on the proliferation activity. It was confirmed in AgNOR test during incubation with extract, which led to formation of larger amount of smaller nucleolins. In DPPH scavenging activity test, the extract revealed over 8% higher free-radical scavenging activity in comparison to control. After trypan blue staining, the extract in concentration 125 μg/mL significantly lowered the cell viability. When the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity of the extracts were analyzed, MTT and Neutral Red (NR) methods were used. The cells' viability was maintained on a constant level (80-110%) after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. During all time of NR test (72 h) and even when 225 μg/mL of extract was applied, the viability of cells was in range 80-110% of control. Positive influence

  20. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    .1 in transect 1, followed by Plantago ovata.

  1. Diversity and infectivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural soils of the Sichuan Province of mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan Yuan; Vestberg, Mauritz; Walker, Christopher; Hurme, Timo; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lindström, Kristina

    2008-02-01

    Knowledge about the presence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a specific area is an essential first step for utilizing these fungi in any application. The community composition of AMF in intensively managed agricultural soil in the Sichuan Province of southwest China currently is unknown. In one set of samples, AMF were trapped in pot cultures from 40 fields growing legumes in the Panxi region, southeast Sichuan. In a second set of samples, the MPN method with four-fold dilutions and maize as host was used to estimate infective propagules in soil from another 50 agricultural sites throughout the province. Soil types were heterogeneous and were classified as purple, yellow, paddy and red. Crops at each site were either maize, wheat or sweet orange. From this set of soil, AMF spores were also extracted and identified. Including all ninety soils, thirty glomeromycotan species in Glomus (20 species), Acaulospora (four species), Scutellospora (three species), Ambispora (one species), Archaeospora (one species) and Paraglomus (one species) were identified. Yellow, red and purple soils yielded similar numbers of AMF species, while AMF species diversity was clearly lower in paddy soil. In trap culture soils, the most frequent species were Glomus aggregatum or Glomus intraradices, Glomus claroideum and Glomus etunicatum. The species Acaulospora capsicula, Acaulospora delicata, G. aggregatum (or intraradices), G. claroideum, Glomus epigaeum, G. etunicatum, Glomus luteum, Glomus monosporum, Glomus mosseae and Glomus proliferum were successfully cultured as single-species pot cultures in Plantago lanceolata. The three most frequent species in field soils were G. mosseae, Glomus caledonium and Glomus constrictum. MPN values varied between 17 and 3334 propagules 100 g soil(-1) among the fifty field sites sampled. Regression analysis, including host&soil, log(P) and pH as explanatory variables explained 59% of the variation in log(MPN). The highest MPN

  2. Chemical composition of halophytes from the Neusiedler Lake region in Austria.

    PubMed

    Albert, R; Popp, Marianne

    1977-06-01

    The ionic relations in halophytes from the region east of Neusiedler Lake in Austria have been investigated. The study encompasses the following compounds: Na, K, Mg, Ca; Cl, SO4, phosphate, nitrate, and organic acids.The ionic composition varies substantially among the species investigated. Frequently a specific pattern of ion content can be found within a specific taxon. a) Dicotyledons: Extraordinary accumulation of sodium, high intake of inorganic ions (mainly Cl, less SO4), and regular occurrence of free oxalate, causing low Ca-concentrations, are typical for Chenopodiaceae and Caryophyllaceae (Spergularia media). Lepidium crassifolium shows similar sodium preponderance accompanied by high levels of SO4, Cl, and organic anions other than oxalate (mainly citrate and malate). The remaining dicotyledons show rather moderate salt content; Asteraceae and Cichoriaceae prefer Cl, and Plantago maritima accumulates high amounts of SO4 as well as Cl. Malate and citrate are, without exception, the main organic anions. The K:Na ratios in dicotyledons (esp. Chenopodiaceae and Lepidium-Brassicaceae) lie far below unity. b) Monocotyledons: In marked contrast, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Juncaceae are characterized by a general low salt status. With few exceptions, Cl is stored as the main inorganic anion, phosphate reaches higher levels than in dicotyledons and in many cases lies in nearly the same concentration range as SO4. The pattern of organic anions with malate and citrate as the main acids, does not basically differ from nonhalophilous species. In any case, K:Na ratio exceeds unity. Triglochin maritimum is the only monocotyle species exhibiting as high salt content and low K:Na ratios as dicotyledons. Nitrate and phosphate are of minor quantitative importance with regard to their osmotic efficiency; their mEq percentage of the total anion concentration range between 0.03 to 2.6 (NO3) and 0.5 to 13.6 (phosphate), respectively.The results are discussed from different

  3. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  4. Experimental and natural weed host-virus relations.

    PubMed

    Kazinczi, G; Horváth, J; Takács, A P; Gáborjányi, R; Béres, I

    2004-01-01

    Weeds, as alternative hosts of plant viruses and nutrient plants of virus vectors play important role in virus ecology and epidemiology. The aim of our study was to discover new weed-virus relations. Therefore some weed species were mechanically inoculated with 28 viruses (strains or isolates) maintained in our glasshouse. Different weed species with and without visible symptoms were collected from agro-, water ecosystems and wastelands of Hungary between 1997 and 2003. Virus infections were evaluated by biotests, DAS ELISA serological methods, electronmicroscopy and immunosorbent electronmicroscopy (ISEM). Under glasshouse conditions Ambrosia artemisifolia was considered as a virophob species, showing resistance to all viruses listed above. A series of new artificial (Chenopodium album--SoMV (LH+SH)*, AMV (LH+SH); C. berlandieri--PVY(NTN) (LH), AMV (LH+SH), CMV (LH), SoMV (LH+SH), ObPV (LH+SH), ZYMV-10 (LH): C. ugandae--ObPV (LH), SoMV (L); C. glaucum--ObPV (LH), SoMV (L); Echinocystis lobata--PVX (L), ZYMV (LH+SH); Solanum nigrum--MYFV (LH+SH), PVY(N) (L), PVY(NTN) (LH+SH), SoMV (LH), TMV (SH), CMV (SH); S. dulcamara--CMV-U/246 (SH), PVY(NTN) (LH), SoMV-H (L), TMV-O (L); S. luteum--PVY(N) (SH), PVY(NTN) (LH+L), TMV(SH).) and natural (Asclepias syriaca--TMV, AMV, TSWV; Alisma plantago-aquatica--PVY, SoMV; Ambrosia artemisiifolia--CMV; Chenopodium album--CMV, PVS, PLRV; C. hybridum--CMV; Cirsium canum--CMV, PVM; Carex vulpina--CMV; Comium maculatum--PVY; Datura stramonium--PVA, PVX, PVS, PVM, CMV, TMV; Lysimachia vulgaris--ArMV, BNYVV, CMV, TMV; Lythrum salicaria--ArMV; Malva neglecta--CMV; Mercurialis annua--SoMV; Solanum nigrum--CMV, PVY, PVY(N); Solidago gigantea--CMV, RpRSV, BNYVV; Stenactis annua--PVM, PVA) weed--virus relations were detected. The epidemiological role of perennial hosts (A. syriaca, A. planlago aquatica, C. canurm, L. vulgaris, L. salicaria, S. gigantea) is especially high, because they can serve as infection sources as well as overwintering

  5. Sensitization to Indigenous Pollen and Molds and Other Outdoor and Indoor Allergens in Allergic Patients From Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne allergens vary from one climatic region to another. Therefore, it is important to analyze the environment of the region to select the most prevalent allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive skin tests to pollen and fungal allergens collected from local indigenous plants or isolated molds, as well as other outdoor and indoor allergens in allergic patients in 6 different geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan. Materials and methods Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients evaluated at different Allergy Clinics (276 women and 256 men; mean age, 30 years) participated in this study. The selection of indigenous allergens was based on research findings in different areas from Riyadh and adjoining areas. Indigenous raw material for pollen grains was collected from the desert near the capital city of Riyadh, KSA. The following plants were included: Chenopodium murale, Salsola imbricata, Rumex vesicarius, Ricinus communis, Artiplex nummularia, Amaranthus viridis, Artemisia monosperma, Plantago boissieri, and Prosopis juliflora. Indigenous molds were isolated from air sampling in Riyadh and grown to obtain the raw material. These included the following: Ulocladium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. The raw material was processed under Good Manufacturing Practices for skin testing. Other commercially available outdoor (grass and tree pollens) and indoor (mites, cockroach, and cat dander) allergens were also tested. Results The highest sensitization to indigenous pollens was detected to C. murale (32%) in Khartoum (Sudan) and S. imbricata (30%) and P. juliflora (24%) in the Riyadh region. The highest sensitization to molds was detected in Khartoum, especially to Cladosporium spp. (42%), Aspergillus (40%), and Alternaria spp. (38%). Sensitization to mites was also very prevalent

  6. Establishment of three permanent cover crop seed mixtures in Hungarian vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglécz, Tamas; Valkó, Orsolya; Donkó, Ádám; Deák, Balázs; Török, Péter; Kelemen, András; Drexler, Dóra; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2015-04-01

    In organic vineyard farming sowing high diversity cover crop seed mixtures offers a great opportunity to overcome high-priority problems mitigating vineyard cultivation, such as gain erosion control, save soil fertility, improve soil microbial activity and control weeds. Furthermore, we can also improve the biodiversity and ecosystem services of vineyards. Mainly non-native or low diversity seed mixtures are used for cover cropping containing some grass, grain or Fabaceae species. We studied vegetation development after sowing native high-diversity seed mixtures in four vineyards in an on farm field trial. We compared the effects of 4 treatments: (i) Biocont-Ecowin mixture (12 species), (ii) Fabaceae mixture (9 species), (iii) Grass-forb mixture (16 species) and control (no seed sowing). Study sites were located in Tokaj wine region, East Hungary. Seed mixtures were sown in March, 2012. After sowing, we recorded the percentage cover of vascular plant species in the end of June 2012, 2013 and 2014 in altogether 80 permanent plots. In the first year the establishment and weed control of Biocont-Ecowin and Legume seed mixture was the best. For the second year in inter-rows sown with Grass-herb and Legume seed mixtures we detected decreasing weed cover scores, while in inter-rows sown with Biocont-Ecowin seed mixture and in control inter-rows we detected higher weed cover scores. In the third year we still detected lower weed cover scores in inter-rows sown with Grass-forb and Legume seed mixtures, however on several sites we also detected decreasing cover of sown species. All sown species were detected in our plots during the time of the study, however some species were present only with low cover scores or only in a few plots. Out of the sown species Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium repens, T. pratense and Coronilla varia established the most successfully, and had high cover scores on most sites even in the second and third year

  7. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  8. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion

  9. Sulphur cycling between terrestrial agroecosystem and atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zgorelec, Zeljka; Pehnec, Gordana; Bašić, Ferdo; Kisić, Ivica; Mesić, Milan; Zužul, Silva; Jurišić, Aleksandra; Sestak, Ivana; Vađić, Vladimira; Cačković, Mirjana

    2012-09-01

    Central gas station of the natural gas borehole system Podravina is located near the village Molve. It delivers more than a quarter of total energy used in Croatia to its consumers. Over the years, adapting technology to increasingly demanding and rigorous standards in environmental protection has become paramount. Yet, despite all the industry has undertaken to address the risk of harmful substances entering the food chain, a multidisciplinary research team of independent scientists monitors the content of specific substances in all components of the ecosystem. This paper presents measurements of total sulphur contents in soil surface [(0 to 3) cm] and subsurface [(3 to 8) cm] layers (study period: autumn 2006 - spring 2010) and in plants (study period: spring 2000 - spring 2010), and the concentration of gaseous sulphur compounds in the air. Concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and mercaptans (RSH) were measured from the summer of 2002 until the autumn of 2010, while concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) were measured from the spring of 2008 until the autumn of 2010. The paper also shows total annual atmospheric sulphur (S-SO4) deposition at Bilogora measuring station (study period: 2001 - 2010). Average monthly concentrations of H2S in air varied between 0.2 μg m-3 and 2.0 μg m-3, RSH between 0.1 μg m-3 and 24.5 μg m-3, and SO2 between 0.4 μg m-3 and 2.8 μg m-3 depending on the location and the season of sampling. Mean values of total sulphur in soil and in Plantago lanceolata plant ranged between 610 mg kg-1 and 1,599 mg kg-1 and between 3,614 mg kg-1 and 4,342 mg kg-1, respectively, depending on the soil type, location, and sampling depth. Average values of total sulphur mass ratio for all examined single soil samples (n=80) were 1,080 mg kg-1 for both studied layers, and 4,108 mg kg-1 for all analysed plant samples (n=85). Average total annual atmospheric sulphur deposition at Bilogora measuring station was 6.3 kg of S-SO4 per hectare.

  10. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp

  11. Comparison of species-rich cover crop mixtures in Hungarian vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkó, Adam; Miglécz, Tamas; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Peter; Deák, Balazs; Kelemen, Andras; Zanathy, Gabor; Drexler, Dora

    2014-05-01

    , Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens and Vicia sativa. We found that weed cover was lower in every treatment compared to the unsown control plots, thus, cover crops suppressed weeds of the inter-rows effectively. Most examined indices of grapevines were not significantly affected by the applied cover crop. However, the tendency of the results shows that in the drier climate of Hungary every second inter-row sowing is more preferable than consecutive cover-crop application, where erosion control is not essential. The opinion of the growers about the mixtures varied. The Biocont-Ecovin mixture was praised for its early aesthetic qualities, produced by Camelina sativa, Phacelia tanacetifolia and Sinapis alba. However, it was criticized for its non-native species, the foreign provenance of some seeds, and the height of the vegetation. The other two mixtures did not produce a spectacular flowering, but developed a lower canopy, and were praised for their native species content. Due to spring sowing the grass-herb mixture, containing a number of species with autumn germination, produced the lowest coverage among the tested mixtures in the first year. However, as predicted, it performed satisfactorily in the second year of the trial. The interest of the vine-growers underlines the importance of the topic for the Central-Eastern European region, thus further examination will be continued in 2014.

  12. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also