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Sample records for matrix factorisation models

  1. Bayesian Inference for Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation Models

    PubMed Central

    Cemgil, Ali Taylan

    2009-01-01

    We describe nonnegative matrix factorisation (NMF) with a Kullback-Leibler (KL) error measure in a statistical framework, with a hierarchical generative model consisting of an observation and a prior component. Omitting the prior leads to the standard KL-NMF algorithms as special cases, where maximum likelihood parameter estimation is carried out via the Expectation-Maximisation (EM) algorithm. Starting from this view, we develop full Bayesian inference via variational Bayes or Monte Carlo. Our construction retains conjugacy and enables us to develop more powerful models while retaining attractive features of standard NMF such as monotonic convergence and easy implementation. We illustrate our approach on model order selection and image reconstruction. PMID:19536273

  2. Algorithmic deformation of matrix factorisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carqueville, Nils; Dowdy, Laura; Recknagel, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Branes and defects in topological Landau-Ginzburg models are described by matrix factorisations. We revisit the problem of deforming them and discuss various deformation methods as well as their relations. We have implemented these algorithms and apply them to several examples. Apart from explicit results in concrete cases, this leads to a novel way to generate new matrix factorisations via nilpotent substitutions, and to criteria whether boundary obstructions can be lifted by bulk deformations.

  3. An integrated PM2.5 source apportionment study: Positive Matrix Factorisation vs. the chemical transport model CAMx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, M. C.; Brotto, P.; Cassola, F.; Cuccia, E.; Massabò, D.; Mazzino, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Prati, P.

    2014-09-01

    Receptor and Chemical Transport Models are commonly used tools in source apportionment studies, even if different expertise is required. We describe an experiment using both approaches to apportion the PM2.5 (i.e., particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm) sources in the city of Genoa (Italy). A sampling campaign was carried out to collect PM2.5 samples daily for approximately six month during 2011 in three sites. The subsequent compositional analyses included the speciation of elements, major ions and both organic and elemental carbon; these data produced a large database for receptor modelling through Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF). In the same period, a meteorological and air quality modelling system was implemented based on the mesoscale numerical weather prediction model WRF and the chemical transport model CAMx to obtain meteorological and pollutant concentrations up to a resolution of 1.1 km. The source apportionment was evaluated by CAMx over the same period that was used for the monitoring campaign using the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology tool. Even if the source categorisations were changed (i.e., groups of time-correlated compounds in PMF vs. activity categories in CAMx), the PM2.5 source apportionment by PMF and CAMx produced comparable results. The different information provided by the two approaches (e.g., real-world factor profile by PMF and apportionment of a secondary aerosol by CAMx) was used jointly to elucidate the composition and origin of PM2.5 and to develop a more general methodology. When studying the primary and secondary components of PM, the main anthropogenic sources in the area were road transportation, energy production/industry and maritime emissions, accounting for 40%-50%, 20%-30% and 10%-15%, of PM2.5, respectively.

  4. Tracking Time Evolution of Collective Attention Clusters in Twitter: Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Shota; Hirata, Yoshito; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Micro-blogging services, such as Twitter, offer opportunities to analyse user behaviour. Discovering and distinguishing behavioural patterns in micro-blogging services is valuable. However, it is difficult and challenging to distinguish users, and to track the temporal development of collective attention within distinct user groups in Twitter. In this paper, we formulate this problem as tracking matrices decomposed by Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation for time-sequential matrix data, and propose a novel extension of Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation, which we refer to as Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation (TENMF). In our method, we describe users and words posted in some time interval by a matrix, and use several matrices as time-sequential data. Subsequently, we apply Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation to these time-sequential matrices. TENMF can decompose time-sequential matrices, and can track the connection among decomposed matrices, whereas previous NMF decomposes a matrix into two lower dimension matrices arbitrarily, which might lose the time-sequential connection. Our proposed method has an adequately good performance on artificial data. Moreover, we present several results and insights from experiments using real data from Twitter. PMID:26417999

  5. Tracking Time Evolution of Collective Attention Clusters in Twitter: Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shota; Hirata, Yoshito; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Micro-blogging services, such as Twitter, offer opportunities to analyse user behaviour. Discovering and distinguishing behavioural patterns in micro-blogging services is valuable. However, it is difficult and challenging to distinguish users, and to track the temporal development of collective attention within distinct user groups in Twitter. In this paper, we formulate this problem as tracking matrices decomposed by Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation for time-sequential matrix data, and propose a novel extension of Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation, which we refer to as Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation (TENMF). In our method, we describe users and words posted in some time interval by a matrix, and use several matrices as time-sequential data. Subsequently, we apply Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation to these time-sequential matrices. TENMF can decompose time-sequential matrices, and can track the connection among decomposed matrices, whereas previous NMF decomposes a matrix into two lower dimension matrices arbitrarily, which might lose the time-sequential connection. Our proposed method has an adequately good performance on artificial data. Moreover, we present several results and insights from experiments using real data from Twitter.

  6. Extended Nonnegative Tensor Factorisation Models for Musical Sound Source Separation

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Derry; Cranitch, Matt; Coyle, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously. PMID:18551178

  7. A Novel Sky-Subtraction Method Based on Non-negative Matrix Factorisation with Sparsity for Multi-object Fibre Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Long; Ye, Zhongfu

    2016-12-01

    A novel sky-subtraction method based on non-negative matrix factorisation with sparsity is proposed in this paper. The proposed non-negative matrix factorisation with sparsity method is redesigned for sky-subtraction considering the characteristics of the skylights. It has two constraint terms, one for sparsity and the other for homogeneity. Different from the standard sky-subtraction techniques, such as the B-spline curve fitting methods and the Principal Components Analysis approaches, sky-subtraction based on non-negative matrix factorisation with sparsity method has higher accuracy and flexibility. The non-negative matrix factorisation with sparsity method has research value for the sky-subtraction on multi-object fibre spectroscopic telescope surveys. To demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm, experiments are performed on Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope data, as the mechanisms of the multi-object fibre spectroscopic telescopes are similar.

  8. Minimal representation of matrix valued white stochastic processes and U-D factorisation of algorithms for optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Willigenburg, L. Gerard; De Koning, Willem L.

    2013-02-01

    Two different descriptions are used in the literature to formulate the optimal dynamic output feedback control problem for linear dynamical systems with white stochastic parameters and quadratic criteria, called the optimal compensation problem. One describes the matrix valued white stochastic processes involved, using a sum of deterministic matrices each one multiplied by a scalar stochastic process that is independent of the others. Another, that is more general and concise, uses Kronecker products instead. This article relates the statistics of both descriptions and shows their advantages and disadvantages. As to the first description, an important result that comes out is the minimum number of matrices multiplied by scalar, independent, stochastic processes needed to represent a certain matrix valued white stochastic process, together with an associated minimal representation. As to the second description, an important result concerns the generation of all Kronecker products that represent relevant statistics. Both results facilitate the specification of statistics of systems with white stochastic parameters. The second part of this article further exploits these results to perform an U-D factorisation of an algorithm to compute optimal dynamic output feedback controllers (optimal compensators) for linear discrete-time systems with white stochastic parameters and quadratic sum criteria. U-D factorisation of this type of algorithm is new. By solving several numerical examples, the U-D factored algorithm is compared with a conventional algorithm.

  9. Comparative source apportionment of PM10 in Switzerland for 2008/2009 and 1998/1999 by Positive Matrix Factorisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianini, M. F. D.; Fischer, A.; Gehrig, R.; Ulrich, A.; Wichser, A.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Hueglin, C.

    2012-07-01

    PM10 speciation data from various sites in Switzerland for two time periods (January 1998-March 1999 and August 2008-July 2009) have been analysed for major sources by receptor modelling using Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF). For the 2008/2009 period, it was found that secondary aerosols (sulphate- and nitrate-rich secondary aerosols, SSA and NSA) are the most abundant components of PM10 at sites north of the Alps. Road traffic and wood combustion were found to be the largest sources of PM10 at these sites. Except at the urban roadside site where road traffic is dominating (40% of PM10 -- including road salt), the annual average contribution of these two sources is of similar importance (17% and 14% of PM10, respectively). At a rural site south of the Alps wood combustion and road traffic contributions to PM10 were higher (31% and 24%, respectively), and the fraction of secondary aerosols lower (29%) than at similar site types north of the Alps. Comparison of PMF analyses for the two time periods (1998/1999 and 2008/2009) revealed decreasing average contributions of road traffic and SSA to PM10 at all sites. This indicates that the measures that were implemented in Switzerland and in neighbouring countries to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide and PM10 from road traffic were successful. On the other hand, contributions of wood combustion did not change during this ten year period, and the contribution of nitrate-rich secondary aerosols has even increased. It is shown that PMF can be a helpful tool for the assessment of long-term changes of source contributions to ambient particulate matter.

  10. Matrix Factorisation-based Calibration For Air Quality Crowd-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorffer, Clement; Puigt, Matthieu; Delmaire, Gilles; Roussel, Gilles; Rouvoy, Romain; Sagnier, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    sensors share some information using the APISENSE® crowdsensing platform and we aim to calibrate the sensor responses from the data directly. For that purpose, we express the sensor readings as a low-rank matrix with missing entries and we revisit self-calibration as a Matrix Factorization (MF) problem. In our proposed framework, one factor matrix contains the calibration parameters while the other is structured by the calibration model and contains some values of the sensed phenomenon. The MF calibration approach also uses the precise measurements from ATMO—the French public institution—to drive the calibration of the mobile sensors. MF calibration can be improved using, e.g., the mean calibration parameters provided by the sensor manufacturers, or using sparse priors or a model of the physical phenomenon. All our approaches are shown to provide a better calibration accuracy than matrix-completion-based and robust-regression-based methods, even in difficult scenarios involving a lot of missing data and/or very few accurate references. When combined with a dictionary of air quality patterns, our experiments suggest that MF is not only able to perform sensor network calibration but also to provide detailed maps of air quality.

  11. Convergence of the standard RLS method and UDUT factorisation of covariance matrix for solving the algebraic Riccati equation of the DLQR via heuristic approximate dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rêgo, Patrícia Helena; Viana da Fonseca Neto, João; Ferreira, Ernesto M.

    2015-08-01

    The main focus of this article is to present a proposal to solve, via UDUT factorisation, the convergence and numerical stability problems that are related to the covariance matrix ill-conditioning of the recursive least squares (RLS) approach for online approximations of the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) solution associated with the discrete linear quadratic regulator (DLQR) problem formulated in the actor-critic reinforcement learning and approximate dynamic programming context. The parameterisations of the Bellman equation, utility function and dynamic system as well as the algebra of Kronecker product assemble a framework for the solution of the DLQR problem. The condition number and the positivity parameter of the covariance matrix are associated with statistical metrics for evaluating the approximation performance of the ARE solution via RLS-based estimators. The performance of RLS approximators is also evaluated in terms of consistence and polarisation when associated with reinforcement learning methods. The used methodology contemplates realisations of online designs for DLQR controllers that is evaluated in a multivariable dynamic system model.

  12. Apportionment of sources of fine and coarse particles in four major Australian cities by positive matrix factorisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yiu-Chung; Cohen, David D.; Hawas, Olga; Stelcer, Eduard; Simpson, Rod; Denison, Lyn; Wong, Neil; Hodge, Mary; Comino, Eva; Carswell, Stewart

    In this study, 437 days of 6-daily, 24-h samples of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM 10 were collected over a 12-month period during 2003-2004 in Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide. The elemental, ionic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of the particles were determined. Source apportionment was carried out by using the positive matrix factorisation software (PMF2). Eight factors were identified for the fine particle samples including 'motor vehicles', 'industry', 'other combustion sources', 'ammonium sulphates', 'nitrates', 'marine aerosols', 'chloride depleted marine aerosols' and 'crustal/soil dust'. On average combustion sources, secondary nitrates/sulphates and natural origin dust contributed about 46%, 25% and 26% of the mass of the fine particle samples, respectively. 'Crustal/soil dust', 'marine aerosols', 'nitrates' and 'road side dust' were the four factors identified for the coarse particle samples. On average natural origin dust contributed about 76% of the mass of the coarse particle samples. The contributions of the sources to the sample mass basically reflect the emission source characteristics of the sites. Secondary sulphates and nitrates were found to spread out evenly within each city. The average contribution of secondary nitrates to fine particles was found to be rather uniform in different seasons, rather than higher in winter as found in other studies. This could be due to the low humidity conditions in winter in most of the Australian cities which made the partitioning of the particle phase less favourable in the NH 4NO 3 equilibrium system. A linear relationship was found between the average contribution of marine aerosols and the distance of the site from the bay side. Wind erosion was found associated with higher contribution of crustal dust on average and episodes of elevated concentration of coarse particles in spring and summer.

  13. How well do the muscular synergies extracted via non-negative matrix factorisation explain the variation of torque at shoulder joint?

    PubMed

    Moghadam, M Nassajian; Aminian, K; Asghari, M; Parnianpour, M

    2013-01-01

    The way central nervous system manages the excess degrees of freedom to solve kinetic redundancy of musculoskeletal system remains an open question. In this study, we utilise the concept of synergy formation as a simplifying control strategy to find the muscle recruitment based on summation of identified muscle synergies to balance the biomechanical demands (biaxial external torque) during an isometric shoulder task. A numerical optimisation-based shoulder model was used to obtain muscle activation levels when a biaxial external isometric torque is imposed at the shoulder glenohumeral joint. In the numerical simulations, 12 different shoulder torque vectors in the transverse plane are considered. For each selected direction for the torque vector, the resulting muscle activation data are calculated. The predicted muscle activation data are used for grouping muscles in some fixed element synergies by the non-negative matrix factorisation method. Next, torque produced by these synergies are computed and projected in the 2D torque space to investigate the magnitude and direction of torques that each muscle synergy generated. The results confirmed our expectation that few dominant synergies are sufficient to reconstruct the torque vectors and each muscle contributed to more than one synergy. Decomposition of the concatenated data, combining the activation and external torque, provided functional muscle synergies that produced torques in the four principal directions. Four muscle synergies were able to account for more than 95% of variation of the original data.

  14. Towards geometric D6-brane model building on non-factorisable toroidal ℤ 4-orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berasaluce-González, Mikel; Honecker, Gabriele; Seifert, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    We present a geometric approach to D-brane model building on the non-factorisable torus backgrounds of T 6/ ℤ 4, which are A 3 × A 3 and A 3 × A 1 × B 2. Based on the counting of `short' supersymmetric three-cycles per complex structure vev, the number of physically inequivalent lattice orientations with respect to the anti-holomorphic involution ℛ of the Type IIA/Ωℛ orientifold can be reduced to three for the A 3 × A 3 lattice and four for the A 3 × A 1 × B 2 lattice. While four independent three-cycles on A 3 × A 3 cannot accommodate phenomenologically interesting global models with a chiral spectrum, the eight-dimensional space of three-cycles on A 3 × A 1 × B 2 is rich enough to provide for particle physics models, with several globally consistent two- and four-generation Pati-Salam models presented here.

  15. Non-negative matrix factorisation methods for the spectral decomposition of MRS data from human brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In-vivo single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SV 1H-MRS), coupled with supervised pattern recognition (PR) methods, has been widely used in clinical studies of discrimination of brain tumour types and follow-up of patients bearing abnormal brain masses. SV 1H-MRS provides useful biochemical information about the metabolic state of tumours and can be performed at short (< 45 ms) or long (> 45 ms) echo time (TE), each with particular advantages. Short-TE spectra are more adequate for detecting lipids, while the long-TE provides a much flatter signal baseline in between peaks but also negative signals for metabolites such as lactate. Both, lipids and lactate, are respectively indicative of specific metabolic processes taking place. Ideally, the information provided by both TE should be of use for clinical purposes. In this study, we characterise the performance of a range of Non-negative Matrix Factorisation (NMF) methods in two respects: first, to derive sources correlated with the mean spectra of known tissue types (tumours and normal tissue); second, taking the best performing NMF method for source separation, we compare its accuracy for class assignment when using the mixing matrix directly as a basis for classification, as against using the method for dimensionality reduction (DR). For this, we used SV 1H-MRS data with positive and negative peaks, from a widely tested SV 1H-MRS human brain tumour database. Results The results reported in this paper reveal the advantage of using a recently described variant of NMF, namely Convex-NMF, as an unsupervised method of source extraction from SV1H-MRS. Most of the sources extracted in our experiments closely correspond to the mean spectra of some of the analysed tumour types. This similarity allows accurate diagnostic predictions to be made both in fully unsupervised mode and using Convex-NMF as a DR step previous to standard supervised classification. The obtained results are comparable to, or

  16. Controllability discrepancy and irreducibility/reducibility of Floquet factorisations in linear continuous-time periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.

  17. Concretising Factorisation of Quadratic Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoong, Leong Yew; Fwe, Yap Sook; Yvonne, Teo Mei Lin; Subramaniam, Thilagam d/o; Zaini, Irni Karen Bte Mohd; Chiew, Quek Eng; Karen, Tan Kang Ling

    2010-01-01

    The way quadratic factorisation was usually taught to students in Bukit View Secondary was through the familiar "cross-method." However, some teachers felt that a significant number of students could not use the method effectively even after careful demonstration through repeated examples. In addition, many secondary mathematics teachers…

  18. Factorising a Quadratic Expression with Geometric Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, Anwar H.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for factorising a quadratic expression to facilitate instruction and learning. It appeals to elementary geometry which may provide better insights to some students or teachers. There have been many methods for factorising a quadratic expression described in school text books. However, students often seem to struggle with…

  19. Using sparse LU factorisation to precondition GMRES for a family of similarly structured matrices arising from process modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Brooking, C.

    1996-12-31

    Process engineering software is used to simulate the operation of large chemical plants. Such simulations are used for a variety of tasks, including operator training. For the software to be of practical use for this, dynamic simulations need to run in real-time. The models that the simulation is based upon are written in terms of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE`s). In the numerical time-integration of systems of DAE`s using an implicit method such as backward Euler, the solution of nonlinear systems is required at each integration point. When solved using Newton`s method, this leads to the repeated solution of nonsymmetric sparse linear systems. These systems range in size from 500 to 20,000 variables. A typical integration may require around 3000 timesteps, and if 4 Newton iterates were needed on each time step, then this means approximately 12,000 linear systems must be solved. The matrices produced by the simulations have a similar sparsity pattern throughout the integration. They are also severely ill-conditioned, and have widely-scattered spectra.

  20. U-D factorisation of the strengthened discrete-time optimal projection equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Willigenburg, L. Gerard; De Koning, Willem L.

    2016-04-01

    Algorithms for optimal reduced-order dynamic output feedback control of linear discrete-time systems with white stochastic parameters are U-D factored in this paper. U-D factorisation enhances computational accuracy, stability and possibly efficiency. Since U-D factorisation of algorithms for optimal full-order output feedback controller design was recently published by us, this paper focusses on the U-D factorisation of the optimal oblique projection matrix that becomes part of the solution as a result of order-reduction. The equations producing the solution are known as the optimal projection equations which for discrete-time systems have been strengthened in the past. The U-D factored strengthened discrete-time optimal projection equations are presented in this paper by means of a transformation that has to be applied recursively until convergence. The U-D factored and conventional algorithms are compared through a series of examples.

  1. Faces of matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.

    2012-08-01

    Partition functions of eigenvalue matrix models possess a number of very different descriptions: as matrix integrals, as solutions to linear and nonlinear equations, as τ-functions of integrable hierarchies and as special-geometry prepotentials, as result of the action of W-operators and of various recursions on elementary input data, as gluing of certain elementary building blocks. All this explains the central role of such matrix models in modern mathematical physics: they provide the basic "special functions" to express the answers and relations between them, and they serve as a dream model of what one should try to achieve in any other field.

  2. Multiscale entropy analysis of resting-state magnetoencephalogram with tensor factorisations in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Javier; Acar, Evrim; Fernández, Alberto; Bro, Rasmus

    2015-10-01

    Tensor factorisations have proven useful to model amplitude and spectral information of brain recordings. Here, we assess the usefulness of tensor factorisations in the multiway analysis of other brain signal features in the context of complexity measures recently proposed to inspect multiscale dynamics. We consider the "refined composite multiscale entropy" (rcMSE), which computes entropy "profiles" showing levels of physiological complexity over temporal scales for individual signals. We compute the rcMSE of resting-state magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings from 36 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 26 control subjects. Instead of traditional simple visual examinations, we organise the entropy profiles as a three-way tensor to inspect relationships across temporal and spatial scales and subjects with multiway data analysis techniques based on PARAFAC and PARAFAC2 factorisations. A PARAFAC2 model with two factors was appropriate to account for the interactions in the entropy tensor between temporal scales and MEG channels for all subjects. Moreover, the PARAFAC2 factors had information related to the subjects' diagnosis, achieving a cross-validated area under the ROC curve of 0.77. This confirms the suitability of tensor factorisations to represent electrophysiological brain data efficiently despite the unsupervised nature of these techniques. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neural data analysis'.

  3. A matrix model for WZW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl

    2016-08-01

    We study a U( N) gauged matrix quantum mechanics which, in the large N limit, is closely related to the chiral WZW conformal field theory. This manifests itself in two ways. First, we construct the left-moving Kac-Moody algebra from matrix degrees of freedom. Secondly, we compute the partition function of the matrix model in terms of Schur and Kostka polynomials and show that, in the large N limit, it coincides with the partition function of the WZW model. This same matrix model was recently shown to describe non-Abelian quantum Hall states and the relationship to the WZW model can be understood in this framework.

  4. Homolumo gap and matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Andric, I.; Jonke, L.; Jurman, D.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2008-06-15

    We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

  5. Quadrality for supersymmetric matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Lee, Sangmin; Seong, Rak-Kyeong; Vafa, Cumrun

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a new duality for N = 1 supersymmetric gauged matrix models. This 0 d duality is an order 4 symmetry, namely an equivalence between four different theories, hence we call it Quadrality. Our proposal is motivated by mirror symmetry, but is not restricted to theories with a D-brane realization and holds for general N = 1 matrix models. We present various checks of the proposal, including the matching of: global symmetries, anomalies, deformations and the chiral ring. We also consider quivers and the corresponding quadrality networks. Finally, we initiate the study of matrix models that arise on the worldvolume of D(-1)-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 5-folds.

  6. A New Factorisation of a General Second Order Differential Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Janet

    2006-01-01

    A factorisation of a general second order ordinary differential equation is introduced from which the full solution to the equation can be obtained by performing two integrations. The method is compared with traditional methods for solving these type of equations. It is shown how the Green's function can be derived directly from the factorisation…

  7. Diffractive PDF fits and factorisation tests at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Solano, Ada

    2011-07-15

    A DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions, using DIS inclusive and dijet diffractive HERA data, is presented. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive dijet photoproduction data to discuss factorisation.

  8. Noncommutative spaces from matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lei

    Noncommutative (NC) spaces commonly arise as solutions to matrix model equations of motion. They are natural generalizations of the ordinary commutative spacetime. Such spaces may provide insights into physics close to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity becomes relevant. Although there has been much research in the literature, aspects of these NC spaces need further investigation. In this dissertation, we focus on properties of NC spaces in several different contexts. In particular, we study exact NC spaces which result from solutions to matrix model equations of motion. These spaces are associated with finite-dimensional Lie-algebras. More specifically, they are two-dimensional fuzzy spaces that arise from a three-dimensional Yang-Mills type matrix model, four-dimensional tensor-product fuzzy spaces from a tensorial matrix model, and Snyder algebra from a five-dimensional tensorial matrix model. In the first part of this dissertation, we study two-dimensional NC solutions to matrix equations of motion of extended IKKT-type matrix models in three-space-time dimensions. Perturbations around the NC solutions lead to NC field theories living on a two-dimensional space-time. The commutative limit of the solutions are smooth manifolds which can be associated with closed, open and static two-dimensional cosmologies. One particular solution is a Lorentzian fuzzy sphere, which leads to essentially a fuzzy sphere in the Minkowski space-time. In the commutative limit, this solution leads to an induced metric that does not have a fixed signature, and have a non-constant negative scalar curvature, along with singularities at two fixed latitudes. The singularities are absent in the matrix solution which provides a toy model for resolving the singularities of General relativity. We also discussed the two-dimensional fuzzy de Sitter space-time, which has irreducible representations of su(1,1) Lie-algebra in terms of principal, complementary and discrete series. Field

  9. Matrix model approach to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, A.; Lu, Lei; Stern, A.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a systematic search for rotationally invariant cosmological solutions to toy matrix models. These models correspond to the bosonic sector of Lorentzian Ishibashi, Kawai, Kitazawa and Tsuchiya (IKKT)-type matrix models in dimensions d less than ten, specifically d =3 and d =5 . After taking a continuum (or commutative) limit they yield d -1 dimensional Poisson manifolds. The manifolds have a Lorentzian induced metric which can be associated with closed, open, or static space-times. For d =3 , we obtain recursion relations from which it is possible to generate rotationally invariant matrix solutions which yield open universes in the continuum limit. Specific examples of matrix solutions have also been found which are associated with closed and static two-dimensional space-times in the continuum limit. The solutions provide for a resolution of cosmological singularities, at least within the context of the toy matrix models. The commutative limit reveals other desirable features, such as a solution describing a smooth transition from an initial inflation to a noninflationary era. Many of the d =3 solutions have analogues in higher dimensions. The case of d =5 , in particular, has the potential for yielding realistic four-dimensional cosmologies in the continuum limit. We find four-dimensional de Sitter d S4 or anti-de Sitter AdS4 solutions when a totally antisymmetric term is included in the matrix action. A nontrivial Poisson structure is attached to these manifolds which represents the lowest order effect of noncommutativity. For the case of AdS4 , we find one particular limit where the lowest order noncommutativity vanishes at the boundary, but not in the interior.

  10. q-Virasoro constraints in matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelin, Anton; Zabzine, Maxim

    2017-03-01

    The Virasoro constraints play the important role in the study of matrix models and in understanding of the relation between matrix models and CFTs. Recently the localization calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories produced new families of matrix models and we have very limited knowledge about these matrix models. We concentrate on elliptic generalization of hermitian matrix model which corresponds to calculation of partition function on S 3 × S 1 for vector multiplet. We derive the q-Virasoro constraints for this matrix model. We also observe some interesting algebraic properties of the q-Virasoro algebra.

  11. Parton distribution functions in Monte Carlo factorisation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadach, S.; Płaczek, W.; Sapeta, S.; Siódmok, A.; Skrzypek, M.

    2016-12-01

    A next step in development of the KrkNLO method of including complete NLO QCD corrections to hard processes in a LO parton-shower Monte Carlo is presented. It consists of a generalisation of the method, previously used for the Drell-Yan process, to Higgs-boson production. This extension is accompanied with the complete description of parton distribution functions in a dedicated, Monte Carlo factorisation scheme, applicable to any process of production of one or more colour-neutral particles in hadron-hadron collisions.

  12. Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.

  13. Matrix model description of baryonic deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu

    2003-03-13

    We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.

  14. Matrix Models, Emergent Spacetime and Symmetry Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Harald; Steinacker, Harold; Lizzi, Fedele

    2009-12-15

    We discuss how a matrix model recently shown to describe emergent gravity may contain extra degrees of freedom which reproduce some characteristics of the standard model, in particular the breaking of symmetries and the correct quantum numbers of fermions.

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Mital, Subodh K.; Pineda, Evan J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Results of multiscale modeling simulations of the nonlinear response of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are reported, wherein the microstructure of the ceramic matrix is captured. This micro scale architecture, which contains free Si material as well as the SiC ceramic, is responsible for residual stresses that play an important role in the subsequent thermo-mechanical behavior of the SiC/SiC composite. Using the novel Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells recursive micromechanics theory, the microstructure of the matrix, as well as the microstructure of the composite (fiber and matrix) can be captured.

  16. Curvature and gravity actions for matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Daniel N.; Steinacker, Harold

    2010-08-01

    We show how gravitational actions, in particular the Einstein-Hilbert action, can be obtained from additional terms in Yang-Mills matrix models. This is consistent with recent results on induced gravitational actions in these matrix models, realizing spacetime as four-dimensional brane solutions. It opens up the possibility for a controlled non-perturbative description of gravity through simple matrix models, with interesting perspectives for the problem of vacuum energy. The relation with UV/IR mixing and non-commutative gauge theory is discussed.

  17. Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity

  18. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  19. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  20. Supersymmetric SYK model and random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianlin; Liu, Junyu; Xin, Yuan; Zhou, Yehao

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of supersymmetry on the symmetry classification of random matrix theory ensembles. We mainly consider the random matrix behaviors in the N=1 supersymmetric generalization of Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model, a toy model for two-dimensional quantum black hole with supersymmetric constraint. Some analytical arguments and numerical results are given to show that the statistics of the supersymmetric SYK model could be interpreted as random matrix theory ensembles, with a different eight-fold classification from the original SYK model and some new features. The time-dependent evolution of the spectral form factor is also investigated, where predictions from random matrix theory are governing the late time behavior of the chaotic hamiltonian with supersymmetry.

  1. A matrix model from string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeze, Syoji

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that a Hermitian matrix model can be derived from level truncated open string field theory with Chan-Paton factors. The Hermitian matrix is coupled with a scalar and U(N) vectors which are responsible for the D-brane at the tachyon vacuum. Effective potential for the scalar is evaluated both for finite and large N. Increase of potential height is observed in both cases. The large N matrix integral is identified with a system of N ZZ branes and a ghost FZZT brane.

  2. Chaos in the BMN matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuhma; Kawai, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2015-06-01

    We study classical chaotic motions in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model. For this purpose, it is convenient to focus upon a reduced system composed of two-coupled anharmonic oscillators by supposing an ansatz. We examine three ansätze: 1) two pulsating fuzzy spheres, 2) a single Coulomb-type potential, and 3) integrable fuzzy spheres. For the first two cases, we show the existence of chaos by computing Poincaré sections and a Lyapunov spectrum. The third case leads to an integrable system. As a result, the BMN matrix model is not integrable in the sense of Liouville, though there may be some integrable subsectors.

  3. Expansion of Binomials and Factorisation of Quadratic Expressions: Exploring a Vedic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nataraj, Mala Saraswathy; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2006-01-01

    Many students have traditionally found the processes of algebraic manipulation, especially factorisation, difficult to learn. This study investigated the value of introducing students to a Vedic method of multiplication of arithmetic numbers to algebra that is very visual in its application. This research considered a possible role of the…

  4. Schwarzschild geometry emerging from matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Daniel N.; Steinacker, Harold

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate how various geometries can emerge from Yang-Mills-type matrix models with branes, and consider the examples of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström geometries. We provide an explicit embedding of these branes in \\mathds{R}^{2,5} and \\mathds{R}^{4,6}, as well as an appropriate Poisson resp. symplectic structure which determines the non-commutativity of spacetime. The embedding is asymptotically flat with the asymptotically constant θμν for large r, and therefore suitable for a generalization to many-body configurations. This is an illustration of our previous work (Blaschke and Steinacker 2010 Class. Quantum Grav. 27 165010 (arXiv:1003.4132)), where we have shown how the Einstein-Hilbert action can be realized within such matrix models.

  5. Efficient Matrix Models for Relational Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Haesun Park. Orthogonal nonnegative matrix tri-factorizations for clustering. In Tina Eliassi-Rad, Lyle H. Ungar , Mark Craven, and Dimitrios Gunopulos...97] A. Popescul and L. Ungar . Structural logistic regression for link analysis. KDD Workshop on Multi-Relational Data Mining, 2003. [98] Yuan Qi and...asking questions, pages 167–192. Morgan Kaufman, 1986. [112] Andrew I. Schein, Lawrence K. Saul, and Lyle H. Ungar . A generalized linear model for

  6. Random matrix model for chiral symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.D.; Verbaarschot, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    We formulate a random matrix model which mimics the chiral phase transition in QCD with two light flavors. Two critical exponents are calculated. We obtain the mean-field values {beta}=1/2 and {delta}=3. We also find that the chiral phase transition can be characterized by the dynamics of the smallest eigenvalue of the Dirac operator. This suggests an alternative order parameter which may be of relevance for lattice QCD simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Transmission line matrix model for ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocan, Razvan; Ida, Nathan; Driscoll, Diana

    2002-06-01

    A transmission-line matrix (TLM) model was developed to simulate the ultrasound propagation in the multi-layer structures. The spatial resolution of the proposed model is better than tenth wavelength. The numerical modeling is carried-out for frequencies that are usually used in ultrasound imagery (3.5 - 25MHz). The acoustic impedance profile of multi-layer structures considered are similar to those found in nondestructive evaluation and in medical imaging. The structures modeled are: brazed joints, stomach and colon walls. Structures with artificial flaws are also modeled. A comparison between real images and numerical generated ones is provided for each considered structure. Both frequency and time domain responses are obtained from the structures under investigation. Both single and array transducer techniques are modeled and their performances are evaluated for the proposed structures. Different shapes for the incident pulse are considered in numerically generated images.

  8. Nano- and mesoscale modeling of cement matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2015-04-01

    Atomistic simulations of cementitious material can enrich our understanding of its structural and mechanical properties, whereas current computational capacities restrict the investigation length scale within 10 nm. In this context, coarse-grained simulations can translate the information from nanoscale to mesoscale, thus bridging the multi-scale investigations. Here, we develop a coarse-grained model of cement matrix using the concept of disk-like building block. The objective is to introduce a new method to construct a coarse-grained model of cement, which could contribute to the scale-bridging issue from nanoscale to mesoscale. PAC codes: 07.05.Tp, 62.25.-g, 82.70.Dd

  9. Nano- and mesoscale modeling of cement matrix.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of cementitious material can enrich our understanding of its structural and mechanical properties, whereas current computational capacities restrict the investigation length scale within 10 nm. In this context, coarse-grained simulations can translate the information from nanoscale to mesoscale, thus bridging the multi-scale investigations. Here, we develop a coarse-grained model of cement matrix using the concept of disk-like building block. The objective is to introduce a new method to construct a coarse-grained model of cement, which could contribute to the scale-bridging issue from nanoscale to mesoscale. PAC codes: 07.05.Tp, 62.25.-g, 82.70.Dd.

  10. Spectral density of the correlation matrix of factor models: a random matrix theory approach.

    PubMed

    Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N

    2005-07-01

    We studied the eigenvalue spectral density of the correlation matrix of factor models of multivariate time series. By making use of the random matrix theory, we analytically quantified the effect of statistical uncertainty on the spectral density due to the finiteness of the sample. We considered a broad range of models, ranging from one-factor models to hierarchical multifactor models.

  11. Transition matrix model for evolutionary game dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermentrout, G. Bard; Griffin, Christopher; Belmonte, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    We study an evolutionary game model based on a transition matrix approach, in which the total change in the proportion of a population playing a given strategy is summed directly over contributions from all other strategies. This general approach combines aspects of the traditional replicator model, such as preserving unpopulated strategies, with mutation-type dynamics, which allow for nonzero switching to unpopulated strategies, in terms of a single transition function. Under certain conditions, this model yields an endemic population playing non-Nash-equilibrium strategies. In addition, a Hopf bifurcation with a limit cycle may occur in the generalized rock-scissors-paper game, unlike the replicator equation. Nonetheless, many of the Folk Theorem results are shown to hold for this model.

  12. T-branes and matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Blåbäck, Johan; Savelli, Raffaele

    2017-06-01

    We find that the equations describing T-branes with constant worldvolume fields are identical to the equations found by Banks, Seiberg and Shenker twenty years ago to describe longitudinal five-branes in the BFSS matrix model. Besides giving new ways to construct T-brane solutions, this connection also helps elucidate the physics of T-branes in the regime of parameters where their worldvolume fields are larger than the string scale. We construct explicit solutions to the Banks-Seiberg-Shenker equations and show that the corresponding T-branes admit an alternative description as Abelian branes at angles.

  13. Exclusive J/\\psi production at the LHC in the k T factorisation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. P.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.; Teubner, T.

    2017-03-01

    The recent LHCb data for exclusive J/\\psi peripheral production at 13 TeV motivate an improved ‘NLO’ analysis to estimate the gluon distribution at low x in which we re-calculate the rapidity gap survival factors and use a more precise expression for the photon flux. We comment on the difference between the k T and collinear factorisation approaches.

  14. S-matrix singularities and CFT correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Carlos; Huang, Yu-tin

    2017-08-01

    In this note, we explore the correspondence between four-dimensional flat space S-matrix and two-dimensional CFT proposed by Pasterski et al. We demonstrate that the factorisation singularities of an n-point cubic diagram reproduces the AdS Witten diagrams if mass conservation is imposed at each vertex. Such configuration arises naturally if we consider the 4-dimensional S-matrix as a compactified massless 5-dimensional theory. This identification allows us to rewrite the massless S-matrix in the CHY formulation, where the factorisation singularities are re-interpreted as factorisation limits of a Riemann sphere. In this light, the map is recast into a form of 2 d/2 d correspondence.

  15. String coupling and interactions in type IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2009-05-15

    We investigate the interactions of closed strings in a IIB matrix model. The basic interaction of the closed superstring is realized by the recombination of two intersecting strings. Such interaction is investigated in a IIB matrix model via two-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory in the IR limit. By estimating the probability of the recombination, we identify the string coupling g{sub s} in the IIB matrix model. We confirm that our identification is consistent with matrix string theory.

  16. Superstring vertex operators in type IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2008-06-15

    We clarify the relation between the vertex operators in type IIB matrix model and superstring. Green-Schwarz light-cone closed superstring theory is obtained from IIB matrix model on two-dimensional noncommutative backgrounds. Superstring vertex operators should be reproduced from those of IIB matrix model through this connection. Indeed, we confirm that supergravity vertex operators in IIB matrix model on the two-dimensional backgrounds reduce to those in superstring theory. Noncommutativity plays an important role in our identification. Through this correspondence, we can reproduce superstring scattering amplitudes from IIB matrix model.

  17. Matrix model and dimensions at hypercube vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. Yu.; Morozov, A. A.; Popolitov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    We consider correlation functions in the Chern-Simons theory (knot polynomials) using an approach in which each knot diagram is associated with a hypercube. The number of cycles into which the link diagram is decomposed under different resolutions plays a central role. Certain functions of these numbers are further interpreted as dimensions of graded spaces associated with hypercube vertices, but finding these functions is a somewhat nontrivial problem. It was previously suggested to solve this problem using the matrix model technique by analogy with topological recursion. We develop this idea and provide a wide collection of nontrivial examples related to both ordinary and virtual knots and links. The most powerful version of the formalism freely connects ordinary knots/links with virtual ones. Moreover, it allows going beyond the limits of the knot-related set of ( 2, 2)-valent graphs.

  18. Random matrix model of adiabatic quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, David R.; Adami, Christoph; Lue, Waynn; Williams, Colin P.

    2005-05-15

    We present an analysis of the quantum adiabatic algorithm for solving hard instances of 3-SAT (an NP-complete problem) in terms of random matrix theory (RMT). We determine the global regularity of the spectral fluctuations of the instantaneous Hamiltonians encountered during the interpolation between the starting Hamiltonians and the ones whose ground states encode the solutions to the computational problems of interest. At each interpolation point, we quantify the degree of regularity of the average spectral distribution via its Brody parameter, a measure that distinguishes regular (i.e., Poissonian) from chaotic (i.e., Wigner-type) distributions of normalized nearest-neighbor spacings. We find that for hard problem instances - i.e., those having a critical ratio of clauses to variables - the spectral fluctuations typically become irregular across a contiguous region of the interpolation parameter, while the spectrum is regular for easy instances. Within the hard region, RMT may be applied to obtain a mathematical model of the probability of avoided level crossings and concomitant failure rate of the adiabatic algorithm due to nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-type transitions. Our model predicts that if the interpolation is performed at a uniform rate, the average failure rate of the quantum adiabatic algorithm, when averaged over hard problem instances, scales exponentially with increasing problem size.

  19. Modeling the formation of cell-matrix adhesions on a single 3D matrix fiber.

    PubMed

    Escribano, J; Sánchez, M T; García-Aznar, J M

    2015-11-07

    Cell-matrix adhesions are crucial in different biological processes like tissue morphogenesis, cell motility, and extracellular matrix remodeling. These interactions that link cell cytoskeleton and matrix fibers are built through protein clutches, generally known as adhesion complexes. The adhesion formation process has been deeply studied in two-dimensional (2D) cases; however, the knowledge is limited for three-dimensional (3D) cases. In this work, we simulate different local extracellular matrix properties in order to unravel the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the formation of cell-matrix adhesions in 3D. We aim to study the mechanical interaction of these biological structures through a three dimensional discrete approach, reproducing the transmission pattern force between the cytoskeleton and a single extracellular matrix fiber. This numerical model provides a discrete analysis of the proteins involved including spatial distribution, interaction between them, and study of the different phenomena, such as protein clutches unbinding or protein unfolding.

  20. Chern-Simons matrix models and Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Dolivet, Yacine; Tierz, Miguel

    2007-02-15

    Employing the random matrix formulation of Chern-Simons theory on Seifert manifolds, we show how the Stieltjes-Wigert orthogonal polynomials are useful in exact computations in Chern-Simons matrix models. We construct a biorthogonal extension of the Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials, not available in the literature, necessary to study Chern-Simons matrix models when the geometry is a lens space. We also study the relationship between Stieltjes-Wigert and Rogers-Szegoe polynomials and the corresponding equivalence with a unitary matrix model. Finally, we give a detailed proof of a result that relates quantum dimensions with averages of Schur polynomials in the Stieltjes-Wigert ensemble.

  1. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  2. Modeling for Matrix Multicracking Evolution of Cross-ply Ceramic-Matrix Composites Using Energy Balance Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    The matrix multicracking evolution of cross-ply ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated using energy balance approach. The multicracking of cross-ply CMCs was classified into five modes, i.e., (1) mode 1: transverse multicracking; (2) mode 2: transverse multicracking and matrix multicracking with perfect fiber/matrix interface bonding; (3) mode 3: transverse multicracking and matrix multicracking with fiber/matrix interface debonding; (4) mode 4: matrix multicracking with perfect fiber/matrix interface bonding; and (5) mode 5: matrix multicracking with fiber/matrix interface debonding. The stress distributions of four cracking modes, i.e., mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 5, are analysed using shear-lag model. The matrix multicracking evolution of mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 5, has been determined using energy balance approach. The effects of ply thickness and fiber volume fraction on matrix multicracking evolution of cross-ply CMCs have been investigated.

  3. Probabilistic Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composite Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Ashwin R.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainties associated with the primitive random variables such as manufacturing process (processing temperature, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio), constituent properties (fiber, matrix and interface), and geometric parameters (ply thickness, interphase thickness) have been simulated to quantify the scatter in the first matrix cracking strength (FMCS) and the ultimate tensile strength of SCS-6/RBSN (SiC fiber (SCS-6) reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composite) ceramic matrix composite laminate at room temperature. Cumulative probability distribution function for the FMCS and ultimate tensile strength at room temperature (RT) of (0)(sub 8), (0(sub 2)/90(sub 2), and (+/-45(sub 2))(sub S) laminates have been simulated and the sensitivity of primitive variables to the respective strengths have been quantified. Computationally predicted scatter of the strengths for a uniaxial laminate have been compared with those from limited experimental data. Also the experimental procedure used in the tests has been described briefly. Results show a very good agreement between the computational simulation and the experimental data. Dominating failure modes in (0)(sub 8), (0/90)(sub s) and (+/-45)(sub S) laminates have been identified. Results indicate that the first matrix cracking strength for the (0)(sub S), and (0/90)(sub S) laminates is sensitive to the thermal properties, modulus and strengths of both the fiber and matrix whereas the ultimate tensile strength is sensitive to the fiber strength and the fiber volume ratio. In the case of a (+/-45)(sub S), laminate, both the FMCS and the ultimate tensile strengths have a small scatter range and are sensitive to the fiber tensile strength as well as the fiber volume ratio.

  4. Generalized matrix models and AGT correspondence at all genera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, Giulio; Maruyoshi, Kazunobu; Tanzini, Alessandro; Yagi, Futoshi

    2011-07-01

    We study generalized matrix models corresponding to n-point Virasoro conformal blocks on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus g. Upon AGT correspondence, these describe four dimensional mathcal{N} = 2 SU(2) n+3 g-3 gauge theories with generalized quiver diagrams. We obtain the generalized matrix models from the perturbative evaluation of the Liouville correlation functions and verify the consistency of the description with respect to degenerations of the Riemann surface. Moreover, we derive the Seiberg-Witten curve for the mathcal{N} = 2 gauge theory as the spectral curve of the generalized matrix model, thus providing a check of AGT correspondence at all genera.

  5. Comparison Of Models Of Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents comparative review of four mathematical models of micromechanical behaviors of fiber/metal-matrix composite materials. Models differ in various details, all based on properties of fiber and matrix constituent materials, all involve square arrays of fibers continuous and parallel and all assume complete bonding between constituents. Computer programs implementing models used to predict properties and stress-vs.-strain behaviors of unidirectional- and cross-ply laminated composites made of boron fibers in aluminum matrices and silicon carbide fibers in titanium matrices. Stresses in fiber and matrix constituent materials also predicted.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Q-matrix Based Diagnostic Classification Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunxiao; Liu, Jingchen; Xu, Gongjun; Ying, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models have recently gained prominence in educational assessment, psychiatric evaluation, and many other disciplines. Central to the model specification is the so-called Q-matrix that provides a qualitative specification of the item-attribute relationship. In this paper, we develop theories on the identifiability for the Q-matrix under the DINA and the DINO models. We further propose an estimation procedure for the Q-matrix through the regularized maximum likelihood. The applicability of this procedure is not limited to the DINA or the DINO model and it can be applied to essentially all Q-matrix based diagnostic classification models. Simulation studies are conducted to illustrate its performance. Furthermore, two case studies are presented. The first case is a data set on fraction subtraction (educational application) and the second case is a subsample of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions concerning the social anxiety disorder (psychiatric application). PMID:26294801

  7. Matrix model for non-Abelian quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl

    2016-08-01

    We propose a matrix quantum mechanics for a class of non-Abelian quantum Hall states. The model describes electrons which carry an internal SU(p ) spin. The ground states of the matrix model include spin-singlet generalizations of the Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states and, in general, lie in a class previously introduced by Blok and Wen. The effective action for these states is a U(p ) Chern-Simons theory. We show how the matrix model can be derived from quantization of the vortices in this Chern-Simons theory and how the matrix model ground states can be reconstructed as correlation functions in the boundary WZW model.

  8. Positive Matrix Factorization Model for environmental data analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Positive Matrix Factorization is a receptor model developed by EPA to provide scientific support for current ambient air quality standards and implement those standards by identifying and quantifying the relative contributions of air pollution sources.

  9. Thermodynamics of the BMN matrix model at strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2015-03-01

    We construct the black hole geometry dual to the deconfined phase of the BMN matrix model at strong 't Hooft coupling. We approach this solution from the limit of large temperature where it is approximately that of the non-extremal D0-brane geometry with a spherical S 8 horizon. This geometry preserves the SO(9) symmetry of the matrix model trivial vacuum. As the temperature decreases the horizon becomes deformed and breaks the SO(9) to the SO(6) × SO(3) symmetry of the matrix model. When the black hole free energy crosses zero the system undergoes a phase transition to the confined phase described by a Lin-Maldacena geometry. We determine this critical temperature, whose computation is also within reach of Monte Carlo simulations of the matrix model.

  10. Entanglement entropy of Wilson loops: Holography and matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Simon A.; Gutperle, Michael

    2014-09-01

    A half-Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld circular Wilson loop in N=4 SU(N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in an arbitrary representation is described by a Gaussian matrix model with a particular insertion. The additional entanglement entropy of a spherical region in the presence of such a loop was recently computed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena using exact matrix model results. In this paper we utilize the supergravity solutions that are dual to such Wilson loops in a representation with order N2 boxes to calculate this entropy holographically. Employing the matrix model results of Gomis, Matsuura, Okuda and Trancanelli we express this holographic entanglement entropy in a form that can be compared with the calculation of Lewkowycz and Maldacena. We find complete agreement between the matrix model and holographic calculations.

  11. Modelling the random effects covariance matrix in longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Michael J; Zhao, Yan D

    2003-05-30

    A common class of models for longitudinal data are random effects (mixed) models. In these models, the random effects covariance matrix is typically assumed constant across subject. However, in many situations this matrix may differ by measured covariates. In this paper, we propose an approach to model the random effects covariance matrix by using a special Cholesky decomposition of the matrix. In particular, we will allow the parameters that result from this decomposition to depend on subject-specific covariates and also explore ways to parsimoniously model these parameters. An advantage of this parameterization is that there is no concern about the positive definiteness of the resulting estimator of the covariance matrix. In addition, the parameters resulting from this decomposition have a sensible interpretation. We propose fully Bayesian modelling for which a simple Gibbs sampler can be implemented to sample from the posterior distribution of the parameters. We illustrate these models on data from depression studies and examine the impact of heterogeneity in the covariance matrix on estimation of both fixed and random effects.

  12. Modelling the random effects covariance matrix in longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Michael J.; Zhao, Yan D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY A common class of models for longitudinal data are random effects (mixed) models. In these models, the random effects covariance matrix is typically assumed constant across subject. However, in many situations this matrix may differ by measured covariates. In this paper, we propose an approach to model the random effects covariance matrix by using a special Cholesky decomposition of the matrix. In particular, we will allow the parameters that result from this decomposition to depend on subject-specific covariates and also explore ways to parsimoniously model these parameters. An advantage of this parameterization is that there is no concern about the positive definiteness of the resulting estimator of the covariance matrix. In addition, the parameters resulting from this decomposition have a sensible interpretation. We propose fully Bayesian modelling for which a simple Gibbs sampler can be implemented to sample from the posterior distribution of the parameters. We illustrate these models on data from depression studies and examine the impact of heterogeneity in the covariance matrix on estimation of both fixed and random effects. PMID:12720301

  13. Higgs production via gluon fusion in k{sub T} factorisation

    SciTech Connect

    Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Pandis, V.

    2011-07-15

    Theoretical studies of Higgs production via gluon fusion are frequently carried out in the limit where the top quark mass is much larger than the Higgs mass, an approximation which reduces the top quark loop to an effective vertex. We present a numerical analysis of the error thus introduced by performing a Monte Carlo calculation for gg{yields}h in k{sub T}-factorisation, using the parton shower generator CASCADE. By examining both inclusive and exclusive quantities, we find that retaining the top-mass dependence results in only a small enhancement of the cross-section. We then proceed to compare CASCADE to the collinear Monte Carlos PYTHIA, MC-NLO and POWHEG.

  14. Covariant 4-dimensional fuzzy spheres, matrix models and higher spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Marcus; Steinacker, Harold C.

    2017-09-01

    We study in detail generalized 4-dimensional fuzzy spheres with twisted extra dimensions. These spheres can be viewed as SO(5) -equivariant projections of quantized coadjoint orbits of SO(6) . We show that they arise as solutions in Yang-Mills matrix models, which naturally leads to higher-spin gauge theories on S 4. Several types of embeddings in matrix models are found, including one with self-intersecting fuzzy extra dimensions \

  15. MOEMS Modeling Using the Geometrical Matrix Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2005-01-01

    New technologies such as MicroOptoElectro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) require new modeling tools. These tools must simultaneously model the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains and the interactions between these domains. To facilitate rapid prototyping of these new technologies an optical toolbox has been developed for modeling MOEMS devices. The toolbox models are constructed using MATLAB's dynamical simulator, Simulink. Modeling toolboxes will allow users to focus their efforts on system design and analysis as opposed to developing component models. This toolbox was developed to facilitate rapid modeling and design of a MOEMS based laser ultrasonic receiver system.

  16. Modeling of the flexural behavior of ceramic-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of matrix cracking and fiber breakage on the flexural behavior of ceramic composite beams. A model has been proposed to represent the damage evolution of the beam, of which the matrix fracture strain is smaller than that of the fibers. Close form solutions of the critical loads for the initiation of matrix cracking and fiber breakage in the tension side of the beam have been found. The effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber/matrix debonding have been taken into account. The initial deviation of the load-deflection curve from linearity is due to matrix cracking, while fiber breakages are responsible for the drop in the load carrying capacity of the beam. The proportional limit as well as the nonlinear behavior of the beam deflection have been identified. The growth of the damaged zone has also been predicted. A three-point bending case is given as a numerical example.

  17. Strain Rate Dependent Modeling of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations have been developed to model the polymer matrix, and have been incorporated into a micromechanics approach to analyze polymer matrix composites. The Hashin failure criterion has been implemented within the micromechanics results to predict ply failure strengths. The deformation model has been implemented within LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code. The deformation response and ply failure stresses for the representative polymer matrix composite AS4/PEEK have been predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain rates. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  18. Modeling the Stress Strain Behavior of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    2006-01-01

    Woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites represent one of the most mature composite systems to date. Future components fabricated out of these woven ceramic matrix composites are expected to vary in shape, curvature, architecture, and thickness. The design of future components using woven ceramic matrix composites necessitates a modeling approach that can account for these variations which are physically controlled by local constituent contents and architecture. Research over the years supported primarily by NASA Glenn Research Center has led to the development of simple mechanistic-based models that can describe the entire stress-strain curve for composite systems fabricated with chemical vapor infiltrated matrices and melt-infiltrated matrices for a wide range of constituent content and architecture. Several examples will be presented that demonstrate the approach to modeling which incorporates a thorough understanding of the stress-dependent matrix cracking properties of the composite system.

  19. Dynamical phase space from an SO (d ,d ) matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios

    2014-12-01

    It is shown that a matrix model with SO (d ,d ) global symmetry is derived from a generalized Yang-Mills theory on the standard Courant algebroid. This model keeps all the positive features of the well-studied type IIB matrix model, and it has many additional welcome properties. We show that it not only captures the dynamics of spacetime, but it should be associated with the dynamics of phase space. This is supported by a large set of classical solutions of its equations of motion, which corresponds to phase spaces of noncommutative curved manifolds and points to a new mechanism of emergent gravity. The model possesses a symmetry that exchanges positions and momenta, in analogy to quantum mechanics. It is argued that the emergence of phase space in the model is an essential feature for the investigation of the precise relation of matrix models to string theory and quantum gravity.

  20. Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi

    2015-09-01

    Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.

  1. Exact [ital S] matrix of the deformed [ital c]=1 matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Demeterfi, K.; Klebanov, I.R. ); Rodrigues, J.P. )

    1993-11-22

    We consider the [ital c]=1 matrix model deformed by the operator 1/2[ital M] [ital Tr][Phi][sup [minus]2], which was conjectured by Jevicki and Yoneya to describe a two-dimensional black hole of mass [ital M]. We calculate the exact nonperturbative [ital S] matrix and show that all the amplitudes involving an odd number of particles vanish at least to all orders of perturbation theory. We conjecture that these amplitudes vanish nonperturbatively and prove this for the 2[ital n][r arrow]1 scattering. For the two- and four-particle amplitudes we give some leading terms of the perturbative expansion.

  2. Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

  3. Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

  4. Truncating an exact matrix product state for the XY model: Transfer matrix and its renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rams, Marek M.; Zauner, Valentin; Bal, Matthias; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank

    2015-12-01

    We discuss how to analytically obtain an essentially infinite matrix product state (MPS) representation of the ground state of the XY model. On one hand this allows us to illustrate how the Ornstein-Zernike form of the correlation function emerges in the exact case using standard MPS language. On the other hand we study the consequences of truncating the bond dimension of the exact MPS, which is also part of many tensor network algorithms, and analyze how the truncated MPS transfer matrix is representing the dominant part of the exact quantum transfer matrix. In the gapped phase we observe that the correlation length obtained from a truncated MPS approaches the exact value following a power law in effective bond dimension. In the gapless phase we find a good match between a state obtained numerically from standard MPS techniques with finite bond dimension and a state obtained by effective finite imaginary time evolution in our framework. This provides a direct hint for a geometric interpretation of finite entanglement scaling at the critical point in this case. Finally, by analyzing the spectra of transfer matrices, we support the interpretation put forward by V. Zauner et al. [New J. Phys. 17, 053002 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/5/053002] that the MPS transfer matrix emerges from the quantum transfer matrix though the application of Wilson's numerical renormalization group along the imaginary-time direction.

  5. Looking for a Matrix model for ABJM theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu

    2010-10-15

    Encouraged by the recent construction of fuzzy sphere solutions in the Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena (ABJM) theory, we re-analyze the latter from the perspective of a Matrix-like model. In particular, we argue that a vortex solution exhibits properties of a supergraviton, while a kink represents a 2-brane. Other solutions are also consistent with the Matrix-type interpretation. We study vortex scattering and compare with graviton scattering in the massive ABJM background, however our results are inconclusive. We speculate on how to extend our results to construct a Matrix theory of ABJM.

  6. Proposed framework for thermomechanical life modeling of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saltsman, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The framework of a mechanics of materials model is proposed for thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction of unidirectional, continuous-fiber metal matrix composites (MMC's). Axially loaded MMC test samples are analyzed as structural components whose fatigue lives are governed by local stress-strain conditions resulting from combined interactions of the matrix, interfacial layer, and fiber constituents. The metallic matrix is identified as the vehicle for tracking fatigue crack initiation and propagation. The proposed framework has three major elements. First, TMF flow and failure characteristics of in situ matrix material are approximated from tests of unreinforced matrix material, and matrix TMF life prediction equations are numerically calibrated. The macrocrack initiation fatigue life of the matrix material is divided into microcrack initiation and microcrack propagation phases. Second, the influencing factors created by the presence of fibers and interfaces are analyzed, characterized, and documented in equation form. Some of the influences act on the microcrack initiation portion of the matrix fatigue life, others on the microcrack propagation life, while some affect both. Influencing factors include coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch strains, residual (mean) stresses, multiaxial stress states, off-axis fibers, internal stress concentrations, multiple initiation sites, nonuniform fiber spacing, fiber debonding, interfacial layers and cracking, fractured fibers, fiber deflections of crack fronts, fiber bridging of matrix cracks, and internal oxidation along internal interfaces. Equations exist for some, but not all, of the currently identified influencing factors. The third element is the inclusion of overriding influences such as maximum tensile strain limits of brittle fibers that could cause local fractures and ensuing catastrophic failure of surrounding matrix material. Some experimental data exist for assessing the plausibility of the proposed

  7. Giambelli identity in super Chern-Simons matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Satsuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi

    2017-03-01

    A classical identity due to Giambelli in representation theory states that the character in any representation is expressed as a determinant whose components are characters in the hook representation constructed from all the combinations of the arm and leg lengths of the original representation. We prove that, in a general fractional-brane background, the identity persists in taking, for each character, the matrix integration of the super Chern-Simons matrix model in the grand canonical ensemble.

  8. Holography and entropy bounds in the plane wave matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Mints, Aleksey L.

    2006-06-15

    As a quantum theory of gravity, matrix theory should provide a realization of the holographic principle, in the sense that a holographic theory should contain one binary degree of freedom per Planck area. We present evidence that Bekenstein's entropy bound, which is related to area differences, is manifest in the plane wave matrix model. If holography is implemented in this way, we predict crossover behavior at strong coupling when the energy exceeds N{sup 2} in units of the mass scale.

  9. Matrix model maps in AdS/CFT correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Donos, Aristomenis; Jevicki, Antal; Rodrigues, Joao P.

    2005-12-15

    We discuss an extension of a map between BPS states and free fermions. The extension involves states associated with a full two matrix problem which are constructed using a sequence of integral equations. A two parameter set of matrix model eigenstates is then related to states in SUGRA. Their wave functions are characterized by nontrivial dependence on the radial coordinate of AdS and of the Sphere, respectively. A kernel defining a one to one map between these states is then constructed.

  10. $\\cN$-FOLD SUPERSYMMETRY IN QUANTUM MECHANICAL MATRIX MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    We formulate Ņ-fold supersymmetry in quantum mechanical matrix models. As an example, we construct general two-by-two Hermitian matrix two-fold supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems. We find that there are two inequivalent such systems, both of which are characterized by two arbitrary scalar functions, and one of which does not reduce to the scalar system. The obtained systems are all weakly quasi-solvable.

  11. On matrix model formulations of noncommutative Yang-Mills theories

    SciTech Connect

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Hirata, Tomoyoshi; Hanada, Masanori

    2008-11-15

    We study the stability of noncommutative spaces in matrix models and discuss the continuum limit which leads to the noncommutative Yang-Mills theories. It turns out that most noncommutative spaces in bosonic models are unstable. This indicates perturbative instability of fuzzy R{sup D} pointed out by Van Raamsdonk and Armoni et al. persists to nonperturbative level in these cases. In this sense, these bosonic noncommutative Yang-Mills theories are not well-defined, or at least their matrix model formulations studied in this paper do not work. We also show that noncommutative backgrounds are stable in a supersymmetric matrix model deformed by a cubic Myers term, though the deformation itself breaks supersymmetry.

  12. Modeling food matrix effects on chemical reactivity: Challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Edoardo; Oliviero, Teresa; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2017-06-29

    The same chemical reaction may be different in terms of its position of the equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamics) and its kinetics when studied in different foods. The diversity in the chemical composition of food and in its structural organization at macro-, meso-, and microscopic levels, that is, the food matrix, is responsible for this difference. In this viewpoint paper, the multiple, and interconnected ways the food matrix can affect chemical reactivity are summarized. Moreover, mechanistic and empirical approaches to explain and predict the effect of food matrix on chemical reactivity are described. Mechanistic models aim to quantify the effect of food matrix based on a detailed understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in food. Their applicability is limited at the moment to very simple food systems. Empirical modeling based on machine learning combined with data-mining techniques may represent an alternative, useful option to predict the effect of the food matrix on chemical reactivity and to identify chemical and physical properties to be further tested. In such a way the mechanistic understanding of the effect of the food matrix on chemical reactions can be improved.

  13. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, M.B.; Wikle, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing. ?? 2006, The International Biometric Society.

  14. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Wikle, Christopher K.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing.

  15. Efficient Matrix Completion with Gaussian Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Sapiro and Mallat have recently reported excellent results in a number of inverse problems [16]. In particular, for inpainting , which is an analogue...been shown to bring dramatic improvements over single Gaussian models in image inpaint - ing [16], are expected to better capture different characteris

  16. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Mevin B; Wikle, Christopher K; Dorazio, Robert M; Royle, J Andrew

    2007-06-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing.

  17. Super Yang-Mills theory as a random matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, W.

    1995-07-15

    We generalize the Gervais-Neveu gauge to four-dimensional {ital N}=1 superspace. The model describes an {ital N}=2 super Yang-Mills theory. All chiral superfields ({ital N}=2 matter and ghost multiplets) exactly cancel to all loops. The remaining Hermitian scalar superfield (matrix) has a renormalizable massive propagator and simplified vertices. These properties are associated with {ital N}=1 supergraphs describing a superstring theory on a random lattice world sheet. We also consider all possible finite matrix models, and find they have a universal large-color limit. These could describe gravitational strings if the matrix-model coupling is fixed to unity, for exact electric-magnetic self-duality.

  18. New model for the neutrino mass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoura, L.

    2000-11-01

    I suggest a model based on a softly broken symmetry Le-Lμ-Lτ and on Babu's mechanism for the two-loop radiative generation of neutrino masses. The model predicts that one of the physical neutrinos (ν3) is massless and that its component along the νe direction (Ue3) is zero. Moreover, if the soft-breaking term is assumed to be very small, then the vacuum oscillations of νe have almost maximal amplitude and solve the solar-neutrino problem. New scalars are predicted in the 10 TeV energy range, and a breakdown of e-μ-τ universality should not be far from existing experimental bounds.

  19. Modeling Extracellular Matrix Reorganization in 3D Environments

    PubMed Central

    Harjanto, Dewi; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a key physiological process that occurs in a number of contexts, including cell migration, and is especially important for cellular form and function in three-dimensional (3D) matrices. However, there have been few attempts to computationally model how cells modify their environment in a manner that accounts for both cellular properties and the architecture of the surrounding ECM. To this end, we have developed and validated a novel model to simulate matrix remodeling that explicitly defines cells in a 3D collagenous matrix. In our simulation, cells can degrade, deposit, or pull on local fibers, depending on the fiber density around each cell. The cells can also move within the 3D matrix. Different cell phenotypes can be modeled by varying key cellular parameters. Using the model we have studied how two model cancer cell lines, of differing invasiveness, modify matrices with varying fiber density in their vicinity by tracking the metric of fraction of matrix occupied by fibers. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that in low density environments, cells deposit more collagen to uniformly increase fibril fraction. On the other hand, in higher density environments, the less invasive model cell line reduced the fibril fraction as compared to the highly invasive phenotype. These results show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with existing experimental literature. Our simulation is therefore able to function as a novel platform to provide new insights into the clinically relevant and physiologically critical process of matrix remodeling by helping identify critical parameters that dictate cellular behavior in complex native-like environments. PMID:23341900

  20. Score Matrix for HWBI Forecast Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain scores used to support the approach for forecasting EPA's Human Well-Being Index. A modeling approach was developed based relationship function equations derived from select economic, social and ecosystem final goods and service scores and calculated human well-being index and related domain scores. These data are being used in a secondary capacity. The foundational data and scoring techniques were originally described in: a) U.S. EPA. 2012. Indicators and Methods for Constructing a U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) for Ecosystem Services Research. Report. EPA/600/R-12/023. pp. 121; and b) U.S. EPA. 2014. Indicators and Methods for Evaluating Economic, Ecosystem and Social Services Provisioning. Report. EPA/600/R-14/184. pp. 174. Mode Smith, L. M., Harwell, L. C., Summers, J. K., Smith, H. M., Wade, C. M., Straub, K. R. and J.L. Case (2014).This dataset is associated with the following publication:Summers , K., L. Harwell , and L. Smith. A Model For Change: An Approach for Forecasting Well-Being From Service-Based Decisions. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 69: 295-309, (2016).

  1. Explicit examples of DIM constraints for network matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awata, Hidetoshi; Kanno, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Takuya; Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Morozov, Andrey; Ohkubo, Yusuke; Zenkevich, Yegor

    2016-07-01

    Dotsenko-Fateev and Chern-Simons matrix models, which describe Nekrasov functions for SYM theories in different dimensions, are all incorporated into network matrix models with the hidden Ding-Iohara-Miki (DIM) symmetry. This lifting is especially simple for what we call balanced networks. Then, the Ward identities (known under the names of Virasoro/ {W} -constraints or loop equations or regularity condition for qq-characters) are also promoted to the DIM level, where they all become corollaries of a single identity.

  2. Green-Schwarz superstring from type IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2008-01-15

    We construct a Green-Schwarz (GS) light-cone closed superstring theory from the type IIB matrix model. A GS light-cone string action is derived from the two-dimensional N=8 U(n) noncommutative Yang-Mills (NCYM) theory by identifying a noncommutative scale with a string scale. The supersymmetry transformation for the light-cone gauge action is also derived from supersymmetry transformation for the IIB matrix model. By identifying the physical states and interaction vertices, string theory is perturbatively reproduced.

  3. On the complete perturbative solution of one-matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-08-01

    We summarize the recent results about complete solvability of Hermitian and rectangular complex matrix models. Partition functions have very simple character expansions with coefficients made from dimensions of representation of the linear group GL (N), and arbitrary correlators in the Gaussian phase are given by finite sums over Young diagrams of a given size, which involve also the well known characters of symmetric group. The previously known integrability and Virasoro constraints are simple corollaries, but no vice versa: complete solvability is a peculiar property of the matrix model (hypergeometric) τ-functions, which is actually a combination of these two complementary requirements.

  4. Modeling fatigue crack growth in cross ply titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, the fatigue crack growth behavior of fiber bridging matrix cracks in cross-ply SCS-6/Ti-15-3 and SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates containing center holes was investigated. Experimental observations revealed that matrix cracking was far more extensive and wide spread in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates compared to that in the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates. In addition, the fatigue life of the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates was significantly longer than that of the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates. The matrix cracking observed in both material systems was analyzed using a fiber bridging (FB) model which was formulated using the boundary correction factors and weight functions for center hole specimen configurations. A frictional shear stress is assumed in the FB model and was used as a curve fitting parameter to model matrix crack growth data. The higher frictional shear stresses calculated in the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates resulted in lower stress intensity factors in the matrix and higher axial stresses in the fibers compared to those in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates at the same applied stress levels.

  5. Modeling of crack bridging in a unidirectional metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    1992-01-01

    The effective fatigue crack driving force and crack opening profiles were determined analytically for fatigue tested unidirectional composite specimens exhibiting fiber bridging. The crack closure pressure due to bridging was modeled using two approaches: the fiber pressure model and the shear lag model. For both closure models, the Bueckner weight function method and the finite element method were used to calculate crack opening displacements and the crack driving force. The predicted near crack tip opening profile agreed well with the experimentally measured profiles for single edge notch SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite specimens. The numerically determined effective crack driving force, Delta K(eff), was calculated using both models to correlate the measure crack growth rate in the composite. The calculated Delta K(eff) from both models accounted for the crack bridging by showing a good agreement between the measured fatigue crack growth rates of the bridged composite and that of unreinforced, unbridged titanium matrix alloy specimens.

  6. Matrix models for quantifying competitive intransitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Werner; Soliveres, Santiago; Kryszewski, Wojciech; Maestre, Fernando T.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of intransitive competition networks in nature has been difficult because it requires a large number of pairwise competition experiments linked to observed field abundances of interacting species. Here we introduce metrics and statistical tests for evaluating the contribution of intransitivity to community structure using two kinds of data: competition matrices derived from the outcomes of pairwise experimental studies (C matrices) and species abundance matrices. We use C matrices to develop patch transition matrices (P) that predict community structure in a simple Markov chain model. We propose a randomization test to evaluate the degree of intransitivity from these P matrices in combination with empirical or simulated C matrices. Benchmark tests revealed that the methods could correctly detect intransitive competition networks, even in the absence of direct measures of pairwise competitive strength. These tests represent the first tools for estimating the degree of intransitivity in competitive networks from observational datasets. They can be applied to both spatio-temporal data sampled in homogeneous environments or across environmental gradients, and to experimental measures of pairwise interactions. To illustrate the methods, we analyzed empirical data matrices on the colonization of slug carrion by necrophagous flies and their parasitoids. PMID:25914427

  7. Matrix models for quantifying competitive intransitivity.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Werner; Soliveres, Santiago; Kryszewski, Wojciech; Maestre, Fernando T; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2014-09-01

    Assessing the relative importance of intransitive competition networks in nature has been difficult because it requires a large number of pairwise competition experiments linked to observed field abundances of interacting species. Here we introduce metrics and statistical tests for evaluating the contribution of intransitivity to community structure using two kinds of data: competition matrices derived from the outcomes of pairwise experimental studies (C matrices) and species abundance matrices. We use C matrices to develop patch transition matrices (P) that predict community structure in a simple Markov chain model. We propose a randomization test to evaluate the degree of intransitivity from these P matrices in combination with empirical or simulated C matrices. Benchmark tests revealed that the methods could correctly detect intransitive competition networks, even in the absence of direct measures of pairwise competitive strength. These tests represent the first tools for estimating the degree of intransitivity in competitive networks from observational datasets. They can be applied to both spatio-temporal data sampled in homogeneous environments or across environmental gradients, and to experimental measures of pairwise interactions. To illustrate the methods, we analyzed empirical data matrices on the colonization of slug carrion by necrophagous flies and their parasitoids.

  8. Transmission line matrix modelling of thermal injuries to skin.

    PubMed

    Aliouat Bellia, S; Saidane, A; Hamou, A; Benzohra, M; Saiter, J M

    2008-08-01

    A numerical model based on the transmission line matrix method is presented for the quantitative prediction of skin burn resulting from exposure of a specific region of human skin surface to a high temperature heat source. Transient temperatures were numerically estimated by Pennes' bioheat equation, and the damage function denoting the extent of burn was calculated using the Arrhenius assumptions for protein damage rate. A two-dimensional transmission line matrix model was used to predict the effects of exposure time and structure thicknesses on the transient temperature distribution and damage extent. Compared with other numerical sources the transmission line matrix results revealed good agreement, suggesting that this method may be an effective tool for the thermal diagnostic of burns.

  9. HIGH DIMENSIONAL COVARIANCE MATRIX ESTIMATION IN APPROXIMATE FACTOR MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The variance covariance matrix plays a central role in the inferential theories of high dimensional factor models in finance and economics. Popular regularization methods of directly exploiting sparsity are not directly applicable to many financial problems. Classical methods of estimating the covariance matrices are based on the strict factor models, assuming independent idiosyncratic components. This assumption, however, is restrictive in practical applications. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix, we allow the presence of the cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common factors, and it enables us to combine the merits of both methods. We estimate the sparse covariance using the adaptive thresholding technique as in Cai and Liu (2011), taking into account the fact that direct observations of the idiosyncratic components are unavailable. The impact of high dimensionality on the covariance matrix estimation based on the factor structure is then studied. PMID:22661790

  10. Random matrix model for QCD{sub 3} staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bialas, P.; Burda, Z.; Petersson, B.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the lowest part of the eigenvalue density of the staggered fermion operator in lattice QCD{sub 3} at small lattice coupling constant {beta} has exactly the same shape as in QCD{sub 4}. This observation is quite surprising, since universal properties of the QCD{sub 3} Dirac operator are expected to be described by a nonchiral matrix model. We show that this effect is related to the specific nature of the staggered fermion discretization and that the eigenvalue density evolves toward the nonchiral random matrix prediction when {beta} is increased and the continuum limit is approached. We propose a two-matrix model with one free parameter which interpolates between the two limits and very well mimics the pattern of evolution with {beta} of the eigenvalue density of the staggered fermion operator in QCD{sub 3}.

  11. HIGH DIMENSIONAL COVARIANCE MATRIX ESTIMATION IN APPROXIMATE FACTOR MODELS.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The variance covariance matrix plays a central role in the inferential theories of high dimensional factor models in finance and economics. Popular regularization methods of directly exploiting sparsity are not directly applicable to many financial problems. Classical methods of estimating the covariance matrices are based on the strict factor models, assuming independent idiosyncratic components. This assumption, however, is restrictive in practical applications. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix, we allow the presence of the cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common factors, and it enables us to combine the merits of both methods. We estimate the sparse covariance using the adaptive thresholding technique as in Cai and Liu (2011), taking into account the fact that direct observations of the idiosyncratic components are unavailable. The impact of high dimensionality on the covariance matrix estimation based on the factor structure is then studied.

  12. An algebraic factorisation scheme for spectral element solution of incompressible flow and scalar transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho J.; Beskok, Ali

    2010-03-01

    A spectral element algorithm for solution of the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes and scalar (species/heat) transport equations is developed using the algebraic factorisation scheme. The new algorithm utilises Nth order Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre points for velocity and the scalar, while (N-2)th order Gauss-Legendre points are used for pressure. As a result, the algorithm does not require inter-element continuity for pressure and pressure boundary conditions on solid surfaces. Implementations of the algorithm are performed for conforming and non-conforming grids. The latter is accomplished using both the point-wise matching and integral projection methods, and applied for grids with both polynomial and geometric non-conformities. Code validation cases include the unsteady scalar convection equation, and Kovasznay flow in two- and three-dimensional domains. Using cases with analytical solutions, the algorithm is shown to achieve spectral accuracy in space and second-order accuracy in time. The results for the Boussinesq approximation for buoyancy-driven flows, and the species mixing in a continuous flow micro-mixer are also included as examples of applications that require long-time integration of the scalar transport equations.

  13. Modeling of visible light channel based on matrix reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Xian; Huo, Jiahao; Yan, Kaili

    2016-10-01

    Visible light channel modeling is one of the key technologies in visible light communication researches. But traditional Modified Monte Carlo Algorithm and Photon Tracing Algorithm still exist the problem of nesting too many times for visible light channel modeling, which leads to large computational complexity, so the system will take up too much computing resources. To solve this problem, we present the visible light channel modeling based on matrix reconstruction, which can simulate multiple diffuse reflection channel response in the case of low complexity. The simulation results show that the matrix reconstruction method can significantly reduce computational complexity comparing with the traditional modeling methods when the number of diffuse reflection increases. Meanwhile, the high modeling accuracy is guaranteed when the simulation time is shortened.

  14. Resilient organizations: matrix model and service line management.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Judith A

    2005-09-01

    Resilient organizations modify structures to meet the demands of the marketplace. The author describes a structure that enables multihospital organizations to innovate and rapidly adapt to changes. Service line management within a matrix model is an evolving organizational structure for complex systems in which nurses are pivotal members.

  15. Multivariate Linear Models of the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wothke, Werner

    Several multivariate statistical methodologies have been proposed to ensure objective and quantitative evaluation of the multitrait-multimethod matrix. The paper examines the performance of confirmatory factor analysis and covariance component models. It is shown, both empirically and formally, that confirmatory factor analysis is not a reliable…

  16. Demographic matrix model for swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption (weak links) by biological control and/or other control tactics. Therefore, t...

  17. Statistical model selection between elastic and Newtonian viscous matrix models for the microboudin palaeopiezometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Tarojiro; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Masuda, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    We carried out statistical evaluations of two probability density functions for the microboudin palaeopiezometer using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the cross-validation (CV) technique. In terms of the relevant stress-transfer model, these functions are defined as the elastic matrix model and the Newtonian viscous matrix model, respectively. The AIC and CV techniques enable us to evaluate the relative quality of both models when applied to nine data sets collected from metachert samples containing tourmaline grains in a quartz matrix, collected from the East Pilbara Terrane, Western Australia. The results show that the elastic matrix model is the more appropriate probability density function for analysis of fracturing of tourmaline grains in a quartz matrix. This statistical evaluation shows the validity of the elastic matrix model for the microboudin palaeopiezometer when analysing such data sets.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Modeling of 3-D Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2003-01-01

    Three different approaches are being pursued at the NASA Glenn Research Center to predict the nanostructural behavior of three-dimensional woven ceramic matrix composites. These are: a micromechanics-based approach using W-CEMCAN (Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite Analyzer), a laminate analogy method and a structural frame approach (based on the finite element method). All three techniques are applied to predict the thermomechanical properties of a three-dimensional woven angle interlock C/SiC composite. The properties are predicted for room temperature and 1100 C and the predicted properties are compared to measurements. General observations regarding the three approaches for three-dimensional composite modeling are discussed.

  19. Unitary matrix models and 2D quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dalley, S. . Joseph Henry Labs.); Johnson, C.V.; Morris, T.R. . Dept. of Physics); Watterstam, A. )

    1992-09-21

    In this paper the KdV and modified KdV integrable hierarchies are shown to be different descriptions of the same 2D gravitational system - open-closed string theory. Non-perturbative solutions of the multicritical unitary matrix models map to non-singular solutions of the renormalization group equation for the string susceptibility, [P, Q] = Q. The authors also demonstrate that the large-N solutions of unitary matrix integrals in external fields, studied by Gross and Newman, equal the non-singular pure closed-string solutions of [[bar P], Q] = Q.

  20. Life Modeling and Design Analysis for Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The primary research efforts focused on characterizing and modeling static failure, environmental durability, and creep-rupture behavior of two classes of ceramic matrix composites (CMC), silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) and carbon fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (C/SiC). An engineering life prediction model (Probabilistic Residual Strength model) has been developed specifically for CMCs. The model uses residual strength as the damage metric for evaluating remaining life and is posed probabilistically in order to account for the stochastic nature of the material s response. In support of the modeling effort, extensive testing of C/SiC in partial pressures of oxygen has been performed. This includes creep testing, tensile testing, half life and residual tensile strength testing. C/SiC is proposed for airframe and propulsion applications in advanced reusable launch vehicles. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the models predictive capabilities as well as the manner in which experimental tests are being selected in such a manner as to ensure sufficient data is available to aid in model validation.

  1. Coulomb matrix elements in multi-orbital Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünemann, Jörg; Gebhard, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Coulomb matrix elements are needed in all studies in solid-state theory that are based on Hubbard-type multi-orbital models. Due to symmetries, the matrix elements are not independent. We determine a set of independent Coulomb parameters for a d-shell and an f-shell and all point groups with up to 16 elements (O h , O, T d , T h , D 6h , and D 4h ). Furthermore, we express all other matrix elements as a function of the independent Coulomb parameters. Apart from the solution of the general point-group problem we investigate in detail the spherical approximation and first-order corrections to the spherical approximation.

  2. Hemostatic Efficacy of Nanofibrous Matrix in Rat Liver Injury Model.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Amit K; Chhabra, Hemlata; Narwane, Sandipan; Rege, Nirmala; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2017-02-01

    This present study examined the hemostatic efficacy of nanofibrous matrix in a rat liver model. The nanofibrous matrix comprising gelatin and polycaprolactone was prepared by electrospinning method. Twelve animals underwent surgery and were followed-up for a month. Time taken to cease bleeding, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration were measured. Histopathological examination of liver was also done of treated and control animals. All test animals showed very rapid hemostasis after application of electrospun sheet. Histopathological study showed quick recovery of liver wound in the test group as compared to the control group. The nanofibrous matrix has proven to be not only safe and effective as hemostat but has also shown its potential for liver regeneration.

  3. The uses of the refined matrix model recursion

    SciTech Connect

    Brini, Andrea; Marino, Marcos; Stevan, Sebastien

    2011-05-15

    We study matrix models in the {beta}-ensemble by building on the refined recursion relation proposed by Chekhov and Eynard. We present explicit results for the first {beta}-deformed corrections in the one-cut and the two-cut cases, as well as two applications to supersymmetric gauge theories: the calculation of superpotentials in N=1 gauge theories, and the calculation of vevs of surface operators in superconformal N=2 theories and their Liouville duals. Finally, we study the {beta}-deformation of the Chern-Simons matrix model. Our results indicate that this model does not provide an appropriate description of the {Omega}-deformed topological string on the resolved conifold, and therefore that the {beta}-deformation might provide a different generalization of topological string theory in toric Calabi-Yau backgrounds.

  4. Matrix models and stochastic growth in Donaldson-Thomas theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Richard J.; Tierz, Miguel

    2012-10-01

    We show that the partition functions which enumerate Donaldson-Thomas invariants of local toric Calabi-Yau threefolds without compact divisors can be expressed in terms of specializations of the Schur measure. We also discuss the relevance of the Hall-Littlewood and Jack measures in the context of BPS state counting and study the partition functions at arbitrary points of the Kähler moduli space. This rewriting in terms of symmetric functions leads to a unitary one-matrix model representation for Donaldson-Thomas theory. We describe explicitly how this result is related to the unitary matrix model description of Chern-Simons gauge theory. This representation is used to show that the generating functions for Donaldson-Thomas invariants are related to tau-functions of the integrable Toda and Toeplitz lattice hierarchies. The matrix model also leads to an interpretation of Donaldson-Thomas theory in terms of non-intersecting paths in the lock-step model of vicious walkers. We further show that these generating functions can be interpreted as normalization constants of a corner growth/last-passage stochastic model.

  5. Matrix models and stochastic growth in Donaldson-Thomas theory

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Richard J.; Tierz, Miguel

    2012-10-15

    We show that the partition functions which enumerate Donaldson-Thomas invariants of local toric Calabi-Yau threefolds without compact divisors can be expressed in terms of specializations of the Schur measure. We also discuss the relevance of the Hall-Littlewood and Jack measures in the context of BPS state counting and study the partition functions at arbitrary points of the Kaehler moduli space. This rewriting in terms of symmetric functions leads to a unitary one-matrix model representation for Donaldson-Thomas theory. We describe explicitly how this result is related to the unitary matrix model description of Chern-Simons gauge theory. This representation is used to show that the generating functions for Donaldson-Thomas invariants are related to tau-functions of the integrable Toda and Toeplitz lattice hierarchies. The matrix model also leads to an interpretation of Donaldson-Thomas theory in terms of non-intersecting paths in the lock-step model of vicious walkers. We further show that these generating functions can be interpreted as normalization constants of a corner growth/last-passage stochastic model.

  6. Lie-algebraic solutions of the type IIB matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios

    2011-11-01

    A systematic search for Lie-algebra solutions of the type IIB matrix model is performed. Our survey is based on the classification of all Lie algebras for dimensions up to five and of all nilpotent Lie algebras of dimension six. It is shown that Lie-type solutions of the equations of motion of the type IIB matrix model exist and they correspond to certain nilpotent and solvable Lie algebras. Their representation in terms of Hermitian matrices is discussed in detail. These algebras give rise to certain noncommutative spaces for which the corresponding star products are provided. Finally the issue of constructing quantized compact nilmanifolds and solvmanifolds based on the above algebras is addressed.

  7. Using self-assembled monolayers to model the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Mrksich, Milan

    2009-03-01

    The extracellular matrix is an insoluble aggregate of large proteins and glycosoaminoglycans that comprises the microenvironment of cells in tissue. The matrix displays a host of ligands that interact with cell-surface receptors to mediate the attachment and spreading of cells and regulate signaling processes. Studies of cell-matrix interactions and downstream signaling processes commonly employ substrates having an adsorbed layer of protein and are challenged by the difficulty in controlling the structure and activity of the immobilized protein. Significant effort has been directed towards the development of model substrates that present adhesion ligands in defined densities, orientations and environments. Among these approaches, self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold offer a high level of control over the molecular structure of the surface and are well-suited to studies of cell adhesion. This review describes the design and use of monolayers for applications in cell biology, including the use of monolayers to evaluate the roles of peptide and protein ligands in cell-matrix interactions, the development of methods to pattern ligands on monolayers and applications to cell biology, the development of dynamic monolayers that can switch the activities of ligands presented to an adherent cell, and the rewiring of interactions between a cell and its substrate. These examples illustrate the flexibility inherent to monolayers for applications in cell biology.

  8. Anisotropic Damage Mechanics Modeling in Metal Matrix Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-15

    conducted on a titanium aluminide SiC-reinforced metal matrix composite. Center-cracked plates with laminate layups of (0/90) and (±45). were tested...Kattan, P. I., "Finite Strain Plasticity and Damage in Constitutive Modeling of Metals with Spin Tensors," Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 45, No. 3...34Contractors Meeting on Mechanics of Materials," Dayton, Ohio, October 1991. Voyiadjis, G. Z., and Kattan, P. I., "Finite Strain Plasticity and Damage in

  9. Chiral matrix model of the semi-QGP in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, Robert D.; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-01

    Previously, a matrix model of the region near the transition temperature, in the "semi"quark gluon plasma, was developed for the theory of S U (3 ) gluons without quarks. In this paper we develop a chiral matrix model applicable to QCD by including dynamical quarks with 2 +1 flavors. This requires adding a nonet of scalar fields, with both parities, and coupling these to quarks through a Yukawa coupling, y . Treating the scalar fields in mean field approximation, the effective Lagrangian is computed by integrating out quarks to one loop order. As is standard, the potential for the scalar fields is chosen to be symmetric under the flavor symmetry of S U (3 )L×S U (3 )R×Z (3 )A, except for a term linear in the current quark mass, mqk. In addition, at a nonzero temperature T it is necessary to add a new term, ˜mqkT2. The parameters of the gluon part of the matrix model are identical to those for the pure glue theory without quarks. The parameters in the chiral matrix model are fixed by the values, at zero temperature, of the pion decay constant and the masses of the pions, kaons, η , and η'. The temperature for the chiral crossover at Tχ=155 MeV is determined by adjusting the Yukawa coupling y . We find reasonable agreement with the results of numerical simulations on the lattice for the pressure and related quantities. In the chiral limit, besides the divergence in the chiral susceptibility there is also a milder divergence in the susceptibility between the Polyakov loop and the chiral order parameter, with critical exponent β -1 . We compute derivatives with respect to a quark chemical potential to determine the susceptibilities for baryon number, the χ2 n. Especially sensitive tests are provided by χ4-χ2 and by χ6, which changes in sign about Tχ. The behavior of the susceptibilities in the chiral matrix model strongly suggests that as the temperature increases from Tχ, that the transition to deconfinement is significantly quicker than indicated by the

  10. Chiral matrix model of the semi-QGP in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, Robert D.; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-08

    Previously, a matrix model of the region near the transition temperature, in the “semi”quark gluon plasma, was developed for the theory of SU(3) gluons without quarks. In this paper we develop a chiral matrix model applicable to QCD by including dynamical quarks with 2+1 flavors. This requires adding a nonet of scalar fields, with both parities, and coupling these to quarks through a Yukawa coupling, y. Treating the scalar fields in mean field approximation, the effective Lagrangian is computed by integrating out quarks to one loop order. As is standard, the potential for the scalar fields is chosen to be symmetric under the flavor symmetry of SU (3)L × SU(3)R × Z (3) A , except for a term linear in the current quark mass, mqk . In addition, at a nonzero temperature T it is necessary to add a new term, ~ mqk T2 . The parameters of the gluon part of the matrix model are identical to those for the pure glue theory without quarks. The parameters in the chiral matrix model are fixed by the values, at zero temperature, of the pion decay constant and the masses of the pions, kaons, η , and η' . The temperature for the chiral crossover at T$χ$ = 155 MeV is determined by adjusting the Yukawa coupling y . We find reasonable agreement with the results of numerical simulations on the lattice for the pressure and related quantities. In the chiral limit, besides the divergence in the chiral susceptibility there is also a milder divergence in the susceptibility between the Polyakov loop and the chiral order parameter, with critical exponent β $-$ 1 . We compute derivatives with respect to a quark chemical potential to determine the susceptibilities for baryon number, the $χ$2n . Especially sensitive tests are provided by $χ$4 $-$ $χ$2 and by $χ$6 , which changes in sign about T$χ$ . In conclusion, the behavior of the susceptibilities in the chiral matrix

  11. Chiral matrix model of the semi-QGP in QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Pisarski, Robert D.; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-08

    Previously, a matrix model of the region near the transition temperature, in the “semi”quark gluon plasma, was developed for the theory of SU(3) gluons without quarks. In this paper we develop a chiral matrix model applicable to QCD by including dynamical quarks with 2+1 flavors. This requires adding a nonet of scalar fields, with both parities, and coupling these to quarks through a Yukawa coupling, y. Treating the scalar fields in mean field approximation, the effective Lagrangian is computed by integrating out quarks to one loop order. As is standard, the potential for the scalar fields is chosen to bemore » symmetric under the flavor symmetry of SU (3)L × SU(3)R × Z (3) A , except for a term linear in the current quark mass, mqk . In addition, at a nonzero temperature T it is necessary to add a new term, ~ mqk T2 . The parameters of the gluon part of the matrix model are identical to those for the pure glue theory without quarks. The parameters in the chiral matrix model are fixed by the values, at zero temperature, of the pion decay constant and the masses of the pions, kaons, η , and η' . The temperature for the chiral crossover at T$χ$ = 155 MeV is determined by adjusting the Yukawa coupling y . We find reasonable agreement with the results of numerical simulations on the lattice for the pressure and related quantities. In the chiral limit, besides the divergence in the chiral susceptibility there is also a milder divergence in the susceptibility between the Polyakov loop and the chiral order parameter, with critical exponent β $-$ 1 . We compute derivatives with respect to a quark chemical potential to determine the susceptibilities for baryon number, the $χ$2n . Especially sensitive tests are provided by $χ$4 $-$ $χ$2 and by $χ$6 , which changes in sign about T$χ$ . In conclusion, the behavior of the susceptibilities in the chiral matrix model strongly suggests that as the temperature increases from T$χ$ , that the transition to

  12. Chiral matrix model of the semi-QGP in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, Robert D.; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-08

    Previously, a matrix model of the region near the transition temperature, in the “semi”quark gluon plasma, was developed for the theory of SU(3) gluons without quarks. In this paper we develop a chiral matrix model applicable to QCD by including dynamical quarks with 2+1 flavors. This requires adding a nonet of scalar fields, with both parities, and coupling these to quarks through a Yukawa coupling, y. Treating the scalar fields in mean field approximation, the effective Lagrangian is computed by integrating out quarks to one loop order. As is standard, the potential for the scalar fields is chosen to be symmetric under the flavor symmetry of SU (3)L × SU(3)R × Z (3) A , except for a term linear in the current quark mass, mqk . In addition, at a nonzero temperature T it is necessary to add a new term, ~ mqk T2 . The parameters of the gluon part of the matrix model are identical to those for the pure glue theory without quarks. The parameters in the chiral matrix model are fixed by the values, at zero temperature, of the pion decay constant and the masses of the pions, kaons, η , and η' . The temperature for the chiral crossover at T$χ$ = 155 MeV is determined by adjusting the Yukawa coupling y . We find reasonable agreement with the results of numerical simulations on the lattice for the pressure and related quantities. In the chiral limit, besides the divergence in the chiral susceptibility there is also a milder divergence in the susceptibility between the Polyakov loop and the chiral order parameter, with critical exponent β $-$ 1 . We compute derivatives with respect to a quark chemical potential to determine the susceptibilities for baryon number, the $χ$2n . Especially sensitive tests are provided by $χ$4 $-$ $χ$2 and by $χ$6 , which changes in sign about T$χ$ . In conclusion, the behavior of the susceptibilities in the chiral matrix

  13. Modeling mechanophore activation within a crosslinked glassy matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Meredith N.; Min, Kyoungmin; Cremar, Lee D.; Degen, Cassandra M.; Martinez, Todd J.; Aluru, Narayana R.; White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.

    2013-07-01

    Mechanically induced reactivity is a promising means for designing self-reporting materials. Mechanically sensitive chemical groups called mechanophores are covalently linked into polymers in order to trigger specific chemical reactions upon mechanical loading. These mechanophores can be linked either within the backbone or as crosslinks between backbone segments. Mechanophore response is sensitive to both the matrix properties and placement within the matrix, providing two avenues for material design. A model framework is developed to describe reactivity of mechanophores located as crosslinks in a glassy polymer matrix. Simulations are conducted at the molecular and macromolecular scales in order to develop macroscale constitutive relations. The model is developed specifically for the case of spiropyran (SP) in lightly crosslinked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). This optically trackable mechanophore (fluorescent when activated) allows the model to be assessed in terms of observed experimental behavior. The force modified potential energy surface (FMPES) framework is used in conjunction with ab initio steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of SP to determine the mechanophore kinetics. MD simulations of the crosslinked PMMA structure under shear deformation are used to determine the relationship between macroscale stress and local force on the crosslinks. A continuum model implemented in a finite element framework synthesizes these mechanochemical relations with the mechanical behavior. The continuum model with parameters taken directly from the FMPES and MD analyses under predicts stress-driven activation relative to experimental data. The continuum model, with the physically motivated modification of force fluctuations, provides an accurate prediction for monotonic loading across three decades of strain rate and creep loading, suggesting that the fundamental physics are captured.

  14. Modeling of crack bridging in a unidirectional metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    The effective fatigue crack driving force and crack opening profiles were determined analytically for fatigue tested unidirectional composite specimens exhibiting fiber bridging. The crack closure pressure due to bridging was modeled using two approaches; the fiber pressure model and the shear lag model. For both closure models, the Bueckner weight function method and the finite element method were used to calculate crack opening displacements and the crack driving force. The predicted near crack tip opening profile agreed well with the experimentally measured profiles for single edge notch SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite specimens. The numerically determined effective crack driving force, Delta K(sup eff), was calculated using both models to correlate the measure crack growth rate in the composite. The calculated Delta K(sup eff) from both models accounted for the crack bridging by showing a good agreement between the measured fatigue crack growth rates of the bridged composite and that of unreinforced, unbridged titanium matrix alloy specimens.

  15. Mechanical model for a collagen fibril pair in extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yue; Cox, Grant M; Haverkamp, Richard G; Hill, James M

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we model the mechanics of a collagen pair in the connective tissue extracellular matrix that exists in abundance throughout animals, including the human body. This connective tissue comprises repeated units of two main structures, namely collagens as well as axial, parallel and regular anionic glycosaminoglycan between collagens. The collagen fibril can be modeled by Hooke's law whereas anionic glycosaminoglycan behaves more like a rubber-band rod and as such can be better modeled by the worm-like chain model. While both computer simulations and continuum mechanics models have been investigated for the behavior of this connective tissue typically, authors either assume a simple form of the molecular potential energy or entirely ignore the microscopic structure of the connective tissue. Here, we apply basic physical methodologies and simple applied mathematical modeling techniques to describe the collagen pair quantitatively. We found that the growth of fibrils was intimately related to the maximum length of the anionic glycosaminoglycan and the relative displacement of two adjacent fibrils, which in return was closely related to the effectiveness of anionic glycosaminoglycan in transmitting forces between fibrils. These reveal the importance of the anionic glycosaminoglycan in maintaining the structural shape of the connective tissue extracellular matrix and eventually the shape modulus of human tissues. We also found that some macroscopic properties, like the maximum molecular energy and the breaking fraction of the collagen, were also related to the microscopic characteristics of the anionic glycosaminoglycan.

  16. Chaos in matrix models and black hole evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Hanada, Masanori; Maltz, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Is the evaporation of a black hole described by a unitary theory? In order to shed light on this question—especially aspects of this question such as a black hole's negative specific heat—we consider the real-time dynamics of a solitonic object in matrix quantum mechanics, which can be interpreted as a black hole (black zero-brane) via holography. We point out that the chaotic nature of the system combined with the flat directions of its potential naturally leads to the emission of D0-branes from the black brane, which is suppressed in the large N limit. Simple arguments show that the black zero-brane, like the Schwarzschild black hole, has negative specific heat, in the sense that the temperature goes up when it evaporates by emitting D0-branes. While the largest Lyapunov exponent grows during the evaporation, the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy decreases. These are consequences of the generic properties of matrix models and gauge theory. Based on these results, we give a possible geometric interpretation of the eigenvalue distribution of matrices in terms of gravity. Applying the same argument in the M-theory parameter region, we provide a scenario to derive the Hawking radiation of massless particles from the Schwarzschild black hole. Finally, we suggest that by adding a fraction of the quantum effects to the classical theory, we can obtain a matrix model whose classical time evolution mimics the entire life of the black brane, from its formation to the evaporation.

  17. Matrix viscoplasticity and its shielding by active mechanics in microtissue models: experiments and mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Alan S.; Wang, Hailong; Copeland, Craig R.; Chen, Christopher S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Reich, Daniel H.

    2016-09-01

    The biomechanical behavior of tissues under mechanical stimulation is critically important to physiological function. We report a combined experimental and modeling study of bioengineered 3D smooth muscle microtissues that reveals a previously unappreciated interaction between active cell mechanics and the viscoplastic properties of the extracellular matrix. The microtissues’ response to stretch/unstretch actuations, as probed by microcantilever force sensors, was dominated by cellular actomyosin dynamics. However, cell lysis revealed a viscoplastic response of the underlying model collagen/fibrin matrix. A model coupling Hill-type actomyosin dynamics with a plastic perfectly viscoplastic description of the matrix quantitatively accounts for the microtissue dynamics, including notably the cells’ shielding of the matrix plasticity. Stretch measurements of single cells confirmed the active cell dynamics, and were well described by a single-cell version of our model. These results reveal the need for new focus on matrix plasticity and its interactions with active cell mechanics in describing tissue dynamics.

  18. Matrix viscoplasticity and its shielding by active mechanics in microtissue models: experiments and mathematical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alan S.; Wang, Hailong; Copeland, Craig R.; Chen, Christopher S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Reich, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of tissues under mechanical stimulation is critically important to physiological function. We report a combined experimental and modeling study of bioengineered 3D smooth muscle microtissues that reveals a previously unappreciated interaction between active cell mechanics and the viscoplastic properties of the extracellular matrix. The microtissues’ response to stretch/unstretch actuations, as probed by microcantilever force sensors, was dominated by cellular actomyosin dynamics. However, cell lysis revealed a viscoplastic response of the underlying model collagen/fibrin matrix. A model coupling Hill-type actomyosin dynamics with a plastic perfectly viscoplastic description of the matrix quantitatively accounts for the microtissue dynamics, including notably the cells’ shielding of the matrix plasticity. Stretch measurements of single cells confirmed the active cell dynamics, and were well described by a single-cell version of our model. These results reveal the need for new focus on matrix plasticity and its interactions with active cell mechanics in describing tissue dynamics. PMID:27671239

  19. Thermal response model of polymer matrix composites under laser irradiating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guo-liang; Zhang, Xiang-hua; Du, Tai-jiao

    2015-05-01

    A numerical study is conducted to determine which model could be used to compute temperature fields of polymer matrix composites under laser irradiating. By using the local thermal non-equilibrium model, solid and gas temperature on surfaces of materials with different volume convection coefficients have been computed and compared under different heat flux. The results show that the assumption of local thermal equilibrium is not reasonable until the heat flux applied to composites is low enough and the volume convection coefficient is big enough. And the gas may be not important for solid temperature when the volume convection coefficient is small.

  20. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  1. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  2. An Uncertainty Structure Matrix for Models and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Luckring, James M.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2008-01-01

    Software that is used for aerospace flight control and to display information to pilots and crew is expected to be correct and credible at all times. This type of software is typically developed under strict management processes, which are intended to reduce defects in the software product. However, modeling and simulation (M&S) software may exhibit varying degrees of correctness and credibility, depending on a large and complex set of factors. These factors include its intended use, the known physics and numerical approximations within the M&S, and the referent data set against which the M&S correctness is compared. The correctness and credibility of an M&S effort is closely correlated to the uncertainty management (UM) practices that are applied to the M&S effort. This paper describes an uncertainty structure matrix for M&S, which provides a set of objective descriptions for the possible states of UM practices within a given M&S effort. The columns in the uncertainty structure matrix contain UM elements or practices that are common across most M&S efforts, and the rows describe the potential levels of achievement in each of the elements. A practitioner can quickly look at the matrix to determine where an M&S effort falls based on a common set of UM practices that are described in absolute terms that can be applied to virtually any M&S effort. The matrix can also be used to plan those steps and resources that would be needed to improve the UM practices for a given M&S effort.

  3. The multitrace matrix model: An alternative to Connes NCG and IKKT model in 2 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ydri, Badis

    2016-12-01

    We present a new multitrace matrix model, which is a generalization of the real quartic one matrix model, exhibiting dynamical emergence of a fuzzy two-sphere and its non-commutative gauge theory. This provides a novel and a much simpler alternative to Connes non-commutative geometry and to the IKKT matrix model for emergent geometry in two dimensions. However, in higher dimensions this mechanism is not known to exist and the systematic frameworks of NCG and IKKT are expected to hold sway.

  4. Transfer matrix methods in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koza, Zbigniew; Jasiukiewicz, Czesa̵w; Pȩkalski, Andrzej

    1990-03-01

    The critical properties of the plane Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model are analyzed using two transfer matrix approaches. The two methods and the domains of their applicability are discussed. The phase diagram is derived and compared with the one obtained by the position-space renormalization group (PSRG). The critical indices η i and conformal anomaly c are computed at Ising-like and Potts-like critical points and a good agreement with the conformal invariance predictions is found. A new, very effective method of estimating critical points is introduced and an attempt to estimate critical end points is also made.

  5. Modeling of cumulative tool wear in machining metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, N.P.; Tan, V.K.; Oon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are notoriously known for their low machinability because of the abrasive and brittle reinforcement. Although a near-net-shape product could be produced, finish machining is still required for the final shape and dimension. The classical Taylor`s tool life equation that relates tool life and cutting conditions has been traditionally used to study machinability. The turning operation is commonly used to investigate the machinability of a material; tedious and costly milling experiments have to be performed separately; while a facing test is not applicable for the Taylor`s model since the facing speed varies as the tool moves radially. Collecting intensive machining data for MMCs is often difficult because of the constraints on size, cost of the material, and the availability of sophisticated machine tools. A more flexible model and machinability testing technique are, therefore, sought. This study presents and verifies new models for turning, facing, and milling operations. Different cutting conditions were utilized to assess the machinability of MMCs reinforced with silicon carbide or alumina particles. Experimental data show that tool wear does not depend on the order of different cutting speeds since abrasion is the main wear mechanism. Correlation between data for turning, milling, and facing is presented. It is more economical to rank machinability using data for facing and then to convert the data for turning and milling, if required. Subsurface damages such as work-hardened and cracked matrix alloy, and fractured and delaminated particles are discussed.

  6. Modeling cell-matrix traction forces in Keratinocyte colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shiladitya

    2013-03-01

    Crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions plays an essential role in the mechanical function of tissues. The traction forces exerted by cohesive keratinocyte colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions are mostly concentrated at the colony periphery. In contrast, for weak cadherin-based intercellular adhesions, individual cells in a colony interact with their matrix independently, with a disorganized distribution of traction forces extending throughout the colony. In this talk I will present a minimal physical model of the colony as contractile elastic media linked by springs and coupled to an elastic substrate. The model captures the spatial distribution of traction forces seen in experiments. For cell colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions, the total traction force of the colony measured in experiments is found to scale with the colony's geometrical size. This scaling suggests the emergence of an effective surface tension of magnitude comparable to that measured for non-adherent, three-dimensional cell aggregates. The physical model supports the scaling and indicates that the surface tension may be controlled by acto-myosin contractility. Supported by the NSF through grant DMR-1004789. This work was done in collaboration with Aaron F. Mertz, Eric R. Dufresne and Valerie Horsley (Yale University) and M. Cristina Marchetti (Syracuse University).

  7. Smallest matrix black hole model in the classical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenstein, David; Kawai, Daisuke

    2017-05-01

    We study the smallest nontrivial matrix model that can be considered to be a (toy) model of a black hole. The model consists of a pair of 2 ×2 traceless Hermitian matrices with a commutator squared potential and an S U (2 ) gauge symmetry, plus an S O (2 ) rotation symmetry. We show that using the symmetries of the system, all but two of the variables can be separated. The two variables that remain display chaos and a transition from chaos to integrability when a parameter related to an S O (2 ) angular momentum is tuned to a critical value. We compute the Lyapunov exponents near this transition and study the critical exponent of the Lyapunov exponents near the critical point. We compare this transition to extremal rotating black holes.

  8. Non-Hermitian random matrix models: Free random variable approach

    SciTech Connect

    Janik, R.A.,; Nowak, M.A., ||; Papp, G.,; Wambach, J.,; Zahed, I., |

    1997-04-01

    Using the standard concepts of free random variables, we show that for a large class of non-Hermitian random matrix models, the support of the eigenvalue distribution follows from their Hermitian analogs using a conformal transformation. We also extend the concepts of free random variables to the class of non-Hermitian matrices, and apply them to the models discussed by Ginibre-Girko (elliptic ensemble) [J. Ginibre, J. Math. Phys. {bold 6}, 1440 (1965); V. L. Girko, {ital Spectral Theory of Random Matrices} (in Russian) (Nauka, Moscow, 1988)] and Mahaux-Weidenm{umlt u}ller (chaotic resonance scattering) [C. Mahaux and H. A. Weidenm{umlt u}ller, {ital Shell-model Approach to Nuclear Reactions} (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1969)]. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. The implementation of holography in the plane wave matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mints, Aleksey Leonidovich

    It is expected that at the core of nonperturbative theories of quantum gravity, such as M-theory, lies the realization of the holographic principle, in the sense that a holographic theory should contain one binary degree of freedom per Planck area. Present understanding of such theories requires the holographic encoding of bulk data in large matrices. Currently this mapping is poorly understood. The plane wave matrix model provides a laboratory for isolating aspects of this problem in a controlled setting. At large boosts, configurations of concentric membranes become superselection sectors, whose exact spectra are known. From the bulk point of view one expects product states of individual membranes to be contained within the full spectrum. However, for non-BPS states this inclusion relation is obscured by Gauss law constraints. Its validity rests on nontrivial relations in representation theory, which we identify and verify by explicit computation. Beyond the decoding and partial identification of selected states in large matrices, one would like to get a better understanding of the holographic state counting of these degrees of freedom, i.e., entropy. Contrary to the naive expectation of holography realized in terms of the covariant entropy bound, we present evidence that it is the Bekenstein entropy bound, which is related to area differences, that is manifest in the plane wave matrix model. If holography is implemented in this way, we predict crossover behavior at strong coupling when the energy exceeds N2 in units of the mass scale.

  10. (Multi)matrix models and interacting clones of Liouville gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiritsis, Elias; Niarchos, Vasilis

    2008-08-01

    Large-N matrix models coupled via multitrace operators are used to define, via appropriate double-scaling limits, solvable models of interacting multi-string theories. It is shown that although such theories are non-local at the world-sheet level they have a simple description of the spacetime physics. Such theories share the main characteristics of similarly coupled higher-dimensional CFTs. An interpretation has been given in the past of similar continuum limits in terms of Liouville interactions that violate the Seiberg bound. We provide a novel interpretation of this relation which agrees with the current understanding of Liouville theory and analogous observations in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  11. Random matrix models for chiral and diquark condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderheyden, B.; Jackson, A.D.

    2005-06-14

    We consider random matrix models for the thermodynamic competition between chiral symmetry breaking and diquark condensation in QCD at finite temperature and finite baryon density. The models produce mean field phase diagrams whose topology depends solely on the global symmetries of the theory. We discuss the block structure of the interactions that is imposed by chiral, spin, and color degrees of freedom and comment on the treatment of density and temperature effects. Extension of the coupling parameters to a larger class of theories allows us to investigate the robustness of the phase topology with respect to variations in the dynamics of the interactions. We briefly study the phase structure as a function of coupling parameters and the number of colors.

  12. An Empirically Based Method of Q-Matrix Validation for the DINA Model: Development and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Most model fit analyses in cognitive diagnosis assume that a Q matrix is correct after it has been constructed, without verifying its appropriateness. Consequently, any model misfit attributable to the Q matrix cannot be addressed and remedied. To address this concern, this paper proposes an empirically based method of validating a Q matrix used…

  13. Teaching Improvement Model Designed with DEA Method and Management Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoneri, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This study uses student evaluation of teachers to design a teaching improvement matrix based on teaching efficiency and performance by combining management matrix and data envelopment analysis. This matrix is designed to formulate suggestions to improve teaching. The research sample consists of 42 classes of freshmen following a course of English…

  14. Hygrothermal modeling and testing of polymers and polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiqun

    2000-10-01

    The dissertation, consisting of four papers, presents the results of the research investigation on environmental effects on polymers and polymer matrix composites. Hygrothermal models were developed that would allow characterization of non-Fickian diffusion coefficients from moisture weight gain data. Hygrothermal testing was also conducted to provide the necessary data for characterizing of model coefficients and model verification. In part 1, a methodology is proposed that would allow characterization of non-Fickian diffusion coefficients from moisture weight gain data for a polymer adhesive below its Tg. Subsequently, these diffusion coefficients are used for predicting moisture concentration profiles through the thickness of a polymer. In part 2, a modeling methodology based on irreversible thermodynamics applied within the framework of composite macro-mechanics is presented, that would allow characterization of non-Fickian diffusion coefficients from moisture weight gain data for laminated composites with distributed uniaxial damage. Comparisons with test data for a 5-harness satin textile composite with uniaxial micro-cracks are provided for model verifications. In part 3, the same modeling methodology based on irreversible thermodynamics is extended to the case of a bi-axially damaged laminate. The model allows characterization of nonFickian diffusion coefficients as well as moisture saturation level from moisture weight gain data for laminates with pre-existing damage. Comparisons with test data for a bi-axially damaged Graphite/Epoxy woven composite are provided for model verifications. Finally, in part 4, hygrothermal tests conducted on AS4/PR500 5HS textile composite laminates are summarized. The objectives of the hygrothermal tests are to determine the diffusivity and maximum moisture content of the laminate.

  15. A matrix model for Misner universe and closed string tachyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jian-Huang

    2006-01-01

    We use D-instantons to probe the geometry of Misner universe, and calculate the world volume field theory action, which is of the 1+0 dimensional form and highly non-local. Turning on closed string tachyons, we see from the deformed moduli space of the D-instantons that the spacelike singularity is removed and the region near the singularity becomes a fuzzy cone, where space and time do not commute. When realized cosmologically there can be controllable trans-planckian effects. And the infinite past is now causally connected with the infinite future, thus also providing a model for big crunch/big bang transition. In the spirit of IKKT matrix theory, we propose that the D-instanton action here provides a holographic description for Misner universe and time is generated dynamically. In addition we show that winding string production from the vacua and instability of D-branes have simple uniform interpretations in this second quantized formalism.

  16. Phase Transitions and Equilibrium Measures in Random Matrix Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Finkelshtein, A.; Orive, R.; Rakhmanov, E. A.

    2015-02-01

    The paper is devoted to a study of phase transitions in the Hermitian random matrix models with a polynomial potential. In an alternative equivalent language, we study families of equilibrium measures on the real line in a polynomial external field. The total mass of the measure is considered as the main parameter, which may be interpreted also either as temperature or time. Our main tools are differentiation formulas with respect to the parameters of the problem, and a representation of the equilibrium potential in terms of a hyperelliptic integral. Using this combination we introduce and investigate a dynamical system (system of ODEs) describing the evolution of families of equilibrium measures. On this basis we are able to systematically derive a number of new results on phase transitions, such as the local behavior of the system at all kinds of phase transitions, as well as to review a number of known ones.

  17. Higher Rank ABJM Wilson Loops from Matrix Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cookmeyer, Jonathan; Liu, James; Zayas, Leopoldo

    2017-01-01

    We compute the expectation values of 1/6 supersymmetric Wilson Loops in ABJM theory in higher rank representations. Using standard matrix model techniques, we calculate the expectation value in the rank m fully symmetric and fully antisymmetric representation where m is scaled with N. To leading order, we find agreement with the classical action of D6 and D2 branes in AdS4 ×CP3 respectively. Further, we compute the first subleading order term, which, on the AdS side, makes a prediction for the one-loop effective action of the corresponding D6 and D2 branes. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY 1559988 and the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0007859.

  18. Analytical Model of Water Flow in Coal with Active Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemek, Jakub; Stopa, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents new analytical model of gas-water flow in coal seams in one dimension with emphasis on interactions between water flowing in cleats and coal matrix. Coal as a flowing system, can be viewed as a solid organic material consisting of two flow subsystems: a microporous matrix and a system of interconnected macropores and fractures. Most of gas is accumulated in the microporous matrix, where the primary flow mechanism is diffusion. Fractures and cleats existing in coal play an important role as a transportation system for macro scale flow of water and gas governed by Darcy's law. The coal matrix can imbibe water under capillary forces leading to exchange of mass between fractures and coal matrix. In this paper new partial differential equation for water saturation in fractures has been formulated, respecting mass exchange between coal matrix and fractures. Exact analytical solution has been obtained using the method of characteristics. The final solution has very simple form that may be useful for practical engineering calculations. It was observed that the rate of exchange of mass between the fractures and the coal matrix is governed by an expression which is analogous to the Newton cooling law known from theory of heat exchange, but in present case the mass transfer coefficient depends not only on coal and fluid properties but also on time and position. The constant term of mass transfer coefficient depends on relation between micro porosity and macro porosity of coal, capillary forces, and microporous structure of coal matrix. This term can be expressed theoretically or obtained experimentally. W artykule zaprezentowano nowy model matematyczny przepływu wody i gazu w jednowymiarowej warstwie węglowej z uwzględnieniem wymiany masy między systemem szczelin i matrycą węglową. Węgiel jako system przepływowy traktowany jest jako układ o podwójnej porowatości i przepuszczalności, składający się z mikroporowatej matrycy węglowej oraz z

  19. Link community detection using generative model and nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Baquero, Carlos; Liu, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of communities in complex networks is a fundamental data analysis problem with applications in various domains. While most of the existing approaches have focused on discovering communities of nodes, recent studies have shown the advantages and uses of link community discovery in networks. Generative models provide a promising class of techniques for the identification of modular structures in networks, but most generative models mainly focus on the detection of node communities rather than link communities. In this work, we propose a generative model, which is based on the importance of each node when forming links in each community, to describe the structure of link communities. We proceed to fit the model parameters by taking it as an optimization problem, and solve it using nonnegative matrix factorization. Thereafter, in order to automatically determine the number of communities, we extend the above method by introducing a strategy of iterative bipartition. This extended method not only finds the number of communities all by itself, but also obtains high efficiency, and thus it is more suitable to deal with large and unexplored real networks. We test this approach on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks including an application on a large biological network, and compare it with two highly related methods. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over competing methods for the detection of link communities.

  20. Link Community Detection Using Generative Model and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Baquero, Carlos; Liu, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of communities in complex networks is a fundamental data analysis problem with applications in various domains. While most of the existing approaches have focused on discovering communities of nodes, recent studies have shown the advantages and uses of link community discovery in networks. Generative models provide a promising class of techniques for the identification of modular structures in networks, but most generative models mainly focus on the detection of node communities rather than link communities. In this work, we propose a generative model, which is based on the importance of each node when forming links in each community, to describe the structure of link communities. We proceed to fit the model parameters by taking it as an optimization problem, and solve it using nonnegative matrix factorization. Thereafter, in order to automatically determine the number of communities, we extend the above method by introducing a strategy of iterative bipartition. This extended method not only finds the number of communities all by itself, but also obtains high efficiency, and thus it is more suitable to deal with large and unexplored real networks. We test this approach on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks including an application on a large biological network, and compare it with two highly related methods. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over competing methods for the detection of link communities. PMID:24489803

  1. Modeling Woven Polymer Matrix Composites with MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) is used to predict the elastic properties of plain weave polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The traditional one step three-dimensional homogertization procedure that has been used in conjunction with MAC/GMC for modeling woven composites in the past is inaccurate due to the lack of shear coupling inherent to the model. However, by performing a two step homogenization procedure in which the woven composite repeating unit cell is homogenized independently in the through-thickness direction prior to homogenization in the plane of the weave, MAC/GMC can now accurately model woven PMCs. This two step procedure is outlined and implemented, and predictions are compared with results from the traditional one step approach and other models and experiments from the literature. Full coupling of this two step technique with MAC/ GMC will result in a widely applicable, efficient, and accurate tool for the design and analysis of woven composite materials and structures.

  2. Filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann model for microchannel gas flows.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Congshan; Zhong, Chengwen

    2013-11-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method has been shown to be successful for microscale gas flows, and it has attracted significant research interest. In this paper, the recently proposed filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann (FMLB) model is first applied to study the microchannel gas flows, in which a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity is used to capture the flow behaviors in the transition regime. A kinetic boundary condition, the combined bounce-back and specular-reflection scheme with the second-order slip scheme, is also designed for the FMLB model. By analyzing a unidirectional flow, the slip velocity and the discrete effects related to the boundary condition are derived within the FMLB model, and a revised scheme is presented to overcome such effects, which have also been validated through numerical simulations. To gain an accurate simulation in a wide range of Knudsen numbers, covering the slip and the entire transition flow regimes, a set of slip coefficients with an introduced fitting function is adopted in the revised second-order slip boundary condition. The periodic and pressure-driven microchannel flows have been investigated by the present model in this study. The numerical results, including the velocity profile and the mass flow rate, as well as the nonlinear pressure distribution along the channel, agree fairly well with the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation, the direct simulation Monte Carlo results, the experimental data, and the previous results of the multiple effective relaxation lattice Boltzmann model. Also, the present results of the velocity profile and the mass flow rate show that the present model with the fitting function can yield improved predictions for the microchannel gas flow with higher Knudsen numbers in the transition flow regime.

  3. Simulating generic spin-boson models with matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael L.; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-11-01

    The global coupling of few-level quantum systems ("spins") to a discrete set of bosonic modes is a key ingredient for many applications in quantum science, including large-scale entanglement generation, quantum simulation of the dynamics of long-range interacting spin models, and hybrid platforms for force and spin sensing. We present a general numerical framework for treating the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of such models based on matrix product states. Our approach applies for generic spin-boson systems: it treats any spatial and operator dependence of the two-body spin-boson coupling and places no restrictions on relative energy scales. We show that the full counting statistics of collective spin measurements and infidelity of quantum simulation due to spin-boson entanglement, both of which are difficult to obtain by other techniques, are readily calculable in our approach. We benchmark our method using a recently developed exact solution for a particular spin-boson coupling relevant to trapped ion quantum simulators. Finally, we show how decoherence can be incorporated within our framework using the method of quantum trajectories, and study the dynamics of an open-system spin-boson model with spatially nonuniform spin-boson coupling relevant for trapped atomic ion crystals in the presence of molecular ion impurities.

  4. Assessing Fit of Item Response Models Using the Information Matrix Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    The information matrix can equivalently be determined via the expectation of the Hessian matrix or the expectation of the outer product of the score vector. The identity of these two matrices, however, is only valid in case of a correctly specified model. Therefore, differences between the two versions of the observed information matrix indicate…

  5. Assessing Fit of Item Response Models Using the Information Matrix Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    The information matrix can equivalently be determined via the expectation of the Hessian matrix or the expectation of the outer product of the score vector. The identity of these two matrices, however, is only valid in case of a correctly specified model. Therefore, differences between the two versions of the observed information matrix indicate…

  6. Nonlinear Penalized Estimation of True Q-Matrix in Cognitive Diagnostic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    A key issue of cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) is the correct identification of Q-matrix which indicates the relationship between attributes and test items. Previous CDMs typically assumed a known Q-matrix provided by domain experts such as those who developed the questions. However, misspecifications of Q-matrix had been discovered in the past…

  7. Multiscale modeling of PVDF matrix carbon fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greminger, Michael; Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh

    2017-06-01

    Self-sensing carbon fiber reinforced composites have the potential to enable structural health monitoring that is inherent to the composite material rather than requiring external or embedded sensors. It has been demonstrated that a self-sensing carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite can be created by using the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) as the matrix material and using a Kevlar layer to separate two carbon fiber layers. In this configuration, the electrically conductive carbon fiber layers act as electrodes and the Kevlar layer acts as a dielectric to prevent the electrical shorting of the carbon fiber layers. This composite material has been characterized experimentally for its effective d 33 and d 31 piezoelectric coefficients. However, for design purposes, it is desirable to obtain a predictive model of the effective piezoelectric coefficients for the final smart composite material. Also, the inverse problem can be solved to determine the degree of polarization obtained in the PVDF material during polarization by comparing the effective d 33 and d 31 values obtained in experiment to those predicted by the finite element model. In this study, a multiscale micromechanics and coupled piezoelectric-mechanical finite element modeling approach is introduced to predict the mechanical and piezoelectric performance of a plain weave carbon fiber reinforced PVDF composite. The modeling results show good agreement with the experimental results for the mechanical and electrical properties of the composite. In addition, the degree of polarization of the PVDF component of the composite is predicted using this multiscale modeling approach and shows that there is opportunity to drastically improve the smart composite’s performance by improving the polarization procedure.

  8. Model of the Human Eye Based on ABCD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G. Díaz; Castillo, M. David Iturbe

    2008-04-01

    At the moment several models of the human eye exist, nevertheless the gradient index models of the human lens (crystalline) have received little attention in optometry and vision sciences, although they consider how the refractive index and the refracting power can change with the accommodation. On the other hand, in study fields like ophthalmology and optometry, exist cases where there is a lack of information about the factors that influence the change of refractive power and therefore the focal length of the eye. By such reason, in this paper we present a model of the human eye based on the ABCD matrix in order to describe the propagation of light rays, that can be understood by professional people in optics, ophthalmology and optometry, and the dispersions of the different ocular mediums are taken into account,. The aim of the model is to obtain data about the refractive power of the eye under different considerations, such as: changes in wavelength, radius of curvature and thicknesses of the ocular mediums. We present results of simulations in Matlab of our model, assuming that the object is punctual and is placed to a certain distance of the eye, and considering at the beginning to the crystalline like a medium with fixed refractive index, and after like a gradient lens. By means of graphs, we show the total refractive power of the eye and its form and type of dependence with respect to variations in radius of curvature and thicknesses of the cornea and crystalline, as well as variations in the thickness of the previous and later cameras.

  9. Matrix population models as a tool in development of habitat models

    Treesearch

    Gregory D. Hayward; David B. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    Building sophisticated habitat models for conservation of owls must stem from an understanding of the relative quality of habitats at a variety of geographic and temporal scales. Developing these models requires knowing the relationship between habitat conditions and owl performance. What measure should be used to compare the quality of habitats? Matrix population...

  10. A discrete approach for modeling cell-matrix adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, J.; Sánchez, M. T.; García-Aznar, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    During recent years the interaction between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton of the cell has been object of numerous studies due to its importance in cell migration processes. These interactions are performed through protein clutches, known as focal adhesions. For migratory cells these focal adhesions along with force generating processes in the cytoskeleton are responsible for the formation of protrusion structures like lamellipodia or filopodia. Much is known about these structures: the different proteins that conform them, the players involved in their formation or their role in cell migration. Concretely, growth-cone filopodia structures have attracted significant attention because of their role as cell sensors of their surrounding environment and its complex behavior. On this matter, a vast myriad of mathematical models has been presented to explain its mechanical behavior. In this work, we aim to study the mechanical behavior of these structures through a discrete approach. This numerical model provides an individual analysis of the proteins involved including spatial distribution, interaction between them, and study of different phenomena, such as clutches unbinding or protein unfolding.

  11. Simulating spin-boson models with matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-05-01

    The global coupling of few-level quantum systems (``spins'') to a discrete set of bosonic modes is a key ingredient for many applications in quantum science, including large-scale entanglement generation, quantum simulation of the dynamics of long-range interacting spin models, and hybrid platforms for force and spin sensing. In many situations, the bosons are integrated out, leading to effective long-range interactions between the spins; however, strong spin-boson coupling invalidates this approach, and spin-boson entanglement degrades the fidelity of quantum simulation of spin models. We present a general numerical method for treating the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of spin-boson systems based on matrix product states. While most efficient for weak coupling or small numbers of boson modes, our method applies for any spatial and operator dependence of the spin-boson coupling. In addition, our approach allows straightforward computation of many quantities of interest, such as the full counting statistics of collective spin measurements and quantum simulation infidelity due to spin-boson entanglement. We apply our method to ongoing trapped ion quantum simulator experiments in analytically intractable regimes. This work is supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF- 1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, and the NRC.

  12. Scalar products in GL(3)-based models with trigonometric R-matrix. Determinant representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavnov, N. A.

    2015-03-01

    We study quantum integrable GL(3)-based models with a trigonometric R-matrix solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. We derive a determinant representation for a special case of scalar products of Bethe vectors. This representation allows one to find a determinant formula for the form factor of one of the monodromy matrix entries. We also point out an essential difference between form factors in the models with the trigonometric R-matrix and their analogs in GL(3)-invariant models.

  13. Physical model of differential Mueller matrix for depolarizing uniform media.

    PubMed

    Devlaminck, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we address the question of significance of the parameters of differential Mueller matrix formalism. We show how the concept of mean value and uncertainty of the optical properties recently introduced to depict this differential matrix can be related to the random fluctuations of these optical properties. From the layered-medium interpretation introduced by Jones [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 671 (1948)] and extended to Mueller-Jones matrix by Azzam [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1756 (1978)], a generalization to depolarizing Mueller matrices is proposed. Based on the random Mueller-Jones matrix approach, the obtained parameterization perfectly fits the previous results from the literature. Necessary conditions of positivity on specific coefficients imposed in order to have physical Mueller matrix are introduced in a natural way and not inferred a posteriori. Interpretations of the underlying physical processes are also presented. An illustrative experimental example is provided from literature data.

  14. Cubic constraints for the resolvents of the ABJM matrix model and its cousins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoyama, H.; Oota, T.; Suyama, Takao; Yoshioka, R.

    2017-04-01

    A set of Schwinger-Dyson equations forming constraints for at most three resolvent functions are considered for a class of Chern-Simons matter matrix models with two nodes labeled by a nonvanishing number n. The two cases n = 2 and n = -2 label, respectively, the ABJM matrix model, which is the hyperbolic lift of the affine A1(1) quiver matrix model, and the lens space matrix model. In the planar limit, we derive two cubic loop equations for the two planar resolvents. One of these reduces to the quadratic one when n = ±2.

  15. Stage-structured matrix models for organisms with non-geometric development times

    Treesearch

    Andrew Birt; Richard M. Feldman; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; James M. Guldin

    2009-01-01

    Matrix models have been used to model population growth of organisms for many decades. They are popular because of both their conceptual simplicity and their computational efficiency. For some types of organisms they are relatively accurate in predicting population growth; however, for others the matrix approach does not adequately model...

  16. Matrix product states and the non-Abelian rotor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milsted, Ashley

    2016-04-01

    We use uniform matrix product states to study the (1 +1 )D O (2 ) and O (4 ) rotor models, which are equivalent to the Kogut-Susskind formulation of matter-free non-Abelian lattice gauge theory on a "Hawaiian earring" graph for U (1 ) and S U (2 ), respectively. Applying tangent space methods to obtain ground states and determine the mass gap and the β function, we find excellent agreement with known results, locating the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for O (2 ) and successfully entering the asymptotic weak-coupling regime for O (4 ). To obtain a finite local Hilbert space, we truncate in the space of generalized Fourier modes of the gauge group, comparing the effects of different cutoff values. We find that higher modes become important in the crossover and weak-coupling regimes of the non-Abelian theory, where entanglement also suddenly increases. This could have important consequences for tensor network state studies of Yang-Mills on higher-dimensional graphs.

  17. Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Z; Hambach, R; Kaiser, U; Rose, H

    2016-11-21

    Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering.

  18. D-brane probes in the matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a new approach to large N gauge theories, based on a generalization of the concept of D-brane probes to any gauge field theory, was proposed. In the present note, we compute the probe action in the one matrix model with a quartic potential. This allows to illustrate several non-trivial aspects of the construction in an exactly solvable set-up. One of our main goal is to test the bare bubble approximation. The approximate free energy found in this approximation, which can be derived from a back-of-an-envelope calculation, matches the exact result for all values of the 't Hooft coupling with a surprising accuracy. Another goal is to illustrate the remarkable properties of the equivariant partial gauge-fixing procedure, which is at the heart of the formalism. For this we use a general ξ-gauge to compute the brane action. The action depends on ξ in a very non-trivial way, yet we show explicitly that its critical value does not and coincides with twice the free energy, as required by general consistency. This is made possible by a phenomenon of ghost condensation and the spontaneous breaking of the equivariant BRST symmetry.

  19. Hybrid Model for Homogenization of the Elastoplastic Properties of Isotropic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    A hybrid homogenization model for calculating the effective elastoplastic properties of isotropic matrix composites is suggested. The hybrid model combines the continuous deformation models of heterogeneous solid and porous materials. A distinctive feature of the model is the calculation of concentration coefficients of the average Hill strains in terms of the effective volumes of strain averaging. The effective volumes of averaging are determined by solving the boundary-value problem on plastic deformation of a simplified structural model of a two-phase composite considering the porous state of matrix. A comparison of calculation results with experimental data upon constructing deformation diagrams for polymer-matrix and metal-matrix composites is carried out. The possibility of changing the properties of the metal matrix in producing composites is mentioned. Therefore, the adequacy of analytical models greatly depends on the accuracy of identification of material constants of the matrix. On the whole, the new model described the plastic deformation of matrix composites more accurately than the Mori-Tanaka model. The analytical model proposed has a simpler sampling scheme, a simple computation algorithm, and ensured the same calculation accuracy for the deformation diagram of an aluminum-matrix composite as the numerical finite-element model created by the ABAQUS software.

  20. Neutrinoless Double Beta Nuclear Matrix Elements Around Mass 80 in the Nuclear Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji; Taguchi, Daisuke; Teruya, Eri

    The observation of the neutrinoless double-beta decay can determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle or not. In its theoretical nuclear side it is particularly important to estimate three types of nuclear matrix elements, namely, Fermi (F), Gamow-Teller (GT), and tensor (T) types matrix elements. The shell model calculations and also the pair-truncated shell model calculations are carried out to check the model dependence on nuclear matrix elements. In this work the neutrinoless double-beta decay for mass A = 82 nuclei is studied. It is found that the matrix elements are quite sensitive to the ground state wavefunctions.

  1. Random Matrix Model for Superconductors in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bahcall, S.R.

    1996-12-01

    We introduce a random matrix ensemble for bulk type-II superconductors in the mixed state and determine the single-particle excitation spectrum using random matrix theory. The results are compared with planar tunnel junction experiments in PbBi/Ge thin films. More low energy states appear than in the Abrikosov-Gor{close_quote}kov-Maki or Ginzburg-Landau descriptions, consistent with observations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Linking Student Retention Model with Institutional Planning: The Benefits and Limitations of a Student Matrix Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schartman, Laura; Rhee, Byung-Shik

    This study explored the possibility of linking the Luna (1999) student flow matrix model with institutional planning at a comprehensive state institution, investigating how student flow environments were associated with student characteristics such as race, gender, citizenship, class level, entry type, and cumulative grade point average. The study…

  3. Modeling Background Attenuation by Sample Matrix in Gamma Spectrometric Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    In laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses, the procedures for estimating background usually overestimate it. If an empty container similar to that used to hold samples is measured, it does not consider the background attenuation by sample matrix. If a 'blank' sample is measured, the hypothesis that this sample will be free of radionuclides is generally not true. The activity of this 'blank' sample is frequently sufficient to mask or to overwhelm the effect of attenuation so that the background remains overestimated. In order to overcome this problem, a model was developed to obtain the attenuated background from the spectrum acquired with the empty container. Beyond reasonable hypotheses, the model presumes the knowledge of the linear attenuation coefficient of the samples and its dependence on photon energy and samples densities. An evaluation of the effects of this model on the Lowest Limit of Detection (LLD) is presented for geological samples placed in cylindrical containers that completely cover the top of an HPGe detector that has a 66% relative efficiency. The results are presented for energies in the range of 63 to 2614keV, for sample densities varying from 1.5 to 2.5 g{center_dot}cm{sup -3}, and for the height of the material on the detector of 2 cm and 5 cm. For a sample density of 2.0 g{center_dot}cm{sup -3} and with a 2cm height, the method allowed for a lowering of 3.4% of the LLD for the energy of 1460keV, from {sup 40}K, 3.9% for the energy of 911keV from {sup 228}Ac, 4.5% for the energy of 609keV from {sup 214}Bi, and8.3% for the energy of 92keV from {sup 234}Th. For a sample density of 1.75 g{center_dot}cm{sup -3} and a 5cm height, the method indicates a lowering of 6.5%, 7.4%, 8.3% and 12.9% of the LLD for the same respective energies.

  4. Fuzzy Field Theory as a Random Matrix Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekel, Juraj

    This dissertation considers the theory of scalar fields on fuzzy spaces from the point of view of random matrices. First we define random matrix ensembles, which are natural description of such theory. These ensembles are new and the novel feature is a presence of kinetic term in the probability measure, which couples the random matrix to a set of external matrices and thus breaks the original symmetry. Considering the case of a free field ensemble, which is generalization of a Gaussian matrix ensemble, we develop a technique to compute expectation values of the observables of the theory based on explicit Wick contractions and we write down recursion rules for these. We show that the eigenvalue distribution of the random matrix follows the Wigner semicircle distribution with a rescaled radius. We also compute distributions of the matrix Laplacian of the random matrix given by the new term and demonstrate that the eigenvalues of these two matrices are correlated. We demonstrate the robustness of the method by computing expectation values and distributions for more complicated observables. We then consider the ensemble corresponding to an interacting field theory, with a quartic interaction. We use the same method to compute the distribution of the eigenvalues and show that the presence of the kinetic terms rescales the distribution given by the original theory, which is a polynomially deformed Wigner semicircle. We compute the eigenvalue distribution of the matrix Laplacian and the joint distribution up to second order in the correlation and we show that the correlation between the two changes from the free field case. Finally, as an application of these results, we compute the phase diagram of the fuzzy scalar field theory, we find multiscaling which stabilizes this diagram in the limit of large matrices and compare it with the results obtained numerically and by considering the kinetic part as a perturbation.

  5. Scalar products in models with the GL(3) trigonometric R-matrix: General case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, S. Z.; Ragoucy, E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    2014-07-01

    We study quantum integrable models with the GL( 3) trigonometric R-matrix solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and obtain an explicit representation for a scalar product of generic Bethe vectors in terms of a sum over partitions of Bethe parameters. This representation generalizes the known formula for scalar products in models with the GL( 3)-invariant R-matrix.

  6. Application of fiber bridging models to fatigue crack growth in unidirectional titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    Several fiber bridging models were reviewed and applied to study the matrix fatigue crack growth behavior in center notched (0)(sub 8) SCS-6/Ti-15-3 and (0)(sub 4) SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V laminates. Observations revealed that fatigue damage consisted primarily of matrix cracks and fiber matrix interfacial failure in the (0)(sub 8) SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates. Fiber-matrix interface failure included fracture of the brittle reaction zone and cracking between the two carbon rich fiber coatings. Intact fibers in the wake of the matrix cracks reduce the stress intensity factor range. Thus, an applied stress intensity factor range is inappropriate to characterize matrix crack growth behavior. Fiber bridging models were used to determine the matrix stress intensity factor range in titanium metal matrix composites. In these models, the fibers in the wake of the crack are idealized as a closure pressure. An unknown constant frictional shear stress is assumed to act along the debond or slip length of the bridging fibers. The frictional shear stress was used as a curve fitting parameter to available data (crack growth data, crack opening displacement data, and debond length data). Large variations in the frictional shear stress required to fit the experimental data indicate that the fiber bridging models in their present form lack predictive capabilities. However, these models provide an efficient and relatively simple engineering method for conducting parametric studies of the matrix growth behavior based on constituent properties.

  7. Neutron diffraction measurements and modeling of residual strains in metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saigal, A.; Leisk, G. G.; Hubbard, C. R.; Misture, S. T.; Wang, X. L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature are used to characterize the residual strains in tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix, tungsten fiber-reinforced Kanthal matrix, and diamond particulate-reinforced copper matrix composites. Results of finite element modeling are compared with the neutron diffraction data. In tungsten/Kanthal composites, the fibers are in compression, the matrix is in tension, and the thermal residual strains are a strong function of the volume fraction of fibers. In copper matrix composites, the matrix is in tension and the stresses are independent of the volume fraction of tungsten fibers or diamond particles and the assumed stress free temperature because of the low yield strength of the matrix phase.

  8. Characterization of collagenous matrix assembly in a chondrocyte model system

    PubMed Central

    Yingst, Sorcha; Bloxham, Kaci; Warner, Lisa R.; Brown, Raquel J.; Cole, Jennifer; Kenoyer, Linda; Knowlton, William B.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is a major component of the newly synthesized pericellular microenvironment of chondrocytes. Collagen types II, IX, and XI are synthesized and assembled into higher ordered complexes by a mechanism in which type XI collagen plays a role in nucleation of new fibrils, and in limiting fibril diameter. This study utilizes a cell line derived from the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma that allows the accumulation and assembly of pericellular matrix. Immunofluorescence and atomic force microscopy were used to assess early intermediates of fibril formation. Results indicate that this cell line synthesizes and secretes chondrocyte-specific pericellular matrix molecules including types II, IX, and XI collagen and is suitable for the study of newly synthesized collagen matrix under the experimental conditions used. AFM data indicate that small fibrils or assemblies of microfibrils are detectable and may represent precursors of the ~20 nm thin fibrils reported in cartilage. Treatment with hyaluronidase indicates that the dimensions of the small fibrils may be dependent upon the presence of hyaluronan within the matrix. This study provides information on the composition and organization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix that plays a role in establishing the material properties and performance of biological materials such as cartilage. PMID:18496861

  9. Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, William

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are ceramic materials, such as SiC, that have been reinforced by high strength fibers, such as carbon. Designers are interested in using ceramic matrix composites because they have the capability of withstanding significant loads while at relatively high temperatures (in excess of 1,000 C). Ceramic matrix composites retain the ceramic materials ability to withstand high temperatures, but also possess a much greater ductility and toughness. Their high strength and medium toughness is what makes them of so much interest to the aerospace community. This work concentrated on two different tasks. The first task was to do an extensive literature search into the mechanical behavior of ceramic matrix composite materials. This report contains the results of this task. The second task was to use this understanding to help interpret the ceramic matrix composite mechanical test results that had already been obtained by NASA. Since the specific details of these test results are subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), they are reported in a separate document (Jordan, 1997).

  10. CONSTRUCTING, PERTURBATION ANALYSIIS AND TESTING OF A MULTI-HABITAT PERIODIC MATRIX POPULATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a matrix model that explicitly incorporates spatial habitat structure and seasonality and discuss preliminary results from a landscape level experimental test. Ecological risk to populations is often modeled without explicit treatment of spatially or temporally distri...

  11. CONSTRUCTING, PERTURBATION ANALYSIIS AND TESTING OF A MULTI-HABITAT PERIODIC MATRIX POPULATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a matrix model that explicitly incorporates spatial habitat structure and seasonality and discuss preliminary results from a landscape level experimental test. Ecological risk to populations is often modeled without explicit treatment of spatially or temporally distri...

  12. Semiclassical matrix model for quantum chaotic transport with time-reversal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Novaes, Marcel

    2015-10-15

    We show that the semiclassical approach to chaotic quantum transport in the presence of time-reversal symmetry can be described by a matrix model. In other words, we construct a matrix integral whose perturbative expansion satisfies the semiclassical diagrammatic rules for the calculation of transport statistics. One of the virtues of this approach is that it leads very naturally to the semiclassical derivation of universal predictions from random matrix theory.

  13. Localization in band random matrix models with and without increasing diagonal elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ge

    2002-06-01

    It is shown that localization of eigenfunctions in the Wigner band random matrix model with increasing diagonal elements can be related to localization in a band random matrix model with random diagonal elements. The relation is obtained by making use of a result of a generalization of Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory, which shows that reduced Hamiltonian matrices with relatively small dimensions can be introduced for nonperturbative parts of eigenfunctions, and by employing intermediate basis states, which can improve the method of the reduced Hamiltonian matrix. The latter model deviates from the standard band random matrix model mainly in two aspects: (i) the root mean square of diagonal elements is larger than that of off-diagonal elements within the band, and (ii) statistical distributions of the matrix elements are close to the Lévy distribution in their central parts, except in the high top regions.

  14. Comparative analysis of mathematical models of the matrix photodetector used in digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenyuk, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    It is established, that in modern works on digital holography, three fundamentally different mathematical models of a matrix photodetector are used. Comparative analysis of these models, including analysis of the formula of each model and test calculations, has been conducted. The possibility of using these models to account for the influence of geometrical parameters of a matrix photodetector on the properties of recorded digital holograms is considered.

  15. Random matrix model for quantum dots and the conductance peak spacing distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Alhassid, Y.; Jacquod, Ph.; Wobst, A.

    2000-05-15

    We introduce a random interaction matrix model (RIMM) for finite-size strongly interacting fermionic systems whose single-particle dynamics is chaotic. The model is applied to Coulomb blockade quantum dots with irregular shape to describe the crossover of the peak spacing distribution from a Wigner-Dyson to a Gaussian-like distribution. The crossover is universal within the random matrix model and is shown to depend on a single parameter: a scaled fluctuation width of the interaction matrix elements. The crossover observed in the RIMM is compared with the results of an Anderson model with Coulomb interactions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  16. Unified continuum damage model for matrix cracking in composite rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Pollayi, Hemaraju; Harursampath, Dineshkumar

    2015-03-10

    This paper deals with modeling of the first damage mode, matrix micro-cracking, in helicopter rotor/wind turbine blades and how this effects the overall cross-sectional stiffness. The helicopter/wind turbine rotor system operates in a highly dynamic and unsteady environment leading to severe vibratory loads present in the system. Repeated exposure to this loading condition can induce damage in the composite rotor blades. These rotor/turbine blades are generally made of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and exhibit various competing modes of damage such as matrix micro-cracking, delamination, and fiber breakage. There is a need to study the behavior of the composite rotor system under various key damage modes in composite materials for developing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. Each blade is modeled as a beam based on geometrically non-linear 3-D elasticity theory. Each blade thus splits into 2-D analyzes of cross-sections and non-linear 1-D analyzes along the beam reference curves. Two different tools are used here for complete 3-D analysis: VABS for 2-D cross-sectional analysis and GEBT for 1-D beam analysis. The physically-based failure models for matrix in compression and tension loading are used in the present work. Matrix cracking is detected using two failure criterion: Matrix Failure in Compression and Matrix Failure in Tension which are based on the recovered field. A strain variable is set which drives the damage variable for matrix cracking and this damage variable is used to estimate the reduced cross-sectional stiffness. The matrix micro-cracking is performed in two different approaches: (i) Element-wise, and (ii) Node-wise. The procedure presented in this paper is implemented in VABS as matrix micro-cracking modeling module. Three examples are presented to investigate the matrix failure model which illustrate the effect of matrix cracking on cross-sectional stiffness by varying the applied cyclic load.

  17. Improved Porosity and Permeability Models with Coal Matrix Block Deformation Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yinbo; Li, Zenghua; Yang, Yongliang; Zhang, Lanjun; Qi, Qiangqiang; Si, Leilei; Li, Jinhu

    2016-09-01

    Coal permeability is an important parameter in coalbed methane (CBM) exploration and greenhouse gas storage. A reasonable theoretical permeability model is helpful for analysing the influential factors of gas flowing in a coalbed. As an unconventional reservoir, the unique feature of a coal structure deformation determines the state of gas seepage. The matrix block and fracture change at the same time due to changes in the effective stress and adsorption; the porosity and permeability also change. Thus, the matrix block deformation must be ignored in the theoretical model. Based on the cubic model, we analysed the characteristics of matrix block deformation and fracture deformation. The new models were developed with the change in matrix block width a. We compared the new models with other models, such as the Palmer-Manson (P-M) model and the Shi-Durucan (S-D) model, and used a constant confining stress. By matching the experimental data, our model matches quite well and accurately predicts the evolution of permeability. The sorption-induced strain coefficient f differs between the strongly adsorbing gases and weakly adsorbing gases because the matrix block deformation is more sensitive for the weakly adsorbing gases and the coefficient f is larger. The cubic relationship between porosity and permeability overlooks the importance of the matrix block deformation. In our model, the matrix block deformation suppresses the permeability ratio growth. With a constant confining stress, the weight of the matrix block deformation for the strongly adsorbing gases is larger than that for weakly adsorbing gases. The weight values increase as the pore pressure increases. It can be concluded that the matrix block deformation is an important phenomenon for researching coal permeability and can be crucial for the prediction of CBM production due to the change in permeability.

  18. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 2; Composite Micromechanical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical model is described which allows for the analysis of the rate dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to model the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.

  19. Preconditioning of Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models for Stabilisation of Variance-Covariance Matrix Computations.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yasunori; Nordgren, Rikard; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    As the importance of pharmacometric analysis increases, more and more complex mathematical models are introduced and computational error resulting from computational instability starts to become a bottleneck in the analysis. We propose a preconditioning method for non-linear mixed effects models used in pharmacometric analyses to stabilise the computation of the variance-covariance matrix. Roughly speaking, the method reparameterises the model with a linear combination of the original model parameters so that the Hessian matrix of the likelihood of the reparameterised model becomes close to an identity matrix. This approach will reduce the influence of computational error, for example rounding error, to the final computational result. We present numerical experiments demonstrating that the stabilisation of the computation using the proposed method can recover failed variance-covariance matrix computations, and reveal non-identifiability of the model parameters.

  20. Recognizing Uncertainty in the Q-Matrix via a Bayesian Extension of the DINA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T.

    2012-01-01

    In the typical application of a cognitive diagnosis model, the Q-matrix, which reflects the theory with respect to the skills indicated by the items, is assumed to be known. However, the Q-matrix is usually determined by expert judgment, and so there can be uncertainty about some of its elements. Here it is shown that this uncertainty can be…

  1. Recognizing Uncertainty in the Q-Matrix via a Bayesian Extension of the DINA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T.

    2012-01-01

    In the typical application of a cognitive diagnosis model, the Q-matrix, which reflects the theory with respect to the skills indicated by the items, is assumed to be known. However, the Q-matrix is usually determined by expert judgment, and so there can be uncertainty about some of its elements. Here it is shown that this uncertainty can be…

  2. Form factors in quantum integrable models with GL(3)-invariant R-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, S.; Ragoucy, E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    2014-04-01

    We study integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing GL(3)-invariant R-matrix. We obtain determinant representations for form factors of off-diagonal entries of the monodromy matrix. These representations can be used for the calculation of form factors and correlation functions of the XXX SU(3)-invariant Heisenberg chain.

  3. Model-based OPC using the MEEF matrix II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Junjiang; Hong, Le; Lippincott, George; Word, James

    2014-03-01

    In the traditional OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) procedure, edges in a layout are broken into fragments and each fragment is iteratively adjusted by multiplying its EPE (Edge Placement Error) with a carefully selected or calculated feedback. However, the ever-shrinking technology nodes in recent years bring stronger fragment to fragment interaction. The feedback tuning approach driven by a single fragment EPE is no longer sufficient to achieve good pattern fidelity with reasonable turn-around-time. Various novel techniques such as matrix OPC [1, 2] have been developed in the past to incorporate the influence of neighboring fragments into each fragment's movement. Here we introduce a neighboraware feedback controller for full chip level OPC applications, following the concept and algorithms of the matrix OPC that were laid out in Cobb and Granik's work [1]. We present experimental results and discuss the benefits and challenges of the proposed feedback controller.

  4. The avian eggshell extracellular matrix as a model for biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Carrino, D A; Dennis, J E; Wu, T M; Arias, J L; Fernandez, M S; Rodriguez, J P; Fink, D J; Heuer, A H; Caplan, A I

    1996-01-01

    The avian eggshell is a complex, extracellularly assembled structure which contains both mineralized and non-mineralized regions. The composition of the hen eggshell organic matrix was examined by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to different extracellular matrix molecules. Type I collagen is found in the shell membranes, but only after treatment of the tissue sections with pepsin. When incomplete eggshells are removed from the oviduct and immunostained, type I collagen can be detected in the shell membranes without pepsin treatment. The shell membranes, which are non-mineralized, also contain type X collagen, and this immunostaining does not require pepsin treatment. The occurrence of type X collagen in the shell membranes is surprising, since this collagen has not been found in any tissue other than hypertrophic cartilage. Immunostaining for various glycosaminoglycans shows the presence of keratan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Several different antibodies to keratan sulfate stain different regions of the eggshell; one keratan sulfate epitope is prominent in the calcium reserve assemblies. Dermatan sulfate staining is very intense in the palisade region. Demineralized matrix from the palisade region was extracted with guanidine and fractionated by ion exchange chromatography. A approximately 200-kDa dermatan sulfate proteoglycan is found in these extracts, along with a number of protein components. This preparation was tested for its ability to affect calcium carbonate crystal formation in vitro. Pieces of demineralized shell membranes were used as a substrate for crystal formation and various amounts of the palisade matrix dermatan sulfate proteoglycan preparation were added to the solution from which the crystals were formed. This material causes a concentration-dependent change in crystal morphology to one in which the crystals are smaller and more rounded, which more closely approximates the crystals normally observed in eggshells. These results suggest

  5. General structure of democratic mass matrix of quark sector in E6 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftci, R.; ćiftci, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) fermion sector, which is inspired by the E6 Grand Unified Theory (GUT) model, might be a good candidate to explain a number of unanswered questions in SM. Existence of the isosinglet quarks might explain great mass difference of bottom and top quarks. Also, democracy on mass matrix elements is a natural approach in SM. In this study, we have given general structure of Democratic Mass Matrix (DMM) of quark sector in E6 model.

  6. Neutrinoless double beta nuclear matrix elements around mass 80 in the nuclear shell-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.; Taguchi, D.; Teruya, E.

    2015-05-01

    The observation of the neutrinoless double-beta decay can determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle or not. For theoretical nuclear physics it is particularly important to estimate three types of matrix elements, namely Fermi (F), Gamow-Teller (GT), and tensor (T) matrix elements. In this paper, we carry out shell-model calculations and also pair-truncated shell-model calculations to check the model dependence in the case of mass A=82 nuclei.

  7. From matrix models' topological expansion to topological string theories: counting surfaces with algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orantin, N.

    2007-09-01

    The 2-matrix model has been introduced to study Ising model on random surfaces. Since then, the link between matrix models and combinatorics of discrete surfaces has strongly tightened. This manuscript aims to investigate these deep links and extend them beyond the matrix models, following my work's evolution. First, I take care to define properly the hermitian 2 matrix model which gives rise to generating functions of discrete surfaces equipped with a spin structure. Then, I show how to compute all the terms in the topological expansion of any observable by using algebraic geometry tools. They are obtained as differential forms on an algebraic curve associated to the model: the spectral curve. In a second part, I show how to define such differentials on any algebraic curve even if it does not come from a matrix model. I then study their numerous symmetry properties under deformations of the algebraic curve. In particular, I show that these objects coincide with the topological expansion of the observable of a matrix model if the algebraic curve is the spectral curve of this model. Finally, I show that fine tuning the parameters ensure that these objects can be promoted to modular invariants and satisfy the holomorphic anomaly equation of the Kodaira-Spencer theory. This gives a new hint that the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture is correct.

  8. SL(2,R) matrix model and supersymmetric Yang-Mills integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Tierz, Miguel

    2007-11-15

    The density of states of Yang-Mills integrals in the supersymmetric case is characterized by power-law tails whose decay is independent of N, the rank of the gauge group. It is believed that this has no counterpart in matrix models, but we construct a matrix model that exactly exhibits this property. In addition, we show that the eigenfunctions employed to construct the matrix model are invariant under the collinear subgroup of conformal transformations, SL(2,R). We also show that the matrix model itself is invariant under a fractional linear transformation. The wave functions of the model appear in the trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential and in free relativistic motion on anti-de Sitter space.

  9. Computational Modeling of Single-Cell Migration: The Leading Role of Extracellular Matrix Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Daniela K.; Ramis-Conde, Ignacio; Chaplain, Mark A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration is vitally important in a wide variety of biological contexts ranging from embryonic development and wound healing to malignant diseases such as cancer. It is a very complex process that is controlled by intracellular signaling pathways as well as the cell’s microenvironment. Due to its importance and complexity, it has been studied for many years in the biomedical sciences, and in the last 30 years it also received an increasing amount of interest from theoretical scientists and mathematical modelers. Here we propose a force-based, individual-based modeling framework that links single-cell migration with matrix fibers and cell-matrix interactions through contact guidance and matrix remodelling. With this approach, we can highlight the effect of the cell’s environment on its migration. We investigate the influence of matrix stiffness, matrix architecture, and cell speed on migration using quantitative measures that allow us to compare the results to experiments. PMID:22995486

  10. Analytical Micromechanics Modeling Technique Developed for Ceramic Matrix Composites Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) promise many advantages for next-generation aerospace propulsion systems. Specifically, carbon-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) CMCs enable higher operational temperatures and provide potential component weight savings by virtue of their high specific strength. These attributes may provide systemwide benefits. Higher operating temperatures lessen or eliminate the need for cooling, thereby reducing both fuel consumption and the complex hardware and plumbing required for heat management. This, in turn, lowers system weight, size, and complexity, while improving efficiency, reliability, and service life, resulting in overall lower operating costs.

  11. Nuclear Matrix Model: A path to nuclear physics from superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2011-10-21

    We derive nuclear forces and nuclear density saturation from large N{sub c} QCD, by applying AdS/CFT correspondence of string theory, called holographic QCD. This is made possible by a new description of a multi-baryon system in the holographic QCD. The description employs a matrix quantum mechanics which can be derived via the correspondence. This talk is based on collaboration work with N. Iizuka and P. Yi [1], with N. Iizuka [2, 3] and with T. Morita [4].

  12. Product spectrum matrix feature extraction and recognition of radar deception jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiao; Tang, Bin; Gui, Guan

    2013-12-01

    A deception jamming recognition algorithm is proposed based on product spectrum matrix (SPM). Firstly, the product spectral in the different pulse repetition interval (PRI) is calculated, and the product spectral of frequency-slow time is arranged into a two-dimensional matrix. Secondly, non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF) is used to extract the features, and further the separability of the characteristic parameters is analysed by the F-Ratio. Finally, the best features are selected to recognise the deception jamming. The experimental results show that the average recognition accuracy of the proposed deception jamming algorithm is higher than 90% when SNR is greater than 6dB.

  13. A review of failure models for unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, David E.; Hemann, John H.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites offer significant potential for improving the performance of turbine engines. In order to achieve their potential, however, improvements in design methodology are needed. In the past most components using structural ceramic matrix composites were designed by trial and error since the emphasis of feasibility demonstration minimized the development of mathematical models. To understand the key parameters controlling response and the mechanics of failure, the development of structural failure models is required. A review of short term failure models with potential for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads is presented. Phenomenological, semi-empirical, shear-lag, fracture mechanics, damage mechanics, and statistical models for the fast fracture analysis of continuous fiber unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads are surveyed.

  14. Numerical modelling of transdermal delivery from matrix systems: parametric study and experimental validation with silicone matrices.

    PubMed

    Snorradóttir, Bergthóra S; Jónsdóttir, Fjóla; Sigurdsson, Sven Th; Másson, Már

    2014-08-01

    A model is presented for transdermal drug delivery from single-layered silicone matrix systems. The work is based on our previous results that, in particular, extend the well-known Higuchi model. Recently, we have introduced a numerical transient model describing matrix systems where the drug dissolution can be non-instantaneous. Furthermore, our model can describe complex interactions within a multi-layered matrix and the matrix to skin boundary. The power of the modelling approach presented here is further illustrated by allowing the possibility of a donor solution. The model is validated by a comparison with experimental data, as well as validating the parameter values against each other, using various configurations with donor solution, silicone matrix and skin. Our results show that the model is a good approximation to real multi-layered delivery systems. The model offers the ability of comparing drug release for ibuprofen and diclofenac, which cannot be analysed by the Higuchi model because the dissolution in the latter case turns out to be limited. The experiments and numerical model outlined in this study could also be adjusted to more general formulations, which enhances the utility of the numerical model as a design tool for the development of drug-loaded matrices for trans-membrane and transdermal delivery.

  15. A Coupled Model of Neovessel Growth and Matrix Mechanics Describes and Predicts Angiogenesis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lowell T.; Maas, Steve A.; Guilkey, James E.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    During angiogenesis, sprouting microvessels interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) by degrading and reorganizing the matrix, applying traction forces and producing deformation. Morphometric features of the resulting microvascular network are affected by the interaction between the matrix and angiogenic microvessels. The objective of this study was to develop a continuous-discrete modeling approach to simulate mechanical interactions between growing neovessels and the deformation of the matrix in vitro. This was accomplished by coupling an existing angiogenesis growth model which uses properties of the ECM to regulate angiogenic growth with the nonlinear finite element software FEBio (www.febio.org). FEBio solves for the deformation and remodeling of the matrix caused by active stress generated by neovessel sprouts, and this deformation was used to update the ECM into the current configuration. After mesh resolution and parameter sensitivity studies, the model was used to accurately predict vascular alignment for various gel boundary conditions. Alignment primarily arises passively as microvessels convect with the deformation of the matrix, but active alignment along collagen fibrils plays a role as well. Predictions of alignment were most sensitive to the range over which active stresses were applied and the viscoelastic time constant in the material model. The computational framework provides a flexible platform for interpreting in vitro investigations of vessel-matrix interactions, predicting new experiments, and simulating conditions that are outside current experimental capabilities. PMID:25429840

  16. Improved Scheme for Modeling Mass Transfer between Fracture and Matrix Continua with Particle Tracking Method

    SciTech Connect

    L. Pan; Y. Seol; G. Bodvarsson

    2004-04-29

    The dual-continuum random-walk particle tracking approach is an attractive simulation method for simulating transport in a fractured porous medium. In order to be truly successful for such a model, however, the key issue is to properly simulate the mass transfer between the fracture and matrix continua. In a recent paper, Pan and Bodvarsson (2002) proposed an improved scheme for simulating fracture-matrix mass transfer, by introducing the concept of activity range into the calculation of fracture-matrix particle-transfer probability. By comparing with analytical solutions, they showed that their scheme successfully captured the transient diffusion depth into the matrix without any additional subgrid (matrix) cells. This technical note presents an expansion of their scheme to cases in which significant water flow through the fracture-matrix interface exists. The dual-continuum particle tracker with this new scheme was found to be as accurate as a numerical model using a more detailed grid. The improved scheme can be readily incorporated into the existing particle-tracking code, while still maintaining the advantage of needing no additional matrix cells to capture transient features of particle penetration into the matrix.

  17. Incorporating PROPACK into PEST to Estimate the Model Resolution Matrix for Large Groundwater Flow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffels, C.; Zhang, H.; Doherty, J.; Tonkin, M.; Hunt, R.; Anderson, M.

    2006-12-01

    Regularized inversion of groundwater flow models can be used to delineate geological heterogeneities using subspace methods like the singular value decomposition (SVD). To characterize heterogeneity, thousands of system parameters and, with appropriate regularization, thousands of observations may be necessary. The SVD method is not practical because it requires significant memory space and is time consuming. In previous work, we demonstrated the LSQR can be used to estimate the many unknown parameters in large groundwater flow inverse problems. However, in doing so, a resolution analysis is needed to characterize the reliability of the resulting model parameters. We adopted an approach developed for large seismic tomography problems and incorporate the PROPACK package into PEST, a model independent parameter estimation program. PROPACK estimates singular values and vectors for large sparse matrices efficiently and accurately based on the Lanczos bidiagonalization, the core of LSQR, with partial reorthogonalization. Unlike other LSQR-based resolution approaches, this PROPACK-based approach calculates the full resolution matrix. We estimate the model resolution matrix for a synthetic approximation based on a regional MODFLOW model of the Trout Lake Basin, Wisconsin, and compare it with results from the more commonly used SVD approach.

  18. A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4232 A MODEL FOR ESTIMATING NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND DAMAGE IN CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES (PREPRINT) Unni Santhosh and...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad 5d. PROJECT...Composite Materials, 2010 A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad Research

  19. Correlations of eigenvectors for non-Hermitian random-matrix models

    SciTech Connect

    Janik, R.A. ); Janik, R.A.; Nowak, M.A. ); Noerenberg, W.; Nowak, M.A. ); Papp, G. ); Zahed, I. )

    1999-09-01

    We establish a general relation between the diagonal correlator of eigenvectors and the spectral Green[close quote]s function for non-Hermitian random-matrix models in the large-N limit. We apply this result to a number of non-Hermitian random-matrix models and show that the outcome is in good agreement with numerical results. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  20. Modeling the Effect of Multiple Matrix Cracking Modes on Cyclic Hysteresis Loops of 2D Woven Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of multiple matrix cracking modes on cyclic loading/unloading hysteresis loops of 2D woven ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated. The interface slip between fibers and the matrix existed in matrix cracking mode 3 and mode 5, in which matrix cracking and interface debonding occurred in longitudinal yarns, are considered as the major reason for hysteresis loops of 2D woven CMCs. The effects of fiber volume content, peak stress, matrix crack spacing, interface properties, matrix cracking mode proportion and interface wear on interface slip and hysteresis loops have been analyzed. The cyclic loading/unloading hysteresis loops of 2D woven SiC/SiC composite corresponding to different peak stresses have been predicted using the present analysis. It was found that the damage parameter, i.e., the proportion of matrix cracking mode 3 in the entire cracking modes of the composite, increases with increasing peak stress.

  1. Time series, correlation matrices and random matrix models

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2014-01-08

    In this set of five lectures the authors have presented techniques to analyze open classical and quantum systems using correlation matrices. For diverse reasons we shall see that random matrices play an important role to describe a null hypothesis or a minimum information hypothesis for the description of a quantum system or subsystem. In the former case various forms of correlation matrices of time series associated with the classical observables of some system. The fact that such series are necessarily finite, inevitably introduces noise and this finite time influence lead to a random or stochastic component in these time series. By consequence random correlation matrices have a random component, and corresponding ensembles are used. In the latter we use random matrices to describe high temperature environment or uncontrolled perturbations, ensembles of differing chaotic systems etc. The common theme of the lectures is thus the importance of random matrix theory in a wide range of fields in and around physics.

  2. OC Chondrule, Rim and Matrix Compositions: A Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.

    1996-03-01

    The peak temperatures chondrules experienced, based on their liquidus temperatures, range from 1500 K to 2000 K. At these temperatures and nebular pressures most elements are volatile, but generally the alkali metals and S have been the only major elements considered as such. However, correlated variations in Mg and Al abundances, if they are not due to precursor compositions, require the loss of up to 50% of the SiO2 from some chondrules. The more volatile FeO would have been lost to an even greater extent. Here it is shown that if the material lost from chondrules recondenses onto the fine grained material which survived the chondrule forming process, chondrule rim and matrix compositions can be explained.

  3. Detection of extracellular matrix modification in cancer models with inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Graham L. C.; Azarin, Samira M.; Yi, Ji; Young, Scott T.; Ellis, Ronald; Bauer, Greta M.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-10-01

    In cancer biology, there has been a recent effort to understand tumor formation in the context of the tissue microenvironment. In particular, recent progress has explored the mechanisms behind how changes in the cell-extracellular matrix ensemble influence progression of the disease. The extensive use of in vitro tissue culture models in simulant matrix has proven effective at studying such interactions, but modalities for non-invasively quantifying aspects of these systems are scant. We present the novel application of an imaging technique, Inverse Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography, for the non-destructive measurement of in vitro biological samples during matrix remodeling. Our findings indicate that the nanoscale-sensitive mass density correlation shape factor D of cancer cells increases in response to a more crosslinked matrix. We present a facile technique for the non-invasive, quantitative study of the micro- and nano-scale structure of the extracellular matrix and its host cells.

  4. The finite and large-N behaviors of independent-value matrix models

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Geloun, Joseph; Klauder, John R.

    2014-03-15

    We investigate the finite and large N behaviors of independent-value O(N)-invariant matrix models. These are models defined with matrix-type fields and with no gradient term in their action. They are generically nonrenormalizable but can be handled by nonperturbative techniques. We find that the functional integral of any O(N) matrix trace invariant may be expressed in terms of an O(N)-invariant measure. Based on this result, we prove that, in the limit that all interaction coupling constants go to zero, any interacting theory is continuously connected to a pseudo-free theory. This theory differs radically from the familiar free theory consisting in putting the coupling constants to zero in the initial action. The proof is given for generic, finite-size matrix models, whereas, in the limiting case N → ∞, we succeed in showing this behavior for restricted types of actions using a particular scaling of the parameters.

  5. Estimation and Q-Matrix Validation for Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Yuling

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) are structured latent class models widely discussed in the field of psychometrics. They model subjects' underlying attribute patterns and classify subjects into unobservable groups based on their mastery of attributes required to answer the items correctly. The effective implementation of DCMs depends…

  6. Estimation and Q-Matrix Validation for Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Yuling

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) are structured latent class models widely discussed in the field of psychometrics. They model subjects' underlying attribute patterns and classify subjects into unobservable groups based on their mastery of attributes required to answer the items correctly. The effective implementation of DCMs depends…

  7. Modeling the tumor extracellular matrix: Tissue engineering tools repurposed towards new frontiers in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Gill, Bartley J; West, Jennifer L

    2014-06-27

    Cancer progression is mediated by complex epigenetic, protein and structural influences. Critical among them are the biochemical, mechanical and architectural properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In recognition of the ECM's important role, cancer biologists have repurposed matrix mimetic culture systems first widely used by tissue engineers as new tools for in vitro study of tumor models. In this review we discuss the pathological changes in tumor ECM, the limitations of 2D culture on both traditional and polyacrylamide hydrogel surfaces in modeling these characteristics and advances in both naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds to facilitate more complex and controllable 3D cancer cell culture. Studies using naturally derived matrix materials like Matrigel and collagen have produced significant findings related to tumor morphogenesis and matrix invasion in a 3D environment and the mechanotransductive signaling that mediates key tumor-matrix interaction. However, lack of precise experimental control over important matrix factors in these matrices have increasingly led investigators to synthetic and semi-synthetic scaffolds that offer the engineering of specific ECM cues and the potential for more advanced experimental manipulations. Synthetic scaffolds composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), for example, facilitate highly biocompatible 3D culture, modular bioactive features like cell-mediated matrix degradation and complete independent control over matrix bioactivity and mechanics. Future work in PEG or similar reductionist synthetic matrix systems should enable the study of increasingly complex and dynamic tumor-ECM relationships in the hopes that accurate modeling of these relationships may reveal new cancer therapeutics targeting tumor progression and metastasis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A LISREL Model for the Analysis of Repeated Measures with a Patterned Covariance Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovine, Michael J.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a LISREL model for the estimation of the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a patterned covariance matrix. The model is demonstrated for a 5 x 2 (Time x Group) ANOVA in which the data are assumed to be serially correlated. Similarities with the Statistical Analysis System PROC MIXED model are discussed. (SLD)

  9. A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wu; L. Pan; K. Pruess

    2004-03-16

    Modeling fracture-matrix interaction within a complex multiple phase flow system is a key issue for fractured reservoir simulation. Commonly used mathematical models for dealing with such interactions employ a dual- or multiple-continuum concept, in which fractures and matrix are represented as overlapping, different, but interconnected continua, described by parallel sets of conservation equations. The conventional single-point upstream weighting scheme, in which the fracture relative permeability is used to represent the counterpart at the fracture-matrix interface, is the most common scheme by which to estimate flow mobility for fracture-matrix flow terms. However, such a scheme has a serious flaw, which may lead to unphysical solutions or significant numerical errors. To overcome the limitation of the conventional upstream weighting scheme, this paper presents a physically based modeling approach for estimating physically correct relative permeability in calculating multiphase flow between fractures and the matrix, using continuity of capillary pressure at the fracture-matrix interface. The proposed approach has been implemented into two multiphase reservoir simulators and verified using analytical solutions and laboratory experimental data. The new method is demonstrated to be accurate, numerically efficient, and easy to implement in dual- or multiple-continuum models.

  10. A new coal-permeability model: Internal swelling stress and fracture-matrix interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a new coal-permeability model for uniaxial strain and constant confining stress conditions. The model is unique in that it explicitly considers fracture-matrix interaction during coal deformation processes and is based on a newly proposed internal-swelling stress concept. This concept is used to account for the impact of matrix swelling (or shrinkage) on fracture-aperture changes resulting from partial separation of matrix blocks by fractures that do not completely cut through the whole matrix. The proposed permeability model is evaluated with data from three Valencia Canyon coalbed wells in the San Juan Basin, where increased permeability has been observed during CH{sub 4} gas production, as well as with published data from laboratory tests. Model results are generally in good agreement with observed permeability changes. The importance of fracture-matrix interaction in determining coal permeability, demonstrated in this work using relatively simple stress conditions, underscores the need for a dual-continuum (fracture and matrix) mechanical approach to rigorously capture coal-deformation processes under complex stress conditions, as well as the coupled flow and transport processes in coal seams.

  11. A Cellular Potts Model simulating cell migration on and in matrix environments.

    PubMed

    Scianna, Marco; Preziosi, Luigi; Wolf, Katarina

    2013-02-01

    Cell migration on and through extracellular matrix is fundamental in a wide variety of physiological and pathological phenomena, and is exploited in scaffold-based tissue engineering. Migration is regulated by a number of extracellular matrix- or cell-derived biophysical parameters, such as matrix fiber orientation, pore size, and elasticity, or cell deformation, proteolysis, and adhesion. We here present an extended Cellular Potts Model (CPM) able to qualitatively and quantitatively describe cell migration efficiencies and phenotypes both on two-dimensional substrates and within three-dimensional matrices, close to experimental evidence. As distinct features of our approach, cells are modeled as compartmentalized discrete objects, differentiated into nucleus and cytosolic region, while the extracellular matrix is composed of a fibrous mesh and a homogeneous fluid. Our model provides a strong correlation of the directionality of migration with the topological extracellular matrix distribution and a biphasic dependence of migration on the matrix structure, density, adhesion, and stiffness, and, moreover, simulates that cell locomotion in highly constrained fibrillar obstacles requires the deformation of the cell's nucleus and/or the activity of cell-derived proteolysis. In conclusion, we here propose a mathematical modeling approach that serves to characterize cell migration as a biological phenomenon in healthy and diseased tissues and in engineering applications.

  12. A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-03-15

    Modeling fracture-matrix interaction within a complex multiple phase flow system is a key issue for fractured reservoir simulation. Commonly used mathematical models for dealing with such interactions employ a dual- or multiple-continuum concept, in which fractures and matrix are represented as overlapping, different, but interconnected continua, described by parallel sets of conservation equations. The conventional single-point upstream weighting scheme, in which the fracture relative permeability is used to represent the counterpart at the fracture-matrix interface, is the most common scheme by which to estimate flow mobility for fracture-matrix flow terms. However, such a scheme has a serious flaw, which may lead to unphysical solutions or significant numerical errors. To overcome the limitation of the conventional upstream weighting scheme, this paper presents a physically based modeling approach for estimating physically correct relative permeability in calculating multiphase flow between fractures and the matrix, using continuity of capillary pressure at the fracture-matrix interface. The proposed approach has been implemented into two multiphase reservoir simulators and verified using analytical solutions and laboratory experimental data. The new method is demonstrated to be accurate, numerically efficient, and easy to implement in dual- or multiple-continuum models.

  13. Operating model for scandia doped matrix scandate cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Yiman; Pan, Kexin; Gu, Xin; Wang, Jinshu; Li, Ji; Zhou, Meiling

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, scandate cathodes with scandia doped tungsten matrices are studied. Attempts are made to clarify some interesting phenomena presented in the whole process. The sub-micron porous tungsten matrix with uniformly distributed Sc 2O 3 was formed by quasi-spherical scandia doped W particles. During impregnation the reaction between Sc 2O 3 and barium aluminates impregnant results in the formation of compounds, preferentially of Ba 2ScAlO 5. But after the subsequent ultrasonic water cleaning, Ba 2ScAlO 5 is dissolved and mostly removed from the surface region. In the activation process, Ba and Sc re-aggregate to the surface. A uniformly distributed Sc and Ba layer on surface of tungsten substrate after proper activation has been verified by the results of high resolution scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profile. For such cathodes typical emission of more than 30 A/cm 2 space charge limited current density at 850 °C b has been achieved. However, the uniform distribution of Sc and Ba on surface still seems not be able to remedy the abnormal Schottky effect. We propose that a surface multi-layer containing Ba, Sc and O, formed after proper activation on the W base, is the reason for copious emission and abnormal Schottky effect of such cathodes.

  14. Aroma behaviour during steam cooking within a potato starch-based model matrix.

    PubMed

    Descours, Emilie; Hambleton, Alicia; Kurek, Mia; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Voilley, Andrée; Seuvre, Anne-Marie

    2013-06-05

    To help understand the organoleptic qualities of steam cooked foods, the kinetics of aroma release during cooking in a potato starch based model matrix was studied. Behaviour of components having a major impact in potato flavour were studied using solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Evolution of microstructure of potato starch model-matrix during steam cooking process was analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Both aroma compounds that are naturally present in starch matrix and those that were added were analyzed. Both the aroma compounds naturally presented and those added had different behaviour depending on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, saturation vapour pressure, molecular weight, etc.). The physical state of potato starch influences of the retention of aromatized matrix with Starch gelatinization appearing to be the major phenomenon influencing aroma release.

  15. The Use of Scattering Matrix to Model Multi-Modal Array Inspection with the Tfm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-03-01

    The scattering coefficient matrix describes the far field amplitude of scattered signals from a scatterer as a function of incident and scattering angles. In this paper an FE model is used to predict scattering matrices. By combining the predicted scattering coefficient matrix with a ray tracing model to predict the full matrix of array data, an efficient forward model of the complete array inspection process is presented. Longitudinal wave, shear waves and wave mode conversions are considered in the model. The TFM images for various wave mode combination cases from a weld sample are predicted and measured. Results show that by selecting the optimum array mode combination a good image for a given defect in the weld sample can be produced using an array. It is also shown how the model can be used to optimize the array inspection configuration.

  16. Models for predicting damage evolution in metal matrix composites subjected to cyclic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Hurtado, L.D.; Helms, K.L.E.

    1995-03-01

    A thermomechanical analysis of a continuous fiber metal matrix composite (MMC) subjected to cyclic loading is performed herein. The analysis includes the effects of processing induced residual thermal stresses, matrix inelasticity, and interface cracking. Due to these complexities, the analysis is performed computationally using the finite element method. Matrix inelasticity is modelled with a rate dependent viscoplasticity model. Interface fracture is modelled by the use of a nonlinear interface constitutive model. The problem formulation is summarized, and results are given for a four-ply unidirectional SCS-6/{beta}21S titanium composite under high temperature isothermal mechanical fatigue. Results indicate rate dependent viscoplasticity can be a significant mechanism for dissipating the energy available for damage propagation, thus contributing to improved ductility of the composite. Results also indicate that the model may be useful for inclusion in life prediction methodologies for MMC`s.

  17. Modeling the Tensile Behavior of Unidirectional C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. B.; Song, Y. D.; Sun, Y. Ch.

    2014-01-01

    The uniaxial tensile behavior of unidirectional C/SiC ceramic-matrix composites at room temperature has been investigated. An approach to predicting the uniaxial tensile stress-strain curve of the unidirectional ceramicmatrix composites is developed. The Budiansky-Hutchinson-Evans shear lag model is used to describe the microstress field of damaged composites. A statistical matrix cracking model, a fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion, and a statistical fiber failure model are used to determine the spacing of matrix cracks, the debonded length of interface, and the volume fraction of failed fibers. By combining the shear lag model and the three damage models, the stress-strain curve at each damage stage is constructed and an exact method for predicting the toughness and strength of the composites is established. The tensile stress-strain curves predicted by the present analysis agree well with experimental data.

  18. Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.

  19. A Knowledge Matrix Modeling of the Intelligence Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Process, by modeling intelligence as an opportunistic, multi-source, multi-entity system of systems . The value of intelligence fusion is compared...network model , agencies would still have their own databases, but those databases would be searchable across agency lines. In this system , levels of...effort is to accurately model the flow of intelligence information through a multi-INT system and provide an output measure of total 1-3

  20. Chiral matrix model for the phase transition in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, Robert D.; Skokov, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    We discuss how to model chiral symmetry restoration with an effective theory of deconfinement. The model includes fluctuations in the quarks to one loop order, while the mesons of the sigma model are treated in mean field approximation. We note that a new counterterm is required at T = 0, and a novel form of symmetry breaking at T ≠ 0. We discuss how to incorporate tetraquark states, representing JP =0+ scalar mesons, into a linear sigma model. We suggest that their effect upon the chiral phase transition is small.

  1. Bethe Vectors of Quantum Integrable Models with GL(3) Trigonometric R-Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belliard, Samuel; Pakuliak, Stanislav; Ragoucy, Eric; Slavnov, Nikita A.

    2013-10-01

    We study quantum integrable models with GL(3) trigonometric R-matrix and solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using the presentation of the universal Bethe vectors in terms of projections of products of the currents of the quantum affine algebra U_q(widehat{{gl}}_3) onto intersections of different types of Borel subalgebras, we prove that the set of the nested Bethe vectors is closed under the action of the elements of the monodromy matrix.

  2. Modeling the Tensile Strength of Carbon Fiber - Reinforced Ceramic - Matrix Composites Under Multiple Fatigue Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longbiao

    2016-06-01

    An analytical method has been developed to investigate the effect of interface wear on the tensile strength of carbon fiber - reinforced ceramic - matrix composites (CMCs) under multiple fatigue loading. The Budiansky - Hutchinson - Evans shear - lag model was used to describe the micro stress field of the damaged composite considering fibers failure and the difference existed in the new and original interface debonded region. The statistical matrix multicracking model and fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion were used to determine the matrix crack spacing and interface debonded length. The interface shear stress degradation model and fibers strength degradation model have been adopted to analyze the interface wear effect on the tensile strength of the composite subjected to multiple fatigue loading. Under tensile loading, the fibers failure probabilities were determined by combining the interface wear model and fibers failure model based on the assumption that the fiber strength is subjected to two - parameter Weibull distribution and the loads carried by broken and intact fibers satisfy the Global Load Sharing criterion. The composite can no longer support the applied load when the total loads supported by broken and intact fibers approach its maximum value. The conditions of a single matrix crack and matrix multicrackings for tensile strength corresponding to multiple fatigue peak stress levels and different cycle number have been analyzed.

  3. Camera-Model Identification Using Markovian Transition Probability Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guanshuo; Gao, Shang; Shi, Yun Qing; Hu, Ruimin; Su, Wei

    Detecting the (brands and) models of digital cameras from given digital images has become a popular research topic in the field of digital forensics. As most of images are JPEG compressed before they are output from cameras, we propose to use an effective image statistical model to characterize the difference JPEG 2-D arrays of Y and Cb components from the JPEG images taken by various camera models. Specifically, the transition probability matrices derived from four different directional Markov processes applied to the image difference JPEG 2-D arrays are used to identify statistical difference caused by image formation pipelines inside different camera models. All elements of the transition probability matrices, after a thresholding technique, are directly used as features for classification purpose. Multi-class support vector machines (SVM) are used as the classification tool. The effectiveness of our proposed statistical model is demonstrated by large-scale experimental results.

  4. Sloppy-model universality class and the Vandermonde matrix.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Joshua J; Casey, Fergal P; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Brown, Kevin S; Myers, Christopher R; Brouwer, Piet W; Elser, Veit; Sethna, James P

    2006-10-13

    In a variety of contexts, physicists study complex, nonlinear models with many unknown or tunable parameters to explain experimental data. We explain why such systems so often are sloppy: the system behavior depends only on a few "stiff" combinations of the parameters and is unchanged as other "sloppy" parameter combinations vary by orders of magnitude. We observe that the eigenvalue spectra for the sensitivity of sloppy models have a striking, characteristic form with a density of logarithms of eigenvalues which is roughly constant over a large range. We suggest that the common features of sloppy models indicate that they may belong to a common universality class. In particular, we motivate focusing on a Vandermonde ensemble of multiparameter nonlinear models and show in one limit that they exhibit the universal features of sloppy models.

  5. Mapping regulatory models for medicinal cannabis: a matrix of options.

    PubMed

    Belackova, Vendula; Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

    2017-05-30

    Objective The aim of the present study was to develop a framework for assessing regulatory options for medicinal cannabis in Australia.Methods International regulatory regimes for medicinal cannabis were reviewed with a qualitative policy analysis approach and key policy features were synthesised, leading to a conceptual framework that facilitates decision making across multiple dimensions.Results Two central organising dimensions of medicinal cannabis regulation were identified: cannabis supply and patient authorisation (including patient access). A number of the different supply options can be matched with a number of different patient authorisation options, leading to a matrix of possible regulatory regimes.Conclusions The regulatory options, as used internationally, involve different forms of cannabis (synthetic and plant-based pharmaceutical preparations or herbal cannabis) and the varying extent to which patient authorisation policies and procedures are stringently or more loosely defined. The optimal combination of supply and patient authorisation options in any jurisdiction that chooses to make medicinal cannabis accessible will depend on policy goals.What is known about the topic? Internationally, regulation of medicinal cannabis has developed idiosyncratically, depending on formulations that were made available and local context. There has been no attempt to date in the scientific literature to systematically document the variety of regulatory possibilities for medicinal cannabis.What does this paper add? This paper presents a new conceptual schema for considering options for the regulation of medicinal cannabis, across both supply and patient authorisation aspects.What are the implications for practitioners? The design of regulatory systems in Australia, whether for pharmaceutical or herbal products, is a vital issue for policy makers right now as federal and state and territory governments grapple with the complexities of medicinal cannabis regulation

  6. A numerical dual-porosity model with semianalytical treatment of fracture/matrix flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Robert W.; Chen, Gang; Hadgu, Teklu; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    1993-07-01

    A new dual-porosity model is developed for single-phase fluid flow in fractured/porous media. Flow is assumed to take place through the fracture network and between the fractures and matrix blocks. The matrix blocks are treated in a lumped parameter manner, with a single average pressure used for each matrix block. Rather than assuming that fracture/matrix flux is proportional to the difference between the fracture pressure and matrix pressure at each point, as is done in the Warren-Root model, we use a nonlinear equation which more accurately models the flux over all time regimes, including both early and late times. This flux equation is compared with analytical solutions for spherical blocks with prescribed pressure variations on their boundaries. The nonlinear flux equation is also used as a source/sink term in the numerical simulator TOUGH. The modified code allows more accurate simulations than the conventional Warren-Root method, with a large savings (about 90%) in computational time compared to methods which explicitly discretize the matrix blocks.

  7. Repopulation of laser-perforated chondroepiphyseal matrix with xenogeneic chondrocytes: An experimental model

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, E.M.; Lewandrowski, K.U.; Ohlendorf, C.; Tomford, W.W.; Zaleske, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Growth of chondrocytes into a xenogeneic chondroepiphyseal matrix was investigated in an in vitro experimental model by combining viable calf chondrocytes with chick epiphyseal matrix devoid of viable chondrocytes. The chondrocytes were harvested from the wrist joints of newborn calves and cultured for 2 days. The epiphyses were harvested from the distal femurs and the proximal tibias of fetal chicks after development was arrested at 17 days by freezing. The epiphyseal specimens were prepared in four ways. These included femoral and tibial epiphyses without holes and femoral and tibial epiphyses with holes made by a laser. These epiphyseal specimens were co-cultured with calf chondrocytes for various periods. After digestion of the epiphyseal matrix, viable chondrocytes were counted in suspension. Chondrocyte division in the matrix was assessed by [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation. The growth of calf chondrocytes into the xenogeneic chick matrix was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy on fresh thick epiphyseal sections. The percentage of viable chondrocytes in the xenogeneic epiphyseal matrix increased with culture time to a maximum at day 21. The addition of laser-drilled holes was found to extend a plateau of chondrocyte viability until day 29. A decrease in cell viability was detected at later observation points. This study demonstrates that xenogeneic matrix may serve as a morphogenetic scaffold for chondrocytic growth. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Modeling the Tensile Behavior of Cross-Ply C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. B.; Song, Y. D.; Sun, Y. C.

    2015-07-01

    The tensile behavior of cross-ply C/SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) at room temperature has been investigated. Under tensile loading, the damage evolution process was observed with an optical microscope. A micromechanical approach was developed to predict the tensile stress-strain curve, which considers the damage mechanisms of transverse multicracking, matrix multicracking, fiber/matrix interface debonding, and fiber fracture. The shear-lag model was used to describe the microstress field of the damaged composite. By combining the shear-lag model with different damage models, the tensile stress-strain curve of cross-ply CMCs corresponding to each damage stage was modeled. The predicted tensile stress-strain curves of cross-ply C/SiC composites agreed with experimental data.

  9. Adapted Boolean network models for extracellular matrix formation

    PubMed Central

    Wollbold, Johannes; Huber, René; Pohlers, Dirk; Koczan, Dirk; Guthke, Reinhard; Kinne, Raimund W; Gausmann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the rapid data accumulation on pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammation, there is an increasing demand for approaches to analyse the underlying regulatory networks. For example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by joint destruction and perpetuated by activated synovial fibroblasts (SFB). These abnormally express and/or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, collagens causing joint fibrosis, or tissue-degrading enzymes resulting in destruction of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM). We applied three methods to analyse ECM regulation: data discretisation to filter out noise and to reduce complexity, Boolean network construction to implement logic relationships, and formal concept analysis (FCA) for the formation of minimal, but complete rule sets from the data. Results First, we extracted literature information to develop an interaction network containing 18 genes representing ECM formation and destruction. Subsequently, we constructed an asynchronous Boolean network with biologically plausible time intervals for mRNA and protein production, secretion, and inactivation. Experimental gene expression data was obtained from SFB stimulated by TGFβ1 or by TNFα and discretised thereafter. The Boolean functions of the initial network were improved iteratively by the comparison of the simulation runs to the experimental data and by exploitation of expert knowledge. This resulted in adapted networks for both cytokine stimulation conditions. The simulations were further analysed by the attribute exploration algorithm of FCA, integrating the observed time series in a fine-tuned and automated manner. The resulting temporal rules yielded new contributions to controversially discussed aspects of fibroblast biology (e.g., considerable expression of TNF and MMP9 by fibroblasts stimulation) and corroborated previously known facts (e.g., co-expression of collagens and MMPs after TNFα stimulation), but also revealed

  10. Scalar products in models with a GL(3) trigonometric R-matrix: Highest coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, S. Z.; Ragoucy, E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    2014-03-01

    We study quantum integrable models with a GL (3) trigonometric R-matrix solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. Scalar products of Bethe vectors in such models can be expressed in terms of bilinear combinations of the highest coefficients. We show that there exist two different highest coefficients in the models with a GL (3) trigonometric R-matrix. We obtain various representations for the highest coefficients in terms of sums over partitions. We also prove several important properties of the highest coefficients, which are necessary for evaluating the scalar products.

  11. a Matrix Model Representation of the Integrable Xxz Heisenberg Chain on Random Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Sedrakyan, A.

    2013-11-01

    We consider integrable models, i.e. models defined by R-matrices, on random Manhattan lattices (RML). The set of random Manhattan lattices is defined as the set dual to the lattice random surfaces embedded on a regular d-dimensional lattice. As an example we formulate a random matrix model where the partition function reproduces annealed average of the XXZ Heisenberg chain over all RML. A technique is presented which reduces the random matrix integration in partition function to an integration over their eigenvalues.

  12. A penny-shaped crack in a filament reinforced matrix. 1: The filament model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Pacella, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The electrostatic problem of a penny-shaped crack in an elastic matrix which reinforced by filaments or fibers perpendicular to the plane of the crack was studied. The elastic filament model was developed for application to evaluation studies of the stress intensity factor along the periphery of the crack, the stresses in the filaments or fibers, and the interface shear between the matrix and the filaments or fibers. The requirements expected of the model are a sufficiently accurate representation of the filament and applicability to the interaction problems involving a cracked elastic continuum with multi-filament reinforcements. The technique for developing the model and numerical examples of it are shown.

  13. General structure of democratic mass matrix of quark sector in E{sub 6} model

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, R.; Çiftci, A. K.

    2016-03-25

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) fermion sector, which is inspired by the E{sub 6} Grand Unified Theory (GUT) model, might be a good candidate to explain a number of unanswered questions in SM. Existence of the isosinglet quarks might explain great mass difference of bottom and top quarks. Also, democracy on mass matrix elements is a natural approach in SM. In this study, we have given general structure of Democratic Mass Matrix (DMM) of quark sector in E6 model.

  14. Micromechanism Based Modeling of Structural Life in Metal Matrix Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    6. AUTHOR(S) David H. Allen and Dimitris C. Lagoudas 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS F49620-94-1-0341 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AFOSR/NA 110 Duncan Avenue, Rm B115 Boiling AFB, DC 20332- 8050 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION...behavior; 4) modeling the effects of oxidation on the crack growth resistance of metals; and 5 ) the modeling of oxidation fronts in metals. In summary

  15. SMARTIES: Spheroids Modelled Accurately with a Robust T-matrix Implementation for Electromagnetic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, W. R. C.; Auguié, B.; Le Ru, E. C.

    2016-03-01

    SMARTIES calculates the optical properties of oblate and prolate spheroidal particles, with comparable capabilities and ease-of-use as Mie theory for spheres. This suite of MATLAB codes provides a fully documented implementation of an improved T-matrix algorithm for the theoretical modelling of electromagnetic scattering by particles of spheroidal shape. Included are scripts that cover a range of scattering problems relevant to nanophotonics and plasmonics, including calculation of far-field scattering and absorption cross-sections for fixed incidence orientation, orientation-averaged cross-sections and scattering matrix, surface-field calculations as well as near-fields, wavelength-dependent near-field and far-field properties, and access to lower-level functions implementing the T-matrix calculations, including the T-matrix elements which may be calculated more accurately than with competing codes.

  16. A convex model for nonnegative matrix factorization and dimensionality reduction on physical space.

    PubMed

    Esser, Ernie; Möller, Michael; Osher, Stanley; Sapiro, Guillermo; Xin, Jack

    2012-07-01

    A collaborative convex framework for factoring a data matrix X into a nonnegative product AS , with a sparse coefficient matrix S, is proposed. We restrict the columns of the dictionary matrix A to coincide with certain columns of the data matrix X, thereby guaranteeing a physically meaningful dictionary and dimensionality reduction. We use l(1, ∞) regularization to select the dictionary from the data and show that this leads to an exact convex relaxation of l(0) in the case of distinct noise-free data. We also show how to relax the restriction-to- X constraint by initializing an alternating minimization approach with the solution of the convex model, obtaining a dictionary close to but not necessarily in X. We focus on applications of the proposed framework to hyperspectral endmember and abundance identification and also show an application to blind source separation of nuclear magnetic resonance data.

  17. Continuing Education Leadership Matrix: A Model for Practitioners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroney, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Continuing education (CE) units are a diverse blend of philosophical and pedagogical approaches, personal aptitudes, and professional knowledge and skills. The Continuing Education Leadership Matrix model is presented as a conceptual framework for understanding and managing CE practice. The model is useful to leaders and managers working within CE…

  18. A Taxonomy of Latent Structure Assumptions for Probability Matrix Decomposition Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulders, Michel; De Boeck, Paul; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2003-01-01

    Proposed a taxonomy of latent structure assumptions for probability matrix decomposition (PMD) that includes the original PMD model and a three-way extension of the multiple classification latent class model. Simulation study results show the usefulness of the taxonomy. (SLD)

  19. Development of a Matrix of Teaching Models Based on Instructional and Nurturant Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ava S.; Anderson, Stoerm E.

    2007-01-01

    The selection of appropriate teaching models with which to bring about meaningful learning is an important and fundamental concern of the professional educator. This paper describes the development of a matrix of models and effects that was a three step process involving the compilation of a list of effects; the development of effect categories by…

  20. Matrix Solution of Coupled Differential Equations and Looped Car Following Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A simple mathematical model for the behaviour of how vehicles follow each other along a looped stretch of road is described. The resulting coupled first order differential equations are solved using appropriate matrix techniques and the physical significance of the model is discussed. A number possible classroom exercises are suggested to help…

  1. Matrix Solution of Coupled Differential Equations and Looped Car Following Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A simple mathematical model for the behaviour of how vehicles follow each other along a looped stretch of road is described. The resulting coupled first order differential equations are solved using appropriate matrix techniques and the physical significance of the model is discussed. A number possible classroom exercises are suggested to help…

  2. Interface Cohesive Elements to Model Matrix Crack Evolution in Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Pinna, C.; Soutis, C.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the transverse matrix (resin) cracking developed in multidirectional composite laminates loaded in tension was numerically investigated by a finite element (FE) model implemented in the commercially available software Abaqus/Explicit 6.10. A theoretical solution using the equivalent constraint model (ECM) of the damaged laminate developed by Soutis et al. was employed to describe matrix cracking evolution and compared to the proposed numerical approach. In the numerical model, interface cohesive elements were inserted between neighbouring finite elements that run parallel to fibre orientation in each lamina to simulate matrix cracking with the assumption of equally spaced cracks (based on experimental measurements and observations). The stress based traction-separation law was introduced to simulate initiation of matrix cracking and propagation under mixed-mode loading. The numerically predicted crack density was found to depend on the mesh size of the model and the material fracture parameters defined for the cohesive elements. Numerical predictions of matrix crack density as a function of applied stress are in a good agreement to experimentally measured and theoretically (ECM) obtained values, but some further refinement will be required in near future work.

  3. Computational modeling of structure of metal matrix composite in centrifugal casting process

    SciTech Connect

    Zagorski, Roman

    2007-04-07

    The structure of alumina matrix composite reinforced with crystalline particles obtained during centrifugal casting process are studied. Several parameters of cast process like pouring temperature, temperature, rotating speed and size of casting mould which influent on structure of composite are examined. Segregation of crystalline particles depended on other factors such as: the gradient of density of the liquid matrix and reinforcement, thermal processes connected with solidifying of the cast, processes leading to changes in physical and structural properties of liquid composite are also investigated. All simulation are carried out by CFD program Fluent. Numerical simulations are performed using the FLUENT two-phase free surface (air and matrix) unsteady flow model (volume of fluid model - VOF) and discrete phase model (DPM)

  4. Extension of a noninteractive reliability model for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Wetherhold, Robert C.; Jain, Lalit K.

    1990-01-01

    Developments in the processing of high temperature ceramic composites demand innovative and progressive design protocols that adequately predict the thermal and mechanical behavior of these materials. The focus here is the extension of a reliability model for orthotropic ceramic composites. The approach chosen to describe failures leads to a noninteractive formulation of reliability that is phenomenological. This particular criterion, which was constructed using tensorial invariant theory, allows six potential failure modes to emerge.

  5. Modeling the densification of metal matrix composite monotape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elzey, D. M.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    We present a first model that enables prediction of the density (and its time evolution) of a monotape lay-up subjected to a hot isostatic or vacuum hot pressing consolidation cycle. Our approach is to break down the complicated (and probabilistic) consolidation problem into simple, analyzable parts and to combine them in a way that correctly represents the statistical aspects of the problem, the change in the problem's interior geometry, and the evolving contributions of the different deformation mechanisms. The model gives two types of output. One is in the form of maps showing the relative density dependence upon pressure, temperature, and time for step function temperature and pressure cycles. They are useful for quickly determining the best place to begin developing an optimized process. The second gives the evolution of density over time for any (arbitrary) applied temperature and pressure cycle. This has promise for refining process cycles and possibly for process control. Examples of the models application are given for Ti3Al + Nb, gamma TiAl, Ti6Al4V, and pure aluminum.

  6. Collective field theory of a singular supersymmetric matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    de Mello Koch, R.; Rodrigues, J.P.

    1995-05-15

    The supersymmetric collective field theory with the potential {ital v}{prime}({ital x})={omega}{ital x}{minus}{eta}/{ital x} is studied. Consistency with supersymmetry enforces a two band solution. A supersymmetric classical configuration is found, and interpreted in terms of the density of zeroes of certain Laguerre polynomials. The spectrum of the model is then studied and is seen to correspond to a massless scalar and a Majorana fermion. The {ital x} space eigenfunctions are constructed and expressed in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. Higher order interactions are also discussed.

  7. Meaning-making and the matrix model: does one size really fit all?

    PubMed

    Neimeyer, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    Despite the multifocal complexity of the matrix model (C.R. Snyder & T.R. Elliott, this issue, pp. 1033-1054), its close correspondence with the theoretical dialectics and philosophy of clinical constructivism auger well for its capacity to articulate with existing approaches to graduate education in psychology. In this article points of contact are documented between the two approaches, and a caveat is included about the limits of the matrix model in ensuring greater relevance of clinical training to the settings in which contemporary professionals will work.

  8. Lectures on localization and matrix models in supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos

    2011-11-01

    In these lectures, I give a pedagogical presentation of some of the recent progress in supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories, coming from the use of localization and matrix model techniques. The goal is to provide a simple derivation of the exact interpolating function for the free energy of ABJM theory on the three-sphere, which implies in particular the N3/2 behavior at strong coupling. I explain in detail part of the background needed to understand this derivation, like holographic renormalization, localization of path integrals and large N techniques in matrix models.

  9. Matrix model maps and reconstruction of AdS supergravity interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cremonini, Sera; Mello Koch, Robert de; Jevicki, Antal

    2008-05-15

    We consider the question of reconstructing (cubic) SUGRA interactions in AdS/CFT. The method we introduce is based on the matrix model maps (MMP) which were previously successfully employed at the linearized level. The strategy is to start with the map for 1/2 BPS configurations, which is exactly known (to all orders) in the Hamiltonian framework. We then use the extension of the matrix model map with the corresponding Ward identities to completely specify the interaction. A central point in this construction is the nonvanishing of off-shell interactions (even for highest-weight states)

  10. Modeling the matrix of articular cartilage using a continuous fiber angular distribution predicts many observed phenomena.

    PubMed

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Rajan, Vikram; Chahine, Nadeen O; Canal, Clare E; Hung, Clark T

    2009-06-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated soft tissue whose solid matrix consists of negatively charged proteoglycans enmeshed within a fibrillar collagen network. Though many aspects of cartilage mechanics are well understood today, most notably in the context of porous media mechanics, there remain a number of responses observed experimentally whose prediction from theory has been challenging. In this study the solid matrix of cartilage is modeled with a continuous fiber angular distribution, where fibers can only sustain tension, swelled by the osmotic pressure of a proteoglycan ground matrix. It is shown that this representation of cartilage can predict a number of observed phenomena in relation to the tissue's equilibrium response to mechanical and osmotic loading, when flow-dependent and flow-independent viscoelastic effects have subsided. In particular, this model can predict the transition of Poisson's ratio from very low values in compression (approximately 0.02) to very high values in tension (approximately 2.0). Most of these phenomena cannot be explained when using only three orthogonal fiber bundles to describe the tissue matrix, a common modeling assumption used to date. The main picture emerging from this analysis is that the anisotropy of the fibrillar matrix of articular cartilage is intimately dependent on the mechanism of tensed fiber recruitment, in the manner suggested by our recent theoretical study (Ateshian, 2007, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 129(2), pp. 240-249).

  11. Modeling the Matrix of Articular Cartilage Using a Continuous Fiber Angular Distribution Predicts Many Observed Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Rajan, Vikram; Chahine, Nadeen O.; Canal, Clare E.; Hung, Clark T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cartilage is a hydrated soft tissue whose solid matrix consists of negatively charged proteoglycans enmeshed within a fibrillar collagen network. Though many aspects of cartilage mechanics are well understood today, most notably in the context of porous media mechanics, there remain a number of responses observed experimentally whose prediction from theory has been challenging. Method of approach In this study the solid matrix of cartilage is modeled with a continuous fiber angular distribution, where fibers can only sustain tension, swelled by the osmotic pressure of a proteoglycan ground matrix. Results It is shown that this representation of cartilage can predict a number of observed phenomena in relation to the tissue’s equilibrium response to mechanical and osmotic loading, when flow-dependent and flow-independent viscoelastic effects have subsided. In particular, this model can predict the transition of Poisson’s ratio from very low values in compression (~0.02) to very high values in tension (~2.0). Most of these phenomena cannot be explained when using only three orthogonal fiber bundles to describe the tissue matrix, a common modeling assumption used to date. Conclusions The main picture emerging from this analysis is that the anisotropy of the fibrillar matrix of articular cartilage is intimately dependent on the mechanism of tensed fiber recruitment, in the manner suggested by our recent theoretical study (G. A. Ateshian. J Biomech Eng, 129(2):240-9, 2007). PMID:19449957

  12. A physically based numerical approach for modeling fracture-matrix interaction in fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-05-04

    Modeling fracture-matrix interaction within a multiple-phase flow system is a key issue for fractured reservoir simulation. Commonly used mathematical models for dealing with such interactions employ dual- or multiple-continuum concepts, in which fractures and matrix are represented as overlapping, different, but interconnected continua, described by parallel sets of conservation equations. The conventional single-point upstream weighting scheme is most commonly used to estimate flow mobility for fracture-matrix flow. However, such a scheme may have serious limitations or flaws, which lead to unphysical solutions or significant numerical errors. To overcome the limitations of the conventional upstream weighting scheme, this paper presents a physically based modeling approach for estimating physically correct relative permeability in calculating multiphase flow between fractures and the matrix, using continuity of capillary pressure at the fracture-matrix interface. The proposed approach has been implemented into two multiphase reservoir simulators and verified using analytical solutions and laboratory experimental data. The new method is demonstrated to be accurate, numerically efficient, and easy to implement in dual- or multiple-continuum reservoir simulators.

  13. A phenomenological cohesive model for the macroscopic simulation of cell-matrix adhesions.

    PubMed

    Cóndor, M; García-Aznar, J M

    2017-02-17

    Cell adhesion is crucial for cells to not only physically interact with each other but also sense their microenvironment and respond accordingly. In fact, adherent cells can generate physical forces that are transmitted to the surrounding matrix, regulating the formation of cell-matrix adhesions. The main purpose of this work is to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions through a cohesive formulation within the framework of the finite element method and based on the principles of continuum damage mechanics. This model enables the simulation of the mechanical adhesion between cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) as regulated by local multidirectional forces and thus predicts the onset and growth of the adhesion. In addition, this numerical approach allows the simulation of the cell as a whole, as it models the complete mechanical interaction between cell and ECM. As a result, we can investigate and quantify how different mechanical conditions in the cell (e.g., contractile forces, actin cytoskeletal properties) or in the ECM (e.g., stiffness, external forces) can regulate the dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions.

  14. A matrix model for heterotic Spin(32)/ Z2 and type I string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh, Morten

    1999-02-01

    We consider heterotic string theories in the DLCQ. We derive that the matrix model of the Spin(32)/ Z2 heterotic theory is the theory living on N D-strings in type I wound on a circle with no Spin(32)/ Z2 Wilson line on the circle. This is an O( N) gauge theory. We rederive the matrix model for the E8 × E8 heterotic string theory, explicitly taking care of the Wilson line around the lightlike circle. The result is the same theory as for Spin(32)/ Z2 except that now there is a Wilson line on the circle. We also see that the integer N labeling the sector of the O( N) matrix model is not just the momentum around the lightlike circle, but a shifted momentum depending on the Wilson line. We discuss the aspect of level matching, GSO projections and why, from the point of view of matrix theory the E8 × E8 theory, and not the Spin(32)/ Z2, develops an 11th dimension for strong coupling. Furthermore a matrix theory for type I is derived. This is again the O( N) theory living on the D-strings of type I. For small type I coupling the system is 0+1-dimensional quantum mechanics.

  15. Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cotte, F.P.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J.

    2010-11-01

    The ability to reliably predict flow and transport in fractured porous rock is an essential condition for performance evaluation of geologic (underground) nuclear waste repositories. In this report, a suite of programs (TRIPOLY code) for calculating and analyzing flow and transport in two-dimensional fracture-matrix systems is used to model single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests. The SWIW test, a tracer test using one well, is proposed as a useful means of collecting data for site characterization, as well as estimating parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. After some specific code adaptations, we numerically generated a complex fracture-matrix system for computation of steady-state flow and tracer advection and dispersion in the fracture network, along with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. We then conducted simulations for a hypothetical but workable SWIW test design and completed parameter sensitivity studies on three physical parameters of the rock matrix - namely porosity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation coefficient - in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, is also modeled in this study, in two different ways: (1) by increasing the hydraulic aperture for flow in existing fractures and (2) by adding a new set of fractures to the field. The results of all these different tests are analyzed by studying the population of matrix blocks, the tracer spatial distribution, and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained, while performing mass-balance checks and being careful to avoid some numerical mistakes that could occur. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of matrix effects in the solute transport process, with the sensitivity studies illustrating the increased importance of the matrix in providing a retardation mechanism for radionuclides as matrix porosity, diffusion coefficient, or retardation

  16. [Svirezhev's substitution principle and matrix models for dynamics of populations with complex structures].

    PubMed

    Logofet, D O

    2010-01-01

    Matrix models of discrete-structured population dynamics became a traditional tool in plant and animal demography, aided with developments in the proper mathematics and wide spread of software products, which greatly facilitate creating models in the man-machine dialogue mode, but leave behind the scenes the issue of whether the methods applied are adequate to the problem posed. A principal discrepancy of this kind does appear in a problem to calibrate the projection matrix on observation data of the "identified individuals with uncertain parents" type: simplifying recipes from an ecological software package contradict the idea of polyvariant ontogeny as an adaptation mechanism. The problem becomes solvable if we substitute an extremal adaptation principle for the uncertainty in data as follows: the unknown reproduction rates are assumed to distribute among the reproductive groups in such a way that maximizes the potential growth rate of the model population under the current conditions. In combination with findings from mathematical analysis of a wide class of matrix models, this principle turns the model into a reliable tool to test research hypotheses. Considered as an example is a matrix model (published elsewhere) for the population dynamics of Calamagrostis canescens woodreed, a perennial clonal plant species with a complex, age-stage-based population structure.

  17. Modeling and controller design of a wind energy conversion system including a matrix converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakati, S. Masoud

    In this thesis, a grid-connected wind-energy converter system including a matrix converter is proposed. The matrix converter, as a power electronic converter, is used to interface the induction generator with the grid and control the wind turbine shaft speed. At a given wind velocity, the mechanical power available from a wind turbine is a function of its shaft speed. Through the matrix converter, the terminal voltage and frequency of the induction generator is controlled, based on a constant V/f strategy, to adjust the turbine shaft speed and accordingly, control the active power injected into the grid to track maximum power for all wind velocities. The power factor at the interface with the grid is also controlled by the matrix converter to either ensure purely active power injection into the grid for optimal utilization of the installed wind turbine capacity or assist in regulation of voltage at the point of connection. Furthermore, the reactive power requirements of the induction generator are satisfied by the matrix converter to avoid use of self-excitation capacitors. The thesis addresses two dynamic models: a comprehensive dynamic model for a matrix converter and an overall dynamical model for the proposed wind turbine system. The developed matrix converter dynamic model is valid for both steady-state and transient analyses, and includes all required functions, i.e., control of the output voltage, output frequency, and input displacement power factor. The model is in the qdo reference frame for the matrix converter input and output voltage and current fundamental components. The validity of this model is confirmed by comparing the results obtained from the developed model and a simplified fundamental-frequency equivalent circuit-based model. In developing the overall dynamic model of the proposed wind turbine system, individual models of the mechanical aerodynamic conversion, drive train, matrix converter, and squirrel-cage induction generator are developed

  18. One-factor model for the cross-correlation matrix in the Vietnamese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quang

    2013-07-01

    Random matrix theory (RMT) has been applied to the analysis of the cross-correlation matrix of a financial time series. The most important findings of previous studies using this method are that the eigenvalue spectrum largely follows that of random matrices but the largest eigenvalue is at least one order of magnitude higher than the maximum eigenvalue predicted by RMT. In this work, we investigate the cross-correlation matrix in the Vietnamese stock market using RMT and find similar results to those of studies realized in developed markets (US, Europe, Japan) [9-18] as well as in other emerging markets[20,21,19,22]. Importantly, we found that the largest eigenvalue could be approximated by the product of the average cross-correlation coefficient and the number of stocks studied. We demonstrate this dependence using a simple one-factor model. The model could be extended to describe other characteristics of the realistic data.

  19. Application of nonequilibrium fracture matrix model in simulating reactive contaminant transport through fractured porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Nitin; Ojha, C. S. P.; Sharma, P. K.; Madramootoo, Chandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonequilibrium and nonlinear sorption of the contaminants in the fractured porous media could significantly influence the shape of the breakthrough curve (BTC). For the fracture-matrix system, there are very few studies which consider these processes. In this study, the nonequilibrium fracture-matrix model with two different nonlinear sorption isotherms, namely nonlinear Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were developed. The effect of sorption nonlinearity and nonequilibrium conditions on the shape of the BTC was studied using the temporal moments. The developed models along with the linear equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium fracture matrix models, and the multirate mass transfer model were used to simulate the BTC, which were compared with the experimental data available in the literature. Both sorption nonequilibrium and nonlinearity were found to significantly influence the shape of the BTC. Presence of sorption nonlinearity reduces the solute spreading, whereas presence of nonequilibrium conditions increases the solute spreading. Considering the sorption nonequilibrium along with the sorption nonlinearity leads to an improved simulation of the BTC. The nonequilibrium nonlinear sorption models could simulate the extended BTC tailing resulting from sorption nonlinearity and rate-limited interaction in the fracture-matrix system.

  20. A Novel Method for Simulating the Extracellular Matrix in Models of Tumour Growth

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Alina; Mang, Andreas; Schuetz, Tina A.; Becker, Stefan; Buzug, Thorsten M.

    2012-01-01

    A novel hybrid continuum-discrete model to simulate tumour growth on a cellular scale is proposed. The lattice-based spatiotemporal model consists of reaction-diffusion equations that describe interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. The fundamental ingredients that are typically considered are the nutrient concentration, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and matrix degrading enzymes (MDEs). The in vivo processes are very complex and occur on different levels. This in turn leads to huge computational costs. The main contribution of the present work is therefore to describe the processes on the basis of simplified mathematical approaches, which, at the same time, depict realistic results to understand the biological processes. In this work, we discuss if we have to simulate the MDE or if the degraded matrix can be estimated directly with respect to the cancer cell distribution. Additionally, we compare the results for modelling tumour growth using the common and our simplified approach, thereby demonstrating the advantages of the proposed method. Therefore, we introduce variations of the positioning of the nutrient delivering blood vessels and use different initializations of the ECM. We conclude that the novel method, which does not explicitly model the matrix degrading enzymes, provides means for a straightforward and fast implementation for modelling tumour growth. PMID:22919426

  1. An extended standard model and its Higgs geometry from the matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, Harold C.; Zahn, Jochen

    2014-08-01

    We find a simple brane configuration in the IKKT matrix model which resembles the standard model at low energies, with a second Higgs doublet and right-handed neutrinos. The electroweak sector is realized geometrically in terms of two minimal fuzzy ellipsoids, which can be interpreted in terms of four point-branes in the extra dimensions. The electroweak Higgs connects these branes and is an indispensable part of the geometry. Fermionic would-be zero modes arise at the intersections with two larger branes, leading precisely to the correct chiral matter fields at low energy, along with right-handed neutrinos which can acquire a Majorana mass due to a Higgs singlet. The larger branes give rise to SU(3)_c, extended by U(1)_B and another U(1) which are anomalous at low energies and expected to disappear. At higher energies, mirror fermions and additional fields arise, completing the full {N}=4 supersymmetry. The brane configuration is a solution of the model, assuming a suitable effective potential and a non-linear stabilization of the singlet Higgs. The basic results can be carried over to {N}=4 SU(N) super Yang-Mills on ordinary Minkowski space with sufficiently large N.

  2. Numerical Modeling on Two phase Fluid flow in a Coupled Fracture-Skin-Matrix System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsala Kumari, R.; G, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow modeling studies below the ground surface is very essential for designing suitable remediation strategies for contaminated aquifers and for the development of petroleum and geothermal reservoirs. Presence of fractured bedrock beneath the ground surface will make multiphase flow process more complex due to its highly heterogeneous nature. A major challenge in modeling flow within a fractured rock is to capture the interaction between the high permeability fracture and the low permeability rock-matrix. In some instances, weathering and mineral depositions will lead to formation of an additional layer named fracture-skin at the fracture-matrix interface. Porosity and permeability of fracture-skin may significantly vary from the adjacent rock matrix and this variation will result in different flow and transport behavior within the fracture-skin. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model simultaneous flow of two immiscible phases (water and LNAPL) in a saturated coupled fracture-skin-matrix system. A fully-implicit finite difference model has been developed to simulate the variation of pressure and saturation of fluid phases along the fracture and within the rock-matrix. Sensitivity studies have been done to analyze the effect of change of various fracture-skin parameters such as porosity, diffusion coefficient and thickness on pressure and saturation distribution of both wetting and non-wetting fluid phases. It can be concluded from the study that the presence of fracture-skin is significantly affecting the fluid flow at the fracture-matrix interface and it can also be seen from the study that the flow behavior of both fluid phases is sensitive to fracture-skin parameters.

  3. Matrix model and holographic baryons in the D0-D4 background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-wen; Jia, Tuo

    2015-08-01

    We study the spectrum and short-distance two-body force of holographic baryons by the matrix model, which is derived from the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the D0-D4 background (D0-D4/D8 system). The matrix model is derived by using the standard technique in string theory, and it can describe multibaryon systems. We rederive the action of the matrix model from open string theory on the baryon vertex, which is embedded in the D0-D4/D8 system. The matrix model offers a more systematic approach to the dynamics of the baryons at short distances. In our system, we find that the matrix model describes stable baryonic states only if ζ =UQ0 3/UKK 3<2 , where UQ0 3 is related to the number density of smeared D0-branes. This result in our paper is exactly the same as some previous results studied in this system, presented in [W. Cai, C. Wu, and Z. Xiao, Phys. Rev. D 90, 106001 (2014)]. We also compute the baryon spectrum (k =1 case) and short-distance two-body force of baryons (k =2 case). The baryon spectrum is modified and could be able to fit the experimental data if we choose a suitable value for ζ . And the short-distance two-body force of baryons is also modified by the appearance of smeared D0-branes from the original Sakai-Sugimoto model. If ζ >2 , we find that the baryon spectrum will be totally complex and an attractive force will appear in the short-distance interaction of baryons, which may consistently correspond to the existence of unstable baryonic states.

  4. Modelling of the Scattering by a Smooth Dielectric Cylinder: Study of the Complex Scattering Matrix using Two Different Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirion, L.; Dahon, C.; Lefevre, A.; Chenerie, I.; Ferro-Famil, L.; Titin-Schnaider, C.

    2003-04-01

    The interpretation of SAR data remains particularly difficult in the case of forests. Interferometric or/and polarimetric studies may enable us to retrieve some characteristics of the forest and identify the relevant scattering mechanisms in- volved in the global scattering phenomenon. A lot of numerical models have been developed to make the retrieval of such complex scenes easier. Both interferometry and polarimetry require a good knowledge of the scattering matrix, which is studied here for a single scatterer with a focusing on trunks, branches and needles, which are generally modelled by cylin- ders. The scattering matrix is simulated with two different commonly used models, based on semi-exact computations. The complex scattering matrix is computed for several local mechanisms involved in the global scattering by forested areas. Significantly results are found, pointing out that such studies are necessary before focusing on forest scattering modelling.

  5. The accuracy of matrix population model projections for coniferous trees in the Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.

    2005-01-01

    1 We assess the use of simple, size-based matrix population models for projecting population trends for six coniferous tree species in the Sierra Nevada, California. We used demographic data from 16 673 trees in 15 permanent plots to create 17 separate time-invariant, density-independent population projection models, and determined differences between trends projected from initial surveys with a 5-year interval and observed data during two subsequent 5-year time steps. 2 We detected departures from the assumptions of the matrix modelling approach in terms of strong growth autocorrelations. We also found evidence of observation errors for measurements of tree growth and, to a more limited degree, recruitment. Loglinear analysis provided evidence of significant temporal variation in demographic rates for only two of the 17 populations. 3 Total population sizes were strongly predicted by model projections, although population dynamics were dominated by carryover from the previous 5-year time step (i.e. there were few cases of recruitment or death). Fractional changes to overall population sizes were less well predicted. Compared with a null model and a simple demographic model lacking size structure, matrix model projections were better able to predict total population sizes, although the differences were not statistically significant. Matrix model projections were also able to predict short-term rates of survival, growth and recruitment. Mortality frequencies were not well predicted. 4 Our results suggest that simple size-structured models can accurately project future short-term changes for some tree populations. However, not all populations were well predicted and these simple models would probably become more inaccurate over longer projection intervals. The predictive ability of these models would also be limited by disturbance or other events that destabilize demographic rates. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

  6. Fracture-Based Mesh Size Requirements for Matrix Cracks in Continuum Damage Mechanics Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Frank A.; Davila, Carlos G.; Mabson, Gerald E.; Ramnath, Madhavadas; Hyder, Imran

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the ability of progressive damage analysis (PDA) finite element (FE) models to predict transverse matrix cracks in unidirectional composites. The results of the analyses are compared to closed-form linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) solutions. Matrix cracks in fiber-reinforced composite materials subjected to mode I and mode II loading are studied using continuum damage mechanics and zero-thickness cohesive zone modeling approaches. The FE models used in this study are built parametrically so as to investigate several model input variables and the limits associated with matching the upper-bound LEFM solutions. Specifically, the sensitivity of the PDA FE model results to changes in strength and element size are investigated.

  7. LS-DYNA Implementation of Polymer Matrix Composite Model Under High Strain Rate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xia-Hua; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model is implemented into LS-DYNA as a user defined material model (UMAT) to characterize the nonlinear strain rate dependent behavior of polymers. By utilizing this model within a micromechanics technique based on a laminate analogy, an algorithm to analyze the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of a fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite is then developed as a UMAT to simulate the response of these composites under high strain rate impact. The models are designed for shell elements in order to ensure computational efficiency. Experimental and numerical stress-strain curves are compared for two representative polymers and a representative polymer matrix composite, with the analytical model predicting the experimental response reasonably well.

  8. A Joint Matrix Completion and Filtering Model for Influenza Serological Data Integration

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Antigenic characterization based on serological data, such as Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay, is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. In many cases, it would be impossible to measure all pairwise antigenic correlations between testing antigens and reference antisera in each individual experiment. Thus, we have to combine and integrate the HI tables from a number of individual experiments. Measurements from different experiments may be inconsistent due to different experimental conditions. Consequently we will observe a matrix with missing data and possibly inconsistent measurements. In this paper, we develop a new mathematical model, which we refer to as Joint Matrix Completion and Filtering, for HI data integration. In this approach, we simultaneously handle the incompleteness and uncertainty of observations by assuming that the underlying merged HI data matrix has low rank, as well as carefully modeling different levels of noises in each individual table. An efficient blockwise coordinate descent procedure is developed for optimization. The performance of our approach is validated on synthetic and real influenza datasets. The proposed joint matrix completion and filtering model can be adapted as a general model for biological data integration, targeting data noises and missing values within and across experiments. PMID:23936111

  9. Micromechanical Modeling for Tensile Behaviour of Carbon Fiber - Reinforced Ceramic - Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    The stress-strain curves of fiber - reinforced ceramic - matrix composites (CMCs) exhibit obvious non-linear behaviour under tensile loading. The occurrence of multiple damage mechanisms, i.e., matrix multicracking, fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers fracture, is the mainly reason for the non-linear characteristic. The micromechanics approach has been developed to predict the tensile stress-strain curves of unidirectional, cross-ply and woven CMCs. The shear-lag model was used to describe the micro stress field of the damaged composite. The damage models were used to determine the evolution of micro damage parameters, i.e., matrix crack spacing, interface debonded length and broken fibers fraction. By combining the shear-lag model with damage models and considering the effect of transverse multicracking in the 90° plies or transverse yarns in cross-ply or woven CMCs, the tensile stress-strain curves of unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D and 2.5D woven CMCs have been predicted. The results agreed with experimental data.

  10. Nucleon statistics in holographic QCD: Aharonov-Bohm effect in a matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro

    2010-11-15

    We show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the nuclear matrix model [K. Hashimoto, N. Iizuka, and P. Yi, J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2010), 3.] derives the statistical nature of nucleons in holographic QCD. For N{sub c}=odd (even), the nucleon is shown to be a fermion (boson).

  11. Nucleon statistics in holographic QCD: Aharonov-Bohm effect in a matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro

    2010-11-01

    We show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the nuclear matrix model [K. Hashimoto, N. Iizuka, and P. Yi, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 10 (2010), 3.10.1007/JHEP10(2010)003] derives the statistical nature of nucleons in holographic QCD. For Nc=odd (even), the nucleon is shown to be a fermion (boson).

  12. The Data Collection Matrix Model: A Tool for Functional Area and Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Dana Rosenberg; Friedel, Janice Nahra

    1991-01-01

    The data collection matrix makes possible the integration of functional area data from numerous assessment sources and presentation of the information in a unified composite report. This model is discussed in relation to the various assessment instruments and the evaluation of functional areas and programs in colleges and universities. (Author/MSE)

  13. Holographic hierarchy in the Gaussian matrix model via the fuzzy sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, David; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2013-10-01

    The Gaussian Hermitian matrix model was recently proposed to have a dual string description with worldsheets mapping to a sphere target space. The correlators were written as sums over holomorphic (Belyi) maps from worldsheets to the two-dimensional sphere, branched over three points. We express the matrix model correlators by using the fuzzy sphere construction of matrix algebras, which can be interpreted as a string field theory description of the Belyi strings. This gives the correlators in terms of trivalent ribbon graphs that represent the couplings of irreducible representations of su(2), which can be evaluated in terms of 3j and 6j symbols. The Gaussian model perturbed by a cubic potential is then recognised as a generating function for Ponzano-Regge partition functions for 3-manifolds having the worldsheet as boundary, and equipped with boundary data determined by the ribbon graphs. This can be viewed as a holographic extension of the Belyi string worldsheets to membrane worldvolumes, forming part of a holographic hierarchy linking, via the large N expansion, the zero-dimensional QFT of the Matrix model to 2D strings and 3D membranes. Note that if, after removing the white vertices, the graph contains a blue edge connecting to the same black vertex at both ends, then the triangulation generated from the black edges will contain faces that resemble cut discs. These faces are triangles with two of the edges identified.

  14. Effect of matrix elasticity on the continuous foaming of food models.

    PubMed

    Narchi, I; Vial, Ch; Djelveh, G

    2008-12-01

    The aim is to understand the effect of matrix elasticity on continuous foaming using food models based on glucose syrup. This was modified by adding polyacrylamide (PAA) with 2% whey protein isolate (WPI) or Tween 80 as foaming agents. Foaming was conducted in a stirred column. Rotation speed N and gas-to-liquid flow ratio (G/L) were varied. Overrun, average bubble size d (32), texture and stability were measured using densimetry, image analysis, and rheometry, respectively. Experimental results showed that 0.01% PAA did not modify the viscosity of 2% WPI models, but conferred low elastic behavior. PAA (0.05%) doubled matrix viscosity and drastically increased elasticity. The increase of elasticity became slower for further PAA addition. Foaming experiments demonstrated that theoretical overrun could not be achieved for inelastic WPI models in two cases: for high viscosity and low N, as dispersion effectiveness was reduced; for high G/L and N because of enhanced coalescence. Matrix elasticity was shown to increase overrun at constant viscosity for high G/L by enhancing interface stabilization. However, in elastic models, gas dispersion was more difficult and d (32) was higher than in inelastic fluids of similar viscosity. Finally, when the limiting step was dispersion, foaming was shown to be negatively affected by matrix elasticity.

  15. VNIR Effects of Space Weathering: Modeling Strong Absorbers in a Scattering Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legett, C.; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    We use the Multiple Sphere T-Matrix Model to examine a shift from darkening and reddening to just darkening of VNIR spectra of space weathered material. We will also present laboratory work using aerogel in combination with iron and carbon powders.

  16. Demographic matrix model for informing swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption (weak links) by biological control and/or other control tactics. Therefore, t...

  17. Matrix Models for Size-Structured Populations: Unrealistic Fast Growth or Simply Diffusion?

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Nicolas; Liang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Matrix population models are widely used to study population dynamics but have been criticized because their outputs are sensitive to the dimension of the matrix (or, equivalently, to the class width). This sensitivity is concerning for the population growth rate () because this is an intrinsic characteristic of the population that should not depend on the model specification. It has been suggested that the sensitivity of to matrix dimension was linked to the existence of fast pathways (i.e. the fraction of individuals that systematically move up a class), whose proportion increases when class width increases. We showed that for matrix population models with growth transition only from class to class , was independent of the class width when the mortality and the recruitment rates were constant, irrespective of the growth rate. We also showed that if there were indeed fast pathways, there were also in about the same proportion slow pathways (i.e. the fraction of individuals that systematically remained in the same class), and that they jointly act as a diffusion process (where diffusion here is the movement in size of an individual whose size increments are random according to a normal distribution with mean zero). For 53 tree species from a tropical rain forest in the Central African Republic, the diffusion resulting from common matrix dimensions was much stronger than would be realistic. Yet, the sensitivity of to matrix dimension for a class width in the range 1–10 cm was small, much smaller than the sampling uncertainty on the value of . Moreover, could either increase or decrease when class width increased depending on the species. Overall, even if the class width should be kept small enough to limit diffusion, it had little impact on the estimate of for tree species. PMID:24905941

  18. Matrix models for size-structured populations: unrealistic fast growth or simply diffusion?

    PubMed

    Picard, Nicolas; Liang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Matrix population models are widely used to study population dynamics but have been criticized because their outputs are sensitive to the dimension of the matrix (or, equivalently, to the class width). This sensitivity is concerning for the population growth rate (λ) because this is an intrinsic characteristic of the population that should not depend on the model specification. It has been suggested that the sensitivity of λ to matrix dimension was linked to the existence of fast pathways (i.e. the fraction of individuals that systematically move up a class), whose proportion increases when class width increases. We showed that for matrix population models with growth transition only from class i to class i + 1, λ was independent of the class width when the mortality and the recruitment rates were constant, irrespective of the growth rate. We also showed that if there were indeed fast pathways, there were also in about the same proportion slow pathways (i.e. the fraction of individuals that systematically remained in the same class), and that they jointly act as a diffusion process (where diffusion here is the movement in size of an individual whose size increments are random according to a normal distribution with mean zero). For 53 tree species from a tropical rain forest in the Central African Republic, the diffusion resulting from common matrix dimensions was much stronger than would be realistic. Yet, the sensitivity of λ to matrix dimension for a class width in the range 1-10 cm was small, much smaller than the sampling uncertainty on the value of λ. Moreover, λ could either increase or decrease when class width increased depending on the species. Overall, even if the class width should be kept small enough to limit diffusion, it had little impact on the estimate of λ for tree species.

  19. Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, F.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    An essential condition for performance evaluation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) resides in the ability to reliably predict fluid flow and heat transport in fractured porous rocks, where fast convection-dispersive transport through the fracture network can be strongly affected by heat conduction into the adjacent rock matrix. SWIW tests are single-well tracer tests that involve an initial period of fluid and tracer injection followed by a period of fluid withdrawal. As a result of the flow field reversal, the measured breakthrough curves tend to be less sensitive to advective heterogeneities and more sensitive to matrix diffusion and sorption, making this method very valuable in characterizing fracture-matrix interaction and evaluating matrix properties. In particular, we propose using SWIW tests before and after hydrofracking operations, to help assess the means by which hydrofracking increases permeability and enhances fracture-matrix interaction. In the present study, we have modeled single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests for non-sorbing and sorbing tracers, using the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian transport simulator TRIPOLY, which solves tracer advection and dispersion in fracture networks together with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. Our simulations were conducted for hypothetical but workable SWIW test designs considering a variety of statistically generated 2D fracture-matrix systems. Parameter sensitivity studies were completed on three physical parameters of the rock matrix, namely porosity, diffusion coefficient and retardation coefficient, in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, was modeled in two different ways, one by increasing the fracture aperture for flow and the other one by adding a new set of fractures to the fracture network. The results of all these different tests were analyzed by studying the population of

  20. A New Equation Solver for Modeling Turbulent Flow in Coupled Matrix-Conduit Flow Models.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Bernhard; Birk, Steffen; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Karst aquifers represent dual flow systems consisting of a highly conductive conduit system embedded in a less permeable rock matrix. Hybrid models iteratively coupling both flow systems generally consume much time, especially because of the nonlinearity of turbulent conduit flow. To reduce calculation times compared to those of existing approaches, a new iterative equation solver for the conduit system is developed based on an approximated Newton-Raphson expression and a Gauß-Seidel or successive over-relaxation scheme with a single iteration step at the innermost level. It is implemented and tested in the research code CAVE but should be easily adaptable to similar models such as the Conduit Flow Process for MODFLOW-2005. It substantially reduces the computational effort as demonstrated by steady-state benchmark scenarios as well as by transient karst genesis simulations. Water balance errors are found to be acceptable in most of the test cases. However, the performance and accuracy may deteriorate under unfavorable conditions such as sudden, strong changes of the flow field at some stages of the karst genesis simulations.

  1. Matrix-Fiber Stress Transfer in Composite Materials Elasto-Plastic Model with an Interphase Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    area in Figure 29). - he notches have to be rounded to avoid stress concentrations that would cause the failure of the specimen bcfore the actual shear...A9S 824 MATRIX-FIBER STRESS TRANSFER IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS iA~ELASTO-PLASTIC MODEL Ui (U) VIRGINIA TECH CENTER FOR"A7 ADHESION SCIENCE BLACKSBURG...8217%~.\\ % o 1 F1IE COPj VIRGINIA TECH CENTER FOR ADHESION SCIENCE VPI-E-87-27 December 1987 CAS/ES,-87-12 MATRIX-FIBER STRESS TRANSFER IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

  2. Analysis of α-12C elastic scattering at intermediate energies by the S-matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Onyshchenko, G. M.; Pilipenko, V. V.

    The results of calculations of differential cross-sections for α-12C elastic scattering by the S-matrix model are presented for 10 energy values in the energy range 65MeV ≤ Eα ≤ 386MeV in a wide range of scattering angles. The behavior of various scattering characteristics as functions of the projectile energy is analyzed. It is shown that the chosen parametrization of S-matrix allows describing correctly the Fraunhofer oscillations of the cross-sections in the region of small scattering angles and the rainbow scattering pattern in the region of sufficiently large angles.

  3. [Experimental study of the collagen matrix for increase the gums using a 3D-modeling].

    PubMed

    Baulin, I M; Badalyan, V A; Ryakhovsky, A N

    2015-01-01

    In an experimental study on mini-pigs demonstrated that the use of collagen matrix Mucograft open method leads to the formation of mature connective tissue around the implants, more pronounced after 70 days, and the width of attached mucosa already 45th day (from 4.4 ± 0.3 to 7.7 ± 0.5 mm) is comparable to that of free gingival graft. Three-dimensional computer modeling of jaws experimental animals showed the soft tissue augmentation by 0.8 ± 0.1 cm3 after use of collagen matrix Mucograft and 1.1 ± 0.12 cm3 after free gingival graft.

  4. Proteochemometric modeling of the inhibition complexes of matrix metalloproteinases with N-hydroxy-2-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino]acetamide derivatives using topological autocorrelation interaction matrix and model ensemble averaging.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Michael; Fernández, Leyden; Caballero, Julio; Abreu, José Ignacio; Reyes, Grethel

    2008-07-01

    A target-ligand QSAR approach using autocorrelation formalism was developed for modeling the inhibitory potency (pIC(50)) toward matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13) of N-hydroxy-2-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino]acetamide derivatives. Target and ligand structural information was encoded in the Topological Autocorrelation Interaction matrix calculated from 2D topological representation of inhibitors and protein sequences. The relevant Topological Autocorrelation Interaction descriptors were selected by genetic algorithm-based multilinear regression analysis and Bayesian-regularized genetic neural network approaches. A model ensemble strategy was employed for achieving robust and reliable linear and non-linear predictors having nine topological autocorrelation interaction descriptors with square correlation coefficients of ensemble test-set fitting (R(2)(test)) about 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. Electrostatic and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity properties were the most relevant on the optimum models. In addition, the distribution of the inhibition complexes on a self-organized map depicted target dependence rather than an inhibitor similarity pattern.

  5. The effect of stochiastic technique on estimates of population viability from transition matrix models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, T.N.; Pyke, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Population viability analysis is an important tool for conservation biologists, and matrix models that incorporate stochasticity are commonly used for this purpose. However, stochastic simulations may require assumptions about the distribution of matrix parameters, and modelers often select a statistical distribution that seems reasonable without sufficient data to test its fit. We used data from long-term (5a??10 year) studies with 27 populations of five perennial plant species to compare seven methods of incorporating environmental stochasticity. We estimated stochastic population growth rate (a measure of viability) using a matrix-selection method, in which whole observed matrices were selected at random at each time step of the model. In addition, we drew matrix elements (transition probabilities) at random using various statistical distributions: beta, truncated-gamma, truncated-normal, triangular, uniform, or discontinuous/observed. Recruitment rates were held constant at their observed mean values. Two methods of constraining stage-specific survival to a??100% were also compared. Different methods of incorporating stochasticity and constraining matrix column sums interacted in their effects and resulted in different estimates of stochastic growth rate (differing by up to 16%). Modelers should be aware that when constraining stage-specific survival to 100%, different methods may introduce different levels of bias in transition element means, and when this happens, different distributions for generating random transition elements may result in different viability estimates. There was no species effect on the results and the growth rates derived from all methods were highly correlated with one another. We conclude that the absolute value of population viability estimates is sensitive to model assumptions, but the relative ranking of populations (and management treatments) is robust. Furthermore, these results are applicable to a range of perennial plants and

  6. R-matrix calculations of electron molecule collision data for plasma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Models of low-pressure plasma require electron collision cross sections for many processes. For transient molecular species, almost none of these data are available from laboratory measurements so theory has to be the chosen means of providing the necessary information. The R-matrix method is a well-established fully quantal procedure for computing low-energy electron-collision cross sections. The R-matrix calculations using the UK Molecular R-matrix codes (UKRMol), which are run by the Quantemol-N expert system, are being employed to provide a wide range of collision cross sections. These are augmented by use of suitable high-energy approximations, such as BEB for ionisation, and a novel procedure to give branching ratios for the fragmentation pattern following electron impact ionisation and electron impact dissociation. Examples, such as recently generated complete cross section sets for the molecules NF, NF and NF, will be given at the meeting.

  7. Engineering 3D bio-artificial heart muscle: the acellular ventricular extracellular matrix model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikita M; Tao, Ze-Wei; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Hogan, Matt K; Gutierrez, Laura; Birla, Ravi K

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies in left ventricular systolic dysfunction and end-stage heart failure include mechanical assist devices or transplant. The development of a tissue-engineered integrative platform would present a therapeutic option that overcomes the limitations associated with current treatment modalities. This study provides a foundation for the fabrication and preliminary viability of the acellular ventricular extracellular matrix (AVEM) model. Acellular ventricular extracellular matrix was fabricated by culturing 4 million rat neonatal cardiac cells around an excised acellular ventricular segment. Acellular ventricular extracellular matrix generated a maximum spontaneous contractile force of 388.3 μN and demonstrated a Frank-Starling relationship at varying pretensions. Histologic assessment displayed cell cohesion and adhesion within the AVEM as a result of passive cell seeding.

  8. A model for the control of DNA integrity by the sperm nuclear matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gawecka, Joanna E; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Benet, Jordi; Ward, W Steven

    2015-01-01

    The highly condensed chromatin of mammalian spermatozoa is usually considered to be biologically inert before fertilization. However, we have demonstrated that even in this compacted state, sperm chromatin is subject to degradation at open configurations associated with the nuclear matrix through a process we have termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF). This suggests that a mechanism exists to monitor the health of spermatozoa during transit through the male reproductive tract and to destroy the genome of defective sperm cells. The site of DNA damage in SCF, the matrix attachment sites, are the same that we hypothesize initiate DNA synthesis in the zygote. When sperm that have damaged DNA are injected into the oocyte, the newly created zygote responds by delaying DNA synthesis in the male pronucleus and, if the damage is severe enough, arresting the embryo's development. Here we present a model for paternal DNA regulation by the nuclear matrix that begins during sperm maturation and continues through early embryonic development. PMID:25926613

  9. Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS

    DOE PAGES

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric

    2016-01-11

    Here, we present a new class of N = 4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can bemore » obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.« less

  10. Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric

    2016-01-11

    Here, we present a new class of N = 4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can be obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.

  11. An analytical model for particulate reinforced composites (PRCs) taking account of particle debonding and matrix cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunpeng

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a simple micromechanics-based model was developed to describe the overall stress-strain relations of particulate reinforced composites (PRCs), taking into account both particle debonding and matrix cracking damage. Based on the secant homogenization frame, the effective compliance tensor could be firstly given for the perfect composites without any damage. The progressive interface debonding damage is controlled by a Weibull probability function, and then the volume fraction of detached particles is involved in the equivalent compliance tensor to account for the impact of particle debonding. The matrix cracking was introduced in the present model to embody the stress softening stage in the deformation of PRCs. The analytical model was firstly verified by comparing with the corresponding experiment, and then parameter analyses were conducted. This modeling will shed some light on optimizing the microstructures in effectively improving the mechanical behaviors of PRCs.

  12. Topological Control of Extracellular Matrix Growth: A Native-Like Model for Cell Morphodynamics Studies.

    PubMed

    Caballero, David; Samitier, Josep

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of cells with their natural environment influences a large variety of cellular phenomena, including cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The complex extracellular matrix network has challenged the attempts to replicate in vitro the heterogeneity of the cell environment and has threatened, in general, the relevance of in vitro studies. In this work, we describe a new and extremely versatile approach to generate native-like extracellular matrices with controlled morphologies for the in vitro study of cellular processes. This general approach combines the confluent culture of fibroblasts with microfabricated guiding templates to direct the three-dimensional growth of well-defined extracellular networks which recapitulate the structural and biomolecular complexity of features typically found in vivo. To evaluate its performance, we studied fundamental cellular processes, including cell cytoskeleton organization, cell-matrix adhesion, proliferation, and protrusions morphodynamics. In all cases, we found striking differences depending on matrix architecture and, in particular, when compared to standard two-dimensional environments. We also assessed whether the engineered matrix networks influenced cell migration dynamics and locomotion strategy, finding enhanced migration efficiency for cells seeded on aligned matrices. Altogether, our methodology paves the way to the development of high-performance models of the extracellular matrix for potential applications in tissue engineering, diagnosis, or stem-cell biology.

  13. Modeling and life prediction methodology for Titanium Matrix Composites subjected to mission profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirdamadi, M.; Johnson, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium matrix composites (TMC) are being evaluated as structural materials for elevated temperature applications in future generation hypersonic vehicles. In such applications, TMC components are subjected to complex thermomechanical loading profiles at various elevated temperatures. Therefore, thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing, using a simulated mission profile, is essential for evaluation and development of life prediction methodologies. The objective of the research presented in this paper was to evaluate the TMF response of the (0/90)2s SCS-6/Timetal-21S subjected to a generic hypersonic flight profile and its portions with a temperature ranging from -130 C to 816 C. It was found that the composite modulus, prior to rapid degradation, had consistent values for all the profiles tested. A micromechanics based analysis was used to predict the stress-strain response of the laminate and of the constituents in each ply during thermomechanical loading conditions by using only constituent properties as input. The fiber was modeled as elastic with transverse orthotropic and temperature dependent properties. The matrix was modeled using a thermoviscoplastic constitutive relation. In the analysis, the composite modulus degradation was assumed to result from matrix cracking and was modeled by reducing the matrix modulus. Fatigue lives of the composite subjected to the complex generic hypersonic flight profile were well correlated using the predicted stress in 0 degree fibers.

  14. Modeling and life prediction methodology for Titanium Matrix Composites subjected to mission profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Mirdamadi, M.; Johnson, W.S.

    1994-08-01

    Titanium matrix composites (TMC) are being evaluated as structural materials for elevated temperature applications in future generation hypersonic vehicles. In such applications, TMC components are subjected to complex thermomechanical loading profiles at various elevated temperatures. Therefore, thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing, using a simulated mission profile, is essential for evaluation and development of life prediction methodologies. The objective of the research presented in this paper was to evaluate the TMF response of the (0/90)2s SCS-6/Timetal-21S subjected to a generic hypersonic flight profile and its portions with a temperature ranging from -130 C to 816 C. It was found that the composite modulus, prior to rapid degradation, had consistent values for all the profiles tested. A micromechanics based analysis was used to predict the stress-strain response of the laminate and of the constituents in each ply during thermomechanical loading conditions by using only constituent properties as input. The fiber was modeled as elastic with transverse orthotropic and temperature dependent properties. The matrix was modeled using a thermoviscoplastic constitutive relation. In the analysis, the composite modulus degradation was assumed to result from matrix cracking and was modeled by reducing the matrix modulus. Fatigue lives of the composite subjected to the complex generic hypersonic flight profile were well correlated using the predicted stress in 0 degree fibers.

  15. Mass balance modelling of contaminants in river basins: application of the flexible matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher; Mackay, Don; Whelan, Mick; Fox, Kay

    2007-07-01

    It is useful to have available a variety of catchment-scale water quality models that range in complexity, spatial resolution and data requirements. In a previous paper [Warren, C., Mackay, D., Whelan, M., Fox, K., 2005. Mass balance modelling of contaminants in river basins: a flexible matrix approach. Chemosphere 61, 1458-1467] a series of simple to intermediately complex mass balance models was presented which can be used for tiered exposure assessments in river basins. The connectivity of the segments is expressed using a matrix that permits flexibility in application, enabling the model to be re-segmented and applied to different catchments as required. In this paper, the intermediate models, QWASI matrix-rate constant (QMX-R) and QWASI matrix-fugacity (QMX-F) are used to estimate concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in the rivers Aire and Calder, UK, and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the Fraser River basin, Canada. The results compare satisfactorily with monitoring data, suggesting that these QWASI-based models for exposure and risk assessment may be applicable under data-limited conditions. The use of QWASI-based models for regulatory purposes in an evaluative river system is also discussed with reference to assessments of para-dichlorobenzene (pDCB), trichloroethylene (TCE), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and toluene. It is shown that multi-media QWASI model predictions can be usefully depicted graphically on chemical space diagrams and used to highlight regions in which advection, partitioning to sediments and volatilization may be important determinants of chemical fate in river systems.

  16. Study Of The Efficacy Of Extracellular Matrix Arterial Interposition Grafts In A Sheep (Ovis aries) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-29

    interposition grafts in a sheep (Ovis aries ) model." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Pl) I TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Maj Lucas Neff DEPARTMENT: General...USAGE: Animal Species: Total# Approved # Used this FY Total# Used to Date Ovies aries 12 8 4 2. PROTOCOL TYPE I CHARACTERISTICS: (Check all applicable...and conclusions/applications.) Title: Study of the efficacy of extracellular matrix arterial interposition grafts in a sheep (Ovis aries ) model

  17. Modeling the modified drug release from curved shape drug delivery systems - Dome Matrix(®).

    PubMed

    Caccavo, D; Barba, A A; d'Amore, M; De Piano, R; Lamberti, G; Rossi, A; Colombo, P

    2017-09-13

    The controlled drug release from hydrogel-based drug delivery systems is a topic of large interest for research in pharmacology. The mathematical modeling of the behavior of these systems is a tool of emerging relevance, since the simulations can be of use in the design of novel systems, in particular for complex shaped tablets. In this work a model, previously developed, was applied to complex-shaped oral drug delivery systems based on hydrogels (Dome Matrix®). Furthermore, the model was successfully adopted in the description of drug release from partially accessible Dome Matrix® systems (systems with some surfaces coated). In these simulations, the erosion rate was used as a fitting parameter, and its dependence upon the surface area/volume ratio and upon the local fluid dynamics was discussed. The model parameters were determined by comparison with the drug release profile from a cylindrical tablet, then the model was successfully used for the prediction of the drug release from a Dome Matrix® system, for simple module configuration and for module assembled (void and piled) configurations. It was also demonstrated that, given the same initial S/V ratio, the drug release is independent upon the shape of the tablets but it is only influenced by the S/V evolution. The model reveals itself able to describe the observed phenomena, and thus it can be of use for the design of oral drug delivery systems, even if complex shaped. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A differential CDM model for fatigue of unidirectional metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Kruch, S.

    1992-01-01

    A multiaxial, isothermal, continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for fatigue of a unidirectional metal matrix composite volume element is presented. The model is phenomenological, stress based, and assumes a single scalar internal damage variable, the evolution of which is anisotropic. The development of the fatigue damage model, (i.e., evolutionary law) is based on the definition of an initially transversely isotropic fatigue limit surface, a static fracture surface, and a normalized stress amplitude function. The anisotropy of these surfaces and function, and therefore the model, is defined through physically meaningful invariants reflecting the local stress and material orientation. This transversely isotropic model is shown, when taken to it's isotropic limit, to directly simplify to a previously developed and validated isotropic fatigue continuum damage model. Results of a nondimensional parametric study illustrate (1) the flexibility of the present formulation in attempting to characterize a class of composite materials, and (2) the capability of the formulation in predicting anticipated qualitative trends in the fatigue behavior of unidirectional metal matrix composites. Also, specific material parameters representing an initial characterization of the composite system SiC/Ti 15-3 and the matrix material (Ti 15-3) are reported.

  19. Model Determined for Predicting Fatigue Lives of Metal Matrix Composites Under Mean Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft engine components invariably are subjected to mean stresses over and above the cyclic loads. In monolithic materials, it has been observed that tensile mean stresses are detrimental and compressive mean stresses are beneficial to fatigue life in comparison to a base of zero mean stress. Several mean stress models exist for monolithic metals, but each differ quantitatively in the extent to which detrimental or beneficial effects are ascribed. There have been limited attempts to apply these models to metal matrix composites. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, several mean stress models--the Smith-Watson- Topper, Walker, Normalized Goodman, and Soderberg models--were examined for applicability to this class of composite materials. The Soderberg approach, which normalizes the mean stress to a 0.02-percent yield strength, was shown to best represent the effect of mean stresses over the range covered. The other models varied significantly in their predictability and often failed to predict the composite behavior at very high tensile mean stresses. This work is the first to systematically demonstrate the influence of mean stresses on metal matrix composites and model their effects. Attention also was given to fatigue-cracking mechanisms in the Ti-15-3 matrix and to micromechanics analyses of mean stress effects.

  20. Model Determined for Predicting Fatigue Lives of Metal Matrix Composites Under Mean Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft engine components invariably are subjected to mean stresses over and above the cyclic loads. In monolithic materials, it has been observed that tensile mean stresses are detrimental and compressive mean stresses are beneficial to fatigue life in comparison to a base of zero mean stress. Several mean stress models exist for monolithic metals, but each differ quantitatively in the extent to which detrimental or beneficial effects are ascribed. There have been limited attempts to apply these models to metal matrix composites. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, several mean stress models--the Smith-Watson- Topper, Walker, Normalized Goodman, and Soderberg models--were examined for applicability to this class of composite materials. The Soderberg approach, which normalizes the mean stress to a 0.02-percent yield strength, was shown to best represent the effect of mean stresses over the range covered. The other models varied significantly in their predictability and often failed to predict the composite behavior at very high tensile mean stresses. This work is the first to systematically demonstrate the influence of mean stresses on metal matrix composites and model their effects. Attention also was given to fatigue-cracking mechanisms in the Ti-15-3 matrix and to micromechanics analyses of mean stress effects.

  1. Data-resolution matrix and model-resolution matrix for Rayleigh-wave inversion using a damped least-squares method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Inversion of multimode surface-wave data is of increasing interest in the near-surface geophysics community. For a given near-surface geophysical problem, it is essential to understand how well the data, calculated according to a layered-earth model, might match the observed data. A data-resolution matrix is a function of the data kernel (determined by a geophysical model and a priori information applied to the problem), not the data. A data-resolution matrix of high-frequency (>2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, therefore, offers a quantitative tool for designing field surveys and predicting the match between calculated and observed data. We employed a data-resolution matrix to select data that would be well predicted and we find that there are advantages of incorporating higher modes in inversion. The resulting discussion using the data-resolution matrix provides insight into the process of inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocities with higher-mode data to estimate S-wave velocity structure. Discussion also suggested that each near-surface geophysical target can only be resolved using Rayleigh-wave phase velocities within specific frequency ranges, and higher-mode data are normally more accurately predicted than fundamental-mode data because of restrictions on the data kernel for the inversion system. We used synthetic and real-world examples to demonstrate that selected data with the data-resolution matrix can provide better inversion results and to explain with the data-resolution matrix why incorporating higher-mode data in inversion can provide better results. We also calculated model-resolution matrices in these examples to show the potential of increasing model resolution with selected surface-wave data. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.

  2. Multiphase modelling of tumour growth and extracellular matrix interaction: mathematical tools and applications.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, Luigi; Tosin, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    Resorting to a multiphase modelling framework, tumours are described here as a mixture of tumour and host cells within a porous structure constituted by a remodelling extracellular matrix (ECM), which is wet by a physiological extracellular fluid. The model presented in this article focuses mainly on the description of mechanical interactions of the growing tumour with the host tissue, their influence on tumour growth, and the attachment/detachment mechanisms between cells and ECM. Starting from some recent experimental evidences, we propose to describe the interaction forces involving the extracellular matrix via some concepts coming from viscoplasticity. We then apply the model to the description of the growth of tumour cords and the formation of fibrosis.

  3. Transition probabilities matrix of Markov Chain in the fatigue crack growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Januri, Siti Sarah; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal; Masseran, Nurulkamal; Abdullah, Shahrum

    2016-10-01

    Markov model is one of the reliable method to describe the growth of the crack from the initial until fracture phase. One of the important subjects in the crack growth models is to obtain the transition probability matrix of the fatigue. Determining probability transition matrix is important in Markov Chain model for describing probability behaviour of fatigue life in the structure. In this paper, we obtain transition probabilities of a Markov chain based on the Paris law equation to describe the physical meaning of fatigue crack growth problem. The results show that the transition probabilities are capable to calculate the probability of damage in the future with the possibilities of comparing each stage between time.

  4. Development of a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model for sound transmission analysis.

    PubMed

    Dijckmans, A; Vermeir, G

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model is presented that allows for the investigation of the sound transmission through finite multilayered structures placed between two reverberant rooms. The multilayered structure may consist of an arbitrary configuration of fluid, elastic, or poro-elastic layers. The field variables (structural displacements and sound pressures) are expanded in terms of structural and acoustic wave functions. The boundary and continuity conditions in the rooms determine the participation factors in the pressure expansions. The displacement of the multilayered structure is determined by the mechanical impedance matrix, which gives a relation between the pressures and transverse displacements at both sides of the structure. The elements of this matrix are calculated with the transfer matrix method. First, the hybrid model is numerically validated. Next a comparison is made with sound transmission loss measurements of a hollow brick wall and a sandwich panel. Finally, numerical simulations show the influence of structural damping, room dimensions and plate dimensions on the sound transmission loss of multilayered structures.

  5. Potential-model calculation of an order-v2 nonrelativistic QCD matrix element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T.; Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Jungil

    2006-07-01

    We present two methods for computing dimensionally regulated nonrelativistic QCD heavy-quarkonium matrix elements that are related to the second derivative of the heavy-quarkonium wave function at the origin. The first method makes use of a hard-cutoff regulator as an intermediate step and requires knowledge only of the heavy-quarkonium wave function. It involves a significant cancellation that is an obstacle to achieving high numerical accuracy. The second method is more direct and yields a result that is identical to the Gremm-Kapustin relation, but it is limited to use in potential models. It can be generalized to the computation of matrix elements of higher order in the heavy-quark velocity and can be used to resum the contributions to decay and production rates that are associated with those matrix elements. We apply these methods to the Cornell potential model and compute a matrix element for the J/ψ state that appears in the leading relativistic correction to the production and decay of that state through the color-singlet quark-antiquark channel.

  6. Deformed Matrix Models, Supersymmetric Lattice Twists and N=1/4 Supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, Mithat

    2008-09-24

    A manifestly supersymmetric nonperturbative matrix regularization for a twisted version of N = (8, 8) theory on a curved background (a two-sphere) is constructed. Both continuum and the matrix regularization respect four exact scalar supersymmetries under a twisted version of the supersymmetry algebra. We then discuss a succinct Q = 1 deformed matrix model regularization of N = 4 SYM in d = 4, which is equivalent to a non-commutative A*{sub 4} orbifold lattice formulation. Motivated by recent progress in supersymmetric lattices, we also propose a N = 1/4 supersymmetry preserving deformation of N = 4 SYM theory on R{sup 4}. In this class of N = 1/4 theories, both the regularized and continuum theory respect the same set of (scalar) supersymmetry. By using the equivalence of the deformed matrix models with the lattice formulations, we give a very simple physical argument on why the exact lattice supersymmetry must be a subset of scalar subalgebra. This argument disagrees with the recent claims of the link approach, for which we give a new interpretation.

  7. Differential continuum damage mechanics models for creep and fatigue of unidirectional metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Kruch, S.

    1991-01-01

    Three multiaxial isothermal continuum damage mechanics models for creep, fatigue, and creep/fatigue interaction of a unidirectional metal matrix composite volume element are presented, only one of which will be discussed in depth. Each model is phenomenological and stress based, with varying degrees of complexity to accurately predict the initiation and propagation of intergranular and transgranular defects over a wide range of loading conditions. The development of these models is founded on the definition of an initially transversely isotropic fatigue limit surface, static fracture surface, normalized stress amplitude function and isochronous creep damage failure surface, from which both fatigue and creep damage evolutionary laws can be obtained. The anisotropy of each model is defined through physically meaningful invariants reflecting the local stress and material orientation. All three transversely isotropic models have been shown, when taken to their isotropic limit, to directly simplify to previously developed and validated creep and fatigue continuum damage theories. Results of a nondimensional parametric study illustrate (1) the flexibility of the present formulation when attempting to characterize a large class of composite materials, and (2) its ability to predict anticipated qualitative trends in the fatigue behavior of unidirectional metal matrix composites. Additionally, the potential for the inclusion of various micromechanical effects (e.g., fiber/matrix bond strength, fiber volume fraction, etc.), into the phenomenological anisotropic parameters is noted, as well as a detailed discussion regarding the necessary exploratory and characterization experiments needed to utilize the featured damage theories.

  8. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  9. The Development of Multicultural Counselling Competencies (MCC) Training Module Based on MCC Matrix Model by Sue et al. (1992)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuar, Azad Athahiri; Rozubi, Norsayyidatina Che; Abdullah, Haslee Sharil

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a MCC training module for trainee counselor based on MCC matrix model by Sue et al. (1992). This module encompassed five sub modules and 11 activities developed along the concepts and components of the MCC matrix model developed by Sue, Arredondo dan McDavis (1992). The design method used in this…

  10. On the Critical Behavior of Hermitian f-MATRIX Models in the Double Scaling Limit with f ≥ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaska, S.; Maeder, J.; Rühl, W.

    An algorithm for the isolation of any singularity of f-matrix models in the double scaling limit is presented. In particular it is proved by construction that only those universality classes exist that are known from two-matrix models.

  11. B(s) 0-mixing matrix elements from lattice QCD for the Standard Model and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazavov, A.; Bernard, C.; Bouchard, C. M.; Chang, C. C.; DeTar, C.; Du, Daping; El-Khadra, A. X.; Freeland, E. D.; Gámiz, E.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U. M.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Laiho, J.; Mackenzie, P. B.; Neil, E. T.; Simone, J.; Sugar, R.; Toussaint, D.; Van de Water, R. S.; Zhou, Ran; Fermilab Lattice; MILC Collaborations

    2016-06-01

    We calculate—for the first time in three-flavor lattice QCD—the hadronic matrix elements of all five local operators that contribute to neutral B0- and Bs-meson mixing in and beyond the Standard Model. We present a complete error budget for each matrix element and also provide the full set of correlations among the matrix elements. We also present the corresponding bag parameters and their correlations, as well as specific combinations of the mixing matrix elements that enter the expression for the neutral B -meson width difference. We obtain the most precise determination to date of the SU(3)-breaking ratio ξ =1.206 (18 )(6 ), where the second error stems from the omission of charm-sea quarks, while the first encompasses all other uncertainties. The threefold reduction in total uncertainty, relative to the 2013 Flavor Lattice Averaging Group results, tightens the constraint from B mixing on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle. Our calculation employs gauge-field ensembles generated by the MILC Collaboration with four lattice spacings and pion masses close to the physical value. We use the asqtad-improved staggered action for the light-valence quarks and the Fermilab method for the bottom quark. We use heavy-light meson chiral perturbation theory modified to include lattice-spacing effects to extrapolate the five matrix elements to the physical point. We combine our results with experimental measurements of the neutral B -meson oscillation frequencies to determine the CKM matrix elements |Vt d|=8.00 (34 )(8 )×10-3, |Vt s|=39.0 (1.2 )(0.4 )×10-3, and |Vt d/Vt s|=0.2052 (31 )(10 ), which differ from CKM-unitarity expectations by about 2 σ . These results and others from flavor-changing-neutral currents point towards an emerging tension between weak processes that are mediated at the loop and tree levels.

  12. Matrix model for strings beyond the c =1 barrier: The spin-s Heisenberg model on random surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Khachatryan, Sh.; Sedrakyan, A.

    2015-07-01

    We consider a spin-s Heisenberg model coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity. We quantize the model using the Feynman path integral, summing over all possible two-dimensional geometries and spin configurations. We regularize this path integral by starting with the R-matrices defining the spin-s Heisenberg model on a regular 2d Manhattan lattice. Two-dimensional quantum gravity is included by defining the R-matrices on random Manhattan lattices and summing over these, in the same way as one sums over 2d geometries using random triangulations in noncritical string theory. We formulate a random matrix model where the partition function reproduces the annealed average of the spin-s Heisenberg model over all random Manhattan lattices. A technique is presented which reduces the random matrix integration in the partition function to an integration over their eigenvalues.

  13. Fractional supersymmetric Liouville theory and the multi-cut matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Hirotaka

    2009-10-01

    We point out that the non-critical version of the k-fractional superstring theory can be described by k-cut critical points of the matrix models. In particular, in comparison with the spectrum structure of fractional super-Liouville theory, we show that (p,q) minimal fractional superstring theories appear in the Z-symmetry breaking critical points of the k-cut two-matrix models and the operator contents and string susceptibility coincide on both sides. By using this correspondence, we also propose a set of primary operators of the fractional superconformal ghost system which consistently produces the correct gravitational scaling critical exponents of the on-shell vertex operators.

  14. Highly accelerated cardiac cine parallel MRI using low-rank matrix completion and partial separability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jingyuan; Nakarmi, Ukash; Zhang, Chaoyi; Ying, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to highly accelerated dynamic parallel MRI using low rank matrix completion, partial separability (PS) model. In data acquisition, k-space data is moderately randomly undersampled at the center kspace navigator locations, but highly undersampled at the outer k-space for each temporal frame. In reconstruction, the navigator data is reconstructed from undersampled data using structured low-rank matrix completion. After all the unacquired navigator data is estimated, the partial separable model is used to obtain partial k-t data. Then the parallel imaging method is used to acquire the entire dynamic image series from highly undersampled data. The proposed method has shown to achieve high quality reconstructions with reduction factors up to 31, and temporal resolution of 29ms, when the conventional PS method fails.

  15. Random matrix model of QCD at finite density and the nature of the quenched limit

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanov, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    We use a random matrix model to study chiral symmetry breaking in QCD at finite chemical potential {mu}. We solve the model and compute the eigenvalue density of the Dirac matrix on a complex plane. A naive {open_quote}{open_quote}replica trick{close_quote}{close_quote} fails for {mu}{ne}0; we find that quenched QCD is not a simple {ital n}{r_arrow}0 limit of QCD with {ital n} quarks. It is the limit of a theory with 2{ital n} quarks: {ital n} quarks with original action and {ital n} quarks with conjugate action. The results agree with earlier studies of lattice QCD at {mu}{ne}0 and provide a simple analytical explanation of a long-standing puzzle. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Discrete matrix models for partial sums of conformal blocks associated to Painlevé transcendents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, F.

    2015-01-01

    A recently formulated conjecture of Gamayun, Iorgov and Lisovyy gives an asymptotic expansion of the Jimbo-Miwa-Ueno isomonodromic τ-function for certain Painlevé transcendents. The coefficients in this expansion are given in terms of conformal blocks of a two-dimensional conformal field theory, which can be written as infinite sums over pairs of partitions. In this note a discrete matrix model is proposed on a lattice whose partition function can be used to obtain a multiple integral representation for the length-restricted partial sums of the Painlevé conformal blocks. This leads to expressions of the partial sums involving Hänkel determinants associated to the discrete measure of the matrix model, or equivalently, Wronskians of the corresponding moment generating function which is shown to be of the generalized hypergeometric type.

  17. Refined open intersection numbers and the Kontsevich-Penner matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Alexander; Buryak, Alexandr; Tessler, Ran J.

    2017-03-01

    A study of the intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces with boundary was recently initiated in a work of R. Pandharipande, J.P. Solomon and the third author, where they introduced open intersection numbers in genus 0. Their construction was later generalized to all genera by J.P. Solomon and the third author. In this paper we consider a refinement of the open intersection numbers by distinguishing contributions from surfaces with different numbers of boundary components, and we calculate all these numbers. We then construct a matrix model for the generating series of the refined open intersection numbers and conjecture that it is equivalent to the Kontsevich-Penner matrix model. An evidence for the conjecture is presented. Another refinement of the open intersection numbers, which describes the distribution of the boundary marked points on the boundary components, is also discussed.

  18. Floating Node Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique for Modeling Matrix Cracking-Delamination Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCarvalho, N. V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, S. T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Tay, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.

  19. Floating Node Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique for Modeling Matrix Cracking-Delamination Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCarvalho, Nelson V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, Silvestre T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Tay, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Combined Matrix Cracking and Delamination in Composite Laminates Using Cohesive Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Roy, Rene; Kweon, Jin-Hwe; Choi, Jin-ho

    2016-06-01

    Sub-laminate damage in the form of matrix cracking and delamination was simulated by using interface cohesive elements in the finite element (FE) software ABAQUS. Interface cohesive elements were inserted parallel to the fiber orientation in the transverse ply with equal spacing (matrix cracking) and between the interfaces (delamination). Matrix cracking initiation in the cohesive elements was based on stress traction separation laws and propagated under mixed-mode loading. We expanded the work of Shi et al. (Appl. Compos. Mater. 21, 57-70 2014) to include delamination and simulated additional [45/-45/0/90]s and [02/90n]s { n = 1,2,3} CFRP laminates and a [0/903]s GFRP laminate. Delamination damage was quantified numerically in terms of damage dissipative energy. We observed that transverse matrix cracks can propagate to the ply interface and initiate delamination. We also observed for [0/90n/0] laminates that as the number of 90° ply increases past n = 2, the crack density decreases. The predicted crack density evolution compared well with experimental results and the equivalent constraint model (ECM) theory. Empirical relationships were established between crack density and applied stress by linear curve fitting. The reduction of laminate elastic modulus due to cracking was also computed numerically and it is in accordance with reported experimental measurements.

  1. Parallel Fock matrix construction with distributed shared memory model for the FMO-MO method.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Hiroaki; Inadomi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Toshio; Yagi, Toru; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Ikegami, Tsutomu; Tadano, Hiroto; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Nagashima, Umpei

    2010-10-01

    A parallel Fock matrix construction program for FMO-MO method has been developed with the distributed shared memory model. To construct a large-sized Fock matrix during FMO-MO calculations, a distributed parallel algorithm was designed to make full use of local memory to reduce communication, and was implemented on the Global Array toolkit. A benchmark calculation for a small system indicates that the parallelization efficiency of the matrix construction portion is as high as 93% at 1,024 processors. A large FMO-MO application on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein (17,246 atoms and 96,234 basis functions) was also carried out at the HF/6-31G level of theory, with the frontier orbitals being extracted by a Sakurai-Sugiura eigensolver. It takes 11.3 h for the FMO calculation, 49.1 h for the Fock matrix construction, and 10 min to extract 94 eigen-components on a PC cluster system using 256 processors.

  2. Mueller matrix measurements and modeling pertaining to Spectralon white reflectance standards.

    PubMed

    Svensen, Oyvind; Kildemo, Morten; Maria, Jerome; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind

    2012-07-02

    The full Mueller matrix for a Spectralon white reflectance standard was measured in the incidence plane, to obtain the polarization state of the scattered light for different angles of illumination. The experimental setup was a Mueller matrix ellipsometer, by which measurements were performed for scattering angles measured relative to the normal of the Spectralon surface from -90° to 90° sampled at every 2.5° for an illumination wavelength of 532 nm. Previously, the polarization of light scattered from Spectralon white reflectance standards was measured only for four of the elements of the Muller matrix. As in previous investigations, the reflection properties of the Spectralon white reflectance standard was found to be close to those of a Lambertian surface for small scattering and illumination angles. At large scattering and illumination angles, all elements of the Mueller matrix were found to deviate from those of a Lambertian surface. A simple empirical model with only two parameters, was developed, and used to simulate the measured results with fairly good accuracy.

  3. Modeling and parameter identification of impulse response matrix of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni V.

    1998-12-01

    A method for studying the problem of modeling, identification and analysis of mechanical system dynamic characteristic in view of the impulse response matrix for the purpose of adaptive control is developed here. Two types of the impulse response matrices are considered: (i) on displacement, which describes the space-coupled relationship between vectors of the force and simulated displacement, which describes the space-coupled relationship between vectors of the force and simulated displacement and (ii) on acceleration, which also describes the space-coupled relationship between the vectors of the force and measured acceleration. The idea of identification consists of: (a) the practical obtaining of the impulse response matrix on acceleration by 'impact-response' technique; (b) the modeling and parameter estimation of the each impulse response function on acceleration through the fundamental representation of the impulse response function on displacement as a sum of the damped sine curves applying linear and non-linear least square methods; (c) simulating the impulse provides the additional possibility to calculate masses, damper and spring constants. The damped natural frequencies are used as a priori information and are found through the standard FFT analysis. The problem of double numerical integration is avoided by taking two derivations of the fundamental dynamic model of a mechanical system as linear combination of the mass-damper-spring subsystems. The identified impulse response matrix on displacement represents the dynamic properties of the mechanical system. From the engineering point of view, this matrix can be also understood as a 'dynamic passport' of the mechanical system and can be used for dynamic certification and analysis of the dynamic quality. In addition, the suggested approach mathematically reproduces amplitude-frequency response matrix in a low-frequency band and on zero frequency. This allows the possibility of determining the matrix of the

  4. Efficient methodologies for system matrix modelling in iterative image reconstruction for rotating high-resolution PET.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, J E; Kontaxakis, G; Rubio, J L; Guerra, P; Santos, A

    2010-04-07

    A fully 3D iterative image reconstruction algorithm has been developed for high-resolution PET cameras composed of pixelated scintillator crystal arrays and rotating planar detectors, based on the ordered subsets approach. The associated system matrix is precalculated with Monte Carlo methods that incorporate physical effects not included in analytical models, such as positron range effects and interaction of the incident gammas with the scintillator material. Custom Monte Carlo methodologies have been developed and optimized for modelling of system matrices for fast iterative image reconstruction adapted to specific scanner geometries, without redundant calculations. According to the methodology proposed here, only one-eighth of the voxels within two central transaxial slices need to be modelled in detail. The rest of the system matrix elements can be obtained with the aid of axial symmetries and redundancies, as well as in-plane symmetries within transaxial slices. Sparse matrix techniques for the non-zero system matrix elements are employed, allowing for fast execution of the image reconstruction process. This 3D image reconstruction scheme has been compared in terms of image quality to a 2D fast implementation of the OSEM algorithm combined with Fourier rebinning approaches. This work confirms the superiority of fully 3D OSEM in terms of spatial resolution, contrast recovery and noise reduction as compared to conventional 2D approaches based on rebinning schemes. At the same time it demonstrates that fully 3D methodologies can be efficiently applied to the image reconstruction problem for high-resolution rotational PET cameras by applying accurate pre-calculated system models and taking advantage of the system's symmetries.

  5. A nonperturbative definition of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills by the plane wave matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Shimasaki, Shinji

    2008-11-23

    We propose a nonperturbative definition of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills(SYM). We realize N = 4 SYM on RxS{sup 3} as the theory around a vacuum of the plane wave matrix model. Our regularization preserves 16 supersymmetries and the gauge symmetry. We perform the one-loop calculation to give evidence that in the continuum limit the superconformal symmetry is restored.

  6. Simplified transfer matrix approach in the two-dimensional Ising model with various boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastening, Boris

    2002-11-01

    A recent simplified transfer matrix solution of the two-dimensional Ising model on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions is generalized to periodic-antiperiodic, antiperiodic-periodic, and antiperiodic-antiperiodic boundary conditions. It is suggested to employ linear combinations of the resulting partition functions to investigate finite-size scaling. An exact relation of such a combination to the partition function corresponding to Brascamp-Kunz boundary conditions is found.

  7. Matrix Models and A Proof of the Open Analog of Witten's Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryak, Alexandr; Tessler, Ran J.

    2017-08-01

    In a recent work, R. Pandharipande, J. P. Solomon and the second author have initiated a study of the intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces with boundary. They conjectured that the generating series of the intersection numbers satisfies the open KdV equations. In this paper we prove this conjecture. Our proof goes through a matrix model and is based on a Kontsevich type combinatorial formula for the intersection numbers that was found by the second author.

  8. Beyond the TDHF: A collision term from a random-matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, P.; Weidenmueller, H.A.; Wolschin, G.

    1981-10-01

    The mean-field description of low-energy heavy-ion scattering is extended to include the residual nucleon--nucleon interaction. The collision term is derived from a random-matrix model for this interaction in a weak-coupling limit. Particular attention is paid to justifying the approximations made in terms of the times scales typical of nuclei, and to the conservation of energy and particle number.

  9. Evolution of the CKM matrix in the universal extra dimension model

    SciTech Connect

    Cornell, A. S.; Liu Luxin

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the quark Yukawa couplings is performed for the one-loop renormalization group equations in the universal extra dimension model. It is found that the evolution of mixing angles and the CP violation measure J may rapidly vary in the presence of the Kaluza-Klein modes, and this variation becomes dramatic as the energy approaches the unification scale.

  10. Noninteractive macroscopic reliability model for ceramic matrix composites with orthotropic material symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Manderscheid, Jane M.

    1989-01-01

    A macroscopic noninteractive reliability model for ceramic matrix composites is presented. The model is multiaxial and applicable to composites that can be characterized as orthotropic. Tensorial invariant theory is used to create an integrity basis with invariants that correspond to physical mechanisms related to fracture. This integrity basis is then used to construct a failure function per unit volume (or area) of material. It is assumed that the overall strength of the composite is governed by weakest link theory. This leads to a Weibull type model similar in nature to the principle of independent action (PIA) model for isotropic monolithic ceramics. An experimental program to obtain model parameters is briefly discussed. In addition, qualitative features of the model are illustrated by presenting reliability surfaces for various model parameters.

  11. Noninteractive macroscopic reliability model for ceramic matrix composites with orthotropic material symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Manderscheid, Jane M.

    1989-01-01

    A macroscopic noninteractive reliability model for ceramic matrix composites is presented. The model is multiaxial and applicable to composites that can be characterized as orthotropic. Tensorial invariant theory is used to create an integrity basis with invariants that correspond to physical mechanisms related to fracture. This integrity basis is then used to construct a failure function per unit volume (or area) of material. It is assumed that the overall strength of the composite is governed by weakest link theory. This leads to a Weibull type model similar in nature to the principle of independent action (PIA) model for isotropic monolithic ceramics. An experimental program to obtain model parameters is briefly discussed. In addition, qualitative features of the model are illustrated by presenting reliability surfaces for various model parameters.

  12. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724

  13. Optimal Substrate Preheating Model for Thermal Spray Deposition of Thermosets onto Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivosevic, M.; Knight, R.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Palmese, G. R.; Tsurikov, A.; Sutter, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed, functionally graded polyimide/WC-Co composite coatings on polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are being investigated for applications in turbine engine technologies. This requires that the polyimide, used as the matrix material, be fully crosslinked during deposition in order to maximize its engineering properties. The rapid heating and cooling nature of the HVOF spray process and the high heat flux through the coating into the substrate typically do not allow sufficient time at temperature for curing of the thermoset. It was hypothesized that external substrate preheating might enhance the deposition behavior and curing reaction during the thermal spraying of polyimide thermosets. A simple analytical process model for the deposition of thermosetting polyimide onto polymer matrix composites by HVOF thermal spray technology has been developed. The model incorporates various heat transfer mechanisms and enables surface temperature profiles of the coating to be simulated, primarily as a function of substrate preheating temperature. Four cases were modeled: (i) no substrate preheating; (ii) substrates electrically preheated from the rear; (iii) substrates preheated by hot air from the front face; and (iv) substrates electrically preheated from the rear and by hot air from the front.

  14. Modeling of wave propagation in drill strings using vibration transfer matrix methods.

    PubMed

    Han, Je-Heon; Kim, Yong-Joe; Karkoub, Mansour

    2013-09-01

    In order to understand critical vibration of a drill bit such as stick-slip and bit-bounce and their wave propagation characteristics through a drill string system, it is critical to model the torsional, longitudinal, and flexural waves generated by the drill bit vibration. Here, a modeling method based on a vibration transfer matrix between two sets of structural wave variables at the ends of a constant cross-sectional, hollow, circular pipe is proposed. For a drill string system with multiple pipe sections, the total vibration transfer matrix is calculated by multiplying all individual matrices, each is obtained for an individual pipe section. Since drill string systems are typically extremely long, conventional numerical analysis methods such as a finite element method (FEM) require a large number of meshes, which makes it computationally inefficient to analyze these drill string systems numerically. The proposed "analytical" vibration transfer matrix method requires significantly low computational resources. For the validation of the proposed method, experimental and numerical data are obtained from laboratory experiments and FEM analyses conducted by using a commercial FEM package, ANSYS. It is shown that the modeling results obtained by using the proposed method are well matched with the experimental and numerical results.

  15. Fast and accurate computation of system matrix for area integral model-based algebraic reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Dinghua; Gong, Hao; Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Wang, Ge; Cao, Guohua

    2014-11-01

    Iterative algorithms, such as the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), are popular for image reconstruction. For iterative reconstruction, the area integral model (AIM) is more accurate for better reconstruction quality than the line integral model (LIM). However, the computation of the system matrix for AIM is more complex and time-consuming than that for LIM. Here, we propose a fast and accurate method to compute the system matrix for AIM. First, we calculate the intersection of each boundary line of a narrow fan-beam with pixels in a recursive and efficient manner. Then, by grouping the beam-pixel intersection area into six types according to the slopes of the two boundary lines, we analytically compute the intersection area of the narrow fan-beam with the pixels in a simple algebraic fashion. Overall, experimental results show that our method is about three times faster than the Siddon algorithm and about two times faster than the distance-driven model (DDM) in computation of the system matrix. The reconstruction speed of our AIM-based ART is also faster than the LIM-based ART that uses the Siddon algorithm and DDM-based ART, for one iteration. The fast reconstruction speed of our method was accomplished without compromising the image quality.

  16. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-09-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  17. MATRIX-VBS Condensing Organic Aerosols in an Aerosol Microphysics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Konstas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  18. Analysis of the mixing matrix in a model with coincident quark electroweak and mass eigenstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, J.

    1988-08-01

    A new approach to relating quark masses and mixing angles was proposed by del Águila, Kane, and Quirós, in which the mass matrix for the weak eigenstates was assumed to be diagonal in the absence of mixing with heavier quarks. The purpose of this paper is to examine in detail the constraints of CP violation and B0-B¯ 0 mixing on the quark-mixing-angle matrix of the model and the range of mt for which the description could hold. For the case where CP violation and B0-B¯ 0 mixing arise from the quark mixing matrix the result is that, for at least some values of the parameters, mt can be as small as 85 GeV but not less. In addition, ||Vub||/||Vcb|| is required to be larger than 0.11, an important constraint on the model. Mixing and CP violation arising from flavor-changing currents present in the model are also examined.

  19. The ABCDEF's of matrix models for supersymmetric Chern-Simons theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulotta, Daniel R.; Herzog, Christopher P.; Nishioka, Tatsuma

    2012-04-01

    We consider {N} = {3} supersymmetric Chern-Simons gauge theories with product unitary and orthosymplectic groups and bifundamental and fundamental fields. We study the partition functions on an S 3 by using the Kapustin-Willett-Yaakov matrix model. The saddlepoint equations in a large N limit lead to a constraint that the long range forces between the eigenvalues must cancel; the resulting quiver theories are of affine Dynkin type. We introduce a folding/unfolding trick which lets us, at the level of the large N matrix model, (i) map quivers with orthosymplectic groups to those with unitary groups, and (ii) obtain non-simply laced quivers from the corresponding simply laced quivers using a {{{Z}}_{{2}}} outer automorphism. The brane configurations of the quivers are described in string theory and the folding/unfolding is interpreted as the addition/subtraction of orientifold and orbifold planes. We also relate the U( N) quiver theories to the affine ADE quiver matrix models with a Stieltjes-Wigert type potential, and derive the generalized Seiberg duality in 2 + 1 dimensions from Seiberg duality in 3 + 1 dimensions.

  20. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Sun, X H; Qiao, J W; Jiao, Z M; Wang, Z H; Yang, H J; Xu, B S

    2015-09-10

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  1. A density-matrix model of photosynthetic electron transfer with microscopically estimated vibrational relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parson, William W.; Warshel, Arieh

    2004-01-01

    The dispersed-polaron (spin-boson) model is reviewed briefly and then used to develop a density-matrix model for studies of electron transfer in condensed phases. The frequencies and Franck-Condon factors for solvent vibrational modes that are coupled to electron transfer are obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations by the dispersed-polaron treatment. Microscopic rate constants for vibrational relaxations, dephasing and coherence transfer between the solvent modes are obtained by fitting the time dependence of the solvent coordinates in the density-matrix treatment to the corresponding time dependence obtained from molecular-dynamics simulations with a classical linear-response approximation. This is done by adjusting a single parameter, the time constant for thermal equilibration of the two lowest levels of a solvent mode ( T10). The model thus focuses on the coupling between solvent modes, rather than on the more widely studied coupling of solute modes by the thermal bath. The resulting density-matrix model is used to examine vibronic coupling in the initial electron-transfer step in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers. Values of T10 in the range of 1-2 ps are consistent with molecular-dynamics simulations of the time-dependent energy gap between the reactant and product states (P* and P +B -), and also with the damping of coherent vibrational motions that are seen experimentally after excitation of reaction centers with a short pulse of light. In both the density-matrix model and the MD simulations, the autocorrelation function of the energy gap also has a decay component with a time constant of about 50 fs, which we ascribe to the group dephasing of oscillatory motions at many different frequencies. This component is insensitive to vibrational relaxations and is largely irrelevant to the electron-transfer dynamics. Using values of T10 in the range of 1-2 ps, a model with five vibrational modes reproduces the main features of electron transfer

  2. Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.

  3. A matrix-calibrated species-area model for predicting biodiversity losses due to land-use change.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lian Pin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2010-08-01

    Application of island biogeography theory to prediction of species extinctions resulting from habitat loss is based on the assumption that the transformed landscape matrix is completely inhospitable to the taxa considered, despite evidence demonstrating the nontrivial influence of matrix on populations within habitat remnants. The island biogeography paradigm therefore needs refining to account for specific responses of taxa to the area of habitat "islands" and to the quality of the surrounding matrix. We incorporated matrix effects into island theory by partitioning the slope (z value) of species-area relationships into two components: gamma, a constant, and sigma, a measure of taxon-specific responses to each component of a heterogeneous matrix. We used our matrix-calibrated model to predict extinction and endangerment of bird species resulting from land-use change in 20 biodiversity hotspots and compared these predictions with observed numbers of extinct and threatened bird species. We repeated this analysis with the conventional species-area model and the countryside species-area model, considering alternative z values of 0.35 (island) or 0.22 (continental). We evaluated the relative strength of support for each of the five candidate models with Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The matrix-calibrated model had the highest AIC weight (w(i) = 89.21%), which means the weight of evidence in support of this model was the optimal model given the set of candidate models and the data. In addition to being a valuable heuristic tool for assessing extinction risk, our matrix-calibrated model also allows quantitative assessment of biodiversity benefits (and trade-offs) of land-management options in human-dominated landscapes. Given that processes of secondary regeneration have become more widespread across tropical regions and are predicted to increase, our matrix-calibrated model will be increasingly appropriate for practical conservation in tropical landscapes.

  4. A three-dimensional junction-pore-matrix model for capillary permeability.

    PubMed

    Weinbaum, S; Tsay, R; Curry, F E

    1992-07-01

    A three-dimensional model is presented for the hydraulic conductivity and diffusive permeability of capillary endothelial clefts with a junctional strand with discrete pores and a fiber matrix in its wide parts. The model attempts to provide new insight into long-standing issues concerning the relative importance of open junction discontinuities, restricted slit regions, and matrix components in determining the permeability and selectivity of the capillary wall. The predictions drawn from the model are used to formulate new experiments to test two hypotheses concerning the molecular organization of the junction strand and the location of matrix structures in the wide part of the cleft. Using the three-dimensional theoretical approach recently developed by Tsay, Weinbaum, and Pfeffer (Chem. Eng. Comm. 82, 67-102, 1989), the model first explores the behavior of three different molecular models for the junctional strand discontinuities: (i) a more frequent circular pore of 5.5-nm radius formed by isolated missing junction proteins; (ii) a restricted rectangular slit of four to eight missing proteins and 8-nm gap height; and (iii) larger more infrequent breaks of four to eight missing proteins with a gap height of 22 nm, equal to the width of the wide part of the cleft. For the circular and 8-nm gap height pores the primary molecular sieve can be located at the level of the junction strand, whereas for the 22-nm gap height pores, matrix components must be present in at least some portion of the cleft to provide the molecular filter. The water flow through the cross-bridging fibers in the wide part of the cleft is described either by a new exact three-dimensional theory (Tsay and Weinbaum, J. Fluid Mech. 226, 125-148, 1991) for an ordered periodic array or by a new approximate theory for a random array of perpendicular fibers. Both this theory and the new approximate theory for diffusion presented herein take into account for the first time the interaction between the

  5. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  6. A Unified Model for the Prediction of Yield Strength in Particulate-Reinforced Metal Matrix Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, F. A.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Lightweighting in the transportation industry is today recognized as one of the most important strategies to improve fuel efficiency and reduce anthropogenic climate-changing, environment-damaging, and human death-causing emissions. However, the structural applications of lightweight alloys are often limited by some inherent deficiencies such as low stiffness, high wear rate and inferior strength. These properties could be effectively enhanced by the addition of stronger and stiffer reinforcements, especially nano-sized particles, into metal matrix to form composites. In most cases three common strengthening mechanisms (load-bearing effect, mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion, and Orowan strengthening) have been considered to predict the yield strength of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs). This study was aimed at developing a unified model by taking into account the matrix grain size and porosity (which is unavoidable in the materials processing such as casting and powder metallurgy) in the prediction of the yield strength of MMNCs. The Zener pinning effect of grain boundaries by the nano-sized particles has also been integrated. The model was validated using the experimental data of magnesium- and titanium-based nanocomposites containing different types of nano-sized particles (namely, Al2O3, Y2O3, and carbon nanotubes). The predicted results were observed to be in good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. PMID:28793496

  7. A Unified Model for the Prediction of Yield Strength in Particulate-Reinforced Metal Matrix Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mirza, F A; Chen, D L

    2015-08-10

    Lightweighting in the transportation industry is today recognized as one of the most important strategies to improve fuel efficiency and reduce anthropogenic climate-changing, environment-damaging, and human death-causing emissions. However, the structural applications of lightweight alloys are often limited by some inherent deficiencies such as low stiffness, high wear rate and inferior strength. These properties could be effectively enhanced by the addition of stronger and stiffer reinforcements, especially nano-sized particles, into metal matrix to form composites. In most cases three common strengthening mechanisms (load-bearing effect, mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion, and Orowan strengthening) have been considered to predict the yield strength of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs). This study was aimed at developing a unified model by taking into account the matrix grain size and porosity (which is unavoidable in the materials processing such as casting and powder metallurgy) in the prediction of the yield strength of MMNCs. The Zener pinning effect of grain boundaries by the nano-sized particles has also been integrated. The model was validated using the experimental data of magnesium- and titanium-based nanocomposites containing different types of nano-sized particles (namely, Al₂O₃, Y₂O₃, and carbon nanotubes). The predicted results were observed to be in good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  8. Model Predictive Control of A Matrix-Converter Based Solid State Transformer for Utility Grid Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Yaosuo

    2016-01-01

    The matrix converter solid state transformer (MC-SST), formed from the back-to-back connection of two three-to-single-phase matrix converters, is studied for use in the interconnection of two ac grids. The matrix converter topology provides a light weight and low volume single-stage bidirectional ac-ac power conversion without the need for a dc link. Thus, the lifetime limitations of dc-bus storage capacitors are avoided. However, space vector modulation of this type of MC-SST requires to compute vectors for each of the two MCs, which must be carefully coordinated to avoid commutation failure. An additional controller is also required to control power exchange between the two ac grids. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) is proposed for an MC-SST connecting two different ac power grids. The proposed MPC predicts the circuit variables based on the discrete model of MC-SST system and the cost function is formulated so that the optimal switch vector for the next sample period is selected, thereby generating the required grid currents for the SST. Simulation and experimental studies are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the proposed MPC for such MC-SST-based grid interfacing systems.

  9. Assessment of Matrix Multiplication Learning with a Rule-Based Analytical Model--"A Bayesian Network Representation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    This study explored an alternative assessment procedure to examine learning trajectories of matrix multiplication. It took rule-based analytical and cognitive task analysis methods specifically to break down operation rules for a given matrix multiplication. Based on the analysis results, a hierarchical Bayesian network, an assessment model,…

  10. The monodromy matrix in the F-basis for arbitrary six-vertex models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, M. J.; Zuparic, M.

    2011-10-01

    We present the expressions for the monodromy matrix elements of the six-vertex model in the F-basis for arbitrary Boltzmann weights. The results rely solely on the property of unitarity and Yang-Baxter relations, avoiding any specific parameterization of the weights. This allows us to write complete algebraic expressions for the inner products and the underlying domain wall partition functions in the case of arbitrary rapidities. We then apply our results for the trigonometric six-vertex model in the presence of inhomogeneous electric fields and obtain a determinant formula for the respective on-shell scalar products.

  11. The matrix model of outpatient stimulant abuse treatment: history and description.

    PubMed

    Obert, J L; McCann, M J; Marinelli-Casey, P; Weiner, A; Minsky, S; Brethen, P; Rawson, R

    2000-01-01

    The Matrix model was originally developed in response to the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s. The program consists of relapse prevention groups, education groups, social support groups, individual counseling, and urine and breath testing delivered in a structured manner over a 16-week period. The treatment is a directive, nonconfrontational approach which focuses on current issues and behavior change. Several evaluations of the model have supported its usefulness and efficacy with methamphetamine (MA) users. Methamphetamine users appear to respond to treatment similarly to cocaine users and many continue to show improvements at follow-up.

  12. U{sub A}(1) breaking and phase transition in chiral random matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, T.; Fujii, H.; Ohtani, M.

    2009-08-01

    We propose a chiral random matrix model which properly incorporates the flavor-number dependence of the phase transition owing to the U{sub A}(1) anomaly term. At finite temperature, the model shows the second-order phase transition with mean-field critical exponents for two massless flavors, while in the case of three massless flavors the transition turns out to be of the first order. The topological susceptibility satisfies the anomalous U{sub A}(1) Ward identity and decreases gradually with the temperature increased.

  13. A new Q-matrix in the eight-vertex model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, Klaus

    2007-04-01

    We construct a Q-matrix for the eight-vertex model at roots of unity for crossing parameter η = 2mK/L with odd L, a case for which the existing constructions do not work. The new Q-matrix {\\skew3\\hat{Q}} depends on the spectral parameter v and also on a free parameter t. For t=0, {\\skew3\\hat{Q}} has the standard properties. For t ≠ 0, however, it does not commute with the operator S nor with itself for different values of the spectral parameter. We show that the six-vertex limit of {\\skew3\\hat{Q}}(v,t=iK^{\\prime}/2) exists.

  14. Modeling limit languages via limit adjacency matrix and Yusof-Goode approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wen Li, Yusof, Yuhani

    2015-05-01

    Limit language was introduced by Goode and Pixton in 2004 under the framework of formal language theory. It is a subset of splicing languages which is restricted to the molecules that will be presented in the splicing system after the reaction of biochemical has run to its completion. In this paper, limit adjacency matrix will be introduced to model the existence of limit languages from splicing languages. Besides, it can be used to characterize the splicing language in terms of active persistent, adult/inert and transient properties based on Yusof-Goode splicing system. In this paper, some examples and theorems that have been formulated via limit adjacency matrix approach will be presented too.

  15. Creep of Refractory Fibers and Modeling of Metal and Ceramic Matrix Composite Creep Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S.N.

    1995-01-01

    Our concentration during this research was on the following subprograms. (1) Ultra high vacuum creep tests on 218, ST300 and WHfC tungsten and MoHfC molybdenum alloy wires, temperature range from 1100 K to 1500 K, creep time of 1 to 500 hours. (2) High temperature vacuum tensile tests on 218, ST300 and WHfC tungsten and MoHfC molybdenum alloy wires. (3) Air and vacuum tensile creep tests on polycrystalline and single crystal alumina fibers, such as alumina-mullite Nextel fiber, yttrium aluminum ganet (YAG) and Saphikon, temperature range from 1150 K to 1470 K, creep time of 2 to 200 hours. (4) Microstructural evaluation of crept fibers, TEM study on the crept metal wires, SEM study on the fracture surface of ceramic fibers. (5) Metal Matrix Composite creep models, based on the fiber creep properties and fiber-matrix interface zone formation.

  16. Pansharpening remotely sensed data by using nonnegative matrix factorization and spectral-spatial degradation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, Nezha; Karoui, Moussa Sofiane; Djerriri, Khelifa; Boukerch, Issam

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a new pansharpening method, which uses nonnegative matrix factorization, is proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of remote sensing multispectral images. This method, based on the linear spectral unmixing concept and called joint spatial-spectral variables nonnegative matrix factorization, optimizes, by new iterative and multiplicative update rules, a joint-variables criterion that exploits spatial and spectral degradation models between the considered images. This criterion considers only two unknown high spatial-spectral resolutions variables. The proposed method is tested on synthetic and real datasets and its effectiveness, in spatial and spectral domains, is evaluated with established performance criteria. Results show the good performances of the proposed approach in comparison with other standard literature ones.

  17. Constitutive Modeling and Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites Incorporating Physical Aging at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are desirable for structural materials in diverse applications such as aircraft, civil infrastructure and biomedical implants because of their improved strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. For example, the next generation military and commercial aircraft requires applications for high strength, low weight structural components subjected to elevated temperatures. A possible disadvantage of polymer-based composites is that the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix often change significantly over time due to the exposure of elevated temperatures and environmental factors. For design, long term exposure (i.e. aging) of PMC's must be accounted for through constitutive models in order to accurately assess the effects of aging on performance, crack initiation and remaining life. One particular aspect of this aging process, physical aging, is considered in this research.

  18. A fiber matrix model for the filtration through fenestral pores in a compressible arterial intima.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Rumschitzki, D; Chien, S; Weinbaum, S

    1997-04-01

    We advance a new hypothesis to explain the changes in hydraulic conductivity of an intact artery wall with transmural pressure previously observed by Tedgui and Lever [Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 16): H784-H791, 1984] and Baldwin and Wilson [Am. J. Physiol. 264 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 33): H26-H32, 1993]. This hypothesis suggests that compaction due to pressure loading of the proteoglycan matrix in the arterial intima near fenestral pores of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) leads to a narrowing of the pore entrance area and a large decrease in local intrinsic Darcy permeability of the matrix. To quantitatively assess the feasibility of this mechanism, a local two-dimensional model is proposed to study filtration flow in the vicinity of fenestral pores in a compressible intima. Using a heterogenous fiber matrix theory, we first predict the change in Darcy permeability with intimal thickness (Li). The model then calculates local velocity profiles and pressure distributions in the intima and media. The results show a marked nonlinear steepening of intimal pressure profiles near fenestral pores when the intima thins at higher luminal pressures. The predicted relative change in resistances of the IEL (with intima, R(I)) and of the media (Rm) shows a steep increase in R(I)/Rm when Li is <20% of its unstressed value. Numerical results also suggest that intimal compression has a limiting behavior in which the much stiffer collagen fibrils inhibit further compaction at high pressures after the proteoglycan matrix is maximally compressed. Predictions are also presented to show how different transmural pressures alter growth of an intimal horseradish peroxidase spot that derives from a localized (a single cell's boundary) endothelial leakage. Such a prediction is amenable to experimental verification.

  19. Modeling the effects of interfacial characteristics on gas permeation behavior of nanotube- mixed matrix membranes.

    PubMed

    Chehrazi, Ehsan; Sharif, Alireza; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Mohammad

    2017-10-06

    Theoretical approaches, which accurately predict gas permeation behavior of nanotube containing mixed matrix membranes (nanotube-MMMs) are scarce. This is mainly due to ignoring the effects of nanotube/matrix interfacial characteristics in the existing theories. In this paper, based on the analogy of thermal conduction in polymer composites containing nanotubes, we develop a model to describe gas permeation through nanotube-MMMs. Two new parameters: "interfacial thickness" (aint) and "interfacial permeation resistance" (Rint) are introduced to account for the role of nanotube/matrix interfacial interactions in the proposed model. The obtained values of aint, independent of the nature of the permeate gas, increased by increasing both the nanotubes aspect ratio and polymer-nanotube interfacial strength. An excellent correlation between the values of aint and polymer-nanotube interaction parameters, χ, helped to accurately reproduce the existing experimental data from the literature without a need to resort to any adjustable parameter. The data includes 10 sets of CO2/CH4 permeation, 12 sets of CO2/N2 permeation, 3 sets of CO2/O2 permeation and 2 sets of CO2/H2 permeation through different nanotube-MMMs. Moreover, the average absolute relative errors between the experimental data and the predicted values of the proposed model are very small (less than 5%) in comparison with those of the existing models in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where such a systematic comparison between model predictions and such extensive experimental data is presented. Finally, the new way of assessing gas permeation data, presented in the current work, would be a simple alternative to complex approaches, which are usually utilized to estimate interfacial thickness in polymer composites.

  20. Modeling of outgassing and matrix decomposition in carbon-phenolic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Hugh L.

    1993-01-01

    A new release rate equation to model the phase change of water to steam in composite materials was derived from the theory of molecular diffusion and equilibrium moisture concentration. The new model is dependent on internal pressure, the microstructure of the voids and channels in the composite materials, and the diffusion properties of the matrix material. Hence, it is more fundamental and accurate than the empirical Arrhenius rate equation currently in use. The model was mathematically formalized and integrated into the thermostructural analysis code CHAR. Parametric studies on variation of several parameters have been done. Comparisons to Arrhenius and straight-line models show that the new model produces physically realistic results under all conditions.

  1. Density matrix renormalization group study of triangular Kitaev-Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, Shigetoshi; Sjinjo, Kazuya; Shirakawa, Tomonori; Tohyama, Takami; Yunoki, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Topological insulator has been one of the most active subjects in the current condensed matter physics. For most of topological insulators electron correlations are considered to be not essential. However, in the case where electron correlations are strong, novel phases such as a spin liquid phase can emerge in competition with a spin-orbit coupling. Here, using the density matrix renormalization group method, we investigate magnetic phase of a triangular Kitaev-Heisenberg (quantum compass) model that contains a spin-orbital interaction and spin frustration in the antiferromagnetic region. The triangular Kitaev-Heisenberg model is regarded as a dual model of the honeycomb Kitaev-Heisenberg model that is usually employed to discuss A2CuO3 (A=Na, K). Systematically calculating ground state energy, entanglement entropy, entanglement spectrum, and spin-spin correlation functions, we discuss the duality between the triangular and the honeycomb Kitaev-Heisenberg model as well as the ground state magnetic phases.

  2. A Micromechanical Constitutive Model of Progressive Crushing in Random Carbon Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.K.; Simunovic, S.

    1999-09-01

    A micromechanical damage constitutive model is presented to predict the overall elastoplastic behavior and damage evolution in random carbon fiber polymer matrix composites (RFPCs).To estimate the overall elastoplastic damage responses,an effective yield criterion is derived based on the ensemble-volume averaging process and first-order effects of eigenstrains due to the existence of spheroidal (prolate) fibers.The proposed effective yield criterion,to ether with the assumed overall associative plastic flow rule and hardening law, constitutes the analytical foundation for the estimation of effective elastoplastic behavior of ductile matrix composites.First,an effective elastoplastic constitutive dama e model for aligned fiber-reinforced composites is proposed.A micromechanical damage constitutive model for RFPCs is then developed.The average process over all orientations upon overning constitutive field equations and overall yield function for aligned fiber-reinforced composites i s performed to obtain the constitutive relations and effective yield function of RFPCs.The discrete numerical integration algorithms and the continuum tan ent operator are also presented to implement the proposed dama e constitutive model.The dama e constitutive model forms the basis for the pro ressive crushing in composite structures under impact loading.

  3. The Sp(3, R) Sympletic Model: a comparison of exact and approximate matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Anna; Caprio, Mark; Rowe, David

    2014-03-01

    The Sp(3, R) symplectic model has a close physical connection to both the microscopic shell model and the collective deformation and rotational degrees of freedom, and it is a natural extension of the Elliot SU(3) model from single-shell to multi-shell dynamics. The Sp(3, R) Lie algebra--which contains the angular momentum operators, the quadrupole and vibrational momentum operators and the quadrupole flow tensor operators--is the smallest algebra containing both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra. In the limit of large number of oscillator quanta, the Sp(3, R) algebra contracts to the U(3) boson algebra. For large values of the Casimir operator of the SU(3) subalgebra, the sp(3, R) algebra further contracts to the algebra of the collective coupled rotor-vibrator model. The exact Sp(3, R) matrix elements, calculated using the vector coherent state method, are compared with approximate matrix elements calculated in the U(3) boson limit. Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award and by the US DOE under grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934.

  4. A dynamic model of mobile concrete pump boom based on discrete time transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wu; Wu, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhaowei

    2013-12-01

    Mobile concrete pump boom is typical multibody large-scale motion manipulator. Due to posture constantly change in working process, kinematic rule and dynamic characteristic are difficult to solve. A dynamics model of a mobile concrete pump boom is established based on discrete time transfer matrix method (DTTMM). The boom system is divided into sub-structure A and substructure B. Sub-structure A is composed by the 1st boom and hydraulic actuator as well as the support. And substructure B is consists of the other three booms and corresponding hydraulic actuators. In the model, the booms and links are regarded as rigid elements and the hydraulic cylinders are equivalent to spring-damper. The booms are driven by the controllable hydraulic actuators. The overall dynamic equation and transfer matrix of the model can be assembled by sub-structures A and B. To get a precise result, step size and integration parameters are studied then. Next the tip displacement is calculated and compared with the result of ADAMS software. The displacement and rotation angle curves of the proposed method fit well with the ADAMS model. Besides it is convenient in modeling and saves time. So it is suitable for mobile concrete pump boom real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis. All of these provide reference to boom optimize and engineering application of such mechanisms.

  5. Black holes as random particles: entanglement dynamics in infinite range and matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magán, Javier M.

    2016-08-01

    We first propose and study a quantum toy model of black hole dynamics. The model is unitary, displays quantum thermalization, and the Hamiltonian couples every oscillator with every other, a feature intended to emulate the color sector physics of large- {N} matrix models. Considering out of equilibrium initial states, we analytically compute the time evolution of every correlator of the theory and of the entanglement entropies, allowing a proper discussion of global thermalization/scrambling of information through the entire system. Microscopic non-locality causes factorization of reduced density matrices, and entanglement just depends on the time evolution of occupation densities. In the second part of the article, we show how the gained intuition extends to large- {N} matrix models, where we provide a gauge invariant entanglement entropy for `generalized free fields', again depending solely on the quasinormal frequencies. The results challenge the fast scrambling conjecture and point to a natural scenario for the emergence of the so-called brick wall or stretched horizon. Finally, peculiarities of these models in regards to the thermodynamic limit and the information paradox are highlighted.

  6. $B^0_{(s)}$-mixing matrix elements from lattice QCD for the Standard Model and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Bazavov, A.; Bernard, C.; Bouchard, C. M.; Chang, C. C.; DeTar, C.; Du, Daping; El-Khadra, A. X.; Freeland, E. D.; Gamiz, E.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U. M.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Laiho, J.; Mackenzie, P. B.; Neil, E. T.; Simone, J.; Sugar, R.; Toussaint, D.; Van de Water, R. S.; Zhou, Ran

    2016-06-28

    We calculate—for the first time in three-flavor lattice QCD—the hadronic matrix elements of all five local operators that contribute to neutral B0- and Bs-meson mixing in and beyond the Standard Model. We present a complete error budget for each matrix element and also provide the full set of correlations among the matrix elements. We also present the corresponding bag parameters and their correlations, as well as specific combinations of the mixing matrix elements that enter the expression for the neutral B-meson width difference. We obtain the most precise determination to date of the SU(3)-breaking ratio ξ=1.206(18)(6), where the second error stems from the omission of charm-sea quarks, while the first encompasses all other uncertainties. The threefold reduction in total uncertainty, relative to the 2013 Flavor Lattice Averaging Group results, tightens the constraint from B mixing on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle. Our calculation employs gauge-field ensembles generated by the MILC Collaboration with four lattice spacings and pion masses close to the physical value. We use the asqtad-improved staggered action for the light-valence quarks and the Fermilab method for the bottom quark. We use heavy-light meson chiral perturbation theory modified to include lattice-spacing effects to extrapolate the five matrix elements to the physical point. We combine our results with experimental measurements of the neutral B-meson oscillation frequencies to determine the CKM matrix elements |Vtd| = 8.00(34)(8)×10-3, |Vts| = 39.0(1.2)(0.4)×10-3, and |Vtd/Vts| = 0.2052(31)(10), which differ from CKM-unitarity expectations by about 2σ. In addition, these results and others from flavor-changing-neutral currents point towards an emerging tension between weak processes that are mediated at the loop and tree levels.

  7. $$B^0_{(s)}$$-mixing matrix elements from lattice QCD for the Standard Model and beyond

    DOE PAGES

    Bazavov, A.; Bernard, C.; Bouchard, C. M.; ...

    2016-06-28

    We calculate—for the first time in three-flavor lattice QCD—the hadronic matrix elements of all five local operators that contribute to neutral B0- and Bs-meson mixing in and beyond the Standard Model. We present a complete error budget for each matrix element and also provide the full set of correlations among the matrix elements. We also present the corresponding bag parameters and their correlations, as well as specific combinations of the mixing matrix elements that enter the expression for the neutral B-meson width difference. We obtain the most precise determination to date of the SU(3)-breaking ratio ξ=1.206(18)(6), where the second errormore » stems from the omission of charm-sea quarks, while the first encompasses all other uncertainties. The threefold reduction in total uncertainty, relative to the 2013 Flavor Lattice Averaging Group results, tightens the constraint from B mixing on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle. Our calculation employs gauge-field ensembles generated by the MILC Collaboration with four lattice spacings and pion masses close to the physical value. We use the asqtad-improved staggered action for the light-valence quarks and the Fermilab method for the bottom quark. We use heavy-light meson chiral perturbation theory modified to include lattice-spacing effects to extrapolate the five matrix elements to the physical point. We combine our results with experimental measurements of the neutral B-meson oscillation frequencies to determine the CKM matrix elements |Vtd| = 8.00(34)(8)×10-3, |Vts| = 39.0(1.2)(0.4)×10-3, and |Vtd/Vts| = 0.2052(31)(10), which differ from CKM-unitarity expectations by about 2σ. In addition, these results and others from flavor-changing-neutral currents point towards an emerging tension between weak processes that are mediated at the loop and tree levels.« less

  8. $B^0_{(s)}$-mixing matrix elements from lattice QCD for the Standard Model and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Bazavov, A.; Bernard, C.; Bouchard, C. M.; Chang, C. C.; DeTar, C.; Du, Daping; El-Khadra, A. X.; Freeland, E. D.; Gamiz, E.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U. M.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Laiho, J.; Mackenzie, P. B.; Neil, E. T.; Simone, J.; Sugar, R.; Toussaint, D.; Van de Water, R. S.; Zhou, Ran

    2016-06-28

    We calculate—for the first time in three-flavor lattice QCD—the hadronic matrix elements of all five local operators that contribute to neutral B0- and Bs-meson mixing in and beyond the Standard Model. We present a complete error budget for each matrix element and also provide the full set of correlations among the matrix elements. We also present the corresponding bag parameters and their correlations, as well as specific combinations of the mixing matrix elements that enter the expression for the neutral B-meson width difference. We obtain the most precise determination to date of the SU(3)-breaking ratio ξ=1.206(18)(6), where the second error stems from the omission of charm-sea quarks, while the first encompasses all other uncertainties. The threefold reduction in total uncertainty, relative to the 2013 Flavor Lattice Averaging Group results, tightens the constraint from B mixing on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle. Our calculation employs gauge-field ensembles generated by the MILC Collaboration with four lattice spacings and pion masses close to the physical value. We use the asqtad-improved staggered action for the light-valence quarks and the Fermilab method for the bottom quark. We use heavy-light meson chiral perturbation theory modified to include lattice-spacing effects to extrapolate the five matrix elements to the physical point. We combine our results with experimental measurements of the neutral B-meson oscillation frequencies to determine the CKM matrix elements |Vtd| = 8.00(34)(8)×10-3, |Vts| = 39.0(1.2)(0.4)×10-3, and |Vtd/Vts| = 0.2052(31)(10), which differ from CKM-unitarity expectations by about 2σ. In addition, these results and others from flavor-changing-neutral currents point towards an emerging tension between weak processes that are mediated at the loop and tree levels.

  9. Parametric model of the Mueller matrix of a Spectralon white reflectance standard deduced by polar decomposition techniques.

    PubMed

    Kildemo, Morten; Maria, Jérôme; Ellingsen, Pål G; Aas, Lars M S

    2013-07-29

    Decomposition methods have been applied to in-plane Mueller matrix ellipsometric scattering data of the Spectralon reflectance standard. Data were measured at the wavelengths 532 nm and 1500 nm, using an achromatic optimal Mueller matrix scatterometer applying a photomultiplier tube and a high gain InGaAs detector for the two wavelengths. A parametric model with physical significance was deduced through analysis of the product decomposed matrices. It is found that when the data are analyzed as a function of the scattering angle, similar to particle scattering, the matrix elements are largely independent of incidence angle. To the first order, we propose that a Guassian lineshape is appropriate to describe the polarization index, while the decomposed diagonal elements of the retardance matrix have a form resembling Rayleigh single scattering. New models are proposed for the off diagonal elements of the measured Mueller matrix.

  10. Longitudinal Measurement of Extracellular Matrix Rigidity in 3D Tumor Models Using Particle-tracking Microrheology

    PubMed Central

    El-Hamidi, Hamid; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical microenvironment has been shown to act as a crucial regulator of tumor growth behavior and signaling, which is itself remodeled and modified as part of a set of complex, two-way mechanosensitive interactions. While the development of biologically-relevant 3D tumor models have facilitated mechanistic studies on the impact of matrix rheology on tumor growth, the inverse problem of mapping changes in the mechanical environment induced by tumors remains challenging. Here, we describe the implementation of particle-tracking microrheology (PTM) in conjunction with 3D models of pancreatic cancer as part of a robust and viable approach for longitudinally monitoring physical changes in the tumor microenvironment, in situ. The methodology described here integrates a system of preparing in vitro 3D models embedded in a model extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold of Type I collagen with fluorescently labeled probes uniformly distributed for position- and time-dependent microrheology measurements throughout the specimen. In vitro tumors are plated and probed in parallel conditions using multiwell imaging plates. Drawing on established methods, videos of tracer probe movements are transformed via the Generalized Stokes Einstein Relation (GSER) to report the complex frequency-dependent viscoelastic shear modulus, G*(ω). Because this approach is imaging-based, mechanical characterization is also mapped onto large transmitted-light spatial fields to simultaneously report qualitative changes in 3D tumor size and phenotype. Representative results showing contrasting mechanical response in sub-regions associated with localized invasion-induced matrix degradation as well as system calibration, validation data are presented. Undesirable outcomes from common experimental errors and troubleshooting of these issues are also presented. The 96-well 3D culture plating format implemented in this protocol is conducive to correlation of microrheology measurements with therapeutic

  11. Evaluation of Solid Modeling Software for Finite Element Analysis of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Mital, Subodh; Lang, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Three computer programs, used for the purpose of generating 3-D finite element models of the Repeating Unit Cell (RUC) of a textile, were examined for suitability to model woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). The programs evaluated were the open-source available TexGen, the commercially available WiseTex, and the proprietary Composite Material Evaluator (COMATE). A five-harness-satin (5HS) weave for a melt-infiltrated (MI) silicon carbide matrix and silicon carbide fiber was selected as an example problem and the programs were tested for their ability to generate a finite element model of the RUC. The programs were also evaluated for ease-of-use and capability, particularly for the capability to introduce various defect types such as porosity, ply shifting, and nesting of a laminate. Overall, it was found that TexGen and WiseTex were useful for generating solid models of the tow geometry; however, there was a lack of consistency in generating well-conditioned finite element meshes of the tows and matrix. TexGen and WiseTex were both capable of allowing collective and individual shifting of tows within a ply and WiseTex also had a ply nesting capability. TexGen and WiseTex were sufficiently userfriendly and both included a Graphical User Interface (GUI). COMATE was satisfactory in generating a 5HS finite element mesh of an idealized weave geometry but COMATE lacked a GUI and was limited to only 5HS and 8HS weaves compared to the larger amount of weave selections available with TexGen and WiseTex.

  12. A semi-analytical method for simulating matrix diffusion in numerical transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falta, Ronald W.; Wang, Wenwen

    2017-02-01

    A semi-analytical approximation for transient matrix diffusion is developed for use in numerical contaminant transport simulators. This method is an adaptation and extension of the heat conduction method of Vinsome and Westerveld (1980) used to simulate heat losses during thermally enhanced oil recovery. The semi-analytical method is used in place of discretization of the low permeability materials, and it represents the concentration profile in the low permeability materials with a fitting function that is adjusted in each element at each time-step. The resulting matrix diffusion fluxes are added to the numerical model as linear concentration-dependent source/sink terms. Since only the high permeability zones need to be discretized, the numerical formulation is extremely efficient compared to traditional approaches that require discretization of both the high and low permeability zones. The semi-analytical method compares favorably with the analytical solution for transient one-dimensional diffusion with first order decay, with a two-layer aquifer/aquitard solution, with the solution for transport in a fracture with matrix diffusion and decay, and with a fully numerical solution for transport in a thin sand zone bounded by clay with variable decay rates.

  13. Modelling drug release from inert matrix systems: from moving-boundary to continuous-field descriptions.

    PubMed

    Frenning, Göran

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of mathematical procedures that can be used to describe the release of drugs from inert matrix systems. The review focuses on general principles rather than particular applications. The inherent multiscale nature of the drug-release process is pointed out and multiscale modelling is exemplified for inert porous matrices. Although effects of stagnant layers and finite volumes of release media are briefly discussed, the systematic analysis is restricted to systems under sink conditions. When the initial drug loading exceeds the drug solubility in the matrix, Higuchi-type moving-boundary descriptions continue to be highly valuable for obtaining approximate analytical solutions, especially when coupled with integral balance methods. Continuous-field descriptions have decisive advantages when numerical solutions are sought. This is because the mathematical formulation reduces to a diffusion equation with a nonlinear source term, valid over the entire matrix domain. Solutions can thus be effortlessly determined for arbitrary geometries using standard numerical packages.

  14. Spin Matrix theory: a quantum mechanical model of the AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmark, Troels; Orselli, Marta

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a new quantum mechanical theory called Spin Matrix theory (SMT). The theory is interacting with a single coupling constant g and is based on a Hilbert space of harmonic oscillators with a spin index taking values in a Lie (super)algebra representation as well as matrix indices for the adjoint representation of U( N). We show that SMT describes super-Yang-Mills theory (SYM) near zero-temperature critical points in the grand canonical phase diagram. Equivalently, SMT arises from non-relativistic limits of SYM. Even though SMT is a non-relativistic quantum mechanical theory it contains a variety of phases mimicking the AdS/CFT correspondence. Moreover, the g → ∞ limit of SMT can be mapped to the supersymmetric sector of string theory on AdS5 × S 5. We study SU(2) SMT in detail. At large N and low temperatures it is a theory of spin chains that for small g resembles planar gauge theory and for large g a non-relativistic string theory. When raising the temperature a partial deconfinement transition occurs due to finite- N effects. For sufficiently high temperatures the partially deconfined phase has a classical regime. We find a matrix model description of this regime at any coupling g. Setting g = 0 it is a theory of N 2 + 1 harmonic oscillators while for large g it becomes 2 N harmonic oscillators.

  15. A semi-analytical method for simulating matrix diffusion in numerical transport models.

    PubMed

    Falta, Ronald W; Wang, Wenwen

    2017-02-01

    A semi-analytical approximation for transient matrix diffusion is developed for use in numerical contaminant transport simulators. This method is an adaptation and extension of the heat conduction method of Vinsome and Westerveld (1980) used to simulate heat losses during thermally enhanced oil recovery. The semi-analytical method is used in place of discretization of the low permeability materials, and it represents the concentration profile in the low permeability materials with a fitting function that is adjusted in each element at each time-step. The resulting matrix diffusion fluxes are added to the numerical model as linear concentration-dependent source/sink terms. Since only the high permeability zones need to be discretized, the numerical formulation is extremely efficient compared to traditional approaches that require discretization of both the high and low permeability zones. The semi-analytical method compares favorably with the analytical solution for transient one-dimensional diffusion with first order decay, with a two-layer aquifer/aquitard solution, with the solution for transport in a fracture with matrix diffusion and decay, and with a fully numerical solution for transport in a thin sand zone bounded by clay with variable decay rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase space and phase transitions in the Penner matrix model with negative coupling constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Martínez Alonso, Luis; Medina, Elena

    2017-03-01

    The partition function of the Penner matrix model for both positive and negative values of the coupling constant can be explicitly written in terms of the Barnes G function. In this paper we show that for negative values of the coupling constant this partition function can also be represented as the product of an holomorphic matrix integral by a nontrivial oscillatory function of n. We show that the planar limit of the free energy with ’t Hooft sequences does not exist. Therefore we use a certain modification that uses Kuijlaars–McLaughlin sequences instead of ’t Hooft sequences and leads to a well-defined planar free energy and to an associated two-dimensional phase space. We describe the different configurations of complex saddle points of the holomorphic matrix integral both to the left and to the right of the critical point, and interpret the phase transitions in terms of processes of gap closing, eigenvalue tunneling, and Bose condensation.

  17. Nonlinearity and Strain-Rate Dependence in the Deformation Response of Polymer Matrix Composites Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    There has been no accurate procedure for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials, but such an analytical capability will be required in designing reliable lightweight engine-containment systems. The majority of the models in use assume a linear elastic material response that does not vary with strain rate. However, for containment systems, polymer matrix composites incorporating ductile polymers are likely to be used. For such a material, the deformation response is likely to be nonlinear and to vary with strain rate. An analytical model has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field that incorporates both of these features. A set of constitutive equations that was originally developed to analyze the viscoplastic deformation of metals (Ramaswamy-Stouffer equations) was modified to simulate the nonlinear, rate-dependent deformation of polymers. Specifically, the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the inelastic response, which can be significant in polymers, were accounted for by a modification of the definition of the effective stress. The constitutive equations were then incorporated into a composite micromechanics model based on the mechanics of materials theory. This theory predicts the deformation response of a composite material from the properties and behavior of the individual constituents. In this manner, the nonlinear, rate-dependent deformation response of a polymer matrix composite can be predicted.

  18. Density matrix modeling of quantum cascade lasers without an artificially localized basis: A generalized scattering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Andrew; Burnett, Benjamin A.; Chui, Chi On; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2017-08-01

    We derive a density matrix (DM) theory for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) that describes the influence of scattering on coherences through a generalized scattering superoperator. The theory enables quantitative modeling of QCLs, including localization and tunneling effects, using the well-defined energy eigenstates rather than the ad hoc localized basis states required by most previous DM models. Our microscopic approach to scattering also eliminates the need for phenomenological transition or dephasing rates. We discuss the physical interpretation and numerical implementation of the theory, presenting sets of both energy-resolved and thermally averaged equations, which can be used for detailed or compact device modeling. We illustrate the theory's applications by simulating a high performance resonant-phonon terahertz (THz) QCL design, which cannot be easily or accurately modeled using conventional DM methods. We show that the theory's inclusion of coherences is crucial for describing localization and tunneling effects consistent with experiment.

  19. Separation of variables in anisotropic models and non-skew-symmetric elliptic r-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypnyk, Taras

    2017-05-01

    We solve a problem of separation of variables for the classical integrable hamiltonian systems possessing Lax matrices satisfying linear Poisson brackets with the non-skew-symmetric, non-dynamical elliptic so(3)⊗ so(3)-valued classical r-matrix. Using the corresponding Lax matrices, we present a general form of the "separating functions" B( u) and A( u) that generate the coordinates and the momenta of separation for the associated models. We consider several examples and perform the separation of variables for the classical anisotropic Euler's top, Steklov-Lyapunov model of the motion of anisotropic rigid body in the liquid, two-spin generalized Gaudin model and "spin" generalization of Steklov-Lyapunov model.

  20. Simulating winter flounder population dynamics using coupled individual-based YOY and Leslie matrix models

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, J.A.; Rose, K.A. ); Chambers, R.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Winter flounder populations support an important commercial fishery in eastern North America that has recently experienced declines in catch. We developed a model for winter flounder that combines an individual-based (IBM) simulation of the young-of-the-year (yoy) period and a Leslie matrix model of the adult period. The model is designed to depicit the biotic and abiotic environment of bays off the northeastern United States coast. Using the model we replicated the spawn and recruit relationship of winter flounder determined from 12 years of study in the Niantic River. The simulations show the importance of inter-annual variation in temperature and the spawning population as well as density-dependent growth and mortality in determining yoy recruitment. With 100 year simulations we determined the effect of variation in the environment on the recruitment of yoy winder flounder and on long term population stability.

  1. Separation of variables in anisotropic models and non-skew-symmetric elliptic r-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypnyk, Taras

    2016-11-01

    We solve a problem of separation of variables for the classical integrable hamiltonian systems possessing Lax matrices satisfying linear Poisson brackets with the non-skew-symmetric, non-dynamical elliptic so(3)⊗ so(3) -valued classical r-matrix. Using the corresponding Lax matrices, we present a general form of the "separating functions" B(u) and A(u) that generate the coordinates and the momenta of separation for the associated models. We consider several examples and perform the separation of variables for the classical anisotropic Euler's top, Steklov-Lyapunov model of the motion of anisotropic rigid body in the liquid, two-spin generalized Gaudin model and "spin" generalization of Steklov-Lyapunov model.

  2. Application of Transfer Matrix Approach to Modeling and Decentralized Control of Lattice-Based Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Nick; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Cheung, Kenny; Teodorescu, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling and control of aerostructure developed by lattice-based cellular materials/components. The proposed aerostructure concept leverages a building block strategy for lattice-based components which provide great adaptability to varying ight scenarios, the needs of which are essential for in- ight wing shaping control. A decentralized structural control design is proposed that utilizes discrete-time lumped mass transfer matrix method (DT-LM-TMM). The objective is to develop an e ective reduced order model through DT-LM-TMM that can be used to design a decentralized controller for the structural control of a wing. The proposed approach developed in this paper shows that, as far as the performance of overall structural system is concerned, the reduced order model can be as e ective as the full order model in designing an optimal stabilizing controller.

  3. A mathematical model of the inline CMOS matrix sensor for investigation of particles in hydraulic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilin, DV; Kudryavtsev, IA

    2016-10-01

    One of the most effective ways to diagnose the state of hydraulic system is an investigation of the particles in their liquids. The sizes of such particles range from 2 to 200 gm and their concentration and shape reveal important information about the current state of equipment and the necessity of maintenance. In-line automatic particle counters (APC), which are built into hydraulic system, are widely used for determination of particle size and concentration. These counters are based on a single photodiode and a light emitting diode (LED); however, samples of liquid are needed for analysis using microscope or industrial video camera in order to get information about particle shapes. The act of obtaining the sample leads to contamination by other particles from the air or from the sample tube, meaning that the results are usually corrupted. Using the CMOS or CCD matrix sensor without any lens for inline APC is the solution proposed by authors. In this case the matrix sensors are put into the liquid channel of the hydraulic system and illuminated by LED. This system could be stable in arduous conditions like high pressure and the vibration of the hydraulic system; however, the image or signal from that matrix sensor needs to be processed differently in comparison with the signal from microscope or industrial video camera because of relatively short distance between LED and sensor. This paper introduces mathematical model of a sensor with CMOS and LED, which can be built into hydraulic system. It is also provided a computational algorithm and results, which can be useful for calculation of particle sizes and shapes using the signal from the CMOS matrix sensor.

  4. EFFECT OF MODEL-DEPENDENT COVARIANCE MATRIX FOR STUDYING BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Labatie, A.; Starck, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale structures in the universe are a powerful tool to test cosmological models and constrain cosmological parameters. A particular feature of interest comes from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), which are sound waves traveling in the hot plasma of the early universe that stopped at the recombination time. This feature can be observed as a localized bump in the correlation function at the scale of the sound horizon r{sub s} . As such, it provides a standard ruler and a lot of constraining power in the correlation function analysis of galaxy surveys. Moreover, the detection of BAOs at the expected scale gives strong support to cosmological models. Both of these studies (BAO detection and parameter constraints) rely on a statistical modeling of the measured correlation function {xi}-circumflex. Usually {xi}-circumflex is assumed to be Gaussian, with a mean {xi}{sub {theta}} depending on the cosmological model and a covariance matrix C generally approximated as a constant (i.e., independent of the model). In this article, we study whether a realistic model-dependent C {sub {theta}} changes the results of cosmological parameter constraints compared to the approximation of a constant covariance matrix C. For this purpose, we use a new procedure to generate lognormal realizations of the luminous red galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to obtain a model-dependent C {sub {theta}} in a reasonable time. The approximation of C {sub {theta}} as a constant creates small changes in the cosmological parameter constraints on our sample. We quantify this modeling error using a lot of simulations and find that it only has a marginal influence on cosmological parameter constraints for current and next-generation galaxy surveys. It can be approximately taken into account by extending the 1{sigma} intervals by a factor Almost-Equal-To 1.3.

  5. A Bridging Cell Multiscale Methodology to Model the Structural Behaviour of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobellis, Vincent

    Composite and nanocomposite materials exhibit behaviour which is inherently multiscale, extending from the atomistic to continuum levels. In composites, damage growth tends to occur at the nano and microstructural scale by means of crack growth and fibre-matrix debonding. Concurrent multiscale modeling provides a means of efficiently solving such localized phenomena, however its use in this application has been limited due to a number of existing issues in the multiscale field. These include the seamless transfer of information between continuum and atomistic domains, the small timesteps required for dynamic simulation, and limited research into concurrent multiscale modeling of amorphous polymeric materials. The objective of this thesis is thus twofold: to formulate a generalized approach to solving a coupled atomistic-to-continuum system that addresses these issues and to extend the application space of concurrent multiscale modeling to damage modeling in composite microstructures. To achieve these objectives, a finite element based multiscale technique termed the Bridging Cell Method (BCM), has been formulated with a focus on crystalline material systems. Case studies are then presented that show the effectiveness of the developed technique with respect to full atomistic simulations. The BCM is also demonstrated for applications of stress around a nanovoid, nanoindentation, and crack growth due to monotonic and cyclic loading. Next, the BCM is extended to modeling amorphous polymeric material systems where an adaptive solver and a two-step iterative solution algorithm are introduced. Finally, the amorphous and crystalline BCM is applied to modeling a polymer-graphite interface. This interface model is used to obtain cohesive zone parameters which are used in a cohesive zone model of fibre-matrix interfacial cracking in a composite microstructure. This allows for an investigation of the temperature dependent damage mechanics from the nano to microscale within

  6. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Tsunehide; Sugino, Fumihiko

    2017-06-01

    In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond-Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  7. A Chemomechanical Model of Matrix and Nuclear Rigidity Regulation of Focal Adhesion Size

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xuan; Lin, Yuan; Driscoll, Tristian P.; Franco-Barraza, Janusz; Cukierman, Edna; Mauck, Robert L.; Shenoy, Vivek B.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a chemomechanical model describing the growth dynamics of cell-matrix adhesion structures (i.e., focal adhesions (FAs)) is developed. We show that there are three regimes for FA evolution depending on their size. Specifically, nascent adhesions with initial lengths below a critical value that are yet to engage in actin fibers will dissolve, whereas bigger ones will grow into mature FAs with a steady state size. In adhesions where growth surpasses the steady state size, disassembly will occur until their sizes are reduced to the equilibrium state. This finding arises from the fact that polymerization of adhesion proteins is force-dependent. Under actomyosin contraction, individual integrin bonds within small FAs (i.e., nascent adhesions or focal complexes) must transmit higher loads while the phenomenon of stress concentration occurs at the edge of large adhesion patches. As such, an effective stiffness of the FA-extracellular matrix complex that is either too small or too large will be relatively low, resulting in a limited actomyosin pulling force developed at the edge that is insufficient to prevent disassembly. Furthermore, it is found that a stiffer extracellular matrix and/or nucleus, as well as a stronger chemomechanical feedback, will induce larger adhesions along with a higher level of contraction force. Interestingly, switching the extracellular side from an elastic half-space, corresponding to some widely used in vitro gel substrates, to a one-dimensional fiber (as in the case of cells anchoring to a fibrous scaffold in vivo) does not qualitative change these conclusions. Our model predictions are in good agreement with a variety of experimental observations obtained in this study as well as those reported in the literature. Furthermore, this new model, to our knowledge, provides a framework with which to understand how both intracellular and extracellular perturbations lead to changes in adhesion structure number and size. PMID:26536258

  8. A Matrix Transition Model for an Uneven-Aged, Oak-Hickory Forest in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    James R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Edward F. Loewenstein

    1999-01-01

    We present a matrix growth model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. The model was developed to predict ingrowth, growth of surviving trees, and mortality by diameter class for a five-year period. Tree removal from management activities is accounted for in the model. We evaluated a progression of models from a static, fixed-...

  9. A matrix transition model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Missouri ozark highlands

    Treesearch

    James R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Edward F. Loewenstein

    1999-01-01

    We presented a matrix growth model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. The model was developed to predict ingrowth, growth of surviving trees, and mortality by diameter class for a five-year period. Tree removal from management activities is accounted for in the model. We evaluated a progression of models from a static, fixed...

  10. Probing the smearing effect by a pointlike graviton in the plane-wave matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Shin, Hyeonjoon

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the interaction between a flat membrane and pointlike graviton in the plane-wave matrix model. The one-loop effective potential in the large-distance limit is computed and is shown to be of r{sup -3} type where r is the distance between two objects. This type of interaction has been interpreted as the one incorporating the smearing effect due to the configuration of a flat membrane in a plane-wave background. Our results support this interpretation and provide more evidence about it.

  11. Unified constitutive model development for metal matrix composites at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    Structural alloys used in high temperature applications exhibit complex thermomechanical behavior that is time dependent and hereditary. Recent attention is being focused on metal matrix composite materials for high temperature applications where they exhibit all the complexities of conventional alloys and their strong anisotropy adds further complexities. Here, a proven constitutive model for isotropic materials in which the inelastic strain rate and internal state are expressible as gradients of a dissipation potential is taken to depend on invariants that reflect local transverse isotropy. Applications illustrate the capability of the theory of representing the time dependent, hereditary, anisotropic behavior typical of these materials at high temperature.

  12. Noncommutative geometry and the BV formalism: Application to a matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iseppi, Roberta A.; van Suijlekom, Walter D.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze a U(2) -matrix model derived from a finite spectral triple. By applying the BV formalism, we find a general solution to the classical master equation. To describe the BV formalism in the context of noncommutative geometry, we define two finite spectral triples: the BV spectral triple and the BV auxiliary spectral triple. These are constructed from the gauge fields, ghost fields and anti-fields that enter the BV construction. We show that their fermionic actions add up precisely to the BV action. This approach allows for a geometric description of the ghost fields and their properties in terms of the BV spectral triple.

  13. Matrix Models and Eigenvalue Statistics for Truncations of Classical Ensembles of Random Unitary Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killip, Rowan; Kozhan, Rostyslav

    2017-02-01

    We consider random non-normal matrices constructed by removing one row and column from samples from Dyson's circular ensembles or samples from the classical compact groups. We develop sparse matrix models whose spectral measures match these ensembles. This allows us to compute the joint law of the eigenvalues, which have a natural interpretation as resonances for open quantum systems or as electrostatic charges located in a dielectric medium. Our methods allow us to consider all values of {β > 0}, not merely {β=1,2,4}.

  14. Gap formation and phase transition of the anisotropic Kondo necklace model: Density matrix renormalization group analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the one-dimensional Kondo necklace model, at zero temperature, with an anisotropy parameter η in the interaction of the conduction chain, by means of the density matrix renormalization group. We calculate the energy gap and estimate the quantum critical points that separate a Kondo singlet state from an antiferromagnetic state, assuming a Kosterlitz-Thouless tendency. We also observe the correlation functions and the structure factors that support our critical points. The resulting phase diagram is presented and compared to that reported previously using Lanczos calculations. It is shown that the quantum critical points vary very slowly with η , but when η approaches zero, they drop abruptly.

  15. Periodic matrix population models: growth rate, basic reproduction number, and entropy.

    PubMed

    Bacaër, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This article considers three different aspects of periodic matrix population models. First, a formula for the sensitivity analysis of the growth rate lambda is obtained that is simpler than the one obtained by Caswell and Trevisan. Secondly, the formula for the basic reproduction number R0 in a constant environment is generalized to the case of a periodic environment. Some inequalities between lambda and R0 proved by Cushing and Zhou are also generalized to the periodic case. Finally, we add some remarks on Demetrius' notion of evolutionary entropy H and its relationship to the growth rate lambda in the periodic case.

  16. Density Induced Phase Transitions in the Schwinger Model: A Study with Matrix Product States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cichy, Krzysztof; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Jansen, Karl; Kühn, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.

  17. R-matrix and Potential Model Extrapolations for NACRE Update and Extension Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Katsuma, Masahiko; Takahashi, Kohji; Arnould, Marcel; Arai, Koji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-07-12

    NACRE, the 'nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies. Its update and extension programme started within a Konan-Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) collaboration. At the present moment, experimental data in refereed journals have been collected, and their theoretical extrapolations are being performed using the R-matrix or potential models. For the 3H(d,n)4He and 2H(p,{gamma})3He reactions, we present preliminary results that could well reproduce the experimental data.

  18. Complex saddle points in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Alonso, Luis Martínez; Medina, Elena

    2016-11-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated with nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  19. Matrix Pseudospectral Method for (Visco)Elastic Tides Modeling of Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabranova, Eliska; Hanyk, Ladidslav; Matyska, Ctirad

    2010-05-01

    We deal with the equations and boundary conditions describing deformation and gravitational potential of prestressed spherically symmetric elastic bodies by decomposing governing equations into a series of boundary value problems (BVP) for ordinary differential equations (ODE) of the second order. In contrast to traditional Runge-Kutta integration techniques, highly accurate pseudospectral schemes are employed to directly discretize the BVP on Chebyshev grids and a set of linear algebraic equations with an almost block diagonal matrix is derived. As a consequence of keeping the governing ODEs of the second order instead of the usual first-order equations, the resulting algebraic system is half-sized but derivatives of the model parameters are required. Moreover, they can be easily evaluated for models, where structural parametres are piecewise polynomially dependent. Both accuracy and efficiency of the method are tested by evaluating the tidal Love numbers for the Earth's model PREM. Finally, we also derive complex Love numbers for models with the Maxwell viscoelastic rheology, where viscosity is a depth-dependent function. The method is applied to evaluation of the tidal Love numbers for models of Mars and Venus. The Love numbers of the two Martian models - the former optimized to cosmochemical data and the latter to the moment of inertia (Sohl and Spohn, 1997) - are h2=0.172 (0.212) and k2=0.093 (0.113). For Venus, the value of k2=0.295 (Konopliv and Yoder, 1996), obtained from the gravity-field analysis, is consistent with the results for our model with the liquid-core radius of 3110 km (Zábranová et al., 2009). Together with rapid evaluation of free oscillation periods by an analogous method, this combined matrix approach could by employed as an efficient numerical tool in structural studies of planetary bodies. REFERENCES Konopliv, A. S. and Yoder, C. F., 1996. Venusian k2 tidal Love number from Magellan and PVO tracking data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1857

  20. The role of extracellular matrix in glioma invasion: a cellular Potts model approach.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Brenda M; Kaufman, Laura J

    2008-12-15

    In this work, a cellular Potts model based on the differential adhesion hypothesis is employed to analyze the relative importance of select cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts in glioma invasion. To perform these simulations, three types of cells and two ECM components are included. The inclusion of explicit ECM with an inhomogeneous fibrous component and a homogeneously dispersed afibrous component allows exploration of the importance of relative energies of cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts in a variety of environments relevant to in vitro and in vivo experimental investigations of glioma invasion. Simulations performed here focus chiefly on reproducing findings of in vitro experiments on glioma spheroids embedded in collagen I gels. For a given range and set ordering of energies associated with key cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, our model qualitatively reproduces the dispersed glioma invasion patterns found for most glioma cell lines embedded as spheroids in collagen I gels of moderate concentration. In our model, we find that invasion is maximized at intermediate collagen concentrations, as occurs experimentally. This effect is seen more strongly in model gels composed of short collagen fibers than in those composed of long fibers, which retain significant connectivity even at low density. Additional simulations in aligned model matrices further elucidate how matrix structure dictates invasive patterns. Finally, simulations that allow invading cells to both dissolve and deposit ECM components demonstrate how Q-Potts models may be elaborated to allow active cell alteration of their surroundings. The model employed here provides a quantitative framework with which to bound the relative values of cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions and investigate how varying the magnitude and type of these interactions, as well as ECM structure, could potentially curtail glioma invasion.

  1. A Tensile Deformation Model for In-situ Dendrite/Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, T.; Yang, F. Q.; Liaw, P. K.; Pauly, S.; Xu, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510 MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs. PMID:24085187

  2. Micromechanics Fatigue Damage Analysis Modeling for Fabric Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Xue, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A micromechanics analysis modeling method was developed to analyze the damage progression and fatigue failure of fabric reinforced composite structures, especially for the brittle ceramic matrix material composites. A repeating unit cell concept of fabric reinforced composites was used to represent the global composite structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of the repeating unit cell were considered as the same as those of the global composite structure. The three-phase micromechanics, the shear-lag, and the continuum fracture mechanics models were integrated with a statistical model in the repeating unit cell to predict the progressive damages and fatigue life of the composite structures. The global structure failure was defined as the loss of loading capability of the repeating unit cell, which depends on the stiffness reduction due to material slice failures and nonlinear material properties in the repeating unit cell. The present methodology is demonstrated with the analysis results evaluated through the experimental test performed with carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix plain weave composite specimens.

  3. Dynamic densification of metal matrix-coated fibre composites: modelling and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, H.X.; Dunne, F.P.E. . E-mail: fionn.dunne@eng.ox.ac.uk; Grant, P.S.; Cantor, B.

    2005-02-01

    The consolidation processing of Ti-6Al-4V matrix-coated fibre (MCF) composite under vacuum hot pressing (VHP) has been investigated. A new test methodology has been developed for the determination of in situ matrix coating creep properties. In using the methodology, only a single, simple test is required, together with finite element modelling of the single fibre compression test. The creep coefficient and stress index have been determined for electron beam evaporated physical vapour deposited Ti-6Al-4V at 900 deg. C to be 1.23 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3, respectively. Consolidation experiments have been carried out on multi-ply MCF arrays under vacuum hot pressing. Finite element models have been developed for the dynamic consolidation of both square and hexagonal fibre packings. The creep constants for the Ti-6Al-4V, determined using the single fibre test, were assigned to the coating in the finite element models. Excellent agreement between predicted and experimental results was achieved, providing verification of the single fibre test methodology for the determination of creep constants.

  4. Modelling matrix diffusion in high-pH infiltration tests in concrete columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carme Chaparro, M.; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Soler, Josep M.; Slooten, Luit Jan; Mäder, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Tracer tests in concrete columns have been carried out to improve the characterization of the transport properties of the concrete from the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at El Cabril (Spain). High entry pressure has been employed in order to perform the experiments in a reasonable time span. Three tests have been performed using different infiltration solutions, with pH 12.6, 7.0 and 13.4, respectively. Lithium, bromide and deuterium have been used as tracers. Experimental results show that permeability decreases with time probably because of mineral precipitation. So, solute transport in concrete cannot easily be decoupled from reactions. A preliminary model of only advection and dispersion could not be fitted satisfactory to the breakthrough curves of conservative tracers. Therefore, we added matrix diffusion between a mobile pore domain, where water can flow, and an immobile zone without any advective flow. Three conceptual models have been compared, considering the immobile zone as (i) slabs, (ii) spheres and (iii) tubes. Porosity of the mobile and immobile zones, size of the immobile zone and a diffusion coefficient are estimated by calibrating the model results to the measured breakthrough curve. The calculated values show that matrix diffusion plays an important role in solute transport. The best fit is obtained with the tube concept: cylindrical diffusion from concrete (large radius) to mobile zone (small radius).

  5. A Computational Model of In Vitro Angiogenesis based on Extracellular Matrix Fiber Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lowell T.; Sibole, Scott C.; Underwood, Clayton J.; Guilkey, James E.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in the process of vascularization within the biomedical community has motivated numerous new research efforts focusing on the process of angiogenesis. Although the role of chemical factors during angiogenesis has been well documented, the role of mechanical factors, such as the interaction between angiogenic vessels and the extracellular matrix, remain poorly understood. In vitro methods for studying angiogenesis exist, however measurements available using such techniques often suffer from limited spatial and temporal resolution. For this reason, computational models have been extensively employed to investigate various aspects of angiogenesis. This manuscript outlines the formulation and validation of a simple and robust computational model developed to accurately simulate angiogenesis based on length, branching, and orientation morphometrics collected from vascularized tissue constructs. Excellent agreement was observed between computational and experimental morphometric data over time. Computational predictions of microvessel orientation within an anisotropic matrix correlated well with experimental data. The accuracy of this modeling approach makes it a valuable platform for investigating the role of mechanical interactions during angiogenesis. PMID:22515707

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Emergent geometry and gravity from matrix models: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, Harold

    2010-07-01

    An introductory review to emergent noncommutative gravity within Yang-Mills matrix models is presented. Spacetime is described as a noncommutative brane solution of the matrix model, i.e. as a submanifold of {\\mathbb R}^D. Fields and matter on the brane arise as fluctuations of the bosonic resp. fermionic matrices around such a background, and couple to an effective metric interpreted in terms of gravity. Suitable tools are provided for the description of the effective geometry in the semi-classical limit. The relation to non-commutative gauge theory and the role of UV/IR mixing are explained. Several types of geometries are identified, in particular 'harmonic' and 'Einstein' types of solutions. The physics of the harmonic branch is discussed in some detail, emphasizing the non-standard role of vacuum energy. This may provide a new approach to some of the big puzzles in this context. The IKKT model with D = 10 and close relatives are singled out as promising candidates for quantum theory of fundamental interactions including gravity.

  7. Modeling the Effect of Oxidation on Tensile Strength of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    An analytical method has been developed to investigate the effect of oxidation on the tensile strength of carbon fiber - reinforced ceramic - matrix composites (CMCs). The Budiansky - Hutchinson - Evans shear - lag model was used to describe the micro stress field of the damaged composite considering fibers failure. The statistical matrix multicracking model and fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion were used to determine the matrix crack spacing and interface debonded length. The fiber strength degradation model and oxidation region propagation model have been adopted to analyze the oxidation effect on tensile strength of the composite, which is controlled by diffusion of oxygen gas through matrix cracks. Under tensile loading, the fibers failure probabilities were determined by combining oxidation model and fiber statistical failure model based on the assumption that fiber strength is subjected to two-parameter Weibull distribution and the loads carried by broken and intact fibers statisfy the global load sharing criterion. The composite can no longer support the applied load when the total loads supported by broken and intact fibers approach its maximum value. The conditions of a single matrix crack and matrix multicrackings for tensile strength considering oxidation time and temperature have been analyzed.

  8. Computational modelling of large aluminium stabilized conductors in an indirectly cooled magnet matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Sampson, P.L.

    1996-07-01

    Many of the detector magnets in use for Particle Physics experiments are based on a common technology developed in the 1980s: indirect cooling, pure aluminium stabilized conductor and monolithic resin impregnation (DELPHI, ALEPH, H1, TOPAZ etc.). In such indirectly cooled magnets stable behavior is a balance between the transient heat removal capacity of the winding and the thermal disturbances. For the extrapolation in magnet technology towards LHC detectors it is important to understand more fully this stability balance. This paper describes computational modelling techniques developed to predict the behavior of conductors in an indirectly cooled magnet matrix. The verification of the model is based on experimental studies of a test coil for the DELPHI solenoid. The computational model has been used to carry out a parametric study of the stability of the conductors proposed for the ATLAS End Cap Toroids at LHC. Results of the parametric study are presented.

  9. A micro to macro approach to polymer matrix composites damage modeling : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    English, Shawn Allen; Brown, Arthur A.; Briggs, Timothy M.

    2013-12-01

    Capabilities are developed, verified and validated to generate constitutive responses using material and geometric measurements with representative volume elements (RVE). The geometrically accurate RVEs are used for determining elastic properties and damage initiation and propagation analysis. Finite element modeling of the meso-structure over the distribution of characterizing measurements is automated and various boundary conditions are applied. Plain and harness weave composites are investigated. Continuum yarn damage, softening behavior and an elastic-plastic matrix are combined with known materials and geometries in order to estimate the macroscopic response as characterized by a set of orthotropic material parameters. Damage mechanics and coupling effects are investigated and macroscopic material models are demonstrated and discussed. Prediction of the elastic, damage, and failure behavior of woven composites will aid in macroscopic constitutive characterization for modeling and optimizing advanced composite systems.

  10. Evaluation of higher order PMD effects using Jones matrix analytical models: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. F.

    2006-04-01

    A comparative study among the Jones matrix analytical models with high-order PMD is presented. The models that make use of an exponential expansion arrested up to second order or consider the dispersion vector as a Taylor series expansion do not give good results in the approximation of high-order PMD effects, because of the nonlimited behavior with respect to frequency of the modulus of their dispersion vectors. On the other hand, the analytical model which describes the dispersion vector as rotating on a circumference in the Stokes space is found to be the most accurate. Moreover, it can be used to obtain an analytical expression of the pulse broadening, which is often chosen as a quality-system parameter.

  11. Spatially-explicit matrix models. A mathematical analysis of stage-structured integrodifference equations.

    PubMed

    Lutscher, Frithjof; Lewis, Mark A

    2004-03-01

    This paper is concerned with mathematical analysis of the 'critical domain-size' problem for structured populations. Space is introduced explicitly into matrix models for stage-structured populations. Movement of individuals is described by means of a dispersal kernel. The mathematical analysis investigates conditions for existence, stability and uniqueness of equilibrium solutions as well as some bifurcation behaviors. These mathematical results are linked to species persistence or extinction in connected habitats of different sizes or fragmented habitats; hence the framework is given for application of such models to ecology. Several approximations which reduce the complexity of integrodifference equations are given. A simple example is worked out to illustrate the analytical results and to compare the behavior of the integrodifference model to that of the approximations.

  12. Conductance statistics for the power-law banded random matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Mendoza, A. J.; Mendez-Bermudez, J. A.; Varga, Imre

    2010-12-21

    We study numerically the conductance statistics of the one-dimensional (1D) Anderson model with random long-range hoppings described by the Power-law Banded Random Matrix (PBRM) model. Within a scattering approach to electronic transport, we consider two scattering setups in absence and presence of direct processes: 2M single-mode leads attached to one side and to opposite sides of 1D circular samples. For both setups we show that (i) the probability distribution of the logarithm of the conductance T behaves as w(lnT){proportional_to}T{sup M2/2}, for T<<, for both the critical and the non-critical samples; and (ii) at criticality there is a smooth crossover from localized-like to delocalized-like behavior in the transport properties of the PBRM model by decreasing the fractality of its eigenstates.

  13. Polarization aberration modeling via Jones matrix in the context of OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiaolin; Song, Hua; Lucas, Kevin

    2007-10-01

    The increasingly stringent demand for shrinkage of IC device dimensions has been pushing the development of new resolution enhancement technologies in micro-lithography. High NA and Ultra-High NA (NA>1.0) applications for low k I imaging strongly demand the adoption of polarized illumination as a resolution enhancement technology since proper illumination polarization configuration can greatly improve the image contrast hence pattern printing fidelity. For polarized illumination to be fully effective, ideally all the components in the optical system should not alter the polarization state during propagation from illuminator to wafer surface. In current OPC modeling tools, it is typically assumed that the amplitude and polarization state of the electric field do not change as it passes through the projection lens pupil. However, in reality, the projection lens pupil of the scanner does change the amplitude and the polarization state to some extent, and ignorance of projection pupil induced polarization state and amplitude changes may cause CD errors which are un-tolerable at the 45nm device generation and beyond. We developed an OPC-deployable modeling approach to model polarization aberration imposed by the projection lens pupil via Jones matrix format. This polarization aberration modeling capability has been integrated into the Synopsys OPC modeling tool, ProGen, and its accuracy and efficiency have been validated by comparing with an industry standard lithography simulator SolidE. Our OPC simulations show that the impact of projection lens pupil polarization aberrations on optical proximity effect (OPE) could be as large as several nanometers, which is not negligible given the extremely stringent CD error budget at 45nm node and beyond. This modeling approach is applicable to arbitrary polarization aberrations imposed by any components in the lithography system that can be characterized in Jones matrix format. Based on an experimentally measured Jones matrix

  14. Multiscale computational model of fluid flow and matrix deformation in decellularized liver.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Kenichiro; Reese, Greg; Moran, Emma C; Sparks, Jessica L

    2016-04-01

    Currently little is known about the biomechanical environment in decellularized tissue. The goal of this research is to quantify the mechanical microenvironment in decellularized liver, for varying organ-scale perfusion conditions, using a combined experimental/computational approach. Needle-guided ultra-miniature pressure sensors were inserted into liver tissue to measure parenchymal fluid pressure ex-situ in portal vein-perfused native (n=5) and decellularized (n=7) ferret liver, for flow rates from 3-12mL/min. Pressures were also recorded at the inlet near the portal vein cannula to estimate total vascular resistance of the specimens. Experimental results were fit to a multiscale computational model to simulate perfusion conditions inside native versus decellularized livers for four experimental flow rates. The multiscale model consists of two parts: an organ-scale electrical analog model of liver hemodynamics and a tissue-scale model that predicts pore fluid pressure, pore fluid velocity, and solid matrix stress and deformation throughout the 3D hepatic lobule. Distinct models were created for native versus decellularized liver. Results show that vascular resistance decreases by 82% as a result of decellularization. The hydraulic conductivity of the decellularized liver lobule, a measure of tissue permeability, was 5.6 times that of native liver. For the four flow rates studied, mean fluid pressures in the decellularized lobule were 0.6-2.4mmHg, mean fluid velocities were 211-767μm/s, and average solid matrix principal strains were 1.7-6.1%. In the future this modeling platform can be used to guide the optimization of perfusion seeding and conditioning strategies for decellularized scaffolds in liver bioengineering.

  15. Probabilistic Residual Strength Model Developed for Life Prediction of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Calomino, Anthony M.

    2004-01-01

    For the next generation of reusable launch vehicles, NASA is investigating introducing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in place of current superalloys for structural propulsion applications (e.g., nozzles, vanes, combustors, and heat exchangers). The higher use temperatures of CMCs will reduce vehicle weight by eliminating and/or reducing cooling system requirements. The increased strength-to-weight ratio of CMCs relative to superalloys further enhances their weight savings potential. However, in order to provide safe designs for components made of these new materials, a comprehensive life prediction methodology for CMC structures needs to be developed. A robust methodology for lifing composite structures has yet to be adopted by the engineering community. Current industry design practice continues to utilize deterministic empirically based models borrowed from metals design for predicting material life capabilities. The deterministic nature of these models inadequately addresses the stochastic character of brittle composites, and their empirical reliance makes predictions beyond the experimental test conditions a risky extrapolation. A team of engineers at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing a new life prediction engineering model. The Probabilistic Residual Strength (PRS) model uses the residual strength of the composite as its damage metric. Expected life and material strength are both considered probabilistically to account for the observed stochastic material response. Extensive experimental testing has been carried out on C/SiC (a candidate aerospace CMC material system) in a controlled 1000 ppm O2/argon environment at elevated temperatures of 800 and 1200 C. The test matrix was established to allow observation of the material behavior, characterization of the model, and validation of the model's predictive capabilities. Sample results of the validation study are illustrated in the graphs.

  16. Bond-valence model for metal cluster compounds. II. Matrix effect.

    PubMed

    Levi, Elena; Aurbach, Doron; Isnard, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    The bond-valence model was commonly considered as inappropriate to metal cluster compounds, but recently it was shown that the model provides unique information on the lattice strains and stabilization mechanisms in (TM)6-chalcohalides, Mx(TM)6Ly (TM = transition metal, L = the chalcogen and/or halogen ligands; M = counter-cation). The previous study was mainly devoted to the non-uniform distribution of the anion valences (bond-valence sums) around clusters. This and the previous paper are focused on two additional phenomena: (i) a steric conflict between counter-cations and the cluster-ligand framework resulting in `common' lattice strains [previous paper: Levi et al. (2013). Acta Cryst. B69, 419-425], and (ii) steric conflict between the small (TM)6-cluster and the large coordination polyhedron around the cluster or so-called matrix effect (this paper). It was shown that both phenomena can be well described by changes in the bond-valence parameters. This paper demonstrates that the matrix effect results in high strains in the TM-L bonds in most of the (TM)6-chalcohalides (TM = Nb, Mo, W and Re). In spite of this, the violations for the total TM valence are minimal, because the cluster stretching is fully or partially compensated by compression of the TM-L bonds. As a result, the influence of the matrix effect on the material stability is rather positive: it decreases the volume of the structural units and in many cases ensures a more favorable distribution of the bond valences around TM atoms, stabilizing the cluster compound.

  17. Matrix Diffusion and Colloid-Facilitated Transport in Fractured Rocks: Model and Parameter Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M

    2002-08-02

    In this report, we review the results of Reimus et al. (2000a; 2000b) regarding matrix diffusion and colloid-facilitated transport in fractured rock and evaluate the implications of these results on modeling fracture flow at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In particular, we examine these data in the context of the recent Cheshire hydrologic source term (HST) model results (Pawloski et al., 2001). This report is divided into several sections. In the first, we evaluate the effective diffusion coefficient (D{sub e}) data reported in Reimus et al. (2000a) for conservative tracer species ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, and {sup 99}Tc) and fit a simple effective diffusion model to these data. In the second, we use the fitted effective diffusion model, in conjunction with a surface complexation model, to simulate plutonium-colloid transport and compare model results to data reported in Reimus et al. (2000b). In the third, we evaluate the implications of these data with regards to radionuclide transport through fractures at the field scale and, in particular, with regards to the Cheshire HST model (Pawloski et al., 2001). Finally, we make recommendations regarding future radionuclide transport modeling efforts at the NTS.

  18. Ability of matrix models to explain the past and predict the future of plant populations.

    PubMed

    Crone, Elizabeth E; Ellis, Martha M; Morris, William F; Stanley, Amanda; Bell, Timothy; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Ehrlén, Johan; Kaye, Thomas N; Knight, Tiffany M; Lesica, Peter; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F; Ticktin, Tamara; Valverde, Teresa; Williams, Jennifer L; Doak, Daniel F; Ganesan, Rengaian; McEachern, Kathyrn; Thorpe, Andrea S; Menges, Eric S

    2013-10-01

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix models with demographic data from individually marked plants and determined how well these models forecast population sizes observed at least 5 years into the future. Simple demographic models forecasted population dynamics poorly; only 40% of observed population sizes fell within our forecasts' 95% confidence limits. However, these models explained population dynamics during the years in which data were collected; observed changes in population size during the data-collection period were strongly positively correlated with population growth rate. Thus, these models are at least a sound way to quantify population status. Poor forecasts were not associated with the number of individual plants or years of data. We tested whether vital rates were density dependent and found both positive and negative density dependence. However, density dependence was not associated with forecast error. Forecast error was significantly associated with environmental differences between the data collection and forecast periods. To forecast population fates, more detailed models, such as those that project how environments are likely to change and how these changes will affect population dynamics, may be needed. Such detailed models are not always feasible. Thus, it may be wiser to make risk-averse decisions than to expect precise forecasts from models. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Ability of matrix models to explain the past and predict the future of plant populations.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Ellis, Martha M.; Morris, William F.; Stanley, Amanda; Bell, Timothy; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Ehrlen, Johan; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Lesica, Peter; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Ticktin, Tamara; Valverde, Teresa; Williams, Jennifer I.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ganesan, Rengaian; Thorpe, Andrea S.; Menges, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix models with demographic data from individually marked plants and determined how well these models forecast population sizes observed at least 5 years into the future. Simple demographic models forecasted population dynamics poorly; only 40% of observed population sizes fell within our forecasts' 95% confidence limits. However, these models explained population dynamics during the years in which data were collected; observed changes in population size during the data-collection period were strongly positively correlated with population growth rate. Thus, these models are at least a sound way to quantify population status. Poor forecasts were not associated with the number of individual plants or years of data. We tested whether vital rates were density dependent and found both positive and negative density dependence. However, density dependence was not associated with forecast error. Forecast error was significantly associated with environmental differences between the data collection and forecast periods. To forecast population fates, more detailed models, such as those that project how environments are likely to change and how these changes will affect population dynamics, may be needed. Such detailed models are not always feasible. Thus, it may be wiser to make risk-averse decisions than to expect precise forecasts from models.

  20. Modelling of Fiber/Matrix Debonding of Composites Under Cyclic Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naghipour, Paria; Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The micromechanics theory, generalized method of cells (GMC), was employed to simulate the debonding of fiber/matrix interfaces, within a repeating unit cell subjected to global, cyclic loading, utilizing a cyclic crack growth law. Cycle dependent, interfacial debonding was implemented as a new module to the available GMC formulation. The degradation of interfacial stresses, with applied load cycles, was achieved via progressive evolution of the interfacial compliance. A periodic repeating unit cell, representing the fiber/matrix architecture of a composite, was subjected to combined normal and shear loadings, and degradation of the global transverse stress in successive cycles was monitored. The obtained results were compared to values from a corresponding finite element model. Reasonable agreement was achieved for combined normal and shear loading conditions, with minimal variation for pure loading cases. The local effects of interfacial debonding, and fatigue damage will later be combined as sub-models to predict the experimentally obtained fatigue life of Ti-15-3/Sic composites at the laminate level.

  1. A matrix dependent/algebraic multigrid approach for extruded meshes with applications to ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tuminaro, Raymond S.; Perego, Mauro; Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova; Salinger, Andrew G.; Price, Stephen

    2016-10-06

    A multigrid method is proposed that combines ideas from matrix dependent multigrid for structured grids and algebraic multigrid for unstructured grids. It targets problems where a three-dimensional mesh can be viewed as an extrusion of a two-dimensional, unstructured mesh in a third dimension. Our motivation comes from the modeling of thin structures via finite elements and, more specifically, the modeling of ice sheets. Extruded meshes are relatively common for thin structures and often give rise to anisotropic problems when the thin direction mesh spacing is much smaller than the broad direction mesh spacing. Within our approach, the first few multigrid hierarchy levels are obtained by applying matrix dependent multigrid to semicoarsen in a structured thin direction fashion. After sufficient structured coarsening, the resulting mesh contains only a single layer corresponding to a two-dimensional, unstructured mesh. Algebraic multigrid can then be employed in a standard manner to create further coarse levels, as the anisotropic phenomena is no longer present in the single layer problem. The overall approach remains fully algebraic, with the minor exception that some additional information is needed to determine the extruded direction. Furthermore, this facilitates integration of the solver with a variety of different extruded mesh applications.

  2. A matrix dependent/algebraic multigrid approach for extruded meshes with applications to ice sheet modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Tuminaro, Raymond S.; Perego, Mauro; Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova; ...

    2016-10-06

    A multigrid method is proposed that combines ideas from matrix dependent multigrid for structured grids and algebraic multigrid for unstructured grids. It targets problems where a three-dimensional mesh can be viewed as an extrusion of a two-dimensional, unstructured mesh in a third dimension. Our motivation comes from the modeling of thin structures via finite elements and, more specifically, the modeling of ice sheets. Extruded meshes are relatively common for thin structures and often give rise to anisotropic problems when the thin direction mesh spacing is much smaller than the broad direction mesh spacing. Within our approach, the first few multigridmore » hierarchy levels are obtained by applying matrix dependent multigrid to semicoarsen in a structured thin direction fashion. After sufficient structured coarsening, the resulting mesh contains only a single layer corresponding to a two-dimensional, unstructured mesh. Algebraic multigrid can then be employed in a standard manner to create further coarse levels, as the anisotropic phenomena is no longer present in the single layer problem. The overall approach remains fully algebraic, with the minor exception that some additional information is needed to determine the extruded direction. Furthermore, this facilitates integration of the solver with a variety of different extruded mesh applications.« less

  3. Hydrogel core flexible matrix composite (H-FMC) actuators: theory and preliminary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicker, M. P. M.; Weaver, P. M.; Rossiter, J. M.; Bond, I. P.

    2014-09-01

    The underlying theory of a new actuator concept based on hydrogel core flexible matrix composites (H-FMC) is presented. The key principle that underlines the H-FMC actuator operation is that the three-dimensional swelling of a hydrogel is partially constrained in order to improve the amount of useful work done. The partial constraint is applied to the hydrogel by a flexible matrix composite (FMC) that minimizes the hydrogel's volume expansion while swelling. This constraint serves to maximize the fixed charge density and resulting osmotic pressure, the driving force behind actuation. In addition, for certain FMC fibre orientations the Poisson's ratio of the anisotropic FMC laminate converts previously unused hydrogel swelling in the radial and circumferential directions into useful axial strains. The potential benefit of the H-FMC concept to hydrogel actuator performance is shown through comparison of force-stroke curves and evaluation of improvements in useful actuation work. The model used to achieve this couples chemical and electrical components, represented with the Nernst-Plank and Poisson equations, as well as a linear elastic mechanical material model, encompassing limited geometric nonlinearities. It is found that improvements in useful actuation work in the order of 1500% over bare hydrogel performance are achieved by the H-FMC concept. A parametric study is also undertaken to determine the effect of various FMC design parameters on actuator free strain and blocking stress. A comparison to other actuator concepts is also included.

  4. A matrix dependent/algebraic multigrid approach for extruded meshes with applications to ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tuminaro, Raymond S.; Perego, Mauro; Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova; Salinger, Andrew G.; Price, Stephen

    2016-10-06

    A multigrid method is proposed that combines ideas from matrix dependent multigrid for structured grids and algebraic multigrid for unstructured grids. It targets problems where a three-dimensional mesh can be viewed as an extrusion of a two-dimensional, unstructured mesh in a third dimension. Our motivation comes from the modeling of thin structures via finite elements and, more specifically, the modeling of ice sheets. Extruded meshes are relatively common for thin structures and often give rise to anisotropic problems when the thin direction mesh spacing is much smaller than the broad direction mesh spacing. Within our approach, the first few multigrid hierarchy levels are obtained by applying matrix dependent multigrid to semicoarsen in a structured thin direction fashion. After sufficient structured coarsening, the resulting mesh contains only a single layer corresponding to a two-dimensional, unstructured mesh. Algebraic multigrid can then be employed in a standard manner to create further coarse levels, as the anisotropic phenomena is no longer present in the single layer problem. The overall approach remains fully algebraic, with the minor exception that some additional information is needed to determine the extruded direction. Furthermore, this facilitates integration of the solver with a variety of different extruded mesh applications.

  5. Altered Chondrocyte Differentiation and Extracellular Matrix Homeostasis in a Zebrafish Model for Mucolipidosis II

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Sias, Christina; Steet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Mucolipidosis II (ML-II) is a pediatric disorder caused by defects in the biosynthesis of mannose 6-phosphate, the carbohydrate recognition signal responsible for targeting certain acid hydrolases to lysosomes. The mechanisms underlying the developmental defects of ML-II are largely unknown due in part to the lack of suitable animal models. To overcome these limitations, we developed a model for ML-II in zebrafish by inhibiting the expression of N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, the enzyme that initiates mannose 6-phosphate biosynthesis. Morphant embryos manifest craniofacial defects, impaired motility, and abnormal otolith and pectoral fin development. Decreased mannose phosphorylation of several lysosomal glycosidases was observed in morphant lysates, consistent with the reduction in phosphotransferase activity. Investigation of the craniofacial defects in the morphants uncovered striking changes in the timing and localization of both type II collagen and Sox9 expression, suggestive of an accelerated chondrocyte differentiation program. Accumulation of type II collagen was also noted within misshapen cartilage elements at later stages of development. Furthermore, we observed abnormal matrix formation and calcium deposition in morphant otoliths. Collectively, these data provide new insight into the developmental pathology of ML-II and suggest that altered production and/or homeostasis of extracellular matrix proteins are integral to the disease process. These findings highlight the potential of the zebrafish system in studying lysosomal disease pathogenesis. PMID:19834066

  6. Development of a 3D matrix for modeling mammalian spinal cord injury in vitro.

    PubMed

    Diaz Quiroz, Juan Felipe; Li, Yuping; Aparicio, Conrado; Echeverri, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Spinal cord injury affects millions of people around the world, however, limited therapies are available to improve the quality of life of these patients. Spinal cord injury is usually modeled in rats and mice using contusion or complete transection models and this has led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular complexities of the injury. However, it has not to date led to development of successful novel therapies, this is in part due to the complexity of the injury and the difficulty of deciphering the exact roles and interactions of different cells within this complex environment. Here we developed a collagen matrix that can be molded into the 3D tubular shape with a lumen and can hence support cell interactions in a similar architecture to a spinal cord. We show that astrocytes can be successfully grown on this matrix in vitro and when injured, the cells respond as they do in vivo and undergo reactive gliosis, one of the steps that lead to formation of a glial scar, the main barrier to spinal cord regeneration. In the future, this system can be used to quickly assess the effect of drugs on glial scar protein activity or to perform live imaging of labeled cells after exposure to drugs.

  7. Modeling of the viscoelastic behavior of a polyimide matrix at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochon, Thibaut

    Use of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials (PMCMs) in aircraft engines requires materials able to withstand extreme service conditions, such as elevated temperatures, high mechanical loadings and an oxidative environment. In such an environment, the polymer matrix is likely to exhibit a viscoelastic behavior dependent on the mechanical loading and temperature. In addition, the combined effects of elevated temperature and the environment near the engines are likely to increase physical as well as chemical aging. These various parameters need to be taken into consideration for the designer to be able to predict the material behavior over the service life of the components. The main objective of this thesis was to study the viscoelastic behavior of a high temperature polyimide matrix and develop a constitutive theory able to predict the material behavior for every of service condition. Then, the model had to have to be implemented into commercially available finite-element software such as ABAQUS or ANSYS. Firstly, chemical aging of the material at service temperature was studied. To that end, a thermogravimetric analysis of the matrix was conducted on powder samples in air atmosphere. Two kinds of tests were performed: i) kinetic tests in which powder samples were heated at a constant rate until complete sublimation; ii) isothermal tests in which the samples were maintained at a constant temperature for 24 hours. The first tests were used to develop a degradation model, leading to an excellent fit of the experimental data. Then, the model was used to predict the isothermal data but which much less success, particularly for the lowest temperatures. At those temperatures, the chemical degradation was preceded by an oxidation phase which the model was not designed to predict. Other isothermal degradation tests were also performed on tensile tests samples instead of powders. Those tests were conducted at service temperature for a much longer period of time. The samples

  8. Robust linear equation dwell time model compatible with large scale discrete surface error matrix.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Tam, Hon-Yuen

    2015-04-01

    The linear equation dwell time model can translate the 2D convolution process of material removal during subaperture polishing into a more intuitional expression, and may provide relatively fast and reliable results. However, the accurate solution of this ill-posed equation is not so easy, and its practicability for a large scale surface error matrix is still limited. This study first solves this ill-posed equation by Tikhonov regularization and the least square QR decomposition (LSQR) method, and automatically determines an optional interval and a typical value for the damped factor of regularization, which are dependent on the peak removal rate of tool influence functions. Then, a constrained LSQR method is presented to increase the robustness of the damped factor, which can provide more consistent dwell time maps than traditional LSQR. Finally, a matrix segmentation and stitching method is used to cope with large scale surface error matrices. Using these proposed methods, the linear equation model becomes more reliable and efficient in practical engineering.

  9. Modeling Optical Properties of Polluted Dust and its Morphological Effects by T-Matrix Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Yang, P.; Brooks, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dust storms largely contribute to regional or global aerosol loads, influence radiative energy budget, and air quality, and cause atmospheric environmental, public health problems. As dusts are transported long distances, aerosols such as black carbon can pollute the air mass along the transport path. Two mixing processes, externally and semi-externally (sticking) mixing may substantially affect the single-scattering and radiative properties of polluted dust particles compared to the unpolluted counterparts. This study focuses on quantifying the changes in the optical properties of dust aerosols due to black carbon contamination. The dust model we use is an irregular polyhedron, which is in good agreement with the laboratory measurement. The black carbon model is spherules aggregate defined with a cluster-cluster aggregation algorithm. Specifically, we define the degree of pollution in terms of two variables, the adhesion degree of pollutants and their mixing ratios, since both can alter the optical properties of polluted dust in different ways. By applying the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix Method (II-TM), we obtain the scattering phase matrix and other optical properties of dust aerosols with different degrees of contamination. Furthermore, the morphological effects on the optical properties of polluted dust are quantified by considering different fractal dimensions of black carbon as particles age. The overall changes due to different degrees of pollution by black carbon are investigated at various wavelengths.

  10. Diquark and pion condensation in random matrix models for two-color QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, B.; Toublan, D.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    2005-07-01

    We introduce a random matrix model with the symmetries of QCD with two colors at nonzero isospin and baryon chemical potentials and temperature. We analyze its phase diagram and find phases with condensation of pion and diquark states in addition to the phases with spontaneously broken chiral symmetries. In the limit of small chemical potentials and quark masses, we reproduce the mean field results obtained from chiral Lagrangians. As in the case of QCD with three colors, the presence of two chemical potentials breaks the flavor symmetry and leads to phases that are characterized by different behaviors of the chiral condensates for each flavor. In particular, the phase diagram we obtain is similar to QCD with three colors and three flavors of quarks of equal masses at zero baryon chemical potential and nonzero isospin and strange chemical potentials. A tricritical point of the superfluid transitions found in lattice calculations and from an analysis in terms of chiral Lagrangians does not appear in the random matrix model. Remarkably, at fixed isospin chemical potential, for the regions outside of the superfluid phases, the phase diagrams in the temperature--baryon chemical potential plane for two colors and three colors are qualitatively the same.

  11. Development of a 3D matrix for modeling mammalian spinal cord injury in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Diaz Quiroz, Juan Felipe; Li, Yuping; Aparicio, Conrado; Echeverri, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury affects millions of people around the world, however, limited therapies are available to improve the quality of life of these patients. Spinal cord injury is usually modeled in rats and mice using contusion or complete transection models and this has led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular complexities of the injury. However, it has not to date led to development of successful novel therapies, this is in part due to the complexity of the injury and the difficulty of deciphering the exact roles and interactions of different cells within this complex environment. Here we developed a collagen matrix that can be molded into the 3D tubular shape with a lumen and can hence support cell interactions in a similar architecture to a spinal cord. We show that astrocytes can be successfully grown on this matrix in vitro and when injured, the cells respond as they do in vivo and undergo reactive gliosis, one of the steps that lead to formation of a glial scar, the main barrier to spinal cord regeneration. In the future, this system can be used to quickly assess the effect of drugs on glial scar protein activity or to perform live imaging of labeled cells after exposure to drugs. PMID:28123426

  12. Carbon isotope composition of ambient CO2 and recycling: a matrix simulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    da Silveira Lobo Sternberg, Leonel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between isotopic composition and concentration of ambient CO2 in a canopy and its associated convective boundary layer was modeled. The model divides the canopy and convective boundary layer into several layers. Photosynthesis, respiration, and exchange between each layer can be simulated by matrix equations. This simulation can be used to calculate recycling; defined here as the amount of respired CO2 re-fixed by photosynthesis relative to the total amount of respired CO2. At steady state the matrix equations can be solved for the canopy and convective boundary layer CO2 concentration and isotopic profile, which can be used to calculate a theoretical recycling index according to a previously developed equation. There is complete agreement between simulated and theoretical recycling indices for different exchange scenarios. Recycling indices from a simulation of gas exchange between a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the troposphere also agreed with a more generalized form of the theoretical recycling equation developed here.

  13. Universality and the dynamical space-time dimensionality in the Lorentzian type IIB matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuta; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2017-03-01

    The type IIB matrix model is one of the most promising candidates for a nonperturbative formulation of superstring theory. In particular, its Lorentzian version was shown to exhibit an interesting real-time dynamics such as the spontaneous breaking of the 9-dimensional rotational symmetry to the 3-dimensional one. This result, however, was obtained after regularizing the original matrix integration by introducing "infrared" cutoffs on the quadratic moments of the Hermitian matrices. In this paper, we generalize the form of the cutoffs in such a way that it involves an arbitrary power (2 p) of the matrices. By performing Monte Carlo simulation of a simplified model, we find that the results become independent of p and hence universal for p ≳ 1 .3. For p as large as 2.0, however, we find that large- N scaling behaviors do not show up, and we cannot take a sensible large- N limit. Thus we find that there is a certain range of p in which a universal large- N limit can be taken. Within this range of p, the dynamical space-time dimensionality turns out to be (3 + 1), while for p = 2 .0, where we cannot take a sensible large- N limit, we observe a (5+1)d structure.

  14. Continuum Damage Modeling for Dynamic Fracture Toughness of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Intaek; Ochi, Yasuo; Bae, Sungin; Song, Jungil

    Short fiber reinforced metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have widely adopted as structural materials and many experimental researches have been performed to study fracture toughness of it. Fracture toughness is often referred as the plane strain(maximum constraint) fracture toughness KIc determined by the well-established standard test method, such as ASTM E399. But the application for dynamic fracture toughness KId has not been popular yet, because of reliance in capturing the crack propagating time. This paper deals with dynamic fracture toughness testing and simulation using finite element method to evaluate fracture behaviors of MMCs manufactured by squeeze casting process when material combination is varied with the type of reinforcement (appearance, size), volume fraction and combination of reinforcements, and the matrix alloy. The instrumented Charphy impact test was used for KId determination and continuum damage model embedded in commercial FE program is used to investigate the dynamic fracture toughness with the influence of elasto-visco-plastic constitutive relation of quasi-brittle fracture that is typical examples of ceramics and some fibre reinforced composites. With Compared results between experimental method and FE simulation, the determination process for KId is presented. FE simulation coupled with continuum damage model is emphasized single shot simulation can predict the dynamic fracture toughness, KId and real time evolution of that directly.

  15. Continuum modeling of a porous solid with pressure-sensitive dilatant matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, T. F.; Faleskog, J.; Shih, C. F.

    The pressure-sensitive plastic response of a material has been studied in terms of the intrinsic sensitivity of its yield stress to pressure and the presence and growth of cavities. This work focuses on the interplay between these two distinctly different mechanisms and the attendant material behavior. To this end, a constitutive model is proposed taking both mechanisms into account. Using Gurson's homogenization, an upper bound model is developed for a voided solid with a plastically dilatant matrix material. This model is built around a three-parameter axisymmetric velocity field for a unit sphere containing a spherical void. The void is also subjected to internal pressure; this can be relevant for polymeric adhesives permeated by moisture that vaporizes at elevated temperatures. The plastic response of the matrix material is described by Drucker-Prager's yield criterion and an associated flow rule. The resulting yield surface and porosity evolution law of the homogenized constitutive model are presented in parametric form. Using the solutions to special cases as building blocks, approximate models with explicit forms are proposed. The parametric form and an approximate explicit form are compared against full-field solutions obtained from finite element analysis. They are also studied for loading under generalized tension conditions. These computational simulations shed light on the interplay between the two mechanisms and its enhanced effect on yield strength and plastic flow. Among other things, the tensile yield strength of the porous solid is greatly reduced by the internal void pressure, particularly when a liquid/vapor phase is the source of the internal pressure.

  16. Comparison of Damage Models for Predicting the Non-Linear Response of Laminates Under Matrix Dominated Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Five models for matrix damage in fiber reinforced laminates are evaluated for matrix-dominated loading conditions under plane stress and are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. The emphasis of this study is on a comparison of the response of embedded plies subjected to a homogeneous stress state. Three of the models are specifically designed for modeling the non-linear response due to distributed matrix cracking under homogeneous loading, and also account for non-linear (shear) behavior prior to the onset of cracking. The remaining two models are localized damage models intended for predicting local failure at stress concentrations. The modeling approaches of distributed vs. localized cracking as well as the different formulations of damage initiation and damage progression are compared and discussed.

  17. UTOPIAN: user-driven topic modeling based on interactive nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jaegul; Lee, Changhyun; Reddy, Chandan K; Park, Haesun

    2013-12-01

    Topic modeling has been widely used for analyzing text document collections. Recently, there have been significant advancements in various topic modeling techniques, particularly in the form of probabilistic graphical modeling. State-of-the-art techniques such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) have been successfully applied in visual text analytics. However, most of the widely-used methods based on probabilistic modeling have drawbacks in terms of consistency from multiple runs and empirical convergence. Furthermore, due to the complicatedness in the formulation and the algorithm, LDA cannot easily incorporate various types of user feedback. To tackle this problem, we propose a reliable and flexible visual analytics system for topic modeling called UTOPIAN (User-driven Topic modeling based on Interactive Nonnegative Matrix Factorization). Centered around its semi-supervised formulation, UTOPIAN enables users to interact with the topic modeling method and steer the result in a user-driven manner. We demonstrate the capability of UTOPIAN via several usage scenarios with real-world document corpuses such as InfoVis/VAST paper data set and product review data sets.

  18. Evaluation of several micromechanics models for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven; Birt, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic experimental evaluation of whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum matrix composites was conducted to assess the variation in tensile properties with reinforcement type, volume fraction, and specimen thickness. Each material was evaluated in three thicknesses, 1.8, 3.18, and 6.35 mm, to determine the size, distribution, and orientation of the reinforcements. This information was used to evaluate several micromechanical models that predict composite moduli. The longitudinal and transverse moduli were predicted for reinforced aluminum. The Paul model, the Cox model and the Halpin-Tsai model were evaluated. The Paul model gave a good upper bound prediction for the particulate reinforced composites but under predicted whisker reinforced composite moduli. The Cox model gave good moduli predictions for the whisker reinforcement, but was too low for the particulate. The Halpin-Tsai model gave good results for both whisker and particulate reinforced composites. An approach using a trigonometric projection of whisker length to predict the fiber contribution to the modulus in the longitudinal and transverse directions was compared to the more conventional lamination theory approach.

  19. A framework for studying transient dynamics of population projection matrix models.

    PubMed

    Stott, Iain; Townley, Stuart; Hodgson, David James

    2011-09-01

    Empirical models are central to effective conservation and population management, and should be predictive of real-world dynamics. Available modelling methods are diverse, but analysis usually focuses on long-term dynamics that are unable to describe the complicated short-term time series that can arise even from simple models following ecological disturbances or perturbations. Recent interest in such transient dynamics has led to diverse methodologies for their quantification in density-independent, time-invariant population projection matrix (PPM) models, but the fragmented nature of this literature has stifled the widespread analysis of transients. We review the literature on transient analyses of linear PPM models and synthesise a coherent framework. We promote the use of standardised indices, and categorise indices according to their focus on either convergence times or transient population density, and on either transient bounds or case-specific transient dynamics. We use a large database of empirical PPM models to explore relationships between indices of transient dynamics. This analysis promotes the use of population inertia as a simple, versatile and informative predictor of transient population density, but criticises the utility of established indices of convergence times. Our findings should guide further development of analyses of transient population dynamics using PPMs or other empirical modelling techniques.

  20. A Phenomenological Model for Tool Wear in Friction Stir Welding of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Tracie J.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.; Cox, Chase D.

    2013-08-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) of metal matrix composites (MMCs) is advantageous because the solid-state nature of the process precludes formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which accompany melting. FSW of MMCs is complicated by rapid and severe wear of the welding tool, a consequence of contact between the tool and the much harder abrasive reinforcement which gives the workpiece material its enhanced strength. The current article demonstrates that Nunes's rotating plug model of material flow in FSW, which has been successfully applied in many other contexts, can also help us understand wear in FSW of MMCs. An equation for predicting the amount of wear in this application is developed and compared with experimental data. This phenomenological model explains the relationship between wear and FSW process parameters documented in previous studies.

  1. Standard Model anatomy of WIMP dark matter direct detection. II. QCD analysis and hadronic matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Richard J.; Solon, Mikhail P.

    2015-02-01

    Models of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) specified at the electroweak scale are systematically matched to effective theories at hadronic scales where WIMP-nucleus scattering observables are evaluated. Anomalous dimensions and heavy-quark threshold matching conditions are computed for the complete basis of lowest-dimension effective operators involving quarks and gluons. The resulting QCD renormalization group evolution equations are solved. The status of relevant hadronic matrix elements is reviewed and phenomenological illustrations are given, including details for the computation of the universal limit of nucleon scattering with heavy S U (2 )W×U (1 )Y charged WIMPs. Several cases of previously underestimated hadronic uncertainties are isolated. The results connect arbitrary models specified at the electroweak scale to a basis of nf=3 -flavor QCD operators. The complete basis of operators and Lorentz invariance constraints through order v2/c2 in the nonrelativistic nucleon effective theory are derived.

  2. Anomaly in RTT relation for DIM algebra and network matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awata, Hidetoshi; Kanno, Hiroaki; Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Morozov, Andrey; Ohkubo, Yusuke; Zenkevich, Yegor

    2017-05-01

    We discuss the recent proposal of arxiv:arXiv:1608.05351 about generalization of the RTT relation to network matrix models. We show that the RTT relation in these models is modified by a nontrivial, but essentially abelian anomaly cocycle, which we explicitly evaluate for the free field representations of the quantum toroidal algebra. This cocycle is responsible for the braiding, which permutes the external legs in the q-deformed conformal block and its 5 d / 6 d gauge theory counterpart, i.e. the non-perturbative Nekrasov functions. Thus, it defines their modular properties and symmetry. We show how to cancel the anomaly using a construction somewhat similar to the anomaly matching condition in gauge theory. We also describe the singular limit to the affine Yangian (4d Nekrasov functions), which breaks the spectral duality.

  3. Decellularized extracellular matrix microparticles as a vehicle for cellular delivery in a model of anastomosis healing.

    PubMed

    Hoganson, David M; Owens, Gwen E; Meppelink, Amanda M; Bassett, Erik K; Bowley, Chris M; Hinkel, Cameron J; Finkelstein, Eric B; Goldman, Scott M; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2016-07-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) materials from animal and human sources have become important materials for soft tissue repair. Microparticles of ECM materials have increased surface area and exposed binding sites compared to sheet materials. Decellularized porcine peritoneum was mechanically dissociated into 200 µm microparticles, seeded with fibroblasts and cultured in a low gravity rotating bioreactor. The cells avidly attached and maintained excellent viability on the microparticles. When the seeded microparticles were placed in a collagen gel, the cells quickly migrated off the microparticles and through the gel. Cells from seeded microparticles migrated to and across an in vitro anastomosis model, increasing the tensile strength of the model. Cell seeded microparticles of ECM material have potential for paracrine and cellular delivery therapies when delivered in a gel carrier. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1728-1735, 2016.

  4. Pulsed radiolysis of model aromatic polymers and epoxy based matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Moacanin, J.; Liang, R.; Coulter, D.

    1982-01-01

    Models of primary processes leading to deactivation of energy deposited by a pulse of high energy electrons were derived for epoxy matrix materials and polyl-vinyl naphthalene. The basic conclusion is that recombination of initially formed charged states is complete within 1 nanosecond, and subsequent degradation chemistry is controlled by the reactivity of these excited states. Excited states in both systems form complexes with ground state molecules. These excimers or exciplexes have their characteristics emissive and absorptive properties and may decay to form separated pairs of ground state molecules, cross over to the triplet manifold or emit fluorescence. ESR studies and chemical analyses subsequent to pulse radiolysis were performed in order to estimate bond cleavage probabilities and net reaction rates. The energy deactivation models which were proposed to interpret these data have led to the development of radiation stabilization criteria for these systems.

  5. Density-matrix based determination of low-energy model Hamiltonians from ab initio wavefunctions.

    PubMed

    Changlani, Hitesh J; Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K

    2015-09-14

    We propose a way of obtaining effective low energy Hubbard-like model Hamiltonians from ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations for molecular and extended systems. The Hamiltonian parameters are fit to best match the ab initio two-body density matrices and energies of the ground and excited states, and thus we refer to the method as ab initio density matrix based downfolding. For benzene (a finite system), we find good agreement with experimentally available energy gaps without using any experimental inputs. For graphene, a two dimensional solid (extended system) with periodic boundary conditions, we find the effective on-site Hubbard U(∗)/t to be 1.3 ± 0.2, comparable to a recent estimate based on the constrained random phase approximation. For molecules, such parameterizations enable calculation of excited states that are usually not accessible within ground state approaches. For solids, the effective Hamiltonian enables large-scale calculations using techniques designed for lattice models.

  6. Phase field modelling of strain induced crystal growth in an elastic matrix.

    PubMed

    Laghmach, Rabia; Candau, Nicolas; Chazeau, Laurent; Munch, Etienne; Biben, Thierry

    2015-06-28

    When a crystal phase grows in an amorphous matrix, such as a crystallisable elastomer, containing cross-links and/or entanglements, these "topological constraints" need to be pushed away from the crystal phase to allow further crystallization. The accumulation of these topological constraints in the vicinity of the crystal interface may store elastic energy and affect the phase transition. To evaluate the consequences of such mechanism, we introduce a phase field model based on the Flory theory of entropic elasticity. We show that the growth process is indeed sensibly affected, in particular, an exponential increase of the surface energy with the displacement of the interface is induced. This explains the formation of stable nano-crystallites as it is observed in the Strain Induced Crystallization (SIC) of natural rubber. Although simple, the model developed here is able to account for many interesting features of SIC, for instance, the crystallite shapes and their sizes which depend on the applied deformation.

  7. Modeling of drug release from matrix systems involving moving boundaries: approximate analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping I

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of approximate analytical solutions to the general moving boundary diffusion problems encountered during the release of a dispersed drug from matrix systems. Starting from the theoretical basis of the Higuchi equation and its subsequent improvement and refinement, available approximate analytical solutions for the more complicated cases involving heterogeneous matrix, boundary layer effect, finite release medium, surface erosion, and finite dissolution rate are also discussed. Among various modeling approaches, the pseudo-steady state assumption employed in deriving the Higuchi equation and related approximate analytical solutions appears to yield reasonably accurate results in describing the early stage release of a dispersed drug from matrices of different geometries whenever the initial drug loading (A) is much larger than the drug solubility (C(s)) in the matrix (or A≫C(s)). However, when the drug loading is not in great excess of the drug solubility (i.e. low A/C(s) values) or when the drug loading approaches the drug solubility (A→C(s)) which occurs often with drugs of high aqueous solubility, approximate analytical solutions based on the pseudo-steady state assumption tend to fail, with the Higuchi equation for planar geometry exhibiting a 11.38% error as compared with the exact solution. In contrast, approximate analytical solutions to this problem without making the pseudo-steady state assumption, based on either the double-integration refinement of the heat balance integral method or the direct simplification of available exact analytical solutions, show close agreement with the exact solutions in different geometries, particularly in the case of low A/C(s) values or drug loading approaching the drug solubility (A→C(s)). However, the double-integration heat balance integral approach is generally more useful in obtaining approximate analytical solutions especially when exact solutions are not

  8. Role of vertex corrections in the matrix formulation of the random phase approximation for the multiorbital Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Altmeyer, Michaela; Guterding, Daniel; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Maier, Thomas A.; Valentí, Roser; Scalapino, Douglas J.

    2016-12-21

    In the framework of a multiorbital Hubbard model description of superconductivity, a matrix formulation of the superconducting pairing interaction that has been widely used is designed to treat spin, charge, and orbital fluctuations within a random phase approximation (RPA). In terms of Feynman diagrams, this takes into account particle-hole ladder and bubble contributions as expected. It turns out, however, that this matrix formulation also generates additional terms which have the diagrammatic structure of vertex corrections. As a result we examine these terms and discuss the relationship between the matrix-RPA superconducting pairing interaction and the Feynman diagrams that it sums.

  9. Role of vertex corrections in the matrix formulation of the random phase approximation for the multiorbital Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Michaela; Guterding, Daniel; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Maier, Thomas A.; Valentí, Roser; Scalapino, Douglas J.

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of a multiorbital Hubbard model description of superconductivity, a matrix formulation of the superconducting pairing interaction that has been widely used is designed to treat spin, charge, and orbital fluctuations within a random phase approximation (RPA). In terms of Feynman diagrams, this takes into account particle-hole ladder and bubble contributions as expected. It turns out, however, that this matrix formulation also generates additional terms which have the diagrammatic structure of vertex corrections. Here we examine these terms and discuss the relationship between the matrix-RPA superconducting pairing interaction and the Feynman diagrams that it sums.

  10. Study on a three-dimensional testing method coupling with a leaching behavior model for solidified waste matrix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuen-Shan; Li, Kung-Cheh

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a three-dimensional leaching method to understand the diffusion behavior of a solidified waste matrix. A cylindrical solidified waste matrix with isotope lead compounds used as a tracer was used to demonstrate the diffusion phenomenon. The leaching test method was coupled with the mathematical diffusion model derived from Duhamel's theorem to control the time-dependent conditions and compute the mass diffusivity and mass generation rate constant of the target pollutants and also simulate the pollutants leached from solidified waste matrix. The simulation value is in fair agreement with experiment.

  11. Tuning stochastic matrix models with hydrologic data to predict the population dynamics of a riverine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakaris, P.C.; Irwin, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    We developed stochastic matrix models to evaluate the effects of hydrologic alteration and variable mortality on the population dynamics of a lotie fish in a regulated river system. Models were applied to a representative lotic fish species, the flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), for which two populations were examined: a native population from a regulated reach of the Coosa River (Alabama, USA) and an introduced population from an unregulated section of the Ocmulgee River (Georgia, USA). Size-classified matrix models were constructed for both populations, and residuals from catch-curve regressions were used as indices of year class strength (i.e., recruitment). A multiple regression model indicated that recruitment of flathead catfish in the Coosa River was positively related to the frequency of spring pulses between 283 and 566 m3/s. For the Ocmulgee River population, multiple regression models indicated that year class strength was negatively related to mean March discharge and positively related to June low flow. When the Coosa population was modeled to experience five consecutive years of favorable hydrologic conditions during a 50-year projection period, it exhibited a substantial spike in size and increased at an overall 0.2% annual rate. When modeled to experience five years of unfavorable hydrologic conditions, the Coosa population initially exhibited a decrease in size but later stabilized and increased at a 0.4% annual rate following the decline. When the Ocmulgee River population was modeled to experience five years of favorable conditions, it exhibited a substantial spike in size and increased at an overall 0.4% annual rate. After the Ocmulgee population experienced five years of unfavorable conditions, a sharp decline in population size was predicted. However, the population quickly recovered, with population size increasing at a 0.3% annual rate following the decline. In general, stochastic population growth in the Ocmulgee River was more

  12. Matrix Design: An Alternative Model for Organizing the School or Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Philip J.; Gratz, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Explains the matrix organizational structure and describes conditions or pressures that lead an administrator to consider the matrix approach. Provides examples of how it operates in a department or school. (PD)

  13. Evidence for the use of organic carbon as the sorbing matrix in the modeling of PCB accumulation in phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Skoglung, R.S.; Swackhamer, D.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents empirical evidence for the use of organic carbon as the sorbing matrix in the kinetic modeling of PCB accumulation in phytoplankton. A kinetic-based model was used to predict congener-specific bioaccumulation factors of PCBs in phytoplankton samples collected from Green Bay, Lake Michigan. These values were compared to the measured bioaccumulation factors, and the sum of the residuals was used to evaluate the model`s predictive quality. The sorbing matrix fraction (F{sub M}) that minimized the sum of residuals of the model was then solved by iteration. The appropriateness of using dry weight, organic carbon fraction, or lipid fractions as the sorbing matrix fraction was determined by measuring their correlation to the optimum F{sub M}. It was determined that the F{sub M} correlated best with the organic carbon fraction, and this correlation appeared to be independent of both the spatial and seasonal differences of the field samples.

  14. Financial Distress Prediction Using Discrete-time Hazard Model and Rating Transition Matrix Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei; Chang, Chih-Huei

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies used constant cut-off indicator to distinguish distressed firms from non-distressed ones in the one-stage prediction models. However, distressed cut-off indicator must shift according to economic prosperity, rather than remains fixed all the time. This study focuses on Taiwanese listed firms and develops financial distress prediction models based upon the two-stage method. First, this study employs the firm-specific financial ratio and market factors to measure the probability of financial distress based on the discrete-time hazard models. Second, this paper further focuses on macroeconomic factors and applies rating transition matrix approach to determine the distressed cut-off indicator. The prediction models are developed by using the training sample from 1987 to 2004, and their levels of accuracy are compared with the test sample from 2005 to 2007. As for the one-stage prediction model, the model in incorporation with macroeconomic factors does not perform better than that without macroeconomic factors. This suggests that the accuracy is not improved for one-stage models which pool the firm-specific and macroeconomic factors together. In regards to the two stage models, the negative credit cycle index implies the worse economic status during the test period, so the distressed cut-off point is adjusted to increase based on such negative credit cycle index. After the two-stage models employ such adjusted cut-off point to discriminate the distressed firms from non-distressed ones, their error of misclassification becomes lower than that of one-stage ones. The two-stage models presented in this paper have incremental usefulness in predicting financial distress.

  15. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in a Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Model with CorMatrix and Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-16

    Model with CorMatrix and Adipose Derived Stem Cells ." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Pl) I TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Major Lucas Neff DEPARTMENT...ability of the matrix to work in concert with adipose derived stem cells for further augmentation of healing. 3 FDGXXX Attachments: Attachment 1...additional pages if necessary.) PROTOCOL #: FDG20130044A DATE: 16 July 2015 PROTOCOL TITLE: "Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in a Rat (Rattus no1Vegicus

  16. Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Extracellular Matrix Arterial Interposition Grafts in a Sheep (Ovis aries) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    extracellular matrix arterial interposition grafts in a sheep (Ovis aries) model." 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...carotid arteries in sheep . Methods: Three crossbred sheep were anesthetized, instrumented, and had 10 cm interposition grafts placed in both carotid...was present by four weeks. Conclusion: In this pilot study, the Cormatrix extracellular matrix performed well in a sheep carotid interposition graft

  17. T-Matrix Modeling of Linear Depolarization by Morphologically Complex Soot and Soot-Containing Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    We use state-of-the-art public-domain Fortran codes based on the T-matrix method to calculate orientation and ensemble averaged scattering matrix elements for a variety of morphologically complex black carbon (BC) and BC-containing aerosol particles, with a special emphasis on the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). We explain theoretically the quasi-Rayleigh LDR peak at side-scattering angles typical of low-density soot fractals and conclude that the measurement of this feature enables one to evaluate the compactness state of BC clusters and trace the evolution of low-density fluffy fractals into densely packed aggregates. We show that small backscattering LDRs measured with groundbased, airborne, and spaceborne lidars for fresh smoke generally agree with the values predicted theoretically for fluffy BC fractals and densely packed near-spheroidal BC aggregates. To reproduce higher lidar LDRs observed for aged smoke, one needs alternative particle models such as shape mixtures of BC spheroids or cylinders.

  18. Two approaches to the model drug immobilization into conjugated polymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Stokfisz, Anna; Zak, Jerzy K

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop biocompatible and conducting coating being carrier of biologically active compounds with the potential use in neuroprosthetics. Conducting polypyrrole matrix has been used to immobilize and release model drugs, quercetin and ciprofloxacin. Two routes of immobilization are described: drugs have been incorporated in the polymer matrix in the course of the electropolymerization process or after polymerization, in the course of polymer oxidation. Using UV/Vis spectroscopic detection we demonstrate that both immobilization approaches display different drug-loading efficiencies. In the case of ciprofloxacin, drug incorporation following synthesis is a more efficient immobilization approach (final drug concentration: 43.3 (±9.5) μM/cm(2)), while for quercetin the highest loading is accomplished by drug incorporation during synthesis (final drug concentration: 29.1 (±5.9) μM/cm(2)). The process of drug incorporation results in the variation of surface morphology with respect to the method of immobilization as well as the choice of drug. The results prove that electrochemical methods are efficient procedures for making multifunctional polymer matrices which might be perspective bioactive coatings for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relapse and Risk-taking among Iranian Methamphetamine Abusers Undergoing Matrix Treatment Model

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Pashaei, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the correlation between risk-taking and relapse among methamphetamine (MA) abusers undergoing the Matrix Model of treatment. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on male patients who were stimulant drug abusers undergoing the matrix treatment in the National Center for Addiction Research. A sampling was done using the availability method including 92 male patients. Demographic questionnaires and drug abuse related questionnaire were completed for each patient. Then, Bart’s balloon risk-taking test was administered to the patients. Findings Participants had a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 27.59 ± 6.60 years with an age range of 17-29 years. Unemployment, unmarried status, criminal offense, and also addiction family history increased the probability of relapse. In addition, a greater adjusted score of the risk-taking test increased the odds of relapse by more than 97%. The simultaneous abuse of opium and stimulants compared to the abuse of stimulants only, revealed no statistically significant differences for relapse. Patients with higher risk-taking behavior had a more probability of relapse. Conclusion This finding indirectly implies the usefulness of Bart’s risk-taking test in assessing risk-taking behavior in stimulant drug abusers. PMID:27274793

  20. Facultative control of matrix production optimizes competitive fitness in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm models.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jonas S; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Squyres, Georgia R; Price-Whelan, Alexa; de Santiago Torio, Ana; Song, Angela; Cornell, William C; Sørensen, Søren J; Xavier, Joao B; Dietrich, Lars E P

    2015-12-01

    As biofilms grow, resident cells inevitably face the challenge of resource limitation. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, electron acceptor availability affects matrix production and, as a result, biofilm morphogenesis. The secreted matrix polysaccharide Pel is required for pellicle formation and for colony wrinkling, two activities that promote access to O2. We examined the exploitability and evolvability of Pel production at the air-liquid interface (during pellicle formation) and on solid surfaces (during colony formation). Although Pel contributes to the developmental response to electron acceptor limitation in both biofilm formation regimes, we found variation in the exploitability of its production and necessity for competitive fitness between the two systems. The wild type showed a competitive advantage against a non-Pel-producing mutant in pellicles but no advantage in colonies. Adaptation to the pellicle environment selected for mutants with a competitive advantage against the wild type in pellicles but also caused a severe disadvantage in colonies, even in wrinkled colony centers. Evolution in the colony center produced divergent phenotypes, while adaptation to the colony edge produced mutants with clear competitive advantages against the wild type in this O2-replete niche. In general, the structurally heterogeneous colony environment promoted more diversification than the more homogeneous pellicle. These results suggest that the role of Pel in community structure formation in response to electron acceptor limitation is unique to specific biofilm models and that the facultative control of Pel production is required for PA14 to maintain optimum benefit in different types of communities.

  1. Accounting for management costs in sensitivity analyses of matrix population models.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Peter W J; McCarthy, Michael A; Possingham, Hugh P; Menkhorst, Peter W; McLean, Natasha

    2006-06-01

    Traditional sensitivity and elasticity analyses of matrix population models have been used to inform management decisions, but they ignore the economic costs of manipulating vital rates. For example, the growth rate of a population is often most sensitive to changes in adult survival rate, but this does not mean that increasing that rate is the best option for managing the population because it may be much more expensive than other options. To explore how managers should optimize their manipulation of vital rates, we incorporated the cost of changing those rates into matrix population models. We derived analytic expressions for locations in parameter space where managers should shift between management of fecundity and survival, for the balance between fecundity and survival management at those boundaries, and for the allocation of management resources to sustain that optimal balance. For simple matrices, the optimal budget allocation can often be expressed as simple functions of vital rates and the relative costs of changing them. We applied our method to management of the Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix; an endangered Australian bird) and the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as examples. Our method showed that cost-efficient management of the Helmeted Honeyeater should focus on increasing fecundity via nest protection, whereas optimal koala management should focus on manipulating both fecundity and survival simultaneously. These findings are contrary to the cost-negligent recommendations of elasticity analysis, which would suggest focusing on managing survival in both cases. A further investigation of Helmeted Honeyeater management options, based on an individual-based model incorporating density dependence, spatial structure, and environmental stochasticity, confirmed that fecundity management was the most cost-effective strategy. Our results demonstrate that decisions that ignore economic factors will reduce management efficiency.

  2. Discovery of potent inhibitor for matrix metalloproteinase-9 by pharmacophore based modeling and dynamics simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Kalva, Sukesh; Azhagiya Singam, E R; Rajapandian, V; Saleena, Lilly M; Subramanian, V

    2014-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an attractive target for anticancer therapy. In the present study ligand based pharmacophore modeling was performed to elucidate the structural elements for a diverse class of MMP-9 inhibitors. The pharmacophore model was validated through Güner-Henry (GH) scoring method. The final pharmacophore model consisted of three hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), and two ring aromatic regions (RA). This model was utilized to screen the natural compound database to seek novel compounds as MMP-9 inhibitors. The identified hits were validated using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies. Finally, one compound named Hinokiflavone from Juniperus communis had high binding free energy of -26.54kJ/mol compared with the known inhibitors of MMP-9. Cytotoxicity for hinokiflavone was evaluated by MTT assay. Inhibition of MMP-9 in the presence of hinokiflavone was detected by gelatin zymography and gelatinolytic inhibition assay. Results revealed that the natural compounds derived based on the developed pharmacophore model would be useful for further design and development of MMP-9 inhibitors.

  3. Simulations of Shor's algorithm using matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. S.; Hill, Charles D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2017-07-01

    We show that under the matrix product state formalism the states produced in Shor's algorithm can be represented using O(\\max (4lr^2, 2^{2l})) space, where l is the number of bits in the number to factorise and r is the order and the solution to the related order-finding problem. The reduction in space compared to an amplitude formalism approach is significant, allowing simulations as large as 42 qubits to be run on a single processor with 32 GB RAM. This approach is readily adapted to a distributed memory environment, and we have simulated a 45-qubit case using 8 cores with 16 GB RAM in approximately 1 h.

  4. Convection equation modeling: A non-iterative direct matrix solution algorithm for use with SINDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the boundary conditions for a component-level analysis, applying discrete finite element and finite difference modeling techniques often requires an analysis of complex coupled phenomenon that cannot be described algebraically. For example, an analysis of the temperature field of a coldplate surface with an integral fluid loop requires a solution to the parabolic heat equation and also requires the boundary conditions that describe the local fluid temperature. However, the local fluid temperature is described by a convection equation that can only be solved with the knowledge of the locally-coupled coldplate temperatures. Generally speaking, it is not computationally efficient, and sometimes, not even possible to perform a direct, coupled phenomenon analysis of the component-level and boundary condition models within a single analysis code. An alternative is to perform a disjoint analysis, but transmit the necessary information between models during the simulation to provide an indirect coupling. For this approach to be effective, the component-level model retains full detail while the boundary condition model is simplified to provide a fast, first-order prediction of the phenomenon in question. Specifically for the present study, the coldplate structure is analyzed with a discrete, numerical model (SINDA) while the fluid loop convection equation is analyzed with a discrete, analytical model (direct matrix solution). This indirect coupling allows a satisfactory prediction of the boundary condition, while not subjugating the overall computational efficiency of the component-level analysis. In the present study a discussion of the complete analysis of the derivation and direct matrix solution algorithm of the convection equation is presented. Discretization is analyzed and discussed to extend of solution accuracy, stability and computation speed. Case studies considering a pulsed and harmonic inlet disturbance to the fluid loop are analyzed to

  5. An improved transmission line matrix model for the 2D ideal wedge benchmark problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, I. J. G.; de Cogan, D.

    2008-04-01

    The numerical modelling of acoustic propagation in underwater environments using transmission line matrix (TLM) has received little attention for some time. This has been due, in part, to the need for an open boundary description, also known as a 'perfectly matched load' or PML, and the requirement for an accurate description of non-uniform bounding walls. The first of these problems has been solved by many researchers in subsequent years. The paper describes a novel solution to the second problem, allowing the incorporation of boundary-conforming Cartesian meshes into TLM schemes for acoustic propagation. This and a related technique are compared using the Buckingham and Tolstoy ideal 2D wedge benchmark test.

  6. Evaluation of Johnson-Cook model constants for aluminum based particulate metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfi, H.; Brar, N. S.

    1996-05-01

    High strain rate and high temperature response of three types of aluminum based particulate metal matrix ceramic composites is investigated by performing split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The composites are: NGP-2014 (15% SiC), NGT-6061 (15% SiC), and NGU-6061 (15% Al2O3), in which all the reinforcement materials are percentage by volume. Johnson-Cook constitutive model constants are evaluated from the high strain rate/high temperature data and implemented in a two dimensional finite element computer code (EPIC-2D) to simulate the penetration of an ogive nose tungsten projectile (23 grams) at a velocity 1.17 km/sec into the base 6061-T6 aluminum alloy and the composite NGU-6061. The simulated penetrations in the composite and in 6061-T6 aluminum agree with in 2%, in both materials, with the measured values.

  7. Interfacial shear stress distribution in model composites. I - A Kevlar 49 fibre in an epoxy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Jahankhani, H.; Galiotis, C. )

    1991-05-01

    The technique of Laser Raman Spectroscopy has been applied in the study of aramid fibers, such as Kevlar 49, and aramid/epoxy interfaces. A linear relationship has been found between Raman frequencies and strain upon loading a single Kevlar 49 filament in air. Model composites of single Kevlar 49 fibers embedded in epoxy resins have been fabricated and subjected to various degrees of mechanical deformation. The transfer lengths for reinforcement have been measured at various levels of applied tensile load and the dependence of transfer length upon applied matrix strain has been established. Finally, by balancing the tensile and the shear forces acting along the interface, the interfacial shear stress (ISS) distribution along the embedded fiber was obtained. 52 refs.

  8. A non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for tumor extracellular matrix with enzymatic degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shi-Lei; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2017-07-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of a solid tumor not only affords scaffolding to support tumor architecture and integrity but also plays an essential role in tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutics. In this paper, a non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory is established to study the chemo-mechanical behaviors of tumor ECM, which is modeled as a poroelastic polyelectrolyte consisting of a collagen network and proteoglycans. By using the principle of maximum energy dissipation rate, we deduce a set of governing equations for drug transport and mechanosensitive enzymatic degradation in ECM. The results reveal that osmosis is primarily responsible for the compression resistance of ECM. It is suggested that a well-designed ECM degradation can effectively modify the tumor microenvironment for improved efficiency of cancer therapy. The theoretical predictions show a good agreement with relevant experimental observations. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of tumor ECM may be conducive to novel anticancer strategies.

  9. Spacetime emergence of the robertson-walker universe from a matrix model.

    PubMed

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2007-06-29

    Using a novel, string theory-inspired formalism based on a Hamiltonian constraint, we obtain a conformal mechanical system for the spatially flat four-dimensional Robertson-Walker Universe. Depending on parameter choices, this system describes either a relativistic particle in the Robertson-Walker background or metric fluctuations of the Robertson-Walker geometry. Moreover, we derive a tree-level M theory matrix model in this time-dependent background. Imposing the Hamiltonian constraint forces the spacetime geometry to be fuzzy near the big bang, while the classical Robertson-Walker geometry emerges as the Universe expands. From our approach, we also derive the temperature of the Universe interpolating between the radiation and matter dominated eras.

  10. Aberrant alternative splicing and extracellular matrix gene expression in mouse models of myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongqing; Cline, Melissa S.; Osborne, Robert J.; Tuttle, Daniel L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Donohue, John Paul; Hall, Megan P.; Shiue, Lily; Swanson, Maurice S.; Thornton, Charles A.; Ares, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is associated with expression of expanded CTG DNA repeats as RNA (CUGexp RNA). To test whether CUGexp RNA creates a global splicing defect, we compared skeletal muscle of two mouse DM1 models, one expressing a CTGexp transgene, and another homozygous for a defective Mbnl1 gene. Strong correlation in splicing changes for ~100 new Mbnl1-regulated exons indicates loss of Mbnl1 explains >80% of the splicing pathology due to CUGexp RNA. In contrast, only about half of mRNA level changes can be attributed to loss of Mbnl1, indicating CUGexp RNA has Mbnl1-independent effects, particularly on mRNAs for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We propose that CUGexp RNA causes two separate effects: loss of Mbnl1 function, disrupting splicing, and loss of another function that disrupts ECM mRNA regulation, possibly mediated by MBNL2. These findings reveal unanticipated similarities between DM1 and other muscular dystrophies. PMID:20098426

  11. Density matrix model for polarons in a terahertz quantum dot cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Benjamin A.; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2014-10-01

    A density matrix based method is introduced for computation of steady-state dynamics in quantum cascade systems of arbitrary size, which incorporates an optical field coherently. The method is applied to a model terahertz quantum dot cascade laser system, where a means of treating coherent electron-optical-phonon coupling is also introduced. Results predict a strong increase in the upper state lifetime and operating temperature as compared to traditional well-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers. However, new complications also arise, including multiple peaks in the gain spectrum due to strong electron-phonon coupling, and strong parasitic subthreshold current channels that arise due to reduced dephasing. It is anticipated that novel design schemes will be necessary for such lasers to become a reality.

  12. Matrix models for supersymmetric Chern-Simons theories with an ADE classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulotta, Daniel R.; Ang, J. P.; Herzog, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    We consider mathcal{N} = 3 supersymmetric Chern-Simons (CS) theories that contain product U(N ) gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields. Using the matrix model of Kapustin, Willett and Yaakov, we examine the Euclidean partition function of these theories on an S 3 in the large N limit. We show that the only such CS theories for which the long range forces between the eigenvalues cancel have quivers which are in one-to-one correspondence with the simply laced affine Dynkin diagrams. As the A n series was studied in detail before, in this paper we compute the partition function for the D 4 quiver. The D 4 example gives further evidence for a conjecture that the saddle point eigenvalue distribution is determined by the distribution of gauge invariant chiral operators. We also see that the partition function is invariant under a generalized Seiberg duality for CS theories.

  13. Invasion-promoting extracellular matrix composition enhances photodynamic therapy response in 3D pancreatic cancer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Gwendolyn M.; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by extracellular matrix-rich stromal involvement, but it is not clear how ECM properties that affect invasiveness and chemotherapy response influence efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). To disentangle the mechanical and biochemical effects of ECM composition, we measured the effects of various combinations of ECM proteins on growth behavior, invasive potential, and therapeutic response of multicellular 3D pancreatic tumor models. These spheroids were grown in attachment-free conditions before embedding in combinations of rheologically characterized collagen 1 and Matrigel combinations and treated with oxaliplatin chemotherapy and PDT. We find that cells invading from collagen-embedded tumor spheroids, the least rigid ECM substrate described here, displayed better response to PDT than to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. Overall, our results support that ECM-mediated invading PDAC populations remain responsive to PDT in conditions that induce chemoresistance.

  14. Quantum phases of Yang-Mills matrix model coupled to fundamental fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mahul; Vaidya, Sachindeo

    2017-02-01

    By investigating the SU(2) Yang-Mills matrix model coupled to fundamental fermions in the adiabatic limit, we demonstrate quantum critical behaviour at special corners of the gauge field configuration space. The quantum scalar potential for the gauge field induced by the fermions diverges at the corners and is intimately related to points of enhanced degeneracy of the fermionic Hamiltonian. This in turn leads to superselection sectors in the Hilbert space of the gauge field, the ground states in different sectors being orthogonal to each other. As a consequence of our analysis, we show that 2-color quantum chromodynamics coupled to two Weyl fermions has three quantum phases. When coupled to a massless Dirac fermion, the number of quantum phases is four. One of these phases is the color-spin locked phase.

  15. A solution of the Gross-Witten matrix model by nonlinear random processes

    SciTech Connect

    Buividovich, P. V.

    2011-05-23

    We illustrate the stochastic method for solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories described in ArXiv:1009.4033 on the example of the Gross-Witten unitary matrix model. In the strong-coupling limit, this method can be applied directly, while in the weak-coupling limit we change the variables from compact to noncompact ones in order to cast the Schwinger-Dyson equations in the stochastic form. This leads to a new action with an infinite number of higher-order interaction terms. Nevertheless, such an action can be efficiently handled. This suggests the way to apply the method of ArXiv:1009.4033 to field theories with U(N) field variables as well as to effective field theories in the large-N limit.

  16. Spacetime Emergence of the Robertson-Walker Universe from a Matrix Model

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, Rene; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2007-06-29

    Using a novel, string theory-inspired formalism based on a Hamiltonian constraint, we obtain a conformal mechanical system for the spatially flat four-dimensional Robertson-Walker Universe. Depending on parameter choices, this system describes either a relativistic particle in the Robertson-Walker background or metric fluctuations of the Robertson-Walker geometry. Moreover, we derive a tree-level M theory matrix model in this time-dependent background. Imposing the Hamiltonian constraint forces the spacetime geometry to be fuzzy near the big bang, while the classical Robertson-Walker geometry emerges as the Universe expands. From our approach, we also derive the temperature of the Universe interpolating between the radiation and matter dominated eras.

  17. Modelling the backscatter from spherical cavities in a solid matrix: Can an effective medium layer model mimic the scattering response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinfield, Valerie J.; Challis, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial applications are increasingly turning to modern composite layered materials to satisfy strength requirements whilst reducing component weight. An important group of such materials are fibre/resin composites in which long fibres are laid down in layers in a resin matrix. Whilst delamination flaws, where layers separate from each other, are detectable using traditional ultrasonic techniques, the presence of porosity in any particular layer is harder to detect. The reflected signal from a layered material can already be modelled successfully by using the acoustic impedance of the layers and summing reflections from layer boundaries. However, it is not yet known how to incorporate porosity into such a model. The aim of the work reported here was to model the backscatter from randomly distributed spherical cavities within one layer, and to establish whether an effective medium, with a derived acoustic impedance, could reproduce the characteristics of that scattering. Since effective medium models are much more readily implemented in simulations of multi-layer structures than scattering per se, it was felt desirable to simplify the scattering response into an effective medium representation. A model was constructed in which spherical cavities were placed randomly in a solid continuous matrix and the system backscattering response was calculated. The scattering from the cavities was determined by using the Rayleigh partial-wave method, and taking the received signal at the transducer to be equivalent to the far field limit. It was concluded that even at relatively low porosity levels, the received signal was still "layer-like" and an effective medium model was a good approximation for the scattering behaviour.

  18. Defect detection of capacitive touch panel using a nonnegative matrix factorization and tolerance model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Changcheng; Quan, Yanming; Lin, Xingui

    2016-03-20

    Capacitive touch panels (CTPs), as a medium of information interactions, have become essential parts in many consumer electronics. However, current methods such as image edge matching and frequency notch filter cannot suit the defect detection for the new-type complex CTP patterns, which have neither basic primitives nor periodicity. For solving the issues, we proposed a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)-based large-size image registration method, and combined it with image tolerance models to detect defects in such CTP patterns. The NMF-based image registration method can fast extract each CTP from a large image. And then, any three of registered images are selected as reference images, which are further processed by threshold processing and simple mathematical morphological operation to obtain tolerance models. Afterward, we can use the tolerance models to obtain a nondefective template. In the normal inspection stage, the defects in CTP patterns can be identified as long as comparing the tolerance models of the template and sensed images. The experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently and accurately detect various types of defects in CTP patterns. Moreover, the detection results are robust under different illuminations. Therefore, this algorithm can be reliably applied in actual inspection of such new-type CTP patterns.

  19. A transverse isotropic model for microporous solids: Application to coal matrix adsorption and swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, D. N.; Vandamme, M.; Dangla, P.; Pereira, J.-M.; Vidal-Gilbert, S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the adsorption-induced swelling in coal is critical for predictable and enhanced coal bed methane production. The coal matrix is a natural anisotropic disordered microporous solid. We develop an elastic transverse isotropic poromechanical model for microporous solids which couples adsorption and strain through adsorption stress functions and expresses the adsorption isotherm as a multivariate function depending on fluid pressure and solid strains. Experimental data from the literature help invert the anisotropic adsorptive-mechanical properties of Brzeszcze coal samples exposed to CO2. The main findings include the following: (1) adsorption-induced swelling can be modeled by including fluid-specific and pressure-dependent adsorption stress functions into equilibrium equations, (2) modeling results suggest that swelling anisotropy is mostly caused by anisotropy of the solid mechanical properties, and (3) the total amount of adsorbed gas measured by immersing coal in the adsorbate overestimates adsorption amount compared to in situ conditions up to ˜20%. The developed fully coupled model can be upscaled to determine the coal seam permeability through permeability-stress relationships.

  20. Density matrix renormalization group study of the Anyon-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcila-Forero, J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-02-01

    Recently optical lattices allow us to observe phase transition without the uncertainty posed by complex materials, and the simulations of these systems are an excellent bridge between materials-based condensed matter physics and cold atoms. In this way, the computational physics related to many-body problems have increased in importance. Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we studied a Hubbard model for anyons, which is an equivalent to a variant of the Bose-Hubbard model in which the bosonic hopping depends on the local density. This is an exact mapping between anyons and bosons in one dimension. The anyons interlope between bosons and fermions. For two anyons under particle exchange, the wave function acquires a fractional phase eiθ . We conclude that this system exhibits two phases: Mott-insulator and superfluid. We present the phase diagram for some angles. The Mott lobe increases with an increase of the statistical. We observed a reentrance phase transition for all lobes. We showed that the model studied is in the same universality class as the Bose-Hubbard model with two-body interactions.