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Sample records for matrix proteins catenins

  1. Quantitative proteomics analysis integrated with microarray data reveals that extracellular matrix proteins, catenins, and p53 binding protein 1 are important for chemotherapy response in ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sheng; Cheng, Lihua; White, James T; Lu, Wei; Utleg, Angelita G; Yan, Xiaowei; Urban, Nicole D; Drescher, Charles W; Hood, Leroy; Lin, Biaoyang

    2009-08-01

    Chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel is the standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients. Although most patients initially respond to this treatment, few are cured. Resistance to chemotherapy is the major cause of treatment failure. We applied a quantitative proteomic approach based on ICAT/MS/MS technology to analyze tissues harvested at primary debulking surgery before the initiation of combination chemotherapy in order to identify potential naive or intrinsic chemotherapy response proteins in ovarian cancers. We identified 44 proteins that are overexpressed, and 34 proteins that are underexpressed in the chemosensitive tissue compared to the chemoresistant tissue. The overexpressed proteins identified in the chemoresistant tissue include 10 proteins (25.6%) belonging to the extracellular matrix (ECM), including decorin, versican, basigin (CD147), fibulin-1, extracellular matrix protein 1, biglycan, fibronectin 1, dermatopontin, alpha-cardiac actin (smooth muscle actin), and an EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1. Interesting proteins identified as overexpressed in the chemosensitive tissue include gamma-catenin (junction plakoglobin) and delta-catenin, tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), annexin A11, and 53 kDa selenium binding protein 1. Integrative analysis with expression profiling data of eight chemoresistant tissues and 13 chemosensitive tissues revealed that 16 proteins showed consistent changes at both the protein and the RNA levels. These include P53 binding protein 1, catenin delta 1 and plakoglobin, EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1. Our results suggest that chemotherapy response may be determined by multiple and complex system properties involving extracellular-matrix, cell adhesion and junction proteins.

  2. Amyloid precursor protein modulates β-catenin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuzhi; Bodles, Angela M

    2007-01-01

    Background The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elucidating the function of APP should help understand AD pathogenesis and provide insights into therapeutic designs against this devastating neurodegenerative disease. Results We demonstrate that APP expression in primary neurons induces β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (S33/37/T41) residues, which is a prerequisite for β-catenin ubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation. APP-induced phosphorylation of β-catenin resulted in the reduction of total β-catenin levels, suggesting that APP expression promotes β-catenin degradation. In contrast, treatment of neurons with APP siRNAs increased total β-catenin levels and decreased β-catenin phosphorylation at residues S33/37/T41. Further, β-catenin was dramatically increased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells from APP knockout animals. Acute expression of wild type APP or of familial AD APP mutants in primary neurons downregulated β-catenin in membrane and cytosolic fractions, and did not appear to affect nuclear β-catenin or β-catenin-dependent transcription. Conversely, in APP knockout CA1 pyramidal cells, accumulation of β-catenin was associated with the upregulation of cyclin D1, a downstream target of β-catenin signaling. Together, these data establish that APP downregulates β-catenin and suggest a role for APP in sustaining neuronal function by preventing cell cycle reactivation and maintaining synaptic integrity. Conclusion We have provided strong evidence that APP modulates β-catenin degradation in vitro and in vivo. Future studies may investigate whether APP processing is necessary for β-catenin downregulation, and determine if excessive APP expression contributes to AD pathogenesis through abnormal β-catenin downregulation. PMID:18070361

  3. Beta-catenin Forms Protein Aggregation at High Concentrations in HEK293TCells

    PubMed Central

    Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Najafi, Seyed Mahmoud Arab

    2017-01-01

    Background: The canonical Wnt signal transduction (or the Wnt/β-catenin pathway) plays a crucial role in the development of animals and in carcinogenesis. Beta-catenin is the central component of this signaling pathway. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling results in the cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In the nucleus, β-catenin interacts with the TCF/LEF transcription factors and, therefore, participates in the upregulation or downregulation of some important genes involved in diverse cellular activities. In addition, β-catenin is a critical component of the cadherin-mediated cell adherens junction. We had previously noticed that very high cellular concentrations of β-catenin had a negative effect on the transcriptional activity of this protein and, therefore, the aim of this study was to find a mechanism for this negative interaction. Methods: Cell fractionation, western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments were performed to measure β-catenin protein levels and β-catenin cellular localization in HEK293Tcells transfected with various amounts of a β-catenin-encoding plasmid. Also, total RNA was extracted from the cells and used for reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments to measure the expression of the β-catenin target genes. SPSS, version 16, was used to analyze the results statistically. Results: We demonstrated that overexpression of β-catenin led to the formation of rod-shaped protein aggregates. The aggregate structures were mainly formed in the cell nucleus and were heavy enough to be isolated by centrifugation. Beta-catenin aggregate formation was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of the β-catenin target genes used in this study. Conclusion: Since deregulation of β-catenin function occurs in several human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders, the results of this paper further support the possible biological and clinical significance of β-catenin aggregate formation. PMID

  4. Genetic and biochemical dissection of protein linkages in the cadherin-catenin complex.

    PubMed Central

    Jou, T S; Stewart, D B; Stappert, J; Nelson, W J; Marrs, J A

    1995-01-01

    The cadherin-catenin complex is important for mediating homotypic, calcium-dependent cell-cell interactions in diverse tissue types. Although proteins of this complex have been identified, little is known about their interactions. Using a genetic assay in yeast and an in vitro protein-binding assay, we demonstrate that beta-catenin is the linker protein between E-cadherin and alpha-catenin and that E-cadherin does not bind directly to alpha-catenin. We show that a 25-amino acid sequence in the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin and the amino-terminal domain of alpha-catenin are independent binding sites for beta-catenin. In addition to beta-catenin and plakoglobin, another member of the armadillo family, p120 binds to E-cadherin. However, unlike beta-catenin, p120 does not bind alpha-catenin in vitro, although a complex of p120 and endogenous alpha-catenin could be immunoprecipitated from cell extracts. In vitro protein-binding assays using recombinant E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain and alpha-catenin revealed two catenin pools in cell lysates: an approximately 1000- to approximately 2000-kDa complex bound to E-cadherin and an approximately 220-kDa pool that did not contain E-cadherin. Only beta-catenin in the approximately 220-kDa pool bound exogenous E-cadherin. Delineation of these molecular linkages and the demonstration of separate pools of catenins in different cell lines provide a foundation for examining regulatory mechanisms involved in the assembly and function of the cadherin-catenin complex. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7761449

  5. A subset of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas shows up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-7 associated with nuclear beta-catenin immunoreactivity, independent of EGFR and HER-2 gene amplification or expression.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Scarpa, Aldo; Veronesi, Giulia; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Del Curto, Barbara; Moore, Patrick S; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Sonzogni, Angelica; Masullo, Michele; Viale, Giuseppe

    2005-12-01

    Nuclear translocation of beta-catenin has been correlated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression/activation in non-small cell lung cancer. Less is known on beta-catenin transactivation in high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and on the status of beta-catenin activating EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) or beta-catenin target genes cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7). beta-catenin immunoreactivity was evaluated in 51 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) and 45 small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLC). Nineteen cases were assessed for beta-catenin gene exon 3 mutations, expression of MMP-7, and expression/gene amplification of EGFR, HER-2, and cyclin D1. beta-catenin was expressed in all 96 high-grade neuroendocrine tumors, the vast majority (94%) showing >50% immunopositive cells. A disarrayed immunoreactivity, however, was commonly encountered consisting in variably altered membrane-associated patterns of staining along with progressive accumulation of cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. In LCNEC, but not in SCLC, the disarrayed patterns correlated with EGFR and HER-2 protein expression. beta-catenin nuclear accumulation was found in nine tumors, including seven LCNEC and two SCLC, and was always associated with disarrayed immunoreactivity and increased MMP-7, but not cyclin D1 expression. These cases, however, did not show beta-catenin gene mutations or EGFR and HER-2 gene amplification or expression. No association was found between nuclear beta-catenin and any clinicopathological variable including patients' survival. The subcellular compartmentalization of beta-catenin is profoundly altered in high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. A minor subset of these tumors shows beta-catenin nuclear accumulation in association with increased expression of MMP-7, but not of cyclin D1, independent of EGFR and HER-2 gene amplification or expression.

  6. beta-Catenin associates with the actin-bundling protein fascin in a noncadherin complex

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Catenins were first characterized as linking the cytoplasmic domains of cadherin cell-cell adhesion molecules to the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In addition to their essential role in modulating cadherin adhesivity, catenins have more recently been indicated to participate in cell and developmental signaling pathways. beta-Catenin, for example, associates directly with at least two receptor tyrosine kinases and transduces developmental signals within the Wnt pathway. Catenins also complex with the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), which appears to have a role in regulating cell proliferation. We have used the yeast two-hybrid method to reveal that fascin, a bundler of actin filaments, binds to beta-catenin's central Armadillo repeat domain. Western blotting of immunoprecipitates from cell line and mouse and rat brain extracts indicate that this interaction exists in vivo. Fascin and beta-catenin's association was further substantiated in vitro using purified proteins isolated from recombinant bacterial and baculoviral sources. Immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that fascin additionally binds to plakoglobin, which is highly homologous to beta-catenin but not to p120cas, a newly described catenin which contains a more divergent Armadillo-repeat domain. Immunoprecipitation, in vitro competition, and domain-mapping experiments demonstrate that fascin and E-cadherin utilize a similar binding site within beta-catenin, such that they form mutually exclusive complexes with beta-catenin. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that fascin and beta-catenin colocalize at cell-cell borders and dynamic cell leading edges of epithelial and endothelial cells. In addition to cell-cell borders, cadherins were unexpectedly observed to colocalize with fascin and beta-catenin at cell leading edges. It is conceivable that beta-catenin participates in modulating cytoskeletal dynamics in association with the microfilament-bundling protein fascin, perhaps in a

  7. Danio rerio αE-catenin Is a Monomeric F-actin Binding Protein with Distinct Properties from Mus musculus αE-catenin*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Phillip W.; Pokutta, Sabine; Ghosh, Agnidipta; Almo, Steven C.; Weis, William I.; Nelson, W. James; Kwiatkowski, Adam V.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether homologs of the cadherin·catenin complex have conserved structures and functions across the Metazoa. Mammalian αE-catenin is an allosterically regulated actin-binding protein that binds the cadherin·β-catenin complex as a monomer and whose dimerization potentiates F-actin association. We tested whether these functional properties are conserved in another vertebrate, the zebrafish Danio rerio. Here we show, despite 90% sequence identity, that Danio rerio and Mus musculus αE-catenin have striking functional differences. We demonstrate that D. rerio αE-catenin is monomeric by size exclusion chromatography, native PAGE, and small angle x-ray scattering. D. rerio αE-catenin binds F-actin in cosedimentation assays as a monomer and as an α/β-catenin heterodimer complex. D. rerio αE-catenin also bundles F-actin, as shown by negative stained transmission electron microscopy, and does not inhibit Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation in bulk polymerization assays. Thus, core properties of α-catenin function, F-actin and β-catenin binding, are conserved between mouse and zebrafish. We speculate that unique regulatory properties have evolved to match specific developmental requirements. PMID:23788645

  8. Danio rerio αE-catenin is a monomeric F-actin binding protein with distinct properties from Mus musculus αE-catenin.

    PubMed

    Miller, Phillip W; Pokutta, Sabine; Ghosh, Agnidipta; Almo, Steven C; Weis, William I; Nelson, W James; Kwiatkowski, Adam V

    2013-08-02

    It is unknown whether homologs of the cadherin·catenin complex have conserved structures and functions across the Metazoa. Mammalian αE-catenin is an allosterically regulated actin-binding protein that binds the cadherin·β-catenin complex as a monomer and whose dimerization potentiates F-actin association. We tested whether these functional properties are conserved in another vertebrate, the zebrafish Danio rerio. Here we show, despite 90% sequence identity, that Danio rerio and Mus musculus αE-catenin have striking functional differences. We demonstrate that D. rerio αE-catenin is monomeric by size exclusion chromatography, native PAGE, and small angle x-ray scattering. D. rerio αE-catenin binds F-actin in cosedimentation assays as a monomer and as an α/β-catenin heterodimer complex. D. rerio αE-catenin also bundles F-actin, as shown by negative stained transmission electron microscopy, and does not inhibit Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation in bulk polymerization assays. Thus, core properties of α-catenin function, F-actin and β-catenin binding, are conserved between mouse and zebrafish. We speculate that unique regulatory properties have evolved to match specific developmental requirements.

  9. p120, a p120-related protein (p100), and the cadherin/catenin complex

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cadherins and catenins play an important role in cell-cell adhesion. Two of the catenins, beta and gamma, are members of a group of proteins that contains a repeating amino acid motif originally described for the Drosophila segment polarity gene armadillo. Another member of this group is a 120-kD protein termed p120, originally identified as a substrate of the tyrosine kinase pp60src. In this paper, we show that endothelial and epithelial cells express p120 and p100, a 100-kD, p120- related protein. Peptide sequencing of p100 establishes it as highly related to p120. p120 and p100 both appear associated with the cadherin/catenin complex, but independent p120/catenin and p100/catenin complexes can be isolated. This association is shown by coimmunoprecipitation of cadherins and catenins with an anti-p120/p100 antibody, and of p120/p100 with cadherin or catenin antibodies. Immunocytochemical analysis with a p120-specific antibody reveals junctional colocalization of p120 and beta-catenin in epithelial cells. Catenins and p120/p100 also colocalize in endothelial and epithelial cells in culture and in tissue sections. The cellular content of p120/p100 and beta-catenin is similar in MDCK cells, but only approximately 20% of the p120/p100 pool associates with the cadherin/catenin complex. Our data provide further evidence for interactions among the different arm proteins and suggest that p120/p100 may participate in regulating the function of cadherins and, thereby, other processes influenced by cell-cell adhesion. PMID:7615637

  10. HSP105 Recruits Protein Phosphatase 2A To Dephosphorylate β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nancy; Kakunda, Michael; Pham, Victoria; Lill, Jennie R.; Du, Pan; Wongchenko, Matthew; Yan, Yibing; Firestein, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway causes accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus to initiate the transcription of the target genes. Without Wnt stimulation, β-catenin forms a complex with axin (axis inhibitor), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and undergoes phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. Phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), interestingly, also are components of this degradation complex; therefore, a balance must be reached between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. How this balance is regulated is largely unknown. Here we show that a heat shock protein, HSP105, is a previously unidentified component of the β-catenin degradation complex. HSP105 is required for Wnt signaling, since depletion of HSP105 compromises β-catenin accumulation and target gene transcription upon Wnt stimulation. Mechanistically, HSP105 depletion disrupts the integration of PP2A into the β-catenin degradation complex, favoring the hyperphosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin. HSP105 is overexpressed in many types of tumors, correlating with increased nuclear β-catenin protein levels and Wnt target gene upregulation. Furthermore, overexpression of HSP105 is a prognostic biomarker that correlates with poor overall survival in breast cancer patients as well as melanoma patients participating in the BRIM2 clinical study. PMID:25645927

  11. Immunoexpression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in ameloblastoma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Sabrina-Nogueira; Pires, Fábio-Ramôa; Armada, Luciana; Azevedo, Rebeca-Souza

    2017-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is essential for the beginning of odontogenesis and may be involved in the development and progression of some odontogenic tumors. Thus, the aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in a series of AME and CCOT. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against Wnt1, Wnt5a and β-catenin in 17 cases of solid AME and 6 cases of CCOT. In the AME group, Wnt1 and Wnt5a were identified in the epithelium in most of the cases, and β-catenin was mainly identified in the cytoplasm of the tumoral cells. In the CCOT group, Wnt1 and Wnt5a were identified in the epithelium and in the ghost cells in almost all the cases, and β-catenin was mainly identified in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei of the tumoral cells. These results contribute to support the importance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in AME and CCOT tumorigenesis. The abnormal expression of cytoplasmic and/or nuclear β-catenin appears to contribute to the development of both AME and CCOT. In addition, it is possible that Wnt1 and Wnt5a expression in ghost cells can contribute to its histogenesis in CCOT. Key words:Ameloblastoma, β-catenin, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, immunohistochemistry, Wnt.

  12. Immunoexpression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in ameloblastoma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Sabrina-Nogueira; Pires, Fábio-Ramôa; Armada, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Background Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is essential for the beginning of odontogenesis and may be involved in the development and progression of some odontogenic tumors. Thus, the aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in a series of AME and CCOT. Material and Methods Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against Wnt1, Wnt5a and β-catenin in 17 cases of solid AME and 6 cases of CCOT. Results In the AME group, Wnt1 and Wnt5a were identified in the epithelium in most of the cases, and β-catenin was mainly identified in the cytoplasm of the tumoral cells. In the CCOT group, Wnt1 and Wnt5a were identified in the epithelium and in the ghost cells in almost all the cases, and β-catenin was mainly identified in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei of the tumoral cells. Conclusions These results contribute to support the importance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in AME and CCOT tumorigenesis. The abnormal expression of cytoplasmic and/or nuclear β-catenin appears to contribute to the development of both AME and CCOT. In addition, it is possible that Wnt1 and Wnt5a expression in ghost cells can contribute to its histogenesis in CCOT. Key words:Ameloblastoma, β-catenin, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, immunohistochemistry, Wnt. PMID:28149478

  13. The Prognostic Impact of Protein Expression of E-Cadherin-Catenin Complexes Differs between Rectal and Colon Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aamodt, Rolf; Bondi, Johan; Andersen, Solveig Norheim; Bakka, Arne; Bukholm, Geir; Bukholm, Ida R K

    2010-01-01

    The E-cadherin-catenin complex provides cell-cell adhesion. In order for a carcinoma to metastasize, cancer cells must let go of their hold of neighboring cells in the primary tumor. The presence of components of the E-cadherin-catenin complex in 246 rectal adenocarcinomas was examined by immunohistochemistry and compared to their presence in 219 colon carcinomas. The expression data were correlated to clinical information from the patients' records. There were statistically significant differences in protein expression between the rectal and the colon carcinomas regarding membranous beta-catenin, gamma-catenin, p120-catenin, and E-cadherin, as well as nuclear beta-catenin. In the rectal carcinomas, there was a significant inverse association between the expression of p120-catenin in cell membranes of the primary tumors and the occurrence of local recurrence, while membranous protein expression of beta-catenin was inversely related to distant metastases.

  14. The uvomorulin-anchorage protein alpha catenin is a vinculin homologue.

    PubMed Central

    Herrenknecht, K; Ozawa, M; Eckerskorn, C; Lottspeich, F; Lenter, M; Kemler, R

    1991-01-01

    The cytoplasmic region of the Ca(2+)-dependent cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) uvomorulin associates with distinct cytoplasmic proteins with molecular masses of 102, 88, and 80 kDa termed alpha, beta, and gamma catenin, respectively. This complex formation links uvomorulin to the actin filament network, which seems to be of primary importance for its cell-adhesion properties. We show here that antibodies against alpha catenin also immunoprecipitate complexes that contain human N-cadherin, mouse P-cadherin, chicken A-CAM (adherens junction-specific CAM; also called N-cadherin) or Xenopus U-cadherin, demonstrating that alpha catenin is complexed with other cadherins. In immunofluorescence tests, alpha catenin is colocalized with cadherins at the plasma membrane. However, in cadherin-negative Ltk- cells, alpha catenin is found uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm, suggesting some additional biological function(s). Expression of uvomorulin in these cells results in a concentration of alpha catenin at membrane areas of cell contacts. We also have cloned and sequenced murine alpha catenin. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals a significant homology to vinculin. Our results suggest the possibility of a new vinculin-related protein family involved in the cytoplasmic anchorage of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion molecules. Images PMID:1924379

  15. APC and beta-catenin protein expression patterns in HNPCC-related endometrial and colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Kariola, Reetta; Abdel-Rahman, Wael M; Ollikainen, Miina; Butzow, Ralf; Peltomäki, Päivi; Nyström, Minna

    2005-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1) genes are the two major components of the Wnt signaling pathway that has been shown to play an important role in the formation of certain cancers. The overactivation of the pathway, which results in abnormal accumulation of beta-catenin protein in nuclei, contributes to most colorectal cancers (CRCs), both sporadic and hereditary, as well as sporadic endometrial cancers (ECs). Here, we studied the involvement of APC and beta-catenin in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-related ECs, and compared the expression patterns to those in HNPCC-related CRCs. Nineteen ECs and 31 CRCs derived from HNPCC patients were immunohistochemically stained with anti-APC- and anti-beta-catenin-antibodies. Tumor-specific loss of APC was observed in 16 of endometrial cancers (3 of 19) and in 39 of colorectal cancers (12 of 31). Consistently, the loss of APC expression was associated with nuclear beta-catenin staining. Altogether, aberrant beta-catenin localization was observed in 53 of ECs (10 of 19) as compared to 84 of CRCs (26 of 31) (P=0.02). Our results suggest a frequent overactivation of the Wnt signaling pathway in hereditary endometrial cancer. In accordance with studies on sporadic cancers, abnormal accumulation of beta-catenin protein in nuclei occurred much less frequently in HNPCC-related ECs than CRCs, which may reflect organ-specific differences in their pathogenesis.

  16. Identification of β-Catenin-Interacting Proteins in Nuclear Fractions of Native Rat Collecting Duct Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jacqueline R; Chou, Chung-Lin; Medvar, Barbara; Knepper, Mark A; Jung, Hyun Jun

    2017-03-15

    The gene encoding the aquaporin-2 water channel is regulated transcriptionally in response to vasopressin. In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin stimulates the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation (at Ser552) of β-catenin, a multifunctional protein that acts as a transcriptional co-regulator in the nucleus. The purpose of this study was to identify β-catenin interacting proteins that may be involved in transcriptional regulation in rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells using both experimental and computational approaches. We used a standard chromatin immunoprecipitation procedure coupled to mass spectrometry (ChIP-MS) in a nuclear fraction isolated from rat IMCD suspensions. Over four biological replicates, we reproducibly identified 43 β-catenin binding proteins, including several known β-catenin binding partners as well as novel interacting proteins. Multiple proteins involved in transcriptional regulation were identified (Taf1, Jup, Tdrd3, Cdh1, Cenpj and several histones). Many of the identified β-catenin binding partners were found in prior studies to translocate to the nucleus in response to vasopressin. There was only one DNA-binding transcription factor (TF), specifically Taf1, part of the RNA-polymerase II pre-initiation complex. To identify sequence-specific TFs that may interact with β-catenin, Bayes' Theorem was used to integrate data from several information sources. The analysis identified several TFs with potential binding sites in the Aqp2 gene promoter that could interact with β-catenin in the regulation of Aqp2 gene transcription, specifically Jun, Junb, Jund, Atf1, Atf2, Mef2d, Usf1, Max, Pou2f1 and Rxra. The findings provide information necessary for modeling the transcriptional response to vasopressin.

  17. Glucose Deprivation Triggers Protein Kinase C-dependent β-Catenin Proteasomal Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Won; Song, Jun-Kyu; Yim, Ye-Seal; Yun, Ho-Geun; Chun, Kyung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved process that contributes to cell homeostasis. It is well known that induction mainly occurs in response to nutrient starvation, such as starvation of amino acids and insulin, and its mechanisms have been extensively characterized. However, the mechanisms behind cellular glucose deprivation-induced autophagy are as of now poorly understood. In the present study, we determined a mechanism by which glucose deprivation induced the PKC-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin, leading to autophagy. Glucose deprivation was shown to cause a sub-G1 transition and enhancement of the LC3-II protein levels, whereas β-catenin protein underwent degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Moreover, the inhibition of GSK3β was unable to abolish the glucose deprivation-mediated β-catenin degradation or up-regulation of LC3-II protein levels, which suggested GSK3β-independent protein degradation. Intriguingly, the inhibition of PKCα using a pharmacological inhibitor and transfection of siRNA for PKCα was observed to effectively block glucose deprivation-induced β-catenin degradation as well as the increase in LC3-II levels and the accumulation of a sub-G1 population. Together, our results demonstrated a molecular mechanism by which glucose deprivation can induce the GSK3β-independent protein degradation of β-catenin, leading to autophagy. PMID:25691573

  18. [Clinicopathologic significance of β-catenin protein and loss of heterozygosity on 10q in medulloblastoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-zhi; Wang, Cheng-hui; Zhou, Fu-an; Miao, Na; Abulajang, Gulinaer; Zhang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    To study the expression of β-catenin protein and the status of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromsome 10q in medulloblastoma, with clinical correlation. Immunohistochemical study for β-catenin protein was carried out in 50 cases of medulloblastoma encountered in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during the period from 2002 to 2011, including 32 cases of classic medulloblastoma, 13 cases of desmoplastic medulloblastoma and 5 cases of medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. The status of LOH on 10q was also detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic parameters were studied by Kaplan-Meien and Cox analysis. The rates of expression of β-catenin protein in classic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity were 53.1% (17/32), 4/13 and 1/5, respectively. The rate of LOH on 10q was 33.3% (8/24) in classic medulloblastoma and 2/11 in desmoplastic medulloblastoma. There was no statistically significant difference between the two tumor types. Univariate analysis showed that the expression of β-catenin protein (P = 0.022), lack of LOH on 10q (P = 0.020), extensiveness of tumor resection (P < 0.01), radiotherapy (P = 0.002) and chemotherapy (P < 0.01) represented important prognostic factors. Medulloblastoma with expression of β-catenin protein and without LOH on 10q carries a better prognosis. Assessment of these parameters is helpful in evaluating prognosis and subsequent patient management.

  19. Positive cross talk between protein kinase D and β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells: impact on β-catenin nuclear localization and phosphorylation at Ser552.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Han, Liang; Sinnett-Smith, James; Han, Li-Li; Stevens, Jan V; Rozengurt, Nora; Young, Steven H; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Given the fundamental role of β-catenin signaling in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and the growth-promoting function of protein kinase D1 (PKD1) in these cells, we hypothesized that PKDs mediate cross talk with β-catenin signaling. The results presented here provide several lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis. We found that stimulation of intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist angiotensin II (ANG II), a potent inducer of PKD activation, promoted endogenous β-catenin nuclear localization in a time-dependent manner. A significant increase was evident within 1 h of ANG II stimulation (P< 0.01), peaked at 4 h (P< 0.001), and declined afterwards. GPCR stimulation also induced a marked increase in β-catenin-regulated genes and phosphorylation at Ser(552) in intestinal epithelial cells. Exposure to preferential inhibitors of the PKD family (CRT006610 or kb NB 142-70) or knockdown of the isoforms of the PKD family prevented the increase in β-catenin nuclear localization and phosphorylation at Ser(552) in response to ANG II. GPCR stimulation also induced the formation of a complex between PKD1 and β-catenin, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation that depended on PKD1 catalytic activation, as it was abrogated by cell treatment with PKD family inhibitors. Using transgenic mice that express elevated PKD1 protein in the intestinal epithelium, we detected a marked increase in the localization of β-catenin in the nucleus of crypt epithelial cells in the ileum of PKD1 transgenic mice, compared with nontransgenic littermates. Collectively, our results identify a novel cross talk between PKD and β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Positive cross talk between protein kinase D and β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells: impact on β-catenin nuclear localization and phosphorylation at Ser552

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Han, Liang; Sinnett-Smith, James; Han, Li-Li; Stevens, Jan V.; Young, Steven H.; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Given the fundamental role of β-catenin signaling in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and the growth-promoting function of protein kinase D1 (PKD1) in these cells, we hypothesized that PKDs mediate cross talk with β-catenin signaling. The results presented here provide several lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis. We found that stimulation of intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist angiotensin II (ANG II), a potent inducer of PKD activation, promoted endogenous β-catenin nuclear localization in a time-dependent manner. A significant increase was evident within 1 h of ANG II stimulation (P < 0.01), peaked at 4 h (P < 0.001), and declined afterwards. GPCR stimulation also induced a marked increase in β-catenin-regulated genes and phosphorylation at Ser552 in intestinal epithelial cells. Exposure to preferential inhibitors of the PKD family (CRT006610 or kb NB 142-70) or knockdown of the isoforms of the PKD family prevented the increase in β-catenin nuclear localization and phosphorylation at Ser552 in response to ANG II. GPCR stimulation also induced the formation of a complex between PKD1 and β-catenin, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation that depended on PKD1 catalytic activation, as it was abrogated by cell treatment with PKD family inhibitors. Using transgenic mice that express elevated PKD1 protein in the intestinal epithelium, we detected a marked increase in the localization of β-catenin in the nucleus of crypt epithelial cells in the ileum of PKD1 transgenic mice, compared with nontransgenic littermates. Collectively, our results identify a novel cross talk between PKD and β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26739494

  1. Interaction of HIF1α and β-catenin inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 13 expression and prevents cartilage damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Wafa; Sigaux, Johanna; Modrowski, Dominique; Devignes, Claire-Sophie; Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Richette, Pascal; Ea, Hang-Korng; Provot, Sylvain; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Haÿ, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) regulates chondrocyte differentiation and metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) is a crucial hypoxic factor for chondrocyte growth and survival during development. The major metalloproteinase matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) is also associated with chondrocyte hypertrophy in adult articular cartilage, the lack of which protects from cartilage degradation and osteoarthritis (OA) in mice. MMP13 is up-regulated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a pathway involved in chondrocyte catabolism and OA. We studied the role of HIF1α in regulating Wnt signaling in cartilage and OA. We used mice with conditional knockout of Hif1α (∆Hif1αchon) with joint instability. Specific loss of HIF1α exacerbated MMP13 expression and cartilage destruction. Analysis of Wnt signaling in hypoxic chondrocytes showed that HIF1α lowered transcription factor 4 (TCF4)–β-catenin transcriptional activity and inhibited MMP13 expression. Indeed, HIF1α interacting with β-catenin displaced TCF4 from MMP13 regulatory sequences. Finally, ΔHif1αchon mice with OA that were injected intraarticularly with PKF118-310, an inhibitor of TCF4–β-catenin interaction, showed less cartilage degradation and reduced MMP13 expression in cartilage. Therefore, HIF1α–β-catenin interaction is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling and MMP13 transcription, thus reducing catabolism in OA. Our study contributes to the understanding of the role of HIF1α in OA and highlights the HIF1α–β-catenin interaction, thus providing new insights into the impact of hypoxia in articular cartilage. PMID:27122313

  2. Bisindoylmaleimide I suppresses adipocyte differentiation through stabilization of intracellular {beta}-catenin protein

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Munju; Park, Seoyoung; Gwak, Jungsug; Kim, Dong-Eun; Yea, Sung Su; Shin, Jae-Gook; Oh, Sangtaek

    2008-02-29

    The Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in cell differentiation. Activation of this pathway, likely by Wnt-10b, has been shown to inhibit adipogenesis in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mice. Here we revealed that bisindoylmaleimide I (BIM), which is widely used as a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), inhibits adipocyte differentiation through activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. BIM increased {beta}-catenin responsive transcription (CRT) and up-regulated intracellular {beta}-catenin levels in HEK293 cells and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. BIM significantly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and reduced expression of important adipocyte marker genes including peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and CAATT enhancer-binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Taken together, our findings indicate that BIM inhibits adipogenesis by increasing the stability of {beta}-catenin protein in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells.

  3. Making recombinant extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Florence; Koch, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    A variety of approaches to understand extracellular matrix protein structure and function require production of recombinant proteins. Moreover, the expression of heterologous extracellular matrix proteins, in particular collagens, using the recombinant technology is of major interest to the biomedical industry. Although extracellular matrix proteins are large, modular and often multimeric, most of them have been successfully produced in various expression systems. This review provides important factors, including the design of the construct, the cloning strategies, the expression vectors, the transfection method and the host cell systems, to consider in choosing a reliable and cost-effective way to make recombinant extracellular matrix proteins. Advantages and drawbacks of each system have been appraised. Protocols that may ease efficient recombinant production of extracellular matrix are described. Emphasis is placed on the recombinant collagen production. Members of the collagen superfamily exhibit specific structural features and generally require complex post-translational modifications to retain full biological activity that make more arduous their recombinant production.

  4. Protein Kinase PKN1 Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard G.; Bosch, Katherine A.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Yang, Peitzu T.; Robin, Nick C.; Toroni, Rachel A.; Biechele, Travis L.; Berndt, Jason D.; von Haller, Priska D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A. PMID:24114839

  5. Protein kinase PKN1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    James, Richard G; Bosch, Katherine A; Kulikauskas, Rima M; Yang, Peitzu T; Robin, Nick C; Toroni, Rachel A; Biechele, Travis L; Berndt, Jason D; von Haller, Priska D; Eng, Jimmy K; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J; Moon, Randall T

    2013-11-29

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A.

  6. A protein interaction between β-catenin and Dnmt1 regulates Wnt Signaling and DNA methylation in colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jing; Du, Zhanwen; Ravasz, Mate; Dong, Bohan; Wang, Zhenghe; Ewing, Rob M.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is an important step in the initiation and progression of tumor development in diverse cancers. The central effector of canonical Wnt signaling, β-catenin (CTNNB1), is a multifunctional protein, and has been extensively studied with respect to its roles in cell-cell adhesion and in regulation of Wnt-driven transcription. Here, a novel mass spectrometry-based proteomics technique in colorectal cancer cells expressing stabilized β-catenin, was used to identify a protein-protein interaction between β-catenin and DNA methyltransferase I (Dnmt1) protein, the primary regulator of DNA methylation patterns in mammalian cells. Dnmt1 and β-catenin strongly co-localized in the nuclei of colorectal cancer cells, and the interaction is mediated by the central domain of the Dnmt1 protein. Dnmt1 protein abundance is dependent upon the levels of β-catenin, and is increased in cells expressing stabilized mutant β-catenin. Conversely, the Dnmt1 regulates the levels of nuclear β-catenin and β-catenin/TCF driven transcription. In addition, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a regulator of DNMT1 stability, was identified as a component of the Dnmt1/β-catenin protein complex and perturbation of the Dnmt1/β-catenin interaction altered DNA methylation. In summary, a functional protein-protein interaction was identified between two critically important oncoproteins, in turn revealing a link between Wnt signaling and downstream nuclear functions mediated by Dnmt1. PMID:25753001

  7. Protein tyrosine kinase 7 has a conserved role in Wnt/β-catenin canonical signalling

    PubMed Central

    Puppo, Francesca; Thomé, Virginie; Lhoumeau, Anne-Catherine; Cibois, Marie; Gangar, Akanksha; Lembo, Frédérique; Belotti, Edwige; Marchetto, Sylvie; Lécine, Patrick; Prébet, Thomas; Sebbagh, Michael; Shin, Won-Sik; Lee, Seung-Taek; Kodjabachian, Laurent; Borg, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was recently shown to participate in noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity signalling during mouse and frog embryonic development. In this study, we report that PTK7 interacts with β-catenin in a yeast two-hybrid assay and mammalian cells. PTK7-deficient cells exhibit weakened β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity on Wnt3a stimulation. Furthermore, Xenopus PTK7 is required for the formation of Spemann's organizer and for Siamois promoter activation, events that require β-catenin transcriptional activity. Using epistatic assays, we demonstrate that PTK7 functions upstream from glycogen synthase kinase 3. Taken together, our data reveal a new and conserved role for PTK7 in the Wnt canonical signalling pathway. PMID:21132015

  8. Small molecule-based disruption of the Axin/β-catenin protein complex regulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jungsug; Hwang, Sun Gwan; Park, Hyung-Soon; Choi, Sang Rak; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyunjoon; Ha, Nam-Chul; Bae, Sung Jin; Han, Jin-Kwan; Kim, Dong-Eun; Cho, Jeong Woo; Oh, Sangtaek

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays important roles in the differentiation of multiple cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells. Using a cell-based chemical screening assay with a synthetic chemical library of 270 000 compounds, we identified the compound SKL2001 as a novel agonist of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and uncovered its molecular mechanism of action. SKL2001 upregulated β-catenin responsive transcription by increasing the intracellular β-catenin protein level and inhibited the phosphorylation of β-catenin at residues Ser33/37/Thr41 and Ser45, which would mark it for proteasomal degradation, without affecting CK1 and GSK-3β enzyme activities. Biochemical analysis revealed that SKL2001 disrupted the Axin/β-catenin interaction, which is a critical step for CK1- and GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37/Thr41 and Ser45. The treatment of mesenchymal stem cells with SKL2001 promoted osteoblastogenesis and suppressed adipocyte differentiation, both of which were accompanied by the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Our findings provide a new strategy to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  9. Role of β-catenin-regulated CCN matricellular proteins in epithelial repair after inflammatory lung injury

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Jazalle; Aschner, Yael; Briones, Natalie; Young, Scott K.; Lau, Lester F.; Kahn, Michael; Downey, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Repair of the lung epithelium after injury is integral to the pathogenesis and outcomes of diverse inflammatory lung diseases. We previously reported that β-catenin signaling promotes epithelial repair after inflammatory injury, but the β-catenin target genes that mediate this effect are unknown. Herein, we examined which β-catenin transcriptional coactivators and target genes promote epithelial repair after inflammatory injury. Transmigration of human neutrophils across cultured monolayers of human lung epithelial cells resulted in a fall in transepithelial resistance and the formation of discrete areas of epithelial denudation (“microinjury”), which repaired via cell spreading by 96 h. In mice treated with intratracheal (i.t.) LPS or keratinocyte chemokine, neutrophil emigration was associated with increased permeability of the lung epithelium, as determined by increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid albumin concentration, which decreased over 3–6 days. Activation of β-catenin/p300-dependent gene expression using the compound ICG-001 accelerated epithelial repair in vitro and in murine models. Neutrophil transmigration induced epithelial expression of the β-catenin/p300 target genes Wnt-induced secreted protein (WISP) 1 and cysteine-rich (Cyr) 61, as determined by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunostaining. Purified neutrophil elastase induced WISP1 upregulation in lung epithelial cells, as determined by qPCR. WISP1 expression increased in murine lungs after i.t. LPS, as determined by ELISA of the BAL fluid and qPCR of whole lung extracts. Finally, recombinant WISP1 and Cyr61 accelerated repair, and Cyr61-neutralizing antibodies delayed repair of the injured epithelium in vitro. We conclude that β-catenin/p300-dependent expression of WISP1 and Cyr61 is critical for epithelial repair and represents a potential therapeutic target to promote epithelial repair after inflammatory injury. PMID:23316072

  10. Regulation of intracellular beta-catenin levels by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Munemitsu, S; Albert, I; Souza, B; Rubinfeld, B; Polakis, P

    1995-01-01

    The APC tumor-suppressor protein associates with beta-catenin, a cell adhesion protein that is upregulated by the WNT1 oncogene. We examined the effects of exogenous APC expression on the distribution and amount of beta-catenin in a colorectal cancer cell containing only mutant APC. Expression of wild-type APC caused a pronounced reduction in total beta-catenin levels by eliminating an excessive supply of cytoplasmic beta-catenin indigenous to the SW480 colorectal cancer cell line. This reduction was due to an enhanced rate of beta-catenin protein degradation. Truncated mutant APC proteins, characteristic of those associated with cancer, lacked this activity. Mutational analysis revealed that the central region of the APC protein, which is typically deleted or severely truncated in tumors, was responsible for the down-regulation of beta-catenin. These results suggest that the tumor-suppressor activity of mutant APC may be compromised due to a defect in its ability to regulate beta-catenin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7708772

  11. A protein interaction map for cell-cell adhesion regulators identifies DUSP23 as a novel phosphatase for β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Lisa Leon; Ng, Mei Rosa; Sowa, Mathew E.; Selfors, Laura M.; White, Anne; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Singh, Pragya; Dhakal, Sabin; Harper, J. Wade; Brugge, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is central to morphogenesis and maintenance of epithelial cell state. We previously identified 27 candidate cell-cell adhesion regulatory proteins (CCARPs) whose down-regulation disrupts epithelial cell-cell adhesion during collective migration. Using a protein interaction mapping strategy, we found that 18 CCARPs link to core components of adherens junctions or desmosomes. We further mapped linkages between the CCARPs and other known cell-cell adhesion proteins, including hits from recent screens uncovering novel components of E-cadherin adhesions. Mechanistic studies of one novel CCARP which links to multiple cell-cell adhesion proteins, the phosphatase DUSP23, revealed that it promotes dephosphorylation of β-catenin at Tyr 142 and enhances the interaction between α- and β-catenin. DUSP23 knockdown specifically diminished adhesion to E-cadherin without altering adhesion to fibronectin matrix proteins. Furthermore, DUSP23 knockdown produced “zipper-like” cell-cell adhesions, caused defects in transmission of polarization cues, and reduced coordination during collective migration. Thus, this study identifies multiple novel connections between proteins that regulate cell-cell interactions and provides evidence for a previously unrecognized role for DUSP23 in regulating E-cadherin adherens junctions through promoting the dephosphorylation of β-catenin. PMID:27255161

  12. Quercetin Attenuates Warfarin-induced Vascular Calcification in Vitro Independently from Matrix Gla Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Beazley, Kelly E.; Eghtesad, Saman; Nurminskaya, Maria V.

    2013-01-01

    Warfarin can stimulate vascular calcification in vitro via activation of β-catenin signaling and/or inhibition of matrix Gla protein (MGP) carboxylation. Calcification was induced in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with therapeutic levels of warfarin in normal calcium and clinically acceptable phosphate levels. Although TGF/BMP and PKA pathways are activated in calcifying VSMCs, pharmacologic analysis reveals that their activation is not contributory. However, β-catenin activity is important because inhibition of β-catenin with shRNA or bioflavonoid quercetin prevents calcification in primary human VSMCs, rodent aortic rings, and rat A10 VSMC line. In the presence of quercetin, reactivation of β-catenin using the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor LiCl restores calcium accumulation, confirming that quercetin mechanism of action hinges on inhibition of the β-catenin pathway. Calcification in VSMCs induced by 10 μm warfarin does not associate with reduced levels of carboxylated MGP, and inhibitory effects of quercetin do not involve induction of MGP carboxylation. Further, down-regulation of MGP by shRNA does not alter the effect of quercetin. These results suggest a new β-catenin-targeting strategy to prevent vascular calcification induced by warfarin and identify quercetin as a potential therapeutic in this pathology. PMID:23223575

  13. Determination of Rate-Limiting Factor for Formation of Beta-Catenin Destruction Complexes Using Absolute Protein Quantification.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Hatta, Tomohisa; Ogawa, Koji; Fukuda, Eriko; Goshima, Naoki; Natsume, Tohru

    2017-10-06

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in both ontogenesis and development. In the absence of a Wnt stimulus, β-catenin is degraded by a multiprotein "destruction complex" that includes Axin, APC, GSK3B, and FBXW11. Although the key molecules required for transducing Wnt signals have been identified, a quantitative understanding of this pathway has been lacking. Here, we calculated the absolute number of β-catenin destruction complexes by absolute protein quantification using LC-MS/MS. Similar amounts of destruction complex-constituting proteins and β-catenin interacted, and the number of destruction complexes was calculated to be about 1468 molecules/cell. We demonstrated that the calculated number of destruction complexes was valid for control of the β-catenin destruction rate under steady-state conditions. Interestingly, APC had the minimum expression level among the destruction complex components at about 2233 molecules/cell, and this number approximately corresponded to the calculated number of destruction complexes. Decreased APC expression by siRNA transfection decreased the number of destruction complexes, resulting in β-catenin accumulation and stimulation of the transcriptional activity of T-cell factor. Taken together, our results suggest that the amount of APC expression is the rate-limiting factor for the constitution of β-catenin destruction complexes.

  14. [CELL CONTACT PROTEIN BETA-CATENIN IN EPENDYMAL AND EPITHELIAL CELLS OF THE CHOROID PLEXUS OF THE CEREBRAL LATERAL VENTRICLES].

    PubMed

    Kirik, O V; Sufieyva, D A; Nazarenkova, A V; Korzhevskiy, D E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution pattern of cellular contacts protein beta-catenin in the choroid plexus and ependyma of lateral ventricles of the brain. The study was conducted on frontal sections of the brain of Wistar rats (n = 10) using polyclonal antibodies against beta-catenin. The obtained preparations were analyzed by microscopy in transmitted light and using confocal laser microscopy. To study the distribution of beta-catenin in different projections, three-dimensional reconstruction was performed. The study demonstrated different distribution patterns of this protein in ependyma and choroid plexus. Unlike ependyma, in the cells of the choroid plexus beta-catenin was distributed in the same way as in simple epithelial tissues (on the basal and lateral borders of the cells). This may indicate different tissue attribution of the ependyma and the choroid plexus epithelium, despite their common origin.

  15. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Gye Won; Yun, Mi-Young; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Shin, Jae-Gook; Song, Gyu-Yong; Oh, Sangtaek

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  16. β-Catenin Accumulation Is Associated With Increased Expression of Nanog Protein and Predicts Maintenance of MSC Self-Renewal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sang-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Je; Lee, Eui Seok; Park, Chung-Gyu; Cho, Su Jin; Jeon, Soung-Hoo

    2017-02-16

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are self-renewing cells with the ability to differentiate into organized, functional network of cells. Recent studies have revealed that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3-specific pharmacological inhibitor, Bio, results in the maintenance of self-renewal in both mouse and human ES cells. The molecular mechanism behind the maintenance of hMSCs by these factors, however, is not fully understood. We found that rEGF enhances the level of β-catenin, a component of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, it was found that β-catenin upregulates Nanog. EGF activates the β-catenin pathway via the Ras protein and also increased the Nanog protein and gene expression levels 2 h after rEGF treatment. These results suggest that adding EGF can enhance β-catenin and Nanog expression in MSCs and facilitate EGF-mediated maintenance of MSC self-renewal. EGF was shown to augment MSC proliferation while preserving early progenitors within MSC population and thus did not induce differentiation. Thus, EGF not only can be used to expand MSC in vitro but also be utilized to autologous transplantation of MSCs in vivo.

  17. Bryostatin 1 modulates beta-catenin subcellular localization and transcription activity through protein kinase D1 activation.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C; Du, Cheng; Balaji, K C

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, the use of natural products for cancer prevention and treatment has received considerable attention. Bryostatin 1 is a natural macrocyclic lactone and a protein kinase D (PKD) modulator with potent antineoplastic properties that has been used to treat human cancers in clinical trials with limited success. Further understanding the mechanistic basis of Bryostatin 1 action may provide opportunities to improve clinical results of treatment with Bryostatin 1. We identified that PKD1, founding member of PKD family of serine/threonine kinases, modulates E-cadherin/beta-catenin activity, which plays an important role in cell integrity, polarity, growth, and morphogenesis. An aberrant expression and localization of E-cadherin/beta-catenin has been strongly associated with cancer progression and metastasis. In this study, we examined the effect of Bryostatin 1 treatment on PKD1 activation, beta-catenin translocation and transcription activity, and malignant phenotype of prostate cancer cells. Initial activation of PKD1 with Bryostatin 1 leads to colocalization of the cytoplasmic pool of beta-catenin with PKD1, trans-Golgi network markers, and proteins involved in vesicular trafficking. Activation of PKD1 by Bryostatin 1 decreases nuclear beta-catenin expression and beta-catenin/TCF transcription activity. Activation of PKD1 alters cellular aggregation and proliferation in prostate cancer cells associated with subcellular redistribution of E-cadherin and beta-catenin. For the first time, we have identified that Bryostatin 1 modulates beta-catenin signaling through PKD1, which identifies a novel mechanism to improve efficacy of Bryostatin 1 in clinical settings.

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cross-talks with canonical Wnt signaling via phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin at Ser 552

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Junxing; Yue, Wanfu; Zhu, Mei J.; Sreejayan, Nair; Du, Min

    2010-04-23

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy metabolism; its activity is regulated by a plethora of physiological conditions, exercises and many anti-diabetic drugs. Recent studies show that AMPK involves in cell differentiation but the underlying mechanism remains undefined. Wingless Int-1 (Wnt)/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through enhancing {beta}-catenin/T-cell transcription factor 1 (TCF) mediated transcription. The objective of this study was to determine whether AMPK cross-talks with Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling through phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin. C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells were used. Chemical inhibition of AMPK and the expression of a dominant negative AMPK decreased phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin at Ser 552. The {beta}-catenin/TCF mediated transcription was correlated with AMPK activity. In vitro, pure AMPK phosphorylated {beta}-catenin at Ser 552 and the mutation of Ser 552 to Ala prevented such phosphorylation, which was further confirmed using [{gamma}-{sup 32}P]ATP autoradiography. In conclusion, AMPK phosphorylates {beta}-catenin at Ser 552, which stabilizes {beta}-catenin, enhances {beta}-catenin/TCF mediated transcription, expanding AMPK from regulation of energy metabolism to cell differentiation and development via cross-talking with the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  19. Lithium increases synaptic GluA2 in hippocampal neurons by elevating the δ-catenin protein.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Mobeen; Kim, Seonil; Patel, Sunny; Khatri, Latika; Hikima, Takuya; Rice, Margaret E; Ziff, Edward B

    2017-02-01

    Lithium (Li(+)) is a drug widely employed for treating bipolar disorder, however the mechanism of action is not known. Here we study the effects of Li(+) in cultured hippocampal neurons on a synaptic complex consisting of δ-catenin, a protein associated with cadherins whose mutation is linked to autism, and GRIP, an AMPA receptor (AMPAR) scaffolding protein, and the AMPAR subunit, GluA2. We show that Li(+) elevates the level of δ-catenin in cultured neurons. δ-catenin binds to the ABP and GRIP proteins, which are synaptic scaffolds for GluA2. We show that Li(+) increases the levels of GRIP and GluA2, consistent with Li(+)-induced elevation of δ-catenin. Using GluA2 mutants, we show that the increase in surface level of GluA2 requires GluA2 interaction with GRIP. The amplitude but not the frequency of mEPSCs was also increased by Li(+) in cultured hippocampal neurons, confirming a functional effect and consistent with AMPAR stabilization at synapses. Furthermore, animals fed with Li(+) show elevated synaptic levels of δ-catenin, GRIP, and GluA2 in the hippocampus, also consistent with the findings in cultured neurons. This work supports a model in which Li(+) stabilizes δ-catenin, thus elevating a complex consisting of δ-catenin, GRIP and AMPARs in synapses of hippocampal neurons. Thus, the work suggests a mechanism by which Li(+) can alter brain synaptic function that may be relevant to its pharmacologic action in treatment of neurological disease.

  20. Smenospongidine suppresses the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells by promoting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-mediated β-catenin degradation.

    PubMed

    Park, Seoyoung; Hwang, In Hyun; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Young-Hwa; Song, Gyu-Young; Na, MinKyun; Oh, Sangtaek

    2017-03-08

    Abnormal up-regulation of β-catenin expression is associated with the development and progression of multiple myeloma and is thus a potential therapeutic target. Here, we screened cell-based natural compounds and identified smenospongidine, a metabolite isolated from a marine sponge, as an antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Smenospongidine promoted the degradation of intracellular β-catenin that accumulated via Wnt3a or 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Consistently, smenospongidine down-regulated β-catenin expression and repressed the levels of β-catenin/T cell factor-dependent genes such as axin2, c-myc, and cyclin D1 in RPMI-8226 multiple myeloma cells. Smenospongidine suppressed proliferation and significantly induced apoptosis in RPMI-8266 cells. In addition, smenospongidine-induced β-catenin degradation was mediated by up-regulating CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). These findings indicate that smenospongidine exerts its anti-proliferative activity by blocking the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent against multiple myeloma.

  1. Crosstalk between SOXB1 proteins and WNT/β-catenin signaling in NT2/D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Mojsin, Marija; Topalovic, Vladanka; Vicentic, Jelena Marjanovic; Schwirtlich, Marija; Stanisavljevic, Danijela; Drakulic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Milena

    2015-11-01

    During early vertebrate embryogenesis, the expression of SOXB1 proteins is precisely regulated by a number of different mechanisms, including Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This is essential for controlling the balance between stemness and differentiation in embryonic stem cells. In the present study, we analyzed the molecular mechanism of LiCl action in NT2/D1 cells and examined the crosstalk between SOXB1 proteins and Wnt signaling in this model system. We have shown that LiCl increases β-catenin level, induces its translocation to the nucleus and consequently up-regulates β-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription in NT2/D1 cells. Our results also suggest that LiCl treatment leads to increased expression of SOX2 and SOX3 proteins in NT2/D1 cells through activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Finally, we have detected a negative feedback loop between β-catenin and SOX2 expression in NT2/D1 cells. Since β-catenin and SOX2 have been linked to processes of self-renewal and pluripotency, our results have implications for future research on the maintenance of stemness and lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

  2. Extracellular matrix proteins of dentine.

    PubMed

    Butler, W T; Ritchie, H H; Bronckers, A L

    1997-01-01

    Bone and dentine extracellular matrix proteins are similar, consisting primarily of type I collagen, acidic proteins and proteoglycans. Although collagen forms the lattice for deposition of calcium and phosphate for formation of carbonate apatite, the non-collagenous proteins are believed to control initiation and growth of the crystals. Despite this similarity, dentine contains three unique proteins apparently absent from bone and other tissue: dentine phosphophoryn (DPP), dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentine sialoprotein (DSP). DPP and DMP1 are acidic phosphoproteins probably involved in the control of mineralization processes. DPP may localize in gap regions of collagen and initiate apatite crystal formation by binding large quantities of calcium in a conformation that promotes this process. Extensive studies have been conducted in our laboratory on the nature, biosynthesis, localization and gene structure of DSP. Immunolocalization studies showed that rat DSP, a 53 kDa sialic acid-rich glycoprotein, was synthesized by young and mature odontoblasts, and by dental pulp cells and pre-ameloblasts, but not by ameloblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes or other cell types. The cDNA sequence indicated that DSP was a 366-residue protein with several potential N-glycosylation sites, as well as phosphorylation sites, but that the amino acid sequence was dissimilar to that of other known proteins. Northern blot analysis detected several mRNA species near 4.6 and 1.5 kb, indicative of alternative splicing events. Evidence for two DSP genes was obtained, further complicating this picture. Recent in situ hybridization studies utilizing rat and mouse molars and incisors indicated that DSP mRNA was expressed by young odontoblasts and odontoblasts in animals of all ages. Transcripts were also observed in pre-ameloblasts. The expression of DSP mRNA ceased when these cells matured to become secretory ameloblasts. DSP transcripts were not detected in osteoblasts or other cell

  3. Active β-catenin is regulated by the PTEN/PI3 kinase pathway: a role for protein phosphatase PP2A

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Amit; Venkateswaran, Geetha; Hao, Li; Garcia, Maria E.; Yoon, Jenny; Sidhu, Jaskiran; Persad, Sujata

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been associated with the development and progression of many cancers. The stability and subcellular localization of β-catenin, a dual functional protein that plays a role in intracellular adhesion and in regulating gene expression, is tightly regulated. However, little is known about the transcriptionally active form of β-catenin, Active Beta Catenin (ABC), that is unphosphorylated at serine 37 (Ser37) and threonine 41 (Thr41). Elucidating the mechanism by which β-catenin is activated to generate ABC is vital to the development of therapeutic strategies to block β-catenin signaling for cancer treatment. Using melanoma, breast and prostate cancer cell lines, we show that while cellular β-catenin levels are regulated by the Wnt pathway, cellular ABC levels are mainly regulated by the PI3K pathway and are dependent on the phosphatase activity of the protein phosphatase PP2A. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although the PI3K/PTEN pathway does not regulate total β-catenin protein levels within the cell, it plays a role in regulating the subcellular localization of β-catenin. Our results support a novel functional interaction/cross-talk between the PTEN/PI3K and Wnt pathways in the regulation of the subcellular/nuclear levels of ABC, which is crucially important for the protein's activity as a transcription factor and its biological effects in health and disease. PMID:28191283

  4. Regulation of Tcf7l1 DNA binding and protein stability as principal mechanisms of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Shy, Brian R; Wu, Chun-I; Khramtsova, Galina F; Zhang, Jenny Y; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Goss, Kathleen H; Merrill, Bradley J

    2013-07-11

    Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction requires direct binding of β-catenin to Tcf/Lef proteins, an event that is classically associated with stimulating transcription by recruiting coactivators. This molecular cascade plays critical roles throughout embryonic development and normal postnatal life by affecting stem cell characteristics and tumor formation. Here, we show that this pathway utilizes a fundamentally different mechanism to regulate Tcf7l1 (formerly named Tcf3) activity. β-catenin inactivates Tcf7l1 without a switch to a coactivator complex by removing it from DNA, which leads to Tcf7l1 protein degradation. Mouse genetic experiments demonstrate that Tcf7l1 inactivation is the only required effect of the Tcf7l1-β-catenin interaction. Given the expression of Tcf7l1 in pluripotent embryonic and adult stem cells, as well as in poorly differentiated breast cancer, these findings provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of pluripotency and the role of Wnt/β-catenin in breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered Expression of Yes-associated Protein and β-Catenin in Non-neoplastic and Neoplastic Gastric Surface Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Lee, Ok-Jun; Kwon, Ju-Lee; Kim, Jin Man; Sul, Hae-Joung; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Kyung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether differential expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and β-catenin is important in gastric carcinogenesis. A total of 284 paraffin-embedded samples collected from 232 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were used to evaluate YAP and β-catenin expression by immunohistochemistry, and the experimental findings were compared against those for gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Nuclear YAP expression gradually increased from non-neoplastic epithelia to tubular or papillary adenocarcinomas (TPADs) and decreased in signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Cytoplasmic β-catenin expression increased from non-neoplastic epithelia to high-grade dysplasia and was decreased in TPAD and SRCC. YAP-overexpressing cell lines exhibited marked tumor cell invasion, whereas YAP-depleted cells showed reduced invasion. Nuclear YAP and cytoplasmic β-catenin play important roles in carcinogenesis, and the differential patterns YAP and β-catenin expression between TPAD and SRCC imply the existence of different carcinogenic pathways in these conditions. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear Matrix Proteins in Human Colon Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesee, Susan K.; Meneghini, Marc D.; Szaro, Robert P.; Wu, Ying-Jye

    1994-03-01

    The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer.

  7. Connexin37 deficiency alters organic bone matrix, cortical bone geometry, and increases Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Kadakia, Jay R; Atkinson, Emily G; Wallace, Joseph M; Plotkin, Lilian I; Reginato, Rejane D

    2017-04-01

    Deletion of connexin (Cx) 37 in mice leads to increased cancellous bone mass due to defective osteoclast differentiation. Paradoxically; however, Cx37-deficient mice exhibit reduced cortical thickness accompanied by higher bone strength, suggesting a contribution of Cx37 to bone matrix composition. Thus, we investigated whether global deletion of Cx37 alters the composition of organic bone extracellular matrix. Five-month-old Cx37(-/-) mice exhibited increased marrow cavity area, and periosteal and endocortical bone surface resulting in higher total area in tibia compared to Cx37(+/+) control mice. Deletion of Cx37 increased genes involved in collagen maturation (loxl3 and loxl4) and glycosaminoglycans- (chsy1, chpf and has3) proteoglycans- associated genes (biglycan and decorin). In addition, expression of type II collagen assessed by immunostaining was increased by 82% whereas collagen maturity by picrosirius-polarizarion tended to be reduced (p=0.071). Expression of glycosaminoglycans by histochemistry was decreased, whereas immunostaining revealed that biglycan was unchanged and decorin was slightly increased in Cx37(-/-) bone sections. Consistent with these in vivo findings, MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells silenced for Cx37 gene exhibited increased mRNA levels for collagen synthesis (col1a1 and col3a1) and collagen maturation (lox, loxl1 and loxl2 genes). Furthermore, mechanistic studies showed Wnt/β-catenin activation in MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells, L5 vertebra, and authentic calvaria-derived osteocytes isolated by fluorescent-activated cell sorter. Our findings demonstrate that altered profile of the bone matrix components in Cx37-deficient mice acts in favor of higher resistance to fracture in long bones.

  8. Wnt Proteins Induce Dishevelled Phosphorylation via an LRP5/6- Independent Mechanism, Irrespective of Their Ability To Stabilize β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    González-Sancho, José M.; Brennan, Keith R.; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie A.; Brown, Anthony M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Wnt glycoproteins play essential roles in the development of metazoan organisms. Many Wnt proteins, such as Wnt1, activate the well-conserved canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which results in accumulation of β-catenin in the cytosol and nucleus. Other Wnts, such as Wnt5a, activate signaling mechanisms which do not involve β-catenin and are less well characterized. Dishevelled (Dvl) is a key component of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and becomes phosphorylated upon activation of this pathway. In addition to Wnt1, we show that several Wnt proteins, including Wnt5a, trigger phosphorylation of mammalian Dvl proteins and that this occurs within 20 to 30 min. Unlike the effects of Wnt1, phosphorylation of Dvl in response to Wnt5a is not concomitant with β-catenin stabilization, indicating that Dvl phosphorylation is not sufficient to activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, neither Dickkopf1, which inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling by binding the Wnt coreceptors LRP5 and -6, nor dominant-negative LRP5/6 constructs could block Wnt-mediated Dvl phosphorylation. We conclude that Wnt-induced phosphorylation of Dvl is independent of LRP5/6 receptors and that canonical Wnts can elicit both LRP-dependent (to β-catenin) and LRP-independent (to Dvl) signals. Our data also present Dvl phosphorylation as a general biochemical assay for Wnt protein function, including those Wnts that do not activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:15143170

  9. Cdc42-Interacting Protein 4 Represses E-Cadherin Expression by Promoting β-Catenin Translocation to the Nucleus in Murine Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuou; Zhou, Qiaodan; Liu, Lili; Liu, Ping; Pei, Guangchang; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Xu, Gang

    2015-08-14

    Renal fibrosis is an inevitable outcome of end-stage chronic kidney disease. During this process, epithelial cells lose E-cadherin expression. β-Catenin may act as a mediator by accumulation and translocation to the nucleus. Studies have suggested that CIP4, a Cdc42 effector protein, is associated with β-catenin. However, whether CIP4 contributes to E-cadherin loss in epithelial cells by regulating β-catenin translocation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of CIP4 in β-catenin translocation. Expression of CIP4 was upregulated in renal tissues of 5/6 nephrectomized rats and mainly distributed in renal tubular epithelia. In TGF-β1-treated NRK-52E cells, upregulation of CIP4 expression was accompanied by reduced expression of E-cadherin. CIP4 overexpression promoted the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus, which was accompanied by reduced expression of E-cadherin even without TGF-β1 stimulation. In contrast, CIP4 depletion by using siRNA inhibited the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus and reversed the decrease in expression of E-cadherin. The interaction between CIP4 and β-catenin was detected. We also show that β-catenin depletion could restore the expression of E-cadherin that was suppressed by CIP4 overexpression. In conclusion, these results suggest that CIP4 overexpression represses E-cadherin expression by promoting β-catenin translocation to the nucleus.

  10. The structural basis of urea-induced protein unfolding in β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhongzhou; Hong, Xia; Ning, Fangkun; Liu, Haolin; Zang, Jianye; Yan, Xiaoxue; Kemp, Jennifer; Musselman, Catherine A.; Kutateladze, Tatinna G.; Zhao, Rui; Jiang, Chengyu; Zhang, Gongyi

    2014-01-01

    Although urea and guanidine hydrochloride are commonly used to denature proteins, the molecular underpinnings of this process have remained unclear for a century. To address this question, crystal structures of β-catenin were determined at various urea concentrations. These structures contained at least 105 unique positions that were occupied by urea molecules, each of which interacted with the protein primarily via hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen-bond competition experiments showed that the denaturing effects of urea were neutralized when polyethylene glycol was added to the solution. These data suggest that urea primarily causes proteins to unfold by competing and disrupting hydrogen bonds in proteins. Moreover, circular-dichroism spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed that a similar mechanism caused protein denaturation in the absence of urea at pH levels greater than 12. Taken together, the results led to the conclusion that the disruption of hydrogen bonds is a general mechanism of unfolding induced by urea, high pH and potentially other denaturing agents such as guanidine hydrochloride. Traditionally, the disruption of hydrophobic inter­actions instead of hydrogen bonds has been thought to be the most important cause of protein denaturation. PMID:25372676

  11. Notch1 promotes hepatitis B virus X protein-induced hepatocarcinogenesis via Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Wang, Ronghua; Luo, Jing; Wang, Peng; Xiong, Si; Liu, Man; Cheng, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via a network of signaling pathways. Notch pathway is a major member of the network. Notch signaling may generate opposing effect in different steps of carcinogenesis, depending on the tumor cell type and the status of other signaling pathways, such as Wnt signaling pathway. Our previous studies have shown that activated Notch1 signaling is required for HBx to promote proliferation and survival of human hepatic cell line L02. However, the exact mechanisms remain vague. Here, we used L02/HBx cell lines as a cell model to study the relationship between Notch and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in promoting proliferation. We observed that activated Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and L02 cell malignant transformation were induced by HBx. Inhibition of the Notch1 pathway decreased the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway and cell proliferation, while inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway impaired cell proliferation, but did not significantly affect Notch1 signaling pathway in L02/HBx cells. Furthermore, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway overcame the inhibition effect of knockdown Notch1 on proliferation and survival in L02/HBx cells. Additionally, the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling appears to be consistent with Fzd10 expression. Therefore, we demonstrate that Wnt signaling is downstream of the Notch pathway in regulating proliferation of L02/HBx cells, and which may be related to Fzd10 instead of Fzd7. These data suggest a new model of HBx-related HCC via cooperation between Wnt and Notch pathways.

  12. Ghrelin Increases Beta-Catenin Level through Protein Kinase A Activation and Regulates OPG Expression in Rat Primary Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Mrak, Emanuela; Casati, Lavinia; Pagani, Francesca; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Zarattini, Guido; Sibilia, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, by binding growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), promotes osteoblast proliferation but the signaling mechanism of GHS-R on these cells remains unclear. Since canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is critically associated with bone homeostasis, we investigated its involvement in mediating ghrelin effects in osteoblasts and in osteoblast-osteoclast cross talk. Ghrelin (10−10M) significantly increased β-catenin levels in rat osteoblasts (rOB). This stimulatory action on β-catenin involves a specific interaction with GHS-R1a, as it is prevented by the selective GHS-R1a antagonist, D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (10−7M). The effect of ghrelin on β-catenin involves the phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β via protein kinase A (PKA). Inhibition of PKA activity reduces the facilitatory action of ghrelin on β-catenin stabilization. Ghrelin treatment of rOB significantly increases the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which plays an important role in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis, and this effect is blocked by D-Lys3-GHRP-6. Furthermore, ghrelin reduced RANKL/OPG ratio thus contrasting osteoclastogenesis. Accordingly, conditioned media from rOB treated with ghrelin decreased the number of multinucleated TRAcP+ cells as compared with the conditioned media from untreated-control rOB. Our data suggest new roles for ghrelin in modulating bone homeostasis via a specific interaction with GHSR-1a in osteoblasts with subsequent enhancement of both β-catenin levels and OPG expression. PMID:25866509

  13. Mangiferin exerts antitumor activity in breast cancer cells by regulating matrix metalloproteinases, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and β-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongzhong; Huang, Jing; Yang, Bing; Xiang, Tingxiu; Yin, Xuedong; Peng, Weiyan; Cheng, Wei; Wan, Jingyuan; Luo, Fuling; Li, Hongyuan; Ren, Guosheng

    2013-10-01

    Although mangiferin which is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone has exhibited promising anticancer activities, the detailed molecular mechanism of mangiferin on cancers still remains enigmatic. In this study, the anticancer activity of mangiferin was evaluated in breast cancer cell line-based in vitro and in vivo models. We showed that mangiferin treatment resulted in decreased cell viability and suppression of metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that mangiferin induced decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and -9, and reversal of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, it was demonstrated that mangiferin significantly inhibited the activation of β-catenin pathway. Subsequent experiments showed that inhibiting β-catenin pathway might play a central role in mangiferin-induced anticancer activity through modulation of MMP-7 and -9, and EMT. Consistent with these findings in vitro, the antitumor potential was also verified in mangiferin-treated MDA-MB-231 xenograft mice where significantly decreased tumor volume, weight and proliferation, and increased apoptosis were obtained, with lower expression of MMP-7 and -9, vimentin and active β-catenin, and higher expression of E-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that mangiferin might be used as an effective chemopreventive agent against breast cancer. - Highlights: • Mangiferin inhibits growth and metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin down-regulates MMP-7 and -9 in breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin induces the reversal of EMT in metastatic breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin inhibits the activation of β-catenin pathway in breast cancer cells. • Inhibiting β-catenin is responsible for the antitumor activity of mangiferin.

  14. Steviol stabilizes polycystin 1 expression and promotes lysosomal degradation of CFTR and β-catenin proteins in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yuajit, Chaowalit; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Homvisasevongsa, Sureeporn; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2017-08-09

    Malfunction of polycystin 1 (PC1) is linked to abnormally high epithelial cell proliferation and fluid secretion, eventually leading to renal cyst development and declined renal function as found in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Currently, there is no effective therapy for ADPKD. Recent studies report PC1 regulates CFTR chloride channels and β-catenin levels in normal renal epithelial cells. Concurrently, our previous study found steviol retarded renal cyst enlargement in an in vitro and in an in vivo models by reducing CFTR expression and activity. Therefore, a potential relationship between steviol and PC1 is worthy of exploration. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of steviol on PC1, CFTR, and β-catenin levels in renal epithelial cells with defective PC1 biogenesis and expression (Prkcsh(-/-) cell) and postnatal Pkd1 homozygous cell (Pkd1(-/-) cells). Using western blot analysis, it was found that steviol treatment at 100μM for 24-48h substantially enhanced and stabilized PC1 C-terminal expression, while decreasing CFTR and β-catenin protein expression in both Prkcsh(-/-) and Pkd1(-/-) cells. In addition, steviol promoted LAMP2 expression, a lysosomal enzyme marker. Interestingly, hydroxychloroquine (a lysosome inhibitor) treatment abolished steviol's effect in reducing CFTR and β-catenin protein expression. Taken together, these findings suggest steviol slows cyst progression in cells and animal models of PKD, in part, by enhancing and stabilizing PC1 protein expression as well as by promoting lysosomal degradation of CFTR and β-catenin. Therefore, steviol may represent a promising compound for treatment of polycystic kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. C-FLIPL Modulated Wnt/β-Catenin Activation via Association with TIP49 Protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Heng-Yi; Zhang, Lin-Kai; Xu, Wen-Ling; Qiao, Yi-Ting; Zhu, Xu-Guo; Liu, Wan; Zheng, Qian-Qian; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2017-02-10

    Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) is a key inhibitory protein in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Recent studies showed that c-FLIPL could translocate into the nucleus and might be involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. The nuclear function of c-FLIPL was still unclear. Here we found a novel c-FLIPL-associated protein TIP49, which is a nuclear protein identified as a cofactor in the transcriptional regulation of β-catenin. They had co-localization in the nucleus and the DED domain of c-FLIPL was required for the association with TIP49. By performing ChIP experiments, C-FLIPL was detected in the ITF-2 locus and facilitated TIP49 accumulation in the formation of complexes at the T-cell-specific transcription factor site of human ITF-2 promoter. When TIP49 knockdown, c-FLIPL-driven Wnt activation, and cell proliferation were inhibited, suggesting that a role of nuclear c-FLIPL involved in modulation of the Wnt pathway was in a TIP49-dependent manner. Elevated expression of c-FLIPL and TIP49 that coincided in human lung cancers were analyzed in silico using the Oncomine database. Their high expressions were reconfirmed in six lung cancer cell lines and correlated with cell growth. The association of c-FLIPL and TIP49 provided an additional mechanism involved in c-FLIPL-mediated functions, including Wnt activation.

  16. Rhesus lymphocryptovirus latent membrane protein 2A activates {beta}-catenin signaling and inhibits differentiation in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Catherine A.; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2008-08-01

    Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV) is a {gamma}-herpesvirus closely related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The rhesus latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) is highly homologous to EBV LMP2A. EBV LMP2A activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and {beta}-catenin signaling pathways in epithelial cells and affects differentiation. In the present study, the biochemical and biological properties of rhesus LMP2A in epithelial cells were investigated. The expression of rhesus LMP2A in epithelial cells induced Akt activation, GSK3{beta} inactivation and accumulation of {beta}-catenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The nuclear translocation, but not accumulation of {beta}-catenin was dependent on Akt activation. Rhesus LMP2A also impaired epithelial cell differentiation; however, this process was not dependent upon Akt activation. A mutant rhesus LMP2A lacking six transmembrane domains functioned similarly to wild-type rhesus LMP2A indicating that the full number of transmembrane domains is not required for effects on {beta}-catenin or cell differentiation. These results underscore the similarity of LCV to EBV and the suitability of the macaque as an animal model for studying EBV pathogenesis.

  17. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Simona Roxana; Crăciun, Alexandra Mărioara

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors.

  18. A lignan induces lysosomal dependent degradation of FoxM1 protein to suppress β-catenin nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guang-zhi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Yu-ih; Han, Yeong Eun; Shin, Jung Sook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Young Hwa; Park, Tae Jun; Kim, Keun Il; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers. In this study, we isolated a lignan [(−)-(2R,3R)-1,4-O-diferuloylsecoisolariciresinol, DFS] from Alnus japonica (Betulaceae) and investigated its biological activity and mechanism of action on colon cancer. DFS reduced the viability of colon cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest. DFS also suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-catenin target gene expression through a reduction in FoxM1 protein. To assess the mechanism of the action of DFS, we investigated the effect of DFS on endogenous and exogenous FoxM1 protein degradation in colon cancer cells. DFS-induced FoxM1 protein degradation was suppressed by lysosomal inhibitors, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1, but not by knock-down of proteasomal proteins. The mechanism of DFS for FoxM1 degradation is lysosomal dependent, which was not reported before. Furthermore, we found that FoxM1 degradation was partially lysosomal-dependent under normal conditions. These observations indicate that DFS from A. japonica suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by reducing β-catenin nuclear translocation. DFS induces lysosomal-dependent FoxM1 protein degradation. This is the first report on the lysosomal degradation of FoxM1 by a small molecule. DFS may be useful in treating cancers that feature the elevated expression of FoxM1. PMID:28378765

  19. A lignan induces lysosomal dependent degradation of FoxM1 protein to suppress β-catenin nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Yu-Ih; Han, Yeong Eun; Shin, Jung Sook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Young Hwa; Park, Tae Jun; Kim, Keun Il; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2017-04-05

    Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers. In this study, we isolated a lignan [(-)-(2R,3R)-1,4-O-diferuloylsecoisolariciresinol, DFS] from Alnus japonica (Betulaceae) and investigated its biological activity and mechanism of action on colon cancer. DFS reduced the viability of colon cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest. DFS also suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-catenin target gene expression through a reduction in FoxM1 protein. To assess the mechanism of the action of DFS, we investigated the effect of DFS on endogenous and exogenous FoxM1 protein degradation in colon cancer cells. DFS-induced FoxM1 protein degradation was suppressed by lysosomal inhibitors, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1, but not by knock-down of proteasomal proteins. The mechanism of DFS for FoxM1 degradation is lysosomal dependent, which was not reported before. Furthermore, we found that FoxM1 degradation was partially lysosomal-dependent under normal conditions. These observations indicate that DFS from A. japonica suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by reducing β-catenin nuclear translocation. DFS induces lysosomal-dependent FoxM1 protein degradation. This is the first report on the lysosomal degradation of FoxM1 by a small molecule. DFS may be useful in treating cancers that feature the elevated expression of FoxM1.

  20. β-Catenin Directs Nuclear Factor-κB p65 Output via CREB-Binding Protein/p300 in Human Airway Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Tim; Eilers, Roos; Menzen, Mark; Halayko, Andrew; Gosens, Reinoud

    2017-01-01

    β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that apart from its role in proliferative and differentiation events, also acts upon inflammatory processes, mainly via interaction with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). However, there is still controversy as to whether β-catenin facilitates or represses NF-κB output. Insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between β-catenin and NF-κB have highlighted the cofactors CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 as important candidates. Here, we hypothesized that the interaction of β-catenin with CBP/p300 directs NF-κB output. Using human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, we found that β-catenin is essential in interleukin -1β (IL-1β)-mediated expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) by promoting nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. These effects were independent from WNT pathway activation or other factors that promote β-catenin signaling. In the nucleus, inhibition of either the CBP- or p300-β-catenin interaction could regulate NF-κB output, by enhancing (CBP inhibition) or inhibiting (p300 inhibition) IL-1β-induced expression of IL-6, respectively. Acetylation of p65 by p300 likely underlies these events, as inhibition of the p300-β-catenin interaction diminished levels of acetylated p65 at lysine 310, thereby reducing p65 transcriptional activity. In conclusion, β-catenin is a critical component of NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human ASM, affecting transcriptional output by interacting with the nuclear cofactors CBP and p300. Targeting β-catenin may be an alternative strategy to treat airway inflammation in patients with airway disease, such as asthma.

  1. Family-wide investigation of PDZ domain-mediated protein–protein interactions implicates β-catenin in maintaining the integrity of tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Taranjit S.; Karp, Ethan S.; Chan, Marina; Chang, Bryan H.; MacBeath, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Summary β-catenin is a multifunctional protein that plays a critical role in cell–cell contacts and signal transduction. β-catenin has previously been shown to interact with PDZ domain-containing proteins through its C-terminus. Using protein microarrays comprising 206 mouse PDZ domains, we identified 26 PDZ domain-mediated interactions with β-catenin and subsequently confirmed them both in vitro and in cellular lysates. Many of the newly discovered interactions involved proteins with annotated roles in the formation or maintenance of tight junctions. We found that four tight junction-associated PDZ proteins – Scrib, Magi-1, Pard3, and ZO-3 – co-localize with β-catenin at the plasma membrane in MDCK epithelial cells. Disrupting these interactions, either by RNAi, overexpression of isolated PDZ domains, or overexpression of the C-terminus of β-catenin, altered localization of the full-length proteins, weakened tight junctions, and decreased cellular adhesion. These results suggest a novel role for β-catenin as a scaffold to establish the location and function of tight junction-associated proteins. PMID:23790492

  2. Polyethylenimine-cationized beta-catenin protein transduction activates the Wnt canonical signaling pathway more effectively than cationic lipid-based transduction.

    PubMed

    Kitazoe, Midori; Futami, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Yamada, Hidenori; Maeda, Yoshitake

    2010-04-01

    The Wnt canonical signaling pathway is essential for the early development of eukaryotic organisms and plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis. Moreover, the Wnt canonical signaling pathway contributes to the self-renewal of mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here, we demonstrate artificial activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway by beta-catenin protein transduction. Constitutively active beta-catenin protein was introduced into human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells using a polyethylenimine (PEI) cationization method, or with the BioPORTER protein transduction reagent. We have previously shown that modification with PEI effectively causes proteins to be internalized by living mammalian cells. PEI-cationized, constitutively active beta-catenin protein was added to HEK-293 cells, and induction of several Wnt/beta-catenin target genes was detected by real-time PCR. However, using BioPORTER to introduce active beta-catenin did not activate the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. Introduction of eGFPNuc (enhanced green fluorescent protein variant containing a nuclear localization signal) into HEK-293 cells using the BioPORTER reagent caused significant cell death, as determined by propidium iodide staining. In contrast, the PEI-modified eGFPNuc did not impair survival of HEK-293 cells. These results indicate that the Wnt canonical signaling pathway could be successfully activated by transduction of PEI-cationized active beta-catenin, and the PEI-cationization method is an effective and safe technology for protein transduction into mammalian cells.

  3. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Sekiya, Manami; Hirata, Michiko; Ye, Mingjuan; Yamagishi, Azumi; Lee, Sang-Mi; Kang, Man-Jong; Hosoda, Akemi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Kim, Dong-Ho; Saeki, Shigeru

    2010-02-19

    Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. The {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3{beta} phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated {beta}-catenin. Nuclear {beta}-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the {beta}-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  4. Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering.

  5. Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering. PMID:26545748

  6. Nuclear matrix proteins in human colon cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Keesee, S K; Meneghini, M D; Szaro, R P; Wu, Y J

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer. Images PMID:8127905

  7. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, Gilad; Ziv, Tamar; Braten, Ori; Admon, Arie; Udasin, Ronald G.; Ciechanover, Aaron

    2016-06-17

    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems – at least partially – in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. -- Highlights: •Mitochondrial matrix contains ubiquitinated proteins. •Ubiquitination occurs most probably in the matrix. •Dma1p is a ubiquitin ligase present in mitochondrial preparations.

  8. p300/β-Catenin Interactions Regulate Adult Progenitor Cell Differentiation Downstream of WNT5a/Protein Kinase C (PKC)*

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Megan E.; Zhou, Beiyun; Solomon, Nicola; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Li, Changgong; Nguyen, Cu; Liu, Yixin; Pan, Jie-hong; Minoo, Parviz; Crandall, Edward D.; Brody, Steven L.; Kahn, Michael; Borok, Zea

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of stem/progenitor cell-progeny relationships is required for tissue homeostasis during normal turnover and repair. Wnt signaling is implicated in both maintenance and differentiation of adult stem/progenitor cells, yet how this pathway serves these dichotomous roles remains enigmatic. We previously proposed a model suggesting that specific interaction of β-catenin with either of the homologous Kat3 co-activators, p300 or CREB-binding protein, differentially regulates maintenance versus differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Limited knowledge of endogenous mechanisms driving differential β-catenin/co-activator interactions and their role in adult somatic stem/progenitor cell maintenance versus differentiation led us to explore this process in defined models of adult progenitor cell differentiation. We focused primarily on alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells, progenitors of distal lung epithelium, and identified a novel axis whereby WNT5a/protein kinase C (PKC) signaling regulates specific β-catenin/co-activator interactions to promote adult progenitor cell differentiation. p300/β-catenin but not CBP/β-catenin interaction increases as AT2 cells differentiate to a type I (AT1) cell-like phenotype. Additionally, p300 transcriptionally activates AT1 cell-specific gene Aqp-5. IQ-1, a specific inhibitor of p300/β-catenin interaction, prevents differentiation of not only primary AT2 cells, but also tracheal epithelial cells, and C2C12 myoblasts. p300 phosphorylation at Ser-89 enhances p300/β-catenin interaction, concurrent with alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. WNT5a, a traditionally non-canonical WNT ligand regulates Ser-89 phosphorylation and p300/β-catenin interactions in a PKC-dependent manner, likely involving PKCζ. These studies identify a novel intersection of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling in adult progenitor cell differentiation that has important implications for targeting β-catenin to modulate adult progenitor cell

  9. β catenin in health: A review

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Sharada; Swaminathan, Uma

    2015-01-01

    β catenin belongs to the armadillo family of proteins. It plays a crucial role in developmental and homeostatic processes. Wnts are a family of 19 secreted glycoproteins that transduce multiple signaling cascades, including the canonical Wnt/β catenin pathway, Wnt/Ca2+ pathway and the Wnt/polarity pathway. This is a review on β catenin, Wnt proteins and their secretion, the signaling pathway, the associated factors and the crucial role of β catenin in odontogenesis. PMID:26604501

  10. β-Catenin is involved in oleanolic acid-dependent promotion of proliferation in human hair matrix cells in an in vitro organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ben; Chen, Xianyan; Yi, Huan; Han, Le; Ji, Bin; Chen, Haiyan; Deng, Wenjia; Wan, Miaojian

    2017-09-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound which can be found in >1600 plants, has been shown to promote hair growth. To study the mechanisms of OA on hair growth, we investigated hair follicle (HF) growth on four different concentration OA using human hair follicle organ culture model. We found that HFs treated with 1 or 10μg/mL OA showed statistically enhanced elongation of the hair shaft and anagen-like stage. Moreover, higher positive rate of Ki-67, a matrix cellular marker of proliferation, was detected in the same groups treated with 1 or 10μg/mL than those treated with vehicle. We further demonstrated that β-catenin, a key Wnt signaling transducer, was highly expressed in the OA treated groups using immunofluorescence stain assay. These results suggest that OA may promote human hair growth by stimulating hair matrix cell proliferation through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, Gpr49, in human hepatocellular carcinomas with beta-catenin mutations.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Sakamoto, Michiie; Fujii, Gen; Tsuiji, Hitomi; Kenetaka, Kengo; Asaka, Masahiro; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2003-03-01

    To identify the genes responsible for carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we screened differentially expressed genes in several human HCC cell lines. Among these genes, Gpr49 was up-regulated in PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2. Gpr49 is a member of the glycoprotein hormone receptor subfamily, which includes the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). However, Gpr49 remains to be an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. By real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, overexpression (>3-fold increase compared with the corresponding noncancerous liver tissue) of Gpr49 mRNA was observed in 18 of 38 (47%) HCCs compared with corresponding noncancerous livers. Clinicopathologically, overexpression of Gpr49 was frequently observed in HCC with mutation in beta-catenin exon 3 (14 of 16 cases, 87.5%). Moreover, introduction of mutant beta-catenin into mouse hepatocytes in culture caused up-regulation of the Gpr49 mouse homologue. Therefore, Gpr49 is likely to be a target gene activated by Wnt-signaling in HCC. In conclusion, although much is still unknown, Gpr49 may be critically involved in the development of HCCs with beta-catenin mutations and has the potential to be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of HCC.

  12. Zinc suppresses stem cell properties of lung cancer cells through protein kinase C-mediated β-catenin degradation.

    PubMed

    Ninsontia, Chuanpit; Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee; Kiratipaiboon, Chayanin; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2017-04-01

    Highly tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) residing in most cancers are responsible for cancer progression and treatment failure. Zinc is an element regulator of several cell functions; however, its role in regulation of stem cell program in lung cancer has not been demonstrated. The present study reveals for the first time that zinc can suppress stem cell properties of lung cancer cells. Such findings were proved in different lung cancer cell lines (H460, H23, and H292) and it was found that CSC markers (CD133 and ALDH1A1), stem cell-associated transcription factors (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox-2), and the ability to form tumor spheroid were dramatically suppressed by zinc treatments. Zinc was found to activate protein kinase C-α (PKCα) that further phosphorylated and mediated β-catenin degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. Zinc was found to increase the β-catenin-ubiquitin complex, which can be inhibited by a specific PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I. Using specific reactive oxygen species detection and antioxidants, we have demonstrated that superoxide anions generated by zinc are a key upstream mechanism for PKCα activation leading to the subsequent suppression of stem cell features of lung cancer. Zinc increased cellular superoxide anions and the addition of superoxide anion scavenger prevented the activation of PKCα and β-catenin degradation. These findings indicate a novel role for zinc regulation in the PKCα/β-catenin pathway and explain an important mechanism for controlling of stem cell program in lung cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Curcumin Attenuates β-catenin Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells through Activation of Protein Kinase D1

    PubMed Central

    Sundram, Vasudha; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Ebeling, Mara; Jaggi, Meena

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting 1 in 6 males in the US. Understanding the molecular basis of prostate cancer progression can serve as a tool for early diagnosis and development of novel treatment strategies for this disease. Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) is a multifunctional kinase that is highly expressed in normal prostate. The decreased expression of PKD1 has been associated with the progression of prostate cancer. Therefore, synthetic or natural products that regulate this signaling pathway can serve as novel therapeutic modalities for prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has shown anti-cancer properties via modulation of a number of different molecular pathways. Herein, we have demonstrated that curcumin activates PKD1, resulting in changes in β-catenin signaling by inhibiting nuclear β-catenin transcription activity and enhancing the levels of membrane β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. Modulation of these cellular events by curcumin correlated with decreased cell proliferation, colony formation and cell motility and enhanced cell-cell aggregation in prostate cancer cells. In addition, we have also revealed that inhibition of cell motility by curcumin is mediated by decreasing the levels of active cofilin, a downstream target of PKD1. The potent anti-cancer effects of curcumin in vitro were also reflected in a prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. The in vivo inhibition of tumor growth also correlated with enhanced membrane localization of β-catenin. Overall, our findings herein have revealed a novel molecular mechanism of curcumin action via the activation of PKD1 in prostate cancer cells. PMID:22523587

  14. Chronic Oxidative Stress Causes Amplification and Overexpression of ptprz1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase to Activate β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shang, Donghao; Akatsuka, Shinya; Ohara, Hiroki; Dutta, Khokon Kumar; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Abe, Kouichiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative renal tubular damage via Fenton-reaction, which subsequently leads to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rodents. Here, we used gene expression microarray and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses to find target oncogenes in this model. At the common chromosomal region of amplification (4q22) in rat RCCs, we found ptprz1, a tyrosine phosphatase (also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase ζ or receptor tyrosine phosphatase β) highly expressed in the RCCs. Analyses revealed genomic amplification up to eightfold. Despite scarcity in the control kidney, the amounts of PTPRZ1 were increased in the kidney after 3 weeks of oxidative stress, and mRNA levels were increased 16∼552-fold in the RCCs. Network analysis of the expression revealed the involvement of the β-catenin pathway in the RCCs. In the RCCs, dephosphorylated β-catenin was translocated to nuclei, resulting in the expression of its target genes cyclin D1, c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and CD44. Furthermore, knockdown of ptprz1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), in FRCC-001 and FRCC-562 cell lines established from the induced RCCs, decreased the amounts of nuclear β-catenin and suppressed cellular proliferation concomitant with a decrease in the expression of target genes. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress can induce genomic amplification of ptprz1, activating β-catenin pathways without the involvement of Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis. Thus, iron-mediated persistent oxidative stress confers an environment for gene amplification. PMID:18055543

  15. Chronic oxidative stress causes amplification and overexpression of ptprz1 protein tyrosine phosphatase to activate beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shang, Donghao; Akatsuka, Shinya; Ohara, Hiroki; Dutta, Khokon Kumar; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Abe, Kouichiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2007-12-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative renal tubular damage via Fenton-reaction, which subsequently leads to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rodents. Here, we used gene expression microarray and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses to find target oncogenes in this model. At the common chromosomal region of amplification (4q22) in rat RCCs, we found ptprz1, a tyrosine phosphatase (also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta or receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta) highly expressed in the RCCs. Analyses revealed genomic amplification up to eightfold. Despite scarcity in the control kidney, the amounts of PTPRZ1 were increased in the kidney after 3 weeks of oxidative stress, and mRNA levels were increased 16 approximately 552-fold in the RCCs. Network analysis of the expression revealed the involvement of the beta-catenin pathway in the RCCs. In the RCCs, dephosphorylated beta-catenin was translocated to nuclei, resulting in the expression of its target genes cyclin D1, c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and CD44. Furthermore, knockdown of ptprz1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), in FRCC-001 and FRCC-562 cell lines established from the induced RCCs, decreased the amounts of nuclear beta-catenin and suppressed cellular proliferation concomitant with a decrease in the expression of target genes. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress can induce genomic amplification of ptprz1, activating beta-catenin pathways without the involvement of Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis. Thus, iron-mediated persistent oxidative stress confers an environment for gene amplification.

  16. The A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Interaction Protein (GSKIP) Regulates β-Catenin through Its Interactions with Both Protein Kinase A (PKA) and GSK3β.

    PubMed

    Dema, Alessandro; Schröter, Micha Friedemann; Perets, Ekaterina; Skroblin, Philipp; Moutty, Marie Christine; Deàk, Veronika Anita; Birchmeier, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2016-09-09

    The A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) GSK3β interaction protein (GSKIP) is a cytosolic scaffolding protein binding protein kinase A (PKA) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Here we show that both the AKAP function of GSKIP, i.e. its direct interaction with PKA, and its direct interaction with GSK3β are required for the regulation of β-catenin and thus Wnt signaling. A cytoplasmic destruction complex targets β-catenin for degradation and thus prevents Wnt signaling. Wnt signals cause β-catenin accumulation and translocation into the nucleus, where it induces Wnt target gene expression. GSKIP facilitates control of the β-catenin stabilizing phosphorylation at Ser-675 by PKA. Its interaction with GSK3β facilitates control of the destabilizing phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser-33/Ser-37/Thr-41. The influence of GSKIP on β-catenin is explained by its scavenger function; it recruits the kinases away from the destruction complex without forming a complex with β-catenin. The regulation of β-catenin by GSKIP is specific for this AKAP as AKAP220, which also binds PKA and GSK3β, did not affect Wnt signaling. We find that the binding domain of AKAP220 for GSK3β is a conserved GSK3β interaction domain (GID), which is also present in GSKIP. Our findings highlight an essential compartmentalization of both PKA and GSK3β by GSKIP, and ascribe a function to a cytosolic AKAP-PKA interaction as a regulatory factor in the control of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt signaling controls different biological processes, including embryonic development, cell cycle progression, glycogen metabolism, and immune regulation; deregulation is associated with diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  17. The levels of epithelial anchor proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 are altered by E7 of human papillomaviruses 5 and 8.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Sandra; Hufbauer, Martin; Marx, Benjamin; Tok, Ali; Majewski, Slawomir; Pfister, Herbert; Akgül, Baki

    2016-02-01

    Infection with viruses of the genus Betapapillomavirus, β-human papillomaviruses (β-HPV), is implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. This was first evidenced for HPV5 and HPV8 in patients with the skin disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). The relocalization of the junctional bridging proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) from the adherens and tight junctions are common processes of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with tumour invasion. Here, we report that β-catenin and ZO-1 are strongly upregulated by the E7 oncoproteins of HPV5 and HPV8 in keratinocytes grown in organotypic skin cultures. Although the membrane-tethered form of β-catenin was elevated, no signs of β-catenin activity within the canonical Wnt signalling pathway could be detected. The upregulation of β-catenin and ZO-1 could also be confirmed in the skin of HPV8 transgenic mice as well as in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of EV patients. These data provide the first evidence that β-catenin and ZO-1 are direct targets of E7 of the oncogenic β-HPV types 5 and 8. The ability to deregulate these epithelial junction proteins may contribute to the oncogenic potential of these viruses in human skin.

  18. αT-Catenin Is a Constitutive Actin-binding α-Catenin That Directly Couples the Cadherin·Catenin Complex to Actin Filaments*

    PubMed Central

    Wickline, Emily D.; Dale, Ian W.; Merkel, Chelsea D.; Heier, Jonathon A.; Stolz, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    α-Catenin is the primary link between the cadherin·catenin complex and the actin cytoskeleton. Mammalian αE-catenin is allosterically regulated: the monomer binds the β-catenin·cadherin complex, whereas the homodimer does not bind β-catenin but interacts with F-actin. As part of the cadherin·catenin complex, αE-catenin requires force to bind F-actin strongly. It is not known whether these properties are conserved across the mammalian α-catenin family. Here we show that αT (testes)-catenin, a protein unique to amniotes that is expressed predominantly in the heart, is a constitutive actin-binding α-catenin. We demonstrate that αT-catenin is primarily a monomer in solution and that αT-catenin monomer binds F-actin in cosedimentation assays as strongly as αE-catenin homodimer. The β-catenin·αT-catenin heterocomplex also binds F-actin with high affinity unlike the β-catenin·αE-catenin complex, indicating that αT-catenin can directly link the cadherin·catenin complex to the actin cytoskeleton. Finally, we show that a mutation in αT-catenin linked to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, V94D, promotes homodimerization, blocks β-catenin binding, and in cardiomyocytes disrupts localization at cell-cell contacts. Together, our data demonstrate that αT-catenin is a constitutively active actin-binding protein that can physically couple the cadherin·catenin complex to F-actin in the absence of tension. We speculate that these properties are optimized to meet the demands of cardiomyocyte adhesion. PMID:27231342

  19. Regulation of breast cancer-induced bone lesions by β-catenin protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Shi, Heidi Y; Stock, Stuart R; Stern, Paula H; Zhang, Ming

    2011-12-09

    Breast cancer patients have an extremely high rate of bone metastases. Morphological analyses of the bones in most of the patients have revealed the mixed bone lesions, comprising both osteolytic and osteoblastic elements. β-Catenin plays a key role in both embryonic skeletogenesis and postnatal bone regeneration. Although this pathway is also involved in many bone malignancy, such as osteosarcoma and prostate cancer-induced bone metastases, its regulation of breast cancer bone metastases remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the β-catenin signaling pathway has a significant impact on the bone lesion phenotype. In this study, we established a novel mouse model of mixed bone lesions using intratibial injection of TM40D-MB cells, a breast cancer cell line that is highly metastatic to bone. We found that both upstream and downstream molecules of the β-catenin pathway are up-regulated in TM40D-MB cells compared with non-bone metastatic TM40D cells. TM40D-MB cells also have a higher T cell factor (TCF) reporter activity than TM40D cells. Inactivation of β-catenin in TM40D-MB cells through expression of a dominant negative TCF4 not only increases osteoclast differentiation in a tumor-bone co-culture system and enhances osteolytic bone destruction in mice, but also inhibits osteoblast differentiation. Surprisingly, although tumor cells overexpressing β-catenin did induce a slight increase of osteoblast differentiation in vitro, these cells display a minimal effect on osteoblastic bone formation in mice. These data collectively demonstrate that β-catenin acts as an important determinant in mixed bone lesions, especially in controlling osteoblastic effect within tumor-harboring bone environment.

  20. Regulation of Breast Cancer-induced Bone Lesions by β-Catenin Protein Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Shi, Heidi Y.; Stock, Stuart R.; Stern, Paula H.; Zhang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer patients have an extremely high rate of bone metastases. Morphological analyses of the bones in most of the patients have revealed the mixed bone lesions, comprising both osteolytic and osteoblastic elements. β-Catenin plays a key role in both embryonic skeletogenesis and postnatal bone regeneration. Although this pathway is also involved in many bone malignancy, such as osteosarcoma and prostate cancer-induced bone metastases, its regulation of breast cancer bone metastases remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the β-catenin signaling pathway has a significant impact on the bone lesion phenotype. In this study, we established a novel mouse model of mixed bone lesions using intratibial injection of TM40D-MB cells, a breast cancer cell line that is highly metastatic to bone. We found that both upstream and downstream molecules of the β-catenin pathway are up-regulated in TM40D-MB cells compared with non-bone metastatic TM40D cells. TM40D-MB cells also have a higher T cell factor (TCF) reporter activity than TM40D cells. Inactivation of β-catenin in TM40D-MB cells through expression of a dominant negative TCF4 not only increases osteoclast differentiation in a tumor-bone co-culture system and enhances osteolytic bone destruction in mice, but also inhibits osteoblast differentiation. Surprisingly, although tumor cells overexpressing β-catenin did induce a slight increase of osteoblast differentiation in vitro, these cells display a minimal effect on osteoblastic bone formation in mice. These data collectively demonstrate that β-catenin acts as an important determinant in mixed bone lesions, especially in controlling osteoblastic effect within tumor-harboring bone environment. PMID:22009747

  1. Convergence of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate/protein kinase A and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta/beta-catenin signaling in corpus luteum progesterone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Lynn; McDonald, Claudia A; Jiang, Chao; Maroni, Dulce; Zeleznik, Anthony J; Wyatt, Todd A; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S

    2009-11-01

    Progesterone secretion by the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum (CL) is essential for reproduction. Progesterone synthesis is under the control of LH, but the exact mechanism of this regulation is unknown. It is established that LH stimulates the LH receptor/choriogonadotropin receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, to increase cAMP and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cAMP/PKA-dependent regulation of the Wnt pathway components glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and beta-catenin contributes to LH-dependent steroidogenesis in luteal cells. We observed that LH via a cAMP/PKA-dependent mechanism stimulated the phosphorylation of GSK3beta at N-terminal Ser9 causing its inactivation and resulted in the accumulation of beta-catenin. Overexpression of N-terminal truncated beta-catenin (Delta90 beta-catenin), which lacks the phosphorylation sites responsible for its destruction, significantly augmented LH-stimulated progesterone secretion. In contrast, overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of GSK3beta (GSK-S9A) reduced beta-catenin levels and inhibited LH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the association of beta-catenin with the proximal promoter of the StAR gene, a gene that expresses the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, which is a cholesterol transport protein that controls a rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. Collectively these data suggest that cAMP/PKA regulation of GSK3beta/beta-catenin signaling may contribute to the acute increase in progesterone production in response to LH.

  2. Microenvironment influence on human colon adenocarcinoma phenotypes and matrix metalloproteinase-2, p53 and β-catenin tumor expressions from identical monoclonal cell tumor in the orthotopic model in athymic nude rats.

    PubMed

    Priolli, Denise Gonçalves; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Neves, Silvia; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Lopes, Camila Oliveira; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Cardinalli, Izilda Aparecida; Ribeiro, Ana Bela Sarmento; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to identify differences between left and right colon adenocarcinoma arising from identical clonal cell and to find out if microenvironment has any influence on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), p53 and β-catenin tumor expressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Rats (RNU) were submitted to cecostomy to obtain the orthotopic model of right colon tumor (n = 10), while for the left colon model (n = 10), a colon diversion and distal mucous fistula in the descending colon was used. Cultivated human colon adenocarcinoma cells (WiDr) were inoculated in stomas submucosa. Histopathological analysis, real-time reverse transcription-PCR for β-catenin, p53 and MMP2, as well as immunohistochemical analysis for p53 and β-catenin expression were conducted. Central tendency, variance analysis and the Livak delta-delta-CT method were used for statistical analysis, adopting a 5% significance level. RESULTS. All tumors from the left colon exhibited infiltrative ulceration, while in the right colon tumor growth was predominantly exophytic (67%). In the left colon, tumor growth was undifferentiated (100%), while it was moderately differentiated in the right colon (83%). In right colon tumors, MMP2, p53, and β-catenin gene expressions were higher than compared to left colon (p = 4.59354E-05, p = 0.0035179, p = 0.00093798, respectively, for MMP2, p53 and β-catenin). β-catenin and p53 results obtained by real-time polymerase chain reaction were confirmed by immunohistochemistry assay (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively, for β-catenin and p53). CONCLUSION. Left and right human colon adenocarcinomas developed in animal models have distinct phenotypes even when they have the same clonal origin. Microenvironment has influenced p53, β-catenin, and MMP2 expression in animal models of colon cancer.

  3. IKK and (Beta) - Catenin in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    activity is not due to a decrease in total beta-catenin protein levels, however, the dephosphorylated form of beta-catenin within the nucleus...2000. 19. Staal F J, Noort MM, Strous G J, and Clevers HC, Wnt signals are transmitted through N-terminally dephosphorylated beta-catenin. EMBO Rep. 3...catenin is phoshorylated sequentially by casein kinase 1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-P (GSK-313) (4,52); activation of frizzled receptors by Wnt

  4. {beta}-Catenin/LEF1 activated enamelin expression in ameloblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hua; Lv, Ping; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Xuejun

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} {beta}-Catenin/LEF1 complex could activate enamelin gene transcription. {yields} {beta}-Catenin/LEF1 can directly bind to enamelin 5' regulatory region. {yields} Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling can upregulate enamelin expression in ameloblast-like cells. -- Abstract: Enamelin is an ameloblast-specific matrix protein believed to play essential roles in enamel formation. However, mechanisms of enamelin transcription regulation are not clear. {beta}-Catenin/LEF1 is a key transcriptional complex involved in tooth development. In this study, the role of {beta}-catenin/LEF1 in enamelin expression was investigated. The 5'-flanking region of the mouse enamelin gene was analyzed and cloned. Co-transfection analysis and mutation assays revealed that two conserved LEF1 responsive elements located at -1002 and -597 bp upstream of the enamelin translation initiation site could augment transcriptional activity of the enamelin. The interaction between the enamelin elements and {beta}-catenin/LEF1 was further confirmed by electrophoresis mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, LiCl treatment induced nuclear translocation of {beta}-catenin and elevated endogenous enamelin expression in mouse ameloblast-like cells. The results suggested that Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling could function in enamelin gene expression by direct interaction through two conserved LEF1 responsive elements on the enamelin gene in ameloblast-like cells.

  5. Localization of peroxisomal matrix proteins by photobleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Buch, Charlotta; Hunt, Mary C.; Alexson, Stefan E.H.; Hallberg, Einar

    2009-10-16

    The distribution of some enzymes between peroxisomes and cytosol, or a dual localization in both these compartments, can be difficult to reconcile. We have used photobleaching in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins to show that imported bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins are retained in the peroxisome. The high mobility of the GFP-fusion proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal escape makes it possible to eliminate the cytosolic fluorescence by photobleaching, to distinguish between exclusively cytosolic proteins and proteins that are also present at low levels in peroxisomes. Using this technique we found that GFP tagged bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) was exclusively localized in the cytosol in HeLa cells. We conclude that the cytosolic localization was due to its carboxyterminal non-consensus peroxisomal targeting signal (-SQL) since mutation of the -SQL to -SKL resulted in BAAT being efficiently imported into peroxisomes.

  6. Regulation of Ribosomal S6 Protein Kinase-p90rsk, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3, and β-Catenin in Early Xenopus Development

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Monica A.; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Krebs, Edwin G.; Moon, Randall T.

    1999-01-01

    β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that binds cadherins at the plasma membrane, HMG box transcription factors in the nucleus, and several cytoplasmic proteins that are involved in regulating its stability. In developing embryos and in some human cancers, the accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and subsequently the nuclei of cells may be regulated by the Wnt-1 signaling cascade and by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). This has increased interest in regulators of both GSK-3 and β-catenin. Searching for kinase activities able to phosphorylate the conserved, inhibitory-regulatory GSK-3 residue serine 9, we found p90rsk to be a potential upstream regulator of GSK-3. Overexpression of p90rsk in Xenopus embryos leads to increased steady-state levels of total β-catenin but not of the free soluble protein. Instead, p90rsk overexpression increases the levels of β-catenin in a cell fraction containing membrane-associated cadherins. Consistent with the lack of elevation of free β-catenin levels, ectopic p90rsk was unable to rescue dorsal cell fate in embryos ventralized by UV irradiation. We show that p90rsk is a downstream target of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during early Xenopus development, since ectopic FGF signaling activates both endogenous and overexpressed p90rsk. Moreover, overexpression of a dominant negative FGF receptor, which blocks endogenous FGF signaling, leads to decreased p90rsk kinase activity. Finally, we report that FGF inhibits endogenous GSK-3 activity in Xenopus embryos. We hypothesize that FGF and p90rsk play heretofore unsuspected roles in modulating GSK-3 and β-catenin. PMID:9891076

  7. Potential Role for a β-Catenin Coactivator (High-Mobility Group AT-Hook 1 Protein) during the Latency-Reactivation Cycle of Bovine Herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqian; Workman, Aspen; Jones, Clinton

    2017-03-01

    The latency-related (LR) RNA encoded by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is abundantly expressed in latently infected sensory neurons. Although the LR gene encodes several products, ORF2 appears to mediate important steps during the latency-reactivation cycle because a mutant virus containing stop codons at the amino terminus of ORF2 does not reactivate from latency in calves. We recently found that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is regulated during the BoHV-1 latency-reactivation cycle (Y. Liu, M. Hancock, A. Workman, A. Doster, and C. Jones, J Virol 90:3148-3159, 2016). In the present study, a β-catenin coactivator, high-mobility group AT-hook 1 protein (HMGA1), was detected in significantly more neurons in the trigeminal ganglia of latently infected calves than in those of uninfected calves. Consequently, we hypothesized that HMGA1 cooperates with ORF2 and β-catenin to maintain latency. In support of this hypothesis, coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that ORF2 stably interacts with a complex containing β-catenin and/or HMGA1 in transfected mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2A) cells. Confocal microscopy provided evidence that ORF2 was relocalized by HMGA1 and β-catenin in Neuro-2A cells. ORF2 consistently enhanced the ability of HMGA1 to stimulate β-catenin-dependent transcription, suggesting that interactions between ORF2 and a complex containing β-catenin and HMGA1 have functional significance. An ORF2 stop codon mutant, an ORF2 nuclear localization mutant, or a mutant lacking the 5 protein kinase A or C phosphorylation sites interfered with its ability to stimulate β-catenin-dependent transcription. Since the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway promotes neurogenesis (synapse formation and remodeling) and inhibits neurodegeneration, interactions between ORF2, HMGA1, and β-catenin may be important for certain aspects of the latency-reactivation cycle.IMPORTANCE The lifelong latency of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) requires that significant

  8. β-Catenin Serves as a Clutch between Low and High Intercellular E-Cadherin Bond Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Saumendra; Feng, Yunfeng; Wirtz, Denis; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of invasive pathological outcomes originate from the loss of epithelial phenotype and involve either loss of function or downregulation of transmembrane adhesive receptor complexes, including Ecadherin (Ecad) and binding partners β-catenin and α-catenin at adherens junctions. Cellular pathways regulating wild-type β-catenin level, or direct mutations in β-catenin that affect the turnover of the protein have been shown to contribute to cancer development, through induction of uncontrolled proliferation of transformed tumor cells, particularly in colon cancer. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we show that depletion of β-catenin or the prominent cancer-related S45 deletion mutation in β-catenin present in human colon cancers both weaken tumor intercellular Ecad/Ecad bond strength and diminishes the capacity of specific extracellular matrix proteins—including collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin V—to modulate intercellular Ecad/Ecad bond strength through α-catenin and the kinase activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3β). Thus, in addition to regulating tumor cell proliferation, cancer-related mutations in β-catenin can influence tumor progression by weakening the adhesion of tumor cells to one another through reduced individual Ecad/Ecad bond strength and cellular adhesion to specific components of the extracellular matrix and the basement membrane. PMID:24268141

  9. Silymarin Targets β-Catenin Signaling in Blocking Migration/Invasion of Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Sun, Qian; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a leading cause of death from skin diseases, and is often associated with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We have examined the inhibitory effect of silymarin, a plant flavanoid from Silybum marianum, on cell migration of metastasis-specific human melanoma cell lines (A375 and Hs294t) and assessed whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is the target of silymarin. Using an in vitro invasion assay, we found that treatment of human melanoma cell lines with silymarin resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin, while reducing the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin (i.e., β-catenin inactivation) and reducing the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and MMP-9 which are the down-stream targets of β-catenin. Silymarin enhanced: (i) the levels of casein kinase 1α, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and phosphorylated-β-catenin on critical residues Ser45, Ser33/37 and Thr41, and (ii) the binding of β-transducin repeat-containing proteins (β-TrCP) with phospho forms of β-catenin in melanoma cells. These events play important roles in degradation or inactivation of β-catenin. To verify whether β-catenin is a potent molecular target of silymarin, the effect of silymarin was determined on β-catenin-activated (Mel 1241) and β-catenin-inactivated (Mel 1011) melanoma cells. Treatment of Mel 1241 cells with silymarin or FH535, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, significantly inhibited cell migration of Mel 1241 cells, which was associated with the elevated levels of casein kinase 1α and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and decreased accumulation of nuclear β-catenin and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. However, this effect of silymarin and FH535 was not found in Mel 1011 melanoma cells. These results indicate for the first time that silymarin inhibits melanoma cell migration by targeting β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:21829575

  10. All Trans-Retinoic Acid Mediates MED28/HMG Box-Containing Protein 1 (HBP1)/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Hsieh, Nien-Tsu; Huang, Chun-Yin; Li, Chun-I

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin A is required for normal body function, including vision, epithelial integrity, growth, and differentiation. All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a family member of vitamin A, has been explored in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and other types of cancer. Dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and disrupted cadherin-catenin complex often contribute to colorectal malignancy. MED28, a mammalian Mediator subunit, is found highly expressed in breast and colorectal cancers. Our laboratory has also reported that MED28 regulates cell growth, migration, and invasion in human breast cancer cells. In the current study we investigated the effect of ATRA on MED28 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer. HCT116, HT29, SW480, and SW620, four human colorectal cancer cell lines representing different stages of carcinogenesis and harboring critical genetic changes, were employed. Our data indicated that regardless of genetic variations among these cells, suppression of MED28 reduced the expression of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and nuclear β-catenin, but increased the expression of E-cadherin and HMG box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) where HBP1 has been described as a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The reporter activity of an HBP1 promoter increased upon MED28 knockdown, but decreased upon MED28 overexpression. ATRA reduced the expression of MED28 and mimicked the effect of MED28 suppression in down-regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, ATRA can reverse the suppressive effect of MED28 on HBP1 and E-cadherin and inactivate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer, suggesting a protective effect of ATRA against colorectal cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1796-1803, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Host interactions of Chandipura virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Kumar, Kapila; Rana, Jyoti; Gupta, Amita; Chaudhary, Vijay K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    The rhabdovirus matrix (M) protein is a multifunctional virion protein that plays major role in virus assembly and budding, virus-induced inhibition of host gene expression and cytopathic effects observed in infected cells. The myriad roles played by this protein in the virus biology make it a critical player in viral pathogenesis. Therefore, discerning the interactions of this protein with host can greatly facilitate our understanding of virus infections, ultimately leading to both improved therapeutics and insight into cellular processes. Chandipura virus (CHPV; Family Rhabdoviridae, Genus Vesiculovirus) is an emerging rhabdovirus responsible for several outbreaks of fatal encephalitis among children in India. The present study aims to screen the human fetal brain cDNA library for interactors of CHPV M protein using yeast two-hybrid system. Ten host protein interactors were identified, three of which were further validated by affinity pull down and protein interaction ELISA. The study identified novel human host interactors for CHPV which concurred with previously described associations in other human viruses.

  12. Regulation of beta catenin signaling and parathyroid hormone anabolic effects in bone by the matricellular protein periostin.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Conway, Simon J; Ferrari, Serge L

    2012-09-11

    Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein preferentially expressed by osteocytes and periosteal osteoblasts in response to mechanical stimulation and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Whether and how periostin expression influences bone anabolism, however, remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of adult Postn(-/-) and Postn(+/+) mice to intermittent PTH. Compared with Postn(+/+), Postn(-/-) mice had a lower bone mass, cortical bone volume, and strength response to PTH. PTH-stimulated bone-forming indices were all significantly lower in Postn(-/-) mice, particularly at the periosteum. Furthermore, in vivo stimulation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling by PTH, as evaluated in TOPGAL reporter mice, was inhibited in the absence of periostin (TOPGAL;Postn(-/-) mice). PTH stimulated periostin and inhibited MEF2C and sclerostin (Sost) expression in bone and osteoblasts in vitro. Recombinant periostin also suppressed Sost expression, which was mediated through the integrin αVβ3 receptor, whereas periostin-blocking antibody prevented inhibition of MEF2C and Sost by PTH. In turn, administration of a Sost-blocking antiboby partially restored the PTH-mediated increase in bone mass in Postn(-/-) mice. In addition, primary osteoblasts from Postn(-/-) mice showed a lower proliferation, mineralization, and migration, both spontaneously and in response to PTH. Osteoblastic gene expression levels confirmed a defect of Postn(-/-) osteoblast differentiation with and without PTH, as well as an increased osteoblast apoptosis in the absence of periostin. These data elucidate the complex role of periostin on bone anabolism, through the regulation of Sost, Wnt-β-catenin signaling, and osteoblast differentiation.

  13. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease is induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 via a mechanism involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Rong, Shu; Zhao, Xuezhi; Jin, Xiucai; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Yuxian; Yuan, Weijie

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC), in which vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo a phenotypic transformation into osteoblast-like cells, is one of the emergent risk factors for the accelerated atherosclerosis process characteristic of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Phosphate is an important regulator of VC. The expression of different smooth muscle cell or osteogenesis markers in response to high concentrations of phosphate or exogenous bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting in rat VSMCs. Osteocalcin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay. Differentiation and calcification of VSMCs were examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and Alizarin staining. Short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of β-catenin was performed to examine the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in VSMC calcification and osteoblastic differentiation induced by high phosphate or BMP-2. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay and immunofluorescence imaging. BMP-2 serum levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than in controls. High phosphate concentrations and BMP-2 induced VSMC apoptosis and upregulated the expression of β-catenin, Msx2, Runx2 and the phosphate cotransporter Pit1, whereas a BMP-2 neutralization antibody reversed these effects. Knockdown of β-catenin abolished the effect of high phosphate and BMP-2 on VSMC apoptosis and calcification. BMP-2 plays a crucial role in calcium deposition in VSMCs and VC in CKD patients via a mechanism involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  14. Isolation and nucleotide sequence analysis of the of Rhinella arenarum β-catenin: an mRNA and protein expression study during the larval stages of the digestive tract development.

    PubMed

    Galetto, C D; Izaguirre, M F; Bessone, V; Casco, V H

    2012-12-15

    β-catenin interacts with several proteins mediating key biological processes, such as cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion as well as signal transduction. This work was done to establish the molecular basis and regulation of the formation pattern of cadherin/β-catenin-mediated adherens junctions, using an animal model of unknown gene sequence, the toad Rhinella arenarum. A Rhinella arenarum β-catenin homolog was isolated from larval tissue, their sequence compared and analyzed with those of eight other vertebrates using bioinformatics tools. The mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin were determined during the development of Rhinella arenarum digestive tract both by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry-morphometry respectively. Using Xenopus laevis frog specific primers, a fragment 539 bp of Rhinella arenarum toad β-catenin cDNA was obtained and sequenced. The resulting putative sequence of 177 amino acids showed high similarity at the amino acid level (97%) when compared to other six vertebrates (Xenopus laevis, Xenopus tropicalis, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus and Homo sapiens), with sequences and structural domains characteristic of catenins. Subsequently, using primers specifically designed for Rhinella arenarum nucleotide sequence, β-catenin-mRNA increasing levels were found during the Rhinella arenarum metamorphosis. Finally, increasing β-catenin protein expression during development has confirmed the specificity the detection of Rhinella arenarum β-catenin. Summarizing, we have isolated and sequenced a β-catenin-homologue sequence from the Rhinella arenarum toad, which is highly conserved between species, and following we have detected β-catenin mRNA and protein levels during their digestive tract development.

  15. Dietary supplementation of lutein reduces colon carcinogenesis in DMH-treated rats by modulating K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin proteins.

    PubMed

    Reynoso-Camacho, R; González-Jasso, E; Ferriz-Martínez, R; Villalón-Corona, B; Loarca-Piña, G F; Salgado, L M; Ramos-Gomez, M

    2011-01-01

    In colon cancer, disturbances have been detected in genes coding for proteins involved in cellular proliferation, such as K-ras, β-catenin, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and the protein kinase B (PKB). Although carotenoids such as lutein have an important role to prevent and treat some types of cancer, there are very few studies about the effect of lutein against colon cancer and its activity at the molecular level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective activity of lutein against colon cancer induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The results showed a significant increase in protein expression for K-ras and β-catenin in tumors of DMH-treated rats. Simultaneously, we detected changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK1/2 and PKB in DMH-treated animals. Lutein given in the diet (0.002%), before (prevention) and after (treatment) DMH administration, diminished the number of tumors by 55% and 32%, respectively. Moreover, lutein significantly decreased in tumors the expression of K-ras (25%) and β-catenin (28%) and the amount of pPKB (32%), during the prevention, and 39%, 26%, and 26% during the treatment stage, respectively. This study demonstrates the chemoprotective effect of lutein against colon cancer by modulating the proliferative activity of K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin proteins.

  16. Green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces toxicity in human skin cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Tripti; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2013-12-01

    The green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects in several skin tumor models, and efforts are continued to investigate the molecular targets responsible for its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. Our recent observation that β-catenin is upregulated in skin tumors suggested the possibility that the anti-skin carcinogenic effects of EGCG are mediated, at least in part, through its effects on β-catenin signaling. We have found that treatment of the A431 and SCC13 human skin cancer cell lines with EGCG resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death and that these cytotoxic effects were associated with inactivation of β-catenin signaling. Evidence of EGCG-induced inactivation of β-catenin included: (i) reduced accumulation of nuclear β-catenin; (ii) enhanced levels of casein kinase1α, reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and increased phosphorylation of β-catenin on critical serine{sup 45,33/37} residues; and (iii) reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which are down-stream targets of β-catenin. Treatment of cells with prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin signaling. Treatment with either EGCG or an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced the PGE{sub 2}-enhanced levels of cAMP, an upstream regulator of β-catenin. Inactivation of β-catenin by EGCG resulted in suppression of cell survival signaling proteins. siRNA knockdown of β-catenin in A431 and SCC13 cells reduced cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that induction of cytotoxicity in skin cancer cells by EGCG is mediated by targeting of β-catenin signaling and that the β-catenin signaling is upregulated by inflammatory mediators. - Highlights: • EGCG inhibits cancer cell viability through inactivation of β-catenin signaling. • Inactivation of β-catenin involves the downregulation of inflammatory mediators. • EGCG

  17. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 regulates β-catenin signaling pathway in glioma cells and contributes to poor patient prognosis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shilpa S; Gokulnath, Priyanka; Bashir, Mohsin; Shwetha, Shivayogi D; Jaiswal, Janhvi; Shastry, Arun H; Arimappamagan, Arivazhagan; Santosh, Vani; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2016-11-01

    Upregulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is often associated with aggressiveness of glioblastoma (GBM) and contributes to poor prognosis for GBM patients. In view of the regulation of β-catenin by IGFBP-2 in breast cancer and the crucial role of β-catenin pathway in glioma invasion, proliferation and maintenance of glioma stem cells, the mechanism of regulation of β-catenin by IGFBP-2, and its role in GBM prognosis was studied. Regulation of the β-catenin pathway was studied by immunocytochemistry, Western blot analysis, luciferase assays, and real-time RT-PCR. The role of IGFBP-2 was studied by subcutaneous tumor xenografts in immunocompromised mice using glioma cells engineered to express IGFBP-2 and its domains. GBM patient tumor tissues (n = 112) were analyzed for expression of IGFBP-2 and β-catenin by immunohistochemistry. Survival analysis was performed employing Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. IGFBP-2 knockdown in U251, T98G, and U373 or overexpression in LN229 and U87 cells revealed a role for IGFBP-2 in stabilization of β-catenin and regulation of its nuclear functions involving integrin-mediated inactivation of GSK3β. Similar results were obtained upon overexpression of the C-terminal domain of IGFBP-2 but not the N-terminal domain. Subcutaneous xenograft tumors overexpressing either full-length or the C-terminal domain of IGFBP-2 showed larger volume as compared with controls. Coexpression of high levels of IGFBP-2 and β-catenin was associated with worse prognosis (P = .001) in GBM patients. IGFBP-2 potentiates GBM tumor growth by the activation of the β-catenin pathway through its C-terminal domain, and their coexpression possibly contributes to worse patient prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. NF-κB Has a Direct Role in Inhibiting Bmp- and Wnt-Induced Matrix Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tarapore, Rohinton S; Lim, Jason; Tian, Chen; Pacios, Sandra; Xiao, Wenmei; Reid, Daniel; Guan, Hancheng; Mattos, Marcelo; Yu, Bo; Wang, Cun-Yu; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    The host response to pathogens through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an essential defense mechanism for eukaryotic organisms. NF-κB-mediated host responses inhibit bone and other connective tissue synthesis and are thought to affect the transcription of matrix proteins through multiple indirect pathways. We demonstrate that inhibiting NF-κB in osteoblasts increases osteocalcin expression in vivo in mice with periodontal disease. Mutating NF-κB binding sites on osteocalcin (OC) or bone sialoprotein (Bsp) promoters rescues the negative impact of NF-κB on their transcription and that NF-κB can inhibit Wnt- and Bmp-induced OC and Bsp transcription, even when protein synthesis is inhibited, indicating a direct effect of NF-κB. This inhibition depends on p65-p50 NF-κB heterodimer formation and deacetylation by HDAC1 but is not affected by the noncanonical NF-κB pathway. Moreover, NF-κB reduces Runx2 and β-catenin binding to OC/Bsp promoters independently of their nuclear localization. Thus, inflammatory signals stimulate the direct interaction of NF-κB with response elements to inhibit binding of β-catenin and Runx2 binding to nearby consensus sites and reduce expression of matrix proteins. This direct mechanism provides a new explanation for the rapid decrease in new bone formation after inflammation-related NF-κB activation. PMID:26179215

  19. NF-κB Has a Direct Role in Inhibiting Bmp- and Wnt-Induced Matrix Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Tarapore, Rohinton S; Lim, Jason; Tian, Chen; Pacios, Sandra; Xiao, Wenmei; Reid, Daniel; Guan, Hancheng; Mattos, Marcelo; Yu, Bo; Wang, Cun-Yu; Graves, Dana T

    2016-01-01

    The host response to pathogens through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an essential defense mechanism for eukaryotic organisms. NF-κB-mediated host responses inhibit bone and other connective tissue synthesis and are thought to affect the transcription of matrix proteins through multiple indirect pathways. We demonstrate that inhibiting NF-κB in osteoblasts increases osteocalcin expression in vivo in mice with periodontal disease. Mutating NF-κB binding sites on osteocalcin (OC) or bone sialoprotein (Bsp) promoters rescues the negative impact of NF-κB on their transcription and that NF-κB can inhibit Wnt- and Bmp-induced OC and Bsp transcription, even when protein synthesis is inhibited, indicating a direct effect of NF-κB. This inhibition depends on p65-p50 NF-κB heterodimer formation and deacetylation by HDAC1 but is not affected by the noncanonical NF-κB pathway. Moreover, NF-κB reduces Runx2 and β-catenin binding to OC/Bsp promoters independently of their nuclear localization. Thus, inflammatory signals stimulate the direct interaction of NF-κB with response elements to inhibit binding of β-catenin and Runx2 binding to nearby consensus sites and reduce expression of matrix proteins. This direct mechanism provides a new explanation for the rapid decrease in new bone formation after inflammation-related NF-κB activation.

  20. Regulation of beta catenin signaling and parathyroid hormone anabolic effects in bone by the matricellular protein periostin

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Conway, Simon J.; Ferrari, Serge L.

    2012-01-01

    Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein preferentially expressed by osteocytes and periosteal osteoblasts in response to mechanical stimulation and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Whether and how periostin expression influences bone anabolism, however, remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of adult Postn−/− and Postn+/+ mice to intermittent PTH. Compared with Postn+/+, Postn−/− mice had a lower bone mass, cortical bone volume, and strength response to PTH. PTH-stimulated bone-forming indices were all significantly lower in Postn−/− mice, particularly at the periosteum. Furthermore, in vivo stimulation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling by PTH, as evaluated in TOPGAL reporter mice, was inhibited in the absence of periostin (TOPGAL;Postn−/− mice). PTH stimulated periostin and inhibited MEF2C and sclerostin (Sost) expression in bone and osteoblasts in vitro. Recombinant periostin also suppressed Sost expression, which was mediated through the integrin αVβ3 receptor, whereas periostin-blocking antibody prevented inhibition of MEF2C and Sost by PTH. In turn, administration of a Sost-blocking antiboby partially restored the PTH-mediated increase in bone mass in Postn−/− mice. In addition, primary osteoblasts from Postn−/− mice showed a lower proliferation, mineralization, and migration, both spontaneously and in response to PTH. Osteoblastic gene expression levels confirmed a defect of Postn−/− osteoblast differentiation with and without PTH, as well as an increased osteoblast apoptosis in the absence of periostin. These data elucidate the complex role of periostin on bone anabolism, through the regulation of Sost, Wnt-β-catenin signaling, and osteoblast differentiation. PMID:22927401

  1. Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Anthony J; Meng, Geng; Winkler, Dennis C; McGinnes, Lori W; Plevka, Pavel; Steven, Alasdair C; Morrison, Trudy G; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-08-28

    Many pleomorphic, lipid-enveloped viruses encode matrix proteins that direct their assembly and budding, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. We have combined X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron tomography to show that the matrix protein of Newcastle disease virus, a paramyxovirus and relative of measles virus, forms dimers that assemble into pseudotetrameric arrays that generate the membrane curvature necessary for virus budding. We show that the glycoproteins are anchored in the gaps between the matrix proteins and that the helical nucleocapsids are associated in register with the matrix arrays. About 90% of virions lack matrix arrays, suggesting that, in agreement with previous biological observations, the matrix protein needs to dissociate from the viral membrane during maturation, as is required for fusion and release of the nucleocapsid into the host's cytoplasm. Structure and sequence conservation imply that other paramyxovirus matrix proteins function similarly.

  2. E-cadherin is required for caveolin-1-mediated down-regulation of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin via reduced beta-catenin-Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Torres, Vicente A; Tapia, Julio C; Rodriguez, Diego A; Lladser, Alvaro; Arredondo, Cristian; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F G

    2007-11-01

    Caveolin-1 reportedly acts as a tumor suppressor and promotes events associated with tumor progression, including metastasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying such radical differences in function are not understood. Recently, we showed that caveolin-1 inhibits expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin via a transcriptional mechanism involving the beta-catenin-Tcf/Lef pathway. Surprisingly, while caveolin-1 expression decreased survivin mRNA and protein levels in HT29(ATCC) human colon cancer cells, this was not the case in metastatic HT29(US) cells. Survivin down-regulation was paralleled by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization of caveolin-1 with beta-catenin in HT29(ATCC) but not HT29(US) cells. Unlike HT29(ATCC) cells, HT29(US) cells expressed small amounts of E-cadherin that accumulated in intracellular patches rather than at the cell surface. Re-expression of E-cadherin in HT29(US) cells restored the ability of caveolin-1 to down-regulate beta-catenin-Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription and survivin expression, as seen in HT29(ATCC) cells. In addition, coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization between caveolin-1 and beta-catenin increased upon E-cadherin expression in HT29(US) cells. In human embryonic kidney HEK293T and HT29(US) cells, caveolin-1 and E-cadherin cooperated in suppressing beta-catenin-Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription as well as survivin expression. Finally, mouse melanoma B16-F10 cells, another metastatic cell model with low endogenous caveolin-1 and E-cadherin levels, were characterized. In these cells, caveolin-1-mediated down-regulation of survivin in the presence of E-cadherin coincided with increased apoptosis. Thus, the absence of E-cadherin severely compromises the ability of caveolin-1 to develop activities potentially relevant to its role as a tumor suppressor.

  3. Protein conformation as a regulator of cell-matrix adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Vesa P; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard

    2014-04-14

    The dynamic regulation of cell-matrix adhesion is essential for tissue homeostasis and architecture, and thus numerous pathologies are linked to altered cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and ECM scaffold. The molecular machinery involved in cell-matrix adhesion is complex and involves both sensory and matrix-remodelling functions. In this review, we focus on how protein conformation controls the organization and dynamics of cell-matrix adhesion. The conformational changes in various adhesion machinery components are described, including examples from ECM as well as cytoplasmic proteins. The discussed mechanisms involved in the regulation of protein conformation include mechanical stress, post-translational modifications and allosteric ligand-binding. We emphasize the potential role of intrinsically disordered protein regions in these processes and discuss the role of protein networks and co-operative protein interactions in the formation and consolidation of cell-matrix adhesion and extracellular scaffolds.

  4. Characterization and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a protein related to the murine 102-kDa cadherin-associated protein ([alpha]-catenin)

    SciTech Connect

    Claverie, J.M. ); Hardelin, J.P.; Legouis, R.; Levilliers, J.; Petit, C. ); Bougueleret, L. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1993-01-01

    We report the characterization of a human cDNA encompassing the complete coding region of a 945-residue putative protein (CAP-R) 80% identical to the recently described murine 102-kDa [alpha]-catenin (CAP102). The CAP-R protein mostly differs from CAP102 by the presence of a 48-residue insert. This insert exhibits similarity with a segment of the type 1 neurofibromatosis gene product. The analysis of a publicly available human [open quote]expressed sequence tag[close quotes] collection revealed the existence of another human cDNA more closely related (89% identical) to CAP 102. This strongly suggests that CAP-R is not the human homologue of the murine 102- kDa [alpha]-catenin but a new closely related gene of the vinculin family. This is further supported by the computed mutation rates falling outside the range observed for mammalian orthologous genes. Using in situ hybridization, the CAP-R gene could be mapped to the pll.l-pl2 region of human chromosome 2 and to the homologous B3-D region of mouse chromosome 6. 32 refs., 4 fig.

  5. The anti-apoptotic PON2 protein is Wnt/β-catenin-regulated and correlates with radiotherapy resistance in OSCC patients.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Maximilian; Amort, Julianna; Wilgenbus, Petra; Helmstädter, Johanna P; Grechowa, Irina; Ebert, Julia; Tenzer, Stefan; Moergel, Maximilian; Witte, Ines; Horke, Sven

    2016-08-09

    Aberrant Wnt signaling and control of anti-apoptotic mechanisms are pivotal features in different types of cancer to undergo cell death programs. The intracellular human enzyme Paraoxonase-2 (PON2) is known to have anti-apoptotic properties in leukemia and oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) cells. However, the distinct regulating pathways are poorly understood. First, we present a so far unknown regulation of PON2 protein expression through the Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway in leukemia and OSCC cells. This was confirmed via in silico analysis, promoter reporter studies and treatment of multiple cell lines (K562, SCC-4, PCI-13) with different Wnt ligands/inhibitors in vitro. Ex vivo analysis of OSCC patients revealed a correlation between PON2 and β-catenin expression in tumor tissue. Higher PON2 expression in OSCC is associated with relapse independently of treatment (e.g. surgery/radio-/chemotherapy). These results emphasize the clinical impact of the newly described regulation of PON2 through Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin. More importantly, the study revealed the fundamental finding of an overall Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin dependent regulation of PON2 in different cancers, which was confirmed by systematic and multimethodological approaches. Thus, the herein presented mechanistic insight contributes to a better understanding of tumor specific escape from cell death strategies and suggests PON2 as a new potential biomarker for therapy resistance or as a prognostic tumor marker.

  6. The anti-apoptotic PON2 protein is Wnt/β-catenin-regulated and correlates with radiotherapy resistance in OSCC patients

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Maximilian; Amort, Julianna; Wilgenbus, Petra; Helmstädter, Johanna P.; Grechowa, Irina; Ebert, Julia; Tenzer, Stefan; Moergel, Maximilian; Witte, Ines; Horke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Wnt signaling and control of anti-apoptotic mechanisms are pivotal features in different types of cancer to undergo cell death programs. The intracellular human enzyme Paraoxonase-2 (PON2) is known to have anti-apoptotic properties in leukemia and oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) cells. However, the distinct regulating pathways are poorly understood. First, we present a so far unknown regulation of PON2 protein expression through the Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway in leukemia and OSCC cells. This was confirmed via in silico analysis, promoter reporter studies and treatment of multiple cell lines (K562, SCC-4, PCI-13) with different Wnt ligands/inhibitors in vitro. Ex vivo analysis of OSCC patients revealed a correlation between PON2 and β-catenin expression in tumor tissue. Higher PON2 expression in OSCC is associated with relapse independently of treatment (e.g. surgery/radio-/chemotherapy). These results emphasize the clinical impact of the newly described regulation of PON2 through Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin. More importantly, the study revealed the fundamental finding of an overall Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin dependent regulation of PON2 in different cancers, which was confirmed by systematic and multimethodological approaches. Thus, the herein presented mechanistic insight contributes to a better understanding of tumor specific escape from cell death strategies and suggests PON2 as a new potential biomarker for therapy resistance or as a prognostic tumor marker. PMID:27322774

  7. Octamer-binding protein 4 affects the cell biology and phenotypic transition of lung cancer cells involving β-catenin/E-cadherin complex degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Shu; Ling, Dong-Jin; Zhang, Yang-De; Feng, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Shi, Tian-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Clinical studies have reported evidence for the involvement of octamer‑binding protein 4 (Oct4) in the tumorigenicity and progression of lung cancer; however, the role of Oct4 in lung cancer cell biology in vitro and its mechanism of action remain to be elucidated. Mortality among lung cancer patients is more frequently due to metastasis rather than their primary tumors. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a prominent biological event for the induction of epithelial cancer metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Oct4 had the capacity to induce lung cancer cell metastasis via the promoting the EMT in vitro. Moreover, the effect of Oct4 on the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex, associated with EMT, was examined using immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays as well as western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that Oct4 enhanced cell invasion and adhesion accompanied by the downregulation of epithelial marker cytokeratin, and upregulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N‑cadherin. Furthermore, Oct4 induced EMT of lung cancer cells by promoting β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex degradation and regulating nuclear localization of β‑catenin. In conclusion, the present study indicated that Oct4 affected the cell biology of lung cancer cells in vitro through promoting lung cancer cell metastasis via EMT; in addition, the results suggested that the association and degradation of the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex was regulated by Oct4 during the process of EMT.

  8. Parathyroid hormone-related protein inhibits DKK1 expression through c-Jun-mediated inhibition of β-catenin activation of the DKK1 promoter in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Yu, C; Dai, J; Keller, J M; Hua, A; Sottnik, J L; Shelley, G; Hall, C L; Park, S I; Yao, Z; Zhang, J; McCauley, L K; Keller, E T

    2014-05-08

    Prostate cancer (PCa)bone metastases are unique in that majority of them induce excessive mineralized bone matrix, through undefined mechanisms, as opposed to most other cancers that induce bone resorption. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is produced by PCa cells and intermittent PTHrP exposure has bone anabolic effects, suggesting that PTHrP could contribute to the excess bone mineralization. Wnts are bone-productive factors produced by PCa cells, and the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopfs-1 (DKK1) has been shown to promote PCa progression. These findings, in conjunction with the observation that PTHrP expression increases and DKK1 expression decreases as PCa progresses, led to the hypothesis that PTHrP could be a negative regulator of DKK1 expression in PCa cells and, hence, allow the osteoblastic activity of Wnts to be realized. To test this, we first demonstrated that PTHrP downregulated DKK1 mRNA and protein expression. We then found through multiple mutated DKK1 promoter assays that PTHrP, through c-Jun activation, downregulated the DKK1 promoter through a transcription factor (TCF) response element site. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and re-ChIP assays revealed that PTHrP mediated this effect through inducing c-Jun to bind to a transcriptional activator complex consisting of β-catenin, which binds the most proximal DKK1 promoter, the TCF response element. Together, these results demonstrate a novel signaling linkage between PTHrP and Wnt signaling pathways that results in downregulation of a Wnt inhibitor allowing for Wnt activity that could contribute the osteoblastic nature of PCa.

  9. Parathyroid hormone-related protein inhibits DKK1 expression through c-Jun-mediated inhibition of β-Catenin activation of the DKK1 promoter in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Yu, C.; Dai, J.; Keller, JM.; Hua, A.; Sottnik, JL.; Shelley, G.; Hall, CL.; Park, SI.; Yao, Z.; Zhang, J.; McCauley, LK.; Keller, ET.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer bone metastases are unique in that that majority of them induce excessive mineralized bone matrix, through undefined mechanisms, as opposed to most other cancers that induce bone resorption. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is produced by prostate cancer cells and intermittent PTHrP exposure has bone anabolic effects suggesting PTHrP could contribute to the excess bone mineralization. Wnts are bone productive factors produced by prostate cancer cells and the Wnt inhibitor DKK1 has been shown to promote prostate cancer progression. These findings, in conjunction with the observation that PTHrP expression increases and DKK1 expression decreases as prostate cancer progresses led to the hypothesis that PTHrP could be a negative regulator of DKK1 expression in prostate cancer cells, and hence allow the osteoblastic activity of Wnts to be realized. To test this, we first demonstrated that PTHrP downregulated DKK1 mRNA and protein expression. We then found through multiple mutated DKK1 promoter assays that PTHrP, through c-Jun activation, downregulated the DKK1 promoter through a TCF-response element site. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and reChIP assays revealed that PTHrP-mediated this effect through inducing c-Jun to bind to a transcriptional activator complex consisting of β-catenin that binds the most proximal DKK1 promoter TCF-response element. Together, these results demonstrate a novel signaling linkage between PTHrP and Wnt signaling pathways that results in downregulation of a Wnt inhibitor allowing for Wnt activity that could contribute the osteoblastic nature of prostate cancer. PMID:23752183

  10. Novel role of STRAP in progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer through Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guandou; Zhang, Bixiang; Yang, Shanzhong; Jin, Lin; Datta, Arunima; Bae, Sejong; Chen, Xiaoping; Datta, Pran K

    2016-01-01

    Serine-Threonine Kinase Receptor-Associated Protein (STRAP) interacts with a variety of proteins and influences a wide range of cellular processes. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we show the molecular mechanism by which STRAP induces CRC metastasis by promoting β-catenin signaling through its stabilization. We have genetically engineered a series of murine and human CRC and lung cancer cell lines to investigate the effects of STRAP on cell migration and invasion in vitro, and on tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. Downregulation of STRAP inhibits invasion, tumorigenicity, and metastasis of CRC cells. Mechanistically, STRAP binds with GSK-3β and reduces the phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, and degradation of β-catenin through preventing its binding to the destruction complex. This leads to an inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduction in the expression of downstream targets, such as Cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and ß-TrCP. In human CRC specimens, higher STRAP expression correlates significantly with β-catenin expression with increased nuclear levels (R =0.696, p < .0001, n =128). Together, these results suggest that STRAP increases invasion and metastasis of CRC partly through inhibiting ubiquitin-dependent degradation of β-catenin and promoting Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:26910283

  11. Wnt5a is required for endothelial differentiation of embryonic stem cells and vascularization via pathways involving both Wnt/beta-catenin and protein kinase Calpha.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Hwa; Yoon, Ju-Young; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Bryja, Vitezslav; Andersson, Emma R; Arenas, Ernest; Kwon, Young-Guen; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2009-02-13

    In this study, we examined the signaling pathways activated by Wnt5a in endothelial differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and the function of Wnt5a during vascular development. We first found that Wnt5a(-/-) mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells exhibited a defect in endothelial differentiation, which was rescued by addition of Wnt5a, suggesting that Wnt5a is required for endothelial differentiation of ES cells. Involvement of both beta-catenin and protein kinase (PK)Calpha pathways in endothelial differentiation of mES cells requiring Wnt5a was indicated by activation of both beta-catenin and PKCalpha in Wnt5a(+/-) but not in Wnt5a(-/-) mES cells. We also found that beta-catenin or PKCalpha knockdowns inhibited the Wnt5a-induced endothelial differentiation of ES cells. Moreover, the lack of endothelial differentiation of Wnt5a(-/-) mES cells was rescued only by transfection of both beta-catenin and PKCalpha, indicating that both genes are required for Wnt5a-mediated endothelial differentiation. Wnt5a was also found to be essential for the differentiation of mES cells into immature endothelial progenitor cells, which are known to play a role in repair of damaged endothelium. Furthermore, a defect in the vascularization of the neural tissue was detected at embryonic day 14.5 in Wnt5a(-/-) mice, implicating Wnt5a in vascular development in vivo. Thus, we conclude that Wnt5a is involved in the endothelial differentiation of ES cells via both Wnt/beta-catenin and PKC signaling pathways and regulates embryonic vascular development.

  12. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV is a target gene of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Arrázola, Macarena S; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Colombres, Marcela; Toledo, Enrique M; Cruzat, Fernando; Pavez, Leonardo; Assar, Rodrigo; Aravena, Andrés; González, Mauricio; Montecino, Martín; Maass, Alejandro; Martínez, Servet; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2009-12-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) plays a key role in the regulation of calcium-dependent gene expression. The expression of CaMKIV and the activation of CREB regulated genes are involved in memory and neuronal survival. We report here that: (a) a bioinformatic analysis of 15,476 promoters of the human genome predicted several Wnt target genes, being CaMKIV a very interesting candidate; (b) CaMKIV promoter contains TCF/LEF transcription motifs similar to those present in Wnt target genes; (c) biochemical studies indicate that lithium and the canonical ligand Wnt-3a induce CaMKIV mRNA and protein expression levels in rat hippocampal neurons as well as CaMKIV promoter activity; (d) treatment of hippocampal neurons with Wnt-3a increases the binding of beta-catenin to the CaMKIV promoter: (e) In vivo activation of the Wnt signaling improve spatial memory impairment and restores the expression of CaMKIV in a mice double transgenic model for Alzheimer's disease which shows decreased levels of the kinase. We conclude that CaMKIV is regulated by the Wnt signaling pathway and that its expression could play a role in the neuroprotective function of the Wnt signaling against the Alzheimer's amyloid peptide.

  13. The RNA-binding protein quaking maintains endothelial barrier function and affects VE-cadherin and β-catenin protein expression

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Ruben G.; van der Veer, Eric P.; Prins, Jurriën; Lee, Dae Hyun; Dane, Martijn J. C.; Zhang, Huayu; Roeten, Marko K.; Bijkerk, Roel; de Boer, Hetty C.; Rabelink, Ton J.; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van Gils, Janine M.

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of endothelial cell-cell contacts is essential for physiological functioning of the endothelium. Interendothelial junctions are actively involved in the control of vascular leakage, leukocyte diapedesis, and the initiation and progression of angiogenesis. We found that the RNA-binding protein quaking is highly expressed by endothelial cells, and that its expression was augmented by prolonged culture under laminar flow and the transcription factor KLF2 binding to the promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that quaking directly binds to the mRNA of VE-cadherin and β-catenin and can induce mRNA translation mediated by the 3′UTR of these genes. Reduced quaking levels attenuated VE-cadherin and β-catenin expression and endothelial barrier function in vitro and resulted in increased bradykinin-induced vascular leakage in vivo. Taken together, we report that quaking is essential in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Our results provide novel insight into the importance of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling vascular integrity. PMID:26905650

  14. β-Catenin/CBP–Dependent Signaling Regulates TGF-β–Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taiyab, Aftab; Korol, Anna; Deschamps, Paula A.; West-Mays, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Transforming growth factor-β–induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the main causes of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract; however, the signaling events involved in TGF-β–induced PCO have not been fully characterized. Here, we focus on examining the role of β-catenin/cyclic AMP response element–binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent signaling in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics during TGF-β–induced EMT in lens epithelial explants. Methods Rat lens epithelial explants were cultured in medium M199 in the absence of serum. Explants were treated with TGF-β2 in the presence or absence of the β-catenin/CBP interaction inhibitor, ICG-001, or the β-catenin/TCF interaction inhibitor, PNU-74654. Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments were carried out and analyzed. Results An increase in the expression of fascin, an actin-bundling protein, was observed in the lens explants upon stimulation with TGF-β, and colocalized with F-actin filaments. Inhibition of β-catenin/CBP interactions, but not β-catenin/TCF interactions, led to a decrease in TGF-β–induced fascin and stress fiber formation, as well as a decrease in the expression of known markers of EMT, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). In addition, inhibition of β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling also prevented TGF-β–induced downregulation of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) in lens explants. Conclusions We show that β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling regulates fascin, MMP9, and α-SMA expression during TGF-β–induced EMT. We demonstrate that β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling is crucial for TGF-β–induced EMT in the lens. PMID:27787561

  15. CREPT/RPRD1B, a Recently Identified Novel Protein Highly Expressed in Tumors, Enhances the β-Catenin·TCF4 Transcriptional Activity in Response to Wnt Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanquan; Liu, Chunxiao; Duan, Xiaolin; Ren, Fangli; Li, Shan; Jin, Zhe; Wang, Yinyin; Feng, Yarui; Liu, Zewen; Chang, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    CREPT (cell cycle-related and expression elevated protein in tumor)/RPRD1B (regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain-containing protein 1B), highly expressed during tumorigenesis, was shown to enhance transcription of CCND1 and to promote cell proliferation by interacting with RNA polymerase II. However, which signaling pathway is involved in CREPT-mediated activation of gene transcription remains unclear. In this study, we reveal that CREPT participates in transcription of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling activated genes through the β-catenin and the TCF4 complex. Our results demonstrate that CREPT interacts with both β-catenin and TCF4, and enhances the association of β-catenin with TCF4, in response to Wnt stimulation. Furthermore, CREPT was shown to occupy at TCF4 binding sites (TBS) of the promoters of Wnt-targeted genes under Wnt stimulation. Interestingly, depletion of CREPT resulted in decreased occupancy of β-catenin on TBS, and over-expression of CREPT enhances the activity of the β-catenin·TCF4 complex to initiate transcription of Wnt target genes, which results in up-regulated cell proliferation and invasion. Our study suggests that CREPT acts as an activator to promote transcriptional activity of the β-catenin·TCF4 complex in response to Wnt signaling. PMID:24982424

  16. Vascular wall extracellular matrix proteins and vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyan; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins form the basic structure of blood vessels. Along with providing basic structural support to blood vessels, matrix proteins interact with different sets of vascular cells via cell surface integrin or non-integrin receptors. Such interactions induce vascular cell de novo synthesis of new matrix proteins during blood vessel development or remodeling. Under pathological conditions, vascular matrix proteins undergo proteolytic processing, yielding bioactive fragments to influence vascular wall matrix remodeling. Vascular cells also produce alternatively spliced variants that induce vascular cell production of different matrix proteins to interrupt matrix homeostasis, leading to increased blood vessel stiffness; vascular cell migration, proliferation, or death; or vascular wall leakage and rupture. Destruction of vascular matrix proteins leads to vascular cell or blood-borne leukocyte accumulation, proliferation, and neointima formation within the vascular wall; blood vessels prone to uncontrolled enlargement during blood flow diastole; tortuous vein development; and neovascularization from existing pathological tissue microvessels. Here we summarize discoveries related to blood vessel matrix proteins within the past decade from basic and clinical studies in humans and animals — from expression to cross-linking, assembly, and degradation under physiological and vascular pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, varicose veins, and hypertension. PMID:25045854

  17. Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis and alters Wnt/β-catenin in SW480 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyoung-Sub; Li, Ge; Kim, Jong-Seok; Jing, Kaipeng; Kim, Tae-Dong; Kim, Jin-Pyo; Seo, Seung-Bo; Yoo, Jae-Kuk; Park, Hae-Duck; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Lim, Kyu; Yoon, Wan-Hee

    2011-07-22

    Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL. The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP) activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model. PL (125-1000 μg/mL) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of β-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL inhibited in vitro invasion and motility as well as the activity of MMP-9. In addition, PL treatment inhibited HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. Tumor growth of SW480 cells implanted into nude mice was significantly decreased as a consequence of PL treatment, and tumor tissues from treated animals showed an increase in the apoptotic index and a decrease in β-catenin expression. Moreover, the proliferation index and microvessel density were significantly decreased. These data suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in certain colon cancer cells.

  18. Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis and alters Wnt/β-catenin in SW480 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL. Methods The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP) activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model. Results PL (125-1000 μg/mL) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of β-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL inhibited in vitro invasion and motility as well as the activity of MMP-9. In addition, PL treatment inhibited HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. Tumor growth of SW480 cells implanted into nude mice was significantly decreased as a consequence of PL treatment, and tumor tissues from treated animals showed an increase in the apoptotic index and a decrease in β-catenin expression. Moreover, the proliferation index and microvessel density were significantly decreased. Conclusions These data suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in certain colon cancer cells. PMID:21781302

  19. Matrix Rigidity Activates Wnt Signaling through Down-regulation of Dickkopf-1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Liu, Yiuying; Gurler, Hilal; Kim, Mijung; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre A.; Rooper, Lisa; Shepard, Jaclyn; Weiss, Michael; Shea, Lonnie D.; Penzes, Peter; Ravosa, Matthew J.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Cells respond to changes in the physical properties of the extracellular matrix with altered behavior and gene expression, highlighting the important role of the microenvironment in the regulation of cell function. In the current study, culture of epithelial ovarian cancer cells on three-dimensional collagen I gels led to a dramatic down-regulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 with a concomitant increase in nuclear β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin/Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Increased three-dimensional collagen gel invasion was accompanied by transcriptional up-regulation of the membrane-tethered collagenase membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, and an inverse relationship between dickkopf-1 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed in human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. Similar results were obtained in other tissue-invasive cells such as vascular endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanism for functional coupling of matrix adhesion with Wnt signaling. PMID:23152495

  20. Matrix rigidity activates Wnt signaling through down-regulation of Dickkopf-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Barbolina, Maria V; Liu, Yiuying; Gurler, Hilal; Kim, Mijung; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre A; Rooper, Lisa; Shepard, Jaclyn; Weiss, Michael; Shea, Lonnie D; Penzes, Peter; Ravosa, Matthew J; Stack, M Sharon

    2013-01-04

    Cells respond to changes in the physical properties of the extracellular matrix with altered behavior and gene expression, highlighting the important role of the microenvironment in the regulation of cell function. In the current study, culture of epithelial ovarian cancer cells on three-dimensional collagen I gels led to a dramatic down-regulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 with a concomitant increase in nuclear β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin/Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Increased three-dimensional collagen gel invasion was accompanied by transcriptional up-regulation of the membrane-tethered collagenase membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, and an inverse relationship between dickkopf-1 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed in human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. Similar results were obtained in other tissue-invasive cells such as vascular endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanism for functional coupling of matrix adhesion with Wnt signaling.

  1. Alternative splicing of Tcf7l2 transcripts generates protein variants with differential promoter-binding and transcriptional activation properties at Wnt/β-catenin targets

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Andreas; Bruser, Katja; Elfert, Susanne; Wallmen, Britta; Wittel, Yvonne; Wöhrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing can produce multiple protein products with variable domain composition from a single gene. The mouse Tcf7l2 gene is subject to alternative splicing. It encodes TCF4, a member of the T-cell factor (TCF) family of DNA-binding proteins and a nuclear interaction partner of β-catenin which performs essential functions in Wnt growth factor signalling. Multiple TCF4 isoforms, potentially exhibiting cell-type-specific distribution and differing in gene regulatory properties, could strongly influence tissue-specific Wnt responses. Therefore, we have examined mouse Tcf7l2 splice variants in neonatal tissues, embryonic stem cells and neural progenitors. By polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning and sequencing, we identify a large number of alternatively spliced transcripts and report a highly flexible combinatorial repertoire of alternative exons. Many, but not all of the variants exhibit a broad tissue distribution. Moreover, two functionally equivalent versions of the C-clamp, thought to represent an auxiliary DNA-binding domain, were identified. Depending upon promoter context and precise domain composition, TCF4 isoforms exhibit strikingly different transactivation potentials at natural Wnt/β-catenin target promoters. However, differences in C-clamp-mediated DNA binding can only partially explain functional differences among TCF4 variants. Still, the cell-type-specific complement of TCF4 isoforms is likely to be a major determinant for the context-dependent transcriptional output of Wnt/β-catenin signalling. PMID:20044351

  2. The nucleolar protein NIFK promotes cancer progression via CK1α/β-catenin in metastasis and Ki-67-dependent cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Su, Chia-Yi; Wu, Pei-Yu; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Pan, Wen-An; Jan, Yi-Hua; Chang, Yu-Chang; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Chen, Chi-Long; Ger, Luo-Ping; Chang, Hong-Tai; Yang, Chih-Jen; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Liu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Shyy, John Y-J; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Hsiao, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar protein interacting with the FHA domain of pKi-67 (NIFK) is a Ki-67-interacting protein. However, its precise function in cancer remains largely uninvestigated. Here we show the clinical significance and metastatic mechanism of NIFK in lung cancer. NIFK expression is clinically associated with poor prognosis and metastasis. Furthermore, NIFK enhances Ki-67-dependent proliferation, and promotes migration, invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo via downregulation of casein kinase 1α (CK1α), a suppressor of pro-metastatic TCF4/β-catenin signaling. Inversely, CK1α is upregulated upon NIFK knockdown. The silencing of CK1α expression in NIFK-silenced cells restores TCF4/β-catenin transcriptional activity, cell migration, and metastasis. Furthermore, RUNX1 is identified as a transcription factor of CSNK1A1 (CK1α) that is negatively regulated by NIFK. Our results demonstrate the prognostic value of NIFK, and suggest that NIFK is required for lung cancer progression via the RUNX1-dependent CK1α repression, which activates TCF4/β-catenin signaling in metastasis and the Ki-67-dependent regulation in cell proliferation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11288.001 PMID:26984280

  3. Alpha-catenin-dependent recruitment of the centrosomal protein CAP350 to adherens junctions allows epithelial cells to acquire a columnar shape.

    PubMed

    Gavilan, Maria P; Arjona, Marina; Zurbano, Angel; Formstecher, Etienne; Martinez-Morales, Juan R; Bornens, Michel; Rios, Rosa M

    2015-03-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. How this complex process is controlled at the molecular level is still largely unknown. Here, we report that the centrosomal microtubule (MT)-binding protein CAP350 localises at adherens junctions in epithelial cells. By two-hybrid screening, we identified a direct interaction of CAP350 with the adhesion protein α-catenin that was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Block of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)-mediated cell-cell adhesion or α-catenin depletion prevented CAP350 localisation at cell-cell junctions. Knocking down junction-located CAP350 inhibited the establishment of an apico-basal array of microtubules and impaired the acquisition of columnar shape in Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells grown as polarised epithelia. Furthermore, MDCKII cystogenesis was also defective in junctional CAP350-depleted cells. CAP350-depleted MDCKII cysts were smaller and contained either multiple lumens or no lumen. Membrane polarity was not affected, but cortical microtubule bundles did not properly form. Our results indicate that CAP350 may act as an adaptor between adherens junctions and microtubules, thus regulating epithelial differentiation and contributing to the definition of cell architecture. We also uncover a central role of α-catenin in global cytoskeleton remodelling, in which it acts not only on actin but also on MT reorganisation during epithelial morphogenesis.

  4. Alpha-catenin-Dependent Recruitment of the Centrosomal Protein CAP350 to Adherens Junctions Allows Epithelial Cells to Acquire a Columnar Shape

    PubMed Central

    Zurbano, Angel; Formstecher, Etienne; Martinez-Morales, Juan R.; Bornens, Michel; Rios, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. How this complex process is controlled at the molecular level is still largely unknown. Here, we report that the centrosomal microtubule (MT)-binding protein CAP350 localises at adherens junctions in epithelial cells. By two-hybrid screening, we identified a direct interaction of CAP350 with the adhesion protein α-catenin that was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Block of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)-mediated cell-cell adhesion or α-catenin depletion prevented CAP350 localisation at cell-cell junctions. Knocking down junction-located CAP350 inhibited the establishment of an apico-basal array of microtubules and impaired the acquisition of columnar shape in Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells grown as polarised epithelia. Furthermore, MDCKII cystogenesis was also defective in junctional CAP350-depleted cells. CAP350-depleted MDCKII cysts were smaller and contained either multiple lumens or no lumen. Membrane polarity was not affected, but cortical microtubule bundles did not properly form. Our results indicate that CAP350 may act as an adaptor between adherens junctions and microtubules, thus regulating epithelial differentiation and contributing to the definition of cell architecture. We also uncover a central role of α-catenin in global cytoskeleton remodelling, in which it acts not only on actin but also on MT reorganisation during epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25764135

  5. The X-Linked Autism Protein KIAA2022/KIDLIA Regulates Neurite Outgrowth via N-Cadherin and δ-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone. Using in utero electroporation, we found that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of KIDLIA leads to altered neuron migration and a reduction in dendritic growth and disorganized apical dendrite projections in layer II/III mouse cortical neurons. Consistent with this, in cultured rat neurons, a loss of KIDLIA expression also leads to suppression of dendritic growth and branching. At the molecular level, we found that KIDLIA suppression leads to an increase in cell-surface N-cadherin and an elevated association of N-cadherin with δ-catenin, resulting in depletion of free δ-catenin in the cytosolic compartment. The reduced availability of cytosolic δ-catenin leads to elevated RhoA activity and reduced actin dynamics at the dendritic growth cone. Furthermore, in neurons with KIDLIA knockdown, overexpression of δ-catenin or inhibition of RhoA rescues actin dynamics, dendritic growth, and branching. These findings provide the first evidence on the role of the novel protein KIDLIA in neurodevelopment and autism with severe intellectual disability. PMID:27822498

  6. The X-Linked Autism Protein KIAA2022/KIDLIA Regulates Neurite Outgrowth via N-Cadherin and δ-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, James; Man, Heng-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone. Using in utero electroporation, we found that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of KIDLIA leads to altered neuron migration and a reduction in dendritic growth and disorganized apical dendrite projections in layer II/III mouse cortical neurons. Consistent with this, in cultured rat neurons, a loss of KIDLIA expression also leads to suppression of dendritic growth and branching. At the molecular level, we found that KIDLIA suppression leads to an increase in cell-surface N-cadherin and an elevated association of N-cadherin with δ-catenin, resulting in depletion of free δ-catenin in the cytosolic compartment. The reduced availability of cytosolic δ-catenin leads to elevated RhoA activity and reduced actin dynamics at the dendritic growth cone. Furthermore, in neurons with KIDLIA knockdown, overexpression of δ-catenin or inhibition of RhoA rescues actin dynamics, dendritic growth, and branching. These findings provide the first evidence on the role of the novel protein KIDLIA in neurodevelopment and autism with severe intellectual disability.

  7. A strategy to quantitate global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Vashishth, Deepak

    2016-04-15

    Current studies of protein phosphorylation focus primarily on the importance of specific phosphoproteins and their landscapes of phosphorylation in the regulation of different cellular functions. However, global changes in phosphorylation of extracellular matrix phosphoproteins measured "in bulk" are equally important. For example, correct global phosphorylation of different bone matrix proteins is critical to healthy tissue biomineralization. To study changes of bone matrix global phosphorylation, we developed a strategy that combines a procedure for in vitro phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of fully mineralized bone in addition to quantitation of the global phosphorylation levels of bone matrix proteins. For the first time, we show that it is possible to enzymatically phosphorylate/dephosphorylate fully mineralized bone originating from either cadaveric human donors or laboratory animals (mice). Using our strategy, we detected the difference in the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from wild-type and osteopontin knockout mice. We also observed that the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from human cortical bone were lower than those isolated from trabecular bone. The developed strategy has the potential to open new avenues for studies on the global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins and their role in biomineralization as well for other tissues/cells and protein-based materials.

  8. Gene evolution and functions of extracellular matrix proteins in teeth

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Keigo; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides physical support for tissues, but it is also critical for tissue development, homeostasis and disease. Over 300 ECM molecules have been defined as comprising the “core matrisome” in mammals through the analysis of whole genome sequences. During tooth development, the structure and functions of the ECM dynamically change. In the early stages, basement membranes (BMs) separate two cell layers of the dental epithelium and the mesenchyme. Later in the differentiation stages, the BM layer is replaced with the enamel matrix and the dentin matrix, which are secreted by ameloblasts and odontoblasts, respectively. The enamel matrix genes and the dentin matrix genes are each clustered in two closed regions located on human chromosome 4 (mouse chromosome 5), except for the gene coded for amelogenin, the major enamel matrix protein, which is located on the sex chromosomes. These genes for enamel and dentin matrix proteins are derived from a common ancestral gene, but as a result of evolution, they diverged in terms of their specific functions. These matrix proteins play important roles in cell adhesion, polarity, and differentiation and mineralization of enamel and dentin matrices. Mutations of these genes cause diseases such as odontogenesis imperfect (OI) and amelogenesis imperfect (AI). In this review, we discuss the recently defined terms matrisome and matrixome for ECMs, as well as focus on genes and functions of enamel and dentin matrix proteins. PMID:23539364

  9. Evidence that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce epithelial permeability following phosgene-induced acute lung injury via activation of wnt3a protein-induced canonical wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Shao, Yiru; He, Daikun; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Guoxiong; Shen, Jie

    2016-10-01

    An increase in epithelial cell permeability has been proposed to contribute to phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). However, no specific and effective means for blocking increases in permeability are currently available. Cell-based therapy using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an attractive new approach. Canonical wnt/β-catenin signaling has been demonstrated to contribute to both epithelial cell injury and repair mechanisms in ALI. The goal of our study was to determine the effects of MSCs on epithelial permeability in phosgene-induced ALI in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and identify changes in major components of the wnt3a/β-catenin signaling pathway during this process. Epithelial cell permeability was evaluated by measuring total protein, albumin, keratinocyte growth factor, and occludin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. MSCs-harboring lentiviral vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to determine rates of MSC engraftment at injured sites. Lung tissue was excised to evaluate changes in the levels of proteins that function in wnt3a/β-catenin signaling, including wnt3a, total β-catenin, non-phosphorylated-Ser33/37/Thr41 β-catenin, axin2, and cyclin D1 by western blot analysis. Because TGF-β1 and wnt5a can inhibit canonical wnt/β-catenin signaling, we also measured levels of TGF-β1 and wnt5a by western blotting. (1) TGF-β1 and wnt5a expression correlated with inhibition of wnt3a/β-catenin signaling in our phosgene-induced ALI model and (2) exogenously supplied MSCs homed to sites of lung injury and reduced epithelial permeability likely by blocking TGF-β1- and wnt5a-mediated inhibition of wnt3/β-catenin signaling.

  10. Unfolded protein response is required for the definitive endodermal specification of mouse embryonic stem cells via Smad2 and β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiming; Tsang, Kam Sze; Wang, Yonghui; Chan, Juliana C N; Xu, Gang; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2014-09-19

    Tremendous efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control the specification of definitive endoderm cell fate in gene knockout mouse models and ES cell (ESC) differentiation models. However, the impact of the unfolded protein response (UPR), because of the stress of the endoplasmic reticulum on endodermal specification, is not well addressed. We employed UPR-inducing agents, thapsigargin and tunicamycin, in vitro to induce endodermal differentiation of mouse ESCs. Apart from the endodermal specification of ESCs, Western blotting demonstrated the enhanced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear translocation of β-catenin in ESC-derived cells. The inclusion of the endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid to the induction cultures prevented the differentiation of ESCs into definitive endodermal cells even when Activin A was supplemented. Also, the addition of the TGF-β inhibitor SB431542 and the Wnt/β-catenin antagonist IWP-2 negated the endodermal differentiation of ESCs mediated by thapsigargin and tunicamycin. These data suggest that the activation of the UPR appears to orchestrate the induction of the definitive endodermal cell fate of ESCs via both the Smad2 and β-catenin signaling pathways. The prospective regulatory machinery may be helpful for directing ESCs to differentiate into definitive endodermal cells for cellular therapy in the future. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. [Effects of K-ras gene mutation on colon cancer cell line Caco-2 metastasis by regulating E-cadherin/beta-catenin/p120 protein complex formation and RhoA protein activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-nan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Jia-ming; Lu, Xin-qing; Yang, Hong

    2010-02-01

    To explore the effects of K-ras gene mutation on colon cancer cell line Caco-2 metastasis by regulating E-cadherin/beta-catenin/p120 protein complex formation and RhoA protein activity. K-ras wild-type colon cancer cell line Caco-2 was transiently transfected by phr-GFP vector (control group), transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector (transfection group), transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector and treated by specific MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059 (MAPK inhibition group), or transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector and treated by specific PI-3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 (PI-3K inhibition group), respectively. Cell migration was tested by Transwell experiment. E-cadherin and beta-catenin protein expression and intracellular location were detected by cell immunofluorescence method. Intracellular p120 protein expression was detected by Western blot. beta-catenin protein level which combined with E-cadherin was detected by immunoprecipitation. RhoA activity was analyzed by Pull-down assay. The Caco-2 cell migration rate was (19.8 +/- 5.6) % in transfection group, which was significantly higher than that in control group [(14.0 +/- 4.2) %] (P = 0.001) and in MAPK inhibition group [(15.8 +/- 1.2) %] (P = 0.044), but was not significantly different from that in PI-3K inhibition group [(17.5 +/- 2.8) %] (P = 0.095). Immunofluorescence method showed that the E-cadherin and beta-catenin stain located in the cell membrane decreased in transfection group. Western blot showed that the total intracellular p120 protein decreased in transfection group and PI-3K inhibition group. Immunoprecipitation data showed that beta-catenin protein level combined with E-cadherin decreased in transfection group and PI-3K group. Pull-down test showed that RhoA protein activity was up-regulated in transfection group. K-ras gene mutation stimulates the migration of colon cancer cell Caco-2, which may be achieved by decreasing the E-cadherin/beta-catenin

  12. Paracrine nitric oxide induces expression of cardiac sarcomeric proteins in adult progenitor cells through soluble guanylyl cyclase/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate and Wnt/β-catenin inhibition.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Aurelia; Massion, Paul; Sekkali, Belaid; Andre, Emilie; Dubroca, Caroline; Kmecova, Jana; Bouzin, Caroline; Friart, Ann; Sibille, Catherine; Gilon, Patrick; De Mulder, Delphine; Esfahani, Hrag; Strapart, Adrien; Martherus, Ruben; Payen, Valéry; Sonveaux, Pierre; Brouckaert, Peter; Janssens, Stefan; Balligand, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) from adult hearts can differentiate to several cell types composing the myocardium but the underlying molecular pathways are poorly characterized. We examined the role of paracrine nitric oxide (NO) in the specification of CPC to the cardiac lineage, particularly through its inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, a critical step preceding cardiac differentiation. Sca1 + CPC from adult mouse hearts were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting and clonally expanded. Pharmacologic NO donors increased their expression of cardiac myocyte-specific sarcomeric proteins in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The optimal time window for NO efficacy coincided with up-regulation of CPC expression of Gucy1a3 (coding the alpha1 subunit of guanylyl cyclase). The effect of paracrine NO was reproduced in vitro upon co-culture of CPC with cardiac myocytes expressing a transgenic NOS3 (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and in vivo upon injection of CPC in infarcted hearts from cardiac-specific NOS3 transgenic mice. In mono- and co-cultures, this effect was abrogated upon inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase or nitric oxide synthase, and was lost in CPC genetically deficient in Gucy1a3. Mechanistically, NO inhibits the constitutive activity of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin in CPC and in cell reporter assays in a guanylyl cyclase-dependent fashion. This was paralleled with decreased expression of β-catenin and down-regulation of Wnt target genes in CPC and abrogated in CPC with a stabilized, non-inhibitable β-catenin. Exogenous or paracrine sources of NO promote the specification towards the myocyte lineage and expression of cardiac sarcomeric proteins of adult CPC. This is contingent upon the expression and activity of the alpha1 subunit of guanylyl cyclase in CPC that is necessary for NO-mediated inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  13. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related proteins ZEB1, β-catenin, and β-tubulin-III in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Marco; Caliò, Anna; Rossi, Andrea; Gilioli, Eliana; Pedica, Federica; Montagna, Licia; Pedron, Serena; Confalonieri, Marco; Doglioni, Claudio; Ziesche, Rolf; Grubinger, Markus; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Poletti, Venerino

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been suggested as a relevant contributor to pulmonary fibrosis, but how and where this complex process is triggered in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood. Beta-tubulin-III (Tubβ3), ZEB1, and β-catenin are partially under the negative control of miR-200, a family of micro-RNAs playing a major role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition, that are reduced in experimental lung fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We wonder whether in situ expression of these proteins is increased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, to better understand the significance of miR-200 feedback loop and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We investigated the immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent expression and precise location of ZEB1, Tubβ3, and β-catenin in tissue samples from 34 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis cases and 21 controls (5 normal lungs and 16 other interstitial lung diseases). In 100% idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis samples, the three proteins were concurrently expressed in fibroblastic foci, as well in damaged epithelial cells overlying these lesions and in pericytes within neo-angiogenesis areas. These results were also confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In controls the abnormal expression of the three proteins was absent or limited. This is the first study that relates concurrent expression of Tubβ3, ZEB1, and β-catenin to abnormal epithelial and myofibroblast differentiation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, providing indirect but robust evidence of miR-200 deregulation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition activation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The abnormal expression and localization of these proteins in bronchiolar fibro-proliferative lesions are unique for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and might represent a disease-specific marker in challenging lung biopsies.

  14. Beta-catenin expression in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    El-wahed Gaber, Mohamed Abd; El-Halim Kandil, Mona Abd; El-Farargy, Shawki Mahmoud; Galbet, Doaa Abd Elmoniem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Beta-catenin participates in intercellular adhesion. Catenins are proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of cells. The role of catenin in regulating keratinocyte stem cell differentiation and hair follicle morphogenesis has been extensively reported. Aims and Objectives: is to study β-catenin expression in lesional and non-lesional psoriatic skin to throw light upon its possible role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Biopsies were taken from 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and from 10 normal controls. The distribution of Beta catenin was investigated using polycolonal rabbits B-catenin antibody-1 by immunohistochemical method. Results: In this study membranous β-catenin expression was significantly demonstrated in the control group then the non-lesional areas in comparison to the lesional areas (P < 0.001). Nuclear β-catenin staining expression was significantly more demonstrated in lesional and non-lesional areas in comparison to the control cases (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The down regulation of membranous β-catenin expression in lesional psoriatic skin might reflect a useful phenotypic marker of hyperprolifration of keratinocytes in psoriasis. Moreover, the mild down regulation of membranous β-catenin expression in non lesional psoriatic skin may provide clues about incipient structural abnormalities in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, providing an early diagnostic indicator for evolution to a generalized form of the disease. Nuclear β-catenin expression was not found in the control group but was demonstrated in lesional and moderately in non-lesional reflecting its role in kerationcyte proliferation. PMID:25657910

  15. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfen; Wu, Lishun

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Tumour suppressor TRIM33 targets nuclear β-catenin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianfei; Chen, Yaohui; Wu, Yamei; Wang, Zhongyong; Zhou, Aidong; Zhang, Sicong; Lin, Kangyu; Aldape, Kenneth; Majumder, Sadhan; Lu, Zhimin; Huang, Suyun

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of β-catenin in the nucleus has been implicated in a variety of human cancers but the fate of nuclear β-catenin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that tripartite motif-containing protein 33 (TRIM33), acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, reduces the abundance of nuclear β-catenin protein. TRIM33-mediated β-catenin is destabilized and is GSK-3β or β-TrCP independent. TRIM33 interacts with and ubiquitylates nuclear β-catenin. Moreover, protein kinase Cδ, which directly phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser715, is required for the TRIM33–β-catenin interaction. The function of TRIM33 in suppressing tumour cell proliferation and brain tumour development depends on TRIM33-promoted β-catenin degradation. In human glioblastoma specimens, endogenous TRIM33 levels are inversely correlated with β-catenin. In summary, our findings identify TRIM33 as a tumour suppressor that can abolish tumour cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by degrading nuclear β-catenin. This work suggests a new therapeutic strategy against human cancers caused by aberrant activation of β-catenin. PMID:25639486

  17. p120-catenin in canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Duñach, Mireia; Del Valle-Pérez, Beatriz; García de Herreros, Antonio

    2017-03-03

    Canonical Wnt signaling controls β-catenin protein stabilization, its translocation to the nucleus and the activation of β-catenin/Tcf-4-dependent transcription. In this review, we revise and discuss the recent results describing actions of p120-catenin in different phases of this pathway. More specifically, we comment its involvement in four different steps: (i) the very early activation of CK1ɛ, essential for Dvl-2 binding to the Wnt receptor complex; (ii) the internalization of GSK3 and Axin into multivesicular bodies, necessary for a complete stabilization of β-catenin; (iii) the activation of Rac1 small GTPase, required for β-catenin translocation to the nucleus; and (iv) the release of the inhibitory action caused by Kaiso transcriptional repressor. We integrate these new results with the previously known action of other elements in this pathway, giving a particular relevance to the responses of the Wnt pathway not required for β-catenin stabilization but for β-catenin transcriptional activity. Moreover, we discuss the possible future implications, suggesting that the two cellular compartments where β-catenin is localized, thus, the adherens junction complex and the Wnt signalosome, are more physically connected that previously thought.

  18. Computational biophysical, biochemical, and evolutionary signature of human R-spondin family proteins, the member of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sharma, Garima; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; George Priya Doss, C; Song, Dong-Keun; Nam, Ju-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In human, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in cell growth, cell development, and disease pathogenesis. Four human (Rspo)s are known to activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Presently, (Rspo)s serve as therapeutic target for several human diseases. Henceforth, basic understanding about the molecular properties of (Rspo)s is essential. We approached this issue by interpreting the biochemical and biophysical properties along with molecular evolution of (Rspo)s thorough computational algorithm methods. Our analysis shows that signal peptide length is roughly similar in (Rspo)s family along with similarity in aa distribution pattern. In Rspo3, four N-glycosylation sites were noted. All members are hydrophilic in nature and showed alike GRAVY values, approximately. Conversely, Rspo3 contains the maximum positively charged residues while Rspo4 includes the lowest. Four highly aligned blocks were recorded through Gblocks. Phylogenetic analysis shows Rspo4 is being rooted with Rspo2 and similarly Rspo3 and Rspo1 have the common point of origin. Through phylogenomics study, we developed a phylogenetic tree of sixty proteins (n = 60) with the orthologs and paralogs seed sequences. Protein-protein network was also illustrated. Results demonstrated in our study may help the future researchers to unfold significant physiological and therapeutic properties of (Rspo)s in various disease models.

  19. Computational Biophysical, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Signature of Human R-Spondin Family Proteins, the Member of Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; George Priya Doss, C.; Song, Dong-Keun

    2014-01-01

    In human, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in cell growth, cell development, and disease pathogenesis. Four human (Rspo)s are known to activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Presently, (Rspo)s serve as therapeutic target for several human diseases. Henceforth, basic understanding about the molecular properties of (Rspo)s is essential. We approached this issue by interpreting the biochemical and biophysical properties along with molecular evolution of (Rspo)s thorough computational algorithm methods. Our analysis shows that signal peptide length is roughly similar in (Rspo)s family along with similarity in aa distribution pattern. In Rspo3, four N-glycosylation sites were noted. All members are hydrophilic in nature and showed alike GRAVY values, approximately. Conversely, Rspo3 contains the maximum positively charged residues while Rspo4 includes the lowest. Four highly aligned blocks were recorded through Gblocks. Phylogenetic analysis shows Rspo4 is being rooted with Rspo2 and similarly Rspo3 and Rspo1 have the common point of origin. Through phylogenomics study, we developed a phylogenetic tree of sixty proteins (n = 60) with the orthologs and paralogs seed sequences. Protein-protein network was also illustrated. Results demonstrated in our study may help the future researchers to unfold significant physiological and therapeutic properties of (Rspo)s in various disease models. PMID:25276837

  20. Compromised E-cadherin adhesion and epithelial barrier function with activation of G protein-coupled receptors is rescued by Y-to-F mutations in beta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Winter, Michael C; Shasby, Sandra; Shasby, D Michael

    2008-03-01

    Activation of the type 1 histamine (H1) or the type 2 protease-activated (PAR-2) G protein-coupled receptors interrupts E-cadherin adhesion and decreases the transepithelial resistance (TER) of epithelium. Several reports suggest that cadherin adhesive function depends on the association of cadherin with beta-catenin and that this association is regulated by phosphorylation of tyrosines in beta-catenin. We tested the hypothesis that loss of cadherin adhesion and compromise of TER on activation of the H1 or PAR-2 receptor is due to phosphorylation of tyrosines in beta-catenin. L cells were stably transfected to express E-cadherin (L-E-cad cells) and H1 (L-H1-E-cad cells). L cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells constitutively express PAR-2. Stably transfected L-E-cad, L-H1-E-cad, and MDCK cells were also stably transfected with FLAG-tagged wild-type (WT) or mutant beta-catenin, converting tyrosine 142, 489, or 654 to the nonphosphorylatable mimetic, phenylalanine (WT, Y142F, Y489F, or Y654F). Activation of H1 or PAR-2 interrupted adhesion to an immobilized E-cadherin-Fc fusion protein of L-H1-E-cad, L-E-cad, and MDCK cells expressing WT or Y142F beta-catenin but did not interrupt adhesion of L-H1-E-cad, L-E-cad, and MDCK cells expressing the Y489F or Y654F mutant beta-catenins. PAR-2 activation decreased the TER of monolayers of MDCK cells expressing WT or Y142F beta-catenin 40-45%. However, PAR-2 activation did not decrease the TER of monolayers of MDCK cells expressing Y489F or Y654F beta-catenin. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B binds to the cadherin cytoplasmic domain and dephosphorylates beta-catenin. Inhibition of PTP1B interrupted adhesion to E-cadherin-Fc of MDCK cells expressing WT beta-catenin but did not affect the adhesion of MDCK cells expressing Y489F or Y654F beta-catenin. Similarly, inhibition of PTP1B compromised the TER of MDCK cells expressing WT beta-catenin but did not affect the TER of MDCK cells expressing Y489F or Y654F beta-catenin

  1. Protein structure estimation from NMR data by matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhicheng; Li, Yang; Lei, Qiang; Zhao, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of protein structures is very important to understand their corresponding physical and chemical properties. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the main methods to measure protein structure. In this paper, we propose a two-stage approach to calculate the structure of a protein from a highly incomplete distance matrix, where most data are obtained from NMR. We first randomly "guess" a small part of unobservable distances by utilizing the triangle inequality, which is crucial for the second stage. Then we use matrix completion to calculate the protein structure from the obtained incomplete distance matrix. We apply the accelerated proximal gradient algorithm to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Furthermore, the recovery error of our method is analyzed, and its efficiency is demonstrated by several practical examples.

  2. Cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complex protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Covian, Raul

    2012-01-01

    It has become appreciated over the last several years that protein phosphorylation within the cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complexes is extensive. Given the importance of oxidative phosphorylation and the balance of energy metabolism in the heart, the potential regulatory effect of these classical signaling events on mitochondrial function is of interest. However, the functional impact of protein phosphorylation and the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for it are relatively unknown. Exceptions include the well-characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase regulatory system. The first task of this review is to update the current status of protein phosphorylation detection primarily in the matrix and evaluate evidence linking these events with enzymatic function or protein processing. To manage the scope of this effort, we have focused on the pathways involved in energy metabolism. The high sensitivity of modern methods of detecting protein phosphorylation and the low specificity of many kinases suggests that detection of protein phosphorylation sites without information on the mole fraction of phosphorylation is difficult to interpret, especially in metabolic enzymes, and is likely irrelevant to function. However, several systems including protein translocation, adenine nucleotide translocase, cytochrome c, and complex IV protein phosphorylation have been well correlated with enzymatic function along with the classical dehydrogenase systems. The second task is to review the current understanding of the kinase/phosphatase system within the matrix. Though it is clear that protein phosphorylation occurs within the matrix, based on 32P incorporation and quantitative mass spectrometry measures, the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for this process is ill-defined. An argument is presented that remnants of the much more labile bacterial protein phosphoryl transfer system may be present in the matrix and that the

  3. Defects in extracellular matrix structural proteins in the osteochondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Cohn, D H

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the genes that encode structural proteins of the extracellular matrix affect one or more steps in the diverse set of coordinated events necessary for ordered skeletal development. Depending on the role of the gene product and the severity of the defect, disruption of endochondral ossification and linear growth, the structural integrity and stability of articular cartilage, and/or mineralization can occur. Several themes have emerged from the molecular dissection of these disorders; most of the osteochondrodysplasias that result from defects in structural proteins are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion; a spectrum of related clinical phenotypes can be produced by distinct mutations in the same gene; haploinsufficiency for the gene product usually produces a milder clinical phenotype than do mutations resulting in synthesis of structurally abnormal proteins. For structural defects, a dominant-negative effect resulting from presence of the abnormal protein in the matrix appears to be the primary determinant of phenotype. Secondary effects on extracellular matrix protein structure can result from defects in post-translational maturation, including hydroxylation, sulfation and proteolytic cleavage, and produce distinct osteochondrodysplasias. Overall, the inherited disorders of skeletogenesis have revealed the exquisite sensitivity of the architecture of the extracellular matrix to the quantity and quality of matrix molecules.

  4. Dielectric relaxation in a protein matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.W.; Boxer, S.G.

    1992-06-25

    The dielectric relaxation of a sperm whale ApoMb-DANCA complex is measured by the fluorescence dynamic Stokes shift method. Emission energy increases with decreasing temperature, suggesting that the relaxation activation energies of the rate-limiting motions either depend on the conformational substrate or different types of protein motions with different frequencies participate in the reaction. Experimental data suggest that there may be relaxations on a scale of <100 ps. 61 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells.

  6. Low expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in aggressive nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, YOUTU; BAI, JIWEI; HONG, LINCHUAN; LIU, CHUNHUI; YU, SHENGYUAN; YU, GUOQIANG; ZHANG, YAZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a specific molecular marker for aggressiveness of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) is urgently required in order to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NFPAs. In the present study, low expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in NFPAs was demonstrated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The results confirmed an abnormal accumulation of free β-catenin in the nuclei of NFPAs, which is the core step for the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. Furthermore, cyclin D1 and c-Myc, the downstream proteins of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway, were overexpressed in aggressive NFPAs. These findings demonstrated the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway in aggressive NFPAs. In addition, sFRP2 expression was observed to be inversely correlated to the aggressiveness of NFPAs. Therefore, sFRP2 may act as a tumor suppressor through modulation of the cellular cytosolic pool of β-catenin in NFPAs. Furthermore, the expression of sFRP2 may serve as a biomarker for NFPAs aggressiveness and prognosis. PMID:27347125

  7. Regulation of the Potential Marker for Intestinal Cells, Bmi1, by β-Catenin and the Zinc Finger Protein KLF4

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tianxin; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wen; Colon, Deannon; Shi, Jiandang; Napier, Dana; Rychahou, Piotr; Lu, Wange; Lee, Eun Y.; Weiss, Heidi L.; Evers, B. Mark; Liu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 (Bmi1) is a Polycomb Group (PcG) protein important in gene silencing. It is a component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1), which is required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of many genes. Bmi1 was initially identified as an oncogene that regulates cell proliferation and transformation, and is important in hematopoiesis and the development of nervous systems. Recently, it was reported that Bmi1 is a potential marker for intestinal stem cells. Because Wnt signaling plays a key role in intestinal stem cells, we analyzed the effects of Wnt signaling on Bmi1 expression. We found that Wnt signaling indeed regulates the expression of Bmi1 in colon cancer cells. In addition, the expression of Bmi1 in human colon cancers is significantly associated with nuclear β-catenin, a hallmark for the activated Wnt signaling. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger protein highly expressed in the gut and skin. We recently found that KLF4 cross-talks with Wnt/β-catenin in regulating intestinal homeostasis. We demonstrated that KLF4 directly inhibits the expression of Bmi1 in colon cancer cells. We also found that Bmi1 regulates histone ubiquitination and is required for colon cancer proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Our findings further suggest that Bmi1 is an attractive target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:22170051

  8. Spectral properties of contact matrix: application to proteins.

    PubMed

    Sadoc, J F

    2005-11-01

    A protein can be modelled by a set of points representing its amino acids. Topologically, this set of points is entirely defined by its contact matrix (adjacency matrix in graph theory). The contact matrix characterizing the relation between neighboring amino acids is deduced from Voronoi or Laguerre decomposition. This method allows contact matrices to be defined without any arbitrary cut-off that could induce arbitrary effects. Eigenvalues of these matrices are related with elementary excitations in proteins. We present some spectral properties of these matrices that reflect global properties of proteins. The eigenvectors indicate participation of each amino acids to the excitation modes of the proteins. It is interesting to compare the protein modelled as a close packing of amino acids, with a random close packing of spheres. The main features of the protein are those of a packing, a result that confirms the importance of the dense packing model for proteins. Nevertheless there are some properties, specific to the hierarchical organization of the protein: the primary chain order, the secondary structures and the domain structures.

  9. The role of pleiotrophin and β-catenin in fetal lung development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian lung development is a complex biological process, which is temporally and spatially regulated by growth factors, hormones, and extracellular matrix proteins. Abnormal changes of these molecules often lead to impaired lung development, and thus pulmonary diseases. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are crucial for fetal lung development. This paper reviews two interconnected pathways, pleiotrophin and Wnt/β-catenin, which are involved in fibroblast and epithelial cell communication during fetal lung development. PMID:20565841

  10. Multiple vesiculoviral matrix proteins inhibit both nuclear export and import

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jeannine M.; Her, Lu-Shiun; Dahlberg, James E.

    2001-01-01

    The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus inhibits both nuclear import and export. Here, we demonstrate that this inhibitory property is conserved between the M proteins from two other vesiculoviruses, chandipura virus and spring viremia carp virus. All three M proteins completely block nuclear transport of spliced mRNA, small nuclear RNAs, and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and slow the nuclear transport of many other cargoes. In all cases where transport was merely slowed by the M proteins, the chandipura virus M protein had the strongest inhibitory activity. When expressed in transfected HeLa cells, active M proteins displayed prominent association with the nuclear rim. Moreover, mutation of a conserved methionine abolished both the inhibitory activity and efficient targeting of the M proteins to the nuclear rim. We propose that all of the vesiculoviral M proteins associate with the same nuclear target, which is likely to be a component of the nuclear pore complex. PMID:11447272

  11. Induction of a mesenchymal expression program in lung epithelial cells by wingless protein (Wnt)/β-catenin requires the presence of c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1).

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Jos L J; Guala, Amy S; Leggett, Susan E; Sluimer, Jasper; Badura, Elsbeth C H L; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies suggest the importance of the transition of airway epithelial cells (EMT) in pulmonary fibrosis, and also indicate a role for Wingless protein (Wnt)/β-catenin signaling in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the possible role of the Wnt signaling pathway in inducing EMT in lung epithelial cells, and sought to unravel the role of c-Jun-N-terminal-kinase-1 (JNK1). The exposure of C10 lung epithelial cells or primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs) to Wnt3a resulted in increases in JNK phosphorylation and nuclear β-catenin content. Because the role of β-catenin as a transcriptional coactivator is well established, we investigated T-cell factor/lymphocyte-enhancement factor (TCF/LEF) transcriptional activity in C10 lung epithelial cells after the activation of Wnt. TCF/LEF transcriptional activity was enhanced after the activation of Wnt, and this increase in TCF/LEF transcriptional activity was diminished after the small interfering (si)RNA-mediated ablation of JNK. The activation of the Wnt pathway by Wnt3a, or the expression of either wild-type or constitutively active β-catenin (S37A), led to the activation of an EMT transcriptome, manifested by the increased mRNA expression of CArG box-binding factor-A, fibroblast-specific protein (FSP)-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and vimentin, increases in the content of α-SMA and FSP1, and the concomitant loss of zona occludens-1. The siRNA-mediated ablation of β-catenin substantially decreased Wnt3a-induced EMT. The siRNA ablation of JNK1 largely abolished Wnt3a, β-catenin, and β-catenin S37a-induced EMT. In MTECs lacking Jnk1, Wnt3a-induced increases in nuclear β-catenin, EMT transcriptome, and the content of α-SMA or FSP1 were substantially diminished. These data show that the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is capable of inducing an EMT program in lung epithelial cells through β-catenin, and that this process is controlled by JNK1.

  12. Localized decrease of {beta}-catenin contributes to the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Hayley; Patel, Shyam; Wong, Janelle; Chu, Julia; Li, Adrian; Li, Song

    2008-08-08

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are pluripotent, and can be directed to differentiate into different cell types for therapeutic applications. To expand hESCs, it is desirable to maintain hESC growth without differentiation. As hESC colonies grow, differentiated cells are often found at the periphery of the colonies, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we utilized micropatterning techniques to pattern circular islands or strips of matrix proteins, and examined the spatial pattern of hESC renewal and differentiation. We found that micropatterned matrix restricted hESC differentiation at colony periphery but allowed hESC growth into multiple layers in the central region, which decreased hESC proliferation and induced hESC differentiation. In undifferentiated hESCs, {beta}-catenin primarily localized at cell-cell junctions but not in the nucleus. The amount of {beta}-catenin in differentiating hESCs at the periphery of colonies or in multiple layers decreased significantly at cell-cell junctions. Consistently, knocking down {beta}-catenin decreased Oct-4 expression in hESCs. These results indicate that localized decrease of {beta}-catenin contributes to the spatial pattern of differentiation in hESC colonies.

  13. Enhancing interacting residue prediction with integrated contact matrix prediction in protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Du, Tianchuan; Liao, Li; Wu, Cathy H

    2016-12-01

    Identifying the residues in a protein that are involved in protein-protein interaction and identifying the contact matrix for a pair of interacting proteins are two computational tasks at different levels of an in-depth analysis of protein-protein interaction. Various methods for solving these two problems have been reported in the literature. However, the interacting residue prediction and contact matrix prediction were handled by and large independently in those existing methods, though intuitively good prediction of interacting residues will help with predicting the contact matrix. In this work, we developed a novel protein interacting residue prediction system, contact matrix-interaction profile hidden Markov model (CM-ipHMM), with the integration of contact matrix prediction and the ipHMM interaction residue prediction. We propose to leverage what is learned from the contact matrix prediction and utilize the predicted contact matrix as "feedback" to enhance the interaction residue prediction. The CM-ipHMM model showed significant improvement over the previous method that uses the ipHMM for predicting interaction residues only. It indicates that the downstream contact matrix prediction could help the interaction site prediction.

  14. Conformal Nanopatterning of Extracellular Matrix Proteins onto Topographically Complex Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Jallerat, Quentin; Szymanski, John M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for conformal nanopatterning of extracellular matrix proteins onto engineered surfaces independent of underlying microtopography. This enables fibronectin, laminin, and other proteins to be applied to biomaterial surfaces in complex geometries inaccessible using traditional soft lithography techniques. Engineering combinatorial surfaces that integrate topographical and biochemical micropatterns enhances control of the biotic-abiotic interface, used here to understand cardiomyocyte response to competing physical and chemical cues in the microenvironment. PMID:25506720

  15. Zinc deprivation inhibits extracellular matrix calcification through decreased synthesis of matrix proteins in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Ethel H; Lomeda, Ria-Ann R; Feldmann, Joerg; Nixon, Graeme F; Beattie, John H; Kwun, In-Sook

    2011-10-01

    Zinc is implicated as an activator for bone formation, however, its influence on bone calcification has not been reported. This study examined how zinc regulates the bone matrix calcification in osteoblasts. Two osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell subclones (SC 4 and SC 24 as high and low osteogenic differentiation, respectively) were cultured in normal osteogenic (OSM), Zinc deficient (Zn-, 1 μM), or adequate (Zn+, 15 μM) media up to 20 days. Cells (SC 4) were also supplemented with (50 μg/mL) or no ascorbic acid (AA) in combination with Zinc treatment. Zn- decreased collagen synthesis and matrix accumulation. Although AA is essential for collagen formation, its supplementation could not compensate for Zinc deficiency-induced detrimental effects on extracellular matrix mineralization. Zn- also decreased the medium and cell layer alkaline phosphatase ALP activity. This decreased ALP activity might cause the decrease of Pi accumulation in response to Zn-, as measured by von Kossa staining. Ca deposition in cell layers, measured by Alizarin red S staining, was also decreased by Zn(-) . Our findings suggest that zinc deprivation inhibits extracellular matrix calcification in osteoblasts by decreasing the synthesis and activity of matrix proteins, type I collagen and ALP, and decreasing Ca and Pi accumulation. Therefore zinc deficiency can be considered as risk factor for poor extracellular matrix calcification. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphisms are associated with coronary artery calcification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). We examined the cross-sectional association between MGP SNPs [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A),and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)...

  17. Basic fibroblast growth factor activates β-catenin/RhoA signaling in pulmonary fibroblasts with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhengxing; Li, Bo; Zhou, Xun; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is featured by aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Trigger of the β-catenin/RhoA pathway has been involved in aberrant ECM deposition in several diseases. We investigated WNT signaling activation in primary pulmonary fibroblasts of rats with and without COPD and the function of WNT signaling in pulmonary fibroblast. We evaluated the expression of WNT signaling and the role of β-catenin, using MRC-5 fibroblasts and primary lung fibroblasts of rats with and without COPD. Lung fibroblasts highly expressed mRNA of genes associated with WNT signaling. Treatment of MRC-5 fibroblasts using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a composition of the mucus in COPD patients, enhanced β-catenin, Wnt5a and RhoA expression. The expression in β-catenin, Wnt5a and RhoA induced by bFGF was higher in fibroblasts of rats with COPD than without COPD, whereas the basal expression was similar. bFGF also activated transcriptionally active and increased total β-catenin protein expression. Moreover, bFGF enhanced the expression of α-sm-actin and fibronectin, which was abrogated by β-catenin, Wnt5a and RhoA-specific adenovirus siRNA. The induction of active β-catenin and then fibronectin turnover in response to bFGF were markedly increased in pulmonary fibroblasts from rat with COPD. β-Catenin/RhoA pathway results in ECM deposition in lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts differentiation. β-catenin/RhoA signaling induced by bFGF is promoted in lung fibroblasts from rats with COPD. The study indicated a crucial role of the WNT signaling in mediating fibroblast morphology and function in COPD.

  18. Enamel matrix proteins; old molecules for new applications.

    PubMed

    Lyngstadaas, S P; Wohlfahrt, J C; Brookes, S J; Paine, M L; Snead, M L; Reseland, J E

    2009-08-01

    Emdogain (enamel matrix derivative, EMD) is well recognized in periodontology, where it is used as a local adjunct to periodontal surgery to stimulate regeneration of periodontal tissues lost to periodontal disease. The biological effect of EMD is through stimulation of local growth factor secretion and cytokine expression in the treated tissues, inducing a regenerative process that mimics odontogenesis. The major (>95%) component of EMD is Amelogenins (Amel). No other active components have so far been isolated from EMD, and several studies have shown that purified amelogenins can induce the same effect as the complete EMD. Amelogenins comprise a family of highly conserved extracellular matrix proteins derived from one gene. Amelogenin structure and function is evolutionary well conserved, suggesting a profound role in biomineralization and hard tissue formation. A special feature of amelogenins is that under physiological conditions the proteins self-assembles into nanospheres that constitute an extracellular matrix. In the body, this matrix is slowly digested by specific extracellular proteolytic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase) in a controlled process, releasing bioactive peptides to the surrounding tissues for weeks after application. Based on clinical and experimental observations in periodontology indicating that amelogenins can have a significant positive influence on wound healing, bone formation and root resorption, several new applications for amelogenins have been suggested. New experiments now confirm that amelogenins have potential for being used also in the fields of endodontics, bone regeneration, implantology, traumatology, and wound care.

  19. Early articular cartilage degeneration in a developmental dislocation of the hip model results from activation of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Bo; Sun, Jun; Yuan, Yi; Yao, Jie; Wang, Peng; Ma, Ruixue

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dislocation or dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is one of the most common deformities in children. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent long-term complication. The molecular mechanism of early articular cartilage degeneration in DDH is still unclear. It is well known that β-catenin plays a crucial role in articular cartilage degeneration. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between β-catenin and DDH cartilage degeneration. We used a DDH model that was established by modification of swaddling position in newborn Wistar rats. The hips were isolated from the DDH model rats and untreated control group at the age of 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. β-Catenin gene and protein were investigated by quantitative (q)RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Collagen X and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, markers of early cartilage degeneration, were assessed by qRT-PCR. Primary chondrocytes were cultured from cartilage of two groups at the age of 8 weeks. Expression of β-catenin, collagen X and MMP-13 was detected. Continued high expression of β-catenin was observed in cartilage from DDH model rats. mRNA and protein expression of β-catenin was significantly increased in primary chondrocytes of the DDH model compared with the control group. Collagen X and MMP-13 expression was higher in the cartilage and chondrocytes from DDH model rats than the control group. Our findings suggest that early cartilage degeneration in DDH may result from activation of β-catenin signaling. PMID:24817933

  20. Novel identification of matrix proteins involved in calcitic biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Rose-Martel, Megan; Smiley, Sandy; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2015-02-26

    Calcitic biomineralization is essential for otoconia formation in vertebrates. This process is characterized by protein-crystal interactions that modulate crystal growth on an extracellular matrix. An excellent model for the study of calcitic biomineralization is the avian eggshell, the fastest known biomineralization process. The objective of this study is to identify and characterize matrix proteins associated with the eggshell mammillary cones, which are hypothesized to regulate the earliest stage of eggshell calcification. Mammillary cones were isolated from 2 models, fertilized and unfertilized, and the released proteins were identified by RP-nanoLC and ES-MS/MS proteomics. Proteomics analysis identified 49 proteins associated with the eggshell membrane fibers and, importantly, 18 mammillary cone-specific proteins with an additional 18 proteins identified as enriched in the mammillary cones. Among the most promising candidates for modulating protein-crystal interactions were extracellular matrix proteins, including ABI family member 3 (NESH) binding protein (ABI3BP), tiarin-like, hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 3 (HAPLN3), collagen alpha-1(X), collagen alpha-1(II) and fibronectin, in addition to the calcium binding proteins calumenin, EGF-like repeats and discoidin 1-like domains 3 (EDIL3), nucleobindin-2 and SPARC. In conclusion, we identified several cone-resident proteins that are candidates to regulate initiation of eggshell calcification. Further study of these proteins will determine their roles in modulating calcitic biomineralization and lead to insight into the process of otoconia formation/regeneration. Biomineralization is essential for the development of hard tissues in vertebrates, which includes both calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate structures. Calcitic mineralization by calcium carbonate is an important process in the formation of otoconia, which are gravity receptor organs located in the inner ear and are responsible for balance

  1. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  2. Glycosylation of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is critical for osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yao; Weng, Yuteng; Zhang, Chenyang; Liu, Yi; Kang, Chen; Liu, Zhongshuang; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zuolin

    2015-12-04

    Proteoglycans play important roles in regulating osteogenesis. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a highly expressed bone extracellular matrix protein that regulates both bone development and phosphate metabolism. After glycosylation, an N-terminal fragment of DMP1 protein was identified as a new proteoglycan (DMP1-PG) in bone matrix. In vitro investigations showed that Ser(89) is the key glycosylation site in mouse DMP1. However, the specific role of DMP1 glycosylation is still not understood. In this study, a mutant DMP1 mouse model was developed in which the glycosylation site S(89) was substituted with G(89) (S89G-DMP1). The glycosylation level of DMP1 was down-regulated in the bone matrix of S89G-DMP1 mice. Compared with wild type mice, the long bones of S89G-DMP1 mice showed developmental changes, including the speed of bone remodeling and mineralization, the morphology and activities of osteocytes, and activities of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These findings indicate that glycosylation of DMP1 is a key posttranslational modification process during development and that DMP1-PG functions as an indispensable proteoglycan in osteogenesis.

  3. Glycosylation of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is critical for osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao; Weng, Yuteng; Zhang, Chenyang; Liu, Yi; Kang, Chen; Liu, Zhongshuang; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zuolin

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycans play important roles in regulating osteogenesis. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a highly expressed bone extracellular matrix protein that regulates both bone development and phosphate metabolism. After glycosylation, an N-terminal fragment of DMP1 protein was identified as a new proteoglycan (DMP1-PG) in bone matrix. In vitro investigations showed that Ser89 is the key glycosylation site in mouse DMP1. However, the specific role of DMP1 glycosylation is still not understood. In this study, a mutant DMP1 mouse model was developed in which the glycosylation site S89 was substituted with G89 (S89G-DMP1). The glycosylation level of DMP1 was down-regulated in the bone matrix of S89G-DMP1 mice. Compared with wild type mice, the long bones of S89G-DMP1 mice showed developmental changes, including the speed of bone remodeling and mineralization, the morphology and activities of osteocytes, and activities of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These findings indicate that glycosylation of DMP1 is a key posttranslational modification process during development and that DMP1-PG functions as an indispensable proteoglycan in osteogenesis. PMID:26634432

  4. Domain organizations of modular extracellular matrix proteins and their evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, J

    1996-11-01

    Multidomain proteins which are composed of modular units are a rather recent invention of evolution. Domains are defined as autonomously folding regions of a protein, and many of them are similar in sequence and structure, indicating common ancestry. Their modular nature is emphasized by frequent repetitions in identical or in different proteins and by a large number of different combinations with other domains. The extracellular matrix is perhaps the largest biological system composed of modular mosaic proteins, and its astonishing complexity and diversity are based on them. A cluster of minireviews on modular proteins is being published in Matrix Biology. These deal with the evolution of modular proteins, the three-dimensional structure of domains and the ways in which these interact in a multidomain protein. They discuss structure-function relationships in calcium binding domains, collagen helices, alpha-helical coiled-coil domains and C-lectins. The present minireview is focused on some general aspects and serves as an introduction to the cluster.

  5. Proteomic characterization of oyster shell organic matrix proteins (OMP).

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Abhishek; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Tong, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Oysters are economically and ecologically important bivalves, with its calcareous shell and delicious meat. The shell composition is a blend of inorganic crystals and shell proteins that form an organic matrix which protects the soft inner tissue of the oyster. The objective of the study was to compare the composition of organic matrix proteins (OMP) of two phylogenetically related species: the Hong Kong oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) and the Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata) which differ in their shell hardness and mechanical properties. C. hongkongensis shells are comparatively stronger than C. angulata. Modern shotgun proteomics has been used to understand the nature of the OMP and the variations observed in the mechanical properties of these two species of oyster shells. After visualizing proteins on the one (1DE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) gels, the protein spots and their intensities were compared using PDQuest software and 14 proteins of C. hongkongensis were found to be significantly different (student׳s t-test; p<0.05) when compared to the C. angulata. Furthermore, shell OMP separated on 1DE gels were processed using Triple TOF5600 mass spectrometry and 42 proteins of C. hongkongensis and 37 of C. angulata identified. A Circos based comparative analysis of the shell proteins of both oyster species were prepared against the shell proteome of other shell forming gastropods and molluscs to study the evolutionary conservation of OMP and their function. This comparative proteomics expanded our understating of the molecular mechanism behind the shells having different hardness and mechanical properties.

  6. Fentanyl inhibits proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer via β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiu-Lai; Chen, Min-Li; Zhou, Sheng-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Fentanyl is widely used for relieving pain and narcotizing in cancer patients. However, there are few published reports regarding the effects of fentanyl on tumor control and treatment. Here we investigated the effects of fentanyl on tumor growth and cell invasion in the human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) cells. Methods: Nude mice xenografts of HCT116 cells were established to assess the inhibition effect on tumor growth by fentanyl. MTT and Transwell were employed to determine the cell survival rate and cell invasion, respectively. MicroRNAs and mRNAs expression were quantified by real-time PCR. β-catenin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) expression were assayed by western blotting. β-Catenin-specific small interfering RNA (Si-β-catenin) and miR-182 mimics were transfected in cells to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of fentanyl on the colorectal tumor and HCT116 cells. Results: Treatment with fentanyl inhibited the tumor growth and HCT116 cells invasion. Fentanyl also downregulated the expression of β-catenin and miR-182 in both xenograft tumors and HCT116 cells, and decreased the protein level of MMP-9 in HCT116 cells. Downregulation of β-Catenin resulted in the decrease of miR-182 expression in colorectal cells. In addition, the overexpression of miR-182 reversed the effect of fentanyl on MMP-9 expression and cell invasion of HCT116 cells. Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that the inhibition of tumor growth and cell invasion in colorectal cancer by fentanyl is probably due to downregulation of miR-182 and MMP-9 expression by β-catenin. PMID:25755709

  7. Procaine Inhibits Osteo/Odontogenesis through Wnt/β-Catenin Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Herencia, Carmen; Diaz-Tocados, Juan Miguel; Jurado, Lidia; Montes de Oca, Addy; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Maria Encarnación; Martín-Alonso, Carmen; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M; Vergara, Noemi; Rodríguez, Mariano; Almadén, Yolanda; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a complex pathology characterized by the loss of alveolar bone. The causes and the mechanisms that promote this bone resorption still remain unknown. The knowledge of the critical regulators involved in the alteration of alveolar bone homeostasis is of great importance for developing molecular therapies. Procaine is an anesthetic drug with demethylant properties, mainly used by dentists in oral surgeries. The inhibitor role of Wnt signaling of procaine was described in vitro in colon cancer cells. In this work we evaluated the role of procaine (1 uM) in osteo/odontogenesis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Similarly, the mechanisms whereby procaine achieves these effects were also studied. Procaine administration led to a drastic decrease of calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining and an increase in the expression of Matrix Gla Protein. With respect to osteo/odontogenic markers, procaine decreased early and mature osteo/odontogenic markers. In parallel, procaine inhibited canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, observing a loss of nuclear β-catenin, a decrease in Lrp5 and Frizzled 3, a significant increase of sclerostin and Gsk3β and an increase of phosphorylated β-catenin. The combination of osteo/odontogenic stimuli and Lithium Chloride decreased mRNA expression of Gsk3β, recovered by Procaine. Furthermore it was proved that Procaine alone dose dependently increases the expression of Gsk3β and β-catenin phosphorylation. These effects of procaine were also observed on mature osteoblast. Interestingly, at this concentration of procaine no demethylant effects were observed. Our results demonstrated that procaine administration drastically reduced the mineralization and osteo/odontogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway through the increase of Gsk3β expression and β-catenin phosphorylation.

  8. Procaine Inhibits Osteo/Odontogenesis through Wnt/β-Catenin Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Herencia, Carmen; Diaz-Tocados, Juan Miguel; Jurado, Lidia; Montes de Oca, Addy; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Maria Encarnación; Martín-Alonso, Carmen; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M.; Vergara, Noemi; Rodríguez, Mariano; Almadén, Yolanda; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontitis is a complex pathology characterized by the loss of alveolar bone. The causes and the mechanisms that promote this bone resorption still remain unknown. The knowledge of the critical regulators involved in the alteration of alveolar bone homeostasis is of great importance for developing molecular therapies. Procaine is an anesthetic drug with demethylant properties, mainly used by dentists in oral surgeries. The inhibitor role of Wnt signaling of procaine was described in vitro in colon cancer cells. Methods In this work we evaluated the role of procaine (1 uM) in osteo/odontogenesis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Similarly, the mechanisms whereby procaine achieves these effects were also studied. Results Procaine administration led to a drastic decrease of calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining and an increase in the expression of Matrix Gla Protein. With respect to osteo/odontogenic markers, procaine decreased early and mature osteo/odontogenic markers. In parallel, procaine inhibited canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, observing a loss of nuclear β-catenin, a decrease in Lrp5 and Frizzled 3, a significant increase of sclerostin and Gsk3β and an increase of phosphorylated β-catenin. The combination of osteo/odontogenic stimuli and Lithium Chloride decreased mRNA expression of Gsk3β, recovered by Procaine. Furthermore it was proved that Procaine alone dose dependently increases the expression of Gsk3β and β-catenin phosphorylation. These effects of procaine were also observed on mature osteoblast. Interestingly, at this concentration of procaine no demethylant effects were observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that procaine administration drastically reduced the mineralization and osteo/odontogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway through the increase of Gsk3β expression and β-catenin phosphorylation. PMID:27257912

  9. Adverse Effects of Osteocytic Constitutive Activation of ß-Catenin on Bone Strength and Bone Growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sixu; Feng, Jianquan; Bao, Quanwei; Li, Ang; Zhang, Bo; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Yufeng; Guo, Qingshan; Jing, Junjun; Lin, Shuxian; Zong, Zhaowen

    2015-07-01

    The activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in both mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts has been demonstrated to increase bone mass, showing promise for the treatment of low bone volume conditions such as osteoporosis. However, the possible side effects of manipulating this pathway have not been fully addressed. Previously, we reported that the constitutive activation of ß-catenin in osteoblasts impaired vertebral linear growth. In the present study, β-catenin was constitutively activated in osteocytes by crossing Catnb+/lox(exon 3) mice with dentin matrix protein 1(DMP1)-Cre transgenic mice, and the effects of this activation on bone mass, bone growth and bone strength were then observed. DMP1-Cre was found to be predominantly expressed in osteocytes, with weak expression in a small portion of osteoblasts and growth plate chondrocytes. After the activation, the cancellous bone mass was dramatically increased, almost filling the entire bone marrow cavity in long bones. However, bone strength decreased significantly. Thinner and more porous cortical bone along with impaired mineralization were responsible for the decrease in bone strength. Furthermore, the mice showed shorter stature with impaired linear growth of the long bones. Moreover, the concentration of serum phosphate decreased significantly after the activation of ß-catenin, and a high inorganic phosphate (Pi) diet could partially rescue the phenotype of decreased mineralization level and impaired linear growth. Taken together, the constitutive activation of β-catenin in osteocytes may increase cancellous bone mass; however, the activation also had adverse effects on bone strength and bone growth. These adverse effects should be addressed before the adoption of any therapeutic clinical application involving adjustment of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  10. Proteins of insoluble matrix of avian (gallus gallus) eggshell.

    PubMed

    Miksík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedláková, Pavla; Mikulikova, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    The protein composition of the insoluble avian eggshell matrix was studied. The determination of these proteins insoluble in water (EDTA-insoluble) was carried out using enzymatic cleavage followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The influence of various enzymes on the protein splitting also was studied. The distribution of proteins depends on the type of layer (localization within the eggshell): ovocalyxin-32 was found mainly in the outer layer (the cuticle); ovocleidin-116 and 17 and ovocalyxin-36 were found throughout the whole eggshell, whereas ovalbumin was only found in the inner layer, the mammillary. The pigment (protoporphyrin IX) was mainly found in the cuticle and is incorporated into the protein network.

  11. Domain structure and organisation in extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Hohenester, Erhard; Engel, Jürgen

    2002-03-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are large modular molecules built up from a limited set of modules, or domains. The basic folds of many domains have now been determined by crystallography or NMR spectroscopy. Recent structures of domain pairs and larger tandem arrays, as well as of oligomerisation domains, have begun to reveal the principles underlying the higher order architecture of ECM proteins. Structural information, coupled with site-directed mutagenesis, has been instrumental in showing how adjacent domains can co-operate in ligand binding. Very recently, the first heterotypic ECM protein complexes have become available. Here, we review the advances of the last 5 years in understanding ECM protein structure, with special emphasis on those structures that have given insight into the biological functions of ECM proteins.

  12. Leptin-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells Requires β-Catenin Activation via Akt/GSK3- and MTA1/Wnt1 Protein-dependent Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dan; Avtanski, Dimiter; Saxena, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Dipali

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations in the adipocytokine profile, especially higher levels of leptin, are a major cause of breast tumor progression and metastasis; the underlying mechanisms, however, are not well understood. In particular, it remains elusive whether leptin is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we provide molecular evidence that leptin induces breast cancer cells to undergo a transition from epithelial to spindle-like mesenchymal morphology. Investigating the downstream mediator(s) that may direct leptin-induced EMT, we found functional interactions between leptin, metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), and Wnt1 signaling components. Leptin increases accumulation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin leading to increased promoter recruitment. Silencing of β-catenin or treatment with the small molecule inhibitor, ICG-001, inhibits leptin-induced EMT, invasion, and tumorsphere formation. Mechanistically, leptin stimulates phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) via Akt activation resulting in a substantial decrease in the formation of the GSK3β-LKB1-Axin complex that leads to increased accumulation of β-catenin. Leptin treatment also increases Wnt1 expression that contributes to GSK3β phosphorylation. Inhibition of Wnt1 abrogates leptin-stimulated GSK3β phosphorylation. We also discovered that leptin increases the expression of an important modifier of Wnt1 signaling, MTA1, which is integral to leptin-mediated regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as silencing of MTA1 inhibits leptin-induced Wnt1 expression, GSK3β phosphorylation, and β-catenin activation. Furthermore, analysis of leptin-treated breast tumors shows increased expression of Wnt1, pGSK3β, and vimentin along with higher nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and reduced E-cadherin expression providing in vivo evidence for a previously unrecognized cross-talk between leptin and MTA1/Wnt signaling in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. PMID

  13. WNT/β-catenin signaling is modulated by mechanical ventilation in an experimental model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jesús; Cabrera, Nuria E; Casula, Milena; Valladares, Francisco; Flores, Carlos; López-Aguilar, Josefina; Blanch, Lluis; Zhang, Haibo; Kacmarek, Robert M; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2011-07-01

    The mechanisms involved in lung injury progression during acute lung injury (ALI) are still poorly understood. Because WNT/β-catenin signaling has been shown to be involved in epithelial cell injury and hyperplasia during inflammation and sepsis, we hypothesized that it would be modulated by mechanical ventilation (MV) in an experimental model of sepsis-induced ALI. This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled animal study performed using adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation. At 18 h, surviving animals were randomized to spontaneous breathing or two strategies of MV for 4 h: low tidal volume (V (T)) (6 ml/kg) plus 10 cmH2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) versus high (20 ml/kg) tidal volume (V (T)) with zero PEEP. Histological evaluation, measurements of WNT5A, total β-catenin, and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) protein levels by Western blot, and their immunohistochemical localization in the lungs were analyzed. Sepsis and high-V (T) MV caused lung inflammation and perivascular edema with cellular infiltrates and collagen deposition. Protein levels of WNT5A, β-catenin, and MMP7 in the lungs were increased in animals with sepsis-induced ALI. High-V (T) MV was associated with higher levels of WNT5A, β-catenin, and MMP7 protein levels (p < 0.001), compared to healthy control animals. By contrast, low-V (T) MV markedly reduced WNT5A, β-catenin, and MMP7 protein levels (p < 0.001). Our findings demonstrate that the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway is modulated early during sepsis and ventilator-induced lung injury, suggesting that activation of this pathway could play an important role in both lung injury progression and repair.

  14. Hyperunstable matrix proteins in the byssus of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Sagert, Jason; Waite, J Herbert

    2009-07-01

    The marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is tethered to rocks in the intertidal zone by a holdfast known as the byssus. Functioning as a shock absorber, the byssus is composed of threads, the primary molecular components of which are collagen-containing proteins (preCOLs) that largely dictate the higher order self-assembly and mechanical properties of byssal threads. The threads contain additional matrix components that separate and perhaps lubricate the collagenous microfibrils during deformation in tension. In this study, the thread matrix proteins (TMPs), a glycine-, tyrosine- and asparagine-rich protein family, were shown to possess unique repeated sequence motifs, significant transcriptional heterogeneity and were distributed throughout the byssal thread. Deamidation was shown to occur at a significant rate in a recombinant TMP and in the byssal thread as a function of time. Furthermore, charge heterogeneity presumably due to deamidation was observed in TMPs extracted from threads. The TMPs were localized to the preCOL-containing secretory granules in the collagen gland of the foot and are assumed to provide a viscoelastic matrix around the collagenous fibers in byssal threads.

  15. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M; Kerwin, James; Guerrero, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen, can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24- and 96-h NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24-h biofilms, two were found only in 96-h biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24- and 96-h NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation.

  16. Matrix Gla protein and osteocalcin: from gene duplication to neofunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Cancela, M Leonor; Laizé, Vincent; Conceição, Natércia

    2014-11-01

    Osteocalcin (OC or bone Gla protein, BGP) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) are two members of the growing family of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins. They were the first VKD proteins found not to be involved in coagulation and synthesized outside the liver. Both proteins were isolated from bone although it is now known that only OC is synthesized by bone cells under normal physiological conditions, but since both proteins can bind calcium and hydroxyapatite, they can also accumulate in bone. Both OC and MGP share similar structural features, both in terms of protein domains and gene organization. OC gene is likely to have appeared from MGP through a tandem gene duplication that occurred concomitantly with the appearance of the bony vertebrates. Despite their relatively close relationship and the fact that both can bind calcium and affect mineralization, their functions are not redundant and they also have other unrelated functions. Interestingly, these two proteins appear to have followed quite different evolutionary strategies in order to acquire novel functionalities, with OC following a gene duplication strategy while MGP variability was obtained mostly by the use of multiple promoters and alternative splicing, leading to proteins with additional functional characteristics and alternative gene regulatory pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnesium inhibits Wnt/β-catenin activity and reverses the osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, Addy; Guerrero, Fatima; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M; Madueño, Juan A; Herencia, Carmen; Peralta, Alan; Almaden, Yolanda; Lopez, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Peter, Mirjam E; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Rodriguez, Mariano; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium reduces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro but the mechanism has not been revealed so far. This work used only slightly increased magnesium levels and aimed at determining: a) whether inhibition of magnesium transport into the cell influences VSMC calcification, b) whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a key mediator of osteogenic differentiation, is modified by magnesium and c) whether magnesium can influence already established vascular calcification. Human VSMC incubated with high phosphate (3.3 mM) and moderately elevated magnesium (1.4 mM) significantly reduced VSMC calcification and expression of the osteogenic transcription factors Cbfa-1 and osterix, and up-regulated expression of the natural calcification inhibitors matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The protective effects of magnesium on calcification and expression of osteogenic markers were no longer observed in VSMC cultured with an inhibitor of cellular magnesium transport (2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate [2-APB]). High phosphate induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as demonstrated by the translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus, increased expression of the frizzled-3 gene, and downregulation of Dkk-1 gene, a specific antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The addition of magnesium however inhibited phosphate-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, TRPM7 silencing using siRNA resulted in activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additional experiments were performed to test the ability of magnesium to halt the progression of already established VSMC calcification in vitro. The delayed addition of magnesium decreased calcium content, down-regulated Cbfa-1 and osterix and up-regulated MGP and OPG, when compared with a control group. This effect was not observed when 2-APB was added. In conclusion, magnesium transport through the cell membrane is important to inhibit VSMC calcification in vitro

  18. Multitask Matrix Completion for Learning Protein Interactions Across Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Meghana; Murugesan, Keerthiram; Carbonell, Jaime G; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2017-01-27

    Disease-causing pathogens such as viruses introduce their proteins into the host cells in which they interact with the host's proteins, enabling the virus to replicate inside the host. These interactions between pathogen and host proteins are key to understanding infectious diseases. Often multiple diseases involve phylogenetically related or biologically similar pathogens. Here we present a multitask learning method to jointly model interactions between human proteins and three different but related viruses: Hepatitis C, Ebola virus, and Influenza A. Our multitask matrix completion-based model uses a shared low-rank structure in addition to a task-specific sparse structure to incorporate the various interactions. We obtain between 7 and 39 percentage points improvement in predictive performance over prior state-of-the-art models. We show how our model's parameters can be interpreted to reveal both general and specific interaction-relevant characteristics of the viruses. Our code is available online.()

  19. γ-Catenin acts as a tumor suppressor through context-dependent mechanisms in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jutta Maria; Lahm, Harald; Ofner, Andrea; Göke, Burkhard; Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2017-07-06

    γ-Catenin is a protein closely related to β-catenin. While the overexpression of β-catenin has been linked with impaired prognosis and survival in various malignancies, both oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions have been described for γ-catenin. Thus, its role in cancer remains controversial. In this study, we examined the impact of γ-catenin expression on the malignant potential of colorectal cancer cells. γ-Catenin was knocked down by short interfering RNA in the γ-catenin-proficient DLD-1 cell line and stably overexpressed in the γ-catenin-deficient cell line RKO. The effects of these molecular manipulations on the malignant potential of the cell lines were tested in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft tumor model. γ-Catenin contributed to Wnt signaling independent of the cellular context. Unlike its sister molecule β-catenin, γ-catenin inhibited cellular invasion and anoikis in cells endogenously expressing γ-catenin. In line with this tumor suppressor function, its de novo expression in RKO cells inhibited proliferation via cell cycle arrest. In a xenograft tumor model, overexpression of γ-catenin starkly reduced tumor growth in vivo. This is the first report demonstrating a tumor-suppressive effect of γ-catenin in colorectal cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Detailed in vitro analysis revealed that effects of γ-catenin differ in γ-catenin proficient and deficient cells, indicating that its function in colorectal cancer is dependent on the cellular context. This finding adds to our understanding of γ-catenin and may have implications for future studies of catenin/Wnt targeted cancer therapies.

  20. The ciliary protein nephrocystin-4 translocates the canonical Wnt regulator Jade-1 to the nucleus to negatively regulate β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Borgal, Lori; Habbig, Sandra; Hatzold, Julia; Liebau, Max C; Dafinger, Claudia; Sacarea, Ilinca; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard

    2012-07-20

    Nephronophthisis (NPH) is an autosomal-recessive cystic kidney disease and represents the most common genetic cause for end-stage renal disease in children and adolescents. It can be caused by the mutation of genes encoding for the nephrocystin proteins (NPHPs). All NPHPs localize to primary cilia, classifying this disease as a "ciliopathy." The primary cilium is a critical regulator of several cell signaling pathways. Cystogenesis in the kidney is thought to involve overactivation of canonical Wnt signaling, which is negatively regulated by the primary cilium and several NPH proteins, although the mechanism remains unclear. Jade-1 has recently been identified as a novel ubiquitin ligase targeting the canonical Wnt downstream effector β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Here, we identify Jade-1 as a novel component of the NPHP protein complex. Jade-1 colocalizes with NPHP1 at the transition zone of primary cilia and interacts with NPHP4. Furthermore, NPHP4 stabilizes protein levels of Jade-1 and promotes the translocation of Jade-1 to the nucleus. Finally, NPHP4 and Jade-1 additively inhibit canonical Wnt signaling, and this genetic interaction is conserved in zebrafish. The stabilization and nuclear translocation of Jade-1 by NPHP4 enhances the ability of Jade-1 to negatively regulate canonical Wnt signaling. Loss of this repressor function in nephronophthisis might be an important factor promoting Wnt activation and contributing to cyst formation.

  1. The Ciliary Protein Nephrocystin-4 Translocates the Canonical Wnt Regulator Jade-1 to the Nucleus to Negatively Regulate β-Catenin Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Borgal, Lori; Habbig, Sandra; Hatzold, Julia; Liebau, Max C.; Dafinger, Claudia; Sacarea, Ilinca; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPH) is an autosomal-recessive cystic kidney disease and represents the most common genetic cause for end-stage renal disease in children and adolescents. It can be caused by the mutation of genes encoding for the nephrocystin proteins (NPHPs). All NPHPs localize to primary cilia, classifying this disease as a “ciliopathy.” The primary cilium is a critical regulator of several cell signaling pathways. Cystogenesis in the kidney is thought to involve overactivation of canonical Wnt signaling, which is negatively regulated by the primary cilium and several NPH proteins, although the mechanism remains unclear. Jade-1 has recently been identified as a novel ubiquitin ligase targeting the canonical Wnt downstream effector β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Here, we identify Jade-1 as a novel component of the NPHP protein complex. Jade-1 colocalizes with NPHP1 at the transition zone of primary cilia and interacts with NPHP4. Furthermore, NPHP4 stabilizes protein levels of Jade-1 and promotes the translocation of Jade-1 to the nucleus. Finally, NPHP4 and Jade-1 additively inhibit canonical Wnt signaling, and this genetic interaction is conserved in zebrafish. The stabilization and nuclear translocation of Jade-1 by NPHP4 enhances the ability of Jade-1 to negatively regulate canonical Wnt signaling. Loss of this repressor function in nephronophthisis might be an important factor promoting Wnt activation and contributing to cyst formation. PMID:22654112

  2. Molecular events in matrix protein metabolism in the aging kidney.

    PubMed

    Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Feliers, Denis; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Lee, Hak Joo; Lee, Myung Ja; Day, Robert T; Yalamanchili, Hima Bindu; Choudhury, Goutam G; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2012-12-01

    We explored molecular events associated with aging-induced matrix changes in the kidney. C57BL6 mice were studied in youth, middle age, and old age. Albuminuria and serum cystatin C level (an index of glomerular filtration) increased with aging. Renal hypertrophy was evident in middle-aged and old mice and was associated with glomerulomegaly and increase in mesangial fraction occupied by extracellular matrix. Content of collagen types I and III and fibronectin was increased with aging; increment in their mRNA varied with the phase of aging. The content of ZEB1 and ZEB2, collagen type I transcription inhibitors, and their binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter by ChIP assay also showed age-phase-specific changes. Lack of increase in mRNA and data from polysome assay suggested decreased degradation as a potential mechanism for kidney collagen type I accumulation in the middle-aged mice. These changes occurred with increment in TGFβ mRNA and protein and activation of its SMAD3 pathway; SMAD3 binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter was also increased. TGFβ-regulated microRNAs (miRs) exhibited selective regulation. The renal cortical content of miR-21 and miR-200c, but not miR-192, miR-200a, or miR-200b, was increased with aging. Increased miR-21 and miR-200c contents were associated with reduced expression of their targets, Sprouty-1 and ZEB2, respectively. These data show that aging is associated with complex molecular events in the kidney that are already evident in the middle age and progress to old age. Age-phase-specific regulation of matrix protein synthesis occurs and involves matrix protein-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. © 2012 The Authors Aging Cell © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Proteomic characterization of oyster shell organic matrix proteins (OMP)

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Abhishek; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Tong, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Oysters are economically and ecologically important bivalves, with its calcareous shell and delicious meat. The shell composition is a blend of inorganic crystals and shell proteins that form an organic matrix which protects the soft inner tissue of the oyster. The objective of the study was to compare the composition of organic matrix proteins (OMP) of two phylogenetically related species: the Hong Kong oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) and the Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata) which differ in their shell hardness and mechanical properties. C. hongkongensis shells are comparatively stronger than C. angulata. Modern shotgun proteomics has been used to understand the nature of the OMP and the variations observed in the mechanical properties of these two species of oyster shells. After visualizing proteins on the one (1DE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) gels, the protein spots and their intensities were compared using PDQuest software and 14 proteins of C. hongkongensis were found to be significantly different (student׳s t-test; p<0.05) when compared to the C. angulata. Furthermore, shell OMP separated on 1DE gels were processed using Triple TOF5600 mass spectrometry and 42 proteins of C. hongkongensis and 37 of C. angulata identified. A Circos based comparative analysis of the shell proteins of both oyster species were prepared against the shell proteome of other shell forming gastropods and molluscs to study the evolutionary conservation of OMP and their function. This comparative proteomics expanded our understating of the molecular mechanism behind the shells having different hardness and mechanical properties. PMID:28246460

  4. Distance matrix-based approach to protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L; Wu, Zhijun; Song, Guang; Yang, Lei; Kolinski, Andrzej; Pokarowski, Piotr

    2009-03-01

    Much structural information is encoded in the internal distances; a distance matrix-based approach can be used to predict protein structure and dynamics, and for structural refinement. Our approach is based on the square distance matrix D = [r(ij)(2)] containing all square distances between residues in proteins. This distance matrix contains more information than the contact matrix C, that has elements of either 0 or 1 depending on whether the distance r (ij) is greater or less than a cutoff value r (cutoff). We have performed spectral decomposition of the distance matrices D = sigma lambda(k)V(k)V(kT), in terms of eigenvalues lambda kappa and the corresponding eigenvectors v kappa and found that it contains at most five nonzero terms. A dominant eigenvector is proportional to r (2)--the square distance of points from the center of mass, with the next three being the principal components of the system of points. By predicting r (2) from the sequence we can approximate a distance matrix of a protein with an expected RMSD value of about 7.3 A, and by combining it with the prediction of the first principal component we can improve this approximation to 4.0 A. We can also explain the role of hydrophobic interactions for the protein structure, because r is highly correlated with the hydrophobic profile of the sequence. Moreover, r is highly correlated with several sequence profiles which are useful in protein structure prediction, such as contact number, the residue-wise contact order (RWCO) or mean square fluctuations (i.e. crystallographic temperature factors). We have also shown that the next three components are related to spatial directionality of the secondary structure elements, and they may be also predicted from the sequence, improving overall structure prediction. We have also shown that the large number of available HIV-1 protease structures provides a remarkable sampling of conformations, which can be viewed as direct structural information about the

  5. A C-terminally truncated form of β-catenin acts as a novel regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in planarians.

    PubMed

    Su, Hanxia; Sureda-Gomez, Miquel; Rabaneda-Lombarte, Neus; Gelabert, Maria; Xie, Jianlei; Wu, Wei; Adell, Teresa

    2017-10-04

    β-Catenin, the core element of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved protein which performs essential roles in a variety of developmental and homeostatic processes. Despite its crucial roles, the mechanisms that control its context-specific functions in time and space remain largely unknown. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been extensively studied in planarians, flatworms with the ability to regenerate and remodel the whole body, providing a 'whole animal' developmental framework to approach this question. Here we identify a C-terminally truncated β-catenin (β-catenin4), generated by gene duplication, that is required for planarian photoreceptor cell specification. Our results indicate that the role of β-catenin4 is to modulate the activity of β-catenin1, the planarian β-catenin involved in Wnt signal transduction in the nucleus, mediated by the transcription factor TCF-2. This inhibitory form of β-catenin, expressed in specific cell types, would provide a novel mechanism to modulate nuclear β-catenin signaling levels. Genomic searches and in vitro analysis suggest that the existence of a C-terminally truncated form of β-catenin could be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to achieve a fine-tuned regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in specific cellular contexts.

  6. Associations of beta-catenin alterations and MSI screening status with expression of key cell cycle regulating proteins and survival from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wangefjord, Sakarias; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lindquist, Kajsa Ericson; Nodin, Björn; Jirström, Karin; Eberhard, Jakob

    2013-01-21

    Despite their pivotal roles in colorectal carcinogenesis, the interrelationship and prognostic significance of beta-catenin alterations and microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer (CRC) needs to be further clarified. In this paper, we studied the associations between beta-catenin overexpression and MSI status with survival from CRC, and with expression of p21, p27, cyclin D1 and p53, in a large, prospective cohort study. Immunohistochemical MSI-screening status and expression of p21, p27 and p53 was assessed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 557 cases of incident CRC in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Chi Square and Spearman's correlation tests were used to explore the associations between beta-catenin expression, MSI status, clinicopathological characteristics and investigative parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to assess the relationship between beta-catenin overexpression, MSI status and cancer specific survival (CSS). Positive MSI screening status was significantly associated with older age, female sex, proximal tumour location, non-metastatic disease, and poor differentiation, and inversely associated with beta-catenin overexpression. Beta-catenin overexpression was significantly associated with distal tumour location, low T-stage and well-differentiated tumours. Patients with MSI tumours had a significantly prolonged CSS in the whole cohort, and in stage III-IV disease, also in multivariable analysis, but not in stage I-II disease. Beta-catenin overexpression was associated with a favourable prognosis in the full cohort and in patients with stage III-IV disease. Neither MSI nor beta-catenin status were predictive for response to adjuvant chemotherapy in curatively treated stage III patients. P53 and p27 expression was positively associated with beta-catenin overexpression and inversely associated with MSI. Cyclin D1 expression was positively associated with MSI and beta-catenin

  7. FIP200 inhibits β-catenin-mediated transcription by promoting APC-independent β-catenin ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Choi, J D; Ryu, M; Ae Park, M; Jeong, G; Lee, J-S

    2013-05-09

    Focal adhesion kinase-family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200) has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions, including cell adhesion, autophagy, development and proliferation. Furthermore, FIP200 is considered to have tumor-suppressive activity, which may be correlated with its inactivation in human breast cancers, in addition to its role as an important signal transduction node. Herein, we report that FIP200 interacts with the oncoprotein β-catenin. Moreover, FIP200 promotes destabilization of wild-type β-catenin, but not a cancer-causing form of β-catenin, and as a result represses the β-catenin-mediated transcription. FIP200-induced degradation of β-catenin is independent of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) of the well-established β-catenin destruction complex (glycogen synthase kinase-3β/axin/APC), in a component of β-catenin E3 ubiquitin ligase, β-TrCP-dependent manner. Thus, the APC-independent β-catenin degradation by FIP200 suggests a role for FIP200 in tumor suppression in the presence of APC dysfunction. These findings reveal a new and important function of FIP200 in regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  8. Sturgeon Osteocalcin Shares Structural Features with Matrix Gla Protein

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Carla S. B.; Simes, Dina C.; Williamson, Matthew K.; Cavaco, Sofia; Laizé, Vincent; Price, Paul A.; Cancela, M. Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) are considered evolutionarily related because they share key structural features, although they have been described to exert different functions. In this work, we report the identification and characterization of both OC and MGP from the Adriatic sturgeon, a ray-finned fish characterized by a slow evolution and the retention of many ancestral features. Sturgeon MGP shows a primary structure, post-translation modifications, and patterns of mRNA/protein distribution and accumulation typical of known MGPs, and it contains seven possible Gla residues that would make the sturgeon protein the most γ-carboxylated among known MGPs. In contrast, sturgeon OC was found to present a hybrid structure. Indeed, although exhibiting protein domains typical of known OCs, it also contains structural features usually found in MGPs (e.g. a putative phosphorylated propeptide). Moreover, patterns of OC gene expression and protein accumulation overlap with those reported for MGP; OC was detected in bone cells and mineralized structures but also in soft and cartilaginous tissues. We propose that, in a context of a reduced rate of evolution, sturgeon OC has retained structural features of the ancestral protein that emerged millions of years ago from the duplication of an ancient MGP gene and may exhibit intermediate functional features. PMID:23884418

  9. J protein cochaperone of the mitochondrial inner membrane required for protein import into the mitochondrial matrix

    PubMed Central

    D'Silva, Patrick D.; Schilke, Brenda; Walter, William; Andrew, Amy; Craig, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    The major Hsp70 of the mitochondrial matrix (Ssc1 in yeast) is critically important for the translocation of proteins from the cytosol, across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and into the matrix. Tim44, a peripheral inner membrane protein with limited sequence similarity to the J domain of J-type cochaperones, tethers Ssc1 to the import channel. Here we report that, unlike a J protein, Tim44 does not stimulate the ATPase activity of Ssc1, nor does it affect the stimulation by either a known mitochondrial J protein or a peptide substrate. Thus, we conclude that Tim44 does not function as a J protein cochaperone of Ssc1; rather, it tethers Ssc1 to the import channel through interactions independent of those critical for J protein function. However, a previously unstudied essential gene, PAM18, encodes an 18-kDa protein that contains a J domain and is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane. Pam18 stimulates the ATPase activity of Ssc1; depletion of Pam18 in vivo disrupts import of proteins into the mitochondrial matrix. We propose that Pam18 is the J protein partner for Ssc1 at the import channel and is critical for Ssc1's function in protein import. PMID:14605210

  10. J protein cochaperone of the mitochondrial inner membrane required for protein import into the mitochondrial matrix.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Patrick D; Schilke, Brenda; Walter, William; Andrew, Amy; Craig, Elizabeth A

    2003-11-25

    The major Hsp70 of the mitochondrial matrix (Ssc1 in yeast) is critically important for the translocation of proteins from the cytosol, across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and into the matrix. Tim44, a peripheral inner membrane protein with limited sequence similarity to the J domain of J-type cochaperones, tethers Ssc1 to the import channel. Here we report that, unlike a J protein, Tim44 does not stimulate the ATPase activity of Ssc1, nor does it affect the stimulation by either a known mitochondrial J protein or a peptide substrate. Thus, we conclude that Tim44 does not function as a J protein cochaperone of Ssc1; rather, it tethers Ssc1 to the import channel through interactions independent of those critical for J protein function. However, a previously unstudied essential gene, PAM18, encodes an 18-kDa protein that contains a J domain and is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane. Pam18 stimulates the ATPase activity of Ssc1; depletion of Pam18 in vivo disrupts import of proteins into the mitochondrial matrix. We propose that Pam18 is the J protein partner for Ssc1 at the import channel and is critical for Ssc1's function in protein import.

  11. Thermodynamics of protein folding: a random matrix formulation.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pragya

    2010-10-20

    The process of protein folding from an unfolded state to a biologically active, folded conformation is governed by many parameters, e.g. the sequence of amino acids, intermolecular interactions, the solvent, temperature and chaperon molecules. Our study, based on random matrix modeling of the interactions, shows, however, that the evolution of the statistical measures, e.g. Gibbs free energy, heat capacity, and entropy, is single parametric. The information can explain the selection of specific folding pathways from an infinite number of possible ways as well as other folding characteristics observed in computer simulation studies.

  12. Two essential peritrophic matrix proteins mediate matrix barrier functions in the insect midgut.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sinu; Kelkenberg, Marco; Begum, Khurshida; Steinfeld, Lea; Williams, Clay E; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Merzendorfer, Hans

    2014-06-01

    The peritrophic matrix (PM) in the midgut of insects consists primarily of chitin and proteins and is thought to support digestion and provide protection from abrasive food particles and enteric pathogens. We examined the physiological roles of 11 putative peritrophic matrix protein (PMP) genes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcPMPs). TcPMP genes are differentially expressed along the length of the midgut epithelium of feeding larvae. RNAi of individual PMP genes revealed no abnormal developmental phenotypes for 9 of the 11 TcPMPs. However, RNAi for two PMP genes, TcPMP3 and TcPMP5-B, resulted in depletion of the fat body, growth arrest, molting defects and mortality. In situ permeability assays after oral administration of different-sized FITC-dextran beads demonstrated that the exclusion size of the larval peritrophic matrix (PM) decreases progressively from >2 MDa to <4 kDa from the anterior to the most posterior regions of the midgut. In the median midguts of control larvae, 2 MDa dextrans were completely retained within the PM lumen, whereas after RNAi for TcPMP3 and TcPMP5-B, these dextrans penetrated the epithelium of the median midgut, indicating loss of structural integrity and barrier function of the larval PM. In contrast, RNAi for TcPMP5-B, but not RNAi for TcPMP3, resulted in breakdown of impermeability to 4 and 40 kDa dextrans in the PM of the posterior midgut. These results suggest that specific PMPs are involved in the regulation of PM permeability, and that a gradient of barrier function is essential for survival and fat body maintenance.

  13. Ca²⁺ influx-linked protein kinase C activity regulates the β-catenin localization, micromere induction signalling and the oral-aboral axis formation in early sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Ikuko; Tsurugaya, Toko; Santella, Luigia; Chun, Jong Tai; Amore, Gabriele; Kusunoki, Shinichiro; Asada, Akiko; Togo, Tatsuru; Akasaka, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Sea urchin embryos initiate cell specifications at the 16-cell stage by forming the mesomeres, macromeres and micromeres according to the relative position of the cells in the animal-vegetal axis. The most vegetal cells, micromeres, autonomously differentiate into skeletons and induce the neighbouring macromere cells to become mesoendoderm in the β-catenin-dependent Wnt8 signalling pathway. Although the underlying molecular mechanism for this progression is largely unknown, we have previously reported that the initial events might be triggered by the Ca2+ influxes through the egg-originated L-type Ca2+ channels distributed asymmetrically along the animal-vegetal axis and through the stretch-dependent Ca2+channels expressed specifically in the micromere at the 4th cleavage. In this communication, we have examined whether one of the earliest Ca2+ targets, protein kinase C (PKC), plays a role in cell specification upstream of β-catenin. To this end, we surveyed the expression pattern of β-catenin in early embryos in the presence or absence of the specific peptide inhibitor of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus PKC (HpPKC-I). Unlike previous knowledge, we have found that the initial nuclear entrance of β-catenin does not take place in the micromeres, but in the macromeres at the 16-cell stage. Using the HpPKC-I, we have demonstrated further that PKC not only determines cell-specific nucleation of β-catenin, but also regulates a variety of cell specification events in the early sea urchin embryos by modulating the cell adhesion structures, actin dynamics, intracellular Ca2+ signalling, and the expression of key transcription factors.

  14. Thiazolidinediones modulate the expression of beta-catenin and other cell-cycle regulatory proteins by targeting the F-box proteins of Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase independently of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuo; Lin, Li-Fang; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Wang, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Geen-Dong; Chen, Hungwen; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2007-09-01

    Considering the role of aberrant beta-catenin signaling in tumorigenesis, we investigated the mechanism by which the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist troglitazone facilitated beta-catenin down-regulation. We demonstrate that troglitazone and its more potent PPARgamma-inactive analogs Delta2TG and STG28 mediated the proteasomal degradation of beta-catenin in prostate cancer cells by up-regulating the expression of beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (beta-TrCP), an F-box component of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase. Evidence indicates that although small interfering RNA-mediated beta-TrCP knockdown protected cells against STG28-facilitated beta-catenin ablation, ectopic beta-TrCP expression enhanced the degradation. The involvement of beta-TrCP in beta-catenin degradation was also corroborated by the pull-down analysis and the concurrent down-regulation of known beta-TrCP substrates examined, including Wee1, Ikappabetaalpha, cdc25A, and nuclear factor-kappaB/p105. Furthermore, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta represented a key regulator in the effect of these thiazolidinedione derivatives on beta-catenin proteolysis even though these agents increased its phosphorylation level. It is noteworthy that this drug-induced beta-TrCP up-regulation was accompanied by the concomitant down-regulation of Skp2 and Fbw7, thereby affecting many of the target proteins of these two F-box proteins (such as p27 and cyclin E). As a consequence, the ability of troglitazone to target these F-box proteins provides a molecular basis to account for its reported effect on modulating the expression of aforementioned cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Despite this complicated mode of pharmacological actions, normal prostate epithelial cells, relative to LNCaP cells, were less susceptible to the effects of STG28 on modulating the expression of beta-catenin and beta-TrCP, suggesting the translation potential of using STG28 as a scaffold to

  15. Predicting protein-protein interactions from multimodal biological data sources via nonnegative matrix tri-factorization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Huang, Heng; Ding, Chris; Nie, Feiping

    2013-04-01

    Protein interactions are central to all the biological processes and structural scaffolds in living organisms, because they orchestrate a number of cellular processes such as metabolic pathways and immunological recognition. Several high-throughput methods, for example, yeast two-hybrid system and mass spectrometry method, can help determine protein interactions, which, however, suffer from high false-positive rates. Moreover, many protein interactions predicted by one method are not supported by another. Therefore, computational methods are necessary and crucial to complete the interactome expeditiously. In this work, we formulate the problem of predicting protein interactions from a new mathematical perspective--sparse matrix completion, and propose a novel nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)-based matrix completion approach to predict new protein interactions from existing protein interaction networks. Through using manifold regularization, we further develop our method to integrate different biological data sources, such as protein sequences, gene expressions, protein structure information, etc. Extensive experimental results on four species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, and Caenorhabditis elegans, have shown that our new methods outperform related state-of-the-art protein interaction prediction methods.

  16. An innovative protocol for schwann cells extracellular matrix proteins extraction.

    PubMed

    Parisi, L; Zomer Volpato, F; Cagol, N; Siciliano, M; Migliaresi, C; Motta, A; Sala, R

    2016-12-01

    The evidence that extracellular matrix (ECM) components could represent new targets for drugs designed to approach degenerative disease, requires their analysis. Before the analysis, proteins should be extracted from ECM and solubilized. Currently, few protocols for ECM proteins extraction and solubilization are available in literature, and most of them are based mainly on the use of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin, which often lead to proteins damage. Moreover, no methods have been so far proposed to solubilize Schwann Cell ECM, which may represent an important target for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. In our study, we propose to solubilize SC ECM through the use of surfactants and urea. We compared our method of solubilization, with one of that proposed in literature for a general ECM, mainly based on the use of enzymes. We want to highlight the benefit of solubilizing SC ECM, avoiding the use of proteolytic enzymes. To compare the amount of proteins extracted with both methods, MicroBCA assay was used, while the quality of the proteins extracted was observed through the SDS-PAGE. The results obtained confirm a better solubilization of SC ECM proteins with the proposed protocol, both quantitatively and qualitatively, showing a higher concentration of proteins extracted and a better enrichment of protein fractions, if compared to the enzyme-based protocol. Our results show that SC ECM could be efficiently solubilized through the use of surfactant and urea, avoiding the use of enzyme-base methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 3175-3180, 2016.

  17. iNOS Activation Regulates β-catenin Association with Its Partners in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Deyarina; Rojas, Armando; Herrera, Maria Beatriz; Conlan, R. Steven

    2012-01-01

    Background Signals that disrupt β-catenin association to cadherins may influence the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus to regulate transcription. Post-translational modification of proteins is a signalling event that may lead to changes in structural conformation, association or function of the target proteins. NO and its derivatives induce nitration of proteins during inflammation. It has been described that animals treated with NO donors showed increased permeability due to modulation of VE-cadherin/catenin complex. We, therefore, aim to evaluate the effect of iNOS activation on the expression, nuclear localisation and function of β-catenin in endothelial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression, nuclear localisation, post-translational modifications and function of β-catenin was analysed by cell fractionation, immunoprecipitation, immunoblots, QRT-PCR and permeability assays in murine endothelial cells (H5V). Influence of macrophage activation on expression of VE-cadherin/p120-catenin/β-catenin complex in co-cultured H5V cells was also assessed. Activation of macrophages to produce NO provoked a decrease in VE-cadherin/p120-catenin/β-catenin expression in H5V cells. Phosphorylation of β-catenin, p120-catenin and VE-cadherin, and reduction in the barrier properties of the cell monolayer was associated with iNOS induction. Moreover, high NO levels provoked nitration of β-catenin, and induced its translocation to the nucleus. In the nucleus of NOS activated cells, nitration levels of β-catenin influenced its association with TCF4 and p65 proteins. High levels of NO altered β-catenin mediated gene expression of NFκB and Wnt target genes without affecting cell viability. Conclusions NOS activity modulates β-catenin post-translational modifications, function and its association with different partners to promote endothelial cell survival. Therapeutic manipulation of iNOS levels may remove a critical cytoprotective mechanism of importance in

  18. Nuclear translocation of {alpha}N-catenin by the novel zinc finger transcriptional repressor ZASC1

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaerts, Sven; Vanlandschoot, Ann; Hengel, Jolanda van; Roy, Frans van . E-mail: F.Vanroy@dmbr.UGent.be

    2005-11-15

    Alpha-catenins anchor the transmembrane cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin indirectly to the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with {beta}-catenin or plakoglobin. Three different {alpha}-catenins are known at present: {alpha}E-, {alpha}T-, and {alpha}N-catenin. Despite their different expression patterns, no functional differences between the {alpha}-catenins are known. In a yeast two-hybrid screening with {alpha}N-catenin as bait, we identified the Cys{sub 2}-His{sub 2} zinc finger protein ZASC1. The mRNA and protein of ZASC1 were ubiquitously expressed in various cell lines and human tissues. Our results suggest an association of the ZASC1 protein with DNA, and luciferase reporter assays revealed that ZASC1 is a transcriptional repressor. Upon transient overexpression, the ZASC1 protein localized in the nucleus, to where it was able to recruit cytoplasmic {alpha}N-catenin. Neither the highly related {alpha}E-catenin nor {alpha}T-catenin interacted with ZASC1. By interchanging parts of {alpha}N-catenin and {alpha}E-catenin cDNAs, we were able to narrow down the interaction region of {alpha}N-catenin to two limited amino-terminal regions. On the other hand, the interaction of ZASC1 with {alpha}N-catenin can be mediated by the domain comprising zinc fingers six to eight of ZASC1. The interaction and nuclear cotranslocation of a neural {alpha}-catenin with a putative proto-oncogene product as reported here provides novel insights into the signaling functions of {alpha}-catenins.

  19. Analysis of protein dynamics in the pericellular matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Jan; Young, Dylan

    2015-03-01

    The pericellular matrix (PCM) is a low density, hydrated polymer coating that extends into the extracellular space from the surface of many living cells. The PCM controls access to cell and tissue surfaces, regulating a diverse set of processes from cell adhesion to protein transport and storage. The cell coat consists of a malleable backbone - the large polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) - with its structure, its material properties, and its bio-functionality tuned by a diverse set of HA binding proteins. These proteins add charge, cross-links and growth factor-like ligands into the brush. Dynamic interactions between the HA and its binding proteins can be observed using single particle tracking in a fluorescence microscope. The resulting single molecule trajectories can contain evidence of site hoping, with the proteins dynamically moving between different states of motion as they bind and unbind from the HA. Here, we present an evaluation of hidden Markov models for the analysis of such multi-mobility trajectories. Simulated trajectories are used to probe the limits of this approach for molecular trajectories of limited length and the results are used to inform the design of particle tracking experiments.

  20. Designing an extracellular matrix protein with enhanced mechanical stability

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sean P.; Billings, Kate S.; Ohashi, Tomoo; Allen, Mark D.; Best, Robert B.; Randles, Lucy G.; Erickson, Harold P.; Clarke, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The extracellular matrix proteins tenascin and fibronectin experience significant mechanical forces in vivo. Both contain a number of tandem repeating homologous fibronectin type III (fnIII) domains, and atomic force microscopy experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical strength of these domains can vary significantly. Previous work has shown that mutations in the core of an fnIII domain from human tenascin (TNfn3) reduce the unfolding force of that domain significantly: The composition of the core is apparently crucial to the mechanical stability of these proteins. Based on these results, we have used rational redesign to increase the mechanical stability of the 10th fnIII domain of human fibronectin, FNfn10, which is directly involved in integrin binding. The hydrophobic core of FNfn10 was replaced with that of the homologous, mechanically stronger TNfn3 domain. Despite the extensive substitution, FNoTNc retains both the three-dimensional structure and the cell adhesion activity of FNfn10. Atomic force microscopy experiments reveal that the unfolding forces of the engineered protein FNoTNc increase by ≈20% to match those of TNfn3. Thus, we have specifically designed a protein with increased mechanical stability. Our results demonstrate that core engineering can be used to change the mechanical strength of proteins while retaining functional surface interactions. PMID:17535921

  1. P120-Catenin Protects Endplate Chondrocytes From Intermittent Cyclic Mechanical Tension Induced Degeneration by Inhibiting the Expression of RhoA/ROCK-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Guang; Ma, Ming-Ming; Zheng, Quan; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Xu, Jia-Jia; Wang, Chuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling

    2016-08-15

    The changes of endplate chondrocytes induced by intermittent cyclic mechanical tension (ICMT) were observed by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. To investigate the role of RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and E-cadherin/P120-catenin complex in endplate chondrocytes degeneration induced by ICMT. ICMT can induce the endplate chondrocyte degeneration. However, the relationship between P120-catenin or RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and endplate chondrocytes degeneration induced by ICMT is not clear. ICMT (strain at 0.5 Hz sinusoidal curve at 8% elongation) was applied to rat endplate chondrocytes for 6 days, 16 hours a day. The cell viability and apoptosis were examined by the LIVE/DEAD assay and flow cytometry. Histological staining was used to examine the lumbar disc tissue morphology and extracellular matrix. To regulate RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and the expression of E-cadherin and P120-catenin, RhoA/ROCK-1 pathway-specific inhibitors, E-cadherin, and p120-catenin plasmid were applied. Coimmunoprecipitation was employed to examine the interaction between E-cadherin and P120-catenin, P120-catenin, and RhoA. The related gene expression and protein location was examined by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. There was no change of viability verified by LIVE/DEAD assay and flow cytometry after ICMT loading. ICMT loading led to RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling activation and the loss of the chondrogenic phenotype of endplate chondrocytes. Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway significantly ameliorated the degeneration induced by ICMT. The expression of P120-catenin and E-cadherin were inhibited by ICMT. ICMT reduced the interaction between P120-catenin and E-cadherin. Furthermore, over-expression of P120-catenin and E-cadherin can suppress the expression of chondrogenic gene, over-expression of P120-catenin can suppress the RhoA/ROCK-1

  2. Extracellular matrix protein expression is brain region dependent.

    PubMed

    Dauth, Stephanie; Grevesse, Thomas; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Campbell, Patrick H; Maoz, Ben M; Berretta, Sabina; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, extracellular matrix (ECM) components form networks that contribute to structural and functional diversity. Maladaptive remodeling of ECM networks has been reported in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, suggesting that the brain microenvironment is a dynamic structure. A lack of quantitative information about ECM distribution in the brain hinders an understanding of region-specific ECM functions and the role of ECM in health and disease. We hypothesized that each ECM protein as well as specific ECM structures, such as perineuronal nets (PNNs) and interstitial matrix, are differentially distributed throughout the brain, contributing to the unique structure and function in the various regions of the brain. To test our hypothesis, we quantitatively analyzed the distribution, colocalization, and protein expression of aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R throughout the rat brain utilizing immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis and assessed the effect of aggrecan, brevican, and/or tenascin-R on neurite outgrowth in vitro. We focused on aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R as they are especially expressed in the mature brain, and have established roles in brain development, plasticity, and neurite outgrowth. The results revealed a differentiated distribution of all three proteins throughout the brain and indicated that their presence significantly reduces neurite outgrowth in a 3D in vitro environment. These results underline the importance of a unique and complex ECM distribution for brain physiology and suggest that encoding the distribution of distinct ECM proteins throughout the brain will aid in understanding their function in physiology and in turn assist in identifying their role in disease. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1309-1336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Altered cell-matrix associated ADAM proteins in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Gerst, J L; Raina, A K; Pirim, I; McShea, A; Harris, P L; Siedlak, S L; Takeda, A; Petersen, R B; Smith, M A

    2000-03-01

    Alterations in cell-matrix 'contact' are often related to a disruption of cell cycle regulation and, as such, occur variously in neoplasia. Given the recent findings showing cell cycle alterations in Alzheimer disease, we undertook a study of ADAM-1 and 2 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease), developmentally-regulated, integrin-binding, membrane-bound metalloproteases. Our results show that whereas ADAM-1 and 2 are found in susceptible hippocampal neurons in Alzheimer disease, these proteins were not generally increased in similar neuronal populations in younger or age-matched controls except in association with age-related neurofibrillary alterations. This increase in both ADAM-1 and 2 in cases of Alzheimer disease was verified by immunoblot analysis (P < 0.05). An ADAM-induced loss of matrix integration would effectively "reset" the mitotic clock and thereby stimulate re-entry into the cell cycle in neurons in Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, given the importance of integrins in maintaining short-term memory, alterations in ADAM proteins or their proteolytic activity could also play a proximal role in the clinico-pathological manifestations of Alzheimer disease. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Increases in Photodamaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kawabata, Keigo; Kusaka-Kikushima, Ayumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Ozawa, Akira; Sakai, Shingo

    2016-06-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage. Recent studies have described COMP as a pathogenic factor that promotes collagen deposition in fibrotic skin disorders such as scleroderma and keloid skin. Although collagen, a major dermis component, is thought to decrease in photoaged skin, recent reports have demonstrated the presence of tightly packed collagen fibrils with a structural resemblance to fibrosis in the papillary dermis of photoaged skin. Here we examined how photoaging damage relates to COMP expression and localization in photoaged skin. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in COMP-mRNA-positive cells with the progress of photoaging in preauricular skin (sun-exposed skin). The signal intensity of immunostaining for COMP increased with photoaging in not only the papillary dermis but also the reticular dermis affected by advancing solar elastosis. Immunoelectron microscopy detected the colocalization of COMP with both elastotic materials and collagen fibrils in photoaged skin. Ultraviolet light A irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts induced COMP expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Ultraviolet light A-induced COMP expression was inhibited by an anti-transforming growth factor-β antibody or SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor. These results suggest that the transforming growth factor-β-mediated upregulation of COMP expression may contribute to the modulation of dermal extracellular matrix in the photoaging process.

  5. Platelet activation by extracellular matrix proteins in haemostasis and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Steve P

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of excessive blood loss to avoid fatal haemorrhage is a pivotal process for all organisms possessing a circulatory system. Increased circulating blood volume and pressure, as required in larger animals, make this process all the more important and challenging. It is essential to have a powerful and rapid system to detect damage and generate an effective seal, and which is also exquisitely regulated to prevent unwanted, excessive or systemic activation so as to avoid blockage of vessels. Thus, a highly specialised and efficient haemostatic system has evolved that consists of cellular (platelets) and protein (coagulation factors) components. Importantly, this is able to support haemostasis in both the low shear environment of the venous system and the high shear environment of the arterial system. Endothelial cells, lining the entire circulation system, play a crucial role in the delicate balance between activation and inhibition of the haemostatic system. An intact and healthy endothelium supports blood flow by preventing attachment of cells and proteins which is required for initiation of coagulation and platelet activation. Endothelial cells produce and release the two powerful soluble inhibitors of platelet activation, nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and express high levels of CD39 which rapidly metabolises the major platelet feedback agonist, ADP. This antithrombotic environment however can rapidly change following activation or removal of endothelial cells through injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Loss of endothelial cells exposes the subendothelial extracellular matrix which creates strong signals for activation of the haemostatic system including powerful platelet adhesion and activation. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the subendothelial extracellular matrix influence these prothrombotic characteristics with life threatening thrombotic and bleeding complications, as illustrated by formation of

  6. Matrix Gla Protein expression pattern in the early avian embryo.

    PubMed

    Correia, Elizabeth; Conceição, Natércia; Cancela, M Leonor; Belo, José A

    2016-01-01

    MGP (Matrix Gla Protein) is an extracellular matrix vitamin K dependent protein previously identified as a physiological inhibitor of calcification and shown to be well conserved among vertebrates during evolution. MGP is involved in other mechanisms such as TGF-β and BMP activity, and a proposed modulator of cell-matrix interactions. MGP is expressed early in vertebrate development although its role has not been clarified. Previous work in the chicken embryo found MGP localization predominantly in the aorta and aortic valve base, but no data is available earlier in development. Here we examined MGP expression pattern using whole-mount in situ hybridization and histological sectioning during the initial stages of chick development. MGP was first detected at HH10 in the head and in the forming dorsal aorta. At the moment of the onset of blood circulation, MGP was expressed additionally in the venous plexus which will remodel into the vitelline arteries. By E2.25, it is clear that the vitelline arteries are MGP positive. MGP expression progresses centrifugally throughout the area vasculosa of the yolk sac. Between stages HH17 and HH19 MGP is seen in the dorsal aorta, heart, notochord, nephric duct, roof plate, vitelline arteries and in the yolk sac, beneath main arterial branches and in the vicinity of several vessels and venules. MGP expression persists in these areas at least until E4.5. These data suggest that MGP expression could be associated with cell migration and differentiation and to the onset of angiogenesis in the developing chick embryo. This data has biomedical relevance by pointing to the potential use of chick embryo explants to study molecules involved in artery calcification.

  7. Characterization of the proteins comprising the integral matrix of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryonic spicules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, C. E.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we enumerate and characterize the proteins that comprise the integral spicule matrix of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins reveals that there are 12 strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins and approximately three dozen less strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins. The majority of the proteins have acidic isoelectric points; however, there are several spicule matrix proteins that have more alkaline isoelectric points. Western blotting analysis indicates that SM50 is the spicule matrix protein with the most alkaline isoelectric point. In addition, two distinct SM30 proteins are identified in embryonic spicules, and they have apparent molecular masses of approximately 43 and 46 kDa. Comparisons between embryonic spicule matrix proteins and adult spine integral matrix proteins suggest that the embryonic 43-kDa SM30 protein is an embryonic isoform of SM30. An adult 49-kDa spine matrix protein is also identified as a possible adult isoform of SM30. Analysis of the SM30 amino acid sequences indicates that a portion of SM30 proteins is very similar to the carbohydrate recognition domain of C-type lectin proteins.

  8. Characterization of the proteins comprising the integral matrix of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryonic spicules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, C. E.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we enumerate and characterize the proteins that comprise the integral spicule matrix of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins reveals that there are 12 strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins and approximately three dozen less strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins. The majority of the proteins have acidic isoelectric points; however, there are several spicule matrix proteins that have more alkaline isoelectric points. Western blotting analysis indicates that SM50 is the spicule matrix protein with the most alkaline isoelectric point. In addition, two distinct SM30 proteins are identified in embryonic spicules, and they have apparent molecular masses of approximately 43 and 46 kDa. Comparisons between embryonic spicule matrix proteins and adult spine integral matrix proteins suggest that the embryonic 43-kDa SM30 protein is an embryonic isoform of SM30. An adult 49-kDa spine matrix protein is also identified as a possible adult isoform of SM30. Analysis of the SM30 amino acid sequences indicates that a portion of SM30 proteins is very similar to the carbohydrate recognition domain of C-type lectin proteins.

  9. NMR structure of the myristylated feline immunodeficiency virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lola A; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O; Summers, Michael F

    2015-04-30

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag's N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.

  10. Regulation of Ebola virus VP40 matrix protein by SUMO

    PubMed Central

    Baz-Martínez, Maite; El Motiam, Ahmed; Ruibal, Paula; Condezo, Gabriela N.; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos F.; Lang, Valerie; Collado, Manuel; San Martín, Carmen; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Muñoz-Fontela, Cesar; Rivas, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The matrix protein of Ebola virus (EBOV) VP40 regulates viral budding, nucleocapsid recruitment, virus structure and stability, viral genome replication and transcription, and has an intrinsic ability to form virus-like particles. The elucidation of the regulation of VP40 functions is essential to identify mechanisms to inhibit viral replication and spread. Post-translational modifications of proteins with ubiquitin-like family members are common mechanisms for the regulation of host and virus multifunctional proteins. Thus far, no SUMOylation of VP40 has been described. Here we demonstrate that VP40 is modified by SUMO and that SUMO is included into the viral like particles (VLPs). We demonstrate that lysine residue 326 in VP40 is involved in SUMOylation, and by analyzing a mutant in this residue we show that SUMO conjugation regulates the stability of VP40 and the incorporation of SUMO into the VLPs. Our study indicates for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that EBOV hijacks the cellular SUMOylation system in order to modify its own proteins. Modulation of the VP40-SUMO interaction may represent a novel target for the therapy of Ebola virus infection. PMID:27849047

  11. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lola A.; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G.; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O.; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  12. {beta}-Catenin mediates the anti-adipogenic effect of baicalin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Haeyong; Bae, Sungmin; Kim, Kijeong; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In; Yoon, Yoosik

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} Baicalin maintains the levels of {beta}-Catenin during adipogenesis. {yields} {beta}-Catenin mediates the anti-adipogenic effect of baicalin. {yields} Baicalin maintains the WNT/{beta}-Catenin pathway during adipogenesis. -- Abstract: {beta}-Catenin reportedly inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulations of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){gamma} and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP){alpha}. We report that baicalin, a natural flavonoid compound, inhibits adipogenesis by modulating {beta}-Catenin. During 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, {beta}-Catenin was down-regulated, but baicalin treatment maintained {beta}-Catenin expression. Anti-adipogenic effects of baicalin were significantly attenuated by {beta}-Catenin siRNA transfection. {beta}-Catenin siRNA rescued the reduced expressions of PPAR{gamma}, C/EBP{alpha}, fatty acid binding protein 4 and lipoprotein lipase by baicalin. Furthermore, baicalin modulated members of the WNT/{beta}-Catenin pathway by maintaining the expressions of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, disheveled (DVL)2 and DVL3. These findings suggest that {beta}-Catenin mediates the anti-adipogenic effects of baicalin.

  13. Promoter swapping between the genes for a novel zinc finger protein and beta-catenin in pleiomorphic adenomas with t(3;8)(p21;q12) translocations.

    PubMed

    Kas, K; Voz, M L; Röijer, E; Aström, A K; Meyen, E; Stenman, G; Van de Ven, W J

    1997-02-01

    Pleiomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands is a benign epithelial tumour occurring primarily in the major and minor salivary glands. It is by far the most common type of salivary gland tumour. Microscopically, pleiomorphic adenomas show a marked histological diversity with epithelial, myoepithelial and mesenchymal components in a variety of patterns. In addition to a cytogenetic subgroup with normal karyotypes, pleiomorphic adenomas are characterized by recurrent chromosome rearrangements, particularly reciprocal translocations, with breakpoints at 8q12, 3p21, and 12q13-15, in that order of frequency. The most common abnormality is a reciprocal t(3;8)(p21;q12). We here demonstrate that the t(3;8)(p21;q12) results in promoter swapping between PLAG1, a novel, developmentally regulated zinc finger gene at 8q12, and the constitutively expressed gene for beta-catenin (CTNNB1), a protein interface functioning in the WG/WNT signalling pathway and specification of cell fate during embryogenesis. Fusions occur in the 5'-non-coding regions of both genes, exchanging regulatory control elements while preserving the coding sequences. Due to the t(3;8)(p21;q12), PLAG1 is activated and expression levels of CTNNB1 are reduced. Activation of PLAG1 was also observed in an adenoma with a variant translocation t(8;15)(q12;q14). Our results indicate that PLAG1 activation due to promoter swapping is a crucial event in salivary gland tumourigenesis.

  14. PRELP (proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein) promotes osteoblastic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by regulating the β-catenin pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haiying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Chengzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Liang; Wang, Huaxin; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-02-12

    Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) is a collagen-binding proteoglycan highly expressed in the developing bones. Recent studies indicated that PRELP could inhibit osteoclastogenesis as a NF-κB inhibitor. However, its role during osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of PRELP increased with the osteogenesis induction of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Down-regulation of PRELP expression by shRNA reduced ALP activity, mineralization and expression of osteogenic marker gene Runx2. Our microarray analysis data suggested that β-catenin may act as a hub gene in the PRELP-mediated gene network. We validated furtherly that PRELP knockdown could inhibit the level of connexin43, a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation by affecting β-catenin protein expression, and its nuclear translocation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Therefore, this study established a new role of PRELP in modulating β-catenin/connexin43 pathway and osteoblast differentiation.

  15. Extracellular matrix-associated proteins form an integral and dynamic system during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weipeng; Sun, Jin; Ding, Wei; Lin, Jinshui; Tian, Renmao; Lu, Liang; Liu, Xiaofen; Shen, Xihui; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Though the essential role of extracellular matrix in biofilm development has been extensively documented, the function of matrix-associated proteins is elusive. Determining the dynamics of matrix-associated proteins would be a useful way to reveal their functions in biofilm development. Therefore, we applied iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to evaluate matrix-associated proteins isolated from different phases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 biofilms. Among the identified 389 proteins, 54 changed their abundance significantly. The increased abundance of stress resistance and nutrient metabolism-related proteins over the period of biofilm development was consistent with the hypothesis that biofilm matrix forms micro-environments in which cells are optimally organized to resist stress and use available nutrients. Secreted proteins, including novel putative effectors of the type III secretion system were identified, suggesting that the dynamics of pathogenesis-related proteins in the matrix are associated with biofilm development. Interestingly, there was a good correlation between the abundance changes of matrix-associated proteins and their expression. Further analysis revealed complex interactions among these modulated proteins, and the mutation of selected proteins attenuated biofilm development. Collectively, this work presents the first dynamic picture of matrix-associated proteins during biofilm development, and provides evidences that the matrix-associated proteins may form an integral and well regulated system that contributes to stress resistance, nutrient acquisition, pathogenesis and the stability of the biofilm. PMID:26029669

  16. Expression of 16 Nitrogenase Proteins within the Plant Mitochondrial Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert S.; Tilbrook, Kimberley; Warden, Andrew C.; Campbell, Peter C.; Rolland, Vivien; Singh, Surinder P.; Wood, Craig C.

    2017-01-01

    The industrial production and use of nitrogenous fertilizer involves significant environmental and economic costs. Strategies to reduce fertilizer dependency are required to address the world's increasing demand for sustainable food, fibers, and biofuels. Biological nitrogen fixation, a process unique to diazatrophic bacteria, is catalyzed by the nitrogenase complex, and reconstituting this function in plant cells is an ambitious biotechnological strategy to reduce fertilizer use. Here we establish that the full array of biosynthetic and catalytic nitrogenase (Nif) proteins from the diazotroph Klebsiella pneumoniae can be individually expressed as mitochondrial targeting peptide (MTP)-Nif fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana. We show that these are correctly targeted to the plant mitochondrial matrix, a subcellular location with biochemical and genetic characteristics potentially supportive of nitrogenase function. Although Nif proteins B, D, E, F, H, J, K, M, N, Q, S, U, V, X, Y, and Z were all detectable by Western blot analysis, the NifD catalytic component was the least abundant. To address this problem, a translational fusion between NifD and NifK was designed based on the crystal structure of the nitrogenase MoFe protein heterodimer. This fusion protein enabled equimolar NifD:NifK stoichiometry and improved NifD expression levels in plants. Finally, four MTP-Nif fusion proteins (B, S, H, Y) were successfully co-expressed, demonstrating that multiple components of nitrogenase can be targeted to plant mitochondria. These results establish the feasibility of reconstituting the complete componentry for nitrogenase in plant cells, within an intracellular environment that could support the conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia. PMID:28316608

  17. Expression of 16 Nitrogenase Proteins within the Plant Mitochondrial Matrix.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert S; Tilbrook, Kimberley; Warden, Andrew C; Campbell, Peter C; Rolland, Vivien; Singh, Surinder P; Wood, Craig C

    2017-01-01

    The industrial production and use of nitrogenous fertilizer involves significant environmental and economic costs. Strategies to reduce fertilizer dependency are required to address the world's increasing demand for sustainable food, fibers, and biofuels. Biological nitrogen fixation, a process unique to diazatrophic bacteria, is catalyzed by the nitrogenase complex, and reconstituting this function in plant cells is an ambitious biotechnological strategy to reduce fertilizer use. Here we establish that the full array of biosynthetic and catalytic nitrogenase (Nif) proteins from the diazotroph Klebsiella pneumoniae can be individually expressed as mitochondrial targeting peptide (MTP)-Nif fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana. We show that these are correctly targeted to the plant mitochondrial matrix, a subcellular location with biochemical and genetic characteristics potentially supportive of nitrogenase function. Although Nif proteins B, D, E, F, H, J, K, M, N, Q, S, U, V, X, Y, and Z were all detectable by Western blot analysis, the NifD catalytic component was the least abundant. To address this problem, a translational fusion between NifD and NifK was designed based on the crystal structure of the nitrogenase MoFe protein heterodimer. This fusion protein enabled equimolar NifD:NifK stoichiometry and improved NifD expression levels in plants. Finally, four MTP-Nif fusion proteins (B, S, H, Y) were successfully co-expressed, demonstrating that multiple components of nitrogenase can be targeted to plant mitochondria. These results establish the feasibility of reconstituting the complete componentry for nitrogenase in plant cells, within an intracellular environment that could support the conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia.

  18. Porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM): protein expression, mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Walid A; Chen, Jun; Haig, Jennifer; Antoon, Roula; Litman, Jessica; Sherman, Christopher; Derwin, Kathleen; Yeger, Herman

    2008-06-01

    Experimentally, porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) that mimics extracellular matrix has excellent potential as a bladder substitute. Herein we investigated the spatial localization and expression of different key cellular and extracellular proteins in the ACM; furthermore, we evaluated the inherent mechanical properties of the resultant ACM prior to implantation. Using a proprietary decellularization method, the DNA contents in both ACM and normal bladder were measured; in addition we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to quantify and localize the different cellular and extracellular components, and finally the mechanical testing was performed using a uniaxial mechanical testing machine. The mean DNA content in the ACM was significantly lower in the ACM compared to the bladder. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that collagen I and IV were preserved in the ACM, but possibly denatured collagen III in the ACM. Furthermore, elastin, laminin and fibronectin were mildly reduced in the ACM. Although the ACM did not exhibit nucleated cells, residual cellular components (actin, myosin, vimentin and others) were still present. There was, on the other hand, no significant difference in the mean stiffness between the ACM and the bladder. Although our decellularization method is effective in removing nuclear material from the bladder while maintaining its inherent mechanical properties, further work is mandatory to determine whether these residual DNA and cellular remnants would lead to any immune reaction, or if the mechanical properties of the ACM are preserved upon implantation and cellularization.

  19. Preparation of Extracellular Matrix Protein Fibers for Brillouin Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Edginton, Ryan S; Mattana, Sara; Caponi, Silvia; Fioretto, Daniele; Green, Ellen; Winlove, C Peter; Palombo, Francesca

    2016-09-15

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging technique in the biomedical field. It probes the mechanical properties of a sample through the interaction of visible light with thermally induced acoustic waves or phonons propagating at a speed of a few km/sec. Information on the elasticity and structure of the material is obtained in a nondestructive contactless manner, hence opening the way to in vivo applications and potential diagnosis of pathology. This work describes the application of Brillouin spectroscopy to the study of biomechanics in elastin and trypsin-digested type I collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix. Fibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix are the building blocks of biological tissues and investigating their mechanical and physical behavior is key to establishing structure-function relationships in normal tissues and the changes which occur in disease. The procedures of sample preparation followed by measurement of Brillouin spectra using a reflective substrate are presented together with details of the optical system and methods of spectral data analysis.

  20. Preparation of Extracellular Matrix Protein Fibers for Brillouin Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Edginton, Ryan S.; Mattana, Sara; Caponi, Silvia; Fioretto, Daniele; Green, Ellen; Winlove, C. Peter; Palombo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging technique in the biomedical field. It probes the mechanical properties of a sample through the interaction of visible light with thermally induced acoustic waves or phonons propagating at a speed of a few km/sec. Information on the elasticity and structure of the material is obtained in a nondestructive contactless manner, hence opening the way to in vivo applications and potential diagnosis of pathology. This work describes the application of Brillouin spectroscopy to the study of biomechanics in elastin and trypsin-digested type I collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix. Fibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix are the building blocks of biological tissues and investigating their mechanical and physical behavior is key to establishing structure-function relationships in normal tissues and the changes which occur in disease. The procedures of sample preparation followed by measurement of Brillouin spectra using a reflective substrate are presented together with details of the optical system and methods of spectral data analysis. PMID:27684584

  1. In vivo human Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Posey, Karen L; Davies, Sherri; Bales, Elise S; Haynes, Richard; Sandell, Linda J; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2005-12-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a large extracellular matrix protein whose function is unknown. Mutations in COMP cause pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, two skeletal dysplasias which are associated with intracellular retention of COMP in chondrocytes. In contrast, COMP null mice are normal suggesting gene redundancy or that the detrimental effect is associated with mutant COMP rather than the absence of functional COMP. To define the elements that regulate COMP transcription and tissue-specificity, we have evaluated the human COMP promoter driving fusion gene expression in vitro and in vivo. COMP promoter activity is higher in rat chondrosarcoma cells (RCS) than in a fibroblast cell line. In RCS cells, expression of a reporter gene containing 1.7 kb of the human COMP promoter was three-fold higher than all shorter COMP promoter constructs. In transgenic mice, 1.7 kb of the human COMP promoter is active early in development in the limbs, spine, and eye. As development progresses, promoter activity diminishes in the eye and migrates from the center to the ends of the long bones. On the other hand, while 375 bp of the human COMP promoter is sufficient for proper tissue-specific expression, levels are less than those found with the 1.7-COMP promoter. The expression pattern of both promoters recapitulates endogenous cartilage COMP expression in mice. Our findings indicate that the elements required for chondrocyte-specific expression lie within 375 bp of the translational start site, while DNA enhancer elements are located between 1.0 to 1.7 kb.

  2. Protein thermal denaturation and matrix glass transition in different protein-trehalose-water systems.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Giuseppe; Giuffrida, Sergio; Cottone, Grazia; Cupane, Antonio; Cordone, Lorenzo

    2011-05-19

    Biopreservation by saccharides is a widely studied issue due to its scientific and technological importance; in particular, ternary amorphous protein-saccharide-water systems are extensively exploited to model the characteristics of the in vivo biopreservation process. We present here a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on amorphous trehalose-water systems with embedded different proteins (myoglobin, lysozyme, BSA, hemoglobin), which differ for charge, surface, and volume properties. In our study, the protein/trehalose molar ratio is kept constant at 1/40, while the water/sugar molar ratio is varied between 2 and 300; results are compared with those obtained for binary trehalose-water systems. DSC upscans offer the possibility of investigating, in the same measurement, the thermodynamic properties of the matrix (glass transition, T(g)) and the functional properties of the encapsulated protein (thermal denaturation, T(den)). At high-to-intermediate hydration, the presence of the proteins increases the glass transition temperature of the encapsulating matrix. The effect mainly depends on size properties, and it can be ascribed to confinement exerted by the protein on the trehalose-water solvent. Conversely, at low hydration, lower T(g) values are measured in the presence of proteins: the lack of water promotes sugar-protein interactions, thus weakening the confinement effect and softening the matrix with respect to the binary system. A parallel T(den) increase is also observed; remarkably, this stabilization can reach ∼70 K at low hydration, a finding potentially of high biotechnological relevance. A linear relationship between T(g) and T(den) is also observed, in line with previous results; this finding suggests that collective water-trehalose interactions, responsible for the glass transition, also influence the protein denaturation. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. The diversity of shell matrix proteins: genome-wide investigation of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Endo, Hirotoshi; Hashimoto, Naoki; Limura, Kurin; Isowa, Yukinobu; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Miki, Takumi; Nakayama, Seiji; Nogawa, Chihiro; Notazawa, Atsuto; Ohmori, Fumito; Sarashina, Isao; Suzuki, Michio; Takagi, Ryousuke; Takahashi, Jun; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Yokoo, Naoki; Satoh, Nori; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Samata, Tetsuro; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-10-01

    In molluscs, shell matrix proteins are associated with biomineralization, a biologically controlled process that involves nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. Identification and characterization of shell matrix proteins are important for better understanding of the adaptive radiation of a large variety of molluscs. We searched the draft genome sequence of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and annotated 30 different kinds of shell matrix proteins. Of these, we could identified Perlucin, ependymin-related protein and SPARC as common genes shared by bivalves and gastropods; however, most gastropod shell matrix proteins were not found in the P. fucata genome. Glycinerich proteins were conserved in the genus Pinctada. Another important finding with regard to these annotated genes was that numerous shell matrix proteins are encoded by more than one gene; e.g., three ACCBP-like proteins, three CaLPs, five chitin synthase-like proteins, two N16 proteins (pearlins), 10 N19 proteins, two nacreins, four Pifs, nine shematrins, two prismalin-14 proteins, and 21 tyrosinases. This diversity of shell matrix proteins may be implicated in the morphological diversity of mollusc shells. The annotated genes reported here can be searched in P. fucata gene models version 1.1 and genome assembly version 1.0 ( http://marinegenomics.oist.jp/pinctada_fucata ). These genes should provide a useful resource for studies of the genetic basis of biomineralization and evaluation of the role of shell matrix proteins as an evolutionary toolkit among the molluscs.

  4. The WNT-less wonder: WNT-independent β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Aktary, Zackie; Bertrand, Juliette U; Larue, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    β-catenin is known as an Armadillo protein that regulates gene expression following WNT pathway activation. However, WNT-independent pathways also activate β-catenin. During the establishment of the melanocyte lineage, β-catenin plays an important role. In the context of physiopathology, β-catenin is activated genetically or transiently in various cancers, including melanoma, where it can be found in the nucleus of tumors. In this review, we discuss alternative pathways that activate β-catenin independent of WNTs and highlight what is known regarding these pathways in melanoma. We also discuss the role of β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator in various cell types, with emphasis on the different transcription factors it associates with independent of WNT induction. Finally, the role of WNT-independent β-catenin in melanocyte development and melanomagenesis is also discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Matrix Gla protein regulates calcification of the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Venardos, Neil; Bennett, Daine; Weyant, Michael J; Reece, Thomas Brett; Meng, Xianzhong; Fullerton, David A

    2015-11-01

    The aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis. In response to proinflammatory stimulation, the AVIC undergoes a phenotypic change from that of a myofibroblast phenotype to that of osteoblast-like cell. Matrix Gla-protein (MGP) has been identified as an important inhibitor of vascular calcification. We therefore hypothesized that MGP expression is reduced in diseased AVICs, and loss of this protective protein contributes to calcification of the aortic valve. Our purpose was to compare MGP expression in normal versus diseased AVICs. Human AVICs were isolated from normal aortic valves from explanted hearts (n = 6) at the time of heart transplantation. AVICs were also isolated from calcified, diseased valves of patients (n = 6) undergoing aortic valve replacement. AVICs were grown in culture until they reached passages 2-6 before experimentation. Immunofluorescent staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to compare levels of MGP in normal and diseased AVICs. Statistics were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05). MGP expression was significantly decreased in diseased AVICs relative to normal AVICs by immunofluorescent staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An important anti-calcification defense mechanism is deficient in calcified aortic valves. MGP expression is significantly lower in diseased relative to normal AVICs. Lack of this important "anti-calcification" protein may contribute to calcification of the aortic valve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Circulating Nonphosphorylated Carboxylated Matrix Gla Protein Predicts Survival in ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Westenfeld, Ralf; Krüger, Thilo; Cranenburg, Ellen C.; Magdeleyns, Elke J.; Brandenburg, Vincent M.; Djuric, Zivka; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Ketteler, Markus; Vermeer, Cees; Dimkovic, Nada; Floege, Jürgen; Schurgers, Leon J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for vascular calcification and its associated cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD are not completely understood. Dialysis patients exhibit profound vitamin K deficiency, which may impair carboxylation of the calcification inhibitor matrix gla protein (MGP). Here, we tested whether distinct circulating inactive vitamin K–dependent proteins associate with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. We observed higher levels of both desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) and desphospho-carboxylated MGP (dp-cMGP) among 188 hemodialysis patients compared with 98 age-matched subjects with normal renal function. Levels of dp-ucMGP correlated with those of protein induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA-II; r = 0.62, P < 0.0001). We found increased PIVKA-II levels in 121 (64%) dialysis patients, indicating pronounced vitamin K deficiency. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low levels of dp-cMGP had an increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Multivariable Cox regression confirmed that low levels of dp-cMGP increase mortality risk (all-cause: HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.3; cardiovascular: HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.2). Furthermore, patients with higher vascular calcification scores showed lower levels of dp-cMGP. In 17 hemodialysis patients, daily supplementation with vitamin K2 for 6 weeks reduced dp-ucMGP levels by 27% (P = 0.003) but did not affect dp-cMGP levels. In conclusion, the majority of dialysis patients exhibit pronounced vitamin K deficiency. Lower levels of circulating dp-cMGP may serve as a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. Whether vitamin K supplementation improves outcomes requires further study. PMID:21289218

  7. Wnt4 inhibits β-catenin/TCF signalling by redirecting β-catenin to the cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Pascal; Fleming, Alice; Lacombe, Arnaud; Harley, Vincent R.; Vilain, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background information During embryonic development, β-catenin is central both to the transcriptional activation of Wnt [wingless-type MMTV (murine-mammary-tumour virus) integration site family] target genes and as a mediator of cell–cell adhesion. Signals that regulate its levels and subcellular localization are critical. One mechanism of Wnt signalling results in stabilization of β-catenin protein, which leads to its translocation into the nucleus, where it interacts with TCF (T-cell factor, HMG box) and activates transcription of target genes. Less well understood are mechanisms of Wnt signalling that do not involve β-catenin stabilization and result in inhibition of β-catenin-mediated transcription. Results Here, we show that a member of the Wnt protein family, Wnt4 (Wnt, member 4), regulates the subcellular localization of β-catenin, redirecting it to the cell membrane. Unique among Wnts, this action does not affect the stability of β-catenin but does prohibit its involvement in TCF gene transactivation. Conclusions This novel mechanism suggests that Wnt4 acts as a switch between the two modes of β-catenin function, transcriptional activation and cell–cell adhesion. PMID:17976036

  8. Podocan-like protein: a novel small leucine-rich repeat matrix protein in bone.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Kaku, Masaru; Yoshida, Keiko; Katafuchi, Michitsuna; Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2011-07-01

    Recently, significant attention has been drawn to the biology of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs) due to their multiple functionalities in various cell types and tissues. Here, we characterize a novel SLRP member, "Podocan-like (Podnl) protein" identified by a bioinformatics approach. The Podnl protein has a signal peptide, a unique cysteine-rich N-terminal cluster, 21 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs, and one putative N-glycosylation site. This protein is structurally similar to podocan in SLRPs. The gene was highly expressed in mineralized tissues and in osteoblastic cells and the high expression level was observed at and after matrix mineralization in vitro. Podnl was enriched in newly formed bones based on immunohistochemical analysis. When Podnl was transfected into osteoblastic cells, the protein with N-glycosylation was detected mainly in the cultured medium, indicating that Podnl is a secreted N-glycosylated protein. The endogenous Podnl protein was also present in bone matrix. These data provide a new insight into our understanding of the emerging SLRP functions in bone formation.

  9. Deubiquitinase USP9X deubiquitinates β-catenin and promotes high grade glioma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihao; Yang, Chunxu; Ouyang, Wen; Zhou, Fuxiang; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xie, Conghua

    2016-01-01

    β-catenin is a crucial signal transduction molecule in the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway, and increased β-catenin expression has consistently been found in high grade gliomas. However, the mechanisms responsible for β-catenin overexpression have remained elusive. Here we show that the deubiquitinase USP9X stabilizes β-catenin and thereby promotes high grade glioma cell growth. USP9X binds β-catenin and removes the Lys 48-linked polyubiquitin chains that normally mark β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Increased USP9X expression correlates with increased β-catenin protein in high grade glioma tissues. Moreover, patients with high grade glioma overexpressing USP9X have a poor prognosis. Knockdown of USP9X suppresses cell proliferation, inhibits G1/S phase conversion, and induces apoptosis in U251 and A172 cells. Interestingly, c-Myc and cyclinD1, which are important downstream target genes in the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway, also show decreased expression in cells with siRNA-mediated down-regulation of USP9X. Down-regulation of USP9X also consistently inhibits the tumorigenicity of primary glioma cells in vivo. In summary, these results indicate that USP9X stabilizes β-catenin and activates Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway to promote glioma cell proliferation and survival. USP9X could also potentially be a novel therapeutic target for high grade gliomas. PMID:27783990

  10. Sirt1 suppresses Wnt/βCatenin signaling in liver cancer cells by targeting βCatenin in a PKAα-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Wang, Yulan; Qian, Mingping; Qiao, Yongxia; Zou, Shaowu; Chen, Changqiang; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yan; Zhao, Yinghui; Zhu, Guoqing; Chen, Yuxin; Sun, Fenyong; Wang, Jiayi; Pan, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Here, bioinformatics data from Sirt1 knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) mice suggest that Sirt1 inhibits Wnt/βCatenin signaling in the liver. However, it is unclear how this relationship occurs and how it contributes to malignant phenotypes in liver cancer cells. We found that Sirt1 expression promotes phosphorylation of βCatenin at Ser675, which may subsequently decrease expression of total-βCatenin. Mechanistically, Sirt1 expression elevates phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of protein kinase A (PKAα), and this event is essential for Sirt1-induced phosphorylation of βCatenin. The negative effects of Sirt1 on βCatenin stability are also dependent on PKAα. Stimulating PKAα recruits βTrCP, a well-known ubiquitin E3 ligase for βCatenin, to βCatenin. Interestingly, Sirt1 expression is able to up-regulate βTrCP expression. Finally, we found that malignant phenotypes occur in hepatocytes when Sirt1 and βCatenin are co-overexpressed, and such effects are enhanced by simultaneous knockdown of PKAα. In contrast, malignant phenotypes are abrogated upon knockdown of Sirt1, and this phenotype is magnified by knockdown of βCatenin. Collectively, we conclude that suppression of both Sirt1 and Wnt/βCatenin might be effective in treating liver cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rho/ROCK-dependent inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis by G-protein-deamidating dermonecrotic toxins: differential regulation of Notch1, Pref1/Dlk1, and β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bannai, Yuka; Aminova, Leila R.; Faulkner, Melinda J.; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    The dermonecrotic toxins from Pasteurella multocida (PMT), Bordetella (DNT), Escherichia coli (CNF1-3), and Yersinia (CNFY) modulate their G-protein targets through deamidation and/or transglutamination of an active site Gln residue, which results in activation of the G protein and its cognate downstream signaling pathways. Whereas DNT and the CNFs act on small Rho GTPases, PMT acts on the α subunit of heterotrimeric Gq, Gi, and G12/13 proteins. We previously demonstrated that PMT potently blocks adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation in a calcineurin-independent manner through downregulation of Notch1 and stabilization of β-catenin and Pref1/Dlk1, key proteins in signaling pathways strongly linked to cell fate decisions, including fat and bone development. Here, we report that similar to PMT, DNT, and CNF1 completely block adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation by preventing upregulation of adipocyte markers, PPARγ and C/EBPα, while stabilizing the expression of Pref1/Dlk1 and β-catenin. We show that the Rho/ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 prevented or reversed these toxin-mediated effects, strongly supporting a role for Rho/ROCK signaling in dermonecrotic toxin-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation. Toxin treatment was also accompanied by downregulation of Notch1 expression, although this inhibition was independent of Rho/ROCK signaling. We further show that PMT-mediated downregulation of Notch1 expression occurs primarily through G12/13 signaling. Our results reveal new details of the pathways involved in dermonecrotic toxin action on adipocyte differentiation, and the role of Rho/ROCK signaling in mediating toxin effects on Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling, and in particular the role of Gq and G12/13 in mediating PMT effects on Rho/ROCK and Notch1 signaling. PMID:22919671

  12. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and its binding partners in the cartilage extracellular matrix: interaction, regulation and role in chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Chitrangada; Yik, Jasper H N; Kishore, Ashleen; Van Dinh, Victoria; Di Cesare, Paul E; Haudenschild, Dominik R

    2014-07-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) are widely known as a family of five calcium-binding matricellular proteins. While these proteins belong to the same family, they are encoded by different genes, regulate different cellular functions and are localized to specific regions of the body. TSP-5 or Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) is the only TSP that has been associated with skeletal disorders in humans, including pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). The pentameric structure of COMP, the evidence that it interacts with multiple cellular proteins, and the recent reports of COMP acting as a 'lattice' to present growth factors to cells, inspired this review of COMP and its interacting partners. In our review, we have compiled the interactions of COMP with other proteins in the cartilage extracellular matrix and summarized their importance in maintaining the structural integrity of cartilage as well as in regulating cellular functions.

  13. Identification of proteins associated with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Toyofuku, Masanori; Roschitzki, Bernd; Riedel, Katharina; Eberl, Leo

    2012-10-05

    Biofilms are surface-associated bacteria that are embedded in a matrix of self-produced polymeric substances (EPSs). The EPS is composed of nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins. While polysaccharide components have been well studied, the protein content of the matrix is largely unknown. Here we conducted a comprehensive proteomic study to identify proteins associated with the biofilm matrix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (the matrix proteome). This analysis revealed that approximately 30% of the identified matrix proteins were outer membrane proteins, which are also typically found in outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Electron microscopic inspection confirmed the presence of large amounts of OMVs within the biofilm matrix, supporting previous notions that OMVs are abundant constituents of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Our results demonstrate that while some proteins associated with the P. aeruginosa matrix are derived from secreted proteins and lysed cells, the large majority of the matrix proteins originate from OMVs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the protein content of planktonic and biofilm OMVs is surprisingly different and may reflect the different physiological states of planktonic and sessile cells.

  14. HIV-1 Matrix Protein p17 and its Receptors.

    PubMed

    Caccuri, Francesca; Marsico, Stefania; Fiorentini, Simona; Caruso, Arnaldo; Giagulli, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 matrix protein p17 (p17) plays a crucial role in the virus life cycle. It is released in the extracellular space from HIV-1-infected cells and accumulates in the tissues of patients, even in those successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Extracellular p17 deregulates the biological functions of many different cells that are directly or indirectly implicated in AIDS pathogenesis. All p17 actions depend on interaction between its functional epitope (AT20), located at the protein N-terminal region, and different receptors expressed on target cells. This finding corroborates the importance of impeding p17/p17 receptors interaction as a contribution to block AIDS. In this article we review the interaction of p17 with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and with the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 (CXCR1) and 2 (CXCR2). We provide details on how p17 interacts with its receptors and how these interactions are central to the p17 biological activities. Moreover, we highlight the existence of a p17 variant, named S75X, which displays opposite effects on B-cell proliferation as compared to p17. A two-site model for p17 interaction with G-coupled receptors provides a possible explanation on how mutations naturally occurring within the primary amino acid structure can lead S75X to activate the Akt signaling pathway and to promote B-cell growth and transformation. Identification of p17 interaction with HSPGs, CXCR1 and CXCR2 as a fundamental event in supporting its activity could help to find new treatment approaches aimed at blocking all p17/p17 receptors interactions and, consequently, p17 detrimental activities.

  15. Extracellular matrix protein CCN1 limits oncolytic efficacy in glioma.

    PubMed

    Haseley, Amy; Boone, Sean; Wojton, Jeffrey; Yu, Lianbo; Yoo, Ji Young; Yu, Jianhua; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Glorioso, Joseph C; Caligiuri, Michael A; Kaur, Balveen

    2012-03-15

    Oncolytic viral therapy has been explored widely as an option for glioma treatment but its effectiveness has remained limited. Cysteine rich 61 (CCN1) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein elevated in cancer cells that modulates their adhesion and migration by binding cell surface receptors. In this study, we examined a hypothesized role for CCN1 in limiting the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy for glioma, based on evidence of CCN1 induction that occurs in this setting. Strikingly, we found that exogenous CCN1 in glioma ECM orchestrated a cellular antiviral response that reduced viral replication and limited cytolytic efficacy. Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analysis revealed a significant induction of type-I interferon responsive genes in response to CCN1 exposure. This induction was accompanied by activation of the Jak/Stat signaling pathway, consistent with induction of an innate antiviral cellular response. Both effects were mediated by the binding of CCN1 to the cell surface integrin α6β1, activating its signaling and leading to rapid secretion of interferon-α, which was essential for the innate antiviral effect. Together, our findings reveal how an integrin signaling pathway mediates activation of a type-I antiviral interferon response that can limit the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy. Furthermore, they suggest therapeutic interventions to inhibit CCN1-integrin α6 interactions to sensitize gliomas to viral oncolysis.

  16. Differential regulation of dentin matrix protein 1 expression during odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Shubin; Xie, Yixia; Pi, Yuli; Feng, Jian Q

    2005-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in mineralized tooth and bone. Both in vitro and in vivo data show that DMP1 is critical for mineralization and tooth morphogenesis (growth and development). In this study, we studied Dmp1 gene regulation. The in vitro transient transfection assay identified two important DNA fragments, the 2.4- and 9.6-kb promoter regions. We next generated and analyzed transgenic mice bearing the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter gene driven by the 2.4- or 9.6-kb promoter with the complete 4-kb intron 1. The 9.6-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice conferred a DMP1 expression pattern in odontoblasts identical to that in the endogenous Dmp1 gene. This is reflected by lacZ expression in Dmp1-lacZ knock-in mice during all stages of odontogenesis. In contrast, the 2.4-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice display activity in odontoblast cells only at the early stage of odontogenesis. Thus, we propose that different transcription factors regulate early or later cis-regulatory domains of the Dmp1 promoter, which gives rise to the unique spatial and temporal expression pattern of Dmp1 gene at different stages of tooth development. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. BMP‐9‐induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors requires functional canonical Wnt/β‐catenin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ni; Song, Wen‐Xin; Luo, Jinyong; Luo, Xiaoji; Chen, Jin; Sharff, Katie A.; Bi, Yang; He, Bai‐Cheng; Huang, Jia‐Yi; Zhu, Gao‐Hui; Su, Yu‐Xi; Jiang, Wei; Tang, Min; He, Yun; Wang, Yi; Chen, Liang; Zuo, Guo‐Wei; Shen, Jikun; Pan, Xiaochuan; Reid, Russell R.; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP‐9) is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β/BMP superfamily, and we have demonstrated that it is one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, we sought to investigate if canonical Wnt/β‐catenin signalling plays an important role in BMP‐9‐induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Wnt3A and BMP‐9 enhanced each other’s ability to induce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MSCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Wnt antagonist FrzB was shown to inhibit BMP‐9‐induced ALP activity more effectively than Dkk1, whereas a secreted form of LPR‐5 or low‐density lipoprotein receptor‐related protein (LRP)‐6 exerted no inhibitory effect on BMP‐9‐induced ALP activity. β‐Catenin knockdown in MSCs and MEFs diminished BMP‐9‐induced ALP activity, and led to a decrease in BMP‐9‐induced osteocalcin reporter activity and BMP‐9‐induced expression of late osteogenic markers. Furthermore, β‐catenin knockdown or FrzB overexpression inhibited BMP‐9‐induced mineralization in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo, resulting in immature osteogenesis and the formation of chondrogenic matrix. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis indicated that BMP‐9 induced recruitment of both Runx2 and β‐catenin to the osteocalcin promoter. Thus, we have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signalling, possibly through interactions between β‐catenin and Runx2, plays an important role in BMP‐9‐induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. PMID:19175684

  18. Evidence for direct association of Vpr and matrix protein p17 within the HIV-1 virion.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Yoshimoto, J; Isaka, Y; Miki, S; Suyama, A; Adachi, A; Hayami, M; Fujiwara, T; Yoshie, O

    1996-06-01

    Vpr is one of the auxiliary proteins of HIV-1 and is selectively incorporated into the virion by a process involving the C-terminal p6 portion of the Gag precursor Pr55. Vpr and the matrix protein p17 are the components of the viral preintegration complex and appear to play important roles in the nuclear transport of proviral DNA in nondividing cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation experiments that Vpr associates with matrix protein p17 but not with capsid protein p24 within the HIV-1 virion. Experiments employing the yeast two-hybrid GAL4 assay for protein-protein interactions also demonstrated a direct association between Vpr and the C-terminal region of matrix protein p17. Association of Vpr and the matrix protein p17 within the mature virion is consistent with their collaborative role in the nuclear transportation of the viral preintegration complex in nondividing cells such as macrophages.

  19. Activation of endothelial β-catenin signaling induces heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Akito; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Sumida, Tomokazu; Nomura, Seitaro; Shibamoto, Masato; Higo, Tomoaki; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Hashimoto, Akihito; Kuramoto, Yuki; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Harada, Mutsuo; Ueda, Kazutaka; Shiojima, Ichiro; Limbourg, Florian P.; Adams, Ralf H.; Noda, Tetsuo; Sakata, Yasushi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Activation of β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling in endothelial cells plays a key role in angiogenesis during development and ischemic diseases, however, other roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that sustained activation of β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells causes cardiac dysfunction through suppressing neuregulin-ErbB pathway in the heart. Conditional gain-of-function mutation of β-catenin, which activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Bmx-positive arterial endothelial cells (Bmx/CA mice) led to progressive cardiac dysfunction and 100% mortality at 40 weeks after tamoxifen treatment. Electron microscopic analysis revealed dilatation of T-tubules and degeneration of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes of Bmx/CA mice, which are similar to the changes observed in mice with decreased neuregulin-ErbB signaling. Endothelial expression of Nrg1 and cardiac ErbB signaling were suppressed in Bmx/CA mice. The cardiac dysfunction of Bmx/CA mice was ameliorated by administration of recombinant neuregulin protein. These results collectively suggest that sustained activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells might be a cause of heart failure through suppressing neuregulin-ErbB signaling, and that the Wnt/β-catenin/NRG axis in cardiac endothelial cells might become a therapeutic target for heart failure. PMID:27146149

  20. Clotting protein - An extracellular matrix (ECM) protein involved in crustacean hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Junkunlo, Kingkamon; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2017-09-21

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells in crustaceans are organized in lobule-like structures surrounded by different types of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in a Hematopoietic tissue (HPT). Here we show that the clotting protein (CP) is part of the ECM in HPT and is secreted during HPT cell culture. The formation of a filamentous network of CP was observed in HPT cell culture. A high amount of CP protein was detected at the surfaces of undifferentiated cells (round-shaped) compared with migrating cells (spindle shaped). Co-localization of the CP protein and TGase activity was observed on the cell surface and filamentous network between cells. A role for CP together with collagen was revealed in a 3D culture in which a collagen-I matrix was immobilized with CP or supplemented with CP. The results showed possible functions of CP, collagen, TGase and cytokine Ast1 in the regulation of HPT progenitor cell behavior. This is the first study to provide insight into the role of CP, which probably not only participates in clot formation but also functions as an ECM component protein controlling hematopoietic stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Purification of Capping Protein Using the Capping Protein Binding Site of CARMIL as an Affinity Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Remmert, Kirsten; Uruno, Takehito; Hammer, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Capping Protein (CP) is a ubiquitously expressed, heterodimeric actin binding protein that is essential for normal actin dynamics in cells. The existing methods for purifying native CP from tissues and recombinant CP from bacteria are time-consuming processes that involve numerous conventional chromatographic steps and functional assays to achieve a homogeneous preparation of the protein. Here we report the rapid purification of Acanthamoeba CP from amoeba extracts and recombinant mouse CP from E. coli extracts using as an affinity matrix GST fusion proteins containing the CP binding site from Acanthamoeba CARMIL and mouse CARMIL-1, respectively. This improved method for CP purification should facilitate the in vitro analysis of CP structure, function and regulation. PMID:19427903

  2. Purification of capping protein using the capping protein binding site of CARMIL as an affinity matrix.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Kirsten; Uruno, Takehito; Hammer, John A

    2009-10-01

    Capping protein (CP) is a ubiquitously expressed, heterodimeric actin binding protein that is essential for normal actin dynamics in cells. The existing methods for purifying native CP from tissues and recombinant CP from bacteria are time-consuming processes that involve numerous conventional chromatographic steps and functional assays to achieve a homogeneous preparation of the protein. Here, we report the rapid purification of Acanthamoeba CP from amoeba extracts and recombinant mouse CP from E. coli extracts using as an affinity matrix GST-fusion proteins containing the CP binding site from Acanthamoeba CARMIL and mouse CARMIL-1, respectively. This improved method for CP purification should facilitate the in vitro analysis of CP structure, function, and regulation.

  3. p15RS/RPRD1A (p15INK4b-related Sequence/Regulation of Nuclear Pre-mRNA Domain-containing Protein 1A) Interacts with HDAC2 in Inhibition of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yanquan; Li, Jun; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Zhou, Yifan; Wu, Yinyuan; Feng, Yarui; Zhou, Yu; Su, Fuqin; Jia, Baoqing; Wang, Dong; Chang, Zhijie

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that p15RS (p15INK4b-related sequence), a regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing protein, inhibited Wnt signaling by interrupting the formation of the β-catenin·TCF4 complex. However, how p15RS functions as an intrinsic repressor to repress transcription remains unclear. In this study, we show that p15RS, through a specific interaction with HDAC2 (histone deacetylase 2), a deacetylase that regulates gene transcription, maintains histone H3 in a deacetylated state in the promoter region of Wnt-targeted genes where β-catenin·TCF4 is bound. We observed that histone deacetylase inhibitors impair the ability of p15RS in inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Depletion of HDAC2 markedly disabled p15RS inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription. Interestingly, overexpression of p15RS decreases the level of acetylated histone H3 in the c-MYC promoter. Finally, we demonstrate that p15RS significantly enhances the association of HDAC2 and TCF4 and enhances the occupancy of HDAC2 to DNA, resulting in the deacetylation of histone H3 and the failure of β-catenin interaction. We propose that p15RS acts as an intrinsic transcriptional repressor for Wnt/β-catenin-mediated gene transcription at least partially through recruiting HDAC2 to occupy the promoter and maintaining deacetylated histone H3. PMID:25697359

  4. Mitochondrial unfolded protein response controls matrix pre-RNA processing and translation.

    PubMed

    Münch, Christian; Harper, J Wade

    2016-06-30

    The mitochondrial matrix is unique in that it must integrate the folding and assembly of proteins derived from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) senses matrix protein misfolding and induces a program of nuclear gene expression, including mitochondrial chaperonins, to promote mitochondrial proteostasis. While misfolded mitochondrial-matrix-localized ornithine transcarbamylase induces chaperonin expression, our understanding of mammalian UPRmt is rudimentary, reflecting a lack of acute triggers for UPRmt activation. This limitation has prevented analysis of the cellular responses to matrix protein misfolding and the effects of UPRmt on mitochondrial translation to control protein folding loads. Here we combine pharmacological inhibitors of matrix-localized HSP90/TRAP1 (ref. 8) or LON protease, which promote chaperonin expression, with global transcriptional and proteomic analysis to reveal an extensive and acute response of human cells to UPRmt. This response encompasses widespread induction of nuclear genes, including matrix-localized proteins involved in folding, pre-RNA processing and translation. Functional studies revealed rapid but reversible translation inhibition in mitochondria occurring concurrently with defects in pre-RNA processing caused by transcriptional repression and LON-dependent turnover of the mitochondrial pre-RNA processing nuclease MRPP3 (ref. 10). This study reveals that acute mitochondrial protein folding stress activates both increased chaperone availability within the matrix and reduced matrix-localized protein synthesis through translational inhibition, and provides a framework for further dissection of mammalian UPRmt.

  5. New functions for alpha-catenins in health and disease: from cancer to heart regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vite, Alexia; Li, Jifen; Radice, Glenn L

    2015-06-01

    Strong cell-cell adhesion mediated by adherens junctions is dependent on anchoring the transmembrane cadherin molecule to the underlying actin cytoskeleton. To do this, the cadherin cytoplasmic domain interacts with catenin proteins, which include α-catenin that binds directly to filamentous actin. Originally thought to be a static structure, the connection between the cadherin/catenin adhesion complex and the actin cytoskeleton is now considered to be dynamic and responsive to both intercellular and intracellular signals. Alpha-catenins are mechanosensing proteins that undergo conformational change in response to cytoskeletal tension thus modifying the linkage between the cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton. There are three α-catenin isoforms expressed in mouse and human: αE-catenin (CTNNA1), αN-catenin (CTNNA2) and αT-catenin (CTNNA3). This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the in vivo function(s) of α-catenins in tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and disease. The role of α-catenin in the regulation of cellular proliferation will be discussed in the context of cancer and regeneration.

  6. New Functions for Alpha-Catenins in Health and Disease: From Cancer to Heart Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vite, Alexia; Li, Jifen; Radice, Glenn L.

    2015-01-01

    Strong cell-cell adhesion mediated by adherens junctions is dependent on anchoring the transmembrane cadherin molecule to the underlying actin cytoskeleton. To do this, cadherin cytoplasmic domain interacts with catenin proteins, which include α-catenin that binds directly to filamentous actin. Originally thought to be a static structure, the connection between the cadherin/catenin adhesion complex and the actin cytoskeleton is now considered to be dynamic and responsive to both intercellular and intracellular signals. Alpha-catenins are mechanosensing proteins that undergo conformational change in response to cytoskeletal tension thus modifying the linkage between the cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton. There are three α-catenin isoforms expressed in mouse and human: αE-catenin (CTNNA1), αN-catenin (CTNNA2), and αT-catenin (CTNNA3). This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the in vivo function(s) of α-catenins in tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis, and disease. The role of α-catenin in the regulation of cellular proliferation will be discussed in the context of cancer and regeneration. PMID:25673211

  7. Diverse Basis of β-Catenin Activation in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Implications in Biology and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Hirohisa; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Imai, Katsunori; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Higashi, Takaaki; Arima, Kota; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikegami, Toru; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Beppu, Toru; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Baba, Hideo; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Aim β-catenin signaling is a major oncogenic pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since β-catenin phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε) results in its degradation, mutations affecting these phosphorylation sites cause β-catenin stabilization. However, the relevance of missense mutations in non-phosphorylation sites in exon 3 remains unclear. The current study explores significance of such mutations in addition to addressing the clinical and biological implications of β-catenin activation in human HCC. Methods Gene alteration in exon3 of CTNNB1, gene expression of β-catenin targets such as glutamate synthetase (GS), axin2, lect2 and regucalcin (RGN), and protein expression of β-catenin were examined in 125 human HCC tissues. Results Sixteen patients (12.8%) showed conventional missense mutations affecting codons 33, 37, 41, and 45. Fifteen additional patients (12.0%) had other missense mutations in codon 32, 34, and 35. Induction of exon3 mutation caused described β-catenin target gene upregulation in HCC cell line. Interestingly, conventional and non-phosphorylation site mutations were equally associated with upregulation of β-catenin target genes. Nuclear localization of β-catenin was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0461). Of these patients with nuclear β-catenin localization, loss of described β-catenin target gene upregulation showed significant poorer overall survival than others (p = 0.0001). Conclusion This study suggests that both conventional and other missense mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 lead to β-catenin activation in human HCC. Additionally, the mechanism of nuclear β-catenin localization without upregulation of described β-catenin target genes might be of clinical importance depending on distinct mechanism. PMID:27100093

  8. Chromatin-Remodeling-Factor ARID1B Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiou, Georgia; Ekici, Arif B.; Uebe, Steffen; Zweier, Christiane; Hoyer, Juliane; Engels, Hartmut; Behrens, Jürgen; Reis, André; Hadjihannas, Michel V.

    2015-01-01

    The link of chromatin remodeling to both neurodevelopment and cancer has recently been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting BAF chromatin-remodeling components, such as ARID1B, in individuals with intellectual disability and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unknown. Here, we show that ARID1B is a repressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Through whole-transcriptome analysis, we find that in individuals with intellectual disability and ARID1B loss-of-function mutations, Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated. Using cellular models of low and high Wnt/β-catenin activity, we demonstrate that knockdown of ARID1B activates Wnt/β-catenin target genes and Wnt/β-catenin-dependent transcriptional reporters in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Reciprocally, forced expression of ARID1B inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream of the β-catenin destruction complex. Both endogenous and exogenous ARID1B associate with β-catenin and repress Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through the BAF core subunit BRG1. Accordingly, mutations in ARID1B leading to partial or complete deletion of its BRG1-binding domain, as is often observed in intellectual disability and cancers, compromise association with β-catenin, and the resultant ARID1B mutant proteins fail to suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Finally, knockdown of ARID1B in mouse neuroblastoma cells leads to neurite outgrowth through β-catenin. The data suggest that aberrations in chromatin-remodeling factors, such as ARID1B, might contribute to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and cancer through deregulation of developmental and oncogenic pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26340334

  9. STAT3 Potentiates SIAH-1 Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of β-Catenin in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minkyung; Yi, Eun Hee; Kim, Byung-Hak; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Park, Jung Youl; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Wan; Choi, Kang-Yell; Ye, Sang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The β-catenin functions as an adhesion molecule and a component of the Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of the Wnt ligand, β-catenin is constantly phosphorylated, which designates it for degradation by the APC complex. This process is one of the key regulatory mechanisms of β-catenin. The level of β-catenin is also controlled by the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase SIAH-1 via a phosphorylation-independent degradation pathway. Similar to β-catenin, STAT3 is responsible for various cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and differentiation. However, little is known about how these molecules work together to regulate diverse cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the regulatory relationship between STAT3 and β-catenin in HEK293T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that β-catenin-TCF-4 transcriptional activity was suppressed by phosphorylated STAT3; furthermore, STAT3 inactivation abolished this effect and elevated activated β-catenin levels. STAT3 also showed a strong interaction with SIAH-1, a regulator of active β-catenin via degradation, which stabilized SIAH-1 and increased its interaction with β-catenin. These results suggest that activated STAT3 regulates active β-catenin protein levels via stabilization of SIAH-1 and the subsequent ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in HEK293T cells. PMID:27871173

  10. Molecular plasticity of beta-catenin: new insights from single-molecule measurements and MD simulation.

    PubMed

    Ritco-Vonsovici, Monica; Ababou, Abdessamad; Horton, Michael

    2007-09-01

    The multifunctional protein, beta-catenin, has essential roles in cell adhesion and, through the Wnt signaling pathway, in controlling cell differentiation, development, and generation of cancer. Could distinct molecular forms of beta-catenin underlie these two functions? Our single-molecule force spectroscopy of armadillo beta-catenin, with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, suggests a model in which the cell generates various forms of beta-catenin, in equilibrium. We find beta-catenin and the transcriptional factor Tcf4 form two complexes with different affinities. Specific cellular response is achieved by the ligand binding to a particular matching preexisting conformer. Our MD simulation indicates that complexes derive from two conformers of the core region of the protein, whose preexisting molecular forms could arise from small variations in flexible regions of the beta-catenin main binding site. This mechanism for the generation of the various forms offers a route to tailoring future therapeutic strategies.

  11. Photolytic Cross-Linking to Probe Protein-Protein and Protein-Matrix Interactions in Lyophilized Powders.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lavanya K; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-08

    Protein structure and local environment in lyophilized formulations were probed using high-resolution solid-state photolytic cross-linking with mass spectrometric analysis (ssPC-MS). In order to characterize structure and microenvironment, protein-protein, protein-excipient, and protein-water interactions in lyophilized powders were identified. Myoglobin (Mb) was derivatized in solution with the heterobifunctional probe succinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (SDA) and the structural integrity of the labeled protein (Mb-SDA) confirmed using CD spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Mb-SDA was then formulated with and without excipients (raffinose, guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn HCl)) and lyophilized. The freeze-dried powder was irradiated with ultraviolet light at 365 nm for 30 min to produce cross-linked adducts that were analyzed at the intact protein level and after trypsin digestion. SDA-labeling produced Mb carrying up to five labels, as detected by LC-MS. Following lyophilization and irradiation, cross-linked peptide-peptide, peptide-water, and peptide-raffinose adducts were detected. The exposure of Mb side chains to the matrix was quantified based on the number of different peptide-peptide, peptide-water, and peptide-excipient adducts detected. In the absence of excipients, peptide-peptide adducts involving the CD, DE, and EF loops and helix H were common. In the raffinose formulation, peptide-peptide adducts were more distributed throughout the molecule. The Gdn HCl formulation showed more protein-protein and protein-water adducts than the other formulations, consistent with protein unfolding and increased matrix interactions. The results demonstrate that ssPC-MS can be used to distinguish excipient effects and characterize the local protein environment in lyophilized formulations with high resolution.

  12. INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN THE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS IN DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chun; Sun, Lin; Xiao, Li; Han, Yachun; Fu, Xiao; Xiong, Xiaofen; Xu, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Yinghong; Yang, Shikun; Liu, Fuyou; Kanwar, Yashpal S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is believed to be a major microvascular complication of diabetes. The hallmark of DN includes deposition of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) proteins, such as, collagen, laminin and fibronectin in the mesangium and renal tubulo-interstitium of the glomerulus and basement membranes. Such an increased expression of ECM leads to glomerular and tubular basement membranes thickening and increase of mesangial matrix, ultimately resulting in glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The characteristic morphologic glomerular mesangial lesion has been described as Kimmelstiel–Wilson nodule, and the process at times is referred to as diabetic nodular glomerulosclerosis. Thus, the accumulation of ECM proteins plays a critical role in the development of DN. The relevant mechanism(s) involved in the increased ECM expression and their regulation in the kidney in diabetic state has been extensively investigated and documented in the literature. Nevertheless, there are certain other mechanisms that may yet be conclusively defined. Recent studies demonstrated that some of the new signaling pathways or molecules including, Notch, Wnt, mTOR, TLRs and small GTPase may play a pivotal role in the modulation of ECM regulation and expression in DN. Such modulation could be operational for instance Notch though Notch1/Jagged1 signaling, Wnt by Wnt/β-catenin pathway and mTOR via PI3-K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. All these pathways may be critical in the modulation of ECM expression and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. In addition, TLRs, mainly the TLR2 and TLR4, by TLR2-dependent and TGF-β-dependent conduits, may modulate ECM expression and generate a fibrogenic response. Small GTPase like Rho, Ras and Rab family by targeting relevant genes may also influence the accumulation of ECM proteins and renal fibrosis in hyperglycemic states. This review summarizes the recent information about the role and mechanisms by which these molecules and signaling pathways

  13. [The study on the enamel remineralization by enamel matrix proteins' inducing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Zhao, Yue-ping; Zhou, Chang-ren; Li, Hong

    2008-07-01

    To find the enamel matrix proteins on the impact of enamel mineralization through experiments. A combination of protein and beneficial carboxyl groups was grafted on the surface of enamel defects of rats through UV radiation then put into the enamel matrix proteins of calcium phosphate agar acetate solution systems, through scanning enamel surface with the electron microscopy to observe the morphological changes of enamel then analyse the regulation that enamel matrix proteins have done to the white hydroxyapatite crystals on the composition and morphology. In the enamel matrix protein added gel system, we can see the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals, and crystal showed a good degree of crystallinity and contained a small amount of CO3(2-) substituted hydroxyapatite crystals. The temperature at 37 degrees C water bath, after adding the enamel matrix proteins to gel system, the new hydroxyapatite crystals were numerous which proved that enamel matrix proteins played an important role in nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystal, so it could be indicated that enamel matrix proteins could induce the enamel remineralization.

  14. Renal handling of matrix Gla-protein in humans with moderate to severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Scholte, Jan B J; Houben, Alphons J H M; de Leeuw, Peter W; Kroon, Abraham A

    2008-09-01

    Vascular calcifications are common among patients with hypertension. The vitamin K-dependent protein matrix Gla-protein plays an important role in preventing arterial calcification. Since a decrease in renal clearance is a prevalent clinical problem in patients with hypertension, we aimed to study the renal clearance of matrix Gla-protein from the circulation in these patients having a wide range of creatinine clearances. Ninety moderate to severe hypertensive patients who were scheduled for renal angiography were enrolled in the study. In these patients, renal arterial and renal venous blood was sampled prior to the administration of contrast material in order to determine the total renal and single kidney clearance of matrix Gla-protein. The average renal fractional extraction of matrix Gla-protein was 12.8%. There was no significant correlation between creatinine clearance (range 26-154) and renal fractional extraction of matrix Gla-protein in this population. The extraction of matrix Gla-protein was not influenced by the presence of a renal artery stenosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the kidney is able to extract matrix Gla-protein from the plasma at a constant level of 12.8%, independent of renal function in hypertensive subjects.

  15. Therapeutic intervention of proanthocyanidins on the migration capacity of melanoma cells is mediated through PGE2 receptors and β-catenin signaling molecules

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Kappes, John C; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer and a leading cause of death from skin diseases mainly due to its propensity to metastasis. Due to metastatic tendency, melanoma is often associated with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling mechanism. Blocking β-catenin activation may be a good strategy to block melanoma-associated mortality. We have shown earlier that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) inhibit melanoma cell migration via targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression. Here we explored further whether inhibition of inflammatory mediators-mediated activation of β-catenin by GSPs is associated with the inhibition of melanoma cell migration. Our study revealed that PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4) agonists promote melanoma cell migration while PGE2 receptor antagonist suppressed the migration capacity of melanoma cells. GSPs treatment inhibit butaprost (EP2 agonist) or Cay10580 (EP4 agonist) induced migration of melanoma cells. Western blot analysis revealed that GSPs reduced cellular accumulation of β-catenin, and decreased the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and MITF, downstream targets of β-catenin in melanoma cells. GSPs also reduced the protein expressions of PI3K and p-Akt in the same set of experiment. To verify that β-catenin is a specific molecular target of GSPs, we compared the effect of GSPs on cell migration of β-catenin-activated (Mel1241) and β-catenin-inactivated (Mel1011) melanoma cells. GSPs inhibit cell migration of Mel1241 cells but not of Mel1011 cells. Additionally, in vivo bioluminescence imaging data indicate that dietary administration of GSPs (0.5%, w/w) in supplementation with AIN76A control diet inhibited the migration/extravasation of intravenously injected melanoma cells in lungs of immune-compromised nude mice, and that this effect of GSPs was associated with an inhibitory effect on the activation of β-catenin and its downstream targets, such as MMPs, in lungs as a target organ. PMID

  16. Therapeutic intervention of proanthocyanidins on the migration capacity of melanoma cells is mediated through PGE2 receptors and β-catenin signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Kappes, John C; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer and a leading cause of death from skin diseases mainly due to its propensity to metastasis. Due to metastatic tendency, melanoma is often associated with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling mechanism. Blocking β-catenin activation may be a good strategy to block melanoma-associated mortality. We have shown earlier that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) inhibit melanoma cell migration via targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression. Here we explored further whether inhibition of inflammatory mediators-mediated activation of β-catenin by GSPs is associated with the inhibition of melanoma cell migration. Our study revealed that PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4) agonists promote melanoma cell migration while PGE2 receptor antagonist suppressed the migration capacity of melanoma cells. GSPs treatment inhibit butaprost (EP2 agonist) or Cay10580 (EP4 agonist) induced migration of melanoma cells. Western blot analysis revealed that GSPs reduced cellular accumulation of β-catenin, and decreased the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and MITF, downstream targets of β-catenin in melanoma cells. GSPs also reduced the protein expressions of PI3K and p-Akt in the same set of experiment. To verify that β-catenin is a specific molecular target of GSPs, we compared the effect of GSPs on cell migration of β-catenin-activated (Mel1241) and β-catenin-inactivated (Mel1011) melanoma cells. GSPs inhibit cell migration of Mel1241 cells but not of Mel1011 cells. Additionally, in vivo bioluminescence imaging data indicate that dietary administration of GSPs (0.5%, w/w) in supplementation with AIN76A control diet inhibited the migration/extravasation of intravenously injected melanoma cells in lungs of immune-compromised nude mice, and that this effect of GSPs was associated with an inhibitory effect on the activation of β-catenin and its downstream targets, such as MMPs, in lungs as a target organ.

  17. A matrix protein silences transposons and repeats through interaction with retinoblastoma-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifeng; Wang, Yizhong; Stroud, Hume; Gu, Xiaofeng; Sun, Bo; Gan, Eng-Seng; Ng, Kian-Hong; Jacobsen, Steven E; He, Yuehui; Ito, Toshiro

    2013-02-18

    Epigenetic regulation helps to maintain genomic integrity by suppressing transposable elements (TEs) and also controls key developmental processes, such as flowering time. To prevent TEs from causing rearrangements and mutations, TE and TE-like repetitive DNA sequences are usually methylated, whereas histones are hypoacetylated and methylated on specific residues (e.g., H3 lysine 9 dimethylation [H3K9me2]). TEs and repeats can also attenuate gene expression. However, how various histone modifiers are recruited to target loci is not well understood. Here we show that knockdown of the nuclear matrix protein with AT-hook DNA binding motifs TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT SILENCING VIA AT-HOOK (TEK) in Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta results in robust activation of various TEs, the TE-like repeat-containing floral repressor genes FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and FWA. This derepression is associated with chromatin conformational changes, increased histone acetylation, reduced H3K9me2, and even TE transposition. TEK directly binds to an FLC-repressive regulatory region and the silencing repeats of FWA and associates with Arabidopsis homologs of the Retinoblastoma-associated protein 46/48, FVE and MSI5, which mediate histone deacetylation. We propose that the nuclear matrix protein TEK acts in the maintenance of genome integrity by silencing TE and repeat-containing genes.

  18. Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway by Mechanical Ventilation Is Associated with Ventilator-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Healthy Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Francisco; Casula, Milena; Flores, Carlos; Blanch, Lluís; Quilez, María Elisa; Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Kacmarek, Robert M.; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation (MV) with high tidal volumes (VT) can cause or aggravate lung damage, so-called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). The relationship between specific mechanical events in the lung and the cellular responses that result in VILI remains incomplete. Since activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been suggested to be central to mechanisms of lung healing and fibrosis, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a role during VILI. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study using adult, healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals (n = 6/group) were randomized to spontaneous breathing or two strategies of MV for 4 hours: low tidal volume (VT) (6 mL/kg) or high VT (20 mL/kg). Histological evaluation of lung tissue, measurements of WNT5A, total β-catenin, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) protein levels by Western blot, and WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, MMP-7, and AXIN2 immunohistochemical localization in the lungs were analyzed. High-VT MV caused lung inflammation and perivascular edema with cellular infiltrates and collagen deposition. Protein levels of WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1, VEGF, and AXIN2 in the lungs were increased in all ventilated animals although high-VT MV was associated with significantly higher levels of WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1, VEGF, and AXIN2 levels. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is modulated very early by MV in lungs without preexistent lung disease, suggesting that activation of this pathway could play an important role in both VILI and lung repair. Modulation of this pathway might represent a therapeutic option for prevention and/or management of VILI. PMID:21935365

  19. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by mechanical ventilation is associated with ventilator-induced pulmonary fibrosis in healthy lungs.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jesús; Cabrera, Nuria E; Valladares, Francisco; Casula, Milena; Flores, Carlos; Blanch, Lluís; Quilez, María Elisa; Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Kacmarek, Robert M; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) with high tidal volumes (V(T)) can cause or aggravate lung damage, so-called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). The relationship between specific mechanical events in the lung and the cellular responses that result in VILI remains incomplete. Since activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been suggested to be central to mechanisms of lung healing and fibrosis, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a role during VILI. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study using adult, healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals (n = 6/group) were randomized to spontaneous breathing or two strategies of MV for 4 hours: low tidal volume (V(T)) (6 mL/kg) or high V(T) (20 mL/kg). Histological evaluation of lung tissue, measurements of WNT5A, total β-catenin, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) protein levels by Western blot, and WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, MMP-7, and AXIN2 immunohistochemical localization in the lungs were analyzed. High-V(T) MV caused lung inflammation and perivascular edema with cellular infiltrates and collagen deposition. Protein levels of WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1, VEGF, and AXIN2 in the lungs were increased in all ventilated animals although high-V(T) MV was associated with significantly higher levels of WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1, VEGF, and AXIN2 levels. Our findings demonstrate that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is modulated very early by MV in lungs without preexistent lung disease, suggesting that activation of this pathway could play an important role in both VILI and lung repair. Modulation of this pathway might represent a therapeutic option for prevention and/or management of VILI.

  20. Monitoring Interactions and Dynamics of Endogenous Beta-catenin With Intracellular Nanobodies in Living Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Traenkle, Bjoern; Emele, Felix; Anton, Roman; Poetz, Oliver; Haeussler, Ragna S.; Maier, Julia; Kaiser, Philipp D.; Scholz, Armin M.; Nueske, Stefan; Buchfellner, Andrea; Romer, Tina; Rothbauer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    β-catenin is the key component of the canonical Wnt pathway and plays a crucial role in a multitude of developmental and homeostatic processes. The different tasks of β-catenin are orchestrated by its subcellular localization and participation in multiprotein complexes. To gain a better understanding of β-catenin's role in living cells we have generated a new set of single domain antibodies, referred to as nanobodies, derived from heavy chain antibodies of camelids. We selected nanobodies recognizing the N-terminal, core or C-terminal domain of β-catenin and applied these new high-affinity binders as capture molecules in sandwich immunoassays and co-immunoprecipitations of endogenous β-catenin complexes. In addition, we engineered intracellularly functional anti-β-catenin chromobodies by combining the binding moieties of the nanobodies with fluorescent proteins. For the first time, we were able to visualize the subcellular localization and nuclear translocation of endogenous β-catenin in living cells using these chromobodies. Moreover, the chromobody signal allowed us to trace the accumulation of diffusible, hypo-phosphorylated β-catenin in response to compound treatment in real time using High Content Imaging. The anti-β-catenin nanobodies and chromobodies characterized in this study are versatile tools that enable a novel and unique approach to monitor the dynamics of subcellular β-catenin in biochemical and cell biological assays. PMID:25595278

  1. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Protein with Capacity To Bind to Extracellular Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    González, Angel; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Diez, Soraya; Hernández, Orville; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Cano, Luz E.

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms adhere to extracellular matrix proteins by means of their own surface molecules. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia have been shown to be capable of interacting with extracellular matrix proteins. We aimed at determining the presence of fungal proteins that could interact with extracellular matrix protein and, if found, attempt their purification and characterization. Various extracts were prepared from P. brasiliensis mycelial and yeast cultures (total homogenates, β-mercaptoethanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS] extracts) and analyzed by ligand affinity assays with fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin. Two polypeptides were detected in both fungal forms. SDS extracts that interacted with all the extracellular matrix protein were tested; their molecular masses were 19 and 32 kDa. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified 32-kDa mycelial protein showed substantial homology with P. brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Neurospora crassa hypothetical proteins. Additionally, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) produced against this protein recognized the 32-kDa protein in the SDS extracts of both fungal forms for immunoblot. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that this MAb reacted not only with mycelia and yeast cells, but also with conidia, indicating that this protein was shared by the three fungal propagules. By immunoelectron microscopy, this protein was detected in the cell walls and in the cytoplasm. Both the 32-kDa purified protein and MAb inhibited the adherence of conidia to the three extracellular matrix proteins in a dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate the presence of two polypeptides capable of interacting with extracellular matrix proteins on the surface of P. brasiliensis propagules, indicating that there may be common receptors for laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen. These proteins would be crucial for initial conidial adherence and perhaps also in dissemination of paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID

  2. WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Regulates Multiple Steps of Myogenesis by Regulating Step-Specific Targets

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akiko; Pelikan, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Molecules involved in WNT/β-catenin signaling show specific spatiotemporal expression and play vital roles in myogenesis; however, it is still largely unknown how WNT/β-catenin signaling regulates each step of myogenesis. Here, we show that WNT/β-catenin signaling can control diverse biological processes of myogenesis by regulating step-specific molecules. In order to identify the temporally specific roles of WNT/β-catenin signaling molecules in muscle development and homeostasis, we used in vitro culture systems for both primary mouse myoblasts and C2C12 cells, which can differentiate into myofibers. We found that a blockade of WNT/β-catenin signaling in the proliferating cells decreases proliferation activity, but does not induce cell death, through the regulation of genes cyclin A2 (Ccna2) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25c). During muscle differentiation, the inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling blocks myoblast fusion through the inhibition of the Fermitin family homolog 2 (Fermt2) gene. Blocking WNT/β-catenin signaling in the well-differentiated myofibers results in the failure of maintenance of their structure by disruption of cadherin/β-catenin/actin complex formation, which plays a crucial role in connecting a myofiber's cytoskeleton to the surrounding extracellular matrix. Thus, our results indicate that WNT/β-catenin signaling can regulate multiple steps of myogenesis, including cell proliferation, myoblast fusion, and homeostasis, by targeting step-specific molecules. PMID:25755281

  3. WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Regulates Multiple Steps of Myogenesis by Regulating Step-Specific Targets.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akiko; Pelikan, Richard C; Iwata, Junichi

    2015-05-01

    Molecules involved in WNT/β-catenin signaling show specific spatiotemporal expression and play vital roles in myogenesis; however, it is still largely unknown how WNT/β-catenin signaling regulates each step of myogenesis. Here, we show that WNT/β-catenin signaling can control diverse biological processes of myogenesis by regulating step-specific molecules. In order to identify the temporally specific roles of WNT/β-catenin signaling molecules in muscle development and homeostasis, we used in vitro culture systems for both primary mouse myoblasts and C2C12 cells, which can differentiate into myofibers. We found that a blockade of WNT/β-catenin signaling in the proliferating cells decreases proliferation activity, but does not induce cell death, through the regulation of genes cyclin A2 (Ccna2) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25c). During muscle differentiation, the inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling blocks myoblast fusion through the inhibition of the Fermitin family homolog 2 (Fermt2) gene. Blocking WNT/β-catenin signaling in the well-differentiated myofibers results in the failure of maintenance of their structure by disruption of cadherin/β-catenin/actin complex formation, which plays a crucial role in connecting a myofiber's cytoskeleton to the surrounding extracellular matrix. Thus, our results indicate that WNT/β-catenin signaling can regulate multiple steps of myogenesis, including cell proliferation, myoblast fusion, and homeostasis, by targeting step-specific molecules.

  4. Green tea polyphenol EGCG suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting GSK-3β- and PP2A-independent β-catenin phosphorylation/degradation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sangtaek; Gwak, Jungsug; Park, Seoyoung; Yang, Chung S.

    2014-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been reported to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is aberrantly up-regulated in colorectal cancers, but its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we used a sensitive cell-based system to demonstrate that EGCG suppresses β-catenin response transcription (CRT), activated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM), by promoting the degradation of intracellular β-catenin. EGCG induced β-catenin N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues and subsequently promoted its degradation; however, this effect was not observed for oncogenic forms of β-catenin. Pharmacological inhibition or depletion of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) did not abrogate the EGCG-mediated β-catenin degradation. EGCG did not affect the activity and expression of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Consistently, the phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin was found in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutated colon cancer cells after EGCG treatment. EGCG repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which are β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent genes, and inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Our findings suggest that EGCG exerts its cancer-preventive or anticancer activity against colon cancer cells by promoting the phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation of β-catenin through a mechanism independent of the GSK-3β and PP2A. PMID:25352148

  5. Inferring homologous protein-protein interactions through pair position specific scoring matrix

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The protein-protein interaction (PPI) is one of the most important features to understand biological processes. For a PPI, the physical domain-domain interaction (DDI) plays the key role for biology functions. In the post-genomic era, to rapidly identify homologous PPIs for analyzing the contact residue pairs of their interfaces within DDIs on a genomic scale is essential to determine PPI networks and the PPI interface evolution across multiple species. Results In this study, we proposed "pair Position Specific Scoring Matrix (pairPSSM)" to identify homologous PPIs. The pairPSSM can successfully distinguish the true protein complexes from unreasonable protein pairs with about 90% accuracy. For the test set including 1,122 representative heterodimers and 2,708,746 non-interacting protein pairs, the mean average precision and mean false positive rate of pairPSSM were 0.42 and 0.31, respectively. Moreover, we applied pairPSSM to identify ~450,000 homologous PPIs with their interacting domains and residues in seven common organisms (e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli). Conclusions Our pairPSSM is able to provide statistical significance of residue pairs using evolutionary profiles and a scoring system for inferring homologous PPIs. According to our best knowledge, the pairPSSM is the first method for searching homologous PPIs across multiple species using pair position specific scoring matrix and a 3D dimer as the template to map interacting domain pairs of these PPIs. We believe that pairPSSM is able to provide valuable insights for the PPI evolution and networks across multiple species. PMID:23367879

  6. Quantitative sandwich ELISA for determination of traces of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) protein in complex food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, T; Vieths, S

    1999-10-01

    A hazelnut-specific sandwich-type ELISA based on polyclonal antisera was developed for detection of hidden hazelnut protein residues in complex food matrixes. In the absence of a food matrix, extractable protein from different native and toasted hazelnuts was detected at rates of 94 +/- 13 and 96 +/- 7% applying standards prepared from native and toasted hazelnuts, respectively. From complex food matrixes, 0.001-10% of hazelnut was recovered between 67 and 132%, in average by 106 +/- 17%. Depending on the food matrix, hazelnut protein could be detected down to the ppb (ng/g) level. Intraassay precision was <6% for hazelnut >/= 0.001% and interassay precision was <15% for hazelnut >/= 0.01%. In 12 of 28 commercial food products without labeling or declaration of hazelnut components, between 2 and 421 ppm of hazelnut protein was detected, demonstrating a remarkable presence of potentially allergenic hazelnut protein "hidden" in commercial food products.

  7. The anti-apoptosis effect of MLAA-34 in leukemia and the β-catenin/T cell factor 4 protein pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lu; Zhang, Wanggang; Zhang, Pengyu; Lei, Bo; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Man; Bai, Ju; He, Aili

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to observe the effects of MLAA-34 gene in leukemia and explore its mechanism. Methods MLAA-34 RNAi vector was constructed. NOD/SCID mice and 293T cells, K562 cells, HL60 cells and U937 cells were used in this study. They were divided into MLAA-34-siRNA group and control group. The proliferation ability and apoptosis of cells were detected. The expression levels of β-Catenin and TCF 4 were determined using western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. Results There was significant correlation between MLAA-34 gene and U937 cell proliferation, the apoptosis rates of U937 cells with siRNA infection were higher than that of control group. There were significant differences in the expression levels of β-Catenin and TCF 4 between U937 cells and U937 with MLAA-34-siRNA cells group. Conclusions MLAA-34 gene had anti-apoptotic effect in leukemia, which maybe through the β-Catenin/TCF 4 pathway.

  8. Tumors from rats given 1,2-dimethylhydrazine plus chlorophyllin or indole-3-carbinol contain transcriptional changes in beta-catenin that are independent of beta-catenin mutation status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Dashwood, W Mohaiza; Bailey, George S; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2006-10-10

    Tumors induced in the rat by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) contain mutations in beta-catenin, but the spectrum of such mutations can be influenced by phytochemicals such as chlorophyllin (CHL) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C). In the present study, we determined the mutation status of beta-catenin in more than 50 DMH-induced colon tumors and small intestine tumors, and compared this with the concomitant expression of beta-catenin mRNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. In total, 19/57 (33%) of the tumors harbored mutations in beta-catenin, and 14/19 (74%) of the genetic changes substituted amino acids adjacent to Ser33, a key site for phosphorylation and beta-catenin degradation. These tumors were found to express a 10-fold range of beta-catenin mRNA levels, independent of the beta-catenin mutation status and phytochemical exposure, i.e. CHL or I3C given post-initiation. However, beta-catenin mRNA levels were strongly correlated with mRNA levels of c-myc, c-jun and cyclin D1, which are targets of beta-catenin/Tcf signaling. Tumors with the highest levels of beta-catenin mRNA often had over-expressed beta-catenin protein, and those with lower beta-catenin mRNA typically had low beta-catenin protein expression, but there were exceptions (high beta-catenin mRNA/low beta-catenin protein, or vice versa). We conclude that DMH-induced mutations stabilize beta-catenin protein in tumors, which increase c-myc, c-jun and cyclin D1, but there also can be over-expression of beta-catenin itself at the mRNA level, contributing to high beta-catenin protein levels. Similar findings have been reported in primary human colon cancers and their liver metastases, compared with matched normal-looking tissue. Thus, further studies are warranted on the mechanisms that upregulate beta-catenin at the transcriptional level in human and rodent colon cancers.

  9. Once upon a time there was beta-catenin in cadherin-mediated signalling.

    PubMed

    Gavard, Julie; Mège, René-Marc

    2005-12-01

    beta-Catenin was initially characterized as a protein interacting with the cadherin cytoplasmic tail and regulating cell-cell contacts and actin cytoskeleton interactions. Moreover, the gene coding for the Drosophila orthologue of beta-catenin, armadillo, was independently identified downstream of wingless in the segment-polarity signalling pathway. In fact, beta-catenin/Armadillo turned out to be key mediators of the Wnt/Wingless pathways in vertebrates and invertebrates. beta-Catenin participates in both adhesion and signalling functions in a mutually exclusive manner; bound to cadherins at the plasma membrane or 'unbound' in cytosolic or nuclear complexes. This model had placed beta-catenin at the crossroads between cadherin and Wnt signalling, leading to the dogma of inhibition of beta-catenin signalling by cadherins.

  10. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mechanism for pancreatic cancer chemoresistance in a three-dimensional cancer microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Meng, Xing-Kai; Wang, Wan-Xiang; Zhang, Rui-Ming; Zhang, Tong; Ren, Jian-jun

    2016-01-01

    β-catenin is a key protein that is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene in the Wnt signaling pathway. This study investigated the associations between β-catenin expression and implications for the efficacy of gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer cells in a three-dimensional (3-D) cancer microenvironment. For low β-catenin expression pancreatic carcinoma cells, the inhibition rates (IRs) for low, middle, and high doses of gemcitabine were 0.615 ± 0.079, 0.691 ± 0.093, and 0.765 ± 0.061, respectively. For the high β-catenin expression pancreatic carcinoma cells, the IRs for the same doses were 0.325 ± 0.072, 0.453 ± 0.075, and 0.537 ± 0.056, respectively. Additionally, the evaluation of β-catenin immunoreactivity in 31 pancreatic cancer patients revealed that the low β-catenin protein expression group had significantly longer overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) than the high β-catenin protein group (P < 0.05). Overall, β-catenin protein expression levels were significantly correlated to gemcitabine sensitivity in seven pancreatic carcinoma cell lines in the 3-D cancer microenvironment. These data suggest that large-scale clinical studies are warranted to assess the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on β-catenin protein expression and chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27830034

  11. Structural and Thermodynamic Characterization of Cadherin·β-Catenin·α-Catenin Complex Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Pokutta, Sabine; Choi, Hee-Jung; Ahlsen, Goran; Hansen, Scott D.; Weis, William I.

    2014-01-01

    The classical cadherin·β-catenin·α-catenin complex mediates homophilic cell-cell adhesion and mechanically couples the actin cytoskeletons of adjacent cells. Although α-catenin binds to β-catenin and to F-actin, β-catenin significantly weakens the affinity of α-catenin for F-actin. Moreover, α-catenin self-associates into homodimers that block β-catenin binding. We investigated quantitatively and structurally αE- and αN-catenin dimer formation, their interaction with β-catenin and the cadherin·β-catenin complex, and the effect of the α-catenin actin-binding domain on β-catenin association. The two α-catenin variants differ in their self-association properties: at physiological temperatures, αE-catenin homodimerizes 10× more weakly than does αN-catenin but is kinetically trapped in its oligomeric state. Both αE- and αN-catenin bind to β-catenin with a Kd of 20 nm, and this affinity is increased by an order of magnitude when cadherin is bound to β-catenin. We describe the crystal structure of a complex representing the full β-catenin·αN-catenin interface. A three-dimensional model of the cadherin·β-catenin·α-catenin complex based on these new structural data suggests mechanisms for the enhanced stability of the ternary complex. The C-terminal actin-binding domain of α-catenin has no influence on the interactions with β-catenin, arguing against models in which β-catenin weakens actin binding by stabilizing inhibitory intramolecular interactions between the actin-binding domain and the rest of α-catenin. PMID:24692547

  12. Genetic dissection of peroxisome-associated matrix protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Sarah E; Lingard, Matthew J; Bartel, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that sequester certain metabolic pathways; many of these pathways generate H(2)O(2), which can damage proteins. However, little is known about how damaged or obsolete peroxisomal proteins are degraded. We exploit developmentally timed peroxisomal content remodeling in Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate peroxisome-associated protein degradation. Isocitrate lyase (ICL) is a peroxisomal glyoxylate cycle enzyme necessary for early seedling development. A few days after germination, photosynthesis begins and ICL is degraded. We previously found that ICL is stabilized when a peroxisome-associated ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and its membrane anchor are both mutated, suggesting that matrix proteins might exit the peroxisome for ubiquitin-dependent cytosolic degradation. To identify additional components needed for peroxisome-associated matrix protein degradation, we mutagenized a line expressing GFP-ICL, which is degraded similarly to endogenous ICL, and identified persistent GFP-ICL fluorescence (pfl) mutants. We found three pfl mutants that were defective in PEROXIN14 (PEX14/At5g62810), which encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein that assists in importing proteins into the peroxisome matrix, indicating that proteins must enter the peroxisome for efficient degradation. One pfl mutant was missing the peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase encoded by the PEROXISOME DEFECTIVE1 (PED1/At2g33150) gene, suggesting that peroxisomal metabolism influences the rate of matrix protein degradation. Finally, one pfl mutant that displayed normal matrix protein import carried a novel lesion in PEROXIN6 (PEX6/At1g03000), which encodes a peroxisome-tethered ATPase that is involved in recycling matrix protein receptors back to the cytosol. The isolation of pex6-2 as a pfl mutant supports the hypothesis that matrix proteins can exit the peroxisome for cytosolic degradation.

  13. Magnesium Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Activity and Reverses the Osteogenic Transformation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca, Addy; Guerrero, Fatima; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Madueño, Juan A.; Herencia, Carmen; Peralta, Alan; Almaden, Yolanda; Lopez, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Peter, Mirjam E.; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Rodriguez, Mariano; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium reduces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro but the mechanism has not been revealed so far. This work used only slightly increased magnesium levels and aimed at determining: a) whether inhibition of magnesium transport into the cell influences VSMC calcification, b) whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a key mediator of osteogenic differentiation, is modified by magnesium and c) whether magnesium can influence already established vascular calcification. Human VSMC incubated with high phosphate (3.3 mM) and moderately elevated magnesium (1.4 mM) significantly reduced VSMC calcification and expression of the osteogenic transcription factors Cbfa-1 and osterix, and up-regulated expression of the natural calcification inhibitors matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The protective effects of magnesium on calcification and expression of osteogenic markers were no longer observed in VSMC cultured with an inhibitor of cellular magnesium transport (2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate [2-APB]). High phosphate induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as demonstrated by the translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus, increased expression of the frizzled-3 gene, and downregulation of Dkk-1 gene, a specific antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The addition of magnesium however inhibited phosphate-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, TRPM7 silencing using siRNA resulted in activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additional experiments were performed to test the ability of magnesium to halt the progression of already established VSMC calcification in vitro. The delayed addition of magnesium decreased calcium content, down-regulated Cbfa-1 and osterix and up-regulated MGP and OPG, when compared with a control group. This effect was not observed when 2-APB was added. In conclusion, magnesium transport through the cell membrane is important to inhibit VSMC calcification in vitro

  14. PathwayMatrix: visualizing binary relationships between proteins in biological pathways

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular activation pathways are inherently complex, and understanding relations across many biochemical reactions and reaction types is difficult. Visualizing and analyzing a pathway is a challenge due to the network size and the diversity of relations between proteins and molecules. Results In this paper, we introduce PathwayMatrix, a visualization tool that presents the binary relations between proteins in the pathway via the use of an interactive adjacency matrix. We provide filtering, lensing, clustering, and brushing and linking capabilities in order to present relevant details about proteins within a pathway. Conclusions We evaluated PathwayMatrix by conducting a series of in-depth interviews with domain experts who provided positive feedback, leading us to believe that our visualization technique could be helpful for the larger community of researchers utilizing pathway visualizations. PathwayMatrix is freely available at https://github.com/CreativeCodingLab/PathwayMatrix. PMID:26361499

  15. CCN1 Induces β-Catenin Translocation in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Integrin α11.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jianyuan; Modak, Cristina; Ouyang, Yi; Wu, Sing-Yung; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin is common in many cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). As a mediator of Wnt signaling pathway, nuclear β-catenin can activate many growth-related genes including CCN1, which in turn can induce β-catenin translocation. CCN1, a matricellular protein, signals through various integrin receptors in a cell-dependent manner to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation, and survival. Its elevation has been reported in ESCC as well as other esophageal abnormalities such as Barrett's esophagus. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between CCN1 and β-catenin in ESCC. Methods and Results. The expression and correlation between CCN1 and β-catenin in ESCC tissue were examined through immunohistochemistry and further analyzed in both normal esophageal epithelial cells and ESCC cells through microarray, functional blocking and in situ protein ligation. We found that nuclear translocation of β-catenin in ESCC cells required high level of CCN1 as knockdown of CCN1 in ESCC cells reduced β-catenin expression and translocation. Furthermore, we found that integrin α(11) was highly expressed in ESCC tumor tissue and functional blocking integrin α(11) diminished CCN1-induced β-catenin elevation and translocation. Conclusions. Integrin α(11) mediated the effect of CCN1 on β-catenin in esophageal epithelial cells.

  16. UVB Radiation-Induced β-catenin Signaling is Enhanced by COX-2 Expression in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly A.; Tong, Xin; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Mikulec, Carol C.; Gottardi, Cara J.; Fischer, Susan M.; Pelling, Jill C.

    2014-01-01

    UVB radiation is the major carcinogen responsible for skin carcinogenesis, thus elucidation of the molecular pathways altered in skin in response to UVB would reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention. It is well established that UVB leads to upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the skin which contributes to skin carcinogenesis. Overexpression of COX-2 has been shown to promote colon cancer cell growth through β-catenin signaling, however, little is known about the connection between UVB, COX-2 and β-catenin in the skin. In the present study, we have identified a novel pathway in which UVB induces β-catenin signaling in keratinocytes, which is modulated by COX-2 expression. Exposure of the mouse 308 keratinocyte cell line (308 cells) and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) to UVB resulted in increased protein levels of both N-terminally unphosphorylated and total β-catenin. In addition, we found that UVB enhanced β-catenin-dependent TOPflash reporter activity and expression of a downstream β-catenin target gene. We demonstrated that UVB-induced β-catenin signaling is modulated by COX-2, as treatment of keratinocytes with the specific COX-2 inhibitor NS398 blocked UVB induction of β-catenin. Additionally, β-catenin target gene expression was reduced in UVB-treated COX-2 knockout (KO) MEFs compared to wild-type (WT) MEFs. Furthermore, epidermis from UVB-exposed SKH-1 mice exhibited increased N-terminally unphosphorylated and total β-catenin protein levels and increased staining for total β-catenin, and both responses were reduced in COX-2 heterozygous mice. Taken together, these results suggest a novel pathway in which UVB induces β-catenin signaling in keratinocytes which is enhanced by COX-2 expression. PMID:21853475

  17. αE-catenin is an autoinhibited molecule that coactivates vinculin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Pokutta, Sabine; Cadwell, Gregory W.; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Bankston, Laurie A.; Liddington, Robert C.; Weis, William I.

    2012-01-01

    αE-catenin, an essential component of the adherens junction, interacts with the classical cadherin–β-catenin complex and with F-actin, but its precise role is unknown. αE-catenin also binds to the F-actin-binding protein vinculin, which also appears to be important in junction assembly. Vinculin and αE-catenin are homologs that contain a series of helical bundle domains, D1–D5. We mapped the vinculin-binding site to a sequence in D3a comprising the central two helices of a four-helix bundle. The crystal structure of this peptide motif bound to vinculin D1 shows that the two helices adopt a parallel, colinear arrangement suggesting that the αE-catenin D3a bundle must unfold in order to bind vinculin. We show that αE-catenin D3 binds strongly to vinculin, whereas larger fragments and full-length αE-catenin bind approximately 1,000-fold more weakly. Thus, intramolecular interactions within αE-catenin inhibit binding to vinculin. The actin-binding activity of vinculin is inhibited by an intramolecular interaction between the head (D1–D4) and the actin-binding D5 tail. In the absence of F-actin, there is no detectable binding of αE-catenin D3 to full-length vinculin; however, αE-catenin D3 promotes binding of vinculin to F-actin whereas full-length αE-catenin does not. These findings support the combinatorial or “coincidence” model of activation in which binding of high-affinity proteins to the vinculin head and tail is required to shift the conformational equilibrium of vinculin from a closed, autoinhibited state to an open, stable F-actin-binding state. The data also imply that αE-catenin must be activated in order to bind to vinculin. PMID:22586082

  18. p120 Catenin is required for normal tubulogenesis but not epithelial integrity in developing mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hendley, Audrey M; Provost, Elayne; Bailey, Jennifer M; Wang, Yue J; Cleveland, Megan H; Blake, Danielle; Bittman, Ross W; Roeser, Jeffrey C; Maitra, Anirban; Reynolds, Albert B; Leach, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    The intracellular protein p120 catenin aids in maintenance of cell-cell adhesion by regulating E-cadherin stability in epithelial cells. In an effort to understand the biology of p120 catenin in pancreas development, we ablated p120 catenin in mouse pancreatic progenitor cells, which resulted in deletion of p120 catenin in all epithelial lineages of the developing mouse pancreas: islet, acinar, centroacinar, and ductal. Loss of p120 catenin resulted in formation of dilated epithelial tubules, expansion of ductal epithelia, loss of acinar cells, and the induction of pancreatic inflammation. Aberrant branching morphogenesis and tubulogenesis were also observed. Throughout development, the phenotype became more severe, ultimately resulting in an abnormal pancreas comprised primarily of duct-like epithelium expressing early progenitor markers. In pancreatic tissue lacking p120 catenin, overall epithelial architecture remained intact; however, actin cytoskeleton organization was disrupted, an observation associated with increased cytoplasmic PKCζ. Although we observed reduced expression of adherens junction proteins E-cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin, p120 catenin family members p0071, ARVCF, and δ-catenin remained present at cell membranes in homozygous p120(f/f) pancreases, potentially providing stability for maintenance of epithelial integrity during development. Adult mice homozygous for deletion of p120 catenin displayed dilated main pancreatic ducts, chronic pancreatitis, acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), and mucinous metaplasia that resembles PanIN1a. Taken together, our data demonstrate an essential role for p120 catenin in pancreas development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Annavarapu, Srinivas R; Cialfi, Samantha; Dominici, Carlo; Kokai, George K; Uccini, Stefania; Ceccarelli, Simona; McDowell, Heather P; Helliwell, Timothy R

    2013-10-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and accounts for about 5% of all malignant paediatric tumours. β-Catenin, a multifunctional nuclear transcription factor in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is active in myogenesis and embryonal somite patterning. Dysregulation of Wnt signaling facilitates tumour invasion and metastasis. This study characterizes Wnt/β-catenin signaling and functional activity in paediatric embryonal and alveolar RMS. Immunohistochemical assessment of paraffin-embedded tissues from 44 RMS showed β-catenin expression in 26 cases with cytoplasmic/membranous expression in 9/14 cases of alveolar RMS, and 15/30 cases of embryonal RMS, whereas nuclear expression was only seen in 2 cases of embryonal RMS. The potential functional significance of β-catenin expression was tested in four RMS cell lines, two derived from embryonal (RD and RD18) RMS and two from alveolar (Rh4 and Rh30) RMS. Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of Wnt-associated proteins including β-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, disheveled, axin-1, naked, LRP-6 and cadherins in all cell lines. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence studies of the cell lines (after stimulation by human recombinant Wnt3a) showed reduced phosphorylation of β-catenin, stabilization of the active cytosolic form and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Reporter gene assay demonstrated a T-cell factor/lymphoid-enhancing factor-mediated transactivation in these cells. In response to human recombinant Wnt3a, the alveolar RMS cells showed a significant decrease in proliferation rate and induction of myogenic differentiation (myogenin, MyoD1 and myf5). These data indicate that the central regulatory components of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling are expressed and that this pathway is functionally active in a significant subset of RMS tumours and might represent a novel therapeutic target.

  20. Guaifenesin stone matrix proteomics: a protocol for identifying proteins critical to stone formation.

    PubMed

    Kolbach-Mandel, A M; Mandel, N S; Cohen, S R; Kleinman, J G; Ahmed, F; Mandel, I C; Wesson, J A

    2017-04-01

    Drug-related kidney stones are a diagnostic problem, since they contain a large matrix (protein) fraction and are frequently incorrectly identified as matrix stones. A urine proteomics study patient produced a guaifenesin stone during her participation, allowing us to both correctly diagnose her disease and identify proteins critical to this drug stone-forming process. The patient provided three random midday urine samples for proteomics studies; one of which contained stone-like sediment with two distinct fractions. These solids were characterized with optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immunoblotting and quantitative mass spectrometry were used to quantitatively identify the proteins in urine and stone matrix. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the sediment was 60 % protein and 40 % guaifenesin and its metabolite guaiacol. Of the 156 distinct proteins identified in the proteomic studies, 49 were identified in the two stone-components with approximately 50 % of those proteins also found in this patient's urine. Many proteins observed in this drug-related stone have also been reported in proteomic matrix studies of uric acid and calcium containing stones. More importantly, nine proteins were highly enriched and highly abundant in the stone matrix and 8 were reciprocally depleted in urine, suggesting a critical role for these proteins in guaifenesin stone formation. Accurate stone analysis is critical to proper diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones. Many matrix proteins were common to all stone types, but likely not related to disease mechanism. This protocol defined a small set of proteins that were likely critical to guaifenesin stone formation based on their high enrichment and high abundance in stone matrix, and it should be applied to all stone types.

  1. Inherited complex I deficiency is associated with faster protein diffusion in the matrix of moving mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Werner J H; Distelmaier, Felix; Hink, Mark A; Verkaart, Sjoerd; Wijers, Mietske; Fransen, Jack; Smeitink, Jan A M; Willems, Peter H G M

    2008-05-01

    Mitochondria continuously change shape, position, and matrix configuration for optimal metabolite exchange. It is well established that changes in mitochondrial metabolism influence mitochondrial shape and matrix configuration. We demonstrated previously that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I (CI or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) by rotenone accelerated matrix protein diffusion and decreased the fraction and velocity of moving mitochondria. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between inherited CI deficiency, mitochondrial shape, mobility, and matrix protein diffusion. To this end, we analyzed fibroblasts of two children that represented opposite extremes in a cohort of 16 patients, with respect to their residual CI activity and mitochondrial shape. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) revealed no relationship between residual CI activity, mitochondrial shape, the fraction of moving mitochondria, their velocity, and the rate of matrix-targeted enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (mitoEYFP) diffusion. However, mitochondrial velocity and matrix protein diffusion in moving mitochondria were two to three times higher in patient cells than in control cells. Nocodazole inhibited mitochondrial movement without altering matrix EYFP diffusion, suggesting that both activities are mutually independent. Unexpectedly, electron microscopy analysis revealed no differences in mitochondrial ultrastructure between control and patient cells. It is discussed that the matrix of a moving mitochondrion in the CI-deficient state becomes less dense, allowing faster metabolite diffusion, and that fibroblasts of CI-deficient patients become more glycolytic, allowing a higher mitochondrial velocity.

  2. The role of nuclear matrix proteins binding to matrix attachment regions (Mars) in prostate cancer cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Barboro, Paola; Repaci, Erica; D'Arrigo, Cristina; Balbi, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    In tumor progression definite alterations in nuclear matrix (NM) protein composition as well as in chromatin structure occur. The NM interacts with chromatin via specialized DNA sequences called matrix attachment regions (MARs). In the present study, using a proteomic approach along with a two-dimensional Southwestern assay and confocal laser microscopy, we show that the differentiation of stabilized human prostate carcinoma cells is marked out by modifications both NM protein composition and bond between NM proteins and MARs. Well-differentiated androgen-responsive and slowly growing LNCaP cells are characterized by a less complex pattern and by a major number of proteins binding MAR sequences in comparison to 22Rv1 cells expressing androgen receptor but androgen-independent. Finally, in the poorly differentiated and strongly aggressive androgen-independent PC3 cells the complexity of NM pattern further increases and a minor number of proteins bind the MARs. Furthermore, in this cell line with respect to LNCaP cells, these changes are synchronous with modifications in both the nuclear distribution of the MAR sequences and in the average loop dimensions that significantly increase. Although the expression of many NM proteins changes during dedifferentiation, only a very limited group of MAR-binding proteins seem to play a key role in this process. Variations in the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) along with an increase in the phosphorylation of lamin B represent changes that might trigger passage towards a more aggressive phenotype. These results suggest that elucidating the MAR-binding proteins that are involved in the differentiation of prostate cancer cells could be an important tool to improve our understanding of this carcinogenesis process, and they could also be novel targets for prostate cancer therapy.

  3. Altered protein levels in the isolated extracellular matrix of failing human hearts with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    DeAguero, Joshua L; McKown, Elizabeth N; Zhang, Liwen; Keirsey, Jeremy; Fischer, Edgar G; Samedi, Von G; Canan, Benjamin D; Kilic, Ahmet; Janssen, Paul M L; Delfín, Dawn A

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is associated with extensive pathological cardiac remodeling and involves numerous changes in the protein expression profile of the extracellular matrix of the heart. We obtained seven human, end-stage, failing hearts with DCM (DCM-failing) and nine human, nonfailing donor hearts and compared their extracellular matrix protein profiles. We first showed that the DCM-failing hearts had indeed undergone extensive remodeling of the left ventricle myocardium relative to nonfailing hearts. We then isolated the extracellular matrix from a subset of these hearts and performed a proteomic analysis on the isolated matrices. We found that the levels of 26 structural proteins were altered in the DCM-failing isolated cardiac extracellular matrix compared to nonfailing isolated cardiac extracellular matrix. Overall, most of the extracellular matrix proteins showed reduced levels in the DCM-failing hearts, while all of the contractile proteins showed increased levels. There was a mixture of increased and decreased levels of cytoskeletal and nuclear transport proteins. Using immunoprobing, we verified that collagen IV (α2 and α6 isoforms), zyxin, and myomesin protein levels were reduced in the DCM-failing hearts. We expect that these data will add to the understanding of the pathology associated with heart failure with DCM.

  4. Matrix proteins are inefficiently imported into Arabidopsis peroxisomes lacking the receptor-docking peroxin PEX14

    PubMed Central

    Monroe-Augustus, Melanie; Ramón, Naxhiely Martínez; Ratzel, Sarah E.; Lingard, Matthew J.; Christensen, Sarah E.; Murali, Chaya

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in peroxisome biogenesis proteins (peroxins) can lead to developmental deficiencies in various eukaryotes. PEX14 and PEX13 are peroxins involved in docking cargo-receptor complexes at the peroxisomal membrane, thus aiding in the transport of the cargo into the peroxisomal matrix. Genetic screens have revealed numerous Arabidopsis thaliana peroxins acting in peroxisomal matrix protein import; the viable alleles isolated through these screens are generally partial loss-of-function alleles, whereas null mutations that disrupt delivery of matrix proteins to peroxisomes can confer embryonic lethality. In this study, we used forward and reverse genetics in Arabidopsis to isolate four pex14 alleles. We found that all four alleles conferred reduced PEX14 mRNA levels and displayed physiological and molecular defects suggesting reduced but not abolished peroxisomal matrix protein import. The least severe pex14 allele, pex14-3, accumulated low levels of a C-terminally truncated PEX14 product that retained partial function. Surprisingly, even the severe pex14-2 allele, which lacked detectable PEX14 mRNA and PEX14 protein, was viable, fertile, and displayed residual peroxisome matrix protein import. As pex14 plants matured, import improved. Together, our data indicate that PEX14 facilitates, but is not essential for peroxisomal matrix protein import in plants. PMID:21553312

  5. Matrix proteins are inefficiently imported into Arabidopsis peroxisomes lacking the receptor-docking peroxin PEX14.

    PubMed

    Monroe-Augustus, Melanie; Ramón, Naxhiely Martínez; Ratzel, Sarah E; Lingard, Matthew J; Christensen, Sarah E; Murali, Chaya; Bartel, Bonnie

    2011-09-01

    Mutations in peroxisome biogenesis proteins (peroxins) can lead to developmental deficiencies in various eukaryotes. PEX14 and PEX13 are peroxins involved in docking cargo-receptor complexes at the peroxisomal membrane, thus aiding in the transport of the cargo into the peroxisomal matrix. Genetic screens have revealed numerous Arabidopsis thaliana peroxins acting in peroxisomal matrix protein import; the viable alleles isolated through these screens are generally partial loss-of-function alleles, whereas null mutations that disrupt delivery of matrix proteins to peroxisomes can confer embryonic lethality. In this study, we used forward and reverse genetics in Arabidopsis to isolate four pex14 alleles. We found that all four alleles conferred reduced PEX14 mRNA levels and displayed physiological and molecular defects suggesting reduced but not abolished peroxisomal matrix protein import. The least severe pex14 allele, pex14-3, accumulated low levels of a C-terminally truncated PEX14 product that retained partial function. Surprisingly, even the severe pex14-2 allele, which lacked detectable PEX14 mRNA and PEX14 protein, was viable, fertile, and displayed residual peroxisome matrix protein import. As pex14 plants matured, import improved. Together, our data indicate that PEX14 facilitates, but is not essential for peroxisomal matrix protein import in plants.

  6. Complete Functional Segregation of Planarian β-Catenin-1 and -2 in Mediating Wnt Signaling and Cell Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Guoliang; Ma, Changxin; Bao, Kai; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Xinquan; Sun, Zhirong; Salò, Emili; Adell, Teresa; Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    β-Catenin is a bifunctional protein participating in both cell adhesion and canonical Wnt signaling. In cell adhesion, it bridges the transmembrane cadherin and the actin-binding protein α-catenin and is essential for adherens junction formation, whereas in canonical Wnt signaling, it shuttles between the cytosol and nucleus and functions as an essential transcriptional activator. Schmidtea mediterranea β-catenin-1 was identified as a determinant of antero-posterior polarity during body regeneration by mediating Wnt signaling. Here we show that S. mediterranea β-catenin-2 is specifically expressed in epithelial cells in the gut and pharynx, where it has a putative role in mediating cell adhesion. We show evidence that planarian β-catenin-1 and -2 have distinct biochemical properties. β-Catenin-1 can interact with the components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway but not with α-catenin, whereas β-catenin-2 interacts with cell adhesion molecules, including E-cadherin and α-catenin, but not with Wnt signaling components. Consistent with their specific function, β-catenin-1 is a potent transcriptional activator, whereas β-catenin-2 has no transcriptional activity. Protein sequence alignment also indicates that the planarian β-catenin-1 and -2 retain distinct critical residues and motifs, which are in agreement with the differences in their biochemical properties. At last, phylogenetic analysis reveals a probable Platyhelminthes- specific structural and functional segregation from which the monofunctional β-catenins evolved. Our results thus identify the first two monofunctional β-catenins in metazoans. PMID:20511647

  7. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphism, but not concentrations, is associated with radiographic hand osteoarthritis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective. Factors associated with mineralization and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA) are incompletely understood. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a mineralization inhibitor, have been associated clinically with conditions of abnormal calcification. We therefore evalua...

  8. Interplay of matrix stiffness and protein tethering in stem cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jessica H.; Vincent, Ludovic G.; Fuhrmann, Alexander; Choi, Yu Suk; Hribar, Kolin C.; Taylor-Weiner, Hermes; Chen, Shaochen; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    Stem cells regulate their fate by binding to, and contracting against, the extracellular matrix. Recently, it has been proposed that in addition to matrix stiffness and ligand type, the degree of coupling of fibrous protein to the surface of the underlying substrate, that is, tethering and matrix porosity, also regulates stem cell differentiation. By modulating substrate porosity without altering stiffness in polyacrylamide gels, we show that varying substrate porosity did not significantly change protein tethering, substrate deformations, or the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Varying protein-substrate linker density up to 50-fold changed tethering, but did not affect osteogenesis, adipogenesis, surface-protein unfolding or underlying substrate deformations. Differentiation was also unaffected by the absence of protein tethering. Our findings imply that the stiffness of planar matrices regulates stem cell differentiation independently of protein tethering and porosity.

  9. Structural and functional features of a collagen-binding matrix protein from the mussel byssus.

    PubMed

    Suhre, Michael H; Gertz, Melanie; Steegborn, Clemens; Scheibel, Thomas

    2014-02-26

    Blue mussels adhere to surfaces by the byssus, a holdfast structure composed of individual threads representing a collagen fibre reinforced composite. Here, we present the crystal structure and function of one of its matrix proteins, the proximal thread matrix protein 1, which is present in the proximal section of the byssus. The structure reveals two von Willebrand factor type A domains linked by a two-β-stranded linker yielding a novel structural arrangement. In vitro, the protein binds heterologous collagens with high affinity and affects collagen assembly, morphology and arrangement of its fibrils. By providing charged surface clusters as well as insufficiently coordinated metal ions, the proximal thread matrix protein 1 might interconnect other byssal proteins and thereby contribute to the integrity of the byssal threads in vivo. Moreover, the protein could be used for adjusting the mechanical properties of collagen materials, a function likely important in the natural byssus.

  10. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R.; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  11. MFP1, a novel plant filament-like protein with affinity for matrix attachment region DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, I; Phelan, T; Gruissem, W; Spiker, S; Schneider, D

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of chromatin with the nuclear matrix via matrix attachment regions (MARs) on the DNA is considered to be of fundamental importance for higher order chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. Here, we report a novel nuclear matrix-localized MAR DNA binding protein, designated MAR binding filament-like protein 1 (MFP1), from tomato. In contrast to the few animal MAR DNA binding proteins thus far identified, MFP1 contains a predicted N-terminal transmembrane domain and a long filament-like alpha-helical domain that is similar to diverse nuclear and cytoplasmic filament proteins from animals and yeast. DNA binding assays established that MFP1 can discriminate between animal and plant MAR DNAs and non-MAR DNA fragments of similar size and AT content. Deletion mutants of MFP1 revealed a novel, discrete DNA binding domain near the C terminus of the protein. MFP1 is an in vitro substrate for casein kinase II, a nuclear matrix-associated protein kinase. Its structure, MAR DNA binding activity, and nuclear matrix localization suggest that MFP1 is likely to participate in nuclear architecture by connecting chromatin with the nuclear matrix and potentially with the nuclear envelope. PMID:8953774

  12. [Electron transfer between globular proteins. Evaluation of a matrix element].

    PubMed

    Lakhno, V D; Chuev, G N; Ustinin, M N

    1998-01-01

    The dependence of the matrix element of the probability of interprotein electron transfer on the mutual orientation of the donor and acceptor centers and the distance between them was calculated. The calculations were made under the assumption that electron transfer proceeds mainly by a collective excitation of polaron nature, like a solvated electron state. The results obtained are consistent with experimental data and indicate the nonexponential behavior of this dependence in the case when the distance transfer is less than 20 A.

  13. EFEMP1 is repressed by estrogen and inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haifeng; Li, Bilan; Wang, Jingyun; Du, Guiqiang; Ren, Chune; Wan, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) acted as a tumor suppressor in endometrial carcinoma (EC). However, the correlation between EFEMP1 and estrogen is unknown. Here, we reported that the expression of EFEMP1 was conversely associated with ERα in endometrial carcinoma tissues. In endometrial carcinoma cells, estrogen/ERα signaling significantly suppressed the expression of EFEMP1. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that estrogen/ERα bound to the estrogen response element (ERE) located in EFEMP1 promoter and repressed its expression. Besides, in vitro and in vivo, EFEMP1 could remarkably suppress the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as Vimentin, Snail and the Wnt/β-catenin target genes like Cyclin-D1 and c-Myc, which could be restored when EFEMP1 was silenced. In addition, XAV93920 (the inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway) blocked and LiCl (the activator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway) enhanced the effect of EFEMP1 on EMT. In conclusion, we demonstrated that estrogen/ERα signal suppresses EFEMP1. Besides, EFEMP1 inhibits EMT via interfering the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:27015552

  14. EFEMP1 is repressed by estrogen and inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Huilin; Qiu, Haifeng; Li, Bilan; Wang, Jingyun; Du, Guiqiang; Ren, Chune; Wan, Xiaoping

    2016-05-03

    Epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) acted as a tumor suppressor in endometrial carcinoma (EC). However, the correlation between EFEMP1 and estrogen is unknown. Here, we reported that the expression of EFEMP1 was conversely associated with ERα in endometrial carcinoma tissues. In endometrial carcinoma cells, estrogen/ERα signaling significantly suppressed the expression of EFEMP1. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that estrogen/ERα bound to the estrogen response element (ERE) located in EFEMP1 promoter and repressed its expression. Besides, in vitro and in vivo, EFEMP1 could remarkably suppress the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as Vimentin, Snail and the Wnt/β-catenin target genes like Cyclin-D1 and c-Myc, which could be restored when EFEMP1 was silenced. In addition, XAV93920 (the inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway) blocked and LiCl (the activator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway) enhanced the effect of EFEMP1 on EMT. In conclusion, we demonstrated that estrogen/ERα signal suppresses EFEMP1. Besides, EFEMP1 inhibits EMT via interfering the Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  15. Dentin Sialophosphoprotein and Dentin Matrix Protein-1: Two Highly Phosphorylated Proteins in Mineralized Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Haruyama, Naoto; Nishimura, Fusanori; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2012-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) are highly phosphorylated proteins that belong to the family of small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs), and are essential for proper development of hard tissues such as teeth and bones. In order to understand how they contribute to tissue organization, DSPP and DMP-1 have been analyzed for over a decade using both in vivo and in vitro techniques. Among the five SIBLINGs, the DSPP and DMP-1 genes are located next to each other and their gene and protein structures are most similar. In this review we examine the phenotypes of the genetically engineered mouse models of DSPP and DMP-1 and also introduce complementary in vitro studies into the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypes. DSPP affects the mineralization of dentin more profoundly than DMP-1. In contrast, DMP-1 significantly affects bone mineralization and importantly controls serum phosphate levels by regulating serum FGF-23 levels, whereas DSPP does not show any systemic effects. DMP-1 activates integrin signaling and is endocytosed into the cytoplasm whereupon it is translocated to the nucleus. In contrast, DSPP only activates integrin-dependent signaling. Thus it is now clear that both DSPP and DMP-1 contribute to hard tissue mineralization and the tissues affected by each are different presumably as a result of their different expression levels. In fact, in comparison with DMP-1, the functional analysis of cell signaling by DSPP remains relatively unexplored. PMID:22534175

  16. Forkhead Box Protein J1 (FOXJ1) is Overexpressed in Colorectal Cancer and Promotes Nuclear Translocation of β-Catenin in SW620 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuiliang; Fan, Jianghao; Wu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Background FOXJ1, which is a forkhead transcription factor, has been previously studied mostly as a ciliary transcription factor. The role of FOXJ1 in cancer progression is still elusive and controversial. In the present study, the effect of FOXJ1 in progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) was investigated. Material/Methods The pattern of FOXJ1 expression was investigated using the method of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a tissue microarray (TMA) incorporating 50 pairs of colon cancer specimens and adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the correlation of FOXJ1 expression with clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated in the other TMA containing 208 cases of colon cancer. Moreover, the influence of regulating FOXJ1 level on the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was evaluated. Results Increased expression of FOXJ1was significantly associated with clinical stage (p<0.05), metastasis of lymph node (p<0.05), and invasion depth (p<0.001) in colon cancer, suggesting FOXJ1 is a tumor promoter in CRC. Consistently, FOXJ1 overexpression significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells, while silencing of FOXJ1 induced the opposite effect. Furthermore, up-regulation of FOXJ1 in SW620 cells markedly inhibited the level of truncated APC and the phosphorylation of β-catenin, while the level of cyclinD1 was decreased. In addition, overexpression of FOXJ1 significantly promoted nuclear translocation of β-catenin in SW620 cells. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that increased FOXJ1 contributes to the progression of CRC, which might be associated with the promotion effect of β-catenin nuclear translocation. FOXJ1 may be a novel therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:28209947

  17. β-Catenin-dependent transcription is central to Bmp-mediated formation of venous vessels.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Takeru; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Terai, Kenta; Tanaka, Toru; Wakayama, Yuki; Ando, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Yuge, Shinya; Saito, Yoshinobu; Gemma, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    β-catenin regulates the transcription of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific gene-targeting analyses in mice have revealed that β-catenin is required for vascular development. However, the precise function of β-catenin-mediated gene regulation in vascular development is not well understood, since β-catenin regulates not only gene expression but also the formation of cell-cell junctions. To address this question, we have developed a novel transgenic zebrafish line that allows the visualization of β-catenin transcriptional activity specifically in ECs and discovered that β-catenin-dependent transcription is central to the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)-mediated formation of venous vessels. During caudal vein (CV) formation, Bmp induces the expression of aggf1, a putative causative gene for Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, which is characterized by venous malformation and hypertrophy of bones and soft tissues. Subsequently, Aggf1 potentiates β-catenin transcriptional activity by acting as a transcriptional co-factor, suggesting that Bmp evokes β-catenin-mediated gene expression through Aggf1 expression. Bmp-mediated activation of β-catenin induces the expression of Nr2f2 (also known as Coup-TFII), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, to promote the differentiation of venous ECs, thereby contributing to CV formation. Furthermore, β-catenin stimulated by Bmp promotes the survival of venous ECs, but not that of arterial ECs. Collectively, these results indicate that Bmp-induced activation of β-catenin through Aggf1 regulates CV development by promoting the Nr2f2-dependent differentiation of venous ECs and their survival. This study demonstrates, for the first time, a crucial role of β-catenin-mediated gene expression in the development of venous vessels.

  18. Inhibition of Smooth Muscle β-Catenin Hinders Neointima Formation After Vascular Injury.

    PubMed

    Riascos-Bernal, Dario F; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Gross, Jordana N; Almonte, Vanessa; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Parikh, Dippal; Jayakumar, Smitha; Guo, Liang; Sibinga, Nicholas E S

    2017-05-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contribute to neointima formation after vascular injury. Although β-catenin expression is induced after injury, whether its function is essential in SMCs for neointimal growth is unknown. Moreover, although inhibitors of β-catenin have been developed, their effects on SMC growth have not been tested. We assessed the requirement for SMC β-catenin in short-term vascular homeostasis and in response to arterial injury and investigated the effects of β-catenin inhibitors on vascular SMC growth. We used an inducible, conditional genetic deletion of β-catenin in SMCs of adult mice. Uninjured arteries from adult mice lacking SMC β-catenin were indistinguishable from controls in terms of structure and SMC marker gene expression. After carotid artery ligation, however, vessels from mice lacking SMC β-catenin developed smaller neointimas, with lower neointimal cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. SMCs lacking β-catenin showed decreased mRNA expression of Mmp2, Mmp9, Sphk1, and S1pr1 (genes that promote neointima formation), higher levels of Jag1 and Gja1 (genes that inhibit neointima formation), decreased Mmp2 protein expression and secretion, and reduced cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, β-catenin inhibitors PKF118-310 and ICG-001 limited growth of mouse and human vascular SMCs in a dose-dependent manner. SMC β-catenin is dispensable for maintenance of the structure and state of differentiation of uninjured adult arteries, but is required for neointima formation after vascular injury. Pharmacological β-catenin inhibitors hinder growth of human vascular SMCs. Thus, inhibiting β-catenin has potential as a therapy to limit SMC accumulation and vascular obstruction. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Targeting the extracellular matrix: matricellular proteins regulate cell-extracellular matrix communication within distinct niches of the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Jake; Leask, Andrew; Séguin, Cheryle A

    2014-07-01

    The so-called "matricellular" proteins have recently emerged as important regulators of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. These proteins modulate a variety of cell functions through a range of interactions with cell-surface receptors, hormones, proteases and structural components of the ECM. As such, matricellular proteins are crucial regulators of cell phenotype, and consequently tissue function. The distinct cell types and microenvironments that together form the IVD provide an excellent paradigm to study how matricellular proteins mediate communication within and between adjacent tissue types. In recent years, the role of several matricellular proteins in the intervertebral disc has been explored in vivo using mutant mouse models in which the expression of target matricellular proteins was deleted from either one or all compartments of the intervertebral disc. The current review outlines what is presently known about the roles of the matricellular proteins belonging to the CCN family, SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, and Rich in Cysteine), and thrombospondin (TSP) 2 in regulating intervertebral disc cell-ECM interactions, ECM synthesis and disc tissue homeostasis using genetically modified mouse models. Furthermore, we provide a brief overview of recent preliminary studies of other matricellular proteins including, periostin (POSTN) and tenascin (TN). Each specific tissue type of the IVD contains a different matricellular protein signature, which varies based on the specific stage of development, maturity or disease. A growing body of direct genetic evidence links IVD development, maintenance and repair to the coordinate interaction of matricellular proteins within their respective niches and suggests that several of these signaling modulators hold promise in the development of diagnostics and/or therapeutics targeting intervertebral disc aging and/or degeneration.

  20. beta-Catenin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Easwaran, Vijay; Lee, Sang H; Inge, Landon; Guo, Lida; Goldbeck, Cheryl; Garrett, Evelyn; Wiesmann, Marion; Garcia, Pablo D; Fuller, John H; Chan, Vivien; Randazzo, Filippo; Gundel, Robert; Warren, Robert S; Escobedo, Jaime; Aukerman, Sharon L; Taylor, Robert N; Fantl, Wendy J

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate whether beta-catenin signaling has a role in the regulation of angiogenesis in colon cancer, a series of angiogenesis-related gene promoters was analyzed for beta-catenin/TCF binding sites. Strikingly, the gene promoter of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, or VEGF-A) contains seven consensus binding sites for beta-catenin/TCF. Analysis of laser capture microdissected human colon cancer tissue indicated a direct correlation between up-regulation of VEGF-A expression and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutational status (activation of beta-catenin signaling) in primary tumors. In metastases, this correlation was not observed. Analysis by immunohistochemistry of intestinal polyps in mice heterozygous for the multiple intestinal neoplasia gene (Min/+) at 5 months revealed an increase and redistribution of VEGF-A in proximity to those cells expressing nuclear beta-catenin with a corresponding increase in vessel density. Transfection of normal colon epithelial cells with activated beta-catenin up-regulated levels of VEGF-A mRNA and protein by 250-300%. When colon cancer cells with elevated beta-catenin levels were treated with beta-catenin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, VEGF-A expression was reduced by more than 50%. Taken together, our observations indicate a close link between beta-catenin signaling and the regulation of VEGF-A expression in colon cancer.

  1. MEKK2 mediates an alternative β-catenin pathway that promotes bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Greenblatt, Matthew Blake; Shin, Dong Yeon; Oh, Hwanhee; Lee, Ki-Young; Zhai, Bo; Gygi, Steven P.; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Liu, Dou; Su, Bing; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Shim, Jae-Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Proper tuning of β-catenin activity in osteoblasts is required for bone homeostasis, because both increased and decreased β-catenin activity have pathologic consequences. In the classical pathway for β-catenin activation, stimulation with WNT ligands suppresses constitutive phosphorylation of β-catenin by glycogen synthase kinase 3β, preventing β-catenin ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we have found that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2 (MAP3K2 or MEKK2) mediates an alternative pathway for β-catenin activation in osteoblasts that is distinct from the canonical WNT pathway. FGF2 activates MEKK2 to phosphorylate β-catenin at serine 675, promoting recruitment of the deubiquitinating enzyme, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 15 (USP15). USP15 in turn prevents the basal turnover of β-catenin by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation, thereby enhancing WNT signaling. Analysis of MEKK2-deficient mice and genetic interaction studies between Mekk2- and β-catenin–null alleles confirm that this pathway is an important physiologic regulator of bone mass in vivo. Thus, an FGF2/MEKK2 pathway mediates an alternative nonclassical pathway for β-catenin activation, and this pathway is a key regulator of bone formation by osteoblasts. PMID:26884171

  2. Negative regulation of {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling by naringenin in AGS gastric cancer cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ju Hyung; Park, Chi Hoon; Jung, Kyung Chae; Rhee, Ho Sung; Yang, Chul Hak . E-mail: chulyang@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2005-09-30

    Functional activation of {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling plays an important role in early events in carcinogenesis. We examined the effect of naringenin against {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling in gastric cancer cells. Reporter gene assay showed that naringenin inhibited {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling efficiently. In addition, the inhibition of {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling by naringenin in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with constitutively mutant {beta}-catenin gene, whose product is not phosphorylated by GSK3{beta}, indicates that its inhibitory mechanism was related to {beta}-catenin itself or downstream components. To investigate the precise inhibitory mechanism, we performed immunofluorescence, Western blot, and EMSA. As a result, our data revealed that the {beta}-catenin distribution and the levels of nuclear {beta}-catenin and Tcf-4 proteins were unchanged after naringenin treatment. Moreover, the binding activities of Tcf complexes to consensus DNA were not affected by naringenin. Taken together, these data suggest that naringenin inhibits {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling in gastric cancer with unknown mechanisms.

  3. Cadherins and catenins in dendrite and synapse morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Eunju; Yuan, Li; Arikkath, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized specialized cells. Neuronal integrity and functional roles are critically dependent on dendritic architecture and synaptic structure, function and plasticity. The cadherins are glycosylated transmembrane proteins that form cell adhesion complexes in various tissues. They are associated with a group of cytosolic proteins, the catenins. While the functional roles of the complex have been extensively investigates in non-neuronal cells, it is becoming increasingly clear that components of the complex have critical roles in regulating dendritic and synaptic architecture, function and plasticity in neurons. Consistent with these functional roles, aberrations in components of the complex have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we discuss the roles of the classical cadherins and catenins in various aspects of dendrite and synapse architecture and function and their relevance to human neurological disorders. Cadherins are glycosylated transmembrane proteins that were initially identified as Ca2+-dependent cell adhesion molecules. They are present on plasma membrane of a variety of cell types from primitive metazoans to humans. In the past several years, it has become clear that in addition to providing mechanical adhesion between cells, cadherins play integral roles in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. The cadherin family is composed of more than 100 members and classified into several subfamilies, including classical cadherins and protocadherins. Several of these cadherin family members have been implicated in various aspects of neuronal development and function.1-3 The classical cadherins are associated with a group of cytosolic proteins, collectively called the catenins. While the functional roles of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex have been extensively investigated in epithelial cells, it is now clear that components of the complex are well expressed in central neurons at different

  4. Formononetin, an isoflavone, activates AMP-activated protein kinase/β-catenin signalling to inhibit adipogenesis and rescues C57BL/6 mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Jyoti; Khedgikar, Vikram; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Dixit, Preety; Singh, Divya; Maurya, Rakesh; Trivedi, Ritu

    2017-03-01

    Balance between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation is the key link of disease progression in obesity and osteoporosis. We have previously reported that formononetin (FNT), an isoflavone extracted from Butea monosperma, stimulates osteoblast formation and protects against postmenopausal bone loss. The inverse relationship between osteoblasts and adipocytes prompted us to analyse the effect of FNT on adipogenesis and in vivo bone loss, triggered by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of FNT was determined in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese male mice. Our findings show that FNT suppresses the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, through down-regulation of key adipogenic markers such as PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and inhibits intracellular TAG accumulation. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation accompanied by stabilisation of β-catenin were attributed to the anti-adipogenic action of FNT. In vivo, 12 weeks of FNT treatment inhibited the development of obesity in mice by attenuating HFD-induced body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation. The anti-obesity effect of FNT results from increased energy expenditure. FNT also protects against HFD-induced dyslipidaemia and rescues deterioration of trabecular bone volume by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorbtion caused by HFD. FNT's rescuing action against obesity-induced osteoporosis commenced at the level of progenitors, as bone marrow progenitor cells, obtained from the HFD mice group supplemented with FNT, showed increased osteogenic and decreased adipogenic potentials. Our findings suggest that FNT inhibits adipogenesis through AMPK/β-catenin signal transduction pathways and protects against HFD-induced obesity and bone loss.

  5. LRP4 induces extracellular matrix productions and facilitates chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Asai, Nobuyuki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2014-08-22

    Endochondral ossification is an essential step for skeletal development, which requires chondrocyte differentiation in growth cartilage. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), a member of LDLR family, is an inhibitor for Wnt signaling, but its roles in chondrocyte differentiation remain to be investigated. Here we found by laser capture microdissection that LRP4 expression was induced during chondrocyte differentiation in growth plate. In order to address the roles, we overexpressed recombinant human LRP4 or knocked down endogenous LRP4 by lentivirus in mouse ATDC5 chondrocyte cells. We found that LRP4 induced gene expressions of extracellular matrix proteins of type II collagen (Col2a1), aggrecan (Acan), and type X collagen (Col10a1), as well as production of total proteoglycans in ATDC5 cells, whereas LRP4 knockdown had opposite effects. Interestingly, LRP4-knockdown reduced mRNA expression of Sox9, a master regulator for chondrogenesis, as well as Dkk1, an extracellular Wnt inhibitor. Analysis of Wnt signaling revealed that LRP4 blocked the Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in ATDC5 cells. Finally, the reduction of these extracellular matrix productions by LRP4-knockdown was rescued by a β-catenin/TCF inhibitor, suggesting that LRP4 is an important regulator for extracellular matrix productions and chondrocyte differentiation by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Protein GRP-78 Mediates Endocytosis of Dentin Matrix Protein 1*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Hao, Jianjun; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Blond, Sylvie; George, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), a phosphorylated protein present in the mineral phase of both vertebrates and invertebrates, is a key regulatory protein during biogenic formation of mineral deposits. Previously we showed that DMP1 is localized in the nuclear compartment of preosteoblasts and preodontoblasts. In the nucleus DMP1 might play an important role in the regulation of genes that control osteoblast or odontoblast differentiation. Here, we show that cellular uptake of DMP1 occurs through endocytosis. Interestingly, this process is initiated by DMP1 binding to the glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP-78) localized on the plasma membrane of preodontoblast cells. Binding of DMP1 to GRP-78 receptor was determined to be specific and saturable with a binding dissociation constant KD = 85 nm. We further depict a road map for the endocytosed DMP1 and demonstrate that the internalization is mediated primarily by caveolae and that the vesicles containing DMP1 are routed to the nucleus along microtubules. Immunohistochemical analysis and binding studies performed with biotin-labeled DMP1 confirm spatial co-localization of DMP1 and GRP-78 in the preodontoblasts of a developing mouse molar. Co-localization of DMP1 with GRP-78 was also observed in T4-4 preodontoblast cells, dental pulp stem cells, and primary preodontoblasts. By small interfering RNA techniques, we demonstrate that the receptor for DMP1 is GRP-78. Therefore, binding of DMP1 with GRP-78 receptor might be an important mechanism by which DMP1 is internalized and transported to the nucleus during bone and tooth development. PMID:18757373

  7. Expression of nuclear matrix proteins binding matrix attachment regions in prostate cancer. PARP-1: New player in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Barboro, Paola; Ferrari, Nicoletta; Capaia, Matteo; Petretto, Andrea; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Balbi, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) displays infrequent point mutations, whereas genomic rearrangements are highly prevalent. In eukaryotes, the genome is compartmentalized into chromatin loop domains by the attachment to the nuclear matrix (NM), and it has been demonstrated that several recombination hot spots are situated at the base of loops. Here, we have characterized the binding between NM proteins and matrix attachment regions (MARs) in PCa. Nontumor and 44 PCa tissues were analyzed. More aggressive tumors were characterized by an increase in the complexity of the NM protein patterns that was synchronous with a decrease in the number of proteins binding the MAR sequences. PARP-1 was the protein that showed the most evident changes. The expression of the PARP-1 associated with NM increased and it was dependent on tumor aggressiveness. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the protein was significantly overexpressed in tumor cells. To explore the role of PARP-1 in PCa progression, PCa cells were treated with the PARP inhibitor, ABT-888. In androgen-independent PC3 cells, PARP inhibition significantly decreased cell viability, migration, invasion, chromatin loop dimensions and histone acetylation. Collectively, our study provides evidence that MAR-binding proteins are involved in the development and progression of PCa. PARP could play a key role in the compartmentalization of chromatin and in the development of the more aggressive phenotype. Thus, PARP can no longer be viewed only as an enzyme involved in DNA repair, but that its role in chromatin modulation could provide the basis for a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of PCa.

  8. Mutual Antagonism of Wilms’ Tumor 1 and β-Catenin Dictates Podocyte Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lili; Li, Yingjian; He, Weichun; Zhou, Dong; Tan, Roderick J.; Nie, Jing; Hou, Fan Fan

    2015-01-01

    Activation of β-catenin, the intracellular mediator of canonical Wnt signaling, has a critical role in mediating podocyte injury and proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that β-catenin triggers ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1) and functionally antagonizes its action. In mice injected with adriamycin, WT1 protein was progressively lost in glomerular podocytes at 1, 3, and 5 weeks after injection. Notably, loss of WT1 apparently did not result from podocyte depletion but was closely associated with upregulation of β-catenin. This change in WT1/β-catenin ratio was accompanied by loss of podocyte-specific nephrin, podocalyxin, and synaptopodin and acquisition of mesenchymal markers Snail1, α-smooth muscle actin, and fibroblast-specific protein 1. In vitro, overexpression of β-catenin induced WT1 protein degradation through the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway, which was blocked by MG-132. WT1 and β-catenin also competed for binding to common transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein and mutually repressed the expression of their respective target genes. In glomerular miniorgan culture, activation of β-catenin by Wnt3a repressed WT1 and its target gene expression. In vivo, blockade of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by endogenous antagonist Klotho induced WT1 and restored podocyte integrity in adriamycin nephropathy. These results show that β-catenin specifically targets WT1 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation, leading to podocyte dedifferentiation and mesenchymal transition. Our data also suggest that WT1 and β-catenin have opposing roles in podocyte biology, and that the ratio of their expression levels dictates the state of podocyte health and disease in vivo. PMID:25071087

  9. Association of Ebola Virus Matrix Protein VP40 with Microtubules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    dynein has been reported for African swine fever virus protein 54 (1) as well as VP26 of herpes simplex virus (12), and binding to members of the plus...associated motor pro- teins for movement of viral particles to the site of budding has been proposed for African swine fever virus and vaccinia virus (22...Fernandez-Zapatero, L. Soto, C. Canto, I. Rodriguez-Crespo, L. Dixon, and J. M. Escribano. 2001. African swine fever virus protein p54 interacts with

  10. Design of triazole-stapled BCL9 α-helical peptides to target the β-catenin/B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Steven A; Coleska, Adriana; Ran, Xu; Yi, Han; Yang, Chao-Yie; Wang, Shaomeng

    2012-02-09

    The interaction between β-catenin and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9), critical for the transcriptional activity of β-catenin, is mediated by a helical segment from BCL9 and a large binding groove in β-catenin. Design of potent, metabolically stable BCL9 peptides represents an attractive approach to inhibit the activity of β-catenin. In this study, we report the use of the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction to generate triazole-stapled BCL9 α-helical peptides. The high efficiency and mild conditions of this "click" reaction combined with the ease of synthesis of the necessary unnatural amino acids allows for facile synthesis of triazole-stapled peptides. We have performed extensive optimization of this approach and identified the optimal combinations of azido and alkynyl linkers necessary for stapling BCL9 helices. The unsymmetrical nature of the triazole staple also allowed the synthesis of double-stapled BCL9 peptides, which show a marked increase in helical character and an improvement in binding affinity and metabolic stability relative to wild-type and linear BCL9 peptides. This study lays the foundation for further optimization of these triazole-stapled BCL9 peptides as potent, metabolically stable, and cell-permeable inhibitors to target the β-catenin and BCL9 interaction.

  11. Conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to basal lamina analogs enhances keratinocyte attachment.

    PubMed

    Bush, Katie A; Downing, Brett R; Walsh, Sarah E; Pins, George D

    2007-02-01

    The dermal-epidermal junction of skin contains extracellular matrix proteins that are involved in initiating and controlling keratinocyte signaling events such as attachment, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. To characterize the relationship between extracellular matrix proteins and keratinocyte attachment, a biomimetic design approach was used to precisely tailor the surface of basal lamina analogs with biochemistries that emulate the native biochemical composition found at the dermal-epidermal junction. A high-throughput screening device was developed by our laboratory that allows for the simultaneous investigation of the conjugation of individual extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen type I, collagen type IV, laminin, or fibronectin) as well as their effect on keratinocyte attachment, on the surface of an implantable collagen membrane. Fluorescence microscopy coupled with quantitative digital image analyses indicated that the extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to the collagen-GAG membranes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the relationship between extracellular matrix protein signaling cues and keratinocyte attachment, cells were seeded on protein-conjugated collagen-GAG membranes and a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay was used to quantify viable keratinocyte attachment. Our results indicate that keratinocyte attachment was significantly enhanced on the surfaces of collagen membranes that were conjugated with fibronectin and type IV collagen. These findings define a set of design parameters that will enhance keratinocyte binding efficiency on the surface of collagen membranes and ultimately improve the rate of epithelialization for dermal equivalents.

  12. The evolutionary history of the catenin gene family during metazoan evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Catenin is a gene family composed of three subfamilies; p120, beta and alpha. Beta and p120 are homologous subfamilies based on sequence and structural comparisons, and are members of the armadillo repeat protein superfamily. Alpha does not appear to be homologous to either beta or p120 based on the lack of sequence and structural similarity, and the alpha subfamily belongs to the vinculin superfamily. Catenins link the transmembrane protein cadherin to the cytoskeleton and thus function in cell-cell adhesion. To date, only the beta subfamily has been evolutionarily analyzed and experimentally studied for its functions in signaling pathways, development and human diseases such as cancer. We present a detailed evolutionary study of the whole catenin family to provide a better understanding of how this family has evolved in metazoans, and by extension, the evolution of cell-cell adhesion. Results All three catenin subfamilies have been detected in metazoans used in the present study by searching public databases and applying species-specific BLAST searches. Two monophyletic clades are formed between beta and p120 subfamilies using Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Phylogenetic analyses also reveal an array of duplication events throughout metazoan history. Furthermore, numerous annotation issues for the catenin family have been detected by our computational analyses. Conclusions Delta2/ARVCF catenin in the p120 subfamily, beta catenin in the beta subfamily, and alpha2 catenin in the alpha subfamily are present in all metazoans analyzed. This implies that the last common ancestor of metazoans had these three catenin subfamilies. However, not all members within each subfamily were detected in all metazoan species. Each subfamily has undergone duplications at different levels (species-specific, subphylum-specific or phylum-specific) and to different extents (in the case of the number of homologs). Extensive annotation problems have been resolved in each of the

  13. Collagen XII and XIV, new partners of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in the skin extracellular matrix suprastructure.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Pallavi; Zwolanek, Daniela; Keene, Douglas R; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Heinegård, Dick; Zaucke, Frank; Paulsson, Mats; Krieg, Thomas; Koch, Manuel; Eckes, Beate

    2012-06-29

    The tensile and scaffolding properties of skin rely on the complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells, vasculature, nerves, and adnexus structures and supports the epidermis. In the skin, collagen I fibrils are the major structural component of the dermal ECM, decorated by proteoglycans and by fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices such as collagens XII and XIV. Here we show that the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), an abundant component of cartilage ECM, is expressed in healthy human skin. COMP expression is detected in the dermal compartment of skin and in cultured fibroblasts, whereas epidermis and HaCaT cells are negative. In addition to binding collagen I, COMP binds to collagens XII and XIV via their C-terminal collagenous domains. All three proteins codistribute in a characteristic narrow zone in the superficial papillary dermis of healthy human skin. Ultrastructural analysis by immunogold labeling confirmed colocalization and further revealed the presence of COMP along with collagens XII and XIV in anchoring plaques. On the basis of these observations, we postulate that COMP functions as an adapter protein in human skin, similar to its function in cartilage ECM, by organizing collagen I fibrils into a suprastructure, mainly in the vicinity of anchoring plaques that stabilize the cohesion between the upper dermis and the basement membrane zone.

  14. Collagen XII and XIV, New Partners of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in the Skin Extracellular Matrix Suprastructure*

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pallavi; Zwolanek, Daniela; Keene, Douglas R.; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Heinegård, Dick; Zaucke, Frank; Paulsson, Mats; Krieg, Thomas; Koch, Manuel; Eckes, Beate

    2012-01-01

    The tensile and scaffolding properties of skin rely on the complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells, vasculature, nerves, and adnexus structures and supports the epidermis. In the skin, collagen I fibrils are the major structural component of the dermal ECM, decorated by proteoglycans and by fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices such as collagens XII and XIV. Here we show that the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), an abundant component of cartilage ECM, is expressed in healthy human skin. COMP expression is detected in the dermal compartment of skin and in cultured fibroblasts, whereas epidermis and HaCaT cells are negative. In addition to binding collagen I, COMP binds to collagens XII and XIV via their C-terminal collagenous domains. All three proteins codistribute in a characteristic narrow zone in the superficial papillary dermis of healthy human skin. Ultrastructural analysis by immunogold labeling confirmed colocalization and further revealed the presence of COMP along with collagens XII and XIV in anchoring plaques. On the basis of these observations, we postulate that COMP functions as an adapter protein in human skin, similar to its function in cartilage ECM, by organizing collagen I fibrils into a suprastructure, mainly in the vicinity of anchoring plaques that stabilize the cohesion between the upper dermis and the basement membrane zone. PMID:22573329

  15. A Polarized Epithelium Organized by β- and α-Catenin Predates Cadherin and Metazoan Origins

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Daniel J.; Nelson, W. James; Weis, William I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A polarized epithelium in the non-metazoan Dictyostelium discoideum requires α-catenin and β-catenin but not classical cadherins, polarity proteins or Wnt signaling. A fundamental characteristic of metazoans is the formation of a simple, polarized epithelium. In higher animals, the structural integrity and functional polarization of simple epithelia require a cell-cell adhesion complex containing a classical cadherin, the Wnt-signaling protein β-catenin and the actin-binding protein α-catenin. We show that the non-metazoan Dictyostelium discoideum forms a polarized epithelium that is essential for multicellular development. Although D. discoideum lacks a cadherin homolog, we identify an α-catenin ortholog that binds a β-catenin-related protein. Both proteins are essential for formation of the epithelium, polarized protein secretion and proper multicellular morphogenesis. Thus the organizational principles of metazoan multicellularity may be more ancient than previously recognized, and the role of the catenins in cell polarity predates the evolution of Wnt signaling and classical cadherins. PMID:21393547

  16. Inflammatory and fibrotic proteins proteomically identified as key protein constituents in urine and stone matrix of patients with kidney calculi.

    PubMed

    Boonla, Chanchai; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Spittau, Björn; Schlosser, Andreas; Pimratana, Chaowat; Krieglstein, Kerstin

    2014-02-15

    To uncover whether urinary proteins are incorporated into stones, the proteomic profiles of kidney stones and urine collected from the same patients have to be explored. We employed 1D-PAGE and nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS to analyze the proteomes of kidney stone matrix (n=16), nephrolithiatic urine (n=14) and healthy urine (n=3). We identified 62, 66 and 22 proteins in stone matrix, nephrolithiatic urine and healthy urine, respectively. Inflammation- and fibrosis-associated proteins were frequently detected in the stone matrix and nephrolithiatic urine. Eighteen proteins were exclusively found in the stone matrix and nephrolithiatic urine, considered as candidate biomarkers for kidney stone formation. S100A8 and fibronectin, representatives of inflammation and fibrosis, respectively, were up-regulated in nephrolithiasis renal tissues. S100A8 was strongly expressed in infiltrated leukocytes. Fibronectin was over-expressed in renal tubular cells. S100A8 and fibronectin were immunologically confirmed to exist in nephrolithiatic urine and stone matrix, but in healthy urine they were undetectable. Conclusion, both kidney stones and urine obtained from the same patients greatly contained inflammatory and fibrotic proteins. S100A8 and fibronectin were up-regulated in stone-baring kidneys and nephrolithiatic urine. Therefore, inflammation and fibrosis are suggested to be involved in the formation of kidney calculi.

  17. The β-catenin E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH-1 is regulated by CSN5/JAB1 in CRC cells.

    PubMed

    Jumpertz, Sandra; Hennes, Thomas; Asare, Yaw; Vervoorts, Jörg; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Schütz, Anke K

    2014-09-01

    COP9 signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5) plays a decisive role in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and apoptosis via promoting protein degradation, gene transcription, and nuclear export. CSN5 regulates cullin-RING-E3 ligase (CRL) activity through its deNEDDylase function. It is overexpressed in several tumor entities, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is aberrant in most CRC cells, resulting in increased levels of oncogenic β-catenin and thus tumor progression. Under physiological conditions, β-catenin levels are tightly regulated by continuous proteasomal degradation. We recently showed that knockdown of CSN5 in model and CRC cells results in decreased (phospho)-β-catenin levels. Reduced β-catenin levels were associated with an attenuated proliferation rate of different CRC cell types after CSN5 knockdown. The canonical Wnt pathway involves degradation of β-catenin by a β-TrCP1-containing E3 ligase, but is mostly non-functional in CRC cells. We thus hypothesized that alternative β-catenin degradation mediated by SIAH-1 (seven in absentia homolog-1), is responsible for the effect of CSN5 on β-catenin signaling in CRC cells. We found that SIAH-1 plays an essential role in β-catenin degradation in HCT116 CRC cells and that CSN5 affects β-catenin target gene expression in these cells. Of note, CSN5 affected SIAH-1 mRNA and SIAH-1 protein levels. Moreover, β-catenin and SIAH-1 form protein complexes with CSN5 in HCT116 cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that CSN5 promotes SIAH-1 degradation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and that this is associated with its deNEDDylase activity. In conclusion, we have identified a CSN5/β-catenin/SIAH-1 interaction network that might control β-catenin degradation in CRC cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards a matrix mechanics framework for dynamic protein network

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interaction networks are currently visualized by software generated interaction webs based upon static experimental data. Current state is limited to static, mostly non-compartmental network and non time resolved protein interactions. A satisfactory mathematical foundation for particle interactions within a viscous liquid state (situation within the cytoplasm) does not exist nor do current computer programs enable building dynamic interaction networks for time resolved interactions. Building mathematical foundation for intracellular protein interactions can be achieved in two increments (a) trigger and capture the dynamic molecular changes for a select subset of proteins using several model systems and high throughput time resolved proteomics and, (b) use this information to build the mathematical foundation and computational algorithm for a compartmentalized and dynamic protein interaction network. Such a foundation is expected to provide benefit in at least two spheres: (a) understanding physiology enabling explanation of phenomenon such as incomplete penetrance in genetic disorders and (b) enabling several fold increase in biopharmaceutical production using impure starting materials. PMID:20805933

  19. Kinetic Analysis of Protein Crystal Nucleation in Gel Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of agarose on nucleation of hen egg white lysozyme crystal was examined quantitatively using a temperature-jumping technique. For the first time, to our knowledge, the inhibition of agarose during the nucleation of lysozyme was quantified in two respects: a), the effect of increasing interfacial nucleation barrier, described by the so-called interfacial correlation parameter f(m); and b), the ratio of diffusion to interfacial kinetics obtained from dynamic surface tension measurements. It follows from a dynamic surface tension analysis that the agarose network inhibits the nucleation of lysozyme by means of an enhancement of the repulsion and interfacial structure mismatch between foreign bodies and lysozyme crystals, slowing down the diffusion process of the protein molecules and clusters toward the crystal-fluid interface and inhibiting the rearrangement of protein molecules at the interface. Our results, based on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, also show no evidence of the supersaturation enhancement effect in protein agarose gels. The effects of nucleation suppression and transport limitation in gels result in bigger, fewer, and perhaps better quality protein crystals. The understandings obtained in this study will improve our knowledge in controlling the crystallization of proteins and other biomolecules. PMID:18835910

  20. Yeast pex1 cells contain peroxisomal ghosts that import matrix proteins upon reintroduction of Pex1

    PubMed Central

    Knoops, Kèvin; de Boer, Rinse; Kram, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Pex1 and Pex6 are two AAA-ATPases that play a crucial role in peroxisome biogenesis. We have characterized the ultrastructure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome-deficient mutants pex1 and pex6 by various high-resolution electron microscopy techniques. We observed that the cells contained peroxisomal membrane remnants, which in ultrathin cross sections generally appeared as double membrane rings. Electron tomography revealed that these structures consisted of one continuous membrane, representing an empty, flattened vesicle, which folds into a cup shape. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these structures lack peroxisomal matrix proteins but are the sole sites of the major peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex2, Pex10, Pex11, Pex13, and Pex14. Upon reintroduction of Pex1 in Pex1-deficient cells, these peroxisomal membrane remnants (ghosts) rapidly incorporated peroxisomal matrix proteins and developed into peroxisomes. Our data support earlier views that Pex1 and Pex6 play a role in peroxisomal matrix protein import. PMID:26644511

  1. Kindlin-2 interacts with β-catenin and YB-1 to enhance EGFR transcription during glioma progression

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yunwei; Zhao, Zitong; Zhang, Weimin; Wu, Qingnan; Wu, Chuanyue; Liu, Xuefeng; Fu, Ming; Ji, Nan; Wang, Dan; Qiu, Jiaji; Zhang, Liwei; Yu, Chunjiang; Song, Yongmei; Zhan, Qimin

    2016-01-01

    Kindlin-2 promotes carcinogenesis through regulation of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. However, the role of Kindlin-2 in glioma has not been elucidated. We investigated Kindlin-2 expression in 188 human glioma tissue samples. High Kindlin-2 expression was correlated with high pathological grade and a worse prognosis. Kindlin-2 promoted glioma cell motility and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, Kindlin-2 activated the EGFR pathway and increased EGFR mRNA levels. In addition to up-regulating Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) and β-catenin expression, Kindlin-2 formed a transcriptional complex with YB-1 and β-catenin that bound to the EGFR promoter and enhanced transcription. The β-catenin/YB-1/EGFR pathway was required for Kindlin-2-mediated functions. Our data provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glioma progression, and suggest that Kindlin-2 may be a biomarker and therapeutic target in glioma. PMID:27713156

  2. Selective inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/CBP signaling ameliorates hepatitis C virus-induced liver fibrosis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Yuko; Osawa, Yosuke; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Yamane, Daisuke; Hara, Mitsuko; Munekata, Keisuke; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kojima, Soichi; Kimura, Kiminori; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-03-23

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of serious liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis. There are no anti-fibrotic drugs with efficacy against liver cirrhosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a β-catenin/CBP (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) inhibitor on liver fibrosis. The anti-fibrotic activity of PRI-724, a selective inhibitor of β-catenin/CBP, was assessed in HCV GT1b transgenic mice at 18 months after HCV genome expression. PRI-724 was injected intraperitoneally or subcutaneously in these mice for 6 weeks. PRI-724 reduced liver fibrosis, which was indicated by silver stain, Sirius Red staining, and hepatic hydroxyproline levels, in HCV mice while attenuating αSMA induction. PRI-724 led to increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 mRNA in the liver, along with elevated levels of intrahepatic neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes. The induced intrahepatic neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes were identified as the source of MMP-8. In conclusion, PRI-724 ameliorated HCV-induced liver fibrosis in mice. We hypothesize that inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation and induction of fibrolytic cells expressing MMP-8 contribute to the anti-fibrotic effects of PRI-724. PRI-724 is a drug candidate which possesses anti-fibrotic effect.

  3. Reconstitution Of β-catenin degradation in Xenopus egg extract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tony W; Broadus, Matthew R; Huppert, Stacey S; Lee, Ethan

    2014-06-17

    Xenopus laevis egg extract is a well-characterized, robust system for studying the biochemistry of diverse cellular processes. Xenopus egg extract has been used to study protein turnover in many cellular contexts, including the cell cycle and signal transduction pathways(1-3). Herein, a method is described for isolating Xenopus egg extract that has been optimized to promote the degradation of the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin. Two different methods are described to assess β-catenin protein degradation in Xenopus egg extract. One method is visually informative ([(35)S]-radiolabeled proteins), while the other is more readily scaled for high-throughput assays (firefly luciferase-tagged fusion proteins). The techniques described can be used to, but are not limited to, assess β-catenin protein turnover and identify molecular components contributing to its turnover. Additionally, the ability to purify large volumes of homogenous Xenopus egg extract combined with the quantitative and facile readout of luciferase-tagged proteins allows this system to be easily adapted for high-throughput screening for modulators of β-catenin degradation.

  4. Reconstitution Of β-catenin Degradation In Xenopus Egg Extract

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Stacey S.; Lee, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    Xenopus laevis egg extract is a well-characterized, robust system for studying the biochemistry of diverse cellular processes. Xenopus egg extract has been used to study protein turnover in many cellular contexts, including the cell cycle and signal transduction pathways1-3. Herein, a method is described for isolating Xenopus egg extract that has been optimized to promote the degradation of the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin. Two different methods are described to assess β-catenin protein degradation in Xenopus egg extract. One method is visually informative ([35S]-radiolabeled proteins), while the other is more readily scaled for high-throughput assays (firefly luciferase-tagged fusion proteins). The techniques described can be used to, but are not limited to, assess β-catenin protein turnover and identify molecular components contributing to its turnover. Additionally, the ability to purify large volumes of homogenous Xenopus egg extract combined with the quantitative and facile readout of luciferase-tagged proteins allows this system to be easily adapted for high-throughput screening for modulators of β-catenin degradation. PMID:24962160

  5. Predicting protein-ligand affinity with a random matrix framework.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alpha A; Brenner, Michael P; Colwell, Lucy J

    2016-11-29

    Rapid determination of whether a candidate compound will bind to a particular target receptor remains a stumbling block in drug discovery. We use an approach inspired by random matrix theory to decompose the known ligand set of a target in terms of orthogonal "signals" of salient chemical features, and distinguish these from the much larger set of ligand chemical features that are not relevant for binding to that particular target receptor. After removing the noise caused by finite sampling, we show that the similarity of an unknown ligand to the remaining, cleaned chemical features is a robust predictor of ligand-target affinity, performing as well or better than any algorithm in the published literature. We interpret our algorithm as deriving a model for the binding energy between a target receptor and the set of known ligands, where the underlying binding energy model is related to the classic Ising model in statistical physics.

  6. Expression of beta-catenin by acute myeloid leukemia cells predicts enhanced clonogenic capacities and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ysebaert, L; Chicanne, G; Demur, C; De Toni, F; Prade-Houdellier, N; Ruidavets, J-B; Mansat-De Mas, V; Rigal-Huguet, F; Laurent, G; Payrastre, B; Manenti, S; Racaud-Sultan, C

    2006-07-01

    Activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has recently been shown to be crucial to the establishment of leukemic stem cells in chronic myeloid leukemia. We sought to determine whether beta-catenin was correlated to clonogenic capacity also in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) setting. Eighty-two patients were retrospectively evaluated for beta-catenin expression by Western blot. beta-Catenin was expressed (although at various protein levels) in 61% of patients, and was undetectable in the remaining cases. In our cohort, beta-catenin expression was correlated with the clonogenic proliferation of AML-colony forming cells (AML-CFC or CFU-L) in methylcellulose in the presence of 5637-conditioned medium, and more strikingly with self-renewing of leukemic cells, as assessed in vitro by a re-plating assay. In survival analyses, beta-catenin appeared as a new independent prognostic factor predicting poor event-free survival and shortened overall survival (both with P<0.05). Furthermore, variations in beta-catenin protein levels were dependent on post-transcriptional mechanisms involving the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway only in leukemic cells. Indeed, beta-catenin negative leukemic cells were found to increase beta-catenin in response to Wnt3a agonist in contrast to normal counterparts. Altogether, our data pave the way to the evaluation of Wnt pathway inhibition as a new rationale for eradicating the clonogenic pool of AML cells.

  7. alpha-Catenin overrides Src-dependent activation of beta-catenin oncogenic signaling.

    PubMed

    Inge, Landon J; Rajasekaran, Sigrid A; Wolle, Daniel; Barwe, Sonali P; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Ewing, Charles M; Isaacs, William B; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2008-06-01

    Loss of alpha-catenin is one of the characteristics of prostate cancer. The catenins (alpha and beta) associated with E-cadherin play a critical role in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin dissociates it from E-cadherin and facilitates its entry into the nucleus, where beta-catenin acts as a transcriptional activator inducing genes involved in cell proliferation. Thus, beta-catenin regulates cell-cell adhesion and cell proliferation. Mechanisms controlling the balance between these functions of beta-catenin invariably are altered in cancer. Although a wealth of information is available about beta-catenin deregulation during oncogenesis, much less is known about how or whether alpha-catenin regulates beta-catenin functions. In this study, we show that alpha-catenin acts as a switch regulating the cell-cell adhesion and proliferation functions of beta-catenin. In alpha-catenin-null prostate cancer cells, reexpression of alpha-catenin increased cell-cell adhesion and decreased beta-catenin transcriptional activity, cyclin D1 levels, and cell proliferation. Further, Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin is a major mechanism for decreased beta-catenin interaction with E-cadherin in alpha-catenin-null cells. alpha-Catenin attenuated the effect of Src phosphorylation by increasing beta-catenin association with E-cadherin. We also show that alpha-catenin increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to a Src inhibitor in suppressing cell proliferation. This study reveals for the first time that alpha-catenin is a key regulator of beta-catenin transcriptional activity and that the status of alpha-catenin expression in tumor tissues might have prognostic value for Src targeted therapy.

  8. Short hairpin RNA directed against β-catenin inhibits prostate cancer growth and invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiahui; Wu, Chunting; Luo, Yong; Jiang, Yongguang

    2017-02-01

    β-catenin protein exhibits a dual function in epithelial cells, depending on its intracellular localization. At the plasma membrane, β‑catenin is an important constituent of adherens junctions. However, when the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway is activated, β‑catenin translocates to the nucleus to promote specific gene expression. To investigate the functional activity and examine the role of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway in various human prostate cancer cells, indirect immunofluorescence was performed to detect the expression and distribution of β‑catenin in the following prostate cancer cell lines: PC‑3, LNCaP, C4‑2, IA8‑ARCaP and IF11‑ARCaP. A marked difference was observed in the expression and distribution of β‑catenin in different prostate cancer cell lines. β‑catenin was observed in the nuclei of IA8-ARCaP and IF11‑ARCaP cell lines, whereas it was present on the membrane of LNCaP and C4‑2 cell lines. There was a low expression of β‑catenin in the PC‑3 cell line. Furthermore, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting human β‑catenin was constructed to investigate the effect of β‑catenin shRNA on the proliferation and invasive potency of prostate cancer cells. The IA8/β‑catenin(‑) cell line exhibited a reduced potency for invasion and proliferation compared with the IA8 and IA8‑shControl groups. The present study demonstrated that suppressing activity of Wnt/β‑catenin signal pathway via β‑catenin shRNA results in an inhibition of prostate cancer proliferation and invasion.

  9. Curcumin affects β-catenin pathway in hepatic stellate cell in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Jia, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Zhai, Xuguang; Zhou, Yajun; Zhu, Huixia

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that Wnt/β-catenin pathway is linked to the fibrosis of different organs including liver fibrosis. β-Catenin promotes hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, a key event in the development of liver fibrosis, and has emerged as a novel mediator of fibrosis. Curcumin, a natural active ingredient derived from turmeric, possesses an inhibitory effect on liver fibrosis. This study is aimed to examine whether curcumin affects β-catenin expression/activity in HSCs and explores the underlying mechanisms. The researchers used Western blot, real-time PCR, transfection assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay and employed cultured HSCs and rat model of liver injury. Results showed that curcumin could reduce β-catenin protein level in HSCs in vitro and in vivo. Both β-catenin transactivation activity and DNA-binding activity were suppressed by curcumin. Moreover, nuclear β-catenin protein level was decreased by curcumin treatment. Further experiments suggested that delta-like homologue 1 contributed to curcumin inhibition of β-catenin transactivation activity in cultured HSCs. Curcumin affects β-catenin pathway in HSCs and might suggest a possible new explanation for the effects of curcumin on HSC activation and liver fibrosis. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of avian eggshell matrix and uterine fluid proteins associated with eggshell mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congjiao; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Eggshell strength is a crucial economic trait for table egg production. During the process of eggshell formation, uncalcified eggs are bathed in uterine fluid that plays regulatory roles in eggshell calcification. In this study, a label-free MS-based protein quantification technology was used to detect differences in protein abundance between eggshell matrix from strong and weak eggs (shell matrix protein from strong eggshells and shell matrix protein from weak eggshells) and between the corresponding uterine fluids bathing strong and weak eggs (uterine fluid bathing strong eggs and uterine fluid bathing weak eggs) in a chicken population. Here, we reported the first global proteomic analysis of uterine fluid. A total of 577 and 466 proteins were identified in uterine fluid and eggshell matrix, respectively. Of 447 identified proteins in uterine fluid bathing strong eggs, up to 357 (80%) proteins were in common with proteins in uterine fluid bathing weak eggs. Similarly, up to 83% (328/396) of the proteins in shell matrix protein from strong eggshells were in common with the proteins in shell matrix protein from weak eggshells. The large amount of common proteins indicated that the difference in protein abundance should play essential roles in influencing eggshell strength. Ultimately, 15 proteins mainly relating to eggshell matrix specific proteins, calcium binding and transportation, protein folding and sorting, bone development or diseases, and thyroid hormone activity were considered to have closer association with the formation of strong eggshell.

  11. Intrinsic fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectral features of cottonseed protein fractions and the effects of denaturants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To better understand the functional and physicochemical properties of cottonseed protein, we investigated the intrinsic fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectral features of cottonseed protein isolate (CSPI) and sequentially extracted water (CSPw) and alkali (CSPa) protein fractions, an...

  12. Moderate cyclic tensile strain alters the assembly of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bleuel, Judith; Zaucke, Frank; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Heilig, Juliane; Wolter, Marie-Louise; Hamann, Nina; Firner, Sara; Niehoff, Anja

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical loading influences the structural and mechanical properties of articular cartilage. The cartilage matrix protein collagen II essentially determines the tensile properties of the tissue and is adapted in response to loading. The collagen II network is stabilized by the collagen II-binding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), collagen IX, and matrilin-3. However, the effect of mechanical loading on these extracellular matrix proteins is not yet understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if and how chondrocytes assemble the extracellular matrix proteins collagen II, COMP, collagen IX, and matrilin-3 in response to mechanical loading. Primary murine chondrocytes were applied to cyclic tensile strain (6%, 0.5 Hz, 30 min per day at three consecutive days). The localization of collagen II, COMP, collagen IX, and matrilin-3 in loaded and unloaded cells was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The messenger ribo nucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels and synthesis of the proteins were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blots. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the pattern of collagen II distribution was altered by loading. In loaded chondrocytes, collagen II containing fibrils appeared thicker and strongly co-stained for COMP and collagen IX, whereas the collagen network from unloaded cells was more diffuse and showed minor costaining. Further, the applied load led to a higher amount of COMP in the matrix, determined by western blot analysis. Our results show that moderate cyclic tensile strain altered the assembly of the extracellular collagen network. However, changes in protein amount were only observed for COMP, but not for collagen II, collagen IX, or matrilin-3. The data suggest that the adaptation to mechanical loading is not always the result of changes in RNA and/or protein expression but might also be the result of changes in matrix assembly and structure.

  13. Different modes of endothelial-smooth muscle cell interaction elicit differential β-catenin phosphorylations and endothelial functions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Li-Jing; Lee, Pei-Ling; Lee, Ding-Yu; Chien, Shu; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann

    2014-02-04

    β-Catenin phosphorylation plays important roles in modulating its functions, but the effects of different phosphorylated forms of β-catenin in response to heterocellular interaction are unclear. Here we investigated whether distinct modes of phosphorylation on β-catenin could be triggered through heterocellular interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the consequent modulation of EC functions. ECs were cocultured with SMCs to initiate direct contact and paracrine interaction. EC-SMC coculture induced EC β-catenin phosphorylations simultaneously at tyrosine 142 (Tyr142) and serine 45/threonine 41 (Ser45/Thr41) at the cytoplasm/nuclei and the membrane, respectively. Treating ECs with SMC-conditional medium induced β-catenin phosphorylation only at Ser45/Thr41. These findings indicate that different phosphorylation effects of EC-SMC coculture were induced through heterocellular direct contact and paracrine effects, respectively. Using specific blocking peptides, antagonists, and siRNAs, we found that the β-catenin Tyr142-phosphorylation was mediated by connexin 43/Fer and that the β-catenin Ser45/Thr41-phosphorylation was mediated by SMC-released bone morphogenetic proteins through VE-cadherin and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II/Smad5. Transfecting ECs with β-catenin-Tyr142 or -Ser45 mutants showed that these two phosphorylated forms of β-catenin modulate differential EC function: The Tyr142-phosphorylated β-catenin stimulates vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 expression to increase EC-monocytic adhesion, but the Ser45/Thr41-phosphorylated β-catenin attenuates VE-cadherin-dependent junction structures to increase EC permeability. Our findings provide new insights into the understanding of regulatory complexities of distinct modes of β-catenin phosphorylations under EC-SMC interactions and suggest that different phosphorylated forms of β-catenin play important roles in modulating vascular pathophysiology

  14. Isolation of a crystal matrix protein associated with calcium oxalate precipitation in vacuoles of specialized cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxiang; Zhang, Dianzhong; Lynch-Holm, Valerie J; Okita, Thomas W; Franceschi, Vincent R

    2003-10-01

    The formation of calcium (Ca) oxalate crystals is considered to be a high-capacity mechanism for regulating Ca in many plants. Ca oxalate precipitation is not a stochastic process, suggesting the involvement of specific biochemical and cellular mechanisms. Microautoradiography of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) tissue exposed to 3H-glutamate showed incorporation into developing crystals, indicating potential acidic proteins associated with the crystals. Dissolution of crystals leaves behind a crystal-shaped matrix "ghost" that is capable of precipitation of Ca oxalate in the original crystal morphology. To assess whether this matrix has a protein component, purified crystals were isolated and analyzed for internal protein. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of one major polypeptide of about 55 kD and two minor species of 60 and 63 kD. Amino acid analysis indicates the matrix protein is relatively high in acidic amino acids, a feature consistent with its solubility in formic acid but not at neutral pH. 45Ca-binding assays demonstrated the matrix protein has a strong affinity for Ca. Immunocytochemical localization using antibody raised to the isolated protein showed that the matrix protein is specific to crystal-forming cells. Within the vacuole, the surface and internal structures of two morphologically distinct Ca oxalate crystals, raphide and druse, were labeled by the antimatrix protein serum, as were the surfaces of isolated crystals. These results demonstrate that a specific Ca-binding protein exists as an integral component of Ca oxalate crystals, which holds important implications with respect to regulation of crystal formation.

  15. The microtubule motor protein KIF13A is involved in intracellular trafficking of the Lassa virus matrix protein Z.

    PubMed

    Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Noda, Takeshi; Maisner, Andrea; Lamp, Boris; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Garten, Wolfgang; Strecker, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The small matrix protein Z of arenaviruses has been identified as the main driving force to promote viral particle production at the plasma membrane. Although multiple functions of Z in the arenaviral life cycle have been uncovered, the mechanism of intracellular transport of Z to the site of virus budding is poorly understood and cellular motor proteins that mediate Z trafficking remain to be identified. In the present study, we report that the Z protein of the Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) interacts with the kinesin family member 13A (KIF13A), a plus-end-directed microtubule-dependent motor protein. Plasmid-driven overexpression of KIF13A results in relocalization of Z to the cell periphery, while functional blockage of endogenous KIF13A by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant or KIF13A-specific siRNA causes a perinuclearaccumulation and decreased production of both Z-induced virus-like particles and infectious LASV. The interaction of KIF13A with Z proteins from both Old and New World arenaviruses suggests a conserved intracellular transport mechanism. In contrast, the intracellular distribution of the matrix proteins of prototypic members of the paramyxo- and rhabdovirus family is independent of KIF13A. In summary, our studies identify for the first time a molecular motor protein as a critical mediator for intracellular microtubule-dependent transport of arenavirus matrix proteins.

  16. Serum protein fractionation using supported molecular matrix electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    Supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), in which a hydrophilic polymer such as PVA serves as a support within a porous PVDF membrane, was recently developed. This method is similar to cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis but differs in the compatibility to glycan analysis of the separated bands. In this report, we describe the first instance of the application of SMME to human serum fractionation, and demonstrate the differences with serum fractionation by cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis. The SMME membrane exhibited almost no EOF during electrophoresis, unlike the cellulose acetate membrane, but afforded comparative results for serum fractionation. The visualization of each fraction was achieved by conventional staining with dye such as Direct Blue-71, and objective quantification was obtained by densitometry after inducing membrane transparency with 1-nonene. Immunostaining was also achieved. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of both N-linked and O-linked glycans from the separated bands was demonstrated. Serum fractionation and glycan profiling of each fraction using SMME will enable novel insights into the relationships between various glycosylation profiles and disease states.

  17. Human keratinocytes synthesize and secrete the extracellular matrix protein, thrombospondin.

    PubMed

    Wikner, N E; Dixit, V M; Frazier, W A; Clark, R A

    1987-02-01

    Thrombospondin (TSP) a glycoprotein originally identified as the endogenous lectin of platelets, is also synthesized by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pneumocytes, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. Thrombospondin is subdivided into functional domains which bind specifically to heparin, fibronectin, collagen, and to specific cellular receptors. It is found within the basement membranes of kidney, lung, smooth muscle, and skin. Thus TSP may serve as an important link between cells and matrices. Thrombospondin also has been reported at the epidermal-dermal junction. We wished to determine whether human keratinocytes synthesize and secrete TSP. Pure human keratinocytes were grown in defined medium without fibroblast feeder layers. Immunofluorescent staining with either rabbit polyclonal or mouse monoclonal antibodies to human platelet TSP yielded specific granular staining within the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. Culture media and cellular lysates were harvested from cultures metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine. Trichloroacetic acid precipitation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and autoradiography revealed a major labeled band comigrating with purified platelet TSP in both the media and the cellular lysates. Immunoprecipitation with either the polyclonal or the monoclonal anti-TSP antibodies followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography identified this band as TSP. Thus keratinocytes in culture synthesize and secrete TSP. Thrombospondin may play an important role in epidermal interactions with extracellular matrix.

  18. Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells Are Inhibited by Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, by the Attenuation of the Wnt β-Catenin Signaling via the Wnt Antagonist Secreted Frizzled Related Protein-4.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanalakshmi, G; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Dharmarajan, Arun; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan P; Warrier, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identification of breast cancer stem cells as the chemo-resistant and tumor-initiating population represents an important milestone in approaching anticancer therapies. Targeting this minor subpopulation of chemo- and radio-resistant stem-like cells, termed as the cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their eradication could significantly enhance clinical outcomes. Most of the presently administered chemotherapeutics target the tumor bulk but are ineffective against the CSCs. We report here that diosgenin (DG), a naturally occurring steroidal saponin, could effectively inhibit CSCs from three breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the CSC associated phenotypes. Methods: CSCs were enriched in these cells lines, characterized for CSC traits by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed in these breast CSCs in the presence of DG to obtain the inhibitory concentration. Apoptosis was confirmed with gene expression analysis, Western blotting and propidium iodide staining. TCF-LEF reporter assay, sFRP overexpression and RNAi silencing studies were performed to study regulation of the Wnt pathway. Statistical significance was evaluated by a two-sided Student's t-test. Results: Using the TCF-LEF reporter system, we show the effect of DG on CSCs is predominantly through the network regulating CSC self renewal, the Wnt β-catenin pathway. Specifically, the Wnt antagonist, the secreted frizzled related protein 4, (sFRP4), had a defining role in the action of DG. Gain-of-function of sFRP4 in CSCs could improve the response to DG wherein CSC mediators were inhibited, β-catenin was down regulated and the effectors of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and pro-invasive markers were repressed. Conversely, the loss-of-function of sFRP4 had a reverse effect on the CSC population which therein became enriched, their response to DG treatment was modest, β-catenin levels increased

  19. Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells Are Inhibited by Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, by the Attenuation of the Wnt β-Catenin Signaling via the Wnt Antagonist Secreted Frizzled Related Protein-4

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvanalakshmi, G.; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Dharmarajan, Arun; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan P.; Warrier, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identification of breast cancer stem cells as the chemo-resistant and tumor-initiating population represents an important milestone in approaching anticancer therapies. Targeting this minor subpopulation of chemo- and radio-resistant stem-like cells, termed as the cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their eradication could significantly enhance clinical outcomes. Most of the presently administered chemotherapeutics target the tumor bulk but are ineffective against the CSCs. We report here that diosgenin (DG), a naturally occurring steroidal saponin, could effectively inhibit CSCs from three breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the CSC associated phenotypes. Methods: CSCs were enriched in these cells lines, characterized for CSC traits by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed in these breast CSCs in the presence of DG to obtain the inhibitory concentration. Apoptosis was confirmed with gene expression analysis, Western blotting and propidium iodide staining. TCF-LEF reporter assay, sFRP overexpression and RNAi silencing studies were performed to study regulation of the Wnt pathway. Statistical significance was evaluated by a two-sided Student’s t-test. Results: Using the TCF-LEF reporter system, we show the effect of DG on CSCs is predominantly through the network regulating CSC self renewal, the Wnt β-catenin pathway. Specifically, the Wnt antagonist, the secreted frizzled related protein 4, (sFRP4), had a defining role in the action of DG. Gain-of-function of sFRP4 in CSCs could improve the response to DG wherein CSC mediators were inhibited, β-catenin was down regulated and the effectors of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and pro-invasive markers were repressed. Conversely, the loss-of-function of sFRP4 had a reverse effect on the CSC population which therein became enriched, their response to DG treatment was modest, β-catenin levels increased

  20. Osteoblast fibronectin mRNA, protein synthesis, and matrix are unchanged after exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Gilbertson, V.

    1999-01-01

    The well-defined osteoblast line, MC3T3-E1 was used to examine fibronectin (FN) mRNA levels, protein synthesis, and extracellular FN matrix accumulation after growth activation in spaceflight. These osteoblasts produce FN extracellular matrix (ECM) known to regulate adhesion, differentiation, and function in adherent cells. Changes in bone ECM and osteoblast cell shape occur in spaceflight. To determine whether altered FN matrix is a factor in causing these changes in spaceflight, quiescent osteoblasts were launched into microgravity and were then sera activated with and without a 1-gravity field. Synthesis of FN mRNA, protein, and matrix were measured after activation in microgravity. FN mRNA synthesis is significantly reduced in microgravity (0-G) when compared to ground (GR) osteoblasts flown in a centrifuge simulating earth's gravity (1-G) field 2.5 h after activation. However, 27.5 h after activation there were no significant differences in mRNA synthesis. A small but significant reduction of FN protein was found in the 0-G samples 2.5 h after activation. Total FN protein 27.5 h after activation showed no significant difference between any of the gravity conditions, however, there was a fourfold increase in absolute amount of protein synthesized during the incubation. Using immunofluorescence, we found no significant differences in the amount or in the orientation of the FN matrix after 27.5 h in microgravity. These results demonstrate that FN is made by sera-activated osteoblasts even during exposure to microgravity. These data also suggest that after a total period of 43 h of spaceflight FN transcription, translation, or altered matrix assembly is not responsible for the altered cell shape or altered matrix formation of osteoblasts.

  1. Osteoblast fibronectin mRNA, protein synthesis, and matrix are unchanged after exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Gilbertson, V.

    1999-01-01

    The well-defined osteoblast line, MC3T3-E1 was used to examine fibronectin (FN) mRNA levels, protein synthesis, and extracellular FN matrix accumulation after growth activation in spaceflight. These osteoblasts produce FN extracellular matrix (ECM) known to regulate adhesion, differentiation, and function in adherent cells. Changes in bone ECM and osteoblast cell shape occur in spaceflight. To determine whether altered FN matrix is a factor in causing these changes in spaceflight, quiescent osteoblasts were launched into microgravity and were then sera activated with and without a 1-gravity field. Synthesis of FN mRNA, protein, and matrix were measured after activation in microgravity. FN mRNA synthesis is significantly reduced in microgravity (0-G) when compared to ground (GR) osteoblasts flown in a centrifuge simulating earth's gravity (1-G) field 2.5 h after activation. However, 27.5 h after activation there were no significant differences in mRNA synthesis. A small but significant reduction of FN protein was found in the 0-G samples 2.5 h after activation. Total FN protein 27.5 h after activation showed no significant difference between any of the gravity conditions, however, there was a fourfold increase in absolute amount of protein synthesized during the incubation. Using immunofluorescence, we found no significant differences in the amount or in the orientation of the FN matrix after 27.5 h in microgravity. These results demonstrate that FN is made by sera-activated osteoblasts even during exposure to microgravity. These data also suggest that after a total period of 43 h of spaceflight FN transcription, translation, or altered matrix assembly is not responsible for the altered cell shape or altered matrix formation of osteoblasts.

  2. Expression and colocalization of β-catenin and lymphoid enhancing factor-1 in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Tyler M; Vezina, Chad M; Ricke, Emily A; Halberg, Richard B; Huang, Wei; Peterson, Richard E; Ricke, William A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively investigate β-catenin and LEF1 abundance, subcellular localization, and colocalization across benign and staged prostate cancer (PCa) specimens. A tissue microarray containing tumor-adjacent histologically benign prostate tissue (BPT; n = 48 patients), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN; n = 25), localized PCa (n = 42), aggressive PCa (n = 31), and metastases (n = 22) was stained using multiplexed immunohistochemistry with antibodies toward E-cadherin, β-catenin, and LEF1. Multispectral imaging was used for quantitation, and protein expression and colocalization was evaluated across PCa progression. Stromal nuclear β-catenin abundance was greater in HGPIN and PCa compared with BPT (P < .05 for both), and epithelial nuclear β-catenin abundance was lower in metastatic PCa than in BPT (P < .05 for both). Epithelial and stromal nuclear LEF1 abundance was greater in HGPIN compared with BPT, whereas epithelial nuclear LEF1 was also greater in metastases. The proportion of epithelial and stromal nuclear double-positive β-catenin(+)/LEF1(+) cells was greater in HGPIN compared with BPT. In addition, the proportion of epithelial β-catenin(+)/LEF1(+) cells was greater in localized PCa and metastases compared with BPT. A significant amount of stromal cells were positive for LEF1 but not β-catenin. β-Catenin and LEF1 abundance were negatively correlated in the epithelium (P < .0001) but not the stroma (P > .05). We conclude that β-catenin and LEF1 colocalization is increased in HGPIN and metastasis relative to BPT, suggesting a role for β-catenin/LEF1-mediated transcription in both malignant transformation and metastasis of PCa. Furthermore, our results suggest that LEF1 abundance alone is not a reliable readout for β-catenin activity in prostate tissues.

  3. Activation of the wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fuchen; Liang, Zonglai; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Wei; Zhao, Dandan; Zhao, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in embryonic development and adult-tissue homeostasis. Recent investigations implicate the importance of wnt/β-catenin signaling in normal wound healing and its sustained activation being associated with fibrogenesis. We investigated the immunolocalization and activation of wnt/β-catenin in polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis of β-catenin were performed in muscle specimens from 6 PM, 8 DM, and 6 DMD subjects. The β-catenin/Tcf4 DNA-binding activity in muscle was studied using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and serum wnt/β-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity was measured using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Results Immunoreactivity for β-catenin was found in the cytoplasm and nuclei of muscle fibers in PM, DM, and DMD. The protein level of β-catenin was elevated, and EMSA analysis confirmed the activation of wnt/β-catenin signaling. The transcriptional activities of β-catenin/Tcf in the circulation were increased in patients with PM, DM, and DMD, especially in those with interstitial lung disease, and these transcriptional activities decreased when PM or DM patients exhibited obvious clinical improvements. Conclusions Our findings indicate that wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in PM, DM, and DMD. Its activation in muscle tissue and the circulation may play a role in modulating muscle regeneration and be at least partly involved in the process of muscle and pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27165423

  4. Fractionation of the Gulf Toadfish Intestinal Precipitate Organic Matrix Reveals Potential Functions of Individual Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Kevin L; Grosell, Martin

    2017-03-15

    The regulatory mechanisms behind the production of CaCO3 in the marine teleost intestine are poorly studied despite being essential for osmoregulation and responsible for a conservatively estimated 3-15% of annual oceanic CaCO3 production. It has recently been reported that the intestinally derived precipitates produced by fish as a byproduct of their osmoregulatory strategy form in conjunction with a proteinaceous matrix containing nearly 150 unique proteins. The individual functions of these proteins have not been the subject of investigation until now. Here, organic matrix was extracted from precipitates produced by Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) and the matrix proteins were fractionated by their charge using strong anion exchange chromatography. The precipitation regulatory abilities of the individual fractions were then analyzed using a recently developed in vitro calcification assay, and the protein constituents of each fraction were determined by mass spectrometry. The different fractions were found to have differing effects on both the rate of carbonate mineral production, as well as the morphology of the crystals that form. Using data collected from the calcification assay as well as the mass spectrometry experiments, individual calcification promotional indices were calculated for each protein, giving the first insight into the functions each of these matrix proteins may play in regulating precipitation.

  5. Novel proteins identified in the insoluble byssal matrix of the freshwater zebra mussel.

    PubMed

    Gantayet, Arpita; Rees, David J; Sone, Eli D

    2014-04-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is an invasive, biofouling species that adheres to a variety of substrates underwater, using a proteinaceous anchor called the byssus. The byssus consists of a number of threads with adhesive plaques at the tips. It contains the unusual amino acid 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which is believed to play an important role in adhesion, in addition to providing structural integrity to the byssus through cross-linking. Extensive DOPA cross-linking, however, renders the zebra mussel byssus highly resistant to protein extraction, and therefore limits byssal protein identification. We report here on the identification of seven novel byssal proteins in the insoluble byssal matrix following protein extraction from induced, freshly secreted byssal threads with minimal cross-linking. These proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests of the matrix proteins by spectrum matching against a zebra mussel cDNA library of genes unique to the mussel foot, the organ that secretes the byssus. All seven proteins were present in both the plaque and thread. Comparisons of the protein sequences revealed common features of zebra mussel byssal proteins, and several recurring sequence motifs. Although their sequences are unique, many of the proteins display similarities to marine mussel byssal proteins, as well as to adhesive and structural proteins from other species. The large expansion of the byssal proteome reported here represents an important step towards understanding zebra mussel adhesion.

  6. Expression Patterns of Extracellular Matrix Proteins during Posterior Commissure Development

    PubMed Central

    Stanic, Karen; Saldivia, Natalia; Förstera, Benjamín; Torrejón, Marcela; Montecinos, Hernán; Caprile, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development. Therefore, this study assessed the molecular expression patterns of tenascin, HNK-1, laminin, fibronectin, perlecan, decorin, and osteopontin along chick embryo prosomere 1 during posterior commissure development. The posterior commissure is the first transversal axonal tract of the embryonic vertebrate brain. Located in the dorso-caudal portion of prosomere 1, posterior commissure axons primarily arise from the neurons of basal pretectal nuclei that run dorsally to the roof plate midline, where some turn toward the ipsilateral side. Expressional analysis of ECM molecules in this area these revealed to be highly arranged, and molecule interactions with axon fascicles suggested involvement in processes other than structural support. In particular, tenascin and the HNK-1 epitope extended in ventro-dorsal columns and enclosed axons during navigation to the roof plate. Laminin and osteopontin were expressed in the midline, very close to axons that at this point must decide between extending to the contralateral side or turning to the ipsilateral side. Finally, fibronectin, decorin, and perlecan appeared unrelated to axonal pathfinding in this region and were instead restricted to the external limiting membrane. In summary, the present report provides evidence for an intricate expression of different extracellular molecules that may cooperate in guiding posterior commissure axons. PMID:27733818

  7. Neurokinin-1 receptor is a novel positive regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in melanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Huizhu; Lv, Bei; Wang, Lei; Shang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Chang, Chunyan; Ping, Fengfeng; Qian, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for melanogenesis in melanocytes. Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) has recently been demonstrated to be involved in melanin production. However, the cross talk between NK-1R and Wnt/β-catenin is poorly understood. Here, [Sar9, Met(O2)11] substance P (SMSP) was used to activate NK-1R, while L-733060 was used to inhibit it. The effects of NK-1R activation and inhibition on Wnt and its inhibitors were analyzed using western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that SMSP positively regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by increasing the expression of β-catenin and p-GSK3β protein, which resulted from the weakened expression of the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). On the contrary, L-733060 lowered the expression of β-catenin and p-GSK3β protein through the up-regulation of DKK1 expression. Furthermore, in L-733060-treated mice, it was found that the pigmentation level as well as the melanogenic proteins and β-catenin protein expression were down-regulated, while the expression of DKK1 was up-regulated. These results showed the interaction between NK-1R and Wnt in human melanocytes in vitro and C57BL/6J mice in vivo, indicating that NK-1R may positively regulate melanogenesis through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27835606

  8. Role of oligomerization domains in thrombospondins and other extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Engel, Jürgen

    2004-06-01

    Coiled coils, collagen triple helices and globular oligomerization domains mediate the subunit assembly of many proteins in vertebrates and invertebrates. Oligomerization offers functional advantages including multivalency, increased binding strength and the combined function of different domains. These features are seen in natural proteins and may be introduced by protein engineering. The special focus of this review is on oligomerization domain of extracellular matrix proteins. For thrombospondins, initial interesting results on the functional role of oligomerization have been published. Other features remain to be explored. For example, it is not clear why thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 are trimers whereas thrombospondins-3 to -5 are pentamers. To stimulate this type of research, this review makes a survey of oligomerization domains and their functional role in extracellular matrix proteins.

  9. A novel human gene (SARM) at chromosome 17q11 encodes a protein with a SAM motif and structural similarity to Armadillo/beta-catenin that is conserved in mouse, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mink, M; Fogelgren, B; Olszewski, K; Maroy, P; Csiszar, K

    2001-06-01

    A novel human gene, SARM, encodes the orthologue of a Drosophila protein (CG7915) and contains a unique combination of the sterile alpha (SAM) and the HEAT/Armadillo motifs. The SARM gene was identified on chromosome 17q11, between markers D17S783 and D17S841 on BAC clone AC002094, which also included a HERV repeat and keratin-18-like, MAC30, TNFAIP1, HSPC017, and vitronectin genes in addition to three unknown genes. The mouse SARM gene was located on a mouse chromosome 11 BAC clone (AC002324). The SARM gene is 1.8 kb centromeric to the vitronectin gene, and the two genes share a promoter region that directs a high level of liver-specific expression of both the SARM and the vitronectin genes. In addition to the liver, the SARM gene was highly expressed in the kidney. A 0.4-kb antisense transcript was coordinately expressed with the SARM gene in the kidney and liver, while in the brain and malignant cell lines, it appeared independent of SARM gene transcription. The SARM gene encodes a protein of 690 amino acids. Based on amino acid sequence homology, we have identified a SAM motif within this derived protein. Structure modeling and protein folding recognition studies confirmed the presence of alpha-alpha right-handed superhelix-like folds consistent with the structure of the Armadillo and HEAT repeats of the beta-catenin and importin protein families. Both motifs are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions promoting the formation of diverse protein complexes. We have identified the same conserved SAM/Armadillo motif combination in the mouse, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans SARM proteins.

  10. Reciprocal role of vitamin D receptor on β-catenin regulated keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lizhi; Bikle, Daniel D; Oda, Yuko

    2014-10-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), suppresses the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). β-Catenin, on the other hand, promotes proliferation and blocks epidermal differentiation, although it stimulates hair follicle differentiation. In intestinal epithelia VDR binds β-catenin and blocks its proliferative effects. In this study we investigated the role of 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR on β-catenin regulated gene transcription during keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. 1,25(OH)2D3 suppressed promoter reporter activity driven by synthetic and natural TCF/β-catenin response elements. Over-expression of VDR further suppressed these TCF/β-catenin promoter activities. 1,25(OH)2D3 also suppressed the mRNA expression of the β-catenin regulated gene Gli1 through VDR. These data were consistent with our previous observations that VDR silencing resulted in keratinocyte hyperproliferation with increased expression of Gli1 in vitro, whereas VDR null skin showed hyperproliferation in vivo. In contrast, 1,25(OH)2D3 induced expression of another β-catenin regulated gene, PADI1, important for both epidermal and hair follicle differentiation. Deletion of VDR resulted in defects in hair differentiation in vivo, with decreased expression of β-catenin regulated hair differentiation genes such as PADI1, hair keratin KRT31 and calcium binding protein S100a3. These genes possess vitamin D response elements (VDRE) adjacent to TCF/β-catenin response elements and are regulated by both VDR and β-catenin signaling. Therefore, we propose that VDR and β-catenin interact reciprocally to promote VDR stimulation of genes involved with differentiation that contain both VDR and β-catenin response elements while inhibiting β-catenin stimulation of genes involved with proliferation. Thus the major finding of this study is that while 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR inhibits the actions of β-catenin to

  11. Self-assembled N-cadherin mimetic peptide hydrogels promote the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells through inhibition of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xu, Jianbin; Wong, Dexter Siu Hong; Li, Jinming; Zhao, Pengchao; Bian, Liming

    2017-11-01

    N-cadherin, a transmembrane protein and major component of adherens junction, mediates cell-cell interactions and intracellular signaling that are important to the regulation of cell behaviors and organ development. Previous studies have identified mimetic peptides that possess similar bioactivity as that of N-cadherin, which promotes chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs); however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we combined the N-cadherin mimetic peptide (HAVDI) with the self-assembling KLD-12 peptide: the resultant peptide is capable of self-assembling into hydrogels functionalized with N-cadherin peptide in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Encapsulation of hMSCs in these hydrogels showed enhanced expression of chondrogenic marker genes and deposition of cartilage specific extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan and Type II Collagen compared to control hydrogels, with a scrambled-sequence peptide after 14 days of chondrogenic culture. Furthermore, western blot showed a significantly higher expression of active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which phosphorylates β-catenin and facilitates ubiquitin-mediated degradation, as well as a lower expression of β-catenin and LEF1 in the N-cadherin peptide hydrogels versus controls. Immunofluorescence staining revealed significantly less nuclear localization of β-catenin in N-cadherin mimetic peptide hydrogels. Our findings suggest that N-cadherin peptide hydrogels suppress canonical Wnt signaling in hMSCs by reducing β-catenin nuclear translocation and the associated transcriptional activity of β-catenin/LEF-1/TCF complex, thereby enhancing the chondrogenesis of hMSCs. Our biomimetic self-assembled peptide hydrogels can serve as a tailorable and versatile three-dimensional culture platform to investigate the effect of biofunctionalization on stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. α-Catenin-Deficient F9 Cells Differentiate into Signet Ring Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maeno, Yoshito; Moroi, Seiji; Nagashima, Hirotaka; Noda, Tetsuo; Shiozaki, Hitoshi; Monden, Morito; Tsukita, Shoichiro; Nagafuchi, Akira

    1999-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that α-catenin is frequently lost in diffuse type adenocarcinomas. We have isolated α-catenin-deficient mouse teratocarcinoma F9 cells by gene targeting. Wild-type F9 cell aggregates cultured in the presence of retinoic acid differentiated into embryoid bodies with an outer layer of epithelial cells. In contrast, cell aggregates of α-catenin-deficient cells did not develop outer layers under the same conditions. The outer surface cells of α-catenin-deficient cell aggregates, however, differentiated into epithelial cells as determined by their expression of epithelial marker proteins. These differentiated cells scattered from aggregates and showed signet ring cell morphology, which is frequently observed in diffuse type adenocarcinomas. We have provided clear evidence that a single mutation in the α-catenin gene may be a direct cause not only of the scattered properties of cells but also of signet ring cell formation in diffuse type adenocarcinoma. PMID:10329584

  13. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) membrane recruitment 3, a member of the APC membrane recruitment family of APC-binding proteins, is a positive regulator of Wnt-β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Brauburger, Katharina; Akyildiz, Senem; Ruppert, Jan G; Graeb, Michael; Bernkopf, Dominic B; Hadjihannas, Michel V; Behrens, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) membrane recruitment (Amer) family proteins Amer1/Wilms tumour gene on the X chromosome and Amer2 are binding partners of the APC tumour suppressor protein, and act as negative regulators in the Wnt signalling cascade. So far, nothing has been known about the third member of the family, Amer3. Here we show that Amer3 binds to the armadillo repeat domain of APC, similarly to Amer1 and Amer2. Amer3 also binds to the Wnt pathway regulator conductin/axin2. Furthermore, we identified Amer1 as binding partner of Amer3. Whereas Amer1 and Amer2 are linked to the plasma membrane by an N-terminal membrane localization domain, Amer3 lacks this domain. Amer3 localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus of epithelial cells, and this is dependent on specific nuclear import and export sequences. Functionally, exogenous Amer3 enhances the expression of a β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent reporter gene, and knockdown of endogenous Amer3 reduces Wnt target gene expression in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, Amer3 acts as an activator of Wnt signalling, in contrast to Amer1 and Amer2, which are inhibitors, suggesting a nonredundant role of Amer proteins in the regulation of this pathway. Our data, together with those of previous studies, provide a comprehensive picture of similarities and differences within the Amer protein family. © 2013 FEBS.

  14. Involvement of α- and β-catenins and E-cadherin in the development of mammary phyllodes tumours.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Julia Y S; Mendoza, Paulo; Lam, Christopher C F; Yu, Alex M C; Putti, Thomas C; Karim, Rooshdiya Z; Scolyer, Richard A; Lee, Cheok Soon; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tse, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    Phyllodes tumours (PT) are rare but clinically important fibroepithelial tumours of the breast. β-Catenin, a key component in Wnt signalling, has been shown to be important in the development of PT. It also functions as a component of the cadherin complex, which may therefore be implicated in PT pathogenesis. By assessing stromal α-catenin, β-catenin and E-cadherin expression in 158 PT cases using immunohistochemistry and examining associations with clinicopathological features, we aimed to determine the role of these proteins in PT pathogenesis. Cytoplasmic β-catenin correlated with α-catenin expression. A significantly higher expression of both markers was observed in borderline than in benign PT (P = 0.003 and <0.001, respectively), but a lower level was found in malignant PT. Cytoplasmic E-cadherin expression was significantly higher in borderline and malignant than in benign PT (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively), but was not correlated with other markers. Both E-cadherin and α-catenin showed stronger correlations with histological parameters than β-catenin. α-Catenin showed a significant correlation with recurrence (P = 0.005 and 0.016, respectively). α- and β-catenins may be important in the early stages of PT development, while E-cadherin may be required for malignant development. The correlation of α-catenin expression with tumour recurrence may be relevant in predicting PT behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The incorporation of extracellular matrix proteins in protein polymer hydrogels to improve encapsulated beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    Beenken-Rothkopf, Liese N; Karfeld-Sulzer, Lindsay S; Davis, Nicolynn E; Forster, Ryan; Barron, Annelise E; Fontaine, Magali J

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterial encapsulation of islets has been proposed to improve the long-term success of islet transplantation by recreating a suitable microenvironment and enhancing cell-matrix interactions that affect cellular function. Protein polymer hydrogels previously showed promise as a biocompatible scaffold by maintaining high cell viability. Here, enzymatically-crosslinked protein polymers were used to investigate the effects of varying scaffold properties and of introducing ECM proteins on the viability and function of encapsulated MIN6 β-cells. Chemical and mechanical properties of the hydrogel were modified by altering the protein concentrations while collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin were incorporated to reestablish cell-matrix interactions lost during cell isolation. Rheology indicated all hydrogels formed quickly, resulting in robust, elastic hydrogels with Young's moduli similar to soft tissue. All hydrogels tested supported both high MIN6 β-cell viability and function and have the potential to serve as an encapsulation platform for islet cell delivery in vivo.

  16. Structural basis of coactivation of liver receptor homolog-1 by β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nguyen, Phuong; Sablin, Elena P.; Baxter, John D.; Webb, Paul; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the three-dimensional structure of a β-catenin armadillo repeat in complex with the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) ligand binding domain at 2.8 Å resolution as the first structure of β-catenin in complex with any nuclear receptor. The surface of β-catenin that binds LRH-1 partly overlaps defined contact sites for peptide segments of β-catenin partners, including T-cell factor-4. The surface of LRH-1 that engages β-catenin is comprised of helices 1, 9, and 10 and is distinct from known interaction surfaces of LRH-1, including corepressor and coactivator binding sites. Targeted mutagenesis of amino acids forming both sides of the LRH-1/β-catenin interface reveals that they are essential for stable interactions between these proteins in solution. The LRH-1 binding site in β-catenin is also required for association with androgen receptor, providing evidence that the observed LRH-1/β-catenin interaction may be prototypic. PMID:22187462

  17. Increased nuclear ?-catenin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions: A marker of epithelial dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana, Andrea; Aitken, Juan-Pablo; Rojas, Carolina; Ortega, Ana-Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background Deregulation of ?-catenin is associated with malignant transformation; however, its relationship with potentially malignant and malignant oral processes is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the nuclear ?-catenin expression in oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods Cross sectional study. Immunodetection of ?-catenin was performed on 72 samples, with the following distribution: 21 mild dysplasia, 12 moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia 3, 36 OSCC including 19 well differentiated, 15 moderately differentiated and 2 poorly differentiated. Through microscopic observation the number of positive cells per 1000 epithelial cells was counted. For the statistical analysis, the Kruskal Wallis test was used. Results Nuclear expression of ?-catenin was observed in all samples with severe and moderate dysplasia, with a median of 267.5, in comparison to mild dysplasia whose median was 103.75. Only 10 samples (27.7%) with OSCC showed nuclear expression, with statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our results are consistent with most of the reports which show increased presence of ?-catenin in severe and moderate dysplasia compared to mild dysplasia; however the expression of nuclear ?-catenin decreased after starting the invasive neoplastic process. This suggests a role for this protein in the progression of dysplasia and early malignant transformation to OSCC. Immunodetection of ?-catenin could be a possible immune marker in the detection of oral dysplasia. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), ?-catenin, oral dysplasia. PMID:26241451

  18. δ-Catenin Regulates Spine Architecture via Cadherin and PDZ-dependent Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Li; Seong, Eunju; Beuscher, James L.; Arikkath, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    The ability of neurons to maintain spine architecture and modulate it in response to synaptic activity is a crucial component of the cellular machinery that underlies information storage in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Here we show a critical role for δ-catenin, a component of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex, in regulating spine head width and length in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. The loss of Ctnnd2, the gene encoding δ-catenin, has been associated with the intellectual disability observed in the cri du chat syndrome, suggesting that the functional roles of δ-catenin are vital for neuronal integrity and higher order functions. We demonstrate that loss of δ-catenin in a mouse model or knockdown of δ-catenin in pyramidal neurons compromises spine head width and length, without altering spine dynamics. This is accompanied by a reduction in the levels of synaptic N-cadherin. The ability of δ-catenin to modulate spine architecture is critically dependent on its ability to interact with cadherin and PDZ domain-containing proteins. We propose that loss of δ-catenin during development perturbs synaptic architecture leading to developmental aberrations in neural circuit formation that contribute to the learning disabilities in a mouse model and humans with cri du chat syndrome. PMID:25724647

  19. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinomas cases from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Suarez M, Iris; Uribe, Diego; Jaramillo, Carlos M; Osorio, German; Perez, Juan C; Lopez, Rocio; Hoyos, Sergio; Hainaut, Pierre; Pineau, Pascal; Navas, Maria-C

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer diagnosed worldwide. Deregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has been associated with the development of HCC in a substantial number of cases in Europe and far less in Asia. Nothing is known about this pathway in HCC cases from South America. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of mutations in beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) and the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in HCC cases from Colombia. We determine by direct sequencing the frequency of mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 gene and by immunohistochemistry the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in 54 samples of HCC obtained from three pathology units in Bogota and Medellin cities. Only three HCC cases (5.6%) were found mutated at residues (G34E, S45P, P44S, T41I) important for phosphorylation and ubiquitination of beta-catenin protein. Strikingly, nuclear or cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin, hallmark of Wnt pathway activation, was found in 42.6% HCC cases (23/54). Interestingly, beta-catenin accumulation was significantly more frequent in young patients and hepatitis B virus-related HCC. Although, CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations are not frequent in HCC from Colombian patients, our findings indicate that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in 42.6% of HCC samples. Furthermore, Wnt signaling was demonstrated in HCC cases associated of HBV infection, one of the most important HCC risk factors in Colombia.

  20. Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Regulates Neuronal Differentiation via β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Kosugi, Isao; Lee, Daniel Y.; Hafner, Angela; Sinclair, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway promotes proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) at early stages and induces neuronal differentiation from NPCs at late stages, but the molecular mechanisms that control this stage-specific response are unclear. Pin1 is a prolyl isomerase that regulates cell signaling uniquely by controlling protein conformation after phosphorylation, but its role in neuronal differentiation is not known. Here we found that whereas Pin1 depletion suppresses neuronal differentiation, Pin1 overexpression enhances it, without any effects on gliogenesis from NPCs in vitro. Consequently, Pin1-null mice have significantly fewer upper layer neurons in the motor cortex and severely impaired motor activity during the neonatal stage. A proteomic approach identified β-catenin as a major substrate for Pin1 in NPCs, in which Pin1 stabilizes β-catenin. As a result, Pin1 knockout leads to reduced β-catenin during differentiation but not proliferation of NPCs in developing brains. Importantly, defective neuronal differentiation in Pin1 knockout NPCs is fully rescued in vitro by overexpression of β-catenin but not a β-catenin mutant that fails to act as a Pin1 substrate. These results show that Pin1 is a novel regulator of NPC differentiation by acting on β-catenin and provides a new postphosphorylation signaling mechanism to regulate developmental stage-specific functioning of β-catenin signaling in neuronal differentiation. PMID:22645310

  1. The interplay of autophagy and β-Catenin signaling regulates differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, K; Cott, C; Bohler, S; Aigal, S; Zheng, S; Villringer, S; Imberty, A; Claudinon, J; Römer, W

    2015-01-01

    The major feature of leukemic cells is an arrest of differentiation accompanied by highly active proliferation. In many subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia, these features are mediated by the aberrant Wnt/β-Catenin pathway. In our study, we established the lectin LecB as inducer of the differentiation of the acute myeloid leukemia cell line THP-1 and used it for the investigation of the involved processes. During differentiation, functional autophagy and low β-Catenin levels were essential. Corresponding to this, a high β-Catenin level stabilized proliferation and inhibited autophagy, resulting in low differentiation ability. Initiated by LecB, β-Catenin was degraded, autophagy became active and differentiation took place within hours. Remarkably, the reduction of β-Catenin sensitized THP-1 cells to the autophagy-stimulating mTOR inhibitors. As downmodulation of E-Cadherin was sufficient to significantly reduce LecB-mediated differentiation, we propose E-Cadherin as a crucial interaction partner in this signaling pathway. Upon LecB treatment, E-Cadherin colocalized with β-Catenin and thereby prevented the induction of β-Catenin target protein expression and proliferation. That way, our study provides for the first time a link between E-Cadherin, the aberrant Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, autophagy and differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia. Importantly, LecB was a valuable tool to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of acute myeloid leukemia pathogenesis and may help to identify novel therapy approaches. PMID:27551462

  2. Suppression of neointima formation by targeting β-catenin/TCF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Helen; Slater, Sadie; George, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is treated by vein grafting and stent implantation. Late vein graft failure and restenosis of stented arteries reduce the success rates of these approaches and are caused by neointima formation. We have previously shown that Wnt proteins are up-regulated during intimal thickening, and have speculated that these lead to activation of downstream genes with β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-responsive promoters. In the present study, we aimed to provide evidence that β-catenin/TCF signalling promotes neointima formation and assess whether targeting this pathway has potential for reducing neointima formation. We utilized a gene therapy approach selectively targeting cells in which the β-catenin/TCF pathway is activated by using a recombinant adenovirus Ad-TOPTK, which carries a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene under the control of a β-catenin/TCF-response promoter. Cells with activated β-catenin will therefore be selectively killed. Ad-TOPTK and ganciclovir (GCV) treatment significantly suppressed the growth of the neointima in a murine model of left carotid artery ligation. In summary, we demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signalling promotes neointima formation, by showing that the selective death of cells with activated β-catenin suppressed neointima formation. This highlights the therapeutic potential for reducing late vein graft failure and in-stent restenosis by targeting β-catenin/TCF signalling. PMID:27815507

  3. Suppression of β-catenin Signaling Pathway in Human Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells by Delphinidin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wooje; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2016-01-01

    Delphinidin possesses strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a potential strategy for chemoprevention and therapy. As aberrant activation of the β-catenin signaling pathway contributes to prostate cancer progression, we evaluated the effect of delphinidin on this pathway in human PC3 prostate cancer cells. An MTT assay showed that treatment with delphinidin (15–180 μM, 72 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent growth inhibition of cells. Treatment with delphinidin increased the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues on β-catenin and decreased the levels of cytoplasmic β-catenin. Moreover, treatment with delphinidin inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and the expression of β-catenin target genes such as cyclin D1, c-myc, Axin-2, and T cell factor-1. Delphinidin also induced the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and the expression of adenomatous polyposis coli and Axin proteins. Our results indicate that inhibition of cell growth by delphinidin is mediated, at least in part, through modulation of the β-catenin signaling pathway. We suggest that delphinidin is a potent inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in prostate cancer cells. PMID:27390740

  4. α(E)-Catenin Regulates BMP-7 Expression and Migration in Renal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, LaNita A.; Slusarz, Anna; Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A.; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aging kidney has a decreased ability to repair following injury. We have shown a loss in expression of α-catenin in the aging rat kidney and hypothesize that decreased α-catenin expression in tubular epithelial cells results in diminished repair capacity. Methods In an effort to elucidate alterations due to the loss of α-catenin, we generated NRK-52E cell lines with stable knockdown of α(E)-catenin. Results α(E)-catenin knockdown resulted in decreased wound repair due to alterations in cell migration. Analysis of gene expression in the α(E)-catenin knockdown cells demonstrated almost a complete loss of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) expression that was associated with decreased phospho-Smad1/5/8 staining. However, addition of exogenous BMP-7 increased phosph-Smad1/5/8, suggesting that the BMP-7 pathway remained intact in C2 cells. Given the potential role of BMP-7 in repair, we investigated its role in wound repair. Inhibition of BMP-7 decreased repair in non-targeted control cells; conversely, exogenous BMP-7 restored repair in α(E)-catenin knockdown cells to control levels. Conclusions Taken together, the data suggests that the loss of α(E)-catenin expression and subsequent down-regulation of BMP-7, is a mechanism underlying the altered migration of tubular epithelial cells that contributes to the inability of the aging kidney to repair following injury. PMID:24818804

  5. Generation and Behavioral Characterization of β-catenin Forebrain-Specific Conditional Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Todd D.; O'Donnell, Kelley C.; Picchini, Alyssa M.; Dow, Eliot R.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    The canonical Wnt pathway and β-catenin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We generated forebrain-specific CRE-mediated conditional β-catenin knockout mice to begin exploring the behavioral implications of decreased Wnt pathway signaling in the central nervous system. In situ hybridization revealed a progressive knockout of β-catenin that began between 2 and 4 weeks of age, and by 12 weeks resulted in considerably decreased β-catenin expression in regions of the forebrain, including the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. A significant decrease in protein levels of β-catenin in these brain regions was observed by western blot. Behavioral characterization of these mice in several tests (including the forced swim test, tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness, response and sensitization to stimulants, and light/dark box among other tests) revealed relatively circumscribed alterations. In the TST, knockout mice spent significantly less time struggling (a depression-like phenotype). However, knockout mice did not differ from their wild-type littermates in the other behavioral tests of mood-related or anxiety-related behaviors. These results suggest that a considerable β-catenin reserve exists, and that a 50-70% β-catenin reduction in circumscribed brain regions is only capable of inducing subtle behavioral changes. Alternatively, regulating β-catenin may modulate drug effects rather than being a model of mood disorder pathophysiology per se. PMID:18299155

  6. Rho protein GTPases and their interactions with NFκB: crossroads of inflammation and matrix biology

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Louis; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    The RhoGTPases, with RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac being major members, are a group of key ubiquitous proteins present in all eukaryotic organisms that subserve such important functions as cell migration, adhesion and differentiation. The NFκB (nuclear factor κB) is a family of constitutive and inducible transcription factors that through their diverse target genes, play a major role in processes such as cytokine expression, stress regulation, cell division and transformation. Research over the past decade has uncovered new molecular links between the RhoGTPases and the NFκB pathway, with the RhoGTPases playing a positive or negative regulatory role on NFκB activation depending on the context. The RhoA–NFκB interaction has been shown to be important in cytokine-activated NFκB processes, such as those induced by TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α). On the other hand, Rac is important for activating the NFκB response downstream of integrin activation, such as after phagocytosis. Specific residues of Rac1 are important for triggering NFκB activation, and mutations do obliterate this response. Other upstream triggers of the RhoGTPase–NFκB interactions include the suppressive p120 catenin, with implications for skin inflammation. The networks described here are not only important areas for further research, but are also significant for discovery of targets for translational medicine. PMID:24877606

  7. Differential expression of bone matrix regulatory proteins in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Dhore, C R; Cleutjens, J P; Lutgens, E; Cleutjens, K B; Geusens, P P; Kitslaar, P J; Tordoir, J H; Spronk, H M; Vermeer, C; Daemen, M J

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the expression of regulators of bone formation and osteoclastogenesis in human atherosclerosis because accumulating evidence suggests that atherosclerotic calcification shares features with bone calcification. The most striking finding of this study was the constitutive immunoreactivity of matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein in nondiseased aortas and the absence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-4, osteopontin, and osteonectin in nondiseased aortas and early atherosclerotic lesions. When atherosclerotic plaques demonstrated calcification or bone formation, BMP-2, BMP-4, osteopontin, and osteonectin were upregulated. Interestingly, this upregulation was associated with a sustained immunoreactivity of matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein. The 2 modulators of osteoclastogenesis (osteoprotegerin [OPG] and its ligand, OPGL) were present in the nondiseased vessel wall and in early atherosclerotic lesions. In advanced calcified lesions, OPG was present in bone structures, whereas OPGL was only present in the extracellular matrix surrounding calcium deposits. The observed expression patterns suggest a tight regulation of the expression of bone matrix regulatory proteins during human atherogenesis. The expression pattern of both OPG and OPGL during atherogenesis might suggest a regulatory role of these proteins not only in osteoclastogenesis but also in atherosclerotic calcification.

  8. Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Mesangial Cells Inhibit Matrix Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peiwen; Wang, Yanxia; Davis, Mark E; Zuckerman, Jonathan E; Chaudhari, Sarika; Begg, Malcolm; Ma, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix derived from glomerular mesangial cells is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy. Ca(2+) signals mediated by store-operated Ca(2+) channels regulate protein production in a variety of cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells on extracellular matrix protein expression. In cultured human mesangial cells, activation of store-operated Ca(2+) channels by thapsigargin significantly decreased fibronectin protein expression and collagen IV mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibition of the channels by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and collagen IV. Similarly, overexpression of stromal interacting molecule 1 reduced, but knockdown of calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1) increased fibronectin protein expression. Furthermore, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly augmented angiotensin II-induced fibronectin protein expression, whereas thapsigargin abrogated high glucose- and TGF-β1-stimulated matrix protein expression. In vivo knockdown of Orai1 in mesangial cells of mice using a targeted nanoparticle siRNA delivery system resulted in increased expression of glomerular fibronectin and collagen IV, and mice showed significant mesangial expansion compared with controls. Similarly, in vivo knockdown of stromal interacting molecule 1 in mesangial cells by recombinant adeno-associated virus-encoded shRNA markedly increased collagen IV protein expression in renal cortex and caused mesangial expansion in rats. These results suggest that store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells negatively regulate extracellular matrix protein expression in the kidney, which may serve as an endogenous renoprotective mechanism in diabetes.

  9. Extracellular matrix mineralization in periodontal tissues: Noncollagenous matrix proteins, enzymes, and relationship to hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Marc D.; Hoac, Betty; Addison, William N.; Barros, Nilana M.T.; Millán, José Luis; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    As broadly demonstrated for the formation of a functional skeleton, proper mineralization of periodontal alveolar bone and teeth – where calcium phosphate crystals are deposited and grow within an extracellular matrix – is essential to dental function. Mineralization defects in tooth dentin and cementum of the periodontium invariably lead to a weak (soft or brittle) dentition such that teeth become loose and prone to infection and are lost prematurely. Mineralization of the extremities of periodontal ligament fibres (Sharpey's fibres) where they insert into tooth cementum and alveolar bone is also essential for the function of the tooth suspensory apparatus in occlusion and mastication. Molecular determinants of mineralization in these tissues include mineral ion concentrations (phosphate and calcium), pyrophosphate, small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs), and matrix vesicles. Amongst the enzymes important in regulating these mineralization determinants, two are discussed at length here with clinical examples given, namely tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX). Inactivating mutations in these enzymes in humans and in mouse models lead to the soft bones and teeth characteristic of hypophosphatasia (HPP) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), respectively, where levels of local and systemic circulating mineralization determinants are perturbed. In XLH, in addition to renal phosphate wasting causing low circulating phosphate levels, phosphorylated mineralization-regulating SIBLING proteins such as matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and osteopontin (OPN), and the phosphorylated peptides proteolytically released from them such as the acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) peptide, may accumulate locally to impair mineralization in this disease. PMID:23931057

  10. A protein involved in the assembly of an extracellular calcium storage matrix.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Lilah; Shechter, Assaf; Tom, Moshe; Yudkovski, Yana; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu David; Pamuru, Ramachandra Reddy; Khalaila, Isam; Bentov, Shmuel; Berman, Amir; Sagi, Amir

    2010-04-23

    Gastroliths, the calcium storage organs of crustaceans, consist of chitin-protein-mineral complexes in which the mineral component is stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate. To date, only three proteins, GAP 65, gastrolith matrix protein (GAMP), and orchestin, have been identified in gastroliths. Here, we report a novel protein, GAP 10, isolated from the gastrolith of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus and specifically expressed in its gastrolith disc. The encoding gene was cloned by partial sequencing of the protein extracted from the gastrolith matrix. Based on an assembled microarray cDNA chip, GAP 10 transcripts were found to be highly (12-fold) up-regulated in premolt gastrolith disc and significantly down-regulated in the hypodermis at the same molt stage. The deduced protein sequence of GAP 10 lacks chitin-binding domains and does not show homology to known proteins in the GenBank data base. It does, however, have an amino acid composition that has similarity to proteins extracted from invertebrate and ascidian-calcified extracellular matrices. The GAP 10 sequence contains a predicted signal peptide and predicted phosphorylation sites. In addition, the protein is phosphorylated and exhibits calcium-binding ability. Repeated daily injections of GAP 10 double strand RNA to premolt C. quadricarinatus resulted in a prolonged premolt stage and in the development of gastroliths with irregularly rough surfaces. These findings suggest that GAP 10 may be involved in the assembly of the gastrolith chitin-protein-mineral complex, particularly in the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate.

  11. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur

    2016-09-12

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery.

  12. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery. PMID:27626432

  13. A composite agarose-polyacrylamide matrix as two-dimensional hard support for solid-phase protein assays.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Wladyslaw A

    2016-03-15

    The solid-phase protein assays using blotting membranes as hard support do not allow achieving the low background and sensitivity of protein staining in clear gels. The membrane opacity complicates imaging of results on standard lab documentation systems. We describe a low-cost transparent matrix that can be used as an alternative to polymeric membranes for solid-phase assays. Protein samples are spotted onto a dry film of composite agarose-polyacrylamide matrix covering standard glass microscopic slides. After rehydration in protein-fixing solution, matrix with protein samples can be detached from glass support and stained as conventional protein polyacrylamide gels.

  14. Versatile Photocrosslinked Protein Hydrogel Matrix for Magnetic-Nanoparticle-Doping and Biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fengying; Li, Shanpeng; Yang, Hai; Wang, Zhirui; Li, Aiwu

    2016-02-01

    A versatile template biomaterial was facilely obtained by ultraviolet (UV) photocrosslinking approach using protein molecules as building blocks. As-formed photocrosslinked protein hydrogel matrix (PPHM) was proved to be composed of covalently bound and dense packing protein molecules. Therefore, the PPHM was endowed with highly smooth topograghy with an average roughness of approximately 5 nm, and was self-supporting and flexible. The PPHM could be easily functionalized by doping Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles inside the protein hydrogel. Further, PPHM was experimentally demonstrated to be used as a applicable template for biomineralization.

  15. Excess beta-catenin promotes accumulation of transcriptionally active p53.

    PubMed Central

    Damalas, A; Ben-Ze'ev, A; Simcha, I; Shtutman, M; Leal, J F; Zhurinsky, J; Geiger, B; Oren, M

    1999-01-01

    beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein, acting both as a structural component of the cell adhesion machinery and as a transducer of extracellular signals. Deregulated beta-catenin protein expression, due to mutations in the beta-catenin gene itself or in its upstream regulator, the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, is prevalent in colorectal cancer and in several other tumor types, and attests to the potential oncogenic activity of this protein. Increased expression of beta-catenin is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis, and is usually followed by a later mutational inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. To examine whether these two key steps in carcinogenesis are interrelated, we studied the effect of excess beta-catenin on p53. We report here that overexpression of beta-catenin results in accumulation of p53, apparently through interference with its proteolytic degradation. This effect involves both Mdm2-dependent and -independent p53 degradation pathways, and is accompanied by augmented transcriptional activity of p53 in the affected cells. Increased p53 activity may provide a safeguard against oncogenic deregulation of beta-catenin, and thus impose a pressure for mutational inactivation of p53 during the later stages of tumor progression. PMID:10357817

  16. Alterations of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinomas associated with hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Rogacki, Karol; Kasprzak, Aldona; Stępiński, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    The Wnt/Fzd/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in physiology and pathology of the liver. The role of β-catenin is linked mainly to the canonical pathway of the system. Phosphorylation of β-catenin and abnormalities in function of the E-cadherin-catenin unit lead to loss of intercellular junctions, progression in liver fibrosis, and development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Progression of liver diseases is noted to be accompanied by disturbances in β-catenin expression (mainly with its overexpression), with its cytoplasmic or nuclear translocation and with lowered expression of E-cadherin. Increase in transcriptional activity of β-catenin is associated mainly with mutations of CTNNB1. Detailed mechanisms of HCC development are not known. More β-catenin mutations are manifested in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated than in HBV-related HCC. In recent years the role of nonstructural proteins and of the core protein of HCV has been accentuated in induction of the Wnt pathway. HCV proteins affect in a double manner expression of E-cadherin, including modulation of the Wnt pathway and reduction of E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level. This review presents current data on mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis involving participation of the Wnt canonical pathway and, in particular, interaction of Wnt pathway components with HCV genome products in the process.

  17. Direct interaction of menin leads to ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation of β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungho; Song, Tae-Yang; Jung, Kwan Young; Kim, Seul Gi; Cho, Eun-Jung

    2017-10-07

    Menin, encoded by the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, is a tumor suppressor and transcription regulator. Menin interacts with various proteins as a scaffold protein and is proposed to play important roles in multiple physiological and pathological processes by controlling gene expression, proliferation, and apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying menin's suppression of tumorigenesis are largely elusive. In this study, we showed that menin was essential for the regulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cultured cells. The C-terminal domain of menin was able to directly interact with and promote ubiquitin-mediated degradation of β-catenin. We further revealed that overexpression of menin down-regulated the transcriptional activity of β-catenin and target gene expression. Moreover, menin efficiently inhibited β-catenin protein levels, transcriptional activity, and proliferation of human renal carcinoma cells with an activated β-catenin pathway. Taken together, our results provide novel molecular insights into the tumor suppressor activity of menin, which is partly mediated by proteasomal degradation of β-catenin and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SpKrl: a direct target of beta-catenin regulation required for endoderm differentiation in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Howard, E W; Newman, L A; Oleksyn, D W; Angerer, R C; Angerer, L M

    2001-02-01

    Localization of nuclear beta-catenin initiates specification of vegetal fates in sea urchin embryos. We have identified SpKrl, a gene that is activated upon nuclear entry of beta-catenin. SpKrl is upregulated when nuclear beta-catenin activity is increased with LiCl and downregulated in embryos injected with molecules that inhibit beta-catenin nuclear function. LiCl-mediated SpKrl activation is independent of protein synthesis, indicating that SpKrl is a direct target of beat-catenin and TCF. Embryos in which SpKrl translation is inhibited with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides lack endoderm. Conversely, SpKrl mRNA injection rescues some vegetal structures in beta-catenin-deficient embryos. SpKrl negatively regulates expression of the animalizing transcription factor, SpSoxB1. We propose that SpKrl functions in patterning the vegetal domain by suppressing animal regulatory activities.

  19. LRPPRC is a mitochondrial matrix protein that is conserved in metazoans

    SciTech Connect

    Sterky, Fredrik H.; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Samuelsson, Tore; Larsson, Nils-Goeran

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} LRPPRC orthologs are restricted to metazoans. {yields} LRPPRC is imported to the mitochondrial matrix. {yields} No evidence of nuclear isoform. -- Abstract: LRPPRC (also called LRP130) is an RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat protein. LRPPRC has been recognized as a mitochondrial protein, but has also been shown to regulate nuclear gene transcription and to bind specific RNA molecules in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We here present a bioinformatic analysis of the LRPPRC primary sequence, which reveals that orthologs to the LRPPRC gene are restricted to metazoan cells and that all of the corresponding proteins contain mitochondrial targeting signals. To address the subcellular localization further, we have carefully analyzed LRPPRC in mammalian cells and identified a single isoform that is exclusively localized to mitochondria. The LRPPRC protein is imported to the mitochondrial matrix and its mitochondrial targeting sequence is cleaved upon entry.

  20. Silkmapin of Hyriopsis cumingii, a novel silk-like shell matrix protein involved in nacre formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Dong, Shaojian; Jin, Can; Bai, Zhiyi; Wang, Guiling; Li, Jiale

    2015-01-25

    Understanding the role of matrix proteins in nacre formation and biomineralization in mollusks is important for the pearl industry. In this study, the gene encoding the novel Hyriopsis cumingii shell matrix protein silkmapin was characterized. The gene encodes a protein of 30.89kDa in which Gly accounts for 34.41% of the amino acid content, and the C-terminal region binds Ca(2+). Secondary structure prediction indicated a predominantly β-fold and a structure typical of filamentous proteins. Real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization showed that silkmapin was expressed in epithelial cells at the edge and pallial of mantle tissue, indicated that silkmapin play roles in the shell nacreous and prismatic layer formation. Further real-time PCR results indicated an involvement in pearl formation via nucleation of calcium carbonate prior to formation of the nacre.

  1. Diversity of bone matrix adhesion proteins modulates osteoblast attachment and organization of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Demais, V; Audrain, C; Mabilleau, G; Chappard, D; Baslé, M F

    2014-06-01

    Interaction of cells with extracellular matrix is an essential event for differentiation, proliferation and activity of osteoblasts. In bone, binding of osteoblasts to bone matrix is required to determine specific activities of the cells and to synthesize matrix bone proteins. Integrins are the major cell receptors involved in the cell linkage to matrix proteins such as fibronectin, type I collagen and vitronectin, via the RGD-sequences. In this study, cultures of osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) were done on coated glass coverslips in various culture conditions: DMEM alone or DMEM supplemented with poly-L-lysine (PL), fetal calf serum (FCS), fibronectin (FN), vitronectin (VN) and type I collagen (Col-I). The aim of the study was to determine the specific effect of these bone matrix proteins on cell adherence and morphology and on the cytoskeleton status. Morphological characteristics of cultured cells were studied using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. The heterogeneity of cytoskeleton was studied using fractal analysis (skyscrapers and blanket algorithms) after specific preparation of cells to expose the cytoskeleton. FAK and MAPK signaling pathways were studied by western blotting in these various culture conditions. Results demonstrated that cell adhesion was reduced with PL and VN after 240 min. After 60 min of adhesion, cytoskeleton organization was enhanced with FN, VN and Col-I. No difference in FAK phosphorylation was observed but MAPK phosphorylation was modulated by specific adhesion on extracellular proteins. These results indicate that culture conditions modulate cell adhesion, cytoskeleton organization and intracellular protein pathways according to extracellular proteins present for adhesion.

  2. Wnt/β-catenin signaling enables developmental transitions during valvulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bosada, Fernanda M; Devasthali, Vidusha; Jones, Kimberly A; Stankunas, Kryn

    2016-03-15

    Heart valve development proceeds through coordinated steps by which endocardial cushions (ECs) form thin, elongated and stratified valves. Wnt signaling and its canonical effector β-catenin are proposed to contribute to endocardial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) through postnatal steps of valvulogenesis. However, genetic redundancy and lethality have made it challenging to define specific roles of the canonical Wnt pathway at different stages of valve formation. We developed a transgenic mouse system that provides spatiotemporal inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by chemically inducible overexpression of Dkk1. Unexpectedly, this approach indicates canonical Wnt signaling is required for EMT in the proximal outflow tract (pOFT) but not atrioventricular canal (AVC) cushions. Furthermore, Wnt indirectly promotes pOFT EMT through its earlier activity in neighboring myocardial cells or their progenitors. Subsequently, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in cushion mesenchymal cells where it supports FGF-driven expansion of ECs and then AVC valve extracellular matrix patterning. Mice lacking Axin2, a negative Wnt regulator, have larger valves, suggesting that accumulating Axin2 in maturing valves represents negative feedback that restrains tissue overgrowth rather than simply reporting Wnt activity. Disruption of these Wnt/β-catenin signaling roles that enable developmental transitions during valvulogenesis could account for common congenital valve defects.

  3. Wnt/β-catenin signaling enables developmental transitions during valvulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bosada, Fernanda M.; Devasthali, Vidusha; Jones, Kimberly A.; Stankunas, Kryn

    2016-01-01

    Heart valve development proceeds through coordinated steps by which endocardial cushions (ECs) form thin, elongated and stratified valves. Wnt signaling and its canonical effector β-catenin are proposed to contribute to endocardial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) through postnatal steps of valvulogenesis. However, genetic redundancy and lethality have made it challenging to define specific roles of the canonical Wnt pathway at different stages of valve formation. We developed a transgenic mouse system that provides spatiotemporal inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by chemically inducible overexpression of Dkk1. Unexpectedly, this approach indicates canonical Wnt signaling is required for EMT in the proximal outflow tract (pOFT) but not atrioventricular canal (AVC) cushions. Furthermore, Wnt indirectly promotes pOFT EMT through its earlier activity in neighboring myocardial cells or their progenitors. Subsequently, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in cushion mesenchymal cells where it supports FGF-driven expansion of ECs and then AVC valve extracellular matrix patterning. Mice lacking Axin2, a negative Wnt regulator, have larger valves, suggesting that accumulating Axin2 in maturing valves represents negative feedback that restrains tissue overgrowth rather than simply reporting Wnt activity. Disruption of these Wnt/β-catenin signaling roles that enable developmental transitions during valvulogenesis could account for common congenital valve defects. PMID:26893350

  4. Bioinformatics Knowledge Map for Analysis of Beta-Catenin Function in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arighi, Cecilia N.; Wu, Cathy H.

    2015-01-01

    Given the wealth of bioinformatics resources and the growing complexity of biological information, it is valuable to integrate data from disparate sources to gain insight into the role of genes/proteins in health and disease. We have developed a bioinformatics framework that combines literature mining with information from biomedical ontologies and curated databases to create knowledge “maps” of genes/proteins of interest. We applied this approach to the study of beta-catenin, a cell adhesion molecule and transcriptional regulator implicated in cancer. The knowledge map includes post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein-protein interactions, disease-associated mutations, and transcription factors co-activated by beta-catenin and their targets and captures the major processes in which beta-catenin is known to participate. Using the map, we generated testable hypotheses about beta-catenin biology in normal and cancer cells. By focusing on proteins participating in multiple relation types, we identified proteins that may participate in feedback loops regulating beta-catenin transcriptional activity. By combining multiple network relations with PTM proteoform-specific functional information, we proposed a mechanism to explain the observation that the cyclin dependent kinase CDK5 positively regulates beta-catenin co-activator activity. Finally, by overlaying cancer-associated mutation data with sequence features, we observed mutation patterns in several beta-catenin PTM sites and PTM enzyme binding sites that varied by tissue type, suggesting multiple mechanisms by which beta-catenin mutations can contribute to cancer. The approach described, which captures rich information for molecular species from genes and proteins to PTM proteoforms, is extensible to other proteins and their involvement in disease. PMID:26509276

  5. Mitochondrial Matrix Ca2+ Accumulation Regulates Cytosolic NAD+/NADH Metabolism, Protein Acetylation, and Sirtuin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Raluca; Wiczer, Brian M.; Neeley, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uptake stimulates bioenergetics and drives energy production in metabolic tissue. It is unknown how a calcium-mediated acceleration in matrix bioenergetics would influence cellular metabolism in glycolytic cells that do not require mitochondria for ATP production. Using primary human endothelial cells (ECs), we discovered that repetitive cytosolic calcium signals (oscillations) chronically loaded into the mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondrial calcium loading in turn stimulated bioenergetics and a persistent elevation in NADH. Rather than serving as an impetus for mitochondrial ATP generation, matrix NADH rapidly transmitted to the cytosol to influence the activity and expression of cytosolic sirtuins, resulting in global changes in protein acetylation. In endothelial cells, the mitochondrion-driven reduction in both the cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD+/NADH ratio stimulated a compensatory increase in SIRT1 protein levels that had an anti-inflammatory effect. Our studies reveal the physiologic importance of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the metabolic regulation of sirtuins and cytosolic signaling cascades. PMID:24865966

  6. Alcohol Regulates BK Surface Expression via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Marrero, Cristina; Burgos, Alexandra; García, José O; Palacio, Stephanie; Marrero, Héctor G; Bernardo, Alexandra; Pérez-Laspiur, Juliana; Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Seale, Garrett; Treistman, Steven N

    2016-10-12

    It has been suggested that drug tolerance represents a form of learning and memory, but this has not been experimentally established at the molecular level. We show that a component of alcohol molecular tolerance (channel internalization) from rat hippocampal neurons requires protein synthesis, in common with other forms of learning and memory. We identify β-catenin as a primary necessary protein. Alcohol increases β-catenin, and blocking accumulation of β-catenin blocks alcohol-induced internalization in these neurons. In transfected HEK293 cells, suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling blocks ethanol-induced internalization. Conversely, activation of Wnt/β-catenin reduces BK current density. A point mutation in a putative glycogen synthase kinase phosophorylation site within the S10 region of BK blocks internalization, suggesting that Wnt/β-catenin directly regulates alcohol-induced BK internalization via glycogen synthase kinase phosphorylation. These findings establish de novo protein synthesis and Wnt/β-catenin signaling as critical in mediating a persistent form of BK molecular alcohol tolerance establishing a commonality with other forms of long-term plasticity. Alcohol tolerance is a key step toward escalating alcohol consumption and subsequent dependence. Our research aims to make significant contributions toward novel, therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat alcohol misuse by understanding the molecular mechanisms of alcohol tolerance. In our current study, we identify the role of a key regulatory pathway in alcohol-induced persistent molecular changes within the hippocampus. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates BK channel surface expression in a protein synthesis-dependent manner reminiscent of other forms of long-term hippocampal neuronal adaptations. This unique insight opens the possibility of using clinically tested drugs, targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, for the novel use of preventing and treating alcohol dependency

  7. Alcohol Regulates BK Surface Expression via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Alexandra; García, José O.; Palacio, Stephanie; Marrero, Héctor G.; Bernardo, Alexandra; Pérez-Laspiur, Juliana; Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Seale, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that drug tolerance represents a form of learning and memory, but this has not been experimentally established at the molecular level. We show that a component of alcohol molecular tolerance (channel internalization) from rat hippocampal neurons requires protein synthesis, in common with other forms of learning and memory. We identify β-catenin as a primary necessary protein. Alcohol increases β-catenin, and blocking accumulation of β-catenin blocks alcohol-induced internalization in these neurons. In transfected HEK293 cells, suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling blocks ethanol-induced internalization. Conversely, activation of Wnt/β-catenin reduces BK current density. A point mutation in a putative glycogen synthase kinase phosophorylation site within the S10 region of BK blocks internalization, suggesting that Wnt/β-catenin directly regulates alcohol-induced BK internalization via glycogen synthase kinase phosphorylation. These findings establish de novo protein synthesis and Wnt/β-catenin signaling as critical in mediating a persistent form of BK molecular alcohol tolerance establishing a commonality with other forms of long-term plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alcohol tolerance is a key step toward escalating alcohol consumption and subsequent dependence. Our research aims to make significant contributions toward novel, therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat alcohol misuse by understanding the molecular mechanisms of alcohol tolerance. In our current study, we identify the role of a key regulatory pathway in alcohol-induced persistent molecular changes within the hippocampus. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates BK channel surface expression in a protein synthesis-dependent manner reminiscent of other forms of long-term hippocampal neuronal adaptations. This unique insight opens the possibility of using clinically tested drugs, targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, for the novel use of preventing and treating

  8. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of matrix gla protein influences the risk of calciphylaxis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. The ability of MGP to inhibit calcification requires the activity of a vitamin K-dependent enzyme, which mediates MGP carboxylation. We investigated how MGP carboxylation influences the risk of calciphylaxis in adult patients ...

  9. PECAM-1 (CD31) functions as a reservoir for and a modulator of tyrosine-phosphorylated beta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Ilan, N; Mahooti, S; Rimm, D L; Madri, J A

    1999-09-01

    Catenins function as regulators of cellular signaling events in addition to their previously documented roles in adherens junction formation and function. Evidence to date suggests that beta and gamma catenins can act as signaling molecules, bind transcriptional factors and translocate to the nucleus. Beta- and gamma-catenin are also major substrates for protein tyrosine kinases, and tyrosine phosphorylation of junctional proteins is correlated with decreased adhesiveness. One way in which catenin functions are modulated is by dynamic incorporation into junctional complexes which controls, in part, the cytoplasmic levels of catenins. Here we show that: (1) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces beta-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation in a time-, and dose-dependent manner and that VEGF receptors co-localize to areas of endothelial cell-cell contact in vitro and in vivo. (2) Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 can function as a reservoir for, and modulator of, tyrosine phosphorylated beta-catenin. (3) PECAM-1 can prevent beta-catenin nuclear translocation in transfected SW480 colon carcinoma cells. We suggest that PECAM-1 may play a role in modulating beta-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation levels, localization and signaling and by doing so, functions as an important modulator of the endothelium.

  10. IFNγ-induced suppression of β-catenin signaling: evidence for roles of Akt and 14.3.3ζ

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Porfirio; Kamekura, Ryuta; Quirós, Miguel; Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Hamilton, Ross W.; Kolegraff, Keli N.; Koch, Stefan; Candelario, Aurora; Romo-Parra, Hector; Laur, Oskar; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Denning, Timothy L.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ ) influences intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis in a biphasic manner by acutely stimulating proliferation that is followed by sustained inhibition of proliferation despite continued mucosal injury. β-Catenin activation has been classically associated with increased IEC proliferation. However, we observed that IFNγ inhibits IEC proliferation despite sustained activation of Akt/β-catenin signaling. Here we show that inhibition of Akt/β-catenin–mediated cell proliferation by IFNγ is associated with the formation of a protein complex containing phosphorylated β-catenin 552 (pβ-cat552) and 14.3.3ζ. Akt1 served as a bimodal switch that promotes or inhibits β-catenin transactivation in response to IFNγ stimulation. IFNγ initially promotes β-catenin transactivation through Akt-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of β-catenin to promote its association with 14.3.3ζ. Augmented β-catenin transactivation leads to increased Akt1 protein levels, and active Akt1 accumulates in the nucleus, where it phosphorylates 14.3.3ζ to translocate 14.3.3ζ/β-catenin from the nucleus, thereby inhibiting β-catenin transactivation and IEC proliferation. These results outline a dual function of Akt1 that suppresses IEC proliferation during intestinal inflammation. PMID:25079689

  11. Conservation of Transit Peptide-Independent Protein Import into the Mitochondrial and Hydrogenosomal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sriram; Stölting, Jan; Zimorski, Verena; Rada, Petr; Tachezy, Jan; Martin, William F.; Gould, Sven B.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of protein import was a key step in the endosymbiotic acquisition of mitochondria. Though the main translocon of the mitochondrial outer membrane, TOM40, is ubiquitous among organelles of mitochondrial ancestry, the transit peptides, or N-terminal targeting sequences (NTSs), recognised by the TOM complex, are not. To better understand the nature of evolutionary conservation in mitochondrial protein import, we investigated the targeting behavior of Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and vice versa. Hydrogenosomes import yeast mitochondrial proteins even in the absence of their native NTSs, but do not import yeast cytosolic proteins. Conversely, yeast mitochondria import hydrogenosomal proteins with and without their short NTSs. Conservation of an NTS-independent mitochondrial import route from excavates to opisthokonts indicates its presence in the eukaryote common ancestor. Mitochondrial protein import is known to entail electrophoresis of positively charged NTSs across the electrochemical gradient of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Our present findings indicate that mitochondrial transit peptides, which readily arise from random sequences, were initially selected as a signal for charge-dependent protein targeting specifically to the mitochondrial matrix. Evolutionary loss of the electron transport chain in hydrogenosomes and mitosomes lifted the selective constraints that maintain positive charge in NTSs, allowing first the NTS charge, and subsequently the NTS itself, to be lost. This resulted in NTS-independent matrix targeting, which is conserved across the evolutionary divide separating trichomonads and yeast, and which we propose is the ancestral state of mitochondrial protein import. PMID:26338186

  12. Cloning, identification and functional analysis of a β-catenin homologue from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Shi, Lili; L, Kai; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-07-01

    Wnt signaling is known to control multiple of cellular processes such as cell differentiation, communication, apoptosis and proliferation, and is also reported to play a role during microbial infection. β-catenin is a key regulator of the Wnt signaling cascade. In the present study, we cloned and identified a β-catenin homologue from Litopenaeus vannamei termed Lvβ-catenin. The full-length of Lvβ-catenin transcript was 2797 bp in length within a 2451 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a protein of 816 amino acids. Lvβ-catenin protein was comprised of several characteristic domains such as an N-terminal region of GSK-β consensus phosphorylation site and Coed coil section, a central region of 12 continuous Armadillo/β-Catenin-like repeat (ARM) domains and a C-terminal region. Real-time PCR showed Lvβ-catenin expression was responsive to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Dual-reporter analysis showed that over-expression of Lvβ-catenin could induce activation of the promoter activities of several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as shrimp PEN4, suggesting that Lvβ-catenin could play a role in regulating the production of AMPs. Knockdown of Lvβ-catenin enhanced the sensitivity of shrimps to V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV challenge, suggesting Lvβ-catenin could play a positive role against bacterial and viral pathogens. In summary, the results presented in this study provided some insights into the function of Wnt/β-catenin of shrimp in regulating AMPs and the host defense against invading pathogens.

  13. Depletion of γ-catenin by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Confers Elimination of CML Stem Cells in Combination with Imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yanli; Yao, Yiwu; Chen, Li; Zhu, Xiaohui; Jin, Bei; Shen, Yingying; Li, Juan; Du, Xin; Lu, Yuhong; Jiang, Sheng; Pan, Jingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Quiescent leukemia stem cells (LSCs) that are insensitive to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors confer resistance to imatinib in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Identifying proteins to regulate survival and stemness of LSCs is urgently needed. Although histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) can eliminate quiescent LSCs in CML, little is known about the underlying mechanism that HDACis kill LSCs. By fishing with a biotin-labeled probe, we identified that HDACi JSL-1 bound to the protein γ-catenin. γ-Catenin expression was higher in LSCs from CML patients than normal hematopoietic stem cells. Silencing γ-catenin in human CML CD34+ bone-marrow (BM) cells sufficiently eliminated LSCs, which suggests that γ-catenin is required for survival of CML LSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of γ-catenin thwarted survival and self-renewal of human CML CD34+ cells in vitro, and of murine LSCs in BCR-ABL-driven CML mice. γ-Catenin inhibition reduced long-term engraftment of human CML CD34+ cells in NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid II2rgtm1Sug/JicCrl (NOG) mice. Silencing γ-catenin by shRNA in human primary CD34+ cells did not alter β-catenin, implying a β-catenin-independent role of γ-catenin in survival and self-renewal of CML LSCs. Taken together, our findings validate that γ-catenin may be a novel therapeutic target of LSCs, and suppression of γ-catenin by HDACi may explain elimination of CML LSCs. PMID:27570562

  14. Cadherin-catenin complexes during zebrafish oogenesis: heterotypic junctions between oocytes and follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Cerdà, J; Reidenbach, S; Prätzel, S; Franke, W W

    1999-09-01

    During vertebrate oogenesis, the germ cells and associated somatic cells remain connected by a variety of adhering junctional complexes. However, the molecular composition of these cellular structures is largely unknown. To identify the proteins forming the heterotypic adherens junctions between oocytes and follicle cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), the cDNAs encoding alphaE-catenin and plakoglobin were isolated. Using these cDNAs, in combination with the previously isolated beta-catenin cDNA, and antibodies specific for alpha- and beta-catenin, plakoglobin, and N- and E-cadherin, we found differences in catenin and plakoglobin gene expression during oogenesis. The immunolocalization of these plaque proteins, as well as of cadherins, in the ovarian follicle indicated an enrichment of alpha- and beta-catenin and of E-cadherin-like protein(s) in the oocyte cortex, notably at sites of oocyte-follicle cell contacts, suggesting the presence of hitherto unknown heterotypic adherens junctions between these cells. By contrast, plakoglobin and N-cadherin localization was restricted to cell-cell contacts in the follicle cell layer. During oocyte maturation, mRNAs for alphaE- and beta-catenin and plakoglobin accumulated, and all three plaque-forming proteins were stored in unfertilized eggs, either in complexed forms with cadherins or as free cytoplasmic pools. These findings suggest possible roles of these junctional proteins during early embryogenesis.

  15. Investigation of N-cadherin/β-catenin expression in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Beatrice; Regazzo, Daniela; Redaelli, Marco; Mucignat, Carla; Citton, Marilisa; Iacobone, Maurizio; Scaroni, Carla; Betterle, Corrado; Mantero, Franco; Fassina, Ambrogio; Pezzani, Raffaele; Boscaro, Marco

    2016-10-01

    β-catenin is a multifunctional protein; it is a key component of the Wnt signaling, and it plays a central role in cadherin-based adhesions. Cadherin loss promotes tumorigenesis by releasing membrane-bound β-catenin, hence stimulating Wnt signaling. Cadherins seem to be involved in tumor development, but these findings are limited in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs). The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in key components of cadherin/catenin adhesion system and of Wnt pathway. This study included eight normal adrenal samples (NA) and 95 ACT: 24 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) and 71 adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs). β-catenin mutations were evaluated by sequencing, and β-catenin and cadherin (E-cadherin and N-cadherin) expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We identified 18 genetic alterations in β-catenin gene. qRT-PCR showed overexpression of β-catenin in 50 % of ACC (12/24) and in 48 % of ACA (21/44). IHC data were in accordance with qRT-PCR results: 47 % of ACC (7/15) and 33 % of ACA (11/33) showed increased cytoplasmic or nuclear β-catenin accumulation. N-cadherin downregulation has been found in 83 % of ACC (20/24) and in 59 % of ACA (26/44). Similar results were obtained by IHC: N-cadherin downregulation was observed in 100 % (15/15) of ACC and in 55 % (18/33) of ACA. β-catenin overexpression together with the aberrant expression of N-cadherin may play important role in ACT tumorigenesis. The study of differentially expressed genes (such as N-cadherin and β-catenin) may enhance our understanding of the biology of ACT and may contribute to the discovery of new diagnostic and prognostic tools.

  16. Controlled protein delivery from electrospun non-wovens: novel combination of protein crystals and a biodegradable release matrix.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Sebastian; Li, Linhao; Meinel, Lorenz; Germershaus, Oliver

    2014-07-07

    Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) is an excellent polymer for electrospinning and matrix-controlled drug delivery combining optimal processability and good biocompatibility. Electrospinning of proteins has been shown to be challenging via the use of organic solvents, frequently resulting in protein unfolding or aggregation. Encapsulation of protein crystals represents an attractive but largely unexplored alternative to established protein encapsulation techniques because of increased thermodynamic stability and improved solvent resistance of the crystalline state. We herein explore the electrospinning of protein crystal suspensions and establish basic design principles for this novel type of protein delivery system. PCL was deployed as a matrix, and lysozyme was used as a crystallizing model protein. By rational combination of lysozyme crystals 0.7 or 2.1 μm in diameter and a PCL fiber diameter between 1.6 and 10 μm, release within the first 24 h could be varied between approximately 10 and 100%. Lysozyme loading of PCL microfibers between 0.5 and 5% was achieved without affecting processability. While relative release was unaffected by loading percentage, the amount of lysozyme released could be tailored. PCL was blended with poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) to further modify the release rate. Under optimized conditions, an almost constant lysozyme release over 11 weeks was achieved.

  17. Roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng; Li, Yan; Qin, Jizheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2009-12-25

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3{alpha} can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of {beta}-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated {beta}-catenin expression and subsequently decreased {beta}-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  18. Immunolocalization of skeletal matrix proteins in tissue and mineral of the coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Tali; Drake, Jeana L.; Peters, Esther C.; Jiang, Wenge; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The precipitation and assembly of calcium carbonate skeletons by stony corals is a precisely controlled process regulated by the secretion of an ECM. Recently, it has been reported that the proteome of the skeletal organic matrix (SOM) contains a group of coral acid-rich proteins as well as an assemblage of adhesion and structural proteins, which together, create a framework for the precipitation of aragonite. To date, we are aware of no report that has investigated the localization of individual SOM proteins in the skeleton. In particular, no data are available on the ultrastructural mapping of these proteins in the calcification site or the skeleton. This information is crucial to assessing the role of these proteins in biomineralization. Immunological techniques represent a valuable approach to localize a single component within a calcified skeleton. By using immunogold labeling and immunohistochemical assays, here we show the spatial arrangement of key matrix proteins in tissue and skeleton of the common zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata. To our knowledge, our results reveal for the first time that, at the nanoscale, skeletal proteins are embedded within the aragonite crystals in a highly ordered arrangement consistent with a diel calcification pattern. In the tissue, these proteins are not restricted to the calcifying epithelium, suggesting that they also play other roles in the coral’s metabolic pathways. PMID:25139990

  19. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by hydrogen peroxide transcriptionally inhibits NaV1.5 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Huo, Rong; Cai, Benzhi; Lu, Yan; Ye, Bo; Li, Xiang; Li, Faqian; Xu, Haodong

    2016-07-01

    Oxidants and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling have been shown to decrease cardiac Na(+) channel activity by suppressing NaV1.5 expression. Our aims are to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one oxidant of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes β-catenin nuclear activity, leading to suppression of NaV1.5 expression and if this suppression requires the interaction of β-catenin with its nuclear partner, TCF4 (also called TCF7L2) to decrease SCN5a promoter activity. The results demonstrated that H2O2 increased β-catenin, but not TCF4 nuclear localization determined by immunofluorescence without affecting total β-catenin protein level. Furthermore, H2O2 exerted a dose- and time-dependent suppressive effect on NaV1.5 expression. RT-PCR and/or Western blot analyses revealed that overexpressing active form of β-catenin or stabilizing β-catenin by GSK-3β inhibitors, LiCl and Bio, suppressed NaV1.5 expression in HL-1 cells. In contrast, destabilization of β-catenin by a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (S9A) upregulated NaV1.5 expression. Whole-cell recording showed that LiCl significantly inhibited Na(+) channel activity in these cells. Using immunoprecipitation (IP), we showed that β-catenin interacted with TCF4 indicating that β-catenin as a co-transfactor, regulates NaV1.5 expression through TCF4. Analyses of the SCN5a promoter sequences among different species by using VISTA tools indicated that SCN5a promoter harbors TCF4 binding sites. Chromatin IP assays demonstrated that both β-catenin and TCF4 were recruited in the SCN5a promoter, and regulated its activity. Luciferase promoter assays exhibited that β-catenin inhibited the SCN5a promoter activity at a dose-dependent manner and this inhibition required TCF4. Small interfering (Si) RNA targeting β-catenin significantly increased SCN5a promoter activity, leading to enhanced NaV1.5 expression. As expected, β-catenin SiRNA prevents H2O2 suppressive effects

  20. Matrix Sublimation/Recrystallization for Imaging Proteins by Mass Spectrometry at High Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    We have employed matrix deposition by sublimation for protein image analysis on tissue sections using a hydration/recrystallization process that produces high quality MALDI mass spectra and high spatial resolution ion images. We systematically investigated different washing protocols, the effect of tissue section thickness, the amount of sublimated matrix per unit area and different recrystallization conditions. The results show that an organic solvent rinse followed by ethanol/water rinses substantially increased sensitivity for the detection of proteins. Both the thickness of tissue section and amount of sinapinic acid sublimated per unit area have optimal ranges for maximal protein signal intensity. Ion images of mouse and rat brain sections at 50, 20 and 10 µm spatial resolution are presented and are correlated with H&E stained optical images. For targeted analysis, histology directed imaging can be performed using this protocol where MS analysis and H&E staining are performed on the same section. PMID:21639088

  1. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.

  2. Extracellular matrix interacts with interferon {alpha} protein: Retention and display of cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kimiko; Kondoh, Atsushi; Narumi, Kenta; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Aoki, Kazunori

    2008-11-14

    We have been investigating the efficacy of an intratumoral interferon (IFN)-{alpha} gene transfer against solid cancers, and found that when the gene is transduced into the subcutaneous tumors, IFN-{alpha} concentration is markedly increased in the injected tumor but not in the serum. To explain this effective confinement of IFN-{alpha} to target tissues, we hypothesized that the extracellular matrix in the tumors interacts with IFN-{alpha}. In this study, a solid-phase-binding assay and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the IFN-{alpha} binds directly to matrix proteins. Immunohistochemical staining showed a co-localization of IFN-{alpha} with pericellular fibronectin. In addition, matrix-bound IFN-{alpha} protein transduced intracellular signaling and potentiated its cytotoxic activity, suggesting that the retention of IFN-{alpha} protein on extracellular matrix is likely to play a role in its in vivo biological activity. The data suggest a therapeutic advantage of the intratumoral IFN-{alpha} gene transfer over the conventional parenteral therapy both in the safety and efficacy.

  3. Matrix Gla Protein Binds to Fibronectin and Enhances Cell Attachment and Spreading on Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoru Ken; Nishimoto, Miyako

    2014-01-01

    Background. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent, extracellular matrix protein. MGP is a calcification inhibitor of arteries and cartilage. However MGP is synthesized in many tissues and is especially enriched in embryonic tissues and in cancer cells. The presence of MGP in those instances does not correlate well with the calcification inhibitory role. This study explores a potential mechanism for MGP to bind to matrix proteins and alter cell matrix interactions. Methods. To determine whether MGP influences cell behavior through interaction with fibronectin, we studied MGP binding to fibronectin, the effect of MGP on fibronectin mediated cell attachment and spreading and immunolocalized MGP and fibronectin. Results. First, MGP binds to fibronectin. The binding site for MGP is in a specific fibronectin fragment, called III1-C or anastellin. The binding site for fibronectin is in a MGP C-terminal peptide comprising amino acids 61–77. Second, MGP enhances cell attachment and cell spreading on fibronectin. MGP alone does not promote cell adhesion. Third, MGP is present in fibronectin-rich regions of tissue sections. Conclusions. MGP binds to fibronectin. The presence of MGP increased cell-fibronectin interactions. PMID:25210519

  4. Changes in eggshell mechanical properties, crystallographic texture and in matrix proteins induced by moult in hens.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A M H; Rodriguez-Navarro, A B; Vidal, M L; Gautron, J; García-Ruiz, J M; Nys, Y

    2005-06-01

    The effect of moult on eggshell mechanical properties, on composition and concentrations of organic matrix components and on eggshell microstructure was investigated. The observed changes were studied to understand the role of organic matrix and eggshell microstructure in eggshell strength. Moult was induced by zinc oxide (20 g zinc/kg diet) in 53 ISA Brown laying hens at 78 weeks of age. No difference was observed for egg or eggshell weights after moult. In contrast, moult improved the shell breaking strength (28.09 vs 33.71 N). After moult, there was a decrease in the average size of calcite crystals composing the eggshell and in their heterogeneity, whereas crystal orientation remained basically the same. After moulting, the total protein concentration in eggshell increased slightly. The comparisons of SDS-PAGE profiles of the organic matrix constituents extracted before and after moulting showed changes in staining intensity of certain bands. After moult, bands associated with main proteins specific to eggshell formation (OC-116 and OC-17) showed higher staining intensity, while the intensity of the egg white proteins (ovotransferrin, ovalbumin and lysozyme) decreased. ELISA confirmed the decrease in ovotransferrin after moult. Its concentration was inversely correlated with breaking strength before moult. These observations suggest that changes in eggshell crystal size could be due to changes in organic matrix composition. These changes may provide a mechanism for the improvement in shell solidity after moulting.

  5. TGF beta receptor II interacting protein-1, an intracellular protein has an extracellular role as a modulator of matrix mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Ravindran, Sriram; Huang, Chun-Chieh; George, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta receptor II interacting protein 1 (TRIP-1), a predominantly intracellular protein is localized in the ECM of bone. TRIP-1 lacks a signal peptide, therefore, in this study, we provide evidence that intracellular TRIP-1 can be packaged and exported to the ECM via exosomes. Overexpression of TRIP-1 in MC3T3-E1 cells resulted in increased matrix mineralization during differentiation and knockdown resulted in reduced effects. In vivo function of TRIP-1 was studied by an implantation assay performed using TRIP-1 overexpressing and knockdown cells cultured in a 3-dimmensional scaffold. After 4 weeks, the subcutaneous tissues from TRIP-1 overexpressing cells showed higher calcium and phosphate deposits, arranged collagen fibrils and increased expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase. Nucleation studies on demineralized and deproteinized dentin wafer is a powerful tool to determine the functional role of noncollagenous proteins in matrix mineralization. Using this system, we provide evidence that TRIP-1 binds to Type-I collagen and can promote mineralization. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that TRIP-1 binds to collagen with KD = 48 μM. SEM and TEM analysis showed that TRIP-1 promoted the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate mineral aggregates. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights of this intracellular protein in matrix mineralization. PMID:27883077

  6. Arabidopsis LON2 is necessary for peroxisomal function and sustained matrix protein import.

    PubMed

    Lingard, Matthew J; Bartel, Bonnie

    2009-11-01

    Relatively little is known about the small subset of peroxisomal proteins with predicted protease activity. Here, we report that the peroxisomal LON2 (At5g47040) protease facilitates matrix protein import into Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) peroxisomes. We identified T-DNA insertion alleles disrupted in five of the nine confirmed or predicted peroxisomal proteases and found only two-lon2 and deg15, a mutant defective in the previously described PTS2-processing protease (DEG15/At1g28320)-with phenotypes suggestive of peroxisome metabolism defects. Both lon2 and deg15 mutants were mildly resistant to the inhibitory effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on root elongation, but only lon2 mutants were resistant to the stimulatory effects of IBA on lateral root production or displayed Suc dependence during seedling growth. lon2 mutants displayed defects in removing the type 2 peroxisome targeting signal (PTS2) from peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase and reduced accumulation of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, another PTS2-containing protein; both defects were not apparent upon germination but appeared in 5- to 8-d-old seedlings. In lon2 cotyledon cells, matrix proteins were localized to peroxisomes in 4-d-old seedlings but mislocalized to the cytosol in 8-d-old seedlings. Moreover, a PTS2-GFP reporter sorted to peroxisomes in lon2 root tip cells but was largely cytosolic in more mature root cells. Our results indicate that LON2 is needed for sustained matrix protein import into peroxisomes. The delayed onset of matrix protein sorting defects may account for the relatively weak Suc dependence following germination, moderate IBA-resistant primary root elongation, and severe defects in IBA-induced lateral root formation observed in lon2 mutants.

  7. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote in vitro osteoblastogenesis through a Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Mingming; Jing, Da; Tong, Shichao; Wu, Yan; Wang, Pan; Zeng, Zhaobin; Shen, Guanghao; Wang, Xin; Xu, Qiaoling; Luo, Erping

    2016-02-18

    Substantial evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) could accelerate fracture healing and enhance bone mass, whereas the unclear mechanism by which PEMF stimulation promotes osteogenesis limits its extensive clinical application. In the present study, effects and potential molecular signaling mechanisms of PEMF on in vitro osteoblasts were systematically investigated. Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to PEMF burst (0.5, 1, 2, or 6 h/day) with 15.38 Hz at various intensities (5 Gs (0.5 mT), 10 Gs (1 mT), or 20 Gs (2 mT)) for 3 consecutive days. PEMF stimulation at 20 Gs (2 mT) for 2 h/day exhibited most prominent promotive effects on osteoblastic proliferation via Cell Counting kit-8 analyses. PEMF exposure induced well-organized cytoskeleton, and promoted formation of extracellular matrix mineralization nodules. Significantly increased proliferation-related gene expressions at the proliferation phase were observed after PEMF stimulation, including Ccnd 1 and Ccne 1. PEMF resulted in significantly increased gene and protein expressions of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin at the differentiation phase of osteoblasts rather than the proliferation phase via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses. Moreover, PEMF upregulated gene and protein expressions of collagen type 1, Runt-related transcription factor 2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling (Wnt1, Lrp6, and β-catenin) at proliferation and differentiation phases. Together, our present findings highlight that PEMF stimulated osteoblastic functions through a Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism and, hence, regulates downstream osteogenesis-associated gene/protein expressions. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spatiotemporal segregation of endothelial cell integrin and nonintegrin extracellular matrix-binding proteins during adhesion events

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) attachments to laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen are inhibited by soluble arginine-glycine- aspartate (RGD)-containing peptides, and YGRGDSP activity is responsive to titration of either soluble peptide or matrix protein. To assess the presence of RGD-dependent receptors, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting studies were conducted and demonstrated integrin beta 1, beta 3, and associated alpha subunits as well as a beta 1 precursor. Immunofluorescence of BAECs plated on laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen reveals different matrix-binding specificities of each of these integrin subclasses. By 1 h after plating, organization of beta 1 integrin into fibrillar streaks is influenced by laminin and fibronectin, whereas beta 3 integrin punctate organization is influenced by fibrinogen and the integrin spatial distribution changes with time in culture. In contrast, the nonintegrin laminin-binding protein LB69 only organizes after cell-substrate contact is well established several hours after plating. Migration of BAECs is also mediated by both integrin and nonintegrin matrix-binding proteins. Specifically, BAEC migration on laminin is remarkably sensitive to RGD peptide inhibition, and, in its presence, beta 1 integrin organization dissipates and reorganizes into perinuclear vesicles. However, RGD peptides do not alter LB69 linear organization during migration. Similarly, agents that block LB69--e.g., antibodies to LB69 as well as YIGSR-NH2 peptide--do not inhibit attachment of nonmotile BAECs to laminin. However, both anti-LB69 and YIGSR-NH2 inhibit late adhesive events such as spreading. Accordingly, we propose that integrin and nonintegrin extracellular matrix-binding protein organizations in BAECs are both temporally and spatially segregated during attachment processes. High affinity nonintegrin interaction with matrix may create necessary stable contacts for longterm attachment, while lower affinity integrins may be important

  9. Nipah Virus Matrix Protein Influences Fusogenicity and Is Essential for Particle Infectivity and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Dietzel, Erik; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Sawatsky, Bevan; Heiner, Anja; Weis, Michael; Kobinger, Gary P.; Becker, Stephan; von Messling, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nipah virus (NiV) causes fatal encephalitic infections in humans. To characterize the role of the matrix (M) protein in the viral life cycle, we generated a reverse genetics system based on NiV strain Malaysia. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expressing M protein-deleted NiV, we observed a slightly increased cell-cell fusion, slow replication kinetics, and significantly reduced peak titers compared to the parental virus. While increased amounts of viral proteins were found in the supernatant of cells infected with M-deleted NiV, the infectivity-to-particle ratio was more than 100-fold reduced, and the particles were less thermostable and of more irregular morphology. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the M protein is not absolutely required for the production of cell-free NiV but is necessary for proper assembly and release of stable infectious NiV particles. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses cause a severe disease with high mortality in human patients. Therefore, these viruses can be studied only in biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories, making it more challenging to characterize their life cycle. Here we investigated the role of the Nipah virus matrix protein in virus-mediated cell-cell fusion and in the formation and release of newly produced particles. We found that even though low levels of infectious viruses are produced in the absence of the matrix protein, it is required for the release of highly infectious and stable particles. Fusogenicity of matrixless viruses was slightly enhanced, further demonstrating the critical role of this protein in different steps of Nipah virus spread. PMID:26676785

  10. Influence of lipids on the interfacial disposition of respiratory syncytical virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Helen K; Carlisle, Jennifer L; Beeby, Andrew; Money, Victoria A; Watson, Scott M D; Yeo, R Paul; Sanderson, John M

    2011-01-04

    The propensity of a matrix protein from an enveloped virus of the Mononegavirales family to associate with lipids representative of the viral envelope has been determined using label-free methods, including tensiometry and Brewster angle microscopy on lipid films at the air-water interface and atomic force microscopy on monolayers transferred to OTS-treated silicon wafers. This has enabled factors that influence the disposition of the protein with respect to the lipid interface to be characterized. In the absence of sphingomyelin, respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein penetrates monolayers composed of mixtures of phosphocholines with phosphoethanolamines or cholesterol at the air-water interface. In ternary mixtures composed of sphingomyelin, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and cholesterol, the protein exhibits two separate behaviors: (1) peripheral association with the surface of sphingomyelin-rich domains and (2) penetration of sphingomyelin-poor domains. Prolonged incubation of the protein with mixtures of phosphocholines and phosphoethanolamines leads to the formation o