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  1. Obituary: Damon Paul Simonelli, 1959-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, Bonnie Jean; Veverka, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    Damon Paul Simonelli died unexpectedly on 1 December 2004 after he collapsed of heart failure at his home near Pasadena, California. Damon led pioneering studies in the scientific exploration of the satellites of the Solar System with spacecraft. He was a longtime member of the AAS's Division for Planetary Sciences community. Only two weeks before his death he attended the 2004 DPS meeting in Louisville where he presented a paper on the surface roughness of Phoebe based on Cassini observations. Damon was born in the Bronx, New York, on 15 August 1959. His father, Aldo Simonelli (d. 1990), was a clarinetist for the New York City Opera Company, and his mother, Alice Kennard Simonelli, was a secretary. His parents met while they were both students at the Julliard School. Family history has it that Damon's mother was an opera student, but she ruined her voice after singing when she had the flu. By junior high school, Damon had become a master at convincing his mother to wake him up at 3 AM to watch televised moonwalks, and to allow the entire family to view Star Trek episodes at the dinner table. Damon graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1976, with a composition on the New York State Regents exam that mentioned the significance of bicentennial toilet bowl lids. In addition to placing great emphasis on humor, the Simonelli family valued education. Damon's younger sister Danelle graduated from Vassar College and has served many years as a U. S. Park Ranger at Liberty Island. Damon graduated with a BA summa cum laude in physics from Cornell in 1980, where he had begun working with Carl Sagan. Damon had painstakingly gone through all the Viking images to look for any possibility of sentient life on Mars (he didn't find any). Perhaps the arrival of data from the first great explorers of the outer Solar System - Voyagers 1 and 2 - convinced Damon to continue at Cornell with Joe Veverka. While at Cornell, Damon began his pioneering work on the use of

  2. Antimony activities in copper mattes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, M.; Toguri, J. M.

    1987-03-01

    A mass spectrometric technique combined with a double Knudsen cell was used to determine the antimony and copper activities in the Cu-Sb binary system at 1373 K and in the two-melt composition range of the Cu-S-Sb ternary system at 1423 K. The antimony and copper activities were calculated based on the intensity ration of the gaseous Sb and Cu species, over the unknown and known activity samples, respectively. γ{Sb/o} were found to be 1.1×10-2 in molten copper at 1373 K, and 1.8×10-2 and 0.44 in a copper-rich phase and in a matter phase, of the Cu-S-Sb ternary system at 1423 K, respectively. These values indicate, that antimony can be removed during the matte smelting and slagging stage of the copper smelting process. Interaction parameters of antimony in molten copper slagging stage of the copper smelting process. Interaction parameters of antimony in molten copper at 1423 K were calculated and found to be 10.7, -5.4, and 6.3 for ɛ{Sb/Sb} · ρSb Sb, and ɛ{Sb/S}, respectively.

  3. Microscopic theory of Damon-Eshbach modes in ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, R. V.; Costa Filho, R. N.

    2001-05-01

    The surface spin wave branches in ferromagnetic films are studied using a microscopic theory which considers both magnetic dipole-dipole and Heisenberg exchange interactions. The dipole terms are expressed in a Hamiltonian formalism, and the dipole sums are calculated in a rapidly convergent form. The Damon-Eshbach surface modes are analyzed for different directions of the spin-wave propagation and also for different ratios of the strength of the dipole interactions relative to the exchange interactions. Numerical results are presented using parameters for Fe and GdCl 3.

  4. Clinical applications of Matte Blanco's thinking.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cardenas, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Ignacio Matte Blanco (1908-1995) left very few specific indications about the applications of his theoretical notions to his interpretative style. The author shows how he uses Matte Blanco to formulate some of his own interpretations. The first part of the paper uses clinical vignettes to illustrate some of Matte-Blanco's concepts. Their theoretical vocabulary is thus made explicit. Then two psychoanalytic sessions are discussed at greater length, together with one from a therapy, so that the use of Matte-Blanco's notions can be seen clearly, allowing for a fresh perspective on areas of psychoanalytic theory, particularly dreams, psychopathology viewed according to the proportions of asymmetrical and symmetrical functioning in the patient's bi-logical mental system, the multidimensionality of the unconscious, the structural unconscious, the emotion-thought relationship, projective identification, resistance, and negative therapeutic reaction. The practical consequences of all this are elaborated, particularly the ensuing possibility of 'thinking with the patient' in the session. This enables the patient to introject a form of mental functioning in which the asymmetrical mode is not invaded by the symmetric mode (a parallel can be seen here with the Bionian concept of dialogue between the psychotic and non-psychotic parts of the mind).

  5. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  6. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  7. Cognitive Interaction and the Development of Sociality: A Commentary on Damon and Killen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Comments on Damon and Killen's study, pointing out that the methodological difficulties in examining spontaneous moral discussions have led to the appropriation of a dyadic social-cognitive conflict paradigm that focuses on dialogic interaction. (Author/RH)

  8. A clinical trial of Damon 2 vs conventional twin brackets during initial alignment.

    PubMed

    Miles, Peter G; Weyant, Robert J; Rustveld, Luis

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and comfort of Damon 2 brackets and conventional twin brackets during initial alignment. Sixty consecutive patients participated in a split mouth design. One side of the lower arch was bonded with the Damon 2 bracket and the other with a conventional twin bracket. The sides were alternated with each consecutive patient. The irregularity index (II) was measured for each half of the arch at baseline, at 10 weeks at the first archwire change, and at another 10 weeks at the second archwire change. Any difference in discomfort was assessed within the first few days of archwire placement and again at the first archwire change. Comfort on the lips, preferred look, and bracket failure rates were also recorded. The twin bracket was more uncomfortable with the initial archwire (P = .04). However, at 10 weeks, substantially more patients reported discomfort with the Damon 2 bracket when engaging the archwire (P = .004). At both archwire changes at 10 and 20 weeks (P = .001), the conventional bracket had achieved a lower II than the Damon 2 bracket by 0.2 mm, which is not clinically significant. Patients preferred the look of the twin bracket over the Damon 2 (P < .0005) and more Damon 2 brackets debonded during the study (P < .0005). The Damon 2 bracket was no better during initial alignment than a conventional bracket. Initially, the Damon 2 bracket was less painful, but it was substantially more painful when placing the second archwire and had a higher bracket failure rate.

  9. The Lost Worlds of Messmore & Damon: Science, Spectacle & Prehistoric Monsters in early-twentieth century America.

    PubMed

    Manias, Chris

    2016-09-01

    In 1924, the model-making company Messmore & Damon, Inc. of New York unleashed their masterpiece: the Amphibious Dinosaurus Brontosaurus, a moving, breathing, roaring animatronic dinosaur, based on displays in the American Museum of Natural History. Over the 1920s and 1930s, this became the focus of an ever-increasing publicity campaign, as Messmore & Damon exhibited prehistoric automata in department stores, the media, and the Chicago World Fair of 1933-34. These displays were hugely popular and widely discussed, drawing from the increasing public appeal of paleontology. Mixing commercial entertainment with invocations of scientific value, Messmore & Damon's prehistoric creations offer a window into the meaning and popularity of the deep time sciences in early-twentieth century America, and the links between science and spectacle in this period.

  10. Oxygen solubility and speciation in sulphide-rich mattes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Campbell, Ian H.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Fitzgerald, John D.

    2008-06-01

    Sulphide-rich liquids are common in magmatic environments forming over a wide range of temperature, pressure, fO 2 and fS 2. They are economically important because they sequester valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au and Pt from silicate melts. The presence of accessory amounts of primary oxides associated with sulphide mineralisations is often ignored or unexplained. Experimental work has shown that large amounts of oxygen can dissolve into mattes at fO 2 typical of terrestrial environments. At the quartz-fayalite-magnetite fO 2 buffer, the molar fraction of O in the matte exceeds that of S, placing the composition of the matte to the magnetite side of the mss (monosulphide solid solution)-magnetite join in the Fe-S-O system. However, sulphides crystallise before magnetite in most sulphide mineralisations and are much more abundant. Moreover, the speciation of O in a matte is not well known. Here we report the results of an experimental study of the solubility of O in mattes as a function of fS 2, fO 2, temperature, and composition. We confirm previous observations that Ni and Cu have a negative effect on the solubility of O in mattes. We show evidence for the existence of FeSO as a structural constituent of mattes in the Fe-S-O system. We present a simple parameterisation of the amount of O dissolved in mattes under relevant geological conditions, and use this parameterisation to discuss mechanisms for the crystallisation of primary spinels associated with sulphides in the Kambalda massive sulphide deposit (Western Australia) and the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada).

  11. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    PubMed

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  12. Do you do Damon®? What is the current evidence base underlying the philosophy of this appliance system?

    PubMed

    Wright, Natasha; Modarai, Faranak; Cobourne, Martyn T; Dibiase, Andrew T

    2011-09-01

    Self-ligating bracket systems are increasing in popularity amongst orthodontists. This reflects their high quality engineering, improved reliability and relative ease of use. However, it might also be related to claims of superior function made by the manufacturers of these appliances. In particular, the Damon(®) appliance system claims to offer significant advantages to both orthodontist and patient over conventional-ligation and other forms of self-ligated appliances. We have reviewed current literature relating to use of the Damon(®) appliance system. There is some evidence to suggest this appliance may lead to reductions in chairside time for the orthodontist, particularly those experienced with this system, in comparison to conventional-ligation. However, evidence that pain experience is reduced for the patient when using Damon(®) brackets is not conclusive. In the presence of identical archwire sequences, there is no evidence that Damon(®) brackets can align teeth faster or in a qualitatively differently manner, when compared with conventional-ligation. There is no high quality evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance takes place more rapidly or leads to a superior occlusal or aesthetic result. Indeed, the best available evidence would suggest there is no difference in treatment outcome or time, at least in extraction cases. There is no evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance is more stable. Claims relating to improved clinical performance of the Damon(®) appliance system are currently being made to orthodontists and patients that are not substantiated in the scientific literature.

  13. L1-Regularized Reconstruction Error as Alpha Matte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jubin; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2017-04-01

    Sampling-based alpha matting methods have traditionally followed the compositing equation to estimate the alpha value at a pixel from a pair of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The (F,B) pair that produces the least reconstruction error is selected, followed by alpha estimation. The significance of that residual error has been left unexamined. In this letter, we propose a video matting algorithm that uses L1-regularized reconstruction error of F and B samples as a measure of the alpha matte. A multi-frame non-local means framework using coherency sensitive hashing is utilized to ensure temporal coherency in the video mattes. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations on a dataset exclusively for video matting demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed matting algorithm.

  14. Book Review. "Greater Expectations: Overcoming the Culture of Indulgence in America's Homes and Schools," by William Damon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Edward S.

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that America's lowered expectations about education are not a loss of previous American virtues but neither are they a "culture of indulgence" as Damon suggests; they are simply adaptations by the populace to the difficult job of getting along in a highly competitive world. (MDM)

  15. Generating Damon-Eshbach Spin Waves in Py using a Conducting Diffraction Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklenar, J.; Bhat, V. S.; Delong, L.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    We have patterned silver hole arrays directly on top of uniform permalloy (Py) films. Typical Py and Ag film thicknesses are 25nm and 40 nm respectively; the holes in the Ag have a 500nm diameter and are patterned on a 1 micron lattice constant. We have measured resonant modes arising from a quasi-uniform microwave excitation field, applied in the plane of the sample, as a function of the in-plane external field and the in-plane field orientation relative to the principal axes of the array. Measurements were done using our broadband meanderline-based ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer.ootnotetextC. C. Tsai, J. Choi, S. Cho, B. K. Sarma, C. Thompson, O. Chernyashevskyy, I. Nevirkovets, and J. B Ketterson, Rev. of Sci. Instr. 80, 023904 (2009). In addition to a uniform FMR mode we observe satellite modes that correspond to the Damon-Eshbach spin wavesootnotetextR. W. Damon and J. R. Eshbach J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19, 308 (1961). with wave vectors having Fourier components of the reciprocal lattice of the silver array. Hence, in an otherwise uniform magnetic film the silver array acts as a diffraction grating which excites spin waves with k 0 from the dynamic k 0 microwave magnetic field. The observed spin wave angular dispersion is in excellent agreement with a magnon dispersion relation for spin waves in a uniform film given by Kriesel et al.ootnotetextA. Kreisel, F. Sauli, L. Bartosch, and P. Kopietz, Eur. Phys. J. B 71, 59 (2009).

  16. Symmetry: Matte-Blanco's theory and Borges's fiction.

    PubMed

    Priel, B

    1994-08-01

    Matte-Blanco's theory reformulates the Freudian unconscious from the perspective of mathematical set theory, pointing to symmetric logic as the distinctive mark of the unconscious. Borges's fictional creations are presented as thematising and dramatising, in the act of reading, Matte-Blanco's main concepts of symmetry, bi-logic and the fundamental antinomy of human beings. This study's main thesis is that aesthetic experiences, such as the reading of Borges's literary creation, may allow for a broader experience of symmetrical being than the one conveyed through everyday language. In this context, the analysis of some of Borge's themes and main stylistic devices seems to shed light on bi-logic, from the perspective of the reader's experience and creation of meaning. Borge's characteristic use of literary allusions, as well as the suggested interchangeability of reader, writer and character, are understood as devices which increase the reader's awareness of relations of resemblance, destroying chronology and differences, uniting the text and the reference. From this perspective, a main effect of Borges's creation stems from an enhanced awareness of the interplay of symmetry and asymmetry, and the problem of the translation of symmetric into asymmetric being. Borges's stories effect in the reader an experience of infiniteness, timelessness, multidimensionality and assimilation of the proper part to the whole, as the background of the theme of (asymmetric) story-telling.

  17. Thermodynamic simulation model of the isasmelt process for copper matte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamori, M.; Errington, W. J.; Mackey, P. J.; Poggi, D.

    1994-12-01

    A computer model has been constructed to simulate thermodynamically the behavior of the minor elements Zn, Pb, As, Sb, and Bi as well as the major elements Cu, Fe, Si, O, and S in the Isasmelt process, producing copper matte. The model is based on the new concept that there are two independent reaction sites in a slag bath: one for fast oxidation and the other for slow reduction. The oxidizing reaction at the first site produces matte, magnetite-rich slag and gas from chalcopyritic concentrate and siliceous flux. The slag is then partially reduced with lump coal at a site removed from the first site. The oxidizing and reducing reactions are assumed to proceed under a separate set of equilibrium conditions. The process heat balance and thermodynamic distribution of the minor elements are united and expressed as functions of varying weights and compositions of concentrate, flux (silica, limestone), coal, oil, and oxygen-enriched air. The process chemistry was analyzed in terms of Fe3O4, FeO, and FeS activities, as well as SO2 partial pressure. The thermodynamic model explains well the minor element distributions observed in the 15 tons per hour pilot furnace, and it is used to project the optimal smelting conditions for the full-scale 100 tons per hour Isasmelt furnace.

  18. The Damon System and release of substance P in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement in adults.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Takizawa, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Ryo; Imamura, Ryuichi; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2009-01-01

    Metabolism by peptidases plays an important role in modulating the levels of biologically active neuropeptides. One of these neuropeptides, substance P (SP), a component of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), may exponentiate the inflammatory process during orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study was to investigate the GCF levels of SP in patients using different bracket systems. Subjects were 10 patients (four males, six females; mean age, 25.1 ± 4.4 years) undergoing orthodontic movement (leveling) in the maxilla. Conventional brackets were placed on the left side, while the teeth on the right received self-ligating brackets. The teeth on the mandibular left side without any orthodontic attachments served as controls. GCF was sampled at 0, 1, 24, and 168 hours after initiation of treatment. Prevention of plaque-induced inflammation allowed assessment of the dynamics of mechanically stimulated SP levels in the GCF, which was determined using commercially enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) kits. GCF levels of SP for the Damon System sites were significantly lower than for the teeth with conventional brackets at 24 hours. This result indicates that the Damon System inhibited an increase in the amount of SP in the GCF. Thus, the Damon System is useful to reduce the inflammation and pain resulting from orthodontic forces.

  19. An SPH Study of Molten Matte-Slag Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsui, Shungo; Nashimoto, Ryota; Kumagai, Takehiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2017-02-01

    The transient behaviors of two immiscible liquids, namely, molten matte and molten slag, with a high interfacial tension were investigated using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics model. Numerical simulations were performed using a discrete-element-type method that could track the movement of both the continuous liquid phase and the dispersed one directly. Numerical simulations were also performed for conditions corresponding to different interfacial tension and density values. Further, the predicted topological changes as well as the relationship between the physical properties and the droplet size distribution were investigated. It was found that, with an increase in the interfacial tension, the large droplets formed aggregate quickly with the bulk phase, owing to the buoyancy force. It was also found that the absolute value of the interfacial tension determines the interfacial area, suggesting that it also affects the droplet settling time. As such, we can conclude that the nonlinearly changed interface shape can easily become unstable as a result of only a slight change in the curvature.

  20. Linear thermal expansion coefficients for an epoxy/glass matte-insulated solid cast transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, J. A.; Kargol, J. A.

    1988-03-01

    Glass matte/epoxy-reinforced composites provide high-quality electrical insulation, structural integrity, and environmental protection in solid cast transformers. The thermal expansion characteristics of those composites are very important; the thermal expansion must be compatible with the conductor of the transformer in order to minimize stresses and prevent decohesion between the composite and the copper. The glass matte orientation and loading greatly influence the thermal expansion characteristics of the composite. A section was removed from a glass matte/bisphenol A epoxy-insulated, copper conductor wound cylindrical transformer coil. The linear expansion coefficients of the glass matte/epoxy composite were determined by differential dilatometry for three mutually perpendicular orientations with respect to the cylindrical coil. The expected reduction in thermal expansion of the epoxy in the tangential and axial directions due to the glass matte, which produced improved thermal expansion compatibility with the copper windings, was demonstrated. The measured linear thermal expansion coefficients were compared with theoretical values derived from a model for thermal expansion of a two-dimensional isotropic composite filled with fibers randomly oriented in a plane. An alternate composite system used for solid cast coil transformers, consisting of a cycloaliphatic resin filled with silica flour, was also investigated for comparison.

  1. Minimization of copper losses to slag in matte smelting by colemanite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüşen, Aydın; Geveci, Ahmet; Topkaya, Yavuz A.

    2012-11-01

    In any copper production plant, more than two tons of slag is discarded with 0.7-2.3%Cu to produce each ton of copper. Therefore, minimizing copper losses is crucial during the copper matte smelting. In order to reduce the copper losses to slag in copper production, the addition of colemanite (a boron compound; 2CaO.3B2O3.5H2O) to slag was investigated in the present study. In experiments, the effects of other oxides such as ZnO, PbO, CaO and Al2O3 which are generally known to be present in copper matte smelting slag were not taken into account by using a synthetic slag and a matte. Therefore, a slag consisting of FeO-Fe2O3-SiO2 and a matte with Cu-Fe-S were only used. After producing synthetically a slag without copper and a matte, they were melted together at 1250 °C under nitrogen atmosphere in silica crucibles. During these experiments, calcined colemanite addition in various amounts (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of charge), and duration (0.5, 1, 2, 4 h) were chosen as variables. At the end of experiments, the results showed that when the calcined colemanite addition to synthetic slag-matte couple was increased from 0% to 6%, the copper content in resultant slag decreased substantially from about 1.50% to about 0.40%. It was also seen that the addition of calcined colemanite reduced the duration to reach equilibrium. By applying this method, the quality of production process could be improved as well as reducing the cost of processing of slag.

  2. Reciprocal Damon-Eshbach-type spin wave excitation in a magnonic crystal due to tunable magnetic symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, R.; Krawczyk, M.; Schwarze, T.; Yu, H.; Duerr, G.; Albert, S.; Grundler, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report spin-wave (SW) propagation in a one-dimensional magnonic crystal (MC) explored by all electrical spectroscopy. The MC consists of a periodic array of 255 nm wide permalloy nanowires with a small edge-to-edge separation of 45 nm. Provoking antiparallel alignment of the magnetization of neighboring nanowires, we unexpectedly find reciprocal excitation of Damon-Eshbach type SWs. The characteristics are in contrast to ferromagnetic thin films and controlled via, both, the external magnetic field and magnetic states. The observed reciprocal excitation is a metamaterial property for SWs and attributed to the peculiar magnetic symmetry of the artificially tailored magnetic material. The findings offer great perspectives for nanoscale SW interference devices.

  3. Cuticular microstructures turn specular black into matt black in a stick insect.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Doris L; Kohl, Tobias; Gebhardt, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The stick insect Peruphasma schultei stands out from other insects by its deep matt black cuticle. We tested whether the appearance of P. schultei is due to microstructures of the cuticle, a phenomenon that has recently been described for the velvet black scales of the Gaboon viper. The shiny black stick insect Anisomorpha paromalus served as a control. We found that the P. schultei cuticle is characterised by two different types of microstructures, tall elevations with a maximum size of 18 μm and small structures with a height of 4 μm. Other than in the snake, P. schultei microstructures do not bear nanostructures. The microstructures scatter light independently of the viewing angle. This causes the matt appearance of the cuticle, whereas pigments are responsible for the black colouration, resulting in a maximum reflectance of 2.8% percent. The microstructures also cause the hydrophobic properties of the cuticle with contact angles near 130°. Resin replicas and bleaching of the cuticle strongly support these results. Moreover, the matt black cuticle has a higher heat absorption compared to the control. We discuss the selective benefit of the matt black appearance of P. schultei in the context of behaviour, ecology and phylogeny.

  4. Recovery of DNA from latent fingerprint tape lifts archived against matte acetate.

    PubMed

    Steadman, Shelly A; Hoofer, Steven R; Geering, Sarah C; King, Stephanie; Bennett, Marc A

    2015-05-01

    This study was driven by court order to examine methods to remove, extract, and STR-type potential DNA entrapped between latent fingerprint lifting tape and matte acetate that was collected from a 1977 crime scene. Results indicate that recovery of appreciable quantities of DNA is more challenging once adhesive is attached to matte acetate cards and even more difficult when fixed following black powder enhancement. STR amplification of extracts from entrapped fingermarks collected following the dusting/lifting procedure did not produce robust profiles, and extraneous peaks not expressed by print donors were detected for some samples. A hearing was set to argue whether there was DNA remaining to be tested, and if so, whether that DNA could be exculpatory in this postconviction matter. The studies herein provided the basis for the court's decision to not require the testing.

  5. Recovery Act update from Sr. Advisor Matt Rogers -- End of Obligations

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation Matt Rogers shares his thoughts as the Recovery Act reaches a critical milestone -- the end of the 2010 fiscal year and the last day to obligation contract and grant funding under the Recovery Act. For more information about the Recovery Act at the Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/recovery Follow the Department of Energy! http://facebook.com/energygov http://twitter.com/energy

  6. Evolutionary transitions and mechanisms of matte and iridescent plumage coloration in grackles and allies (Icteridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E; Estep, Laura K; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2006-01-01

    Iridescent structural colour is found in a wide variety of organisms. In birds, the mechanisms that create these colours are diverse, but all are based on ordered arrays of melanin granules within a keratin substrate in barbules. The feathers of the grackles and allies in the family Icteridae range in appearance from matte black to iridescent. In a phylogenetic analysis of this clade, we identified several evolutionary transitions between these colour states. To describe a possible mechanistic explanation for the lability of plumage coloration, we used spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and thin-film optical modelling of the feathers of 10 icterid species from five genera, including taxa with matte black or iridescent feathers. In matte black species, melanin was densely packed in barbules, while in iridescent species, melanin granules were arranged in ordered layers around the edges of barbules. The structured arrangement of melanin granules in iridescent species created optical interfaces, which are shown by our optical models to be critical for iridescent colour production by coherent scattering. These data imply that rearrangement of melanin granules in barbules is a mechanism for shifts between black and iridescent colours, and that the relative simplicity of this mechanism may explain the lability of plumage colour state within this group. PMID:17015306

  7. Direct observation of isolated Damon-Eshbach and backward volume spin-wave packets in ferromagnetic microstripes

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Philipp; Vogel, Andreas; Tödt, Jan-Niklas; Wieland, Marek; Meier, Guido; Drescher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of isolated spin-wave packets is crucial for the understanding of magnetic transport phenomena and is particularly interesting for applications in spintronic and magnonic devices, where isolated spin-wave packets implement an information processing scheme with negligible residual heat loss. We have captured microscale magnetization dynamics of single spin-wave packets in metallic ferromagnets in space and time. Using an optically driven high-current picosecond pulse source in combination with time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy probed by femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate phase-sensitive real-space observation of spin-wave packets in confined permalloy (Ni80Fe20) microstripes. Impulsive excitation permits extraction of the dynamical parameters, i.e. phase- and group velocities, frequencies and wave vectors. In addition to well-established Damon-Eshbach modes our study reveals waves with counterpropagating group- and phase-velocities. Such unusual spin-wave motion is expected for backward volume modes where the phase fronts approach the excitation volume rather than emerging out of it due to the negative slope of the dispersion relation. These modes are difficult to excite and observe directly but feature analogies to negative refractive index materials, thus enabling model studies of wave propagation inside metamaterials. PMID:26906113

  8. Direct observation of isolated Damon-Eshbach and backward volume spin-wave packets in ferromagnetic microstripes.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Philipp; Vogel, Andreas; Tödt, Jan-Niklas; Wieland, Marek; Meier, Guido; Drescher, Markus

    2016-02-24

    The analysis of isolated spin-wave packets is crucial for the understanding of magnetic transport phenomena and is particularly interesting for applications in spintronic and magnonic devices, where isolated spin-wave packets implement an information processing scheme with negligible residual heat loss. We have captured microscale magnetization dynamics of single spin-wave packets in metallic ferromagnets in space and time. Using an optically driven high-current picosecond pulse source in combination with time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy probed by femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate phase-sensitive real-space observation of spin-wave packets in confined permalloy (Ni80Fe20) microstripes. Impulsive excitation permits extraction of the dynamical parameters, i.e. phase- and group velocities, frequencies and wave vectors. In addition to well-established Damon-Eshbach modes our study reveals waves with counterpropagating group- and phase-velocities. Such unusual spin-wave motion is expected for backward volume modes where the phase fronts approach the excitation volume rather than emerging out of it due to the negative slope of the dispersion relation. These modes are difficult to excite and observe directly but feature analogies to negative refractive index materials, thus enabling model studies of wave propagation inside metamaterials.

  9. Direct observation of isolated Damon-Eshbach and backward volume spin-wave packets in ferromagnetic microstripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Philipp; Vogel, Andreas; Tödt, Jan-Niklas; Wieland, Marek; Meier, Guido; Drescher, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of isolated spin-wave packets is crucial for the understanding of magnetic transport phenomena and is particularly interesting for applications in spintronic and magnonic devices, where isolated spin-wave packets implement an information processing scheme with negligible residual heat loss. We have captured microscale magnetization dynamics of single spin-wave packets in metallic ferromagnets in space and time. Using an optically driven high-current picosecond pulse source in combination with time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy probed by femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate phase-sensitive real-space observation of spin-wave packets in confined permalloy (Ni80Fe20) microstripes. Impulsive excitation permits extraction of the dynamical parameters, i.e. phase- and group velocities, frequencies and wave vectors. In addition to well-established Damon-Eshbach modes our study reveals waves with counterpropagating group- and phase-velocities. Such unusual spin-wave motion is expected for backward volume modes where the phase fronts approach the excitation volume rather than emerging out of it due to the negative slope of the dispersion relation. These modes are difficult to excite and observe directly but feature analogies to negative refractive index materials, thus enabling model studies of wave propagation inside metamaterials.

  10. Treating children with affect dysregulation. Discussion of Dr. Wendy Olesker's analysis of Matt.

    PubMed

    Yanof, Judith A

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of Dr. Wendy Olesker's sensitive analytic treatment of an impulsive, affectively dysregulated, preschool child. Drawing on her knowledge and understanding of developmental interference, trauma, and conflict, Dr. Olesker uses a variety of nonverbal, interpretative, developmental, and play techniques during the analysis to help this boy progress in his development. She also works with the parents collaboratively as part of the therapeutic process. Because Dr. Olesker's description of Matt might easily fit a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, it is suggested that child analysts recognize the usefulness of considering child analysis when they are evaluating or treating children with this diagnosis.

  11. Verification of the Multi-Axial, Temperature and Time Dependent (MATT) Failure Criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, David E.; Macon, David J.

    2005-01-01

    An extensive test and analytical effort has been completed by the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (KSKM) nozzle program to characterize the failure behavior of two epoxy adhesives (TIGA 321 and EA946). As part of this effort, a general failure model, the "Multi-Axial, Temperature, and Time Dependent" or MATT failure criterion was developed. In the initial development of this failure criterion, tests were conducted to provide validation of the theory under a wide range of test conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present additional verification of the MATT failure criterion, under new loading conditions for the adhesives TIGA 321 and EA946. In many cases, the loading conditions involve an extrapolation from the conditions under which the material models were originally developed. Testing was conducted using three loading conditions: multi-axial tension, torsional shear, and non-uniform tension in a bondline condition. Tests were conducted at constant and cyclic loading rates ranging over four orders of magnitude. Tests were conducted under environmental conditions of primary interest to the RSRM program. The temperature range was not extreme, but the loading ranges were extreme (varying by four orders of magnitude). It should be noted that the testing was conducted at temperatures below the glass transition temperature of the TIGA 321 adhesive. However for the EA946, the testing was conducted at temperatures that bracketed the glass transition temperature.

  12. Symmetric frenzy and catastrophic change: a consideration of primitive mental states in the wake of Bion and Matte Blanco.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Riccardo

    2009-06-01

    The author explores the connections between Matte Blanco's notion of symmetric frenzy, i.e. the turbulence characteristic of the deepest levels of mental functioning, and Bion's concept of catastrophic change. For Bion, mental links are retrieved from the formless darkness of infinity. With catastrophic change, emotional violence and the confining nature of representation come into conflict, leaving the subject prey to an explosiveness that paralyses mental resources. Matte Blanco identifies indivisibility as the abyss in which all differentiation ceases; he bases his model on the conflict between symmetry and asymmetry. Infinity, he maintains, is where the first forms of mentalization develop. Both Bion and Matte Blanco emphasize the contrast between the immensity of mental space and the spatio-temporal order introduced by the activation of thinking functions. The author presents clinical material from the analysis of a psychotic patient, stressing the need to encourage both working through the defect of thinking (Bion) and 'unfolding' manifestations of symmetry (Matte Blanco) so as to foster the activation of the resources of thought, meanwhile postponing transference interpretation. He concludes with two later sessions, in which recognition of the analyst in the transference allows the analysand to develop his capacity for containment and asymmetric differentiation.

  13. ISACONVERT™—Continuous converting of nickel/PGM matte with calcium ferrite slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, M. L.; Nikolic, S.; Alvear, G. R. F.

    2011-05-01

    The ISASMELT™ process is a top submerged lance (TSL) bath smelting technology which has been developed and optimized over the last 25 years. By the end of 2011, the total installed capacity of the ISASMELT technology will exceed 9,000,000 tonnes per year of feed materials in copper and lead smelters around the world. Commercial plants, operating in Belgium and Germany, are also batch converting copper materials in ISASMELT furnaces. This TSL technology is equally effective for continuous converting processes, whereupon it is called ISACONVERT™. Xstrata Technology (XT) has recently patented a new ISACONVERT process for the continuous converting of nickel/platinum group metal (PGM) mattes using the calcium ferrite slag system. This paper outlines the development of this new process and presents a conceptual flowsheet for how it can be integrated into an existing nickel/PGM smelter.

  14. Technical Note: On the Matt-Shuttleworth approach to estimate crop water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, J. P.; Boudhina, N.; Masmoudi, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    The Matt-Shuttleworth method provides a way to make a one-step estimate of crop water requirements with the Penman-Monteith equation by translating the crop coefficients, commonly available in United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) publications, into equivalent surface resistances. The methodology is based upon the theoretical relationship linking crop surface resistance to a crop coefficient and involves the simplifying assumption that the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) is equal to the Priestley-Taylor estimate with a fixed coefficient of 1.26. This assumption, used to eliminate the dependence of surface resistance on certain weather variables, is questionable; numerical simulations show that it can lead to substantial differences between the true value of surface resistance and its estimate. Consequently, the basic relationship between surface resistance and crop coefficient, without any assumption, appears to be more appropriate for inferring crop surface resistance, despite the interference of weather variables.

  15. Improved Multi-Axial, Temperature and Time Dependent (MATT) Failure Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, D. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Macon, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    An extensive effort has recently been completed by the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle program to completely characterize the effects of multi-axial loading, temperature and time on the failure characteristics of three filled epoxy adhesives (TIGA 321, EA913NA, EA946). As part of this effort, a single general failure criterion was developed that accounted for these effects simultaneously. This model was named the Multi- Axial, Temperature, and Time Dependent or MATT failure criterion. Due to the intricate nature of the failure criterion, some parameters were required to be calculated using complex equations or numerical methods. This paper documents some simple but accurate modifications to the failure criterion to allow for calculations of failure conditions without complex equations or numerical techniques.

  16. Efficient and selective recovery of Ni, Cu, and Co from low-nickel matte via a hydrometallurgical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang-ju; Gao, Jian-ming; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2017-03-01

    Low-nickel matte was intensively characterized, and Ni, Cu, and Co were determined to exist mainly as (Fe,Ni)9S8 and FeNi3, Cu5FeS4, and (Fe,Ni)9S8 and Fe3O4 (in isomorphic form), respectively. The efficient and selective extraction of Ni, Cu, and Co from the low-nickel matte in an (NH4)2S2O8/NH3·H2O solution system was studied. The effects of (NH4)2S2O8 and NH3·H2O concentrations, leaching time, and leaching temperature on the metal extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. During the oxidative ammonia leaching process, the metal extraction efficiencies of Ni 81.07%, Cu 93.81%, and Co 71.74% were obtained under the optimal conditions. The relatively low leaching efficiency of Ni was mainly ascribed to NiFe alloy deactivation in ammonia solution. By introducing an acid pre-leaching process into the oxidative ammonia leaching process, we achieved the high extraction efficiencies of 98.03%, 99.13%, and 85.60% for the valuable metals Ni, Cu, and Co, respectively, from the low-nickel matte.

  17. Evaluation of a Multi-Axial, Temperature, and Time Dependent (MATT) Failure Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, D. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Macon, D. J.; Rudolphi, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding the response of the structural adhesives used in the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle, an extensive effort has been conducted to characterize in detail the failure properties of these adhesives. This effort involved the development of a failure model that includes the effects of multi-axial loading, temperature, and time. An understanding of the effects of these parameters on the failure of the adhesive is crucial to the understanding and prediction of the safety of the RSRM nozzle. This paper documents the use of this newly developed multi-axial, temperature, and time (MATT) dependent failure model for modeling failure for the adhesives TIGA 321, EA913NA, and EA946. The development of the mathematical failure model using constant load rate normal and shear test data is presented. Verification of the accuracy of the failure model is shown through comparisons between predictions and measured creep and multi-axial failure data. The verification indicates that the failure model performs well for a wide range of conditions (loading, temperature, and time) for the three adhesives. The failure criterion is shown to be accurate through the glass transition for the adhesive EA946. Though this failure model has been developed and evaluated with adhesives, the concepts are applicable for other isotropic materials.

  18. Seasonal variation of leaf ecophysiological traits within the canopy of Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. trees.

    PubMed

    Szöllösi, Erzsébet; Oláh, V; Kanalas, P; Kis, J; Fenyvesi, A; Mészáros, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Facing contrasting light regimes during a vegetation season and depending on canopy position, physiological plasticity of leaves is vital for tree species to sustain the optimal ratio between the benefit of carbon assimilation and the costs of photoprotection in a given leaf. We tested the seasonal adjustment of sun and shade leaf photochemistry of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) to changing light environments by parallel investigation of the meteorological conditions, photosynthetic pigment content, PSII quantum efficiency and excitation energy quenching. Sun and shade leaves got adapted to their prevailing light regimes till mid of May. High LMA was a favourable trait in avoiding water loss and decreasing photoinhibition in both flushing and sun leaves, while low LMA optimized the light absorbing leaf surface in the lower canopy layer. Partitioning of excitation energy dissipation pathyways that is PSII photochemistry-Y(II), regulated-Y(NPQ) and non-regulated-Y(NO) quenching changed significantly during leaf ontogeny and with the position of leaves in the canopy. At 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1)Y(II) < Y (NO) < Y (NPQ) was characteristic to early developmental stage of leaves from both canopy layers and to mature shade leaves, and Y(NO) < Y (II) < Y (NPQ) to mature sun leaves but the magnitude of Y(NPQ) and violaxanthin cycle activity differed in different canopy positions.

  19. A Phenomenological Perspective of Educating Students at the Matt Garcia Learning Center: Resiliency Development, Responsibility Development and Relationship Building Development Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Robert Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The professional educators of Matt Garcia Learning Center (MGLC) have undertaken a monumental task of providing education to students considered to be significantly at-risk in a public school of choice. These educators are focusing on quelling the "negative success trajectory" prevalent for each of the students of MGLC. Understanding the…

  20. Transformation/dissolution characteristics of a nickel matte and nickel concentrates for acute and chronic hazard classification.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, James M; Beaudoin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    For the purposes of aquatic hazard classification under the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification (UNGHS), we have examined the transformation/dissolution (T/D) characteristics of a Ni matte and 4 Ni concentrates at pH 6 using the United Nations (UN) Transformation/Dissolution Protocol (T/DP) for metals and sparingly soluble metal compounds. Among the analytes Ni, Co, and Cu, Ni was released into the T/D solutions in the highest concentrations and was thus the main driver in establishing the hazard classification. We applied an extrapolation-scaling approach to obtain concentrations of total dissolved Ni at low loadings of 0.1 and 0.01 mg/L for derivation of chronic classification outcomes in the European Union (EU) classification, labeling, and packaging (CLP) scheme. The T/D data would classify the Ni matte as Acute 2-Chronic 2 under the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) scheme, and Chronic 1 under the EU CLP. Three of the 4 Ni concentrates would classify as GHS Acute 2-Chronic 2 and EU CLP Chronic 2, whereas the 4th would classify as GHS Acute 3-Chronic 3 and EU CLP Chronic 3. In applying the critical surface area (CSA) approach to the Ni concentrates, acute and chronic hazard classification outcomes were the same as those derived from direct application of the T/D data to the GHS and EU schemes. Such agreement provided confidence that the CSA approach could yield scientifically defensible acute and chronic hazard classification outcomes.

  1. Regeneration Patterns of European Oak Species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in Dependence of Environment and Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings

  2. Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings.

  3. Using “Sub-cement” to simulate the long-term fatigue response of cemented femoral stems in a cadaver model: could a novel pre-clinical screening test have caught the Exeter matte problem?

    PubMed Central

    Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we formulated cement with degraded fatigue properties (sub-cement) to simulate long-term fatigue in short-term cadaver tests. The present study determined the efficacy of sub-cement in a `pre-clinical' test of a design change with known clinical consequences: the “polished” to “matte” transition of the Exeter stem (revision rates were twice as high for matte stems). Contemporary stems were bead-blasted to give Ra=1micron (matte finish). Matte and polished stems were compared in cadaver pairs under stair-climbing loads (3 pairs size-1, 3 pairs size-3). Stem micromotion was monitored during loading. Post-test, transverse sections were examined for cement damage. Cyclic retroversion decreased for polished stems but increased for matte stems (p<0.0001). Implant size had a substantial effect: retroversion of (larger) size-3 stems was half that of size-1 stems and polished size-3 stems subsided 2½ times more than the others. Cement damage measures were similar and open through-cracks occurred around both stems of two pairs. Stem retroversion within the mantle resulted in stem-cement gaps of 50–150microns. Combining information on cyclic motion, cracks, and gaps, we concluded that this test `predicted' higher revision rates for matte stems (it also implied that polished size-3 stems might be superior to size-1). PMID:20476506

  4. Sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co Alloy to Matte Phase by Carbothermic Reduction of Calcium Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eui Hyuk; Nam, Chul Woo; Park, Kyung Ho; Park, Joo Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) is proposed as an alternative sulfur source to convert the Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy to the matte phase. Solid carbon was used as a reducing agent and the influence of oxide fluxes on the sulfurization efficiency at 1673 K (1400 °C) in a CO-CO2-SO2-Ar atmosphere was investigated. When CaSO4 was equilibrated with the Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy without any reducing agent, it was reduced by Fe in the liquid alloy, resulting in the formation of FeS. The sulfurization efficiency was about 56 pct, even though an excess amount of CaSO4 (gypsum equivalent, G eq = 1.7) was added. Adding solid carbon as the reducing agent significantly shortened the equilibration time from 36 to 3.5 hours and increased the sulfurization efficiency from 56 to 91 pct, even though the amount of carbon was lower than the theoretical equivalent for carbothermic reduction of CaSO4, viz. C eq = 0.7. Although CaS (not FeS) was formed as a primary reaction product, it continuously reacted with CaSO4, forming CaO-rich slag. Neither the carbothermic reduction time nor the sulfurization efficiency were affected by the addition of Al2O3 (-SiO2) fluxes, but the equilibration time fell to 2.5 hours with the addition of Al2O3-Fe2O3 flux because the former systems produced primarily calcium silicate and calcium aluminate, which have relatively high melting points, whereas the latter system produced calcium ferrite, which has a lower melting point. Consequently, calcium sulfate (waste gypsum) can replace expensive pure sulfur as a raw material in the sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy with small amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3) as a flux material. The present results can be used to improve the recovery of rare metals, such as Ni and Co, from deep sea manganese nodules.

  5. Negligible sulfur isotope fractionation during partial melting: Evidence from Garrett transform fault basalts, implications for the late-veneer and the hadean matte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labidi, J.; Cartigny, P.

    2016-10-01

    MORBs and ITLs record the 34S/32S ratio of their mantle source. The concept of sulfide melts segregating from the mantle, sinking and being added to the core during planetary differentiation was termed the 'Hadean Matte'. The segregation of sulfides from the mantle to the core during planetary differentiation could account for various geochemical features of the Earth's mantle. Based on S isotopic mass balance, we derive a lower and upper limit for the hadean matte. While the lower bound corresponds to a virtually negligible hadean matte, the upper limit is 3.36 ×1024gS (i.e. ∼10% of the bulk terrestrial S), which remains 5 to 10 times lower than previous estimates. This upper bound nonetheless requires high mantle S content >1000 ppm S before the extraction of the hadean matte. This suggestion would have chronological requirements, requiring any sulfide melt to have formed after the core extraction but before late accretion of the highly siderophile elements.

  6. Age-related variation in carbon allocation at tree and stand scales in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) using a chronosequence approach.

    PubMed

    Genet, H; Bréda, N; Dufrêne, E

    2010-02-01

    Two types of physiological mechanisms can contribute to growth decline with age: (i) the mechanisms leading to the reduction of carbon assimilation (input) and (ii) those leading to modification of the resource economy. Surprisingly, the processes relating to carbon allocation have been little investigated as compared to research on the processes governing carbon assimilation. The objective of this paper was thus to test the hypothesis that growth decrease related to age is accompanied by changes in carbon allocation to the benefit of storage and reproductive functions in two contrasting broad-leaved species: beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.). Age-related changes in carbon allocation were studied using a chronosequence approach. Chronosequences, each consisting of several even-aged stands ranging from 14 to 175 years old for beech and from 30 to 134 years old for sessile oak, were divided into five or six age classes. In this study, carbon allocations to growth, storage and reproduction were defined as the relative amount of carbon invested in biomass increment, carbohydrate increment and seed production, respectively. Tree-ring width and allometric relationships were used to assess biomass increment at the tree and stand scales. Below-ground biomass was assessed using a specific allometric relationship between root:shoot ratio and age, established from the literature review. Seasonal variations of carbohydrate concentrations were used to assess carbon allocation to storage. Reproduction effort was quantified for beech stands by collecting seed and cupule production. Age-related flagging of biomass productivity was assessed at the tree and stand scales, and carbohydrate quantities in trees increased with age for both species. Seed and cupule production increased with stand age in beech from 56 gC m(-)(2) year(-1) at 30 years old to 129 gC m(-2) year(-1) at 138 years old. In beech, carbon allocation to storage and

  7. Hey Matt! There's a "Reason" We Write Like Every Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussant, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Fifth grade teacher Molly Toussant realized with chagrin that she habitually mouthed her precepts about teaching writing in the same rote way she had recited the Apostles' Creed in Sunday school, and that her students had no idea why they had to write "like every day." So she wrote this explication in which she shows, with many examples, how her…

  8. Generating wave vector specific Damon-Eshbach spin waves in Py using a diffraction grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklenar, J.; Bhat, V. S.; Tsai, C. C.; DeLong, L. E.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    A patterned square silver antidot lattice on a thin uniform permalloy film facilitates direct coupling of a quasi-uniform microwave field to short wavelength magnetic modes. The resulting modes are studied as a function of both the magnitude and orientation (relative to the symmetry axes of the array) of an in-plane, external DC magnetic field. The observed modes are identified as surface spin waves with wavelengths matching the Fourier components of the silver array.

  9. Light-induced magnetic precession in (Ga,Mn)As slabs: Hybrid standing-wave Damon-Eshbach modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. M.; Ren, Y. H.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K.; Grimsditch, M.; Merlin, R.

    2007-06-01

    Coherent oscillations associated with spin precessions were observed in ultrafast optical experiments on ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As films. Using a complete theoretical description of the processes by which light couples to the magnetization, values for the anisotropy constants and the spin stiffness were unambiguously determined from the data. Estimates for the hole-Mn exchange coupling are significantly larger than those previously reported. Results also reveal an important negative contribution to the energy due to surface anisotropy leading to excitations that are a mixture of bulk waves and surface modes.

  10. The Feingold Diet: An Assessment of the Reviews by Mattes, by Kavale and Forness and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    The author responds to two other articles (EC 152 801 and 152 802) questioning the benefits of the Feingold diet as treatment for hyperactivity. He cites six weaknesses with studies evaluating the Feingold approach, including small dosage levels, failure to recognize and control relevant variables, and arbitrary negative conclusions. (CL)

  11. Genome scanning for interspecific differentiation between two closely related oak species [Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl.].

    PubMed

    Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Mariette, Stéphanie; Porth, Ilga; Goicoechea, Pablo G; Barreneche, Teresa; Bodénès, Catherine; Burg, Kornel; Kremer, Antoine

    2004-11-01

    Interspecific differentiation values (G(ST)) between two closely related oak species (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) were compiled across different studies with the aim to explore the distribution of differentiation at the genome level. The study was based on a total set of 389 markers (isozymes, AFLPs, SCARs, microsatellites, and SNPs) for which allelic frequencies were estimated in pairs of populations sampled throughout the sympatric distribution of the two species. The overall distribution of G(ST) values followed an L-shaped curve with most markers exhibiting low species differentiation (G(ST) < 0.01) and only a few loci reaching >10% levels. Twelve percent of the loci exhibited significant G(ST) deviations to neutral expectations, suggesting that selection contributed to species divergence. Coding regions expressed higher differentiation than noncoding regions. Among the 389 markers, 158 could be mapped on the 12 linkage groups of the existing Q. robur genetic map. Outlier loci with large G(ST) values were distributed over 9 linkage groups. One cluster of three outlier loci was found within 0.51 cM; but significant autocorrelation of G(ST) was observed at distances <2 cM. The size and distribution of genomic regions involved in species divergence are discussed in reference to hitchhiking effects and disruptive selection.

  12. Genome Scanning for Interspecific Differentiation Between Two Closely Related Oak Species [Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl.

    PubMed Central

    Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Mariette, Stéphanie; Porth, Ilga; Goicoechea, Pablo G.; Barreneche, Teresa; Bodénès, Catherine; Burg, Kornel; Kremer, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Interspecific differentiation values (GST) between two closely related oak species (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) were compiled across different studies with the aim to explore the distribution of differentiation at the genome level. The study was based on a total set of 389 markers (isozymes, AFLPs, SCARs, microsatellites, and SNPs) for which allelic frequencies were estimated in pairs of populations sampled throughout the sympatric distribution of the two species. The overall distribution of GST values followed an L-shaped curve with most markers exhibiting low species differentiation (GST < 0.01) and only a few loci reaching >10% levels. Twelve percent of the loci exhibited significant GST deviations to neutral expectations, suggesting that selection contributed to species divergence. Coding regions expressed higher differentiation than noncoding regions. Among the 389 markers, 158 could be mapped on the 12 linkage groups of the existing Q. robur genetic map. Outlier loci with large GST values were distributed over 9 linkage groups. One cluster of three outlier loci was found within 0.51 cM; but significant autocorrelation of GST was observed at distances <2 cM. The size and distribution of genomic regions involved in species divergence are discussed in reference to hitchhiking effects and disruptive selection. PMID:15579711

  13. Optimal decision making modeling for copper-matte Peirce-Smith converting process by means of data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanpo; Peng, Xiaoqi; Tang, Ying; Hu, Zhikun

    2013-07-01

    To improve the operation level of copper converter, the approach to optimal decision making modeling for coppermatte converting process based on data mining is studied: in view of the characteristics of the process data, such as containing noise, small sample size and so on, a new robust improved ANN (artificial neural network) modeling method is proposed; taking into account the application purpose of decision making model, three new evaluation indexes named support, confidence and relative confidence are proposed; using real production data and the methods mentioned above, optimal decision making model for blowing time of S1 period (the 1st slag producing period) are developed. Simulation results show that this model can significantly improve the converting quality of S1 period, increase the optimal probability from about 70% to about 85%.

  14. 77 FR 66870 - Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... meilinger.francis2@dol.gov . For general information: Mr. Damon Bonneau, OSHA Directorate of Construction...-693-2020; email bonneau.damon@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Assistant Secretary...

  15. Strength, diversity and plasticity of postmating reproductive barriers between two hybridizing oak species (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl.).

    PubMed

    Abadie, P; Roussel, G; Dencausse, B; Bonnet, C; Bertocchi, E; Louvet, J-M; Kremer, A; Garnier-Géré, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about the nature and strength of reproductive isolation (RI) in Quercus species, despite extensive research on the estimation and evolutionary significance of hybridization rates. We characterized postmating pre- and postzygotic RI between two hybridizing oak species, Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, using a large set of controlled crosses between different genotypes. Various traits potentially associated with reproductive barriers were quantified at several life history stages, from pollen-pistil interactions to seed set and progeny fitness-related traits. Results indicate strong intrinsic postmating prezygotic barriers, with significant barriers also at the postzygotic level, but relatively weaker extrinsic barriers on early hybrid fitness measures assessed in controlled conditions. Using general linear modelling of common garden data with clonal replicates, we showed that most traits exhibited important genotypic differences, as well as different levels of sensitivity to micro-environmental heterogeneity. These new findings suggest a large potential genetic diversity and plasticity of reproductive barriers and are confronted with hybridization evidence in these oak species.

  16. Seasonal and diurnal variability in sap flow intensity of mature sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) trees in relation to microclimatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kanalas, P; Fenyvesi, A; Kis, J; Szöllösi, Erzsébet; Oláh, V; Ander, I; Mészáros, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    In this study sap flow dynamics of mature sessile oak trees (Quercus petraea) in a marginal sessile oak-turkey oak forest was investigated in 2009. That year spring was dry without significant rain in April and May and the driest month was August. Due to the extreme weather conditions the volumetric soil water content (SWC) of upper 30 cm was low on experimental days in May (0.13-0.14 cm3 cm-3) but it reached the lowest value in August (0.08 cm3 cm-3). Sap flow was measured in a dominant and a co-dominant tree by heat dissipation method from 26 March till 30 October. In the present paper several three-day long periods of the continuous seasonal recordings were chosen to represent the effects of typical weather conditions and different stages of canopy development on sap flow dynamics. The daily maximum sap flow density values of dominant and co-dominant trees were similar (0.30-0.32 cm3 cm-2 min-1) in moist period (July). Rains and transient increase of SWC after proceeding drought resulted in change of diurnal course of sap flow in experimental days of July. In this period dominant trees also showed considerable sap flow (0.19 cm3 cm-2 min-1) during night hours and short sap flow peaks in early morning (6:00 to 8:00 a.m.) indicating the refilling of desiccated tissues. After the progressive drought in August the daily maximum sap flow density decreased to 0.07 cm3 cm-2 min-1 in dominant tree and to 0.12 cm3 cm-2 min-1 in the co-dominant. Both trees exhibited gradual stomatal closure from morning hours.

  17. A Diversity Visionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

  18. Building on Treacherous Ground: Sense-of-Purpose Research and Demarcating Problematic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental psychologist Damon's (Damon, Menon, & Cotton Bronk, 2003) ongoing research program on youth purpose may have important practical implications for education. However, in the course of the development of this research, two fundamental conceptual questions have not yet been resolved satisfactorily: (a) How should "sense of purpose" be…

  19. Helping Students Find a Sense of Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Susan

    2009-01-01

    William Damon, a professor of education at Stanford University, has long advocated "character education" as a key component of school reform. The author of several books on the subject, his latest is "The Path to Purpose: Helping Our Children Find Their Calling in Life". In this article, the author presents an interview with Damon. He discusses…

  20. Developmental Consistencies in Children's Socio-Moral Knowledge: Justice Reasoning and Altruistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blotner, Roberta; Bearison, David J.

    This study examined the relationship between moral reasoning and altruistic behavior in 120 boys, 4- to 11-years old. Subjects were administered Damon's Positive- Justice Interview, and were presented helping and sharing tasks under five behavioral conditions corresponding to Damon's justice levels. Findings supported cognitive- developmental…

  1. Command and Control in Africa: Three Case Studies before and after Tactical C2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Views July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 119 Command and Control in Africa Three Case Studies before and after Tactical C2 Maj Damon ...agencies such as the National Air and Space Intelligence Center and the National Geospatial Agency. Maj Damon Matlock, USAF Major Matlock (BS, Regents

  2. Signs of Drug Use and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts ... Antonio_Diaz Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn' ...

  3. The Impact of Turbulent Fluctuations on Light Propagation in a Controlled Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Turbulent Fluctuations on Light Propagation in a Controlled Environment 6, AUTHOR(S) Silvia Matt, Weilin Hou and Wesley Goode 5a. CONTRACT...controlled environment Silvia Matt ■’, Weilin Hou ^, and Wesley Goode ^ ^ National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Associate ^ Ocean Sciences...author: Silvia Matt: E-mail: silvia.matt.ctr@nrlssc.navy.mil 2X)\\^0U$’^%1 Ocean Sensing and Monitoring VI, edited by Weilin W. Hou, Robert A. Arnone

  4. Measurements of Turbulent Dissipation During the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-16

    Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment 0601153N 73-6604-03-5 Silvia Matt, Weilin Hou, Sarah Woods, Ewa Jarosz, Wesley Goode and Alan Weidemann Naval...of turbulent dissipation during the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment Silvia Matt 1,2, Weilin Hou 2, Sarah Woods 3, Ewa Jarosz 2, Wesley Goode 2...SPEC Inc., Boulder, CO, USA Corresponding author: Silvia Matt: E-mail: silvia.matt.ctr.de@nrlssc.navy.mil Figure 1. Location of stations during BOTEX

  5. Spin Wave Diffraction and Perfect Imaging of a Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, S.; Topp, J.; Martens, K.; Toedt, J. N.; Hansen, W.; Heitmann, D.; Mendach, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the diffraction of Damon-Eshbach-type spin waves incident on a one-dimensional grating realized by microslits in a thin Permalloy film. By means of time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy, we observe unique diffraction patterns behind the grating which exhibit replications of the spin wave field at the slits. We show that these spin wave images, with details finer than the wavelength of the incident Damon-Eshbach spin wavelength, arise from the strongly anisotropic spin wave dispersion.

  6. Theory of unidirectional spin heat conveyer

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Hiroto Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2015-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect recently reported in the literature that emerges from the Damon-Eshbach spin wave on the surface of a magnetic material. We develop a simple phenomenological theory for heat transfer dynamics in a coupled system of phonons and the Damon-Eshbach spin wave, and demonstrate that there arises a direction-selective heat flow as a result of the competition between an isotropic heat diffusion by phonons and a unidirectional heat drift by the spin wave. The phenomenological approach can account for the asymmetric local temperature distribution observed in the experiment.

  7. Theory of unidirectional spin heat conveyer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Hiroto; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect recently reported in the literature that emerges from the Damon-Eshbach spin wave on the surface of a magnetic material. We develop a simple phenomenological theory for heat transfer dynamics in a coupled system of phonons and the Damon-Eshbach spin wave, and demonstrate that there arises a direction-selective heat flow as a result of the competition between an isotropic heat diffusion by phonons and a unidirectional heat drift by the spin wave. The phenomenological approach can account for the asymmetric local temperature distribution observed in the experiment.

  8. Exploring defocus matting: nonparametric acceleration, super-resolution, and off-center matting.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neel; Matusik, Wojciech; Avidan, Shai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Freeman, William T

    2007-01-01

    Defocus matting is a fully automatic and passive method for pulling mattes from video captured with coaxial cameras that have different depths of field and planes of focus. Nonparametric sampling can accelerate the video-matting process from minutes to seconds per frame. In addition a super-resolution technique efficiently bridges the gap between mattes from high-resolution video cameras and those from low-resolution cameras. Off-center matting pulls mattes for an external high-resolution camera that doesn't share the same center of projection as the low-resolution cameras used to capture the defocus matting data.

  9. F-16 Speaker-Independent Speech Recognition System Using Cockpit Commands (70 Words)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    speakers are Matt, Gary , Dave, Kris, and Debbie. The vocabulary list is shown in Figure 4.3. Notice the size of vocabulary is significantly increased from...Percent Debbie (Female) 4/10 40 Kris (Female) 2/10 20 Dave (Male) 8/10 80 Gary (Male) 6/10 60 * Matt (Male) 10/10 100 TOTAL 30/50 60 5-3 S I I for...Percent Debbie (Female) 8/10 80 Kris (Female) 3/10 30 Dave (Male) 5/10 50 Gary (Male) 8/10 80 * Matt (Male) 10/10 100 TOTAL 34/50 68 to the time length of

  10. 75 FR 62518 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for....: 12717-002. c. Date filed: May 27, 2009. d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of...). h. Applicant Contact: Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue,...

  11. 75 FR 62516 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for....: 12626-002. c. Date filed: March 31, 2009. d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791 (a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois...

  12. An Exploratory Study on the Assessment of Pre-Service Teacher Dispositions by Teacher Education Programs in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindle, Sharon Evans

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Within the higher education community there is discourse regarding teacher dispositions and the assessment of dispositions. Murray (2007) and Damon (2007) posited that additional scholarship and research were needed to provide a meaningful construct of dispositions. With this lack of consensus, teacher education programs need to explore…

  13. Volunteerism as Purpose: Examining the Long-Term Predictors of Continued Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Mueller, Conrad T.; Ogata, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study frames continued long-term participation in community engagement activities as indicative of a sense of "purpose" as defined by Damon, Menon, and Cotton Bronk (2003). Using data from US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined factors that predict whether students participating in civic engagement…

  14. Analysis of Ligand Binding ErbB Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    to the X12B data ( Riso ). Heavy Soak X-ray Source Resolution Completenes I/cT Rsym Riso Atom Condition Limit s (mean) (multiplicity) PIP (Pt) 1 mM 18 h...Research Fund of the Damon Runyon- Walter Winchell Foundation (to for n moles of i different species with molecular weight Mi M.A.L) and the Research

  15. Creating a Classroom Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholes, Daniel R.; Kubelick, Cheryl L.

    This manual for elementary school teachers discusses the stages of social reasoning and suggests methods for establishing a classroom and school-wide community to aid students in social reasoning and self-governance. The document contains five sections. Section one focuses on the stages of social reasoning according to William Damon: premoral…

  16. Intratask and Intertask Consistency of Moral Judgment Indices in First-, Third-, and Fifth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sandra; Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    Damon's positive justice task, Selman's social-moral dilemmas, and a variation of Piaget's intent/consequence stories were administered to 72 elementary school students. Results showed that the level of moral reasoning increased with grade level, but inconsistencies in task performance were found at both the intratask and the intertask levels.…

  17. Learning to Share: How Literature Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne Lowell; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1983-01-01

    Discusses elements of developmental theory needed in selecting literature for children, synthesizing Damon's (1977) and Selman's (1976) primary school stages. Criteria for choosing books about sharing are suggested, and an annotated list of books about sharing is offered along with suggestions for using the books. (RH)

  18. Moral Judgment, Self-Understanding, and Moral Actions: The Role of Multiple Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryberry, W. Pitt; Thoma, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Current models of moral functioning such as those of Rest (1983) and Damon and Hart (1988) have maintained that optimal moral development and consistent moral action require the presence of multiple constructs. In order to examine the importance of the presence of multiple variables relevant to moral functioning, structural equation modeling was…

  19. U.S. Space Program Benefits to Education. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Space of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

    This hearing was held to review the educational benefits of the U.S. Space Program. Testimony was given by three panels of experts related to this topic. The three panels consisted of: (1) Daniel S. Goldin, Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Dan Brandenstein, Captain, U.S. Navy, NASA Astronaut; and Damon Butler,…

  20. "But What about Sharing?" Children's Literature and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne Lowell; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1985-01-01

    Briefly states the stages of moral development in children (Damon 1977). Discusses ways in which children's literature dealing with social issues can help children reason about topics such as distributive justice. Identifies guidelines for related discussions and lists books and questions that stimulate discussion on sharing. (AS)

  1. Majority of Youths Found to Lack a Direction in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    A majority of young people are struggling to make the leap into adulthood, and educators, parents, and communities should make a more concerted effort to help rudderless youths find a clear direction and overarching sense of purpose, according to a new book by Stanford University psychologist William Damon. In "The Path to Purpose: Helping Our…

  2. Book Review. Studying Change in Children: Structuralist versus Interactionist Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses points of disagreement and agreement between symbolic interactionist (Denzin, N. "Childhood Socialization," 1977) and structural-developmental psychologist (Damon, W. "The Social World of the Child," 1977). Argues that there are perhaps more points of convergence between the two perspectives than one would initially…

  3. Global Kids Organizing in the Global City: Generation of Social Capital in a Youth Organizing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesús, Anthony; Oviedo, Sofia; Feliz, Scarlett

    2015-01-01

    Positive youth development and youth organizing are strengths-based approaches to the lives, needs, and contributions of young people (Damon & Gregory, 2003). These approaches privilege the voices of youth as they engage with issues in their communities and challenge institutions to respond. Few studies, however, have explored the role of…

  4. Moral Education for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stengel, Susan R.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an overview of Kohlberg's five stages of moral reasoning and Damon's levels of positive justice. Argues that a conditioning approach to moral development is inadequate, suggesting teaching methods for facilitating moral development based on helping children understand principles and reasons. (RH)

  5. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2003-01-01

    Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's…

  6. How Do We Teach What Is Right? Research and Issues in Ethical and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Constance M.

    1996-01-01

    Enhances understanding of values-education issues by addressing research on moral and ethical development. Presents Damon's tripartite distinction among moral reflection, moral emotion, and moral conduct--head, heart, and habit--to show moral development's complexity. Although promoting prosocial behavior is parents' responsibility, literature is…

  7. A Winning Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank J.

    2006-01-01

    Recently ranked among the 101 most influential minorities in sports by Sports Illustrated magazine, Damon Evans is the first Black athletic director in the history of the Southeastern Conference and one of the youngest athletic directors in the country. He oversees a $65 million budget and a program that includes 21 intercollegiate sports teams,…

  8. Achieving Inclusive Excellence: Strategies for Creating Real and Sustainable Change in Quality and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the University of Connecticut has made several shifts in its culture and practice that have resulted in improved educational quality and greater success rates for students from traditionally underrepresented populations. Damon Williams shares his institution's approach. (Contains 4 notes.)

  9. Perspective Taking and Moral Judgment: A Developmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Diane T.; Serafica, Felicisima C.

    In this study of perspective taking and moral judgment 20 children (10 boys and 10 girls) at each age level between 4 and 10 years were given Feffer's Social Role-Taking Task, a spatial perspective-taking task and Damon's Test of Positive Justice. Investigated were: (1) the specific developmental sequences for role taking, spatial…

  10. Children's Concepts of Fair Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsman, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    The Damon hierarchy of development of children's sense of positive justice is examined for its usefulness in predicting fairness in behavior and reliability in age patterning of its stated levels of reasoning. The hierarchy's value as a developmental schedule for teacher guidance may be questionable. (Author)

  11. Temperature dependence of the spin wave in Co/CoO bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, H.

    Damon-Eschbach model is applied to analyze the frequency of spin waves in ferromagnetic layer in thin ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic bilayers. In this model, the effect of anti-ferromagnetic order on ferromagnetic layer is taken into as the exchange biased in the effective field. Within this model I can explain a positive frequency shift upon reducing temperature.

  12. A Question of Ethics: Themes in the Science Fiction Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNurlin, Kathleen Woitel

    1995-01-01

    Continues an article that began in the summer 1995 "Interdisciplinary Humanities." Examines ethical concerns about nuclear power, societal control, and prejudice articulated in science fiction literature. Authors studied include Ray Bradbury, Philip K. Dick, and Damon Knight. The earlier article covered literature concerned with ecology…

  13. An Ecological Validation of Social Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; Sutterfield, Sara J.

    Two classrooms of first graders (n-40) were administered Damon's moral judgment measure, Spivack and Shure's social problems solving measure and Stanford-Binet vocabulary. Concurrently, two observers recorded in the children's school environment incidences of successful resolutions of interactions, amount of derogation, and the number of times a…

  14. Missing Developmental Perspectives in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathryn.

    1987-01-01

    Three developmental perspectives complementary to Kohlberg's cognitive theory of moral development are addressed. The research of Damon, Selman, and Gilligan, is explained in light of their contributions to a more complete view of moral development. Implications of this research for moral education are discussed and a comprehensive model of moral…

  15. An Ecological Validation of Social Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; Sutterfield, Sara J.

    1980-01-01

    Two classrooms of first graders (N=40) were administered Damon's moral judgment measure, Shure and Spivack's social problem solving measure, and the Stanford-Binet vocabulary. Concurrently, two observers in the children's school environment recorded incidences of successful resolutions of interactions, amount of derogation, and the number of times…

  16. Parenting Styles as They Relate to Self-Esteem and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigward, Timothy M.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the relationships between parental styles and the components of self-esteem that correspond to Damon and Hart's conceptualization of the self. Specifically, high levels of both parental control and parent acceptance were hypothesized to be positively related to self-esteem. Undergraduate students (N=225) rated…

  17. The World We Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    1970-01-01

    This is the text of the Damon lecture which the author presented as the keynote address on the theme of the 1970 NSTA Annual Meeting. The great world problems of over-population, hunger, environmental pollution, and war and peace are discussed. The relationships between science, technology, and society are reviewed. The author asserts that…

  18. Self Concept in People with Williams Syndrome and Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plesa-Skwerer, Daniela; Sullivan, Kate; Joffre, Kristen; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This study explored self concepts in matched groups of adolescents and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), using Damon and Hart's [Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988] semi-structured interview. The main findings were that the WS participants were more…

  19. Formal System Verification for Trustworthy Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-19

    Koscher, Alexei Czeskis, Franziska Roesner, Shwetak Patel, Tadayoshi Kohno, Stephen Checkoway, Damon McCoy, Brian Kantor, Danny Anderson, Hovav...security analysis of a commercial real-time operating system kernel. In David S. Hardin , editor, Design and Verification of Microprocessor Systems for High

  20. NASA Now: Science as Inquiry: Microgravity Drop Tower

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Nancy Hall, a research scientist at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, discusses the different ways gravity on Earth and microgravity in space affect matte...

  1. Sustainable environmental nanotechnology using nanoparticle surface modification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive nanomaterials used for environmental remediation require surface modification to make them mobile in the subsurface. Nanomaterials released into the environment inadvertently without an engineered surface coating will acquire one (e.g. adsorption of natural organic matt...

  2. 77 FR 56815 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... & Acknowledgements c. Swearing-in New Board Members i. Matt McCabe ii. Lisa Garcia Quiroz d. Summary of Retreat e..., Deliberations and Official Actions V. Public Comments VI. Final Comments & Adjournment Members of the public...

  3. EAGLE: galaxy evolution with the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Chris; Morris, Simon; Swinbank, Mark; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Lehnert, Matthew; Puech, Mathieu

    2010-04-01

    Chris Evans, Simon Morris, Jean-Gabriel Cuby, Matt Lehnert, Mark Swinbank and Mathieu Puech describe an instrument that could bring distant galaxies and stellar populations within reach of the European Extremely Large Telescope.

  4. Speciation of Total Organic Gas and Particulate Matter Emissions from Onroad Vehicles in the Next Version of MOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calculation of organic gas measures used in MOVES (total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, non-methane organic gases, and total organic gases). Incorporation of speciation within MOVES to produce total organic gas and particulate matte...

  5. FINDING THE SOMETHING IN NOTHING.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Formless Infinity: Clinical Explorations of Matte Blanco and Bion. By Riccardo Lombardi. Translated by Karen Christenfeld, Gina Atkinson, Andrea Sabbadini, and Philip Slotkin. London/New York: Routledge, 2016. 282 pp.

  6. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Isgur, N.; Speth, J.

    1996-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. T{umlt o}rnqvist and Matts Roos, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Comment on {open_quotes}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, M.; Sannino, F.; Schechter, J.; Sannino, F.

    1997-02-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. Tornqvist and Matts Roos, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  9. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  10. Voltage Identify Based Encryption (VIBE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Invented by Dr. Dan Boneh and Dr. Matt Franklin in 2001, Identity-Based...20 Introduction Invented by Dr. Dan Boneh and Dr. Matt Franklin in 2001, Identity-Based Encryption or IBE, is a breakthrough in...the effectiveness of the technology developed to implement the Boneh -Franklin IBE. This contract provided for the necessary hardware and software

  11. DebriSat Pre Preshot Laboratory Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-27

    peeled coating and fractured quartz window Exposed surfaces are covered with a matte gray coating and fine debris. Note larger deposits are...unprotected) 62 Hold down plate Note blistered and peeled coating and fractured quartz window Exposed surfaces are covered with a matte gray coating...Note dispersed nano higher Z droplets. SBU Marking Protected Hold Down Plate (X) 87 The down range edge of plate has accumulated a layer of molten

  12. What makes a feather shine? A nanostructural basis for glossy black colours in feathers

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Colours in feathers are produced by pigments or by nanostructurally organized tissues that interact with light. One of the simplest nanostructures is a single layer of keratin overlying a linearly organized layer of melanosomes that create iridescent colours of feather barbules through thin-film interference. Recently, it has been hypothesized that glossy (i.e. high specular reflectance) black feathers may be evolutionarily intermediate between matte black and iridescent feathers, and thus have a smooth keratin layer that produces gloss, but not the layered organization of melanosomes needed for iridescence. However, the morphological bases of glossiness remain unknown. Here, we use a theoretical approach to generate predictions about morphological differences between matte and glossy feathers that we then empirically test. Thin-film models predicted that glossy spectra would result from a keratin layer 110–180 nm thick and a melanin layer greater than 115 nm thick. Transmission electron microscopy data show that nanostructure of glossy barbules falls well within that range, but that of matte barbules does not. Further, glossy barbules had a thinner and more regular keratin cortex, as well as a more continuous underlying melanin layer, than matte barbules. Thus, their quasi-ordered nanostructures are morphologically intermediate between matte black and iridescent feathers, and perceived gloss may be a form of weakly chromatic iridescence. PMID:21123257

  13. What makes a feather shine? A nanostructural basis for glossy black colours in feathers.

    PubMed

    Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2011-07-07

    Colours in feathers are produced by pigments or by nanostructurally organized tissues that interact with light. One of the simplest nanostructures is a single layer of keratin overlying a linearly organized layer of melanosomes that create iridescent colours of feather barbules through thin-film interference. Recently, it has been hypothesized that glossy (i.e. high specular reflectance) black feathers may be evolutionarily intermediate between matte black and iridescent feathers, and thus have a smooth keratin layer that produces gloss, but not the layered organization of melanosomes needed for iridescence. However, the morphological bases of glossiness remain unknown. Here, we use a theoretical approach to generate predictions about morphological differences between matte and glossy feathers that we then empirically test. Thin-film models predicted that glossy spectra would result from a keratin layer 110-180 nm thick and a melanin layer greater than 115 nm thick. Transmission electron microscopy data show that nanostructure of glossy barbules falls well within that range, but that of matte barbules does not. Further, glossy barbules had a thinner and more regular keratin cortex, as well as a more continuous underlying melanin layer, than matte barbules. Thus, their quasi-ordered nanostructures are morphologically intermediate between matte black and iridescent feathers, and perceived gloss may be a form of weakly chromatic iridescence.

  14. Spin Wave Power Flow and Caustics in Ultrathin Ferromagnets with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Von; Stamps, Robert L; Camley, Robert E

    2016-11-04

    The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in ultrathin ferromagnets can result in nonreciprocal propagation of spin waves. We examine theoretically how spin wave power flow is influenced by this interaction. We show that the combination of the dipole-dipole and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions can result in unidirectional caustic beams in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. Morever, self-generated interface patterns can also be induced from a point-source excitation.

  15. Investigation of Magnetostatic Surface Waves for Anisotropic Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    1970. 64 " ,’," . -’ - .’ ".-," ,- .-.- ’ ,-w. . . %, • . .- " .. 13. Lax, B. and K. J. Button, Microwave Ferrites and Ferrimagnetics. New York, N.Y...increased (Brundle, 1968:427). Many signal processing applications have been developed using magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW) technology. Tunable microwave ...oscillators (Miller, 1976) and variable delay lines operating in the microwave spectrum have been developed. Many are based upon the theory of Damon

  16. Design and construction of a spin-wave lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mundkowski, Mark; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present the focusing of a Damon-Eshbach wave in a Ni80Fe20 film by a shaped, discrete transition of the film thickness. We devised an algorithm to determine the required shape of a spin-wave lens. Due to the anisotropy three geometries qualify as plano-convex lenses. One lens geometry has been realized experimentally and the emitted spin-wave pattern is investigated by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy.

  17. Spin Wave Power Flow and Caustics in Ultrathin Ferromagnets with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo-Von; Stamps, Robert L.; Camley, Robert E.

    2016-11-01

    The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in ultrathin ferromagnets can result in nonreciprocal propagation of spin waves. We examine theoretically how spin wave power flow is influenced by this interaction. We show that the combination of the dipole-dipole and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions can result in unidirectional caustic beams in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. Morever, self-generated interface patterns can also be induced from a point-source excitation.

  18. Design and construction of a spin-wave lens

    PubMed Central

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mundkowski, Mark; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present the focusing of a Damon-Eshbach wave in a Ni80Fe20 film by a shaped, discrete transition of the film thickness. We devised an algorithm to determine the required shape of a spin-wave lens. Due to the anisotropy three geometries qualify as plano-convex lenses. One lens geometry has been realized experimentally and the emitted spin-wave pattern is investigated by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy. PMID:27650652

  19. Time-domain excitation of quantized magnetostatic spin-wave modes in patterned NiFe thin film ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, T. M.; Covington, M.; Parker, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    We measure quantized spin waves excited by a spatially inhomogeneous pulsed magnetic field in patterned NiFe thin films by inductive detection of the dynamic magnetization. When anisotropy and numerically calculated demagnetizing fields are included in the magnetostatic Damon Eshbach spin-wave dispersion relation, the predicted mode frequencies agree closely with measurements. Micromagnetic calculations predict the correct mode frequencies and agree remarkably well with time-domain measurements.

  20. Magnetostatic spin wave modes excitation in yttrium-iron-garnet film under various temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaack, M.; Jun, S.; Nikitov, S. A.; Pelzl, J.

    1999-09-01

    Temperature-dependent magnetostatic spin wave modes spectra in a ferromagnetic thin film of yttrium-iron-garnet are investigated by means of conventional and photothermally modulated ferromagnetic resonance techniques. Values for the anisotropy field are derived from the evaluation of resonance spectra. In the wide range of temperature the resonance characteristics of spin wave modes spectra are consistent with the Damon-Eshbach theory. Close to the Curie temperature they, however, strongly deviate from the theoretical predictions.

  1. Spin-Wave Interference in Three-Dimensional Rolled-Up Ferromagnetic Microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balhorn, Felix; Mansfeld, Sebastian; Krohn, Andreas; Topp, Jesco; Hansen, Wolfgang; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated spin-wave excitations in rolled-up Permalloy microtubes using microwave absorption spectroscopy. We find a series of quantized azimuthal modes which arise from the constructive interference of Damon-Eshbach-type spin waves propagating around the circumference of the microtubes, forming a spin-wave resonator. The mode spectrum can be tailored by the tube’s radius and number of rolled-up layers.

  2. Development of an Adaptive Framework for Management of Military Operations in Arid/Semi-Arid Regions to Minimize Watershed and Instream Impacts from Non-Point Pollution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Leonard Lane1 Andre Coleman Jerry Tagestad Damon Roberts2 1 L.J. Lane Consulting, Inc. 2 Yakima Training Center, Washington . December 2007... Yakima Training Center (YTC) in south-central Washington State. Results This report presents a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based decision...listed streams, including the Yakima River. Elevated water temperatures and increased sediment loads have contributed to a significant loss of

  3. Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    Exposure to Uranium Hexafluoride NUREG /CR- 5566, PNL-7328, Prepared for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1990. 27. Thun MJ, Baker DB... NUREG /CR-495 1, Prepared for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1987. 31. Morrow PE, Leach LJ, Smith FA, Goloin RM, Scott JB, Belter HD...of Uranium Hexafluoride, NUREG /CR- 2268, RH, Prepared for Division of Health Siting and Waste Management, Washington, DC, 1982. 32. Eidson AF, Damon

  4. Thermodynamic Modeling of Arsenic in Copper Smelting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunlin; Zhang, Ling; Jahanshahi, Sharif

    2010-12-01

    Published data on the activity coefficients of arsenic in liquid copper, matte and, slag have been reviewed, assessed, and used in the development of thermodynamic databases for solution models of melts. The databases were validated against the literature data on the equilibrium distribution of arsenic between the matte and the slag. The models and databases were used in investigating the effects of matte grade, slag chemistry, SO2 partial pressure, arsenic loading, and temperature on the equilibrium distribution of arsenic between the melts and gas phase during copper smelting and converting. The results obtained show that the continuous smelting processes operates close to equilibrium between condensed phases with most arsenic reporting to the gas phase. A comparison of the batch and continuous converting processes showed a considerable difference with respect to the elimination of the arsenic from condensed phases. These results indicate batch processes to be more efficient in the removal of arsenic through the gas stream.

  5. Injection technology to recover nickel and cobalt from spent catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Thapliyal, P.; Zhao, Y.F.; Irons, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    The petroleum refining industry generates over a million tons of spent catalyst per year, containing valuable metals. Currently, these materials are recycled to smelting furnaces, but the fundamental mechanisms controlling the recovery processes are poorly understood. Furthermore, submerged injection of finely divided materials is potentially a means to obtain high recoveries of pay metals. In this study, a catalyst containing 10% Ni and 1% Co was injected into 45 kg heats of matte. A copper matte was chosen so that the nickel and cobalt recoveries were measurable. It was found that the recovery ranged from 40 to 70%, increasing with catalyst feed rate, decreasing with catalyst particle size and decreasing with the oxygen content of the carrier gas. A mathematical model was developed to account for the results, and to permit extrapolation to nickel mattes. The industrial implications are discussed. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Synchronicity, the infinite unrepressed, dissociation and the interpersonal.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Richard

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses the logic derived by Matte Blanco to provide an Archimedean point and a mathematics, both of which Jung complained of lacking, with which to validate the notion of synchronicity and to demonstrate that it is one of the inevitable properties of an unconscious which is unrepressed such as Jung's collective unconscious, and that such an unconscious will also be affective and interpersonal as well as intrapersonal. These have important clinical implications. After an exposition of Matte Blanco's thinking, some clinical material is presented of an episode in which patient and author both suffered the same psychosomatic symptom some time just prior to a session. Correspondences between Matte Blanco's logically derived ideas and Jung's phenomenological observations are made.

  7. Test Generator for MATLAB Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Joel

    2011-01-01

    MATLAB Automated Test Tool, version 3.0 (MATT 3.0) is a software package that provides automated tools that reduce the time needed for extensive testing of simulation models that have been constructed in the MATLAB programming language by use of the Simulink and Real-Time Workshop programs. MATT 3.0 runs on top of the MATLAB engine application-program interface to communicate with the Simulink engine. MATT 3.0 automatically generates source code from the models, generates custom input data for testing both the models and the source code, and generates graphs and other presentations that facilitate comparison of the outputs of the models and the source code for the same input data. Context-sensitive and fully searchable help is provided in HyperText Markup Language (HTML) format.

  8. Choosing Advocacy. Occasional Paper Series 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Megan; Morrison, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Two articles comprise this publication. In "Beyond the Story-Book Ending: Literature for Young Children About Parental Estrangement and Loss," Megan Matt analyzes over 30 books for young children on the topics of abandonment, estrangement, divorce, and foster care. She observes that this loss might appear as an event within the story or…

  9. Still Teaching for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  10. Software Assurance Curriculum Project Volume 2: Undergraduate Course Outlines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Software Assurance Curriculum Project Volume II: Undergraduate Course Outlines Nancy R . Mead, Software Engineering Institute Thomas B...this document. Dick Fairley Dan Shoemaker, University of Detroit Mercy Carol Sledge, Software Engineering Institute We also acknowledge the...Mead, Nancy R . Software Security Engineering: A Guide for Project Managers [Allen 2008]. 12 | CMU/SEI-2010-TR-019 Bishop, Matt. Computer

  11. 16 CFR 1512.18 - Tests and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be guided by a tube with holes, but not restricted in free fall. Pedal reflectors are exempt from... surfaces, including spokes, masked in flat black so that when measured these surfaces indicate no... be masked off with opaque, matte black tape in testing the reflecting material. (ii)...

  12. 16 CFR 1512.18 - Tests and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be guided by a tube with holes, but not restricted in free fall. Pedal reflectors are exempt from... retroreflective tires or rims shall have all exposed metallic surfaces, including spokes, masked in flat black so... the reflecting strip and shall be masked off with opaque, matte black tape in testing the...

  13. 16 CFR 1512.18 - Tests and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be guided by a tube with holes, but not restricted in free fall. Pedal reflectors are exempt from... surfaces, including spokes, masked in flat black so that when measured these surfaces indicate no... be masked off with opaque, matte black tape in testing the reflecting material. (ii)...

  14. 16 CFR 1512.18 - Tests and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be guided by a tube with holes, but not restricted in free fall. Pedal reflectors are exempt from... retroreflective tires or rims shall have all exposed metallic surfaces, including spokes, masked in flat black so... the reflecting strip and shall be masked off with opaque, matte black tape in testing the...

  15. 16 CFR 1512.18 - Tests and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be guided by a tube with holes, but not restricted in free fall. Pedal reflectors are exempt from... surfaces, including spokes, masked in flat black so that when measured these surfaces indicate no... be masked off with opaque, matte black tape in testing the reflecting material. (ii)...

  16. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization.

    PubMed

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.

  17. Transparent Watercolor. Art Education: 6673.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    An introductory course designed to develop skills and techniques in transparent watercolor offers an exploration of a variety of techniques emphasizing drawing and composition and allowing the student to create and matt his own paintings. Students in grades 7 through 12 develop competencies in flat and graded wash and dry and stipple brush…

  18. Ex-King of Campus Gossip Turns to Saving Web Reputations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Matt Ivester became notorious on campuses across the country in 2007 for publishing gossip--not about celebrities but about students--on Juicy-Campus, the Web site he created. The site was blocked by some colleges, banned by several student governments, and threatened with legal action by several students who claimed that defaming comments on the…

  19. An Evaluation of Selected Communications Assemblies and Hearing Protection Systems: A Field Study Conducted for the Future Force Warrior Integrated Headgear Integrated Process Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    components. Letters Numbers Alpha Hotel Tango One Bravo Kilo Victor Two Charlie Lima Whiskey Three Delta Oscar X-ray Four Echo Papa Yankee Five Six...BARRINGTON IL 60010 4 US ARMY NATICK SOLDIER CENTER ATTN AMSSB RTP D KRASNECKY (3 CYS) MATT CORREA BLDG 5 RM 116 15 KANSAS STREET

  20. Removing Obstacles to Easy Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, David

    1994-01-01

    Argues for changes in the way technical communicators design new documentation systems to accommodate readers with impaired vision, mental abilities, and motor control. Recommends use of larger type, careful choice of ink and paper color, use of matte-finish paper, thoughtful page and screen design, and use of contextual aids, priming strategies,…

  1. Making the Case for Primary Care and Mandated Suicide Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuber, Jennifer; Quinnett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    During its 2012 legislative session, Washington State passed ESHB 2366, otherwise known as the Matt Adler Suicide Assessment, Treatment, and Management Act of 2012. ESHB 2366 is a significant legislative achievement as it is the first law in the country to require certain health professionals to obtain continuing education in the assessment,…

  2. The Electrooculogram and a New Blink Detection Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    Technologies Corporation Matt Middendorf, Middendorf Scientific Services Michael Hoepf, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Christina...signed// //signed// APRIL M. COURTICE SCOTT M. GALSTER Work Unit Manager Chief, Applied Neuroscience Branch Applied Neuroscience...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER H0DC (53273027) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) See next page 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  3. The History Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Matt; Brady, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Matt Estes, a social studies teacher, mentions the main instructional goals for his students like understanding the importance of proper citation and attribution presenting the Machiavelli project that deals with the skills he wants his students to develop and the course material that must be covered. In addition, Ann Brady, a library media…

  4. Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early…

  5. About EPA's Acting Chief of Staff

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Matt Fritz is the Chief of Staff at EPA. His responsibilities include serving as a key advisor to Administrator Gina McCarthy, managing the day-to-day operations of the agency and developing strategic initiatives to guide programmatic activities.

  6. Year Five of Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    deployments (and radial coverage) with surface current vectors in April 2007 (EFS and MAB) and Oct 2007 (WFS) in the SEACOOS domain relative to bottom...Wang Miami MS Shay Destiny Smith Miami MS Kearns Janine Turbe Miami MS Kearns Drew Morris Miami MS Zika Garin Freitas Miami MS Zika Silvia Matt Miami MS Ortner

  7. Year Five of Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-15

    current vectors in April 2007 (EFS and MAB) and Oct 2007 (WFS) in the SEACOOS domain relative to bottom terrain (from Shay et al., 2008). A common...Miami MS Kearns Janine Turbe Miami [ MS Kearns Drew Morris Miami MS Zika Garin Freitas Miami MS Zika Silvia Matt Miami MS Ortner SEACOOS Grand

  8. A Study of Topic and Topic Change in Conversational Threads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    4 and = 6 (LDA Topics = 50). Vertical lines show identified topic transitions. Personally identifying terms are grayed out for privacy purposes...50). Personally identifying terms are grayed out for privacy purposes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.4...Matt, thank you for being a generous mentor and wonderful friend. To Marco Draeger, Jenny Tam , Jon Durham, and the rest of the NLP lab, thanks for

  9. News and Views: A VISTA of the Orion Nebula; Grote Reber Award; Leverhulme Prize; GNSS workshop; Farming in space; Space messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The recipient of the 2010 Grote Reber Award is Dr Alan Rogers, a Research Affiliate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory. Matt King, a Reader in Polar Geodesy in the School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at the University of Newcastle, was awarded a Philip Leverhulme Prize in 2009.

  10. Proceedings of the International Congress (12th), Corrosion Control for Low-Cost Reliability, Held in Houston, Texas on September 19 -24, 1993. Volume 6. Electric Power Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-24

    Mechanism and Control of Stress Corrosion Cracking of 214 Influence of Nd on Oxidation of Ti-5621S Alloy and Adherence of Zirconium in Sulfuric Acid Oxide...1367 296 Differentiation Between Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking in 13% Cr and Duplex Stainless...da Silva, 0. Barcia, 0. Mattes, and C. Deslouis .. 1378 118 Stress Corrosion Cracking of 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel Single 533 Electrochemical

  11. Intellectualist Aristotelian Character Education: An Outline and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkany, Matt; Creed, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Since its resurgence in the 1990s, character education has been subject to a bevy of common criticisms, including that it is didactic and crudely behaviorist; premised on a faulty trait psychology; victim-blaming; culturally imperialist, racist, religious, or ideologically conservative; and many other horrible things besides. Matt Ferkany and…

  12. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  13. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  14. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  15. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  16. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  17. Basic Media in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, John

    Intended as a guide to the use of different media for use in the classroom, this document demonstrates alternative approaches that may be taken to depicting and communicating images and concepts to others. Some basic tools and materials--including a ruler, matte knife, rubber cement, stapler, felt-tip pens, paint brushes, and lettering pens--are…

  18. Examination of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Performance over the North American and European Domains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ modeling system has been used to simulate the air quality for North America and Europe for the entire year of 2006 as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) and the operational model performance of O3, fine particulate matte...

  19. Parenting the Gifted: The Ongoing Riddle of Which Nurture is Best for What Nature: Parents Promoting Gifted Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haensly, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Matt Ridley, an Oxford-trained zoologist and science writer whose latest book is "Nature via Nurture: Genes, Experience, and What Makes Us Human" (2003a), wrote such an impressively clear and fascinating piece on "What Makes You Who You Are" that the author decided to use it to introduce the continuing pursuit of "What do I do to best promote…

  20. Investing in Futures: A New Compact for Public Higher Education. Luncheon Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    On November 17, 2005, the Center for Educational Innovation-Public Education Association (CEI-PEA) had the honor of hosting Matthew Goldstein, Chancellor of the City University of New York (CUNY), as speaker at its luncheon series. Matt has spoken at a number of its luncheons since he took leadership of CUNY approximately six years ago and began…

  1. Rendezvous with a comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt

    2014-10-01

    After making a successful rendezvous with Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko earlier this year, Europe's Rosetta craft is now riding alongside this celestial body and next month is set to land a probe on its surface. Matt Taylor describes the excitement of this unique project and the scientific insights that it hopes to achieve.

  2. The Strategic Knucklehead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-13

    States, with professionalism, technical expertise, and operational aplomb. Regrettably, the David Situation reflects cavalier , cowboy-ish execution...Operational Risk Management, 5 May 04; Clark A. Murdock, Authors: Matt Squeri, Chris Jones, Becca S. Smith , Risk Management in Non-DoD U.S

  3. Respiratory Deposition of Fine and Coarse Particles during Moderate Exercise

    EPA Science Inventory

    During exercise breathing patterns change by increasing ventilation rate and this has a direct impact on risk to exposure to ambient pollutants. Although the number of people increases participating in more active life styles, specific data for lung deposition of particulate matt...

  4. NASA Now: Newton’s Laws of Motion: Ballistics

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newton’s Laws of Motion come to life every day in the Ballistics Impact Lab at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio! Aerospace engineer Matt Melis gives a tour of the three gas guns ...

  5. Study of timing properties of single gap high-resistive bakelite RPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bose, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Saha, S.; Viyogi, Y. P.

    2010-05-01

    The time resolution for several single gap (2 mm) prototype Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) made of high resistive ( ρ~1010-1012 Ω cm), 2 mm thick matt finished bakelite paper laminates with silicone coating on the inner surfaces, has been measured. The time resolution for all the modules has been found to be ~2 ns at the plateau region.

  6. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  7. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle-contrast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development. Currently, FPDs are present in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surface which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider images shown in these types of displays to have more vivid colours compared with matte-screen displays. However, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections on the glossy screens. These reflections can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface of FPDs. In this work, we present a method to characterize the front surface of FPDs using laser speckle patterns. We characterized three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23" with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 laptop of 15.4" with glossy screen, and a Papyre electronic book reader. The results show great differences in speckle contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs which have different types of front surfaces.

  8. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  9. 40 CFR 63.11150 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Copper Smelting... materials from smelting vessels and converting vessels and convey them to a control device in accordance... copper matte or slag is tapped from the smelting vessel in accordance with § 63.11148(a)(3)(i).” (5)...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11147 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for existing sources not using batch copper...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Copper Smelting Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63... concentrate dryers, smelting vessels, converting vessels, matte drying and grinding plants, secondary gas... from smelting vessels and converting vessels and conveys the collected gas stream to a control...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11150 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Copper Smelting... materials from smelting vessels and converting vessels and convey them to a control device in accordance... copper matte or slag is tapped from the smelting vessel in accordance with § 63.11148(a)(3)(i).” (5)...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11151 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Copper Smelting Area Sources... and dusts, fluxes, and other materials blended together for feeding to the smelting vessel. Copper matte means a material predominately composed of copper and iron sulfides produced by smelting...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11151 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Copper Smelting Area Sources... and dusts, fluxes, and other materials blended together for feeding to the smelting vessel. Copper matte means a material predominately composed of copper and iron sulfides produced by smelting...

  14. Educating "The Simpsons": Teaching Queer Representations in Contemporary Visual Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padva, Gilad

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes queer representation in contemporary visual media and examines how the episode "Homer's Phobia" from Matt Groening's animation series "The Simpsons" can be used to deconstruct hetero- and homo-sexual codes of behavior, socialization, articulation, representation and visibility. The analysis is contextualized in the…

  15. Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find…

  16. 78 FR 30793 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Model Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of... 663, Fort Worth, Texas 76137. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matt Fuller, Senior Aviation...

  17. FRC Compression Heating Experiment (FRCHX) at AFRL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have been... Air Force Research Laboratory , Directed Energy Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 USA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...Matt Domonkos, Don Gale, Bernard Martinez, Jerry Parker, Dale Ralph, Ed Ruden, and Wayne Sommars Air Force Research Laboratory , Directed

  18. Wireless Sensor Network Metrics for Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-20

    107. [99] Victor Shnayder, Bor rong Chen, Konrad Lorincz, Thaddeus R. F. Fulford-Jones, and Matt Welsh, “Sensor networks for medical care,” Division of...Gilman Tolle, Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, David Culler, Neil Turner, Kevin Tu, Stephen Burgess, Todd Dawson, Phil Buonadonna, David Gay , and Wei

  19. Microfilm Viewer Experiments. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reintjes, J. F.; And Others

    Two new designs for microfilm viewers are described. Both viewers are front projection viewers utilizing matte surface display screens. One viewer with an adjustable horizontal screen has a normal magnification rate and is mounted on a desk top. The other viewer has a high (4x) magnification rate in a mini-theater configuration with remote…

  20. Effect of Swirl on an Unstable Single-Element Gas-gas Rocket Engine (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Single-Element Gas-gas Rocket Engine 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Matt Harvazinski, Venke...the Apollo program > 2000 full scale tests > $400 million for propellants alone (2010 prices) 4 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

  1. Decision Support for Infrastructure Renewal in the US Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joseph Whitaker , and LTC Joseph Alexander, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, Logistics, & Environment; Colonel Matt...infrastructure 12 3.2. Standards General Carl E. Vouno, former Chief of Staff of the Army, has said, "A great sergeant major once told me, The only time we

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancement of the US Environmental Protection Agency's
    Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D., P.E. , P.E.; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, Matt Lorber , Charles Peck , and Steve Schwartz, P.E., Q.E.P.3

    Recently, the US Environ...

  3. On-Board Monitoring of Engine Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding...committee, Dr. Muralidhar Ghantasala and Dr. Bade Shrestha for taking the time to review my work. I would like to thank Matt Roobol and Michael Nienhuis for...Output Validation ......................................... 42 2.4 Data Processing

  4. Gifted Asian American Adolescent Males: Portraits of Cultural Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…

  5. Coal + Biomass → Liquids + Electricity (with CCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, Matt Aitken applies the MARKet ALlocation energy system model to evaluate the market potential for a class of technologies that convert coal and biomass to liquid fuels and electricity (CBtLE), paired with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The technology is ...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  7. Empirical Analysis of Human Capital, Learning Culture, and Knowledge Management as Antecedents to Organizational Performance: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Logistics Readiness Officer Force Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    MANAGEMENT AS ANTECEDENTS TO ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR LOGISTICS READINESS OFFICER FORCE DEVELOPMENT...IMPLICATIONS FOR LOGISTICS READINESS OFFICER FORCE DEVELOPMENT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Logistics Management Matt J. Cherry, BS

  8. Effects of Acute and Subacute Oral Methylnitroguanidine (MeNQ) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-20

    Robert Sunderland, Dr. Valerie Adams, Dr. Michael Quinn, LTC Erica Carroll , Terry Hanna, Alicia Shiflett, Matt Bazar and Mark Way. 20-04-2016 Technical...September 2014 C-2 e. Necropsies: Erica E. Carroll , DVM, LTC VC, Alicia Shiflett, Histotechnician, Pathology Division, Toxicology. f. In

  9. Is It Possible for Teachers to Take Students beyond a Rudimentary Introduction to an Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This brief article presents student and professor responses to the question: Is it possible for teachers to take students beyond a rudimentary introduction to an activity? [Responses to this question were provided by Kevin Reilly, Terra Marjonen, Scott A. G. M. Crawford, Jason S. Whitworth, Brianne Mahoney, Erin Sereduk, Sam Thielen, Matt Lassen,…

  10. Good & Plenty: It Used to Be Hard to Find Good Graphic Novels for the K-4 Crowd. My, How Times Have Changed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Just a couple of years ago, it was tough to find good graphic novels for the K-4 crowd. Sure, there were some standout selections, such as Andy Runton's "Owly", Jimmy Gownley's "Amelia Rules!", and Jennifer and Matt Holm's "Babymouse", but they were lonely exceptions in a barren landscape. Things quickly changed when publishers realized that the…

  11. Digital Forensics Research: The Next 10 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Kreibich Christian, Levchenko Kirill, Enright Brandon, Voelker Geoffrey M, Paxson Vern, Savage Stefan. Spamalytics: an empirical analysis of spam... Kara , Hay Brian, Bishop Matt. Digital forensics: defining a research agenda. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii international conference on system...Nance Kara , Hay Brian, Dodge Ronald C, p Craiger Phili, Burke Paul, Marberry Chris, Brubaker Bryan. Virtualization and digital forensics: a research

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Volumetric Analysis: Novel Tools to Study Thyroid Hormone Disruption and Its Effect on White Matter Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and wildlife are exposed to environmental pollutants that have been shown to interfere with the thyroid hormone system and thus may affect brain development. Our goal was to expose pregnant rats to propylthiouracil (PTU) to measure the effects of a goitrogen on white matte...

  13. SEASONAL MODELING OF THE EXPORT OF POLLUTANTS FROM NORTH AMERICA USING THE MULTI-SCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION PLATFORM (MAQSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention in recent years has focused on the trans-boundary transport of ozone and fine particulate matte between the United States and Mexico and Canada and across state boundaries in the United States. In a similar manner, but on a larger spatial scale, the export of pollutant...

  14. Comparison of a Structured-LES and an Unstructured-DES Code for Predicting Combustion Instabilities in a Longitudinal Mode Rocket

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Structured-LES and an Unstructured-DES Code for Predicting Combustion Instabilities in a Longitudinal Mode Rocket 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Predicting Combustion Instabilities in a Longitudinal Mode Rocket Matt Harvazinski, Doug Tally, & Venke Sankaran Air Force Research Laboratory Edwards

  15. Zombie physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    What makes for a fun student project that provides useful results, a journal publication and a high-profile conference talk? Stephen Ornes describes how Alex Alemi and Matt Bierbaum spiced up their learning by mixing statistical physics with their love of zombie tales.

  16. Cyber Practices: What Can the U.S. Air Force Learn from the Commercial Sector?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Bejtlich, The Practice of Network Security Monitoring: Understanding Incident Detection and Response, San Francisco, Calif.: No Starch Press, 2013. 78...No Starch Press, 2013. Bell, Gerald D., “Determinants of Span of Control,” American Journal of Sociology 73, no. 1 (1967): 100–109. Bishop, Matt

  17. Parents Leading the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kathy Goetz

    1996-01-01

    This special issue of the Family Resource Coalition Report presents personal experiences and reflections regarding parent involvement and leadership in family support. Articles in this issue are: (1) "The Vaughn Family Center: It's My Story" (Jorge Lara and Matt Oppenheim); (2) "Asking the Right Questions is Key to Developing Parent…

  18. Genotyping-by-sequencing of waxy and glossy near-isogenic broccoli lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild-type Brassica oleracea L. have matte blue-green leaves caused by an interaction between leaf pigmentation and a waxy bloom coating the surface. Glossy mutants have reduced and/or altered epicuticular wax giving the leaves a shiny green appearance and have been identified in most B. oleracea cro...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 438 - Oily Operations Definitions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... components. Also, some aluminum parts are wet blasted to achieve a fine-grained matte finish for decorative... gap may be filled with air or a dielectric fluid. This operation is used primarily to cut tool alloys, hard nonferrous alloys, and other hard-to-machine materials. Most electrical discharge...

  20. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.

  1. RAND Arroyo Center Annual Report 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    The doctoral program is available through the Pardee RAND Graduate School, a separate unit of the RAND Corporation; Army officers enrolled as...Major Mathew Guerrie (standing) and Matt Lewis and Aimee Bower (seated). 2 6 r e s e A r c h A g e n D A To accomplish its mission, the program

  2. Envirenmental Baseline Survey, Nellis Terrace Housing Area, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    duoting Clea."l·up: Company: SECOR lntemational Corporation Company Name: Matt Grandjean Company Address: Not reported Tale phone: Not reported 7...VEGAS S103877200 HAYCOCK DISTRIBUTING LAKE LAS VEGAS RESORT SHWS LAS VEGAS S104179114 PARDEE HOMES LAKE MEAD DRIVE AND EASTERN AV SHWS TC73631 0.2s

  3. U.S. EPA to Announce Millions to Improve Local Water Infrastructure, Water Quality Statewide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - Tomorrow, U.S. EPA Regional Administrator Jared Blumenfeld will be joined by City of Carlsbad Mayor Matt Hall to announce millions of dollars in funding to the state that will improve local water infrastructure and control water pollution st

  4. Participation Cartography: Blurring the Boundaries of Space, Autobiography, and Memory by Means of Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotelo-Castro, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I focus on the empowering potential of a participatory practice that frames walking as integral to a performative, self-mapping, and aesthetic process. By discussing my experience as a participant in "Ere Be Dragons" (2007), a work by the artists collective Active Ingredient (Rachel Jacobs and Matt Watkins), I set out some new…

  5. Patterned Neuronal Networks for Robotics, Neurocomputing, Toxin Detection and Rehabilitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    PATTERNED NEURONAL NETWORKS FOR ROBOTICS, NEUROCOMPUTING, TOXIN DETECTION AND REHABILITATION Jung F. Kang*, Matt Poeta, Lisa Riedel, Mainak Das...systems work, how neuronal networks can process information and how basic physiological control circuits function 2) exploring the possibilities for...to engineer neuronal networks . Surface chemistry utilizing self- assembled monolayers (Laibinis, Hickman et al. 1989) (SAMs) is an excellent

  6. Masters of the universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Matt; Stock, Dave

    2010-08-01

    MEETING REPORT Massive stars make a profound impact on their surroundings, their galaxies and the evolution of the universe as a whole. Matt Austin and Dave Stock report on an RAS Discussion Meeting that considered current progress in understanding these complex stars.

  7. 75 FR 29199 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...: Collier City of Marco Island, February 19, 2010; Mr. Stephen T. Thompson, February 9, 2010 120426 (09-04..., Suite 910, Ogden, UT 84401. Washington: King City of Snoqualmie, February 5, 2010; The Honorable Matt.... Snoqualmie, P.O. Box 987, Snoqualmie, WA 98065. King Unincorporated areas February 5, 2010; The Honorable...

  8. Nickel Ion Release from Three Types of Nickel-titanium-based Orthodontic Archwires in the As-received State and After Oral Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramazanzadeh, Barat Ali; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Sabzevari, Berahman; Habibi, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. This study aimed to investigate release of nickel ion from three types of nickel-titanium-based wires in the as-received state and after immersion in a simulated oral environment. Materials and methods. Forty specimens from each of the single-strand NiTi (Rematitan "Lite"), multi-strand NiTi (SPEED Supercable) and Copper NiTi (Damon Copper NiTi) were selected. Twenty specimens from each type were used in the as-received state and the others were kept in deflected state at 37ºC for 2 months followed by autoclave sterilization. The as-received and recycled wire specimens were immersed in glass bottles containing 1.8 mL of artificial saliva for 28 days and the amount of nickel ion released into the electrolyte was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. The single-strand NiTi released the highest quantity of nickel ion in the as-received state and the multi-strand NiTi showed the highest ion release after oral simulation. The quantity of nickelion released from Damon Copper NiTi was the lowest in both conditions. Oral simulation followed by sterilization did not have a significant influence on nickel ion release from multi-strand NiTi and Damon Copper NiTi wires, but single-strand NiTi released statistically lower quantities of nickel ion after oral simulation. Conclusion. The multi-strand nature of Supercable did not enhance the potential of corrosion after immersion in the simulated oral environment. In vitro use of nickel-titanium-based archwires followed by sterilization did not significantly increase the amount of nickel ion released from these wires. PMID:25093049

  9. Photo-magnonics: excitation of magnonic materials by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenzenberg, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Analogue the photonic crystals, a periodic modification of a magnetic material is prepared by forming an anti-dot lattice for spin waves. The resulting bands are generally complex in the magnetic case because of different dispersions along different magnetization directions (backward volume and Damon-Eshbach mode). They depend on the variation strength of the periodic magnetostatic potential. All-optical femtosecond laser experiments allow the excitation of spin-waves with comparable amplitudes as field pulse and resonance techniques today. It is a promising valuable alternative method to study spin-waves and their relaxation paths in a magnonic material. Laser pulses with a duration of 60 fs from a Ti:Sapphire regenerative laser system are used for optical excitation (pump pulse) as well as for the observation of the subsequent magnetic relaxation (probe pulse). The initial local single spin-flip excitation is subsequently decaying into spin waves lower in energy within the pico- and nanosecond regime over a wide spectral range. In focus of our investigation is the propagation and localization of dipolar surface modes (Damon-Eshbach) in thin Nickel and (low damped) CoFeB film cubic and hexagonal lattice structures. Their mode dispersion is measured by applying different magnetic fields which shift the energy of the mode and allows identifying them. We find well defined modes in the condensed state with a specific pronounced k-value determining the properties of the propagating spin wave. One example for a distinct modification of the magnonic periodic structure is a line defect that can function as a wave guide inside the magnonic gap region. An increased intensity of the Damon Eshbach mode by a factor of two is found in the wave guide region. A study of these wave guides will allow to specifically design the material properties, making magnonic materials the material of choice for advanced spin computing devices.

  10. Developing a Beta-Lapachone Prodrug for Therapy Against NQ01-Overexpressing Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    principal determinant of beta- lapachone cytotoxicity. J Biol Chem 275(8): 5416-5424. Rauth AM, Goldberg Z , Misra V (1997) DT-diaphorase: possible roles...4,6 Charles L. Hoppel,4,6,7 Rosana I. Misico,8 GiselaM. Arzac,8 Gerardo Burton,8William G. Bornmann,9 Damon Sutton,5 Jinming Gao,5 and David A...Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio; 8Departa- mento de Qui¤mica Orga¤ nica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires

  11. Direct excitation of propagating spin waves by focused ultrashort optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Au, Y; Dvornik, M; Davison, T; Ahmad, E; Keatley, P S; Vansteenkiste, A; Van Waeyenberge, B; Kruglyak, V V

    2013-03-01

    An all-optical experiment long utilized to image phonons excited by ultrashort optical pulses has been applied to a magnetic sample. In addition to circular ripples due to surface acoustic waves, we observe an X-shaped pattern formed by propagating spin waves. The emission of spin waves from the optical pulse epicenter in the form of collimated beams is qualitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. We explain the observed pattern in terms of the group velocity distribution of Damon-Eshbach magnetostatic spin waves in the reciprocal space and the wave vector spectrum of the focused ultrafast laser pulse.

  12. Generation of propagating backward volume spin waves by phase-sensitive mode conversion in two-dimensional microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Braecher, T.; Sebastian, T.; Pirro, P.; Westermann, J.; Laegel, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vansteenkiste, A.

    2013-04-01

    We present the generation of propagating backward volume (BV) spin waves in a T shaped Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microstructure. These waves are created from counterpropagating Damon Eshbach spin waves, which are excited using microstrip antennas. By employing Brillouin light scattering microscopy, we show how the phase relation between the counterpropagating waves determines the mode generated in the center of the structure, and prove its propagation inside the longitudinally magnetized part of the T shaped microstructure. This gives access to the effective generation of backward volume spin waves with full control over the generated transverse mode.

  13. Reconfigurable heat-induced spin wave lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyapko, O.; Borisenko, I. V.; Demidov, V. E.; Pernice, W.; Demokritov, S. O.

    2016-12-01

    We study the control and manipulation of propagating spin waves in yttrium iron garnet films using a local laser-induced heating. We show that, due to the refraction of spin waves in the thermal gradients, the heated region acts as a defocusing lens for Damon-Eshbach spin waves and as a focusing lens for backward volume waves enabling collimation of spin-wave beams in the latter case. In addition to the focusing/defocusing functionality, the local heating allows one to manipulate the propagation direction of the spin-wave beams and to efficiently suppress their diffraction spreading by utilizing caustic effects.

  14. Observation and suppression of quantized spin waves in microfabricated permalloy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Seki, Takeshi; Ono, Shimpei; Takanashi, Koki

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation and suppression of quantized spin wave modes in a microfabricated rectangular permalloy (Py) element. The Py element was located on a coplanar waveguide and was connected to a Cu wire. The quantized Damon-Eshbach spin wave and the perpendicular standing spin wave modes appeared in the resonance spectra for the Py elements. Those non-uniform magnetization dynamics were suppressed when the non-uniformity of the radio frequency magnetic field for the excitation was reduced by changing the design of the device structure.

  15. Temperature dependence of the linewidth of spin-waves in Co/CoO bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, H.

    2004-07-01

    Broadening of spin-wave modes in the ferromagnetic thin layer with temperature is investigated within the Born approximation in a coupled ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic bilayer. The Damon-Eschbach mode is used as a model to calculate the frequency of spin-waves in the ferromagnetic layer. Exchange bias by interface coupling and a random magnetic field due to inhomgeneities of the interface are represented by an effective field. Within this model we can explain the observed broadening of spin wave modes with temperature.

  16. Quantization of spin waves in oval-shaped nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. G.; Lim, H. S.; Wang, Z. K.; Ng, S. C.; Kuok, M. H.; Goolaup, S.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Singh, N.

    Regular arrays of oval-shaped permalloy nanorings have been fabricated using deep ultraviolet lithography and their spin dynamics measured by Brillouin light scattering with the magnetic field applied along long (easy) axes of the rings. The dispersionless behavior of the spin wave modes observed reveals their standing wave nature. Two-dimensional simulations and analytical calculations have been performed for a single isolated nanoring. Results reveal that the observed modes can be interpreted in terms of quantized Damon-Eshbach modes due to lateral confinement in the finite size rings.

  17. Generation of propagating backward volume spin waves by phase-sensitive mode conversion in two-dimensional microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brächer, T.; Pirro, P.; Westermann, J.; Sebastian, T.; Lägel, B.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Hillebrands, B.

    2013-04-01

    We present the generation of propagating backward volume (BV) spin waves in a T shaped Ni81Fe19 microstructure. These waves are created from counterpropagating Damon Eshbach spin waves, which are excited using microstrip antennas. By employing Brillouin light scattering microscopy, we show how the phase relation between the counterpropagating waves determines the mode generated in the center of the structure, and prove its propagation inside the longitudinally magnetized part of the T shaped microstructure. This gives access to the effective generation of backward volume spin waves with full control over the generated transverse mode.

  18. Influence of the magnetic tip in ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbois, V.; Naletov, V. V.; Youssef, J. Ben; Klein, O.

    2002-06-01

    We compare mechanically detected ferromagnetic resonance spectra for different separations h between the magnetic tip and sample surface. When the bias field generated by the tip is smaller than a few hundred gauss, the prominent changes are shifts of the entire spectrum (without line shape distortions) to higher frequency as h decreases. These results are in agreement with the Damon and Eshbach model for spin waves propagating in a potential perturbed by the additional field of the probe magnet. It is used to predict the spatial resolution limit for magnetostatic modes bounded by the stray field of the tip. The answer is approx4 mum for yttrium iron garnet.

  19. Interface effects on the magnetic properties of exchange coupled Co/Fe multilayers studied by Brillouin light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Carbucicchio, M.; Ruggiero, G.

    2001-05-01

    Exchange-coupled 5[Co ( x) /Fe (3 x) ]/Co ( x) with x=5, 10, 15 nm multilayers were grown by UHV electron-beam evaporation. The influence of the interface magnetic anisotropy and interlayer exchange interaction on the magnetic properties was studied by means of Brillouin light scattering from thermally excited spin waves. Both the Damon-Eshbach surface mode of the total multilayer and bulk standing modes are present in the BLS spectra. A careful study of spin waves frequency dependence on the applied magnetic field allowed the determination of the magnetic parameters of the Co/Fe multilayers.

  20. Mechanical detection of ferromagnetic resonance spectrum in a normally magnetized yttrium-iron-garnet disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbois, V.; Naletov, V. V.; Ben Youssef, J.; Klein, O.

    2002-05-01

    The ferromagnetic resonance spectrum of a normally magnetized yttrium-iron-garnet disk, with thickness of 4.75 μm and radius of 80 μm, is measured at room temperature both by magnetic resonance force microscopy and by standard detection of the microwave susceptibility. The comparison indicates that magnetic resonance force microscopy represents one of the most potent means of obtaining the complete ferromagnetic resonance spectra of micron-size samples. In the weak coupling regime, the measured data can be quantitatively understood within the framework of the Damon and Eshbach model.

  1. Spin-wave modes in granular superferromagnetic (SiO2)Co/GaAs films observed using Brillouin light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stashkevich, A. A.; Roussigné, Y.; Stognij, A. I.; Novitskii, N. N.; Kostylev, M. P.; Wurtz, G. A.; Zayats, A. V.; Lutsev, L.

    2008-12-01

    Behavior of dipole-exchange spin waves (SWs) in the Damon-Eshbach geometry in a nanocomposite (SiO2)100-xCox superferromagnetic (x=80at.%) film has been studied by Brillouin light scattering. The measured value of the effective exchange constant turned out to be three times less than its value for the bulk cobalt. A qualitative theoretical model has been proposed to explain this reduction. It has been shown that the “superspin” approximation, identifying each nanoparticle with a “magnetic point” with no internal structure, is not sufficient to account for the description of the SW behavior of a concentrated nanocomposite medium.

  2. Brillouin light scattering observation of the transition from the superparamagnetic to the superferromagnetic state in nanogranular (SiO2)Co films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stashkevich, A. A.; Roussigné, Y.; Djemia, P.; Billet, D.; Stognij, A. I.; Novitskii, N. N.; Wurtz, G. A.; Zayats, A. V.; Viau, G.; Chaboussant, G.; Ott, F.; Gautrot, S.; Kostylev, M. P.; Lutsev, L. V.; Belotelov, V.

    2008-11-01

    Evolution of magnetic excitations from purely magnetostatic modes to dipole-exchange spin waves in the Damon-Eshbach geometry in nanocomposite (SiO2)100-xCox (50 at. %

  3. Direct Excitation of Propagating Spin Waves by Focused Ultrashort Optical Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Y.; Dvornik, M.; Davison, T.; Ahmad, E.; Keatley, P. S.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2013-03-01

    An all-optical experiment long utilized to image phonons excited by ultrashort optical pulses has been applied to a magnetic sample. In addition to circular ripples due to surface acoustic waves, we observe an X-shaped pattern formed by propagating spin waves. The emission of spin waves from the optical pulse epicenter in the form of collimated beams is qualitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. We explain the observed pattern in terms of the group velocity distribution of Damon-Eshbach magnetostatic spin waves in the reciprocal space and the wave vector spectrum of the focused ultrafast laser pulse.

  4. Magnetic excitations in (SiO 2)Co nano-composite films: Brillouin light scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stashkevich, A. A.; Roussigné, Y.; Stognij, A. I.; Novitskii, N. I.; Wurtz, G.; Zayats, A. V.; Viau, G.; Chaboussant, G.; Ott, F.; Lutsev, L. V.; Djemia, P.; Kostylev, M. P.; Belotelov, V.

    2009-04-01

    Behaviour of magnetic excitations in the Damon-Eshbach (DE) and backward volume (BV) geometries in nano-composite (SiO 2) 100-xCo x (50% at< x<80% at) films has been studied by Brillouin light scattering (BLS). It has been shown that it is the structure of Stokes/anti-Stokes BLS lines in the DE geometry that allows reliable identification of dipole-exchange spin waves (SW) and numerical estimation of the value of the effective exchange constant A eff of a super-ferromagnetic nano-granular sample ( x=80% at).

  5. Symmetry dependence of spin-wave eigenmodes in Landau-domain patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolte, M.; Meier, G.; Bayer, C.

    2007-09-01

    Spin-wave eigenmodes in thin permalloy squares with Landau-domain patterns are investigated by micromagnetic simulation. Both the spatial symmetry of an exciting field pulse and the symmetry of the internal field determine the frequency and spatial distribution of the spin waves. With each symmetry, only a subset of all the possible eigenmodes can be observed. Our findings confirm the presence of longitudinally and transversally localized modes. Comparison with dispersion relations from analytical theory allows the unambiguous identification of the modes as backward volume and Damon-Eshbach modes, respectively.

  6. Spin-wave population in nickel after femtosecond laser pulse excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenk, Benjamin; Eilers, Gerrit; Hamrle, Jaroslav; Münzenberg, Markus

    2010-10-01

    The spin-wave relaxation mechanisms after intense laser excitation in ferromagnetic nickel films are investigated with all-optical pump-probe experiments. Uniform precession (Kittel mode), Damon-Eshbach surface modes and perpendicular standing spin waves can be identified by their dispersion ω(Hext) . However, different to other ferromagnets ω(Hext) deviates from the expected behavior. Namely, a mode discontinuity is observed that can be attributed to a nonlinear process. Above a critical field the power spectrum reveals a redistribution of the energy within the spin-wave spectrum populated.

  7. Toxicological risks to humans of toxaphene residues in fish.

    PubMed

    Leonards, Pim E G; Besselink, Harrie; Klungsøyr, Jarle; McHugh, Brendan; Nixon, Eugene; Rimkus, Gerhard G; Brouwer, Abraham; de Boer, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    A revised risk assessment for toxaphene was developed, based on the assumption that fish consumers are only exposed to toxaphene residues that differ substantially from technical toxaphene due to environmental degradation and metabolism. In vitro studies confirmed that both technical toxaphene and degraded toxaphene inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication that correlates with the mechanistic potential to cause tumor promotion. In vivo rat studies established the NOAEL for degraded and technical toxaphene at the highest dose tested in the bioassay. Toxaphene residue intakes from European fishery products were estimated and compared to the provisional tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) from various regulatory agencies including Canada, the United States, and Germany. The estimated intake was also compared to a new calculated provisional MATT pTDI. The MATT pTDI is based on new toxicological information (in vivo rat studies) developed on a model for environmental toxaphene residues rather than technical toxaphene. A MATT pTDI (1.08 mg total toxaphene for a person of 60 kg) for tumor promotion potency was adopted for use in Europe and is referred to here as the MATT pTDI. These new data result in a better estimate of safety and a higher TDI than previously used. Based on realistic fish consumption data and recent baseline concentration data of toxaphene in European fishery products, the toxaphene intake for the consumers of Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the Netherlands was estimated. For an average adult fish consumer, the average daily intake of toxaphene was estimated to be 1.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.2 µg for the consumers of Norway, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands, respectively. The toxaphene intake of these average fish consumers was far below the MATT pTDI of 1.08 mg/60 kg bw. In conclusion, based on the most relevant toxicological studies and the most realistic estimates of fish consumption and recent concentrations of toxaphene in European fishery

  8. Evaluation of Friction in Orthodontics Using Various Brackets and Archwire Combinations-An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sujeet; Hamsa P.R, Rani; Ahmed, Sameer; Prasanthma; Bhatnagar, Apoorva; Sidhu, Manreet; Shetty, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare frictional resistance which was produced between conventional brackets (0.022 slot Otho-Organiser) and self ligating brackets (active Forestadent and passive Damon III) by using various arch wire combinations (0.016 Niti, 0.018 Niti, 0.017 x 0.025 SS and 0.019 x 0.025 SS). Methods: An experimental model which consisted of 5 aligned stainless steel 0.022-in brackets was used to assess frictional forces which were produced by SLBs (self ligating brackets) and CELs (conventional elastomeric ligatures) with use of 0.016 nickel titanium, 0.018 nickel titanium, 0.017 X 0.025”stainless steel and 0.019 X 0.025”stainless steel wires. Statistical analysis: One way ANOVA test was used to study the effect of the bracket type, wire alloy and section on frictional resistance test . Results: Conventional brackets produced highest levels of friction for all bracket/archwire combinations. Both Damon III and Forestadent brackets were found to produce significantly lower levels of friction when they were compared with elastomerically tied conventional brackets. Conclusion: SLBs are valid alternatives for low friction during sliding mechanics. PMID:24995241

  9. Design of an Orthodontic Torque Simulator for Measurement of Bracket Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melenka, G. W.; Nobes, D. S.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The design and testing of an orthodontic torque simulator that reproduces the effect of archwire rotation on orthodontic brackets is described. This unique device is capable of simultaneously measuring the deformation and loads applied to an orthodontic bracket due to archwire rotation. Archwire rotation is used by orthodontists to correct the inclination of teeth within the mouth. This orthodontic torque simulator will provide knowledge of the deformation and loads applied to orthodontic bracket that will aide clinicians by describing the effect of archwire rotation on brackets. This will also impact that design on new archwirebracket systems by providing an assessment of performance. Deformation of the orthodontic bracket tie wings is measured using a digital image correlation process to measure elastic and plastic deformation. The magnitude of force and moments applied to the bracket though the archwire is also measured using a six-axis load cell. Initial tests have been performed on two orthodontic brackets of varying geometry to demonstrate the measurement capability of the orthodontic torque simulator. The demonstration experiment shows that a Damon Q bracket had a final plastic deformation after a single loading of 0.022 mm while the Speed bracket deformed 0.071 mm. This indicates that the Speed bracket plastically deforms 3.2 times more than the Damon Q bracket for similar magnitude of applied moment. The demonstration experiment demonstrates that bracket geometry affect the deformation of orthodontic brackets and this difference can be detected using the orthodontic torque simulator.

  10. Interface boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization and spin wave dynamics in a ferromagnetic layer with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostylev, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we derive the interface exchange boundary conditions for the classical linear dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnetic layers with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI). We show that IDMI leads to pinning of dynamic magnetization at the interface. An unusual peculiarity of the IDMI-based pinning is that its scales as the spin-wave wave number. We incorporate these boundary conditions into an existing numerical model for the dynamics of the Damon-Eshbach spin wave in ferromagnetic films. IDMI affects the dispersion and the frequency non-reciprocity of the travelling Damon-Eshbach spin wave. For a broad range of film thicknesses L and wave numbers, the results of the numerical simulations of the spin wave dispersion are in a good agreement with a simple analytical expression, which shows that the contribution of IDMI to the dispersion scales as 1/L, similarly to the effect of other types of interfacial anisotropy. Suggestions to experimentalists how to detect the presence of IDMI in a spin wave experiment are given.

  11. Non-reciprocity of dipole-exchange spin waves in thin ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostylev, M.

    2013-02-01

    The non-reciprocity and asymmetry of the modal profiles for dipole-exchange spin waves have been investigated theoretically. We were interested in the most important case for applications: the waves propagating in in-plane magnetized ferromagnetic films at a right angle to the applied magnetic field. For large-magnetic moment ferromagnetic metallic films with typical thicknesses 10-60 nm which are largely considered promising for magnonic and spintronic applications, the contribution of exchange energy to the total magnetic energy is important; however, their dynamics is most often treated using the exchange-free Damon-Eschbach approach. In this work, we show that although this approach is valid for treatment of wave dispersion, it fails to properly describe such fundamental property of wave excitations as wave modal profiles. Namely we show that the fundamental mode of the dipole-exchange spectrum is localized at the film surface opposite to the surface of localization of the exchange-free Damon-Eshbach surface wave. This "anomalous" localization of the wave does not affect the non-reciprocity of spin wave excitation by microstrip and coplanar transducers but may be detected in other types of experiments.

  12. Brillouin light scattering investigation of dynamic spin modes confined in cylindrical Permalloy dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Carlotti, G.; Okuno, T.; Shinjo, T.; Nizzoli, F.; Zivieri, R.

    2003-11-01

    The quantized mode spectrum of standing spin waves and edge modes in cylindrical Permalloy dots with a radius R in the range between 100 and 500 nm, thickness L=50 nm, and separation 2R, is examined from both experimental and theoretical points of view. Brillouin scattering measurements in the Damon-Eshbach geometry give evidence of a marked discretization of the spectra with respect to that of the continuous Permalloy film. The modes can be classified into two distinct families according to their frequency. The upper one consists of the usual Damon-Eshbach, dipole-exchange modes. The modes belonging to the lower family, instead, oscillate parallel to the applied field and are reminescent of the backward modes of the film. Brillouin measurements performed with the applied field parallel to the transferred spin-wave wave vector, confirm this interpretation. The frequencies of these waves have been calculated using a simple theoretical model including the exchange field. Also, a laterally confined mode belonging to this family is observed and its frequency is independent on the dot radius.

  13. Asperger through the looking glass: an exploratory study of self-understanding in people with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Paul; Skirrow, Paul; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2012-05-01

    Hobson (Autism and the development of mind. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hove, UK 1993) has proposed that the cognitive and linguistic disabilities that characterise autism result from abnormalities in inter-subjective engagement during infancy, which in turn results in impaired reflective self-awareness. The aim of the present study was to test Hobson's hypothesis by examining self-understanding in Asperger's syndrome (AS) using Damon and Hart's (Self-understanding in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988) model of self-concept. Ten participants with Asperger's syndrome were compared with ten non AS controls using the Self-understanding Interview (Damon and Hart in Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988). The study found that the Asperger's group demonstrated impairment in the "self-as-object" and "self-as-subject" domains of the Self-understanding Interview, which supported Hobson's concept of an impaired capacity for self-awareness and self-reflection in people with ASD. The results are discussed with reference to previous research regarding the development of self-understanding in people with ASD.

  14. King Receives 2012 Geodesy Section Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Peter; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2013-10-01

    We have known Matt for more than a decade, since shortly after he completed his Ph.D. research at the University of Tasmania, Australia, in 2001 and relocated to Newcastle University, U.K. His work has concerned geodetic applications in solid Earth and cryospheric studies, with his pioneering use of precise Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in glaciology especially notable. His research has involved novel and fruitful studies to mitigate a range of GNSS error phenomena, particularly subdaily errors related to tides and multipath and their biasing effects on longer-term coordinate time series. From these technical insights, Matt and collaborating glaciologists have made groundbreaking discoveries of the nonlinear behavior of glaciers and ice streams. His current research efforts focus on constraining Antarctic Holocene deglaciation and Earth rheology through measurements of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), with an end goal of improving our understanding of the present-day ice mass balance.

  15. Failure Criterion For Isotropic Time Dependent Materials Which Accounts for Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, D. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Macon, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle program has recently conducted testing to characterize the effects of multi-axial loading, temperature and time on the failure characteristics of TIGA321, EA913NA, EA946 (three filled epoxy adhesives). From the test data a "Multi-Axial, Temperature, and Time Dependent" or MATT failure criterion was developed. It is shown that this criterion simplifies, for constant load and constant load rate conditions, into a form that can be easily used for stress analysis. Failure for TIGA321 and EA913NA are characterized below their glass transition temperature. Failure for EA946 is characterized for conditions that pass through its glass transition. The MATT failure criterion is shown to be accurate for a wide range of conditions for these adhesives.

  16. Circulation and Convection in the Irminger Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Hristina, Ian, Jake, Jessica, Jim, Jinbo, Matt, Max, Melanie, Nick , Paul, Rachel, Rebecca, Shaoyu, Sophie, Stephanie, Stephanie, Tatiana, Tom, and Wilken. I... Hodges (2002). The pre-existence of the cyclonic systems prior to their arrival over the Irminger Sea has important ramifications. It demonstrates that...translation speed of the systems between Greenland and Iceland (Fig. 2-10b and Hoskins and Hodges , 2002) is consistent with this, suggest- 38 Figure 4-6

  17. A Civilian/Military Trauma Institute: National Trauma Research Coordinating Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Participants will practice placing the LMA brand and I-Gel brand supraglottic airways and will intubate the trachea using the LMA brand Fastrach...laryngoscopy techniques. Participants will intubate using the LMA brand McGrath video laryngoscope. Station 11 Percutaneous Airway Dr. (Capt) Matt...bronchoscope and an intubation catheter. Participants will practice placing LMA supraglottic airway devices and will intubate the trachea using a

  18. 40 CFR 421.74 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zinc .000 .000 Total suspended solids .000 .000 pH (1) (1) 1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all... bullion produced Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 Total suspended solids .000 .000 pH (1) (1) 1Within the... slag, speiss, or matte granulated Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 Total suspended solids .000 .000 pH...

  19. Great Communicating: Learning from Ronald Reagan’s Public Appeals to Address the Obesity Epidemic in America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    death 2004, Matt Foreman, of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force said, "I wouldn’t feel so angry if the Reagan administration’s failing was due to...Notwithstanding the existence of the gay Republican group, the Log Cabin Republicans, homosexuals tend then, as now, to politically affiliate themselves with the...for espousing an anti- gay stance, part of which may be attributed to the lasting effects of Reagan’s estrangement from homosexuals . Reagan could have

  20. A Miniature Fiber-Optic Sensor for High-Resolution and High-Speed Temperature Sensing in Ocean Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-05

    fiber-optic sensor for high-resolution and high-speed temperature sensing in ocean environment Guigen Liu1, Ming Han1,* Weilin Hou2, Silvia Matt2... sensor performance. In this paper, we present an optical fiber sensor for the high-resolution and high-speed temperature profiling. The developed sensor ...silicon, such as large thermal diffusivity, notable thermo-optic effects and thermal expansion coefficients of silicon, the proposed sensor exhibits

  1. The Design of a Portable and Deployable Solar Energy System for Deployed Military Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    The Design of a Portable and Deployable Solar Energy System for Deployed Military Applications Justin Tyner, Matt Coates, Dave Holloway, Kyle...energy systems and to specifically design a portable solar energy system for use tailored for a deployed military/combat unit. We considered ease...where diesel generators are superior and areas where the solar energy systems are superior. The remainder of this paper outlines our process and

  2. The Cost and Economic Corruption of the Iraq War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    June 2007. 2 Stuart W. Bowen, Jr., Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Statement Before the United States House Committee of...2007. 10 Matt Crensen. “In Dollars, Iraq War’s Cost is Nowhere Near a Record,” The Seattle Times, 18 March 2007. 11 Stuart W. Bowen, Jr., Special...Nations sanctions. The authors point to Operation Desert Fox that involved more than 40,000 American troops, 300 aircraft, and 40 ships that still did

  3. An Active Noise Control Stethoscope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-24

    Laboratories delayed this final report beyond the 8-15-93 deadline. A large vehicle was driven in order to transport scientific equipment for making ...testing procedure with Al Williams, the director of Memphis Wings. Figure lb depicts two of the pi- lots, Bob Randall and Phil Scruggs, helping make room...Figures 2a and 2b depicts Jim Hendrix and Matt Miley making sure everything is working. Figures. 3a and 3b depict Bob Randall gettiug on board and running

  4. Youthwork as Modern Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Nicole and Matt are working together at Nexus, a group home, with six youth: Cathie, Maria, Ramon, Ron, Cheryl, and Nick. Nexus is a two-story house in the center of a medium-sized city. It is an older building that has been decorated and enlivened with the youth's art and music. Their story is presented in this article to illustrate how youthwork…

  5. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI (trademark)), Version 1.1, Staged Representation (CMMI-SW, V1.1, Staged)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Jeffrey L. Brayer, Gil KPMG Consulting Schoening, Bill Pomietto, Robert J. Comarco Systems, Inc Lockheed Martin Brown, Linda Angstadt, Kim Computer...Participants 620 Q-Labs Inc Gross, Jon Hefley, Bill Guerin, Joan Menezes, Winifred Hayes, Will Raytheon Hertneck, Christian Berauer, Ben Johnson, Martha ...Armstrong, Jim Fisher, Matt TeraQuest, Inc Gallagher, Brian Curtis, Bill Garcia , SuZ THALES Gibson, Diane Bonnet, Thierry Goldenson, Dennis Cattan

  6. Army Enlisted Personnel Competency Assessment Program: Phase 2 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Army Leadership on many important levels . The Army Test Program Advisory Team (ATPAT) The functions and contributions of the ATPAT, as a group, are...SGM (R) James Herrell CSM Robie Roberson SGM Enrique Hoyos CSM Otis Smith Jr CSM Nick Piacentini MSG Matt Northen iv ARMY ENLISTED PERSONNEL... levels must possess the interpersonal, technical, and organizational knowledge, skills, and other attributes (KSAs) to perform effectively in complex

  7. From Ultrafine Thiolate-Capped Copper Nanoclusters toward Copper Sulfide Nanodiscs: A Thermally-Activated Evolution Route

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-13

    Kim, K . T .; Jeong, Y. J .; Hong, S. H . 1. Mater. Res. 2006, 21 , 2371. (19) Wang, J. ; Huang, H. ; Kesapragada, S. V.; Gall , D . Nano. Lett...1183. ( 21 ) (a) Wang, T.; Yang, W. ; Wu, L. ; Chen, c.; Chu, C. Nanotechnology 2006, 17,7 19. (b) Kim, c.; Gu, W ; Briceno, M. ; Robertson, I. M.; Choi...104, 1206. Matt et al. deposition, 19,20 chemical vapor deposition, 21 y-irradiation,22 UV-light irradiation,23 and sonochemical methods. 24

  8. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force, Space Division Housing Project, San Pedro, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-24

    will come and live 10 in those homes. They are intelligent , college graduates, 11 they are dedicated, they are professional. And I guarantee 12 you they...34manmade" or artificial fill area has been documented by the recent geotechnical investigation at WP (Woodward-Clyde, 1986). The artificial fill (Qf) area... businness - like a.=osmhere of our discussion indicates to me that we can resolve this matte. without an extended contr-oversy orlitigat~ion. During the

  9. Class Notes: Programming Parallel Algorithms CS 15-840B (Fall 1992)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    840: Programming Parallel Algorithms Lecture #15 Scribe: Bob Wheeler Thursday, 6 Nov 92 Overview * Connected components (continued). * Minimum spanning...Sriram Sethuraman Singular value decomposition Ken Tew EEG analysis Eric Thayer Speech recognition Xuemei Wang & Bob Wheeler Matrix operations Matt...Computing, 14(4):862-874, 1985. [33] L. W. Tucker, C. R. Feynman , and D. M. Fritzsche. Object recognition using the Connection Machine. Proceedings CVPR 󈨜

  10. Taming the Tigers: Recapturing the Acquisition Excellence of Our Planning, Programming, and Acquisition Three-Ring Circus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Ross, Dr. Nirav Shah, Dr. Tom Speller, Paul Bess, Frank Finelli, Marcus Friesen , and Matt Jensen. Illustration reprinted by permission of Michael ...busi- ness-case analysis can fulfill national-policy goals in a responsible, ef- ficient, and defendable manner.  Notes 1. Michael Meese, “Defense...disproportionate effects on military services over time. See also Michael Donley, “On the Air Force’s Budgetary Balancing Act,” AOL Defense, 8 January 2013, http

  11. U.S. Army’s Ground Vehicle Energy Storage R&D Programs & Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-10

    Electromagnetic Armor Power Maturation • Nickel- Zinc 6T Battery Development • Development of 6T battery for SLI and silent watch using Li-ion chemistries...Absorbed Glass Matt lead acid battery for 24V military 4HN battery • Lithium plating phenomenon in Li-ion batteries • Study on the mechanism... batteries • Development of high energy density anode materials for improved Li-ion batteries • Alternative electrolyte for use in lithium-ion batteries

  12. U.S. Army’s Ground Vehicle Energy Storage R&D Programs and Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-17

    Nickel- Zinc 6T Battery Development • Development of 6T battery for SLI and silent watch using Li-ion chemistries • Absorbed Glass Matt lead acid battery ...for 24V military 4HN battery • Lithium plating phenomenon in Li-ion batteries • Study on the mechanism of thermal runaway in VRLA Batteries and Methods...materials for improved Li-ion batteries • Alternative electrolyte for use in lithium-ion batteries (higher voltage, improved performance) • Hybrid Power

  13. Error Processing Techniques for the Modified Read Facsimile Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    MARSHALL L . CAIN Senior Electronics Engineer Assistant Manager Office of NCS Technology (Technology and Standards) and Standards National Communications...headed by National Communications System Assistant Manager Marshall L . Cain, is responsible for the managemene of the Federal Tele- communications...projet,et comporte obligatoirement un bon analyste attacti. A P’ap- plication. It - L ’!MIPLANTATION GEOGRAPHIQUE D’UN RESEAU JNFORtMATtQUE PERFORMANT

  14. Counterfeit Parts: DOD Needs to Improve Reporting and Oversight to Reduce Supply Chain Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    visual inspection, radiological inspection, x- ray fluorescence, and electrical testing. Once the guidance is issued, it is intended to be applied...Stephanie Gustafson, Ashley Orr, Scott Purdy, Matt Shaffer, Roxanna Sun , and Robert Swierczek made key contributions to this report. Appendix IV: G O...website newly released reports, testimony, and correspondence. To have GAO e-mail you a list of newly posted products, go to http://www.gao.gov and

  15. Relighting Character Motion for Photoreal Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    RELATED WORK. The technique presented here builds on a wealth of previous work in image-based modeling and rendering, in the following areas in...mirror pairs are oriented behind each LED to increase the amount of light cast towards the subject with increasing distance of the light from the...frame M following each track frame. During a matte lighting condition, the main lights for the other lighting directions are turned off and the

  16. Human Security in the Asia-Pacific: In Australia’s National Interests?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    University of Queensland Asian Studies Department, also argued that the concept of human security would have “greater analytical and policy value” if it...development. 13 Alex Bellamy and Matt McDonald, professors at the School of Political Science at the University of Queensland , supported the...reflect regional concerns with threats from natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and landslides. As a developing

  17. Factors in Human-Computer Interface Design (A Pilot Study).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    classmates, Captain John Ellis, Captain Karen Cook, Captain Connie Hutchinson, Captain Alison McCoy, Captain Matt Pirko, Captain Brian Brown, Captain Susan...available, use the INFO? command to retrieve it. You can then use the INFO command again for specific topics. One handy feature in LISTSERV is that you can...then use the INFO command again for specific topics. One handy feature in LISTSERV is that you can send multiple commands in one message. Make sure to

  18. Going Beyond the Water’s Edge: Improving Congressional Oversight for the Department of Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Investigations can also be a conducted for no other purpose than to inform the government and the public on the efficiency and effectiveness of executive...Katrina, the act turned FEMA back into a semi-autonomous agency, which prevented DHS from diverting resources and personnel to other agencies or positions...Sapotichne. “Constructing Homeland Security: An Anemic Policy Regime.” The Policy Studies Journal 39, no . 2 (2011): 301. Mayer, Matt A ., James Jay Carafano

  19. Rheological Properties of Thickened Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-12-07

    Seriul Ho. UU3 Copy No. y/ Dato : December 7» 19^1-2 * Copies No. 1 through 28 - Dr. Irvin Stewart Copy Ho. 29 - Chief, Chemical Wurfure...Little Is known of’the variables controlling this. It sppeers certain that the following reaulreraents must be matt 1. It must be soft enough so that...in diameter, so that movmrnt of the inner cylinder even with thr most viscous materlels is clmost negligible. The necessary rccurrcy In reding the

  20. The Navy Supply Corps Newsletter. Contracting Innovations: Navy Electronic Commerce Online Navy Afloat Purchase Card Program. Volume 62, No. 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    tf • lovy Electronic Commerce Online m Afloat Purchase Card Program4 % y5.ll ’ ’"’#K5&. ifekj 1IÜN AB iräri.1 . ■■-■ 11...Contracting Innovations NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners 8 The Afloat Purchase Card Program: Decentralizing Purchasing for...there. J- May/June NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners By Matt Nielsen, NECO Project Manager, Naval Supply Systems Command M he

  1. "Walk Softly and Carry a Big Stick": An Analysis of the Impact of Colonialism/Imperialism on the Operational Art for Campaign Planners Assigned to AFRICOM Using the Darfur Crisis as a Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    provide some recommendations to operational planners. I want to thank Dr. Paolo Tripodi for his mentorship throughout this process. His role as a...http://www.africom.mil/AboutAFRICOM.asp. (accessed September 5, 2008). 25 15 Greg Mills, Terence McNamee, Mauro De Lorenzo, and Matt-hew Utley, "AFRICOM...Center for Strategic & International Studies. June 8, 2008. https://forums.csis.org/africa/?p=119&print=1, (accessed December 12,2008). 23 Paolo

  2. Go Big or Go Home: Employing America’s Heavy Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    the heavy force’s effectiveness in Operations BATON ROUGE and AL FAJR. In both operations, US heavy and light forces successfully fought insurgents...detrimental effects. Although true to a point, Barnett completely disregards that without heavy forces, Operations like AL FAJR, BATON ROUGE and countless...Matthews, Matt M. “We Were Caught Unprepared: The 2006 Hezbollah-Israeli War.” Fort Leavenworth, KS: CSI Press, 2008 . McCone, David R. Wilbur J

  3. Workshop on Aerospace Materials for Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    the topic of "ultra-high temperature ceramics" increased from ~5 in 2000 to 74 in 2008 while published papers on the compound zirconium diboride ...Corral E.L. Corral and L.S. Walker, "Inhibition of C-C Composites Using Zirconium Diboride and Boron Carbide" Matt Gasch M. Gasch and S. Johnson...During High Temperature Oxidation of Zirconium Diboride - Silicon Carbide Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Composites, Part 1: Liquid Flow and the

  4. Army Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    intelligent. BY MATT DECEMBER, TARDEC PUBLIC AFFAIRS 7 OWN THE WEATHER Army aviators fly in degraded visual environments with help from sensor...JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 Army researchers are going after solutions to help aircraft crews navigate in degraded visual environments, where weather ...DVE as a tactical advantage and to enable safe operations in all conditions, Dellert said. The team’s mantra is “Own the Weather ,” which aims to

  5. Computational Modeling Approaches for Studying Transverse Combustion Instability in a Multi-Element Injector (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015- June 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPUTATIONAL MODELING APPROACHES FOR STUDYING TRANSVERSE COMBUSTION...an artificial forcing term. The forcing amplitude can be adjusted so that the effect of the transverse instability on the center study element can be...Approaches for Studying Transverse Combustion Instability in a Multi-element Injector Matt Harvazinski1, Kevin Shipley2, Doug Talley1, Venke Sankaran1

  6. The Strategic Plan: Is There Such a Thing for the Remotely Piloted Aircraft?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    military than even he may have guessed, most notably for the RPA. Securing a camera or weapon to an unmanned, remotely controlled platform for target...frustrates a logical crossing of the Great Divide. Budget programming flows up from those who own the budget and essentially skip the strategy formation...transparent forum for academic and military subject matter experts to discuss the usefulness of the RPA as a form of military power. 47Matt Compton

  7. Performance of Passive and Active Sonars in the Philippine Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    150 km, or two and one half CZ’s. We label such figures as a depth-direction sine 1Both the internal wave and RAM MATLAB codes were provided by Matt...solution reflects a CZ like behavior.) The figures have encapsulate the ray arrivals very Figure 2: Left: Directional wave spectra vs subaperture...no shallow rays near the surface. Significant energy does not appear until approximately 250 m. After this there are just two paths until 1500 m

  8. Distributed Tracing of Intruders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    place. Matt Bishop shared his wide knowledge of Unix Security and the literature of the eld with me on many oc- casions. Biswanath Mukherjee provided...presently about 20 bytes per iv minute per connection of storage for the thumbprints. In addition, the existing (very limited) literature on the tracing...little attention in the literature . Here we review what is known about it. Firstly, several works describe the exploits of particular hackers and the

  9. The Other Quiet Professionals: Lessons for Future Cyber Forces from the Evolution of Special Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    workshops included MG (ret.) John Defreitas (INSCOM), COL Wayne Parks (U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command [TRADOC] Combined Arms Center), LTC Bryant...Component Command–Network Warfare [JFCC-NW]), Tim Thomas (Foreign Mili- tary Studies Office), LTC (ret.) Matt Stern, John Mahony (1st Information Opera...tions Command), John Mense (INSCOM), Paul Schuh (JFCC-NW), Russell Fenton (U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command), and CW5 Todd Boudreau and

  10. Role of microstructure in caustic stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 690

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, D.A.; Duda, P.T.; Pica, P.N.; Spahr, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Alloy 690 has been selected for nuclear heat transport system tubing application in recent commercial reactor plants due to its resistance to multiple types of corrosion attack. Typical corn final heat treatments for this material are a mill-anneal (MA, approximately 1,070 C) to completely dissolve the carbides and develop the final grain structure plus a thermal treatment (TT, approximately 700 C) to precipitate carbides at the grain boundaries. Tubing with grain boundary carbides and no or few intragranular carbides has been found resistant to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in caustic environments. In this work, first, Alloy 690 plate was subjected to a variety of MA and MA-TT heat treatments to create microstructures of carbide-decorated grain boundaries and undecorated boundaries. Caustic IGSCC test results were consistent with tubing data. Second, experiments were conducted to understand the mechanism by which caustic-corrosion resistance is imparted to Alloy 690 by grain boundary carbides. Tubing with a fully-developed MA-TT carbide microstructure was strained and heat-treated to create a mixed microstructure of new grain boundaries with no carbide precipitate decoration, intermixed with intragranular carbide strings from prior grain boundaries. Caustic SCC performance of this material was identical to that of material with the MA-TT carbide-decorated grain boundaries. This work suggests that the fundamental cause of good IGSCC resistance of MA-TT Alloy 690 in caustic does not derive solely from grain boundary carbides. It is suggested that matrix strength, as measured by yield stress, could be a controlling factor.

  11. Job Aid Manuals for Phase III-DEVELOP of the Instructional Systems Development Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    trr Co 4,,,st~, Cos r 4 " Saaooth Moft Pertortonres .330 from blocks 25 and 26 c, e-,Pe, wn tie to block 29 Wha~t does the matt’W t.ook Zikae when az...are developing a course for a lab technician and the material includes a specimen of a particular virus , which must be viewed through an electron

  12. Vehicle Concept Model Abstractions For Integrated Geometric, Inertial ,Rigid Body, Powertrain and FE Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    2 The nomenclature “simplified model” has also been applied to attribute- based FEMs. We avoid this terminology ...Matt Castanier; Gary Osborne; Glen Prater; Rostyslav Lesiv 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION ...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Louisville,Louisville,KY,40208 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ; #21933 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  13. Impossible Certainty: Cost Risk Analysis for Air Force Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    currently being used by the United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defence to report program cost estimates. In fact, Novick and Pardee (1969) suggested that...Those Interviewed for the Project 107 Mr. Dick Coleman, Northrop Grumman Mr. Jason Dechoretz, MCR Mr. Paul Garvey, MITRE Corporation Dr. Matt ... Pardee , Reducing Lead-Time Through Improved Technological Forecasting: Some Specific Suggestions for More Usefully Formulated Projections of

  14. FTIR Analyses of Hypervelocity Impact Deposits: DebriSat Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-27

    fractured quartz window Exposed surfaces are covered with a matte gray coating and fine debris Multi layer insulation 21 Top Whipple Plate Exoscan...004 ~ 0 .003 ~ 0 .002 ~ 0.001 ~ 0.000 ’ ’ 4000 2000 Wavenumbers (cm-1) Aluminum Oxide Spectra 49 EDS in the SEM and TEM indicate nano ...Plasma Chemistry, Bochum, 2009. Similar “not fully recognized” feature near 850 cm-1 attributed to Al-O stretching vibrations in Al/AlxOy nano clusters

  15. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  16. The Impact of the Housing Crisis on Home-Owning Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    The Frugal Gourmets, Value Is the Watchword as Shoppers Search for Supermarket Bargains,” The Washington Post, November 21, 2008, sec D. 6 Matt...and ready to deploy. 19 JPMorganChase online . “Chase Unveils Military-Tailored Support in...Advance of Veteran’s Day,” (2007): http://www.investor.shareholder.com/jpmorganchase/press/releasedetail.cfm?rel easeid=274846 20 PBS online . “Financial

  17. Numerical analysis on fluid flow and heat transfer in the smelting furnace of mitsubishi process for Cu refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-ha; Park, Soo-sang; Han, Xue-feng; Yi, Kyung-woo

    2016-01-01

    To understand complex behavior in the smelting furnace of Mitsubishi continuous process for copper refining, comprehensive 3-D numerical simulation and field experiment were performed. The numerical simulation results showed that strong and complex velocity fields of gas, matte and slag were generated in the furnace and large amounts of matte and slag were splashed into the gas area. Temperature measurements at the lance during field operation revealed that wide range of temperature variation appeared depending on the injection condition of concentrates. Numerical simulation results provided good agreements with experiments results and showed that the chemical reaction induces temperature increase during gas injection period. On the other hand, lance temperature is decreasing because of cold concentrates during gas and particles injection period. From the FFT analysis results, the fluctuations of matte and slag volume fraction near the lance induce temperature fluctuations of the lance. Through these experimental and simulation results, it was revealed that the lances in the smelting furnace were exposed to severe conditions such as high temperature, repeated large temperature change and cyclic change of large temperature gradient across the thickness.

  18. Assessment of substratum effect on the distribution of two invasive Caulerpa (Chlorophyta) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantes, Eduardo; Terrados, Jorge; Orfila, Alejandro

    2011-02-01

    Two-year monitoring of the invasive marine Chlorophyta Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea shows the great influence of substratum on their spatial distribution. The cover of C. taxifolia and C. racemosa was measured in shallow (<8 m) areas indicating that these species are more abundant in rocks with photophilic algae and in the dead matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica than in sand or inside the P. oceanica meadow. A short-term experiment comparing the persistence of C. taxifolia and C. racemosa planted either in a model of dead matte of P. oceanica or in sand shows that the persistence of these species was higher in the dead matte model than in sand. Correlative evidence suggests that C. taxifolia and C. racemosa tolerate near-bottom orbital velocities below 15 cm s -1 and that C. taxifolia cover declines at velocities above that value. These results contribute to understand the process of invasion of these Caulerpa species predicting which substrata would be more susceptible to be invaded and to the adoption of appropriate management strategies.

  19. Infinite sets and double binds.

    PubMed

    Arden, M

    1984-01-01

    There have been many attempts to bring psychoanalytical theory up to date. This paper approaches the problem by discussing the work of Gregory Bateson and Ignacio Matte-Blanco, with particular reference to the use made by these authors of Russell's theory of logical types. Bateson's theory of the double bind and Matte-Blanco's bilogic are both based on concepts of logical typing. It is argued that the two theories can be linked by the idea that neurotic symptoms are based on category errors in thinking. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a middle-aged woman. The intention is to demonstrate that the process of making interpretations can be thought of as revealing errors in thinking. Changes in the patient's inner world are then seen to be the result of clarifying childhood experiences based on category errors. Matte-Blanco's theory of bilogic and infinite experiences is a re-evaluation of the place of the primary process in mental life. It is suggested that a combination of bilogic and double bind theory provides a possibility of reformulating psychoanalytical theory.

  20. Design options for a bunsen reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles

    2013-10-01

    This work is being performed for Matt Channon Consulting as part of the Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA). Matt Channon Consulting has requested Sandia's assistance in the design of a chemical Bunsen reactor for the reaction of SO2, I2 and H2O to produce H2SO4 and HI with a SO2 feed rate to the reactor of 50 kg/hour. Based on this value, an assumed reactor efficiency of 33%, and kinetic data from the literature, a plug flow reactor approximately 1%E2%80%9D diameter and and 12 inches long would be needed to meet the specification of the project. Because the Bunsen reaction is exothermic, heat in the amount of approximately 128,000 kJ/hr would need to be removed using a cooling jacket placed around the tubular reactor. The available literature information on Bunsen reactor design and operation, certain support equipment needed for process operation and a design that meet the specification of Matt Channon Consulting are presented.

  1. The effects of surface gloss and roughness on color constancy for real 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Vergne, Romain; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2014-02-21

    Color constancy denotes the phenomenon that the appearance of an object remains fairly stable under changes in illumination and background color. Most of what we know about color constancy comes from experiments using flat, matte surfaces placed on a single plane under diffuse illumination simulated on a computer monitor. Here we investigate whether material properties (glossiness and roughness) have an effect on color constancy for real objects. Subjects matched the color and brightness of cylinders (painted red, green, or blue) illuminated by simulated daylight (D65) or by a reddish light with a Munsell color book illuminated by a tungsten lamp. The cylinders were either glossy or matte and either smooth or rough. The object was placed in front of a black background or a colored checkerboard. We found that color constancy was significantly higher for the glossy objects compared to the matte objects, and higher for the smooth objects compared to the rough objects. This was independent of the background. We conclude that material properties like glossiness and roughness can have significant effects on color constancy.

  2. Dual-Probe Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Variola or Other Orthopoxviruses with Dried Reagents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-10

    E.J., Li, Y., Fairley , J.A., Swain, G.R., Olson, V.A., Sar- gent, E.K., Kehl, S.C., Frace,M.A., Kline, R ., Foldy, S.L., Davis, J.P., Damon, I.K...D w M P a b c A R R A A K O S V M C V T P R M D 1 o k t s p ( w i O v C t 0 d Journal of Virological Methods 153 (2008) 190–195 Contents lists...t r a c t A real-time, multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on dried PCR reagents was developed. Only variola virus could be

  3. KSC-04PD-1776

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. United Space Alliance workers Dallas Lewis (left) and Damon Petty clean up hurricane debris inside the Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF). Much of the roof was torn off by Hurricane Frances as it passed over Central Florida during the Labor Day weekend. Undamaged equipment has been moved to the RLV hangar at KSC. The TPSF, which creates the TPS tiles, blankets and all the internal thermal control systems for the Space Shuttles, is almost totally unserviceable at this time after losing approximately 35 percent of its roof. The maximum wind at the surface from Hurricane Frances was 94 mph from the northeast at 6:40 a.m. on Sunday, September 5. It was recorded at a weather tower located on the east shore of the Mosquito Lagoon near the Cape Canaveral National Seashore. The highest sustained wind at KSC was 68 mph.

  4. KSC-04PD-1777

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. United Space Alliance workers Dallas Lewis (left) and Damon Petty carry out equipment from the Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF). The TPSF, which creates the TPS tiles, blankets and all the internal thermal control systems for the Space Shuttles, is almost totally unserviceable at this time after losing approximately 35 percent of its roof due to Hurricane Frances, which blew across Central Florida Sept. 4-5. Undamaged equipment is being moved to the RLV hangar at KSC. The maximum wind at the surface from Hurricane Frances was 94 mph from the northeast at 6:40 a.m. on Sunday, September 5. It was recorded at a weather tower located on the east shore of the Mosquito Lagoon near the Cape Canaveral National Seashore. The highest sustained wind at KSC was 68 mph.

  5. Growth and spin-wave properties of thin Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Stognij, A. I.; Novitskii, N. N.; Lutsev, L. V. Bursian, V. E.

    2015-07-14

    We describe synthesis of submicron Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) films sputtered on Si substrates and present results of the investigation of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin waves in YIG/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures. It is found that decrease of the annealing time leads to essential reduction of the FMR linewidth ΔH and, consequently, to reduction of relaxation losses of spin waves. Spin-wave propagation in in-plane magnetized YIG/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures is studied. We observe the asymmetry of amplitude-frequency characteristics of the Damon-Eshbach spin waves caused by different localizations of spin waves at the free YIG surface and at the YIG/SiO{sub 2} interface. Growth of the generating microwave power leads to spin-wave instability and changes amplitude-frequency characteristics of spin waves.

  6. Experimental study of spin-wave dispersion in Py/Pt film structures in the presence of an interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stashkevich, A. A.; Belmeguenai, M.; Roussigné, Y.; Cherif, S. M.; Kostylev, M.; Gabor, M.; Lacour, D.; Tiusan, C.; Hehn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS), complemented by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) characterization, has been used for studying spin-wave (SW) propagation in Py (L )/Pt (6 -nm ) bilayers of various Py thicknesses (4 nm ≤L ≤10 nm ) . The FMR measurements allowed determination of the pertinent magnetic parameters and revealed the existence of a normal surface anisotropy. A pronounced asymmetry of Damon-Eshbach (DE) wave frequencies has been evidenced by BLS. Therefore, the difference between Stokes and anti-Stokes DE frequencies has been measured versus SW wave number for all the samples. A detailed discussion about the origin of this frequency difference is reported, which concludes that this is due to interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI).

  7. Brillouin light scattering study of spin waves in NiFe/Co exchange spring bilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, Arabinda; Banerjee, Chandrima; Laha, Pinaki; Barman, Anjan

    2014-04-01

    Spin waves are investigated in Permalloy(Ni80Fe20)/Cobalt(Co) exchange spring bilayer thin films using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiment. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured by magneto-optical Kerr effect show a monotonic decrease in coercivity of the bilayer films with increasing Py thickness. BLS study shows two distinct modes, which are modelled as Damon-Eshbach and perpendicular standing wave modes. Linewidths of the frequency peaks are found to increase significantly with decreasing Py layer thickness. Interfacial roughness causes to fluctuate exchange coupling at the nanoscale regimes and the effect is stronger for thinner Py films. A quantitative analysis of the magnon linewidths shows the presence of strong local exchange coupling field which is much larger compared to macroscopic exchange field.

  8. Brillouin light scattering study of spin waves in NiFe/Co exchange spring bilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, Arabinda; Banerjee, Chandrima; Laha, Pinaki; Barman, Anjan

    2014-04-07

    Spin waves are investigated in Permalloy(Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20})/Cobalt(Co) exchange spring bilayer thin films using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiment. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured by magneto-optical Kerr effect show a monotonic decrease in coercivity of the bilayer films with increasing Py thickness. BLS study shows two distinct modes, which are modelled as Damon-Eshbach and perpendicular standing wave modes. Linewidths of the frequency peaks are found to increase significantly with decreasing Py layer thickness. Interfacial roughness causes to fluctuate exchange coupling at the nanoscale regimes and the effect is stronger for thinner Py films. A quantitative analysis of the magnon linewidths shows the presence of strong local exchange coupling field which is much larger compared to macroscopic exchange field.

  9. Direct physical formation of anatomical structures by cell traction forces. An interview with Albert Harris by Lev Beloussov.

    PubMed

    Harris, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Albert Harris was educated at The Norfolk Academy, Norfolk, Virginia, USA (1961). He then earned a Batchelor of Arts Degree in Biology from Swarthmore College, in Pennsylvania, USA (1965), followed by a Ph.D. in Biology (1971) from Yale University, where his Dissertation Advisor was the great John Phillip Trinkaus. He held a Damon-Runyon Postdoctoral Fellowship in Cancer Research in 1970-72, under Michael Abercrombie, FRS, at the Strangeways Research Laboratory of Cambridge University, England. Then he accepted a position as Assistant Professor in the Zoology Department of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, N.C. USA. In 1977, he was promoted to Associate Professor of Zoology, and in 1983 was promoted to Full Professor of Biology. In Oct.-Nov. 1991 he was honored to be Distinguished Visiting Professor of Zoology at the University of California at Davis.

  10. Nonlinear magneto-optic measurement of flux propagation dynamics in thin Permalloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. J.; Pufall, M. R.; Kabos, Pavel

    2002-02-01

    Time-resolved nonlinear optics are used to study the propagation of magnetic flux pulses in a 250 nm Permalloy film. The flux is generated in the film by coupling it to a coplanar waveguide structure driven with broadband voltage pulses. Flux pulses propagated in the film with a phase velocity of 4.2×105 m/s and a group velocity of 1.5×105 m/s. Both velocities are consistent with the predictions of Damon-Eshbach theory for magnetostatic surface waves with 200-300 μm wavelengths. Within 100 μm of the excitation source, flux pulses decayed monotonically but with no measurable delay.

  11. Brillouin light scattering study of Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al and Co2FeAl Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaier, O.; Hamrle, J.; Trudel, S.; Conca Parra, A.; Hillebrands, B.; Arbelo, E.; Herbort, C.; Jourdan, M.

    2009-04-01

    The thermal magnonic spectra of Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al (CCFA) and Co2FeAl were investigated using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy. For CCFA, the exchange constant A (exchange stiffness D) is found to be 0.48 ± 0.04 µerg cm-1 (203 ± 16 meV Å2), while for Co2FeAl the corresponding values of 1.55 ± 0.05 µerg cm-1 (370 ± 10 meV Å2) were found. The observed asymmetry in the BLS spectra between the Stokes and anti-Stokes frequencies was assigned to an interplay between the asymmetrical profiles of hybridized Damon-Esbach and perpendicular standing spin-wave modes, combined with the optical sensitivity of the BLS signal to the upper side of the CCFA or Co2FeAl film.

  12. Spin waves in magnetic wires:. a Brillouin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chérif, S. M.; Roussigné, Y.; Dugautier, C.; Moch, P.

    2000-12-01

    A detailed Brillouin light scattering study of the dispersion of surface spin waves in cobalt wires is reported. A comparison with the dispersion curve of the unpatterned continuos film is achieved and the effects of the size-dependent demagnetizing field are discussed. Concerning the pseudo-bulk modes appearing in the patterned film, as expected, their variation is quasi-independent from the variation of the angle of incidence. The experimental Brillouin spectra do not display any splitting of the Damon-Eshbach mode into a set of discrete lines in contrast with previously published results on permalloy. We interpret this difference as arising from the large experimental linewidth combined with the presence of an anisotropy in the case of cobalt. A qualitative model of the scattering intensity is presented in order to illustrate this difference. The involved eigenfrequencies are derived from numerical calculations which also allow us to discuss the relevant quantization conditions of the in-plane wave vector.

  13. Theory of spin wave modes in tangentially magnetized thin cylindrical dots: A variational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivieri, R.; Stamps, R. L.

    2006-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of the quantized spin wave spectrum in tangentially magnetized cylindrical thin magnetic dots. Low-energy spin waves in magnetic dots may be subdivided into four families: Damon-Eshbach like, backward like, mixed, and end modes. Frequencies and mode profiles are found using a variational approach based on carefully chosen trial functions. The variational method has the advantage that it can be used for large dots that are not practical to treat using numerical finite-element methods. Results for small dots generated using the variational method compare well with micromagnetic results. The variational method is demonstrated with an analysis of data obtained from experimental Brillouin light scattering data from saturated thin cylindrical Permalloy dots. Our approach allows for the definition of parameters describing important contributions to the spin wave energies. As an example, we show that a variational parameter γ provides a measure of spin wave localization near the dot border for one class of modes.

  14. Brillouin light scattering from quantized spin waves in micron-size magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorzick, J.; Demokritov, S. O.; Mathieu, C.; Hillebrands, B.; Bartenlian, B.; Chappert, C.; Rousseaux, F.; Slavin, A. N.

    1999-12-01

    An experimental study of spin-wave quantization in arrays of micron-size magnetic Ni80Fe20 wires by means of Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is reported. Dipolar-dominated Damon-Eshbach spin-wave modes laterally quantized in a single wire with quantized wave vector values determined by the width of the wire are studied. The frequency splitting between quantized modes, which decreases with increasing mode number, depends on the wire sizes and is up to 1.5 GHz. The transferred wave vector interval, where each mode is observed, is calculated using a light-scattering theory for confined geometries. The frequencies of the modes are calculated, taking into account finite-size effects. The results of the calculations are in a good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Femtosecond laser excitation of multiple spin waves and composition dependence of Gilbert damping in full-Heusler Co2Fe1-xMnxAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuyuan; Meng, Kangkang; Li, Shufa; Zhao, Jianhua; Lai, Tianshu

    2013-12-01

    Spin-wave dynamics in 30 nm thick Co2Fe1-xMnxAl full-Heusler films is investigated using time-resolved magneto-optical polar Kerr spectroscopy under an external field perpendicular to films. Damon-Eshbach (DE) and the first-order perpendicular standing spin-wave (PSSW) modes are observed simultaneously in four samples with x = 0, 0.3, 0.7, and 1. The frequency of DE and PSSW modes does not apparently depend on composition x, but damping of DE mode significantly on x and reaches the minimum as x = 0.7. The efficient coherent excitation of DE spin wave exhibits the promising application of Co2Fe0.3Mn0.7Al films in magnonic devices.

  16. X-Ray Lithography Patterning of Magnetic Materials and Their Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeloro, Patrizio; Kumar, Rakesh; Altissimo, Matteo; Businaro, Luca; Fabrizio, Enzo Di; Conti, Massimo; Gubbiotti, Gianluca; Carlotti, Giovanni; Gerardino, Annamaria; Zivieri, Roberto; Donzelli, Onofrio

    2003-06-01

    Magnetic arrays of rectangular dots 1100 nm× 300 nm with 200 nm spacing (pattern a) and dots 800 nm× 550 nm with 200 nm spacing (pattern b) with the nominal thickness of 30 nm in Permalloy (Ni81Fe19) material were fabricated using X-ray lithography in combination of lift-off technique. A detailed magnetic characterization of the dot arrays was accomplished by magneto-optical Kerr effect investigations and micro-magnetic simulations, with emphasis given to the dependence of the hysteresis loop of the dots on their aspect ratio (shape anisotropy). In addition, the high frequency dynamical properties were probed by Brillouin light scattering (BLS) showing a marked discretization of the Damon-Eshbach surface spin-wave mode induced by the finite lateral dimensions. The measured frequencies compare fairly well to those calculated by an analytical method which considers spin waves confined in rectangular prisms.

  17. Nonreciprocal dispersion of spin waves in ferromagnetic thin films covered with a finite-conductivity metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mruczkiewicz, M.; Krawczyk, M.

    2014-03-01

    We study the effect of one-side metallization of a uniform ferromagnetic thin film on its spin-wave dispersion relation in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. Due to the finite conductivity of the metallic cover layer on the ferromagnetic film, the spin-wave dispersion relation may be nonreciprocal only in a limited wave-vector range. We provide an approximate analytical solution for the spin-wave frequency, discuss its validity, and compare it with numerical results. The dispersion is analyzed systematically by varying the parameters of the ferromagnetic film, the metal cover layer and the value of the external magnetic field. The conclusions drawn from this analysis allow us to define a structure based on a 30 nm thick CoFeB film with an experimentally accessible nonreciprocal dispersion relation in a relatively wide wave-vector range.

  18. Spin-wave edge modes in finite arrays of dipolarly coupled magnetic nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, Ivan; Tyberkevych, Vasyl; Slavin, Andrei; Bondarenko, Pavel; Ivanov, Boris A.; Bankowski, Elena; Meitzler, Thomas; Nikitov, Sergey

    2014-09-01

    The frequency spectrum of spin-wave edge modes localized near the boundaries of a finite array of dipolarly coupled magnetic nanopillars is calculated theoretically. Two mechanisms of edge mode formation are revealed: inhomogeneity of the internal static magnetic field existing near the array boundaries and time-reversal symmetry breaking of the dipole-dipole interaction. The latter mechanism is analogous to the formation mechanism of a surface Damon-Eschbach mode in continuous in-plane magnetized magnetic films and is responsible for the nonreciprocity of edge modes in finite-width nanopillar arrays. The number of edge modes in nanopillar arrays depends on the spatial profile of the internal static magnetic field near the array boundaries and several edge modes are formed if a substantial field inhomogeneity extends over several rows of nanopillars.

  19. Field-dependent spin-wave damping in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, H.

    2006-04-01

    Damon Eshbach mode is used to explain the dependence of spin-wave frequency of ferromagnetic layer in thin ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic bilayer (FM/AFM) (Fe/FeF2) as a function of external field. We show that the exchange bias changes as a function of external field. Field-dependent spin-wave damping is calculated by Born approximation. A random field, due to roughness at interface, is invoked to explain the large broadening of the spin-wave mode when the AFM layer is present. In this calculation, the broadening of the spin-wave mode depends on the square of linewidth random fields. To explain the broadening of the spin-wave mode with observed results, the linewidth random fields should decrease with external field. For a magnitude of external field, we have a peak in broadening that can also be observed in experimental results.

  20. A scenario for magnonic spin-wave traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Frederik; Mansurova, Maria; Lenk, Benjamin; von der Ehe, Marvin; Münzenberg, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of the magnetization dynamics on a thin CoFeB film induced by an intense laser pump-pulse reveal that the frequencies of resulting spin-wave modes depend strongly on the distance to the pump center. This can be attributed to a laser generated temperature profile. We determine a shift of 0.5 GHz in the spin-wave frequency due to the spatial thermal profile induced by the femtosecond pump pulse that persists for up to one nanosecond. Similar experiments are presented for a magnonic crystal composed of a CoFeB-film based antidot lattice with a Damon Eshbach mode at the Brillouin zone boundary and its consequences are discussed.

  1. Growth and spin-wave properties of thin Y3Fe5O12 films on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stognij, A. I.; Lutsev, L. V.; Bursian, V. E.; Novitskii, N. N.

    2015-07-01

    We describe synthesis of submicron Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) films sputtered on Si substrates and present results of the investigation of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin waves in YIG/SiO2/Si structures. It is found that decrease of the annealing time leads to essential reduction of the FMR linewidth ΔH and, consequently, to reduction of relaxation losses of spin waves. Spin-wave propagation in in-plane magnetized YIG/SiO2/Si structures is studied. We observe the asymmetry of amplitude-frequency characteristics of the Damon-Eshbach spin waves caused by different localizations of spin waves at the free YIG surface and at the YIG/SiO2 interface. Growth of the generating microwave power leads to spin-wave instability and changes amplitude-frequency characteristics of spin waves.

  2. Tunneling of magnetoacoustic waves through a gap in ferromagnetic crystals with a relative longitudinal displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilkov, E. A.; Moiseev, A. V.; Shavrov, V. G.

    2011-03-01

    The tunneling of a plane monochromatic acoustic wave through a gap between two ferromagnets under conditions of their relative longitudinal displacement has been considered. It has been shown that, when the gap thickness h is comparable to the wavelength, the complete transmission of the acoustic wave at the Damon-Eshbach frequency becomes possible. When the gap thickness is smaller than the wavelength, the complete transmission of the acoustic wave occurs but already at two resonant frequencies. The inclusion of the longitudinal displacement of one of the crystals, in all cases, leads to the violation of resonance conditions and, consequently, to a noticeable decrease in the coefficient of transmission of the acoustic wave through the gap between two ferromagnets; this effect is more pronounced, the higher is the velocity of motion of the crystal. It has been demonstrated that there is a possibility of the wave front reversal occurring with the amplification of the reflected magnetoacoustic wave.

  3. Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/AlOx ultrathin films measured by Brillouin light spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, Mohamed; Adam, Jean-Paul; Roussigné, Yves; Eimer, Sylvain; Devolder, Thibaut; Kim, Joo-Von; Cherif, Salim Mourad; Stashkevich, Andrey; Thiaville, André

    2015-05-01

    Spin waves in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt ultrathin films with varying Co thicknesses (0.6-1.2 nm) have been studied with Brillouin light spectroscopy in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. The measurements reveal a pronounced nonreciprocal propagation, which increases with decreasing Co thickness. This nonreciprocity, attributed to an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), is significantly stronger than asymmetries resulting from surface anisotropies for such modes. Results are consistent with an interfacial DMI constant Ds=-1.7 ±0.11 pJ /m, which favors left-handed chiral spin structures. This suggests that such films below 1 nm in thickness should support chiral states such as skyrmions at room temperature.

  4. Magnetoelastic wave tunneling via a gap between ferroelectric crystals with relative longitudinal displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilkov, E. A.; Moiseev, A. V.; Shavrov, V. G.

    2009-09-01

    The tunneling of a plane monochromatic acoustic wave via a gap between two ferromagnetic crystals exhibiting relative longitudinal displacement has been studied. It is shown that, at a gap width comparable with the wavelength, the acoustic wave can exhibit complete transmission at the Damon-Eshbach mode frequency. If the gap width is much smaller than the wavelength, the complete transmission takes place at two resonance frequencies. Allowance for the longitudinal displacement of one crystal leads in all cases to violation of the resonance conditions, which results in a significant decrease in the transmission coefficient. The greater the velocity of crystal displacement, the stronger the decrease in the acoustic wave transmission though the gap between ferromagnetic crystals.

  5. Spin-Wave Excitations in Finite Rectangular Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Christian; Jorzick, Jörg; Demokritov, Sergej O.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Guslienko, Konstantin Y.; Berkov, Dmitry V.; Gorn, Natalia L.; Kostylev, Mikhail P.; Hillebrands, Burkard

    A review on recent Brillouin light scattering work on spin-wave modes in arrays of micrometer-size magnetic Ni80Fe20 stripes and rectangular elements is given. Several effects caused by the lateral confinement in the stripes are reviewed: 1. lateral quantization of dipole-dominated Damon-Eshbach spin-wave modes in a longitudinally magnetized stripe due to its finite width, 2. localization of exchange-dominated spin-wave modes near the edges and dipole-dominated spin-wave modes near the center of a transversely magnetized long magnetic stripe due to the inhomogeneity of its internal magnetic field, 3. combination of quantization and localization effects for the spin-wave modes in rectangular elements. The observed effects are analyzed using an analytical approach and numerical simulations.

  6. Observation of spin-wave cooling effect in magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Toshu; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Harii, Kazuya; Kajiwara, Yosuke; Yamagichi, Kazuya; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Chumak, A. V.; Vasyuchka, V. I.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Saitoh, Eiji

    2012-02-01

    We focused on utilizing a surface spin wave (Damon-Eshbach mode); traveling on top and bottom surfaces in a non reciprocal manner, as a good carrier of heat. As a sample, Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) was chosen because the spin waves excited in the YIG is known to have a long coherence length propagating distances even a few millimeters. By exciting the surface spin wave of only one side, heat transportation was successfully observed by measuring sample temperature with an infrared thermocamera. More interestingly, the temperature where the spin wave is initially excited shows cooling effect to drop its temperature just after the excitation of the surface spin wave. Here we call this effect as microwave cooling effect which is introducing a new cooling principle.

  7. Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction studied by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, H. S.; Stigloher, J.; Bauer, H. G.; Hata, H.; Taniguchi, T.; Moriyama, T.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) on the propagation of Damon-Eshbach spin waves in micrometer-sized Pt(2 nm)/Co(0.4 nm)/Py(5 nm)/MgO(5 nm) stripes. We use time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy to image the spin waves excited by a microwave antenna and to directly access their dispersion. The presence of an interfacial DMI manifests itself in an asymmetry in the dispersion for counterpropagating spin waves which reverses sign upon reversal of the direction of the externally applied magnetic field. From this asymmetry we deduce the strength of the interfacial DMI. Micromagnetic simulations confirm that the observed difference in the wave numbers and the signature of the asymmetry are characteristic for the occurrence of an interfacial DMI at the Pt/Co interface and cannot be explained by the uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy field originating from the same interface.

  8. Spin wave quantization in continuous film with stripe domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Seok; Yoon, Jungbum; Lee, Sukmock; You, Chun-Yeol; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Young Keun

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the spin wave dynamics of CoFeSiB film, which has a stripe domain structure at a low magnetic field region (<1 kOe). We measured the spin wave excitation spectra by employing Brillouin light scattering. Abnormal field dependence and dispersion relations were observed, and they are similar to spin wave quantization in laterally confined magnetic structures such as arrays of magnetic nanowires. The observed spin wave excitation spectra must be interpreted with spin wave quantization such as Damon-Eshbach mode separation. It was found that the spin wave quantization is related to the stripe magnetic domain structure in continuous film. The physical origin of the quantization is the partial reflection of the propagating spin wave at the periodic stripe domain boundaries.

  9. Spin-wave propagation in ultra-thin YIG based waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, M.; Gladii, O.; Evelt, M.; Bessonov, V.; Soumah, L.; Bortolotti, P.; Demokritov, S. O.; Henry, Y.; Cros, V.; Bailleul, M.; Demidov, V. E.; Anane, A.

    2017-02-01

    Spin-wave propagation in microfabricated 20 nm thick, 2.5 μm wide Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) waveguides is studied using propagating spin-wave spectroscopy (PSWS) and phase resolved micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering (μ-BLS) spectroscopy. We demonstrate that spin-wave propagation in 50 parallel waveguides is robust against microfabrication induced imperfections and extract spin-wave propagation parameters for the Damon-Eshbach configuration in a wide range of excitation frequencies. As expected from its low damping, YIG allows for the propagation of spin waves over long distances; the attenuation lengths is 25 μm at μ 0 H = 45 mT. Moreover, direct mapping of spin waves by μ-BLS allows us to reconstruct the spin-wave dispersion relation and to confirm the multi-mode propagation in the waveguides, glimpsed by propagating spin-wave spectroscopy.

  10. Influence of Friction Resistance on Expression of Superelastic Properties of Initial NiTi Wires in “Reduced Friction” and Conventional Bracket Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reznikov, Natalie; Har-Zion, Gilad; Barkana, Idit; Abed, Yosef; Redlich, Meir

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of resistance to sliding on expression of superelastic properties of NiTi wires. Methods and Materials. A three-point bending test was performed for 0.014 NiTi wire engaged in self-ligating (Damon, SmartClip, In-Ovation) and conventional brackets (Victory) ligated with regular and reduced friction modules (Slide). The wire was deflected in the buccal direction and allowed to straighten. The maximum load, unloading plateau and unloading capacity were registered. Results. The lowest activation load was required in the active self-ligating group (In-Ovation 2.2 ± 0.4 N) and reduced friction module group (Victory/Slide 2.9 ± 0.4 N), followed by the passive self-ligating systems (Damon 3.6 ± 0.7 N, SmartClip 3.7 ± 0.4 N). Higher activation load was obtained in the conventionally ligated group (Victory/module 4.5 ± 0.4 N). Unloading plateau phase with the load magnitude ranging from 1.27 ± 0.4 N (In-Ovation) to 1.627 ± 0.4 N (Slide) was distinct in all groups but one (Victory). Conclusions. Higher friction at flanking points reduces the net force delivered by the wire. Unloading plateau phase of NiTi load-deflection curve disappears in the conventionally ligated group thus indicating to an incomplete expression of NiTi superelastic properties. A rigid passive bracket clip amplifies resistance to sliding in an active configuration and produces a permanent deflection of the wire. PMID:20981153

  11. Tailoring dynamic magnetic characteristics of F e60A l40 films through ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N.; Bali, R.; Gieniusz, R.; Mamica, S.; Gollwitzer, J.; Schneider, T.; Lenz, K.; Potzger, K.; Lindner, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Fassbender, J.; Maziewski, A.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetization dynamics in F e60A l40 thin films possessing depth-varying saturation magnetization (MS) have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Variation in MS was achieved by irradiation of 40 nm thick, chemically ordered (B2 phase) F e60A l40 films with N e+ ions with energies between 0-30 keV. The initial B2 phase is paramagnetic, and as the penetrating ions cause chemical disordering, the ion-affected region transforms to the ferromagnetic A2 phase. The effective ferromagnetic thickness and the depth of the A2/B2 phase boundary depend on the ion energy (E ); the effective thicknesses are 8.5 and 40 nm, respectively, for E =2.5 and 30 keV. Thermally excited spin waves in films with varying effective ferromagnetic thicknesses were analyzed by employing Brillouin light scattering and vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The analytical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental values and show that the observed spin-wave modes are directly related to the effective ferromagnetic thickness; films irradiated with E <15 keV only show the Damon-Eshbach mode, whereas for 15 ≤ E <20 keV , an additional lower frequency standing spin-wave mode is observed. In films irradiated with E ≥20 keV , the Damon-Eshbach mode is observed to lie between two standing spin-wave modes. Furthermore, the A2/B2 phase boundary can be shown to act as an asymmetric pinning site. Controlling the depth of the phase boundary by varying the ion energy can be a path to manipulate spin-wave propagation in materials displaying the phenomenon of disorder induced ferromagnetism.

  12. Investigation of Sn Whisker Growth in Electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag as a Function of Plating Variables and Storage Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jaewon; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Keun-Soo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2014-01-01

    Sn whiskers are becoming a serious reliability issue in Pb-free electronic packaging applications. Among the numerous Sn whisker mitigation strategies, minor alloying additions to Sn have been proven effective. In this study, several commercial Sn and Sn-Ag baths of low-whisker formulations are evaluated to develop optimum mitigation strategies for electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag. The effects of plating variables and storage conditions, including plating thickness and current density, on Sn whisker growth are investigated for matte Sn, matte Sn-Ag, and bright Sn-Ag electroplated on a Si substrate. Two different storage conditions are applied: an ambient condition (30°C, dry air) and a high-temperature/high-humidity condition (55°C, 85% relative humidity). Scanning electron microscopy is employed to record the Sn whisker growth history of each sample up to 4000 h. Transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and focused ion beam techniques are used to understand the microstructure, the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), oxidation, the Sn whisker growth mechanism, and other features. In this study, it is found that whiskers are observed only under ambient conditions for both thin and thick samples regardless of the current density variations for matte Sn. However, whiskers are not observed on Sn-Ag-plated surfaces due to the equiaxed grains and fine Ag3Sn IMCs located at grain boundaries. In addition, Sn whiskers can be suppressed under the high-temperature/high-humidity conditions due to the random growth of IMCs and the formation of thick oxide layers.

  13. A Year of Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    UTEXAS.EDU 512-471-3241 512-471-4760 Mr. Edgar Knapp Mr. Jeffrey Kodosky The University of Texas at Austin National Instruments Department of Computer...2.124 Dallas, TX 75252 Austin, TX 78712 kim@utd-cs cs.kaltenbach@-20.UTEXAS.EDU 214-690-2156 Mr. Edgar Knapp Mr. Jeff Kodosky The University of Texas...471-9522 512-322-9951 Dr. Matt Kaufmann Mr. Willem A. Koulman Inst. for Computing Science & Computer Apps. Lincoln Laboratory / MIT A-026 2100 Main

  14. Coast Guard Spectrum Management (CG-652)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Assignments Ron Blackmore Frequency  Assignments Jeff  Taboada GMDSS  Manager Russ Levin C4IT FSD LANT Allyn Campbell Jerry Burleson C4IT FSD PAC Matt...Email: bruce.e.lamb@uscg.mil; SIPRNET: lambbe@uscg.smil.mil Spectrum Manager: Mr. Jeff Taboada , 202-475-3558...MICHIGAN USCG FAO D9 USCG FAO D9: Mr. Michael Nelson E-mail: Michael.L.Nelson@uscg.mil SIPRNET: Nelsonm@uscg.smil.mil Phone: (216) 902-86141 DISTRICT 9

  15. 'The right direction'. Primary-care docs see promise in CMS' proposed pay for non face-to-face work.

    PubMed

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2013-07-15

    The CMS has proposed paying physicians for managing patients apart from face-to-face office visits. Among the details under consideration are requiring practices to use an electronic health-record system that supports access to care, care coordination, care management and communications. "It's a step in the right direction. The devil will be in the details and, if the burden of documentation is so high, people may choose not to spend their time doing it," says Dr. Matt Handley, physician and medical director for quality at the Group Health Cooperative.

  16. Computationally Efficient Substrate Noise Coupling Estimation in Lightly Doped Silicon Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-22

    sparing their valuable time to serve on my committee. My research group-mates Matt, Jim, Chris, Arathi, Chenggang and Sasi and other friends in...substrate with channel-stop implant. 8 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 R 12 ( Ω...one of the two-contact cases is shown in Figure 2.5. 0 20 40 60 80 100 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 separation (μm) R 12 fl oa tin g ba ck pl

  17. New species Victoriopisa bruneiensis and Apocorophium acutum (Chevreux, 1908) from Brunei (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Belal; Hughes, L E

    2016-06-01

    One new and one invasive species of amphipod are described from the subtidal waters of Brunei. The new species Victoriopisa bruneiensis (Melitidae) and the invasive species Apocorophium acutum (Chevereux, 1908) (Corophiidae) were collected from the Sungai Brunei Estuary. Victoriopisa bruneiensis sp. nov. is one of only four Victoriopisa where the eyes are present. An updated key to twelve world species of Victoriopisa is provided. Apocorophium acutum occurs in high density algal matts on pylons/rocks. This is the sixth species of Apocorophium described for the genus.

  18. Dominant factors of the laser gettering of silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhan, Yu. I. E-mail: yuibokhan@gmail.com; Kamenkov, V. S.; Tolochko, N. K.

    2015-02-15

    The laser gettering of silicon wafers is experimentally investigated. The typical gettering parameters are considered. The surfaces of laser-treated silicon wafers are investigated by microscopy. When studying the effect of laser radiation on silicon wafers during gettering, a group of factors determining the conditions of interaction between the laser beam and silicon-wafer surface and affecting the final result of treatment are selected. The main factors determining the gettering efficiency are revealed. Limitations on the desired value of the getter-layer capacity on surfaces with insufficiently high cleanness (for example, ground or matte) are established.

  19. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Copper Smelting Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, Konstantin; Kuminova, Yaroslava; Dinsdale, Alan; Cheverikin, Vladimir; Filichkina, Vera; Saynazarov, Abdukahhar; Khvan, Alexandra; Kondratiev, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Effective extraction of copper from sulfide ores requires careful operation of a copper smelter, which in turn depends very much on chemistry of the feed and resulted slag and matte. For example, chemical composition of copper smelting slags has to be in a certain range to ensure that their properties are within specific limits. Disobeying these rules may lead to complications in smelting operation, poor quality of the copper products, and premature shutdown of the copper smelter. In the present paper the microstructure and phase composition of slags from the Almalyk copper flash smelter were investigated experimentally and then modeled thermodynamically to evaluate potential ways of improvement and optimization of the copper smelting process and its products. The slag samples were taken at different stages of the copper smelting process: on slag tapping, after slag transportation to a deposition site, and at the site. Experimental investigation included the XRD, XRF, and SEM techniques, which were also confirmed by the traditional wet chemistry analysis. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out using thermochemical software package MTDATA, which enables thermodynamic and physical properties of the matte, slag, and gas phases to be calculated in a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and chemical compositions. In addition, slag viscosities and corresponding matte settling rates were estimated using the modified Urbain and Utigard-Warczok models, and the Hadamard-Rybczynski equation, respectively. It was found that the copper content in the slags may vary significantly depending on the location of slag sampling. Cu was found to be present as sulfide particles, almost no Cu was found to be dissolved in the slag. Analysis of microstructure and phase composition showed that major phase found in the samples is fayalite, while other phases are complex spinels (based on magnetite), different sulfides, and a glass-like phase. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrated the

  20. Evaluation of Identity Based Encryption (IBE) Capabilities for the US DHS S&T Secure Wireless Communications Program and the CAN-US Security Enhanced Blackberry Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Invented by Dr. Dan Boneh and Dr. Matt Franklin in 2001, Identity-Based Encryption [1] or IBE, is a breakthrough in asymmetric cryptography that, for the...2004-??? [BF] D. Boneh and M. Franklin, “Identity-based encryption from the Weil pairing”, In Proc. Crypto ’01, LNCS 2139, pages 213–229, 2001...contract F30602-99-1-0530. This project led to the invention of Boneh -Franklin IBE algorithm [1], the first IBE technology that was found to be both

  1. Episode 2: The Clean Energy Geek Squad (Direct Current – An Energy.gov Podcast)

    ScienceCinema

    Lantero, Allison; Dozier, Matt; Phear, Nicky; Wood, Daniel; Lester, Paul

    2016-07-12

    In this episode of Direct Current - An Energy.gov Podcast, Matt calls up the Clean Energy Solutions Center, a "help desk" that provides free expert advice on clean energy policy to governments all over the world. Allison talks to Nicky Phear, a professor who cycles hundreds of miles across Montana to teach her students about climate change. Nicky just received a big award at the C3E Women in Clean Energy Symposium for her education work, and she's basically an energy rockstar. Dan and Paul put their heads together to come up with a better way to measure energy -- starting with the humble burrito.

  2. Assessing Automatic Aid as an Emergency Response Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    children, Nicholas, Spencer , Kayla, and Krista: I appreciate your patience and understanding. I hope that I am a role model to you, proving that you...noted by all interview subjects and provides for the closest resource “without regard to the name on the door” as noted by Battalion Chief Matt Herbert ...states that he “expects to go to Alexandria or Fairfax everyday,”96 and Herbert expands on the close interaction by noting, “crews have dinner, drill

  3. Episode 2: The Clean Energy Geek Squad (Direct Current – An Energy.gov Podcast)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, Allison; Dozier, Matt; Phear, Nicky; Wood, Daniel; Lester, Paul

    2016-06-03

    In this episode of Direct Current - An Energy.gov Podcast, Matt calls up the Clean Energy Solutions Center, a "help desk" that provides free expert advice on clean energy policy to governments all over the world. Allison talks to Nicky Phear, a professor who cycles hundreds of miles across Montana to teach her students about climate change. Nicky just received a big award at the C3E Women in Clean Energy Symposium for her education work, and she's basically an energy rockstar. Dan and Paul put their heads together to come up with a better way to measure energy -- starting with the humble burrito.

  4. 26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh semi-matte paper, aerial oblique of central Terre Haute with negative inscribed letters (prints on positive as white) along the bottom margin, "(02105-631K-118) (3-10-37. 10:30A) (R-1000) (State Normal College, Terre Haute, Ind.)" This view taken looking east shows the gas building in the near foreground right. On the reverse in red pencil, "Campus Scenes 10" and in black pencil, "1937". Source: Indiana State University Archives. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  5. On the R-Dependence of the Spin-Orbit Coupling Constant: Potential Energy Functions of Xe2+ by High-Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy and ab initio Quantum Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    thank Professor Dr. Laura Gagliardi and Professor (1978). Dr. Roland Lindh for helpful discussions regarding the usage 41W. R. Wadt, J. Chem. Phys. 68...Karlstrdm, R. Lindh , P.-A. Malmqvist, B. 0. Roos, U. Ryde, V. Verya- 6 B. J. Whitaker, C. A. Woodward, P. J. Knowles, and A. J. Stace, J. Chem. zov, P...Reiher and A. Wolf, Phys. Lett. A 360, 603 (2007). 3J. Fedor, R. Parajuli, S. Matt-Leubner, 0. Echt, E Hagelberg, K. Gluch, B. 0. Roos, R. Lindh , P-A

  6. Selective reduction of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorling, G.

    1984-12-11

    The present invention relates to selective reduction of heavy metals out of finey grained, substantially oxidic material by blowing the oxidic material into a furnace together with an amount of reducing agent required for obtaining desired selectivity while simultaneously heat energy is supplied by a gas heated in a plasma generator, the temperature being adjusted to such a level as to correspond to the oxygen potential at which the desired metals are transformed into a particular, isolatable phase as metal melt, metal vapor, speiss or matte and at which the remaining metals enter into a slag phase and can be isolated as slag melt.

  7. Pavement Functional Condition Indicators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    Diagonal Braked Vehicle 6M 65 Correlation olC alitornia >kKl lesier and Pennsyl’ ania State Drag Skid Jester 70 66 Correlation Betvuvn the Wei Dry...aj Paw- matt Frolili’ | Pennsylvania Department of Trans - portation. I%9|.) ’. I’he i-iiunl valui-s appcarin)! i" the AH) liibulalion rt’liiti...applieri to the autocorrelation function R(T) of a sample funciion y(x). The resulting Fourier trans - form ol R(T) is also the power spectral density

  8. Statistical Methods for Studying Genetic Variation in Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    2005], p(mjk = m|z,m−jk, β) = Γ(α0βk) Γ(α0βk + nj.k) s(nj.k,m)(α0βk) m where s(n,m) are unsigned Stirling numbers of the first kind. Sampling for β is...Wang, David Dool- ing, Lucinda Fulton, Robert Fulton, George Weinstock, John Burton, David M Carter, Carol Churcher, Alison Coffey, Anthony Cox, Aarno...Kiran V Garimella, Sharon R Grossman, Robert E Hand- saker, Matt Hanna, Chris Hartl, Andrew M Kernytsky, Joshua M Korn, Heng Li, Jared R Maguire

  9. Large-Area Visually Augmented Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    generally make this an enjoyable experience. I’d also like to thank Matt Walter for his immense help in carrying out ideas on SEIFs (along with the...in the local-level navigation frame where XYZ roll pitch heading Euler angles are used to represent orientation [48] (i.e., x _= xt _= [x, y, z, q, 0...Oj,) R (¢.q S.. .. • tji . .. / O 03i a~ji azimuth 0ji Euler roll i elvazmuth Oji Euler pitch Ihji elevation Vi~ Euler yaw measurements of depth z

  10. AFLOW: An Automatic Framework for High-throughput Materials Discovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-14

    Society for Metals, Materials Park, OH, 1990. [25] P. Villars , M. Berndt, K. Brandenburg, K. Cenzual, J. Daams, F. Hulliger, T. Massalski, H. Okamoto...Conden. Matt. 21 (2009) 395502. [30] J. K. Nørskov, T. Bligaard, J. Rossmeisl, C. H. Christensen, Nat. Chem. 1 (2009) 37. [31] P. Villars , in: J. H...A. Pople, J. Chem. Phys. 106 (1997) 1063. [78] G. Kresse, A. Gil , P. Sautet, Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 073401. [79] M. Shishkin, M.Marsman, G. Kresse

  11. Construction and Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines Containing Mutations in the p53 or BRCAl Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    We originally proposed the Differential Display method (Liang and Pardee 1992) to identify genes that are modulated by p53 and BRCA1 deficiency. As...retroviral delivery of tetracycline-inducible genes in a single autoregulatory cassette. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:5185-5190 (1996). Liang P, Pardee A...Shoemaker A, Dove W. ApcMin: a mouse model for intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. Eur J Cancer 3 1A: 1061-4 (1995). Moser A, Mattes E, Dove W, Lindstrom M

  12. Creating a Linear Model to Optimize Satellite Communication Bandwidth Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Don’t write a GRP to fill an academic square; write a paper that will be useful to someone.” Lt Col Rick Folks and Maj Matt Lupone at JCS/J6SC were kind...radio waves for global communications is bending those straight paths of travel around the curvature of the earth. While some radio frequencies can...communications. A solution to bending the signal around the world is to “bounce” it off some object that can reflect it around the curvature of the earth

  13. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-02-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs.

  14. Color reproduction on inkjet printers and paper colorimetric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Reche, Jesus; Uroz, Joan; Diaz, Jose A.; Garcia-Beltran, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this work is to study the relationship between the colorimetric characteristics that identify a kind of paper and those that allow us to evaluate its color reproduction capabilities on inkjet printers. A set of 29 different commercial papers from several companies has been tested. The category of those papers ranged from photo quality to prepress proof and ordinary office papers, being their finishing matte, semi-matte or glossy. For each sample, we have measured their reflectance, intrinsic reflectance, opacity, CIE whiteness index and tint. All these measurements followed the procedures established in the international standards about paper and board. Then, we have printed on three different sheet of each paper the color chart proposed in the international standard for color printer characterization ANSI IT8/7.3. When calculated the CIELAB coordinates using the D50 standard illuminant, we studied the dynamic range, color gamut and the rendering linearity. The results show that the colorimetric properties and reproduction capabilities of the 29 commercial papers let us cluster them in accordance with their behavior. However, we found no systematic correlation between color reproduction and specific colorimetric properties of the types of paper: we should search for other physical (not just colorimetric) properties (for instance, gloss or ink absorption capacity).

  15. Investigation of Copper Losses to Synthetic Slag at Different Oxygen Partial Pressures in the Presence of Colemanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusen, Aydın; Derin, Bora; Geveci, Ahmet; Topkaya, Yavuz Ali

    2016-09-01

    Copper losses to slag are crucial for copper matte smelting and converting stages. One factor affecting the copper losses to slag during these processes is partial pressure of oxygen. In this study, theoretical and experimental investigations of oxygen partial pressure effect on copper losses to fayalite type slag in the presence of colemanite were investigated. Theoretical considerations include liquidus temperatures and phase diagrams of the fayalite type slag calculated by the FactSage software program. In the experiments, a synthetic matte-slag (SM-SS) was produced by melting certain amounts of reagent grade Fe2O3-SiO2 and metallic Fe as starting materials. Experiments were carried out with SM-SS pair by the addition of calcined colemanite (from 0% to 6%) under various partial pressures of oxygen (10-7, 10-9, 10-11 atm) at 1250°C for 2 h. From the experimental results, it was found that the amount of copper in slag decreased slowly when colemanite was increased under all oxidizing atmospheres. The lowest copper content in synthetic slag was obtained as 0.38% after 6% colemanite addition.

  16. The influence of proximal stem geometry and surface finish on the fixation of a double-tapered cemented femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Longjohn, Donald B; Dorr, Lawrence D; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2011-01-04

    In this study, the in vitro fixation of four otherwise identical double-tapered stem-types, varying only in surface finish (polished or matte) and proximal stem geometry (with or without flanges) were compared under two conditions. First, four specimens of each stem type were tested with initially bonded stem-cement interfaces, representing early post-operative conditions. Then, simulating conditions a few weeks to months later, stems were implanted in unused synthetic femurs, with a thin layer coating the stem to prevent stem-cement adhesion. Per-cycle motions were measured at both cement interfaces throughout loading. Overall, surface finish had the smallest relative effect on fixation compared to flanges. Flanges increased axial fixation by 22 μm per-cycle, regardless of surface finish (P=0.01). Further, all stems moved under dynamic load at the stem-cement interface during the first few cycles of loading, even without a thin film. The results indicate that flanges have a greater effect on fixation than surface finish, and therefore adverse findings about matte surfaces should not necessarily apply to all double-tapered stems. Specifically, dorsal flanges enhance the stability of a tapered cemented femoral stem, regardless of surface finish.

  17. Translucency and the perception of shape.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nahian S; Marlow, Phillip J; Kim, Juno

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that the perceived three-dimensional (3D) shape of objects depends on their material composition. The majority of this work has focused on glossy, flat-matte, or velvety materials. Here, we studied perceived 3D shape of translucent materials. We manipulated the spatial frequency of surface relief perturbations of translucent and opaque objects. Observers indicated which of two surfaces appeared to have more bumps. They also judged local surface orientation using gauge probe figures. We found that translucent surfaces appeared to have fewer bumps than opaque surfaces with the same 3D shape (Experiment 1), particularly when self-occluding contours were hidden from view (Experiment 2). We also found that perceived local curvature was underestimated for translucent objects relative to opaque objects, and that estimates of perceived local surface orientation were similarly correlated with luminance for images of both opaque and translucent objects (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the perceived mesoscopic shape of completely matte translucent objects can be underestimated due to a decline in the steepness of luminance gradients relative to those of opaque objects.

  18. Look but don't touch: Visual cues to surface structure drive somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hua-Chun; Welchman, Andrew E.; Chang, Dorita H.F.; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    When planning interactions with nearby objects, our brain uses visual information to estimate shape, material composition, and surface structure before we come into contact with them. Here we analyse brain activations elicited by different types of visual appearance, measuring fMRI responses to objects that are glossy, matte, rough, or textured. In addition to activation in visual areas, we found that fMRI responses are evoked in the secondary somatosensory area (S2) when looking at glossy and rough surfaces. This activity could be reliably discriminated on the basis of tactile-related visual properties (gloss, rough, and matte), but importantly, other visual properties (i.e., coloured texture) did not substantially change fMRI activity. The activity could not be solely due to tactile imagination, as asking explicitly to imagine such surface properties did not lead to the same results. These findings suggest that visual cues to an object's surface properties evoke activity in neural circuits associated with tactile stimulation. This activation may reflect the a-priori probability of the physics of the interaction (i.e., the expectation of upcoming friction) that can be used to plan finger placement and grasp force. PMID:26778128

  19. Interface Electronic Structure and Possible Superconductivity in CuCl/Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, S. H.; Yu, J.

    2005-03-01

    To investigate a possible interfacial superconductivity ootnotetextB.L. Mattes, Physica C 162,554 (1989); B.L. Mattes and C. L. Foiles, Physica 135B, 139 (1985) in CuCl/Si(111), we carried out electronic structure calculations using the highly precise FLAPW ootnotetextWimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, and Freeman, Phys.Rev.B, 24, 864 (1981) method. As a result of charge transfer between CuCl and Si layers, two-dimensional (2D) metallic states are found to be formed at the interface. From the geometry relaxation, it is shown that the ionic bonding of CuCl is weakened and there is mixed metallic and covalent bonding at the interface. The 2D conduction bands at the interface, sandwiched by the highly polarizable dielectric layers, resemble the 2D Cu-O dpσ bands of the Cu-oxide superconductors, which are considered to be responsible for high Tc superconductivity. To obtain Tc of the CuCl/Si interface based on the conventional electron-phonon(e-p) interactions, we calculated the e-p coupling constant, λ, within the rigid ion approximation ootnotetextG. D. Gaspari and B. L. Gyorffy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28 801 (1972). The results indicate that a strong e-p coupling is present at the interface layers but is not enough to explain the previously reported high transition temperature^2.

  20. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion.

  1. Why is it worth flying at dusk for aquatic insects? Polarotactic water detection is easiest at low solar elevations.

    PubMed

    Bernáth, Balázs; Gál, József; Horváth, Gábor

    2004-02-01

    Using 180 degrees field-of-view imaging polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization patterns of two artificial surfaces (water-dummies) in the red, green and blue spectral ranges under clear and partly cloudy skies at different solar elevations. The dummies consisted of a horizontal glass pane with a matt black or matt light grey cloth underneath, imitating a dark or bright water body, respectively. Assuming that polarotactic water insects interpret a surface as representing water if the degree of linear polarization of reflected light is higher than a threshold and the deviation of the direction of polarization from the horizontal is lower than a threshold, we calculated the proportion, P, of the artificial surfaces detected polarotactically as water. We found that at sunrise and sunset P is maximal for both water-dummies and their reflection-polarizational characteristics are most similar. From this, we conclude that polarotactic water detection is easiest at low solar elevations, because the risk that a polarotactic insect will be unable to recognize the surface of a dark or bright water body is minimal. This partly explains why many aquatic insect species usually fly en masse at dusk. The daily change in the reflection-polarization pattern of water surfaces is an important visual ecological factor that may contribute to the preference of the twilight period for habitat searching by polarotactic water insects. Air temperature at sunrise is generally low, so dusk is the optimal period for polarotactic aquatic insects to seek new habitats.

  2. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-07-01

    Existing color sampling-based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from the pairs of foreground ( F ) and background ( B ) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected ( F,B ) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to ( F,B ) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms the current stateoftheart in image and video matting.

  3. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-04-21

    Existing color sampling based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to (F,B) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art in image and video matting.

  4. Effect of physical characteristics on bioleaching using indigenous acidophilic bacteria for recovering the valuable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, D.; Kim, B.; Cho, K.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Bioleaching technology which is based on the ability of bacteria to transform solid compounds into soluble or extractable elements that can be recovered, has developed rapidly in recent decades for its advantages, such as mild reaction, low energy consumption, simple process, environmentally friendly and suitable for low-grade mine tailing and residues. This study investigated the bioleaching efficiency of copper matte under batch experimental conditions (various mineral particle size) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acidic hot spring in Hatchnobaru, Japan. We conducted the batch experiments at three different mineral particle sizes: 0.06, 0.16 and 1.12mm. The results showed that the pH in the bacteria inoculating sample increased than initial condition, possibly due to buffer effects by phosphate ions in growth medium. After 22 days from incubation the leached accumulation content of Cu was 0.06 mm - 1,197 mg/L, 0.16 mm - 970 mg/L and 1.12 mm - 704 mg/L. Additionally, through SEM analysis we found of gypsum formed crystals which coated the copper matte surface 6 days after inoculation in 1.12mm case. This study informs basic knowledge when bacteria apply to eco-/economic resources utilization studies including the biomining and the recycling of mine waste system.

  5. Lulwoana sp., a dark septate endophyte in roots of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass.

    PubMed

    Torta, L; Lo Piccolo, S; Piazza, G; Burruano, S; Colombo, P; Ottonello, D; Perrone, R; Di Maida, G; Pirrotta, M; Tomasello, A; Calvo, S

    2015-03-01

    Posidonia oceanica is the most common, widespread and important monocotyledon seagrass in the Mediterranean Basin, and hosts a large biodiversity of species, including microorganisms with key roles in the marine environment. In this study, we ascertain the presence of a fungal endophyte in the roots of P. oceanica growing on different substrata (rock, sand and matte) in two Sicilian marine meadows. Staining techniques on root fragments and sections, in combination with microscope observations, were used to visualise the fungal presence and determine the percentage of fungal colonisation (FC) in this tissue. In root fragments, statistical analysis of the FC showed a higher mean in roots anchored on rock than on matte and sand. In root sections, an inter- and intracellular septate mycelium, producing intracellular microsclerotia, was detected from the rhizodermis to the vascular cylinder. Using isolation techniques, we obtained, from both sampling sites, sterile, slow-growing fungal colonies, dark in colour, with septate mycelium, belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSEs). DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region identified these colonies as Lulwoana sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lulwoana sp. as DSE in roots of P. oceanica. Moreover, the highest fungal colonisation, detected in P. oceanica roots growing on rock, suggests that the presence of the DSE may help the host in several ways, particularly in capturing mineral nutrients through lytic activity.

  6. INTRODUCTION: Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    Geoengineering techniques for countering climate change have been receiving much press recently as a `Plan B' if a global deal to tackle climate change is not agreed at the COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen this December. However, the field is controversial as the methods may have unforeseen consequences, potentially making temperatures rise in some regions or reducing rainfall, and many aspects remain under-researched. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters is a collection of research articles, invited by David Keith, University of Calgary, and Ken Caldeira, Carnegie Institution, that present and evaluate different methods for engineering the Earth's climate. Not only do the letters in this issue highlight various methods of climate engineering but they also detail the arguments for and against climate engineering as a concept. Further reading Focus on Geoengineering at http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/subject/tag=geoengineering IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science is an open-access proceedings service available at www.iop.org/EJ/journal/ees Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System Contents Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming David L Mitchell and William Finnegan Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change Andrew Ross and H Damon Matthews Researching geoengineering: should not or could not? Martin Bunzl Of mongooses and mitigation: ecological analogues to geoengineering H Damon Matthews and Sarah E Turner Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research David R Morrow, Robert E Kopp and Michael Oppenheimer On the possible use of geoengineering to moderate specific climate change impacts Michael C MacCracken The impact of geoengineering aerosols on stratospheric temperature and ozone P Heckendorn, D Weisenstein, S Fueglistaler, B P Luo, E Rozanov, M Schraner, L W Thomason and T Peter The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered

  7. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace

  8. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Material and Methods: Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s tests. Results: Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Conclusions: Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces. PMID:28125144

  9. Testing the relationship between self-agency and enactment of health behaviors.

    PubMed

    DeSocio, Janiece; Kitzman, Harriet; Cole, Robert

    2003-02-01

    A theoretical review provides a rationale for examining self-agency as a developmental foundation underlying processes of self-regulated change and a potential moderator of intervention effectiveness among participants in a nurse home-visitation program. Self-agency is defined as the conceptual understanding of self as an agent capable of shaping motives, behavior, and future possibilities (Damon & Hart, 1991). Availability of a sample of 186 mothers who received nurse home visitation provided an opportunity to test the relationship between participant self-agency and enactment of targeted health behaviors. Self-agency items from the Pearlin Mastery Scale (1978) were used to differentiate mothers who endorsed self-agency from those who did not. Consistent with the theoretical premise, mothers who endorsed self-agency at an established threshold were significantly more likely to enact health behaviors promoted during nurse visitation. Results provide support for the relationship between the development of self-agency and enactment of health behaviors targeted by a nurse home-visitation program.

  10. Not Just Horsing Around: The Impact of Equine-Assisted Learning on Levels of Hope and Depression in At-Risk Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Karen E; Ivey Hatz, Julie; Lanning, Beth

    2015-10-01

    Equine-assisted learning (EAL) is an experiential modality which utilizes horses to provide a unique learning experience for personal growth. Research by Damon et al. (Appl Dev Sci 7:119-128, 2003) suggests a positive relationship between hope and positive developmental trajectories. Hagen et al. (Am J Orthopsychiatr 75:211-219, 2005) showed hope to be a protective factor associated with adaptive functioning in at-risk youth. Ashby et al. (J Couns Dev 89:131-139, 2011) found a significant inverse relationship between hope and depression: as hope increases, depression decreases. The current study investigates the impact of a non-riding EAL curriculum entitled L.A.S.S.O. (Leading Adolescents to Successful School Outcomes) on levels of hope and depression in at-risk youth. The study uses an experimental design with longitudinal, repeated measures. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment received 5 weeks of EAL, while participants in the control group received treatment as usual. Repeated measures ANOVA of participants' levels of hope and depression showed statistically significant improvements in the treatment group as compared with the control group. Even a brief (5-week) intervention of EAL had a positive impact on the lives and attitudes of at-risk adolescents, with increased levels of hope and decreased levels of depression.

  11. Bedrock geologic and joint trend map of the Pinardville quadrangle, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, William C.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the Pinardville quadrangle includes the Massabesic Gneiss Complex, exposed in the core of a regional northeast-trending anticlinorium, and highly deformed metasedimentary rocks of the Rangeley Formation, exposed along the northwest limb of the anticlinorium. Both formations were subjected to high-grade metamorphism and partial melting: the Rangeley during the middle Paleozoic Acadian orogeny, and the Massabesic Gneiss Complex during both the Acadian and the late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. Granitoids produced during these orogenies range in age from Devonian (Spaulding Tonalite) to Permian (granite at Damon Pond), each with associated pegmatite. In the latest Paleozoic the Massabesic Gneiss Complex was uplifted with respect to the Rangeley Formation along the ductile Powder Hill fault, which also had a left-lateral component. Uplift continued into the early Mesozoic, producing the 2-kilometer-wide Campbell Hill fault zone, which is marked by northwest-dipping normal faults and dilational map-scale quartz bodies. Rare, undeformed Jurassic diabase dikes cut all older lithologies and structures. A second map is a compilation of joint orientations measured at all outcrops in the quadrangle. There is a great diversity of strike trends, with northeast perhaps being the most predominant.

  12. Opening and closure forces of sliding mechanisms of different self-ligating brackets

    PubMed Central

    GANDINI, Paola; ORSI, Linda; SFONDRINI, Maria Francesca; SCRIBANTE, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Self-ligating brackets engage the wire by means of a slide mechanism. Forces that have to be applied to open and close the sliding mechanism of brackets are still unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the opening and closure forces of different self-ligating brackets. Material and Methods: Three different stainless steel self-ligating brackets (Carriere LX, Ortho Organizers; F1000, Leone; Damon Q, Ormco) were tested. For each different bracket, 20 maxillary right central incisors and 20 mandibular right central incisors were used. Opening and closure forces were measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Statistical analysis was performed and ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out. Results: Opening forces were registered between 1.1 N and 5.6 N, whereas closure forces were recorded between 1.57 N and 4.87 N. Significant differences were detected among the different brackets and between the two prescriptions tested. Conclusion: The knowledge of different opening and closure forces of self-ligating brackets can help the orthodontist in the clinical management of these devices. PMID:23857652

  13. The Effect of an Acidic Food-Simulating Environment on the Shear Bond Strength of Self-Ligating Brackets with Different Base Designs

    PubMed Central

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad; Sepasi, Sepehr; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Sepasi, Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Aim. This study aims to evaluate the effect of acidic food simulant and (acetic acid 3%) on the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores of one conventional and three different self-ligating brackets with different base designs. Materials and Methods. Freshly extracted first maxillary premolars (n = 160) were embedded in resin blocks. A conventional stainless steel bracket, Equilibrium 2, and three types of self-ligating brackets, Speed, In-Ovation R, and Damon 3MX, were bonded to teeth and exposed to distilled water (groups 1, 3, 5, and 7) or acetic acid 3% (groups 2, 4, 6, 8) for 12 weeks. SBS and ARI were calculated and statistical analysis was performed with the analysis of variance (SBS) or χ2 test (ARI) to compare values between the different groups. Results. Equilibrium 2 and In-Ovation R showed a significantly lower SBS in the acidic environment than in distilled water. Significant differences in ARI scores were found for Equilibrium 2 after immersion in an acidic environment, shifting from 0 in distilled water to 2 in an acidic environment. Conclusions. Equilibrium 2 and In-Ovation R brackets showed a significant decrease in SBS after a 12-week immersion in acetic acid 3%, although all groups showed clinically acceptable SBS. Equilibrium 2 showed significant differences in ARI scores when exposed to acetic acid 3%. PMID:25328524

  14. Direct Observation of Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction from Asymmetric Spin-wave Propagation in W/CoFeB/SiO2 Heterostructures Down to Sub-nanometer CoFeB Thickness.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Avinash Kumar; Banerjee, Chandrima; Pan, Santanu; Sahoo, Sourav; Choudhury, Samiran; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan

    2016-09-02

    Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI) is important for its roles in stabilizing the skyrmionic lattice as well as soliton-like domain wall motion leading towards new generation spintronic devices. However, achievement and detection of IDMI is often hindered by various spurious effects. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of IDMI originating primarily from W/CoFeB interface in technologically important W/CoFeB/SiO2 heterostructures using Brillouin light scattering technique. Due to the presence of IDMI, we observe asymmetry in the peak frequency and linewidth of the spin-wave spectra in the Damon-Eshbach (DE) geometry at finite k wave-vectors. The DMI constant is found to scale as the inverse of CoFeB thickness, over the whole studied thickness range, confirming the presence of IDMI in our system without any extrinsic effects. Importantly, the W/CoFeB interface shows no degradation down to sub-nanometer CoFeB thickness, which would be useful for devices that aim to use pronounced interface effects.

  15. Red Light Curve of MWC349 in the Years 1967-1981: Possible Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Kogan, Leonid R.; Strelnitski, Vladimir

    2000-06-01

    The results of a red photographic photometry of the variable masing star MWC 349 are presented for 14 years, 1967-1981. Fourteen plates from the Harvard Damon collection were selected for the photometry. The plates were measured with the Cuffey iris photometer of the Maria Mitchell Observatory and were calibrated with the aid of two standard stars, both brighter than MWC 349. The magnitude of MWC 349 was then determined by extrapolation, assuming that the star is on the linear part of the calibration curve. In spite of larger errors, our results are in good agreement with one photoelectric observation made during the period covered. The obtained red light curve is indicative of periodic light variations. A combined Fourier-least-squares analysis gives a probable period of T=9.1+/-0.3 yr. The deduced period and phase of variations are not incompatible with the subsequent photoelectric photometry of Bergner et al. Possible mechanisms responsible for the periodic light variations are briefly discussed.

  16. Predicting Solar Cycle 24 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Clarke, Ellen; Ulich, Thomas; Rishbeth, Henry; Jarvis, Martin J.

    2006-09-01

    We use a model for sunspot number using low-frequency solar oscillations, with periods 22, 53, 88, 106, 213, and 420 years modulating the 11-year Schwabe cycle, to predict the peak sunspot number of cycle 24 and for future cycles, including the period around 2100 A.D. We extend the earlier work of Damon and Jirikowic (1992) by adding a further long-period component of 420 years. Typically, the standard deviation between the model and the peak sunspot number in each solar cycle from 1750 to 1970 is +/-34. The peak sunspot prediction for cycles 21, 22, and 23 agree with the observed sunspot activity levels within the error estimate. Our peak sunspot prediction for cycle 24 is significantly smaller than cycle 23, with peak sunspot numbers predicted to be 42 +/- 34. These predictions suggest that a period of quiet solar activity is expected, lasting until ~2030, with less disruption to satellite orbits, satellite lifetimes, and power distribution grids and lower risk of spacecraft failures and radiation dose to astronauts. Our model also predicts a recovery during the middle of the century to more typical solar activity cycles with peak sunspot numbers around 120. Eventually, the superposition of the minimum phase of the 105- and 420-year cycles just after 2100 leads to another period of significantly quieter solar conditions. This lends some support to the prediction of low solar activity in 2100 made by Clilverd et al. (2003).

  17. Magnetic properties of uniaxial synthetic antiferromagnets for spin-valve applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiya; Mani, P.; Mankey, G. J.; Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Spizzo, F.; Lee, W.-T.; Yu, C. T.; Pechan, M. J.

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic properties of synthetic antiferromagnetic Si(100)/Ta(5nm)/Co(t1)/Ru(0.65nm)/Co(t2)/Ta(10nm) with an obliquely sputtered Ta underlayer are reported as a function of the top Co layer thickness, t2 . The morphological origin of the large in-plane magnetic anisotropy created by the obliquely sputtered Ta underlayer is revealed by atomic force microscopy. The magnetic anisotropy of the base Co layer is determined by measuring the dispersion of the Damon-Eshbach spin-wave mode with Brillouin light scattering. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements and hysteresis loops reveal that both the anisotropy and the saturation field of the trilayer system decrease with increasing top Co layer thickness. The dependence of the saturation field on layer thickness is fitted to an energy minimization equation that contains both bilinear and biquadratic exchange coupling constants. Magnetoresistance and polarized neutron reflectometry results both confirm that the magnetic reversal process of the system is through magnetic domain formation followed by rotation.

  18. Coated Rectangular Composite Archwires: A Comparison Of Self-Ligating And Conventional Bracket Systems During Sliding Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, David Keith

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the resistance to sliding of coated rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwires using various brackets systems and second-order bracket angulations. Resistance to sliding was investigated for eight bracket systems: six self-ligating brackets (four passive and two passive-active) and two conventional brackets. A rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire of 0.019 x 0.025-in dimension from BiomersRTM SimpliClear was drawn through a three-bracket model system at ten millimeters per minute for 2.5 millimeters. For each bracket, the resistance to sliding was measured at four bracket angulations (0°, 2.5°, 5°, and 10°) in a dry state at room temperature. The fiber reinforced composite archwire produced the lowest sliding resistance with the passive self-ligating bracket system (Damon DQ) at each bracket angulation tested. Overall, self-ligating bracket systems generated lower sliding resistance than conventionally ligated systems, and one passive/active self-ligating bracket system (In-Ovation-R). There was a significant increase in resistance to sliding as bracket angulation increased for all bracket systems tested. Microscopic analysis revealed increased perforation of the archwire coating material as bracket angulations were increased. Our findings show that the rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire may be acceptable for sliding mechanics during the intermediate stages of orthodontic tooth movement, however more long-term studies are needed.

  19. Investigation of the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin Yttrium Iron Garnet film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in sub-micron thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films using lock-in thermography (LIT). Although the effect is small in thin layers this technique allows us to observe asymmetric heat transport by magnons which leads to asymmetric temperature profiles differing by several mK on both sides of the exciting antenna, respectively. Comparison of Damon-Eshbach and backward volume modes shows that the unidirectional heat flow is indeed due to non-reciprocal spin-waves. Because of the finite linewidth, small asymmetries can still be observed when only the uniform mode of ferromagnetic resonance is excited. The latter is of extreme importance for example when measuring the inverse spin-Hall effect because the temperature differences can result in thermovoltages at the contacts. Because of the non-reciprocity these thermovoltages reverse their sign with a reversal of the magnetic field which is typically deemed the signature of the inverse spin-Hall voltage.

  20. Impact of eddy currents on the dispersion relation of surface spin waves in thin conducting magnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymov, I. S.; Kostylev, M.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a rigorous solution to a long-standing problem of the impact of eddy currents on the dispersion relation of surface spin waves propagating in thin conducting magnetic films. Our results confirm the prediction of the Almeida-Mill's exchange-free theory that the inclusion of the eddy-current contribution results in a deviation of the dispersion curve for the fundamental mode from the Damon-Eshbach law and a substantial linewidth broadening in a large wave vector range. We show that the decrease in the spin-wave frequency is due to an increase in the in-plane component of the dynamic magnetic field within the conducting film. The decrease in the frequency is accompanied by a drastic change in the asymmetry of the modal profiles for the waves. This effect is not observable in magneto-insulating films and therefore it is unambiguously attributed to eddy currents that appear in conducting films only. We also show that the wave vector range in which eddy currents affect the dispersion curve is strongly correlated with the value of the film conductivity. This result holds for conducting films with the thickness 10-100 nm, which are considered promising for future magnonic and spintronic applications.

  1. Imaging of quantized magnetostatic modes using spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, S.; Bain, J. A.; van de Veerdonk, R. J. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Covington, M.; Kryder, M. H.

    2002-05-01

    We present a measurement technique for performing spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance and directly imaging quantized magnetostatic modes in magnetic samples that undergo high frequency magnetic drive fields (up to 8 GHz). The dynamic response of a 50×50 μm2 permalloy structure (100 nm thick) under a 7.04 GHz highly nonuniform drive field was measured as a function of the dc bias field using this technique. The magnetization variation observed indicates that quantized magnetostatic mode waves appear at certain bias fields, with the number of nodes decreasing with an increase in the bias field. We tentatively assign the indices of each mode using the Damon-Eshbach (DE) model. Similar modes have been observed for a similar sample geometry using an inductive measurement and they showed good agreement with the DE model. However, the result measured using this technique showed some discrepancy with the DE model and the spatial patterns observed are more complicated than simple one-dimensional standing waves. This complexity suggests that analysis beyond that of the DE model is required to explain the observations.

  2. Brillouin light scattering in ferromagnetic single layers: hysteresis loop and backward geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djemia, P.; Roussigné, Y.; Chérif, S.-M.; Billet, D.; Stashkevich, A.; Moch, P.

    2006-09-01

    We present a Brillouin light scattering study of a thick ferromagnetic single layer Ni80Fe20 (44 nm) film, using two different geometrical setup: (i) the so-called Damon-Eschbach (DE) geometry where the in-plane wave vector Q// of the studied spin wave is perpendicular to the external magnetic field H and (ii) the backward geometry (BW) where it is parallel to H (Q// and H lie in the film plane). An in-plane uniaxial anisotropy that do not exceed 100 Oe is evidenced through the analysis of the variations of DE mode frequency and of the Stokes/anti-Stokes dissymmetry versus H. The experimental magnetic Brillouin spectra showing the presence of dipolar and exchange standing spin waves are well reproduced for both geometries by our calculations of the scattered intensity using the following magnetic parameters: 4πM = 9400 G; g = 2.13; A = 0.93 10-6 erg.cm-1 for different values of the magnetic field H and of the in-plane wave vector amplitude Q //.

  3. Dynamic contributions to the anisotropy of thin NiFe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Michael; Lopusnik, Radek; Kos, Anthony; Silva, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    We have characterized the effect of waveguide width for Pulsed Inductive Microwave Magnetometer measurements. NiFe films of thickness < 100 nm are excited with step pulses delivered by coplanar waveguides. Waveguides that are narrower than the studied samples cause a shift in the gyromagnetic precession frequency that can be partially accounted for by an additional induced magnetic dipole field term in the Kittel equation. Theory and data confirm that the induced dipole term is a function of the ratio of sample thickness to waveguide width. The theory assumes that the field profile of the waveguide excitation couples to a distribution of Damon-Eshbach magnetostatic modes. The average effect of the mode distribution is to increase the resonance frequency relative to the FMR frequency. We find that there are three contributions to the anisotropy in thin Permalloy films: (1) the induced anisotropy, (2) the dipolar contribution , and (3) a rotatable anisotropy that is independent of sample orientation or waveguide width. We speculate on the origin of the rotatable contribution.

  4. Intrinsic and non-local Gilbert damping in polycrystalline nickel studied by Ti : sapphire laser fs spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walowski, J.; Djordjevic Kaufmann, M.; Lenk, B.; Hamann, C.; McCord, J.; Münzenberg, M.

    2008-08-01

    The use of femtosecond laser pulses generated by a Ti : sapphire laser system allows us to gain an insight into the magnetization dynamics on time scales from sub-picosecond up to 1 ns directly in the time domain. This experimental technique is used to excite a polycrystalline nickel (Ni) film optically and probe the dynamics afterwards. Different spin-wave modes (the Kittel mode, perpendicular standing spin-wave modes and dipolar spin-wave modes (Damon-Eshbach modes)) are identified as the Ni thickness is increased. The Kittel mode allows determination of the Gilbert damping parameter α extracted from the magnetization relaxation time τα. The non-local damping by spin currents emitted into a non-magnetic metallic layer of vanadium (V), palladium (Pd) and the rare earth dysprosium (Dy) are studied for wedge-shaped Ni films of 1-30 nm. The damping parameter increases from α = 0.045 intrinsic for nickel to α > 0.10 for the heavy materials, such as Pd and Dy, for the thinnest Ni films below 10 nm thickness. Also, for the thinnest reference Ni film thickness, an increased magnetic damping below 4 nm is observed. The origin of this increase is discussed within the framework of line broadening by locally different precessional frequencies within the laser spot region.

  5. Direct Observation of Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction from Asymmetric Spin-wave Propagation in W/CoFeB/SiO2 Heterostructures Down to Sub-nanometer CoFeB Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Avinash Kumar; Banerjee, Chandrima; Pan, Santanu; Sahoo, Sourav; Choudhury, Samiran; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan

    2016-09-01

    Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI) is important for its roles in stabilizing the skyrmionic lattice as well as soliton-like domain wall motion leading towards new generation spintronic devices. However, achievement and detection of IDMI is often hindered by various spurious effects. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of IDMI originating primarily from W/CoFeB interface in technologically important W/CoFeB/SiO2 heterostructures using Brillouin light scattering technique. Due to the presence of IDMI, we observe asymmetry in the peak frequency and linewidth of the spin-wave spectra in the Damon-Eshbach (DE) geometry at finite k wave-vectors. The DMI constant is found to scale as the inverse of CoFeB thickness, over the whole studied thickness range, confirming the presence of IDMI in our system without any extrinsic effects. Importantly, the W/CoFeB interface shows no degradation down to sub-nanometer CoFeB thickness, which would be useful for devices that aim to use pronounced interface effects.

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of quantized spin-wave modes in micrometer-size permalloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussigné, Y.; Chérif, S. M.; Dugautier, C.; Moch, P.

    2001-04-01

    Using Brillouin light scattering measurements, we have studied the properties of the spin waves in various arrays of Permalloy wires showing widths of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 μm. When the transferred in-plane wave vector κ∥, specified by the experimental setup, is perpendicular to the wires, a sampling of the Damon-Eshbach surface mode branch giving rise to a set of discrete dispersionless modes is observed. We attribute this behavior to a lateral quantization of the wave vector q∥ of the magnetic excitations. The frequency separation between two adjacent modes is found to decrease when the width D of the wires increases. However, this frequency dependence does not simply follow the expected one assuming the usual naive relation q∥,n=nπ/D, which would not allow one to give account of the behavior of the lowest mode n=0. We have performed numerical calculations of the dynamical magnetization response functions of these rectangular cross section wires using the method of finite elements. The magnetic parameters used in these calculations were derived from the experimental Brillouin spectra of the unpatterned films. Both our experiments and our calculations agree with the results expected from the unpatterned film assuming the following discrete values: q∥,0=0, q∥,n=π(n+β)/D. The zero value observed for the lowest mode n=0 simply results from the calculation and does not need for an additional hypothesis as previously proposed.

  7. Spin waves of a current-injected thin ferromagnetic stripe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, R. P.; Pappas, D. P.

    2008-10-01

    Within a micromagnetic model we present the theory of linearized spin waves of a current-carrying rectangular ferromagnetic stripe treated as a slab of infinite extent. After determining the nonuniform scissorlike magnetic ground state that results when a dc electric current is applied along an in-plane easy axis, we calculate both ferromagnetic resonances and spin-wave dispersion as a function of slab thickness. For Permalloy stripes less than 1μm in thickness, increasing current stiffens the response of bulk spin waves, and their dispersion becomes increasingly asymmetric with respect to the easy axis—shifting to lower (higher) frequencies with (opposite) the direction of current. Also, the frequency and direction of propagation of the Damon-Eshbach surface mode are substantially modified by the current, with changed surface-mode behavior exhibited. Above 1μm in thickness the lowest-lying resonance frequency of the Permalloy stripe softens to zero with increasing current and a gap opens up to finite wavelengths along the direction of current, indicative of a ground-state instability. We discuss the implication of our results to the characterization of the magnetic state of these rectangular structures.

  8. Structure-induced magnetic anisotropy in the Fe(110)/Mo(110)/Al2O3(1120) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraune, M.; Hauch, J. O.; Güntherodt, G.; Laufenberg, M.; Fonin, M.; Rüdiger, U.; Mayer, J.; Turban, P.

    2006-02-01

    Fe(110) films were epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates using a Mo(110) buffer layer in an ultrahigh-vacuum molecular-beam epitaxy system. The magnetic properties were examined ex situ by Brillouin light scattering and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. To determine the magnetic anisotropy constants the frequency of the Damon-Eshbach [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19, 308 (1961)] surface spin-wave mode was measured as a function of the in-plane angle between the external magnetic field and the Fe[001] crystal axis. The angle-dependent frequency was fitted by a spin-wave model. We found that the easy axis of the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy K1 and an additional uniaxial in-plane anisotropy K∥(2) are aligned parallel to the in-plane Fe[001] axis for Fe-layer thicknesses from 0.8 to 37 nm, with K1 increasing and K∥(2) decreasing with increasing Fe thickness. Possible origins of the observed uniaxial anisotropy are discussed.

  9. Chiral spin-wave edge modes in dipolar magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindou, Ryuichi; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Matsumoto, Ryo; Murakami, Shuichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2013-05-01

    Based on a linearized Landau-Lifshitz equation, we show that two-dimensional periodic allay of ferromagnetic particles coupled with magnetic dipole-dipole interactions supports chiral spin-wave edge modes, when subjected under the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane. The mode propagates along a one-dimensional boundary of the system in a unidirectional way and it always has a chiral dispersion within a band gap for spin-wave volume modes. Contrary to the well-known Damon-Eshbach surface mode, the sense of the rotation depends not only on the direction of the field but also on the strength of the field; its chiral direction is generally determined by the sum of the so-called Chern integers defined for spin-wave volume modes below the band gap. Using simple tight-binding descriptions, we explain how the magnetic dipolar interaction endows spin-wave volume modes with nonzero Chern integers and how their values will be changed by the field.

  10. Interaction effects on microwave-assisted switching of Ni80Fe20 nanowires in densely packed arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topp, Jesco; Heitmann, Detlef; Grundler, Dirk

    2009-11-01

    We perform broadband microwave absorption spectroscopy and explore the switching behavior of 300-nm-wide and 20-nm-thick Ni80Fe20 nanowires under irradiation of a magnetic rf field. In particular, we investigate two arrays where the nanowires exhibit a different edge-to-edge separation, a=100 and 700 nm. In the arrays we observe microwave-assisted switching (MAS). The MAS process with a resonant behavior near 6 GHz is attributed to the excitation of a confined Damon-Eshbach-type mode. Dipolar interactions between nanowires are found to decrease the optimum frequency for MAS and to increase the switching efficiency for the small separation a . The observed characteristics are substantiated by model considerations. We propose a modification of the previously introduced analytical demagnetization factors of an individual thin wire and incorporate the effect of dipolar interactions occurring in the array. The approach explains the dependence of the MAS-relevant eigenmode on the edge-to-edge separation a . MAS is also found to narrow the switching field distribution of the nanowire array.

  11. Measurement of magnetostatic mode excitation and relaxation in permalloy films using scanning Kerr imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, S.; Bain, J. A.; van de Veerdonk, R. J. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Covington, M.; Kryder, M. H.

    2004-09-01

    This work presents experimental results of magnetostatic mode excitation using scanning Kerr microscopy under continuous sinusoidal excitation in the microwave frequency range. This technique was applied to 100nm thick permalloy coupons excited in two different ways. In the first experiment, the uniform (Kittel) mode was excited at frequencies in 2.24-8.00GHz . The resonant condition was effectively described with the conventional Kittel mode equation. The LLG damping parameter α increased significantly with decreasing bias field. It was confirmed that this increase was caused by multidomain structure and ripple domains formed under weak bias fields, as suggested by other studies. In the second experiment, propagating magnetostatic mode surface waves were excited. They showed an exponential amplitude decay and a linear phase variation with distance from the drive field source, consistent with a decaying plane wave. The Damon-Eshbach (DE) model was extended to include a finite energy damping and used to analyze the results. It was found that the wave number and the decay constant were reasonably well described by the extended DE model. In contrast to the first experiment, no significant variation of α with frequency or bias field was seen in this second experiment, where spatial inhomogeneities in the magnetization are less significant.

  12. Direct Observation of Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction from Asymmetric Spin-wave Propagation in W/CoFeB/SiO2 Heterostructures Down to Sub-nanometer CoFeB Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasiya, Avinash Kumar; Banerjee, Chandrima; Pan, Santanu; Sahoo, Sourav; Choudhury, Samiran; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI) is important for its roles in stabilizing the skyrmionic lattice as well as soliton-like domain wall motion leading towards new generation spintronic devices. However, achievement and detection of IDMI is often hindered by various spurious effects. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of IDMI originating primarily from W/CoFeB interface in technologically important W/CoFeB/SiO2 heterostructures using Brillouin light scattering technique. Due to the presence of IDMI, we observe asymmetry in the peak frequency and linewidth of the spin-wave spectra in the Damon-Eshbach (DE) geometry at finite k wave-vectors. The DMI constant is found to scale as the inverse of CoFeB thickness, over the whole studied thickness range, confirming the presence of IDMI in our system without any extrinsic effects. Importantly, the W/CoFeB interface shows no degradation down to sub-nanometer CoFeB thickness, which would be useful for devices that aim to use pronounced interface effects. PMID:27586260

  13. Observation of spin-wave Doppler shift in Co90Fe10/Ru micro-strips for evaluating spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Satoshi; Rosamond, Mark C.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Marrows, Christopher H.

    2016-09-01

    The current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift has been investigated for Co90Fe10 films, with and without under- and overlayers of Ru, aiming to obtain quantitative insights into the value of spin polarization of the diffusive electrical currents flowing in this material. This extends the use of spin-wave Doppler shift spectroscopy beyond the study of permalloy to other soft magnetic materials suitable for use in spintronic applications such as racetrack memories. The Damon-Eshbach spin-wave mode was employed, and a control experiment of permalloy yielded a value of spin polarization of P = 0.44 ± 0.03 for that material. An extended method to properly evaluate spin-wave Doppler shifts is developed that takes account of the non-negligible Oersted fields that are generated by the current density asymmetry caused by conducting under- or overlayers. The values of spin polarization for various Co90Fe10-based structures are found to lie in the range of 0.3-0.35, only slightly less than in permalloy.

  14. In-plane spin wave modes in permalloy antidot arrays observation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chengtao; Mankey, Gary

    2005-03-01

    Previously, we have reported demagnetization field induced localized modes[1] in-plane at 35 GHz ferromagnetic resonance, and dipolar-exchange governed lateral standing spin waves out-of-plane at 9.7 GHz in permalloy antidots. Here we present in-plane investigations at 9.7 GHz on various hole arrays (hole diameter 1.5μm; hole lattice 3μm x 3, 4, 5, and 7μm). In addition to the two main localized modes, which arise from regions confined by holes along the long axis and short axis (region A and B, respectively), spin wave manifolds pertinent to each peak are identified. Owing to the confinement imposed by the holes as well as the demagnetization field, region A and B exhibit distinct resonance geometry. For instance, for field along short axis, region A and B are in Damon-Esbach and magnetostatic backward volume mode geometry respectively, with the spin wave vectors determined by hole separations along long and short axis. This is reversed with field along long axis. The dispersion of the observed spin waves is analyzed accordingly. Supported by US DOE FG02-86ER45281 (MU) and NSF DMR-0213985 (UA). ^1Chengtao Yu, Michael J. Pechan, G. J. Mankey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3948 (2003).

  15. Magnetic properties of polycrystalline Co2Cr1-xFexAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmeier, M.; Schneider, C. M.; Werner, J.; Elefant, D.; Teresiak, A.; Behr, G.; Schumann, J.; Arushanov, E.

    2007-06-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of the Heusler phase Co2Cr1-xFexAl in the composition regime (x=0.3-0.5) in the disordered B2 phase. Both bulk and surface static and dynamic magnetic aspects were addressed by employing alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS). All samples show ferromagnetic hysteresis loops and a tendency of increasing saturation magnetization Ms with the iron content. With BLS the behavior of bulk spin waves and the Damon Eshbach (DE) surface spin wave mode have been studied. The spectra are typical for opaque bulk ferromagnetic samples with strong exchange. The measured spin wave frequencies as a function of magnetic field are in good agreement with the calculated values. Saturation magnetization and gyromagnetic ratio g have been determined from the field-dependent peak positions of the bulk and the DE modes. The g-factor extracted from the DE mode shows a clear tendency of increase with increasing Fe-content. However, we could not find any peculiarities of the alloy with x=0.4, which had been proposed as a Heusler phase on the basis of electronic structure calculations [T. Block, C. Felser, G. Jakob, J. Ensling, B. Mühling, P. Gütlich, R.J. Cava, J. Solid State Chem. 176 (2003) 646].

  16. Magnonic crystals—Prospective structures for shaping spin waves in nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychły, J.; Gruszecki, P.; Mruczkiewicz, M.; Kłos, J. W.; Mamica, S.; Krawczyk, M.

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated theoretically band structure of spin waves in magnonic crystals with periodicity in one- (1D), two- (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). We have solved Landau-Lifshitz equation with the use of plane wave method, finite element method in frequency domain and micromagnetic simulations in time domain to find the dynamics of spin waves and spectrum of their eigenmodes. The spin wave spectra were calculated in linear approximation. In this paper we show usefulness of these methods in calculations of various types of spin waves. We demonstrate the surface character of the Damon-Eshbach spin wave in 1D magnonic crystals and change of its surface localization with the band number and wavenumber in the first Brillouin zone. The surface property of the spin wave excitation is further exploited by covering plate of the magnonic crystal with conductor. The band structure in 2D magnonic crystals is complex due to additional spatial inhomogeneity introduced by the demagnetizing field. This modifies spin wave dispersion, makes the band structure of magnonic crystals strongly dependent on shape of the inclusions and type of the lattice. The inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field becomes unimportant for magnonic crystals with small lattice constant, where exchange interactions dominate. For 3D magnonic crystals, characterized by small lattice constant, wide magnonic band gap is found. We show that the spatial distribution of different materials in magnonic crystals can be explored for tailored effective damping of spin waves.

  17. Spin dynamics in thin nanometric elliptical Permalloy dots: A Brillouin light scattering investigation as a function of dot eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Carlotti, G.; Okuno, T.; Grimsditch, M.; Giovannini, L.; Montoncello, F.; Nizzoli, F.

    2005-11-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectra have been measured in arrays of cylindrical Permalloy dots with elliptical cross section, 200nm wide, 15nm thick, and eccentricities from 1 to 3. Several spin modes are observed and their frequencies tracked as a function of the direction of the applied 1.5kOe magnetic field H . The experimental data are interpreted within the framework of the recently introduced dynamical matrix method to calculate spin excitations in magnetic particles. We find that the mode frequencies strongly depend on the eccentricity of the dots and on the direction of the applied field. For fields along the principal axes the solutions can be classified into: (i) modes localized near the particle ends, (ii) modes with nodal lines perpendicular to H (backwardlike modes), (iii) modes with nodal lines parallel to H (Damon-Eshbach-like modes) and (iv) modes with both parallel and perpendicular nodal lines. In cases where the frequencies of two modes in different families are similar, some hybridization between the modes is observed. For H along nonsymmetry directions only the modes of type (i) remain reasonably well defined, other modes can at best be described as hybrids of modes in the above categories. Determining which of the modes is active in BLS experiments leads to excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Effect of anisotropy on Brillouin spectra of stripe-structured cobalt layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chérif, S. M.; Roussigné, Y.; Moch, P.

    1999-04-01

    We present a comparative study of the magnetic Brillouin spectra of arrays of stripe-structured Co layers and of continuous unpatterned Co films. These spectra mainly differ from each other through the occurrence of an additional line on the low-frequency side for the patterned films. This feature is related to magnetic eigenmodes arising from the uniform bulk mode of the continuous film when taking into account the magnetic anisotropy in the dipolar approximation: the simultaneous presence of magnetic anisotropy and of structuration is needed to allow for light scattering by such pseudobulk modes. In the case of continuous films the spectral profiles that contain lines related to both the Damon-Eshbach and to standing spin waves are quantitatively interpreted. An approach to the magnetic eigenmodes observed in the stripes is developed; it is derived from a calculation that uses the dipolar approximation and includes anisotropy for cylinders with elliptical cross section. Finally, the influence of the demagnetizing field upon the spectra of the patterned layers is evidenced and discussed.

  19. John Y. Templeton III: Pioneer of modern cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Cohn, Herbert E; Yeo, Charles J; Cowan, Scott W

    2012-11-01

    John Young Templeton III was born in 1917 in Portsmouth, Virginia, and graduated from Jefferson Medical College in 1941. He completed his residency training under Dr. John H. Gibbon, Jr., and was the first resident who worked on Gibbon's heart-lung machine. After his training, he remained at Jefferson as an American Cancer Society fellow and Damon Runyon fellow and went on to become the fourth Samuel D. Gross Professor and Chair of the Department of Surgery in 1967. Dr. Templeton was the recipient of numerous grants and published over 80 papers in the field of cardiothoracic surgery. As a teacher and mentor, he was a beloved figure who placed great faith in his residents. He participated in over 60 professional societies, serving as president to many such as the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery and the Pennsylvania Association of Thoracic Surgery. He was also recognized through his many awards, in particular the John Y. Templeton III lectureship established in 1980 at Jefferson of whom Denton Cooley was the first lecturer. Dr. Templeton retired from practice in 1987. He is forever remembered as an important model of a modern surgeon evident in numerous academic achievements, the admiration and affection of his trainees, and the lives of patients that he had touched.

  20. Ultrastructural effect of self-ligating bracket materials on stainless steel and superelastic NiTi wire surfaces.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Lee, Sunghoon; Cheong, Youjin; Park, Ki-Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Park, Young-Guk

    2012-08-01

    Frictional interactions between wires and brackets reduce the efficacy in orthodontic treatments. Self-ligating brackets (SLBs) are now more often used due to lower frictional forces when compared with conventional-ligating brackets. In this study, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to examine the microstructural effects of stainless steel and ceramic SLBs on the surface roughness of stainless steel and superelastic NiTi wires both after in vivo clinical orthodontic treatment as well as in in vitro three-point bending experiments. A combination of two wires-0.019 in. × 0.025 in. stainless steel wires and 0.016 in. superelastic NiTi wires-and two SLBs-both passive-type stainless steel SLBs and active-type ceramic SLBs-was applied for 4 months (bicuspid-extraction) in an in vivo setting and for 1 month in an in vitro setting (200 g loads). After the SLB treatments, all wires exhibited severe scratches secondary to frictional interactions with the brackets. When used with the stainless steel SLBs (Damon 3MX®), the surfaces of 0.019 in. × 0.025 in. stainless steel (P < 0.0001) and 0.016 in. superelastic NiTi wires (P < 0.05) were significantly smoother than when used with the ceramic SLBs (Clippy-C®). Such results suggest that orthodontic treatments with stainless steel SLBs are more effective than with ceramic SLBs.

  1. Investigation of the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin Yttrium Iron Garnet film

    PubMed Central

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in sub-micron thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films using lock-in thermography (LIT). Although the effect is small in thin layers this technique allows us to observe asymmetric heat transport by magnons which leads to asymmetric temperature profiles differing by several mK on both sides of the exciting antenna, respectively. Comparison of Damon-Eshbach and backward volume modes shows that the unidirectional heat flow is indeed due to non-reciprocal spin-waves. Because of the finite linewidth, small asymmetries can still be observed when only the uniform mode of ferromagnetic resonance is excited. The latter is of extreme importance for example when measuring the inverse spin-Hall effect because the temperature differences can result in thermovoltages at the contacts. Because of the non-reciprocity these thermovoltages reverse their sign with a reversal of the magnetic field which is typically deemed the signature of the inverse spin-Hall voltage. PMID:27311931

  2. Frictional force released during sliding mechanics in nonconventional elastomerics and self-ligation: An in vitro comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Davender; Dua, Vinay; Mangla, Rajat; Solanki, Ravinder; Solanki, Monika; Sharma, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the frictional forces generated by five different orthodontic brackets when used in combination with stainless steel (SS), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), and nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires in dry conditions at physiological temperature. Materials and Methods: Five different types of maxillary upper right side self-ligating brackets (SLBs) (Damon 3MX, Smart Clip and Carriere LX) and conventional SS brackets (Mini 2000, Optimum Series and Victory Series) with a slot size 0.022 inch were coupled with 0.016” NiTi and 0.019 × 0.025” SS/titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Tests were carried out for each group of the bracket-wire combination at physiological temperature and in the dry state. Frictional forces were measured by Instron universal testing machine. Results: SLB showed lower fictional values in comparison with elastic ligatures. Frictional force increased proportionally to the wire size; TMA and NiTi archwires presented higher frictional resistance than SS archwires. Conclusion: SS brackets tied with conventional ligatures produced high and low friction when ligated with SLBs with passive clip. PMID:27433047

  3. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  4. Effects of heat inactivation on HIV antibody screening and confirmatory test systems.

    PubMed

    Fipps, D R; Damato, J J; Burke, D S

    1988-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of heat inactivation on serum undergoing testing for HIV antibody, 100 heat-inactivated and nonheat-inactivated serum samples were tested by two modifications of Abbott's screening assays for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-III (lot numbers 1037 and 3036) and by two confirmatory assays (Cambridge BioScience CBre3-EIA; Damon Corporation Western blot). The samples consisted of 75 HIV antibody-negative and 25 HIV antibody-positive sera. The specimens were divided into two equal aliquots. One set was not subjected to heat inactivation, while the others were subjected to heat inactivation at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Heat inactivation had no significant effect on the HIV-position sera; however, heat-inactivated, negative sera evaluated by Abbott lot numbers 1037 and 3036 resulted in false-positive rates of 8% and 7%, respectively. No false positives were generated by the two confirmatory assays; however, the CBre3-EIA recombinant envelope protein assay had a significantly increased optical density reading following heat inactivation of the negative sera. The Western blot procedure used in the study was not affected by heat inactivation.

  5. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming. PMID:22701377

  6. Baseline survey of concentrations of toxaphene congeners in fish from European waters.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brendan; McGovern, Evin; Nixon, Eugene; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Rimkus, Gerhard G; Leonards, Pim E; deBoer, Jacob

    2004-08-01

    The European Union project "Investigation into the monitoring, analysis and toxicity of toxaphene"(MATT) began in 1997 involving participants from the Netherlands, Ireland, Norway and Germany. Concentration information, analytical methodology and statistical interpretation of 207 samples covering 23 different fish species from European waters are presented for three toxaphene indicator congeners: CHBs 26, 50 and 62 (CHB = chlorobornane). Concentrations for the Sigma3CHBs were more elevated in fish from more northern latitudes, such as the Barents and Norwegian Sea, compared to fish from Irish, Dutch and German waters. Concentrations were lowest in shellfish and in fish species having low lipid content and were highest in medium/high lipid species. Females from a number of fish species were shown to contain significantly higher concentrations than those observed in male fish. Overall no samples were shown to exceed existing German MRL legislation, with only one Greenland halibut sample shown to exceed Canadian TDI recommendations.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated waste paper--source of raw material for production of liquid biofuels.

    PubMed

    Brummer, Vladimir; Jurena, Tomas; Hlavacek, Viliam; Omelkova, Jirina; Bebar, Ladislav; Gabriel, Petr; Stehlik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper is becoming a perspective way to obtain raw material for production of liquid biofuels. Reducing sugars solutions that arise from the process of saccharification are a precursors for following or simultaneous fermentation to ethanol. Different types of waste paper were evaluated, in terms of composition and usability, in order to select the appropriate type of the waste paper for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Novozymes® enzymes NS50013 and NS50010 were used in a laboratory scale trials. Technological conditions, which seem to be the most suitable for hydrolysis after testing on cellulose pulp and filter paper, were applied to hydrolysis of widely available waste papers - offset paper, cardboard, recycled paper in two qualities, matte MYsol offset paper and for comparison again on model materials. The highest yields were achieved for the cardboard, which was further tested using various pretreatment combinations in purpose of increasing the hydrolysis yields.

  8. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2015-11-30

    In the second quarter of this grant, work has progressed smoothly at all three collaborating institutions. We have recently completed our first experiment at the NSCL under this grant successfully, where 79Kr was collected by cryotrapping from our water target apparatus. The three PI’s, one undergraduate (Boone Marois), two graduate students (Stacy Queern and Matt Scott) and one post-doc (Aranh Pen) were assisted by Dave Morrissey at the NSCL to perform this experiment. The experiment also provided the opportunity for a collaboration meeting of the PI’s to discuss future work on this proposal. Significant progress has been made on both novel radiochemical separations technology at the University of Missouri, and validating a radiochemical separation procedure for 48V at Washington University. The only change in the work-scope of the original proposal is the transition of the Washington University PI to the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

  9. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  10. Strongly-Driven Laser Plasmas with Self-Consistent Electron Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruer, William L.; Afeyan, Bedros B.; Wilks, Scott C.; Chou, Albert E.

    1996-11-01

    In high temperature hohlraums and many other applications,footnote For example, see talks by T. Orzechowski and R. Kirkwood (Anomalous Absorption Conference 1996). the laser heated electrons have a zeroth-order distribution function which is quite different footnote A.B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett 44, 575 (1980); R. Jones and K. Lee, Phys. Fluids 25, 2307 (1992). footnote For general distribution, see J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Conference Fusion 30, 1665 (1988). from Maxwellian. The numerous consequences include changes in the Landau damping and instability thresholds, reductions in the inverse bremsstrahlung coefficient, as well as changes in the heat transport, density profiles and atomic physics. In addition, unexpected absorption processes can be introduced. These absorption mechanisms are discussed and illustrated in fluid and PIC simulations.

  11. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  12. Supervising the uncanny: the play within the play.

    PubMed

    Leader, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating.

  13. Efficient Removal of Arsenic and Antimony During Blast Furnace Smelting of Lead-Containing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosmukhamedov, Nurlan; Kaplan, Valery

    2017-02-01

    The efficient removal of impurities, As and Sb, from recycled lead-containing materials is a key issue in the selection of the appropriate smelting technology for projects involving metal reuse. Volatilization of impurities such as As and Sb should occur as early as possible in the process, and preferably within the smelting furnace, so that they do not contaminate the industrial environment nor interfere with the operation of downstream equipment. Using of copper-zinc concentrates in the blast furnace process for recycling lead-containing materials achieves: (1) high copper extraction to matte; (2) high lead extraction to lead bullion; and (3) high zinc extraction to slag, while at the same time producing a more efficient volatilization of As and Sb. Based on both laboratory and industrial data and thermodynamic considerations, the advantages of this blast furnace process for the treatment of recycled lead-containing materials are discussed.

  14. Auto-sensuous shapes: prototypes for creative forms.

    PubMed

    Charles, M

    2001-09-01

    The author looks at some of the more normative, adaptive, and creative aspects of what have been called 'autistic' or 'auto-sensuous' shapes by Tustin and others. She explores the construct from several frameworks, including the literature on early sensory experience and that on the empathic attunement between infant and caretaker in which interpersonal rhythms and meanings are built. The views of Bion and Matte-Blanco are utilized to help explore the processes by which meaning is created from experience, while the works of Segal and Milner are used to focus more explicitly on the role of symbol formation in the creative process. Finally, it is suggested that these auto-sensuous shapes can become prototypes for creative endeavours, including the creative process we call psychoanalysis. The author uses examples from her own experience in deriving pattern from basic sensory experience, toward the creation of poetry, drawings, and the establishment of attunement and 'meaning-making' within the analytic setting.

  15. Improving results of a simple RGB model for cameras using estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if it is possible to use estimation techniques to reduce the difference between predicted and actual RGB values. Images and spectral reflectances of two classes of objects were used: matte, 2D (Munsell chips and Macbeth chart) and natural, 3D objects (faces). In the prediction phase, a simple RGB model was evaluated which takes into account only the spectral power distributions of the current and calibration illuminants, spectral reflectances of the objects, and the spectral response of the RGB camera in the calculations to avoid the complexity of modeling other possible factors affecting image formation. The results show that an estimation can make the prediction results closer to the actual values.

  16. KSC-04PD-1059

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Space Shuttle Main Engine Shop at KSC, the STS-114 crew poses for a photo in front of two of the main engines. Crew members, from left, are Mission Commander Eileen Collins, Mission Specialists Charles Camarda and Wendy Lawrence, Pilot James Kelly, and Mission Specialists Andrew Thomas and Soichi Noguchi, who represents the Japanese Aerospace and Exploration Agency. Behind them are Dan Hausman (director, Product Support, Boeing), Dan Sweety (manager, Safety & Mission Assurance, Boeing) and Matt McClelland (team manager, Tech Ops, Boeing). The STS-114 mission is Logistics Flight 1, which is scheduled to deliver supplies and equipment plus the external stowage platform to the International Space Station.

  17. Unique interactive projection display screen

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  18. A PARMELA model of the CEBAF injector valid over a wide range of beam parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhong Zhang; Kevin Beard; Jay Benesch; Yu-Chiu Chao; Arne Freyberger; Joseph Grames; Reza Kazimi; Geoffrey Krafft; Rui Li; Nikolitsa Merminga; Benard Poelker; Byung Yunn

    2004-07-01

    A PARMELA model of the CEBAF injector valid over a wide range of beam parameters Yuhong Zhang, Kevin Beard, Jay Benesch, Yu-Chiu Chao, Arne Freyberger, Joseph Grames, Reza Kazimi, Geoff Krafft, Rui Li, Lia Merminga, Matt Poelker, Michael Tiefenback, Byung Yunn Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 USA An earlier PARMELA model of the Jefferson Lab CEBAF photoinjector was recently revised. The initial phase space distribution of an electron bunch was determined by measuring spot size and pulselength of the driver laser and by beam emittance measurements. The improved model has been used for simulations of the simultaneous delivery of the Hall A beam required for a hypernuclear experiment, and the Hall C beam required for the G0 parity violation experiment.

  19. Characterization of foxing stains in early twentieth century photographic and paper materials.

    PubMed

    Modica, Aurora; Bruno, Maurizio; Di Bella, Marco; Alberghina, Maria Francesca; Brai, Maria; Fontana, Dorotea; Tranchina, Luigi

    2016-05-06

    The subject of this present work is a group of nine historical pictures shot in Palermo by the Sicilian photographer E. Interguglielmi in 1912. They are nine matte-collodion prints mounted on the original cardboard supports and all of them show foxing stains affecting the paper surface. In order to characterise the chemical composition of the supports and investigate foxing spots, non-destructive and micro-destructive analysis were carried out. X-rays fluorescence (XRF) analysis was used to characterise the elemental composition of all the mounting boards, allowing a comparison between the foxing spots and non-affected areas. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy was used to investigate the presence of lower atomic number elements, not detectable by XRF, while SEM imaging allowed the investigation of surface appearance and nature of original paper samples from the cardboards.

  20. Highly siderophile elements were stripped from Earth's mantle by iron sulfide segregation.

    PubMed

    Rubie, David C; Laurenz, Vera; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Palme, Herbert; Vogel, Antje K; Frost, Daniel J

    2016-09-09

    Highly siderophile elements (HSEs) are strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) but are present in near-chondritic relative abundances. The conventional explanation is that the HSEs were stripped from the mantle by the segregation of metal during core formation but were added back in near-chondritic proportions by late accretion, after core formation had ceased. Here we show that metal-silicate equilibration and segregation during Earth's core formation actually increased HSE mantle concentrations because HSE partition coefficients are relatively low at the high pressures of core formation within Earth. The pervasive exsolution and segregation of iron sulfide liquid from silicate liquid (the "Hadean matte") stripped magma oceans of HSEs during cooling and crystallization, before late accretion, and resulted in slightly suprachondritic palladium/iridium and ruthenium/iridium ratios.

  1. Durum wheat in conventional and organic farming: yield amount and pasta quality in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  2. The influence of nitrogen in stemflow and precipitation on epiphytic bryophytes, Isothecium myosuroides Brid., Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp of Atlantic oakwoods.

    PubMed

    Leith, I D; Mitchell, R J; Truscott, A-M; Cape, J N; van Dijk, N; Smith, R I; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A

    2008-09-01

    The spatial relationship between the concentration and deposition of the major ions in precipitation and stemflow and their influence on the tissue nitrogen concentration of three epiphytic bryophytes on Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl. and Q. robur L. was investigated at seven UK Atlantic oak woodland sites with a range of total N deposition of 55-250 mmol m(-2). The main driver of change in tissue N concentrations of three epiphytic bryophytes (Isothecium myosuroides Brid. (Eurhynchium myosuroides (Brid.) Schp.), Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp.) was total N deposition in stemflow, dominated by ammonium deposition. The three epiphytic species also showed strong relationships between tissue N concentration and total N deposition in rainfall but a poor correlation with total N ion concentration in rainfall. This study shows that epiphytic bryophytes utilise stemflow N and thus increase their risk from inputs of total N deposition compared to terricolous species at the same site.

  3. Polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  4. The Study of Indicatrices of Space Object Coatings in a Controlled Laboratory Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshkin, N.; Burlak, N.; Petrov, M.; Strakhova, S.

    The indicatrices of light scattering by radiation balance coatings used on space objects (SO) were determined in the laboratory experiment in a controlled condition. The laboratory device for the physical simulation of photometric observations of space objects in orbit, which was used in this case to study optical properties of coating samples, is described. The features of light reflection off plane coating samples, including multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, metal surfaces coated with several layers of enamel EP-140, special polyacrylate enamel AK-512 and matte finish Tp-CO-2, were determined. The indicated coatings are compound reflectors which exhibit both diffuse and specular reflections. The data obtained are to be used in the development of computer optical-geometric models of space objects or their fragments (space debris) to interpret the photometry results for real space objects.

  5. Through the eye of the needle: the unfolding of the unconscious body.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Riccardo

    2009-02-01

    The body is the starting point of experience and the original source of psychic life. In the course of analysis "the camel" must "go through the eye of the needle," in the sense that the body must become the specific object of mental working through, although no link between the corporeal and the mental can be taken for granted. The body-mind relationship is explored in the light of Matte Blanco's hypothesis that symmetric and asymmetric relationships are always present in the mind in differing proportions, and that the realm of symmetry is the deep unconscious. In primitive mental states the body may be completely unperceived: just as H. G. Wells's invisible man could be seen only when dressed, so the body appears on the mind's horizon only when asymmetric thought is directed at it. Three clinical vignettes show the contribution of the body-mind relationship to the overcoming of serious impasses in analysis.

  6. Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Jacobsen, J. J.; Moore, J. W. Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 1 [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1998, SP 18.

    2. Jacobsen, J. J.; Moore, J. W. Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 2 [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1998, SP 21.

    3. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J.; Hunsberger, L. R.; Gammon, S. D.; Jetzer, K. H.; Zimmerman, J. ChemDemos Videodisc; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1994, SP 8.

    4. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J.; Jetzer, K. H.; Gilbert, G.; Mattes, F.; Phillips, D.; Lisensky, G.; Zweerink, G. ChemDemos II; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1996, SP 14.

    5. Jacobsen, J. J.; Jetzer, K. H.; Patani, N.; Zimmerman, J. Titration Techniques Videodisc; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1995, SP9.

  7. GLOBE Hydrology Workshop SEIP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Matt Krigbaum (left), a teacher at Mitchell Elementary in Ann Arbor, Mich., pours water from the Pearl River into a turbidity tube to measure the river's light penetration. Krigbaum, along with Lois Williams, principal at Elizabeth Courville Elementary in Detroit, Mich.; and Carolyn Martin and Arlene Wittmer, teachers at Elizabeth Courville Elementary; conducted the experiment during a GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) hydrology workshop. GLOBE is a worldwide, hands-on science education program in which teachers can become certified to implement the program at their schools after taking hydrology, land cover/biology, atmosphere/climate and soil protocol workshops. Twelve teachers from across the country attended the recent weeklong GLOBE training at SSC, offered through its Educator Resource Center and the NASA Explorer Schools program. All workshops are free and offer continuing education units.

  8. Characterization of the Oxygen Transmission Rate of Oak Wood Species Used in Cooperage.

    PubMed

    Del Alamo-Sanza, María; Cárcel, Luis Miguel; Nevares, Ignacio

    2017-01-25

    The oxygen that wine receives while aged in barrels is of interest because it defines the reactions that occur during aging and, therefore, the final properties of the wine. This study is intended to make up for the lack of information concerning the oxygen permeability of eight different woods of Quercus alba L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. commonly used. In addition, it shows how oxygen transfer evolves with the liquid contact time during testing under similar aging conditions to those in wine barrels. French oak woods permitted a higher oxygenation rate than American ones in all cases. A decrease in the oxygen entry caused by impregnation of the wood during the process was observed in all of the species studied. This process is determined by the thickness of the flooded wood layer containing free water, although differently in the two species, possibly due to the anatomical structure and the logging process for each.

  9. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  10. Winnicott on Jung: destruction, creativity and the unrepressed unconscious.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2011-02-01

    This paper considers Winnicott's critique of Jung, principally expressed in his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which asserts that Jung's creative contribution to analysis was constrained by his failure to integrate his 'primitive destructive impulses', subsequent to inadequate early containment. It is argued that although Winnicott's diagnosis illuminates Jung's shadow, particularly his constraints vis-à-vis the repressed Freudian unconscious, it fails to appreciate the efficacy of the compensatory containment Jung found in the collective unconscious. This enigmatic relationship between destruction and creativity-so central to late Winnicott-is illuminated by Matte Blanco's bi-logic, and further explored in relation to William Blake. Winnicott's personal resolution through his Jung-inspired 'splitting headache' dream of destruction-previously considered in this Journal by Morey (2005) and Sedgwick (2008)-is given particular attention.

  11. Structurally Coloured Secondary Particles Composed of Black and White Colloidal Particles

    PubMed Central

    Takeoka, Yukikazu; Yoshioka, Shinya; Teshima, Midori; Takano, Atsushi; Harun-Ur-Rashid, Mohammad; Seki, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the colourful secondary particles formed by controlling the aggregation states of colloidal silica particles and the enhancement of the structural colouration of the secondary particles caused by adding black particles. We obtained glossy, partially structurally coloured secondary particles in the absence of NaCl, but matte, whitish secondary particles were obtained in the presence of NaCl. When a small amount of carbon black was incorporated into both types of secondary particles, the incoherent multiple scattering of light from the amorphous region was considerably reduced. However, the peak intensities in the reflection spectra, caused by Bragg reflection and by coherent single wavelength scattering, were only slightly decreased. Consequently, a brighter structural colour of these secondary particles was observed with the naked eye. Furthermore, when magnetite was added as a black particle, the coloured secondary particles could be moved and collected by applying an external magnetic field. PMID:23917891

  12. Efficient Removal of Arsenic and Antimony During Blast Furnace Smelting of Lead-Containing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosmukhamedov, Nurlan; Kaplan, Valery

    2016-10-01

    The efficient removal of impurities, As and Sb, from recycled lead-containing materials is a key issue in the selection of the appropriate smelting technology for projects involving metal reuse. Volatilization of impurities such as As and Sb should occur as early as possible in the process, and preferably within the smelting furnace, so that they do not contaminate the industrial environment nor interfere with the operation of downstream equipment. Using of copper-zinc concentrates in the blast furnace process for recycling lead-containing materials achieves: (1) high copper extraction to matte; (2) high lead extraction to lead bullion; and (3) high zinc extraction to slag, while at the same time producing a more efficient volatilization of As and Sb. Based on both laboratory and industrial data and thermodynamic considerations, the advantages of this blast furnace process for the treatment of recycled lead-containing materials are discussed.

  13. Polyplanar optic display for cockpit application

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Freibott, W.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a high contrast display screen being developed for cockpit applications. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a long lifetime, (10,000 hour), 200 mW green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design and speckle reduction, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  14. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  15. Method for laminar boundary layer transition visualization in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor); Gall, Peter D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of visualizing laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface. A liquid crystal coating is formulated using an unencapsulated liquid crystal operable in a temperature bandwidth compatible with the temperature environment around the test surface. The liquid crystal coating is applied to the test surface, which is preferably pretreated by painting with a flat, black paint to achieve a deep matte coating, after which the surface is subjected to a liquid or gas flow. Color change in the liquid crystal coating is produced in response to differences in relative shear stress within the boundary layer around the test surface. The novelty of this invention resides in the use of liquid crystals which are sensitive to shear stress to show aerodynamic phenomena such as a boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface.

  16. KSC-05PD-0121

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Matt Scott, with United Space Alliance, lifts the final Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panel into position for installation on orbiter Discoverys left wing. The leading edges of each of an orbiters wings have 22 RCC panels. They are light gray and made entirely of carbon composite material, which protect the orbiter during re-entry. The molded components are approximately 0.25- to 0.5-inch thick and capable of withstanding temperatures up to 3,220 degrees F. Following the Columbia accident in February 2002, which was caused by a breach in an RCC panel that allowed hot gases into the vehicle, each panel on Discovery was removed and thoroughly inspected before final reinstallation. Discovery is the designated orbiter to fly on the Return to Flight mission STS-114, the first Space Shuttle to launch since the accident. The launch window for the mission is May 12 to June 3, 2005.

  17. Goniometric and colorimetric properties of paints and varnish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacomussi, P.; Radis, M.; Rossi, G.

    2015-03-01

    The spectral reflectance of different samples of three different hues, (red, green, blue) with four different protective varnishes was measured in 8/d condition and with a goniometer equipped with a spectrometer. The samples are representative of hue and varnishes typically used in works of arts, the characterization was performed to test how the different gloss finishing induced by transparent varnishes affect the spatial distribution of the luminance coefficient in typical lighting arrangements for exposition of works of art. Nowadays the most used transparent protective varnishes are matt or glossy, natural or synthetic. The choice within them is usually made looking at mechanical, chemical (also in term of removal) and protective properties. Varnishes optical properties investigation on saturation and gloss alteration of the perceived artifacts are not usually investigated. Expected results of this research include: analysis of influences on color appearance of protective varnish according to the condition of illumination and observation, suggestion of new additional criteria for varnish selection and lighting set up exposition and reliability of 8/d measurements condition, that is a typical measurement set-up of portable instruments. Our results showed that natural varnishes are more able to change the gloss of the surfaces than synthetic ones, because the shape and intensity of the specular peak for glossy and matt natural varnish are very different. Both synthetic and natural varnishes have different behaviors at 30° or 60° light incidences: at 30° of incidence all samples have smaller variations, while at 60° of incidence the variations are larger, and for some samples the achromatic point is reached.

  18. Novel metrics and methodology for the characterisation of 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, John R.; Kinnell, Peter; Justham, Laura; Lohse, Niels; Jackson, Michael R.

    2017-04-01

    The modelling, benchmarking and selection process for non-contact 3D imaging systems relies on the ability to characterise their performance. Characterisation methods that require optically compliant artefacts such as matt white spheres or planes, fail to reveal the performance limitations of a 3D sensor as would be encountered when measuring a real world object with problematic surface finish. This paper reports a method of evaluating the performance of 3D imaging systems on surfaces of arbitrary isotropic surface finish, position and orientation. The method involves capturing point clouds from a set of samples in a range of surface orientations and distances from the sensor. Point clouds are processed to create a single performance chart per surface finish, which shows both if a point is likely to be recovered, and the expected point noise as a function of surface orientation and distance from the sensor. In this paper, the method is demonstrated by utilising a low cost pan-tilt table and an active stereo 3D camera. Its performance is characterised by the fraction and quality of recovered data points on aluminium isotropic surfaces ranging in roughness average (Ra) from 0.09 to 0.46 μm at angles of up to 55° relative to the sensor over a distances from 400 to 800 mm to the scanner. Results from a matt white surface similar to those used in previous characterisation methods contrast drastically with results from even the dullest aluminium sample tested, demonstrating the need to characterise sensors by their limitations, not just best case performance.

  19. Silurian to Early Carboniferous plate tectonic model of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golonka, Jan; Barmuta, Jan; Barmuta, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The presented plate tectonic model focuses on Silurian to Early Carboniferous evolution of Central Europe with special attention given to the Sudetes region (north and north-east part of the Bohemian Massif). During our studies, we tested alternative models focused on the position of the Armorican terranes, known as the Armorican Terrane Assembly (ATA) (e.g.: Matte, 2001) and tried to refine the existing reconstructions, which describe Armorica as an individual continent during the Late Silurian and Devonian (e.g. Lewandowski, 2003, Winchester, 2002). Our plate tectonic model depict that these small blocks were scattered along the northern margin of Gondwana, where they formed the "Armorican Spour" as suggested by Kroner and Romer (2013). The seaways were present between blocks. Because of the north dipping subduction zone along the southern margin of the Laurussia continent the back-arc basin and island arc were formed. The narrowing of the Rheic ocean led to the complicated collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. Three main stages of this event can be distinguished: (1) collision of the Armorican Spour with the Laurussian island arc, (2) back-arc basin closure, (3) final Gondwana and Laurussian collision. Those stages correlate well with Variscan Subduction Zone System proposed by Kroner and Romer (2013). Interactive modeling performed in GPlates, shows that the presented model is valid from kinematic and geometrical point of view. Kroner U., Romer R., L., 2013, Two plates - many subduction zones: the Variscan orogeny reconsidered. Gondwana Research, 24: 298-329. Lewandowski M., 2003, Assembly of Pangea: Combined paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic approach, Advances in Geophysics, 46: 199-236 Matte P., 2001, The Variscan collage and orogeny (480 290 Ma) and the tectonic definition of the Armorica microplate: a review. Terra Nova, 13: 122¨C128. Winchester J., A., The Pace TMR Network Team, 2002, Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe: new results from recent

  20. Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavenga, Doekele

    2010-03-01

    Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

  1. Influence of high ambient illuminance and display luminance on readability and subjective preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Katrien; Andrén, Börje; Guo, Yi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Drott, Anton; Hermann, David S.

    2015-03-01

    Many devices, such as tablets, smartphones, notebooks, fixed and portable navigation systems are used on a (nearly) daily basis, both in in- and outdoor environments. It is often argued that contextual factors, such as the ambient illuminance in relation to characteristics of the display (e.g., surface treatment, screen reflectance, display luminance …) may have a strong influence on the use of such devices and corresponding user experiences. However, the current understanding of these influence factors is still rather limited. In this work, we therefore focus in particular on the impact of lighting and display luminance on readability, visual performance, subjective experience and preference. A controlled lab study (N=18) with a within-subjects design was performed to evaluate two car displays (one glossy and one matte display) in conditions that simulate bright outdoor lighting conditions. Four ambient luminance levels and three display luminance settings were combined into 7 experimental conditions. More concretely, we investigated for each display: (1) whether and how readability and visual performance varied with the different combinations of ambient luminance and display luminance and (2) whether and how they influenced the subjective experience (through self-reported valence, annoyance, visual fatigue) and preference. The results indicate a limited, yet negative influence of increased ambient luminance and reduced contrast on visual performance and readability for both displays. Similarly, we found that the self-reported valence decreases and annoyance and visual fatigue increase as the contrast ratio decreases and ambient luminance increases. Overall, the impact is clearer for the matte display than for the glossy display.

  2. Outcomes of acute leukemia patients transplanted with naive T cell–depleted stem cell grafts

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Marie; Heimfeld, Shelly; Loeb, Keith R.; Jones, Lori A.; Chaney, Colette; Seropian, Stuart; Gooley, Ted A.; Sommermeyer, Franziska; Riddell, Stanley R.; Shlomchik, Warren D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). In mice, naive T cells (TN) cause more severe GVHD than memory T cells (TM). We hypothesized that selective depletion of TN from human allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts would reduce GVHD and provide sufficient numbers of hematopoietic stem cells and TM to permit hematopoietic engraftment and the transfer of pathogen-specific T cells from donor to recipient, respectively. METHODS. In a single-arm clinical trial, we transplanted 35 patients with high-risk leukemia with TN-depleted PBSC grafts following conditioning with total body irradiation, thiotepa, and fludarabine. GVHD prophylactic management was with tacrolimus immunosuppression alone. Subjects received CD34-selected PBSCs and a defined dose of TM purged of CD45RA+ TN. Primary and secondary objectives included engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and immune reconstitution. RESULTS. All recipients of TN-depleted PBSCs engrafted. The incidence of acute GVHD was not reduced; however, GVHD in these patients was universally corticosteroid responsive. Chronic GVHD was remarkably infrequent (9%; median follow-up 932 days) compared with historical rates of approximately 50% with T cell–replete grafts. TM in the graft resulted in rapid T cell recovery and transfer of protective virus-specific immunity. Excessive rates of infection or relapse did not occur and overall survival was 78% at 2 years. CONCLUSION. Depletion of TN from stem cell allografts reduces the incidence of chronic GVHD, while preserving the transfer of functional T cell memory. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 00914940). FUNDING. NIH, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, and Richard Lumsden Foundation. PMID:26053664

  3. Mandibular arch orthodontic treatment stability using passive self-ligating and conventional systems in adults: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wey, Mang Chek; Othman, Siti Adibah

    2017-01-01

    Objective This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the stability of mandibular arch orthodontic treatment outcomes between passive self-ligating and conventional systems during 6 months of retention. Methods Fortyseven orthodontic patients with mild to moderate crowding malocclusions not requiring extraction were recruited based on inclusion criteria. Patients (mean age 21.58 ± 2.94 years) were randomized into two groups to receive either passive self-ligating (Damon® 3MX, n = 23) or conventional system (Gemini MBT, n = 24) orthodontic treatment. Direct measurements of the final sample comprising 20 study models per group were performed using a digital caliper at the debonding stage, and 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after debonding. Paired t-test, independent t-test, and non-parametric test were used for statistical analysis. Results A significant increase (p < 0.01) in incisor irregularity was observed in both self-ligating and conventional system groups. A significant reduction (p < 0.01) in second interpremolar width was observed in both groups. Mandibular arch length decreased significantly (p = 0.001) in the conventional system group but not in the self-ligating system group. A similar pattern of stability was observed for intercanine width, first interpremolar width, intermolar width, and arch depth throughout the 6-month retention period after debonding. Comparison of incisor irregularity and arch dimension changes between self-ligating system and conventional system groups during the 6 months were non-significant. Conclusions The stability of treatment outcomes for mild to moderate crowding malocclusions was similar between the self-ligating system and conventional system during the first 6 months of retention. PMID:28127535

  4. Microencapsulated tumor assay: new short-term assay for in vivo evaluation of the effects of anticancer drugs on human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, E; Ovejera, A; Shoemaker, R; Jarvis, A; Alley, M; Duff, R; Mayo, J; Herberman, R; Boyd, M

    1987-11-01

    A new in vivo has been developed for evaluating the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic drugs. The assay is based on a microencapsulation technology developed by Damon Biotech, Inc., Boston, MA, which makes it possible to encapsulate human tumor cells in small (about 1 mm in diameter) microcapsules with semipermeable membranes. Microcapsules containing human tumor cells were injected i.p. into nude or C57BL/6 mice and drugs were administered i.v. The microcapsules were recovered at various intervals following treatment and determinations of drug effects were made based on the differences in the number of tumor cells recovered from the treated and nontreated animals. Using this assay we found that (a) encapsulated tumor cells grew better in the in vivo system than in vitro under the conditions tested; (b) drugs crossed the capsular membrane and killed or inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells; and (c) the antitumor effect was consistent with the relative therapeutic efficacy of drugs or level of resistance of tumor cells detected by other in vitro or in vivo tests. The tumor microencapsulation assay offers several properties which make it attractive for use in new drug development: (a) the antitumor activity of drugs can be tested against human tumor cells under conditions which provide for three-dimensional growth and in vivo supply of nutrients; (b) the sensitivity of tumor cells can be assessed following exposure to drugs at concentrations which are achievable in vivo; (c) compounds requiring in vivo metabolic activation can be tested; (d) the effect of each drug injection can be quickly evaluated; (e) inhibition of tumor cell proliferation versus cytoreductive effects of drugs can be discriminated; (f) the test is applicable to virtually all histological types of human tumor cells; and (g) the tumor microencapsulation assay is a short-term, simple, and relatively inexpensive assay.

  5. Planktonic foraminifera as bio-indicators for monitoring the climatic changes that have occurred over the past 2000 years in the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Lirer, Fabrizio; Sprovieri, Mario; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Ferraro, Luciana; Pelosi, Nicola; Giordano, Laura; Capotondi, Lucilla

    2014-08-01

    A high-resolution integrated study has been performed in a super-expanded marine record (sedimentation rate spanning from 11 cm/100 years to 20 cm/100 years) from the continental shelf area of the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea. Planktonic foraminiferal distribution illustrates 6 major environmental changes during the past 2000 years: (i) the Roman Period-Dark Age transition (from herbivorous-opportunistic to carnivorous species); (ii) the Dark Age-MCA transition (from carnivorous to herbivorous-opportunistic species); (iii) the Medieval Classic Anomaly-Little Ice Age transition (a further and definitive change from carnivorous to herbivorous-opportunistic species); (iv) the period during the Maunder event between approximately 1720 AD and 1740 AD (turnover from the carnivorous planktonic foraminifer Globigerinodes ruber to the herbivorous-opportunistic planktonic foraminifer Turborotalita quinqueloba); (v) the Industrial Period (dominance of herbivorous-opportunistic planktonic foraminifera); and (vi) the Modern Warm Period at approximately 1940 AD (the last turnover in favor of herbivorous-opportunistic planktonic foraminifers, associated with an increase in benthic foraminifera). Our studies lead us to link this latter feature to an anthropogenic impact associated with the damming of Sele River (Salerno Gulf) at 1934 AD, which induced a change in the sediment input with a strong decrease in coarse-grained fraction and a probable alteration in nutrient supply. The δ(18) OG. ruber record of the past 2000 years shows the alternation of warm/wet and cold/dry events related to the Roman Period, the Dark Age, the Medieval Classic Anomaly, the Little Ice Age, the Industrial Period and the Modern Warm Period. The 5 evident δ(18) OG. ruber oscillations (between approximately 1325 AD and 1940 AD) coincide with the 5 minima in the solar activity record (Wolf, Spörer, Maunder, Dalton and Damon events).

  6. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Amstrong, T.R.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  7. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  8. Brillouin light scattering investigation of the thickness dependence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in C o0.5F e0.5 ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Roussigné, Y.; Stashkevich, A.; Chérif, S. M.; Zighem, F.; Tiusan, C.

    2016-05-01

    C o0.5F e0.5 (CoFe) ultrathin films of various thicknesses (0.8 nm ≤tCoFe≤1.6 nm ) have been grown by sputtering on (001) MgO single crystal or Si/SiO2 substrates, using Pt as capping or buffer layers, respectively. The x-ray diffraction revealed an in-plane epitaxial (isotropic) growth of Pt on MgO (Si). Their magnetic properties have been studied by vibrating sample magnetometry and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. Vibrating sample magnetometry characterizations show that films grown on MgO are in-plane magnetized, while films deposited on Si are perpendicularly magnetized for CoFe thickness below 1.4 nm. The BLS measurements reveal a pronounced nonreciprocal spin waves propagation, which increases with decreasing CoFe thickness. This nonreciprocity was attributed to an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) induced by Pt interface with CoFe. Moreover, the DMI sign has been found to depend on the stacks order: it is positive (negative) for CoFe/Pt (Pt/CoFe). The effective thickness dependence of the DMI effective constant shows two regimes due to the degradation of the interfaces as the CoFe thickness decreases. We thus show that the magnetic dead layer should be taken into account to precisely determine the surface DMI constant Ds. Therefore, for the thickest samples, the surface DMI constants are nearly opposite: -1.27 and 1.32 pJ m-1 for Pt/CoFe and its reversed system, respectively.

  9. A Web-based Multi-user Interactive Visualization System For Large-Scale Computing Using Google Web Toolkit Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R. M.; McLane, J. C.; Yuen, D. A.; Wang, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have created a web-based, interactive system for multi-user collaborative visualization of large data sets (on the order of terabytes) that allows users in geographically disparate locations to simultaneous and collectively visualize large data sets over the Internet. By leveraging asynchronous java and XML (AJAX) web development paradigms via the Google Web Toolkit (http://code.google.com/webtoolkit/), we are able to provide remote, web-based users a web portal to LCSE's (http://www.lcse.umn.edu) large-scale interactive visualization system already in place at the University of Minnesota that provides high resolution visualizations to the order of 15 million pixels by Megan Damon. In the current version of our software, we have implemented a new, highly extensible back-end framework built around HTTP "server push" technology to provide a rich collaborative environment and a smooth end-user experience. Furthermore, the web application is accessible via a variety of devices including netbooks, iPhones, and other web- and javascript-enabled cell phones. New features in the current version include: the ability for (1) users to launch multiple visualizations, (2) a user to invite one or more other users to view their visualization in real-time (multiple observers), (3) users to delegate control aspects of the visualization to others (multiple controllers) , and (4) engage in collaborative chat and instant messaging with other users within the user interface of the web application. We will explain choices made regarding implementation, overall system architecture and method of operation, and the benefits of an extensible, modular design. We will also discuss future goals, features, and our plans for increasing scalability of the system which includes a discussion of the benefits potentially afforded us by a migration of server-side components to the Google Application Engine (http://code.google.com/appengine/).

  10. Multiparametric profiling of non–small-cell lung cancers reveals distinct immunophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lizotte, Patrick H.; Ivanova, Elena V.; Awad, Mark M.; Jones, Robert E.; Keogh, Lauren; Liu, Hongye; Dries, Ruben; Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Santos, Abigail; Feeney, Nora B.; Paweletz, Cloud P.; Kulkarni, Meghana M.; Bass, Adam J.; Rustgi, Anil K.; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Kufe, Donald W.; Jänne, Pasi A.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Sholl, Lynette M.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Richards, William G.; Bueno, Raphael; English, Jessie M.; Bittinger, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Immune checkpoint blockade improves survival in a subset of patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but robust biomarkers that predict response to PD-1 pathway inhibitors are lacking. Furthermore, our understanding of the diversity of the NSCLC tumor immune microenvironment remains limited. METHODS. We performed comprehensive flow cytometric immunoprofiling on both tumor and immune cells from 51 NSCLCs and integrated this analysis with clinical and histopathologic characteristics, next-generation sequencing, mRNA expression, and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS. Cytometric profiling identified an immunologically “hot” cluster with abundant CD8+ T cells expressing high levels of PD-1 and TIM-3 and an immunologically “cold” cluster with lower relative abundance of CD8+ T cells and expression of inhibitory markers. The “hot” cluster was highly enriched for expression of genes associated with T cell trafficking and cytotoxic function and high PD-L1 expression by IHC. There was no correlation between immunophenotype and KRAS or EGFR mutation, or patient smoking history, but we did observe an enrichment of squamous subtype and tumors with higher mutation burden in the “hot” cluster. Additionally, approximately 20% of cases had high B cell infiltrates with a subset producing IL-10. CONCLUSIONS. Our results support the use of immune-based metrics to study response and resistance to immunotherapy in lung cancer. FUNDING. The Robert A. and Renée E. Belfer Family Foundation, Expect Miracles Foundation, Starr Cancer Consortium, Stand Up to Cancer Foundation, Conquer Cancer Foundation, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, National Cancer Institute (R01 CA205150), and the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation. PMID:27699239

  11. Magnonic band structures in two-dimensional bi-component magnonic crystals with in-plane magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, M.; Mamica, S.; Mruczkiewicz, M.; Klos, J. W.; Tacchi, S.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Duerr, G.; Grundler, D.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the magnonic band structure of in-plane magnetized two-dimensional magnonic crystals composed of cobalt dots embedded into a permalloy antidot lattice. Our analysis is based on the results of numerical calculations carried out by the plane wave method. The complex magnonic band structure found in square-lattice magnonic crystals is explained on the basis of the spin wave dispersion relations calculated in the empty lattice model. We show that four principal effects influence the formation of a magnonic band structure in planar two-dimensional bi-component magnonic crystals: a folding effect, Bragg scattering, hybridization between various spin wave modes, and a demagnetizing field. While the first two effects are found for other types of waves in periodic composites, the third one exists in an anisotropic medium and the last one is specific to spin waves propagating in magnonic crystals with magnetization in the film plane. The strong anisotropy in the dispersion relation of spin waves in thin ferromagnetic films results in the crossing and anti-crossing of the fast, Damon-Eshbach-like mode with a number of other spin waves folded to the first Brillouin zone. The demagnetizing field can induce the formation of channels for spin waves which are propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field direction, but this property exists only in the limiting range of the thicknesses and the lattice constants of the bi-component magnonic crystals. Based on the model analysis we propose a modification of the magnonic crystal structure by changing its thickness, lattice constant and aspect ratio along the direction of the applied magnetic field to significantly modify the magnonic band structure and obtain partial magnonic band gaps.

  12. Computer simulation study of dynamics and domain structures in different magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ming

    Spin wave modes in Permalloy stripes with transverse applied field were studied both by micromagnetic simulations and by solving the linearized equation of motion. In high field regime, localized spin wave modes are observed. In low field regime, crossover spin wave modes of mixed Damon-Eshbach and backward volume character are observed. The lowest frequency localized modes completely soften when the magnetization is saturated at very high external field. The hysteresis loops in both easy and hard axes are calculated in simulations for a FeCo thin film rectangle. The reversal process in the easy axis is studied by applying a tipping pulse. With a large applied field in the easy axis, two resonance modes are observed. The higher frequency mode is concentrated at the central part of the rectangle while the lower frequency one is located at the corners. For a Permalloy thin film square, spin wave modes excited from the Kittel structure were studied. Systematic but complex spin wave modes are observed. Unconventional two dimensional magnetic vortex structures, which have the same exchange energy and surface charge density but different volume charge density compared to the conventional vortex structures, are observed at the cross-section area of two Permalloy thin film wires in simulations. Isolated anti-vortex structures are also observed in the same geometry but with a different initial condition. Logic gates are designed using magnetic elements through magnetostatic interaction. Two setups can operate the AND function in simulations. The effect on the magnetization of the magnetic field produced by the electric current passing through the magnetic sample were studied in simulations. The circular field due to the electric current may cause a vortex structure or even change the chirality of the vortex depending on the current density, the material and size of the sample.

  13. Dynamic and static measurements on epitaxial Fe/Si/Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuanr, Bijoy K.; Buchmeier, M.; Buergler, D. E.; Gruenberg, P.; Camley, R.; Celinski, Z.

    2003-07-01

    Strong antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling across an insulating spacer is in increasing demand for high-density magnetic recording. We report here on the interlayer exchange coupling of epitaxial Fe(8 nm)/Si(t)/Fe(10 nm) trilayers as a function of Si thickness studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), Brillouin light scattering, and magneto optic Kerr effect (MOKE) measurement techniques. A very strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) interlayer exchange coupling (>6 erg/cm2) was observed at a spacer Si thickness of 0.7 nm. The bilinear J1 and biquadratic J2 coupling constants were determined from (i) the fitting of the angular variation of the resonance field (Hres) in FMR experiments, (ii) the field variation of the frequencies of the Damon-Eshbach surface modes (both optic and acoustic) in BLS measurements, and (iii) the fitting of longitudinal MOKE hysteresis loops. We obtain a higher Hres along the easy axis than along the hard axis and the magnetizations of the two Fe films are canted. The eightfold-like symmetry of Hres as a function of the angle observed at room temperature is due to the competition between the Fe fourfold anisotropy and AFM interfacial coupling energy. This behavior vanishes at low temperatures due to a strong increase of AFM coupling (especially J2) in comparison to fourfold in-plane anisotropy. From the fitting of the temperature dependent FMR data, we obtain the temperature variation of the bilinear and biquadratic exchange coupling constants. We distinguish the existence of canted magnetization states at resonance by fitting the experimental Hres versus θH data to the model calculation.

  14. Interview with James Bradner. Interviewed by Hannah Coaker.

    PubMed

    Bradner, James E

    2013-08-01

    James E Bradner is an Assistant Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School (MA, USA) as well as a Staff Physician in the Division of Hematologic Malignancies at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (MA, USA). The present research focus of the Bradner laboratory concerns the discovery and optimization of prototype drugs targeting cancer gene regulation. The clinical objective of the Bradner group is to deliver novel therapeutics for human clinical investigation in hematologic diseases. Bradner's awards and honors include the Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Award, the Smith Family Award for Excellence in Biomedical Research, the Dunkin' Donuts Rising Star Award and the HMS Distinguished Excellence in Teaching Award. He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the American Society of Hematology, the American Chemical Society and the American Association of Cancer Research. His recent research has been published in Nature, Cell, Nature Chemical Biology and the Journal of the American Chemical Society. He has authored more than 20 US Patent applications, licensed to five pharmaceutical companies, and is a scientific founder of Acetylon Pharmaceuticals, SHAPE Pharmaceuticals, Tensha Therapeutics and Syros Pharmaceuticals. Bradner received his AB from Harvard University, his MD from the University of Chicago (IL, USA) and a MMS from Harvard Medical School. He completed his postgraduate training in Internal Medicine at Brigham & Women's Hospital (MA, USA), followed by a fellowship in Medical Oncology and Hematology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Following additional post-doctoral training in Chemistry at Harvard University and the Broad Institute (MA, USA) with Professor Stuart Schreiber, Bradner joined the research faculty of Dana-Farber in 2008. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

  15. Multiparametric profiling of non-small-cell lung cancers reveals distinct immunophenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Patrick H; Ivanova, Elena V; Awad, Mark M; Jones, Robert E; Keogh, Lauren; Liu, Hongye; Dries, Ruben; Almonte, Christina; Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Santos, Abigail; Feeney, Nora B; Paweletz, Cloud P; Kulkarni, Meghana M; Bass, Adam J; Rustgi, Anil K; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Kufe, Donald W; Jänne, Pasi A; Hammerman, Peter S; Sholl, Lynette M; Hodi, F Stephen; Richards, William G; Bueno, Raphael; English, Jessie M; Bittinger, Mark A; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2016-09-08

    BACKGROUND. Immune checkpoint blockade improves survival in a subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but robust biomarkers that predict response to PD-1 pathway inhibitors are lacking. Furthermore, our understanding of the diversity of the NSCLC tumor immune microenvironment remains limited. METHODS. We performed comprehensive flow cytometric immunoprofiling on both tumor and immune cells from 51 NSCLCs and integrated this analysis with clinical and histopathologic characteristics, next-generation sequencing, mRNA expression, and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS. Cytometric profiling identified an immunologically "hot" cluster with abundant CD8(+) T cells expressing high levels of PD-1 and TIM-3 and an immunologically "cold" cluster with lower relative abundance of CD8(+) T cells and expression of inhibitory markers. The "hot" cluster was highly enriched for expression of genes associated with T cell trafficking and cytotoxic function and high PD-L1 expression by IHC. There was no correlation between immunophenotype and KRAS or EGFR mutation, or patient smoking history, but we did observe an enrichment of squamous subtype and tumors with higher mutation burden in the "hot" cluster. Additionally, approximately 20% of cases had high B cell infiltrates with a subset producing IL-10. CONCLUSIONS. Our results support the use of immune-based metrics to study response and resistance to immunotherapy in lung cancer. FUNDING. The Robert A. and Renée E. Belfer Family Foundation, Expect Miracles Foundation, Starr Cancer Consortium, Stand Up to Cancer Foundation, Conquer Cancer Foundation, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, National Cancer Institute (R01 CA205150), and the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation.

  16. Radiochromic film dosimetry: considerations on precision and accuracy for EBT2 and EBT3 type films.

    PubMed

    Dreindl, Ralf; Georg, Dietmar; Stock, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Gafchromic® EBT2 film is a widely used dosimetric tool for quality assurance in radiation therapy. In 2012 EBT3 was presented as a replacement for EBT2 films. The symmetric structure of EBT3 films to reduce face-up/down dependency as well as the inclusion of a matte film surface to frustrate Newton Ring artifacts present the most prominent improvements of EBT3 films. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of EBT3 films, to benchmark the films against the known EBT2-features and to evaluate the dosimetric behavior over a time period greater than 6 months. All films were irradiated to clinical photon beams (6 MV, 10 MV and 18 MV) on an Elekta Synergy Linac equipped with a Beam Modulator MLC in solid water phantom slabs. Film digitalization was done with a flatbed transparency scanner (Type Epson Expression 1680 Pro). MATLAB® was used for further statistical calculations and image processing. The investigations on post-irradiation darkening, film orientation, film uniformity and energy dependency resulted in negligible differences between EBT2 and EBT3 film. A minimal improvement in face-up/down dependence was found for EBT3. The matte film surface of EBT3 films turned out to be a practical feature as Newton rings could be eliminated completely. Considering long-term behavior (> 6 months) a shift of the calibration curve for EBT2 and EBT3 films due to changes in the dynamic response of the active component was observed. In conclusion, the new EBT3 film yields comparable results to its predecessor EBT2. The general advantages of radiochromic film dosimeters are completed by high film homogeneity, low energy dependence for the observed energy range and a minimized face-up/down dependence. EBT2 dosimetry-protocols can also be used for EBT3 films, but the inclusion of periodical recalibration-interval (e.g. once a quarter) is recommended for protocols of both film generations.

  17. Illite crystallinity and conodont alteration index in a polymetamorphic nappe pile: the Montagne Noire (S-France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doublier, M. P.

    2003-04-01

    The Montagne Noire is situated on the southern flank of the Variscan Belt in South France (e.g. MATTE 1991). The S flank is composed of a tectonic pile of recumbent, grossly southward facing fold nappes (D1, ECHTLER 1990) involving Cambrian to Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. In a second step, HT/LP gneisses were exhumed in a central "Zone Axiale" (D2). Since a laterally consistent sequence of Palaeozoic sediments (quartzites, greywackes, pelites, radiolarian cherts and carbonates) may be traced across the metamorphic zonation, from diagenesis into amphibolite facies, the Montagne Noire offers ideal conditions for methodical metamorphic studies. Earlier petrological studies have revealed a concentric zonation of low pressure metamorphism centred around the gneissic core (DEMANGE 1985). A field study was carried out on the southern part, in order to compare the records of the conodont alteration indexes (CAI) and illite crystallinity (IC) methods, and to provide additional constraints on the tectono-metamorphic evolution. Illite crystallinity is defined as the "full width at half maximum" (FWHM given in *2 of the basal 10 A illite peak. The IC values were transformed into Kuebler index values (KI) using the "crystallinity index standard" (CIS). CAI was analyzed in a continuous belt of Devonian to Early Carboniferoushemipelagic limestones (WIEDERER et al., 2002). Both methods show similar metamorphic evolution: CAI is highest (5-7) in the neighbourhood of the Zone Axiale, and decreases down to diagenetic grade (CAI = 2) at the southern margin of the Montagne Noire. The KI values show also a decreasing metamorphism (epizone to diagenetic zone) away from the "Zone Axiale". Since CAI and IC zonations cut across the overturned limbs of large recumbent D1 folds, the origin of CAI and the IC must post-date D1. It appears that metamorphism of both the Zone Axiale and its lower grade cover were controlled by the exhumation of the hot gneissic core. The

  18. The effects of composition and temperature on chalcophile and lithophile element partitioning into magmatic sulphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseeva, Ekaterina S.; Wood, Bernard J.

    2015-08-01

    during fractional crystallisation of magmas generated by 10% melting of depleted mantle provided the latter contains >100 ppm S and about 650 ppm Ce, 550 ppm Nd and 27.5 ppb Pb. Finally, we investigated the hypothesis that the pattern of chalcophile element abundances in the mantle was established by segregation of a late sulphide matte. Taking the elements Cu, Ag, Pb and Zn as examples we find that the Pb/Zn and Cu/Ag ratios of the mantle can, in principle, be explained by segregation of ∼0.4% sulphide matte to the core.

  19. High-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on the pyrometallurgical processing of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Decterov, Sergei A.; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty in the metal price and competition between producers mean that the daily operation of a smelter needs to target high recovery of valuable elements at low operating cost. Options for the improvement of the plant operation can be examined and decision making can be informed based on accurate information from laboratory experimentation coupled with predictions using advanced thermodynamic models. Integrated high-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on phase equilibria and thermodynamics of copper-containing systems have been undertaken at the Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH). The experimental phase equilibria studies involve high-temperature equilibration, rapid quenching and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The thermodynamic modelling deals with the development of accurate thermodynamic database built through critical evaluation of experimental data, selection of solution models, and optimization of models parameters. The database covers the Al-Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-O-S-Si chemical system. The gas, slag, matte, liquid and solid metal phases, spinel solid solution as well as numerous solid oxide and sulphide phases are included. The database works within the FactSage software environment. Examples of phase equilibria data and thermodynamic models of selected systems, as well as possible implementation of the research outcomes to selected copper making processes are presented.

  20. Metamodeling and Optimization of a Blister Copper Two-Stage Production Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Kusiak, Jan; Małecki, Stanisław; Morkisz, Paweł; Oprocha, Piotr; Pietrucha, Wojciech; Sztangret, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    It is often difficult to estimate parameters for a two-stage production process of blister copper (containing 99.4 wt.% of Cu metal) as well as those for most industrial processes with high accuracy, which leads to problems related to process modeling and control. The first objective of this study was to model flash smelting and converting of Cu matte stages using three different techniques: artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, which utilized noisy technological data. Subsequently, more advanced models were applied to optimize the entire process (which was the second goal of this research). The obtained optimal solution was a Pareto-optimal one because the process consisted of two stages, making the optimization problem a multi-criteria one. A sequential optimization strategy was employed, which aimed for optimal control parameters consecutively for both stages. The obtained optimal output parameters for the first smelting stage were used as input parameters for the second converting stage. Finally, a search for another optimal set of control parameters for the second stage of a Kennecott-Outokumpu process was performed. The optimization process was modeled using a Monte-Carlo method, and both modeling parameters and computed optimal solutions are discussed.

  1. Slope Stability Estimation of the Kościuszko Mound in Cracow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrana, Bogumił; Pietrzak, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    In the paper, the slope stability problem of the Kościuszko Mound in Cracow, Poland is considered. The slope stability analysis was performed using Plaxis FEM program. The outer surface of the mound has complex geometry. The slope of the cone is not uniform in all directions, on the surface of the cone are pedestrian paths. Due to its complicated geometry it was impossible to do computing by Plaxis input pre-procesor. The initial element mesh was generated using Autodesk Autocad 3D and next it was updated by Plaxis program. The soil parameters were adopted in accordance with the detailed geological soil testing performed in 2012. Calculating model includes geogrids. The upper part was covered by MacMat geogrid, while the lower part of the Mound was reinforced using Terramesh Matt geogrid. The slope analysis was performed by successives reduction of φ /c parameters. The total multiplayer ΣMsf is used to define the value of the soil strength parameters. The article presents the results of slope stability before and after the rainfall during 33 days of precipitation in flood of 2010.

  2. Laser Based Color Film Recorder System With GaAs Microlaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difrancesco, David J.

    1989-07-01

    In 1984 Pixar's research and development group built and applied to the motion-picture arts at Lucasfilm's ILM facility a three color laser based film scanner/recorder system. The digital film printer is capable of reading and writing 35mm film formats on a variety of film stocks. The system has been used in award-winning special-effects work, and has been operated in a normal production environment since that time. The primary objective was to develop a full color high resolution system, free from scan artifacts, enabling traditionally photographed motion-picture film to be inter-cut with digital raster image photography. Its use is applied to the art of blue-screen traveling-matte cinematography for motion pic-ture special effects. The system was designed using the Pixar Image Computer and conventional gas laser technology as the illumination source. This paper will discuss recent experimental work in the application of GaAs microlaser technology to a digital film printing system of the future.

  3. A model for the simultaneous analysis of reflectance spectra and basis factors of Munsell color samples under D65 illumination in three-dimensional Euclidean space

    PubMed Central

    Romney, A. Kimball; Indow, Tarow

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an analysis of the physically measured surface reflectance spectra of 360 matte Munsell chromatic color chips plus 10 flat achromatic vectors corresponding to Munsell value levels 10 (white) to 1 (near black) for a total sample size of 370. Each of the 370 spectra was multiplied by the spectral radiant power distribution of D65 light so that the final results represent the spectra of reflected light from Munsell color chips under D65 illumination. We simultaneously model the structure of the color chips and the spectra in a common three-dimensional Euclidean space, oriented to yield the most interpretable structure with respect of the Munsell color structure. In this orientation, axis 1 roughly corresponds to the mean power of the spectral reflectance (approximate Munsell value), axis 2 goes from Munsell red to blue-green, and axis 3 goes from Munsell green-yellow to purple. Basis factors for the spectra are also plotted against wavelength and Munsell hue. These plots have implications for theories of opponent processes. By plotting the chips and spectra in the same space we obtain virtually exact correspondences between the various Munsell hues and spectral values in nanometers for comparison to those obtained by previous researchers. Mathematical derivations are provided to validate the common Euclidean model. PMID:12161561

  4. Memories of John N. Brady: scientist, mentor and friend

    PubMed Central

    Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Marriott, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Friends and colleagues remember John N. Brady, Ph.D., Chief of the Virus Tumor Biology Section of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, who died much too young at the age of 57 on April 27, 2009 of colon cancer. John grew up in Illinois and received his Ph.D. with Dr. Richard Consigli at Kansas State University studying the molecular structure of polyomavirus. In 1984 John came to the National Institutes of Health as a Staff Fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Norman Salzman, Laboratory of Biology of Viruses NIAID, where he was among the first to analyze SV40 transcription using in vitro transcription systems and to analyze regulatory sequences for SV40 late transcription. He then trained with Dr. George Khoury in the Laboratory of Molecular Virology NCI, where he identified SV40 T-antigen as a transcriptional activator protein. His research interests grew to focus on the human retroviruses: human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), analyzing how interactions between these viruses and the host cell influence viral gene regulation, viral pathogenesis and viral transformation. His research also impacted the fields of eukaryotic gene regulation and tumor suppressor proteins. John is survived by his wife, Laraine, and two sons, Matt and Kevin. PMID:19454030

  5. Critical Dynamics of The Classical 3-D Heisenberg Antiferromagnet with Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Alex; Chen, Kun; Landau, D. P.

    1997-03-01

    Using large scale Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics techniques^1 we studied the dynamic behavior of the body-centered cubic classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single site anisotropy. In order to directly compare our results to experiment, we set the anisotropy to match that found^2 in FeF2 (strong anisotropy) and MnF2 (weak anisotropy). We determined the form of the dynamic structure factor, S(q,ω), at Tc and found agreement with experiment^3 and theory^4 which indicate a strong diffusive longitudinal component that is critical and a weak, non-critical propagative transverse component. Supported in part by the NSF ^**current address: Solid State Division, ORNL ^1 K. Chen, D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. B \\underline49, 3266, (1994) ^2 J. Als-Nielsen in Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena, \\underline5A, C. Domb, M. S. Green, (Academic Press, 1976) ^3 M. P. Schulhof et. al., Phys. Rev. B \\underline1, 2304, (1970) ^4 S. W. Lovesey, E. Balcar, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. \\underline7, 2147, (1995)

  6. In Brief: Water quality in U.S. wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-04-01

    More than 20% of private domestic wells sampled nationwide contain at least one contaminant at levels of potential health concern, according to a study released on 27 March by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). About 43 million people—or 15% of the U.S. population—use drinking water from private wells, which are not regulated by the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. In sampling about 2100 private wells in 48 states, USGS scientists found that the contaminants most frequently measured at concentrations of potential health concern were inorganic contaminants, including radon and arsenic, which are mostly derived from the natural geologic materials that make up the aquifers from which well water is drawn. Nitrate was the most common inorganic contaminant derived from anthropogenic sources that was found at concentrations greater than the federal drinking water standard for public water supplies (10 parts per million). Nitrate was greater than the standard in about 4% of sampled wells. “The results of this study are important because they show that a large number of people may be unknowingly affected,” said Matt Larsen, USGS associate director for water. For more information, visit http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/studies/domestic_wells/.

  7. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research.

    PubMed

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation.

  8. Gleaming and dull surface textures from photonic-crystal-type nanostructures in the butterfly Cyanophrys remus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Vértesy, Zofia; Márk, Géza I.; Lousse, Virginie; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Rassart, Marie; Biró, László P.

    2006-08-01

    Photonic-crystal-type nanostructures occurring in the scales of the butterfly Cyanophrys remus were investigated by optical and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), reflectance measurements (specular, integrated, and goniometric), by fast Fourier transform analysis of micrographs, by modeling, and by numerical simulation of the measured reflectance data. By evaluating the collected data in a cross-correlated way, we show that the metallic blue dorsal coloration originates from scales which individually are photonic single crystals of 50×120μm2 , while the matt pea-green coloration of the ventral side arises from the cumulative effect of randomly arranged, bright photonic crystallites (blue, green, and yellow) with typical diameters in the 3-10-μm range. Both structures are based on a very moderate refractive index contrast between air and chitin. Using a bleached specimen in which the pigment has decayed with time, we investigated the role of pigment in photonic-crystal material in the process of color generation. The possible biologic utility of the metallic blue (single-crystal) and dull green (polycrystal) textures both achieved with photonic crystals are briefly discussed. Potential applications in the field of colorants, flat panel displays, smart textiles, and smart papers are surveyed.

  9. Growth cessation uncouples isotopic signals in leaves and tree rings of drought-exposed oak trees.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Ellen E; Siegwolf, R; Buchmann, N; Dobbertin, M; Kuster, T M; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Arend, M

    2015-10-01

    An increase in temperature along with a decrease in summer precipitation in Central Europe will result in an increased frequency of drought events and gradually lead to a change in species composition in forest ecosystems. In the present study, young oaks (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) were transplanted into large mesocosms and exposed for 3 years to experimental warming and a drought treatment with yearly increasing intensities. Carbon and oxygen isotopic (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) patterns were analysed in leaf tissue and tree-ring cellulose and linked to leaf physiological measures and tree-ring growth. Warming had no effect on the isotopic patterns in leaves and tree rings, while drought increased δ(18)O and δ(13)C. Under severe drought, an unexpected isotopic pattern, with a decrease in δ(18)O, was observed in tree rings but not in leaves. This decrease in δ(18)O could not be explained by concurrent physiological analyses and is not supported by current physiological knowledge. Analysis of intra-annual tree-ring growth revealed a drought-induced growth cessation that interfered with the record of isotopic signals imprinted on recently formed leaf carbohydrates. This missing record indicates isotopic uncoupling of leaves and tree rings, which may have serious implications for the interpretation of tree-ring isotopes, particularly from trees that experienced growth-limiting stresses.

  10. HUBBLE CAPTURES UNVEILING OF PLANETARY NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image captures the infancy of the Stingray nebula (Hen-1357), the youngest known planetary nebula. In this image, the bright central star is in the middle of the green ring of gas. Its companion star is diagonally above it at 10 o'clock. A spur of gas (green) is forming a faint bridge to the companion star due to gravitational attraction. The image also shows a ring of gas (green) surrounding the central star, with bubbles of gas to the lower left and upper right of the ring. The wind of material propelled by radiation from the hot central star has created enough pressure to blow open holes in the ends of the bubbles, allowing gas to escape. The red curved lines represent bright gas that is heated by a 'shock' caused when the central star's wind hits the walls of the bubbles. The nebula is as large as 130 solar systems, but, at its distance of 18,000 light-years, it appears only as big as a dime viewed a mile away. The Stingray is located in the direction of the southern constellation Ara (the Altar). The colors shown are actual colors emitted by nitrogen (red), oxygen (green), and hydrogen (blue). The filters used were F658N ([N II]), F502N ([O III]), and F487N (H-beta). The observations were made in March 1996. Credit: Matt Bobrowsky, Orbital Sciences Corporation and NASA

  11. Wet ashing in biological samples in a microwave oven under pressure using poly(tetrafluoroethylene) vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Aysola, P.; Anderson, P.; Langford, C.H.

    1987-06-01

    Gorsuch has described the problems associated with the oxidation of organic matter in biological samples. This is a step that must precede trace metal determination by atomic spectroscopy. Treatment with acid on a hot plate typically requires 1-2 h. The use of a microwave oven is an attractive possibility for acceleration of the process. Koirtyohann et al. and Barrett et al. modified microwave ovens by adding an exhaust port. Nadkarni exploited an unmodified oven by using a Pyrex vacuum desiccator as a pressurizable vessel. They report significant losses of Cu (26%) and Pb (20%). Matts et al. tried polycarbonate pressurizable vessels, but the plastic quickly became opaque and brittle. The authors have reevaluated the prospects for use of an unmodified microwave oven with pressurized vessels. They found that Pyrex vessels gain heat in the glass quickly. The authors substituted Teflon TFA brand fluorocarbon resin for polycarbonate and find it has superior chemical and mechanical properties. They now report a 60-s pressure vessel procedure using an unmodified commercial oven.

  12. Learning the Lane Change Task: comparing different training regimes in semi-paced and continuous secondary tasks.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Anja Katharina; Vollrath, Mark

    2012-09-01

    For road safety it is paramount that distraction by in-vehicle systems is limited. To reach this aim the Lane Change Task (LCT; Mattes, 2003) was developed. It is used as a test procedure to measure distraction due to secondary tasks in driving. The LCT is implemented as an ISO standard (ISO 26022: 2010) with the aim to provide an objective criterion for designing human-machine interactions (HMI) in a way which is not detrimental to driving. As different baseline performance in the LCT could not be sufficiently explained in recent studies, comparisons of different training regimes were conducted in order to examine training influences on LCT performance. Discriminable performance improvements in LCT were found depending on the secondary task used. A training regime of at least ten runs of LCT in single-task mode is recommended for effective training. This training should be supplemented by a training of the secondary tasks examined. An additional exploration of a dual-task situation is recommended.

  13. Ab initio Study of Transition metal binding to the Prion Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Pan, Jianping

    2004-03-01

    Fundamental understanding of the prion protein (PrP) is of critical public health importance in view of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. In recent years, it has been shown that the normal form (PrP^c) binds copper^1), and the structure of the copper binding domain has been elaborated. Hypotheses about toxicity associated with binding of other metals (notably manganese) have been put forward, Accordingly, using the ab initio SIESTA density functional theory code^2), we calculated the binding energy E_B(M) of M-(PrP) complexes relative to initially uncomplexed M ions, with M=Cu,Ni,Zn,Mn and (PrP)^* the minimal binding domain. The binding energy trend is E_B(Ni)>E_B(Cu)>E_B(Zn)>E_B(Mn), consistent with recent experiments apart from the surprising stability of Ni. We will also present preliminary results for binding of initially complexed M ions. *-Supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Research 1) G.S. Jackson et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 98, 8531 (2001). 2) P. Ordejón, et al., Phys. Rev. B53, R10441 (1996); J.M. Soler et al., J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 14, 2745 (2002).

  14. An Improved Process for Precipitating Cyanide Ions from the Barren Solution at Different pHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Gabriela V.; Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesus L.; Vázquez, Victor; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, the use of metal sulfides instead of hydroxide precipitation in hydrometallurgical processes has gained prominence. Some arguments for its preferential use are as follows: a high degree of metal removal at relatively low pH values, the sparingly soluble nature of sulfide precipitates, favorable dewatering characteristics, and the stability of the formed metal sulfides. The Merrill-Crowe zinc-precipitation process has been applied worldwide in a large number of operations for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. However, in some larger plants, the quality of this precious precipitate is low because copper, zinc and especially lead are precipitated along with gold and silver. This results in higher consumption of zinc dust and flux during the smelting of the precipitate, the formation of the matte, and a shorter crucible life. The results show that pH has a significant effect on the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions. The optimal pH range was determined to be 3-4, and the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions was up to 99%.

  15. The gap between: being and knowing in Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P C

    2001-12-01

    The author discusses various relationships derived from the image of gap, precipice, and abyss with specific emphasis on interacting dynamics between being and knowing as explicated in the Zen Buddhist teachings of Hui-neng and in the psychoanalytic writings of Wilfred Bion. While of significant value to psychoanalysis, it is argued that symbolic meanings can occlude the actuality of the analysand's or of the spiritual seeker's affective experiencing, particularly concerning the human tendency to concretize experiential states engendered through meditation and/or the psychoanalytic encounter. The author draws from Matte-Blanco's explication of symmetrical and asymmetrical perceptual modalities to discuss the fluid nature of spiritual experiencing, paradoxical coexistence of ultimate and relative realities and reciprocal dynamics and identities between states of experiencing that might otherwise appear opposed. The primacy of experiencing for both disciplines, particularly concerning the experiencing subject's momentary state of consciousness, forms a central theme for both Zen and psychoanalysis. Brief clinical vignettes support and illuminate the author's points.

  16. Modelling and simulation of effect of ultrasonic vibrations on machining of Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandip; Joshi, Shashikant; Tewari, Asim; Joshi, Suhas S

    2014-02-01

    The titanium alloys cause high machining heat generation and consequent rapid wear of cutting tool edges during machining. The ultrasonic assisted turning (UAT) has been found to be very effective in machining of various materials; especially in the machining of "difficult-to-cut" material like Ti6Al4V. The present work is a comprehensive study involving 2D FE transient simulation of UAT in DEFORM framework and their experimental characterization. The simulation shows that UAT reduces the stress level on cutting tool during machining as compared to that of in continuous turning (CT) barring the penetration stage, wherein both tools are subjected to identical stress levels. There is a 40-45% reduction in cutting forces and about 48% reduction in cutting temperature in UAT over that of in CT. However, the reduction magnitude reduces with an increase in the cutting speed. The experimental analysis of UAT process shows that the surface roughness in UAT is lower than in CT, and the UATed surfaces have matte finish as against the glossy finish on the CTed surfaces. Microstructural observations of the chips and machined surfaces in both processes reveal that the intensity of thermal softening and shear band formation is reduced in UAT over that of in CT.

  17. A Registration Method Based on Contour Point Cloud for 3D Whole-Body PET and CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiyao; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoxu

    2017-01-01

    The PET and CT fusion image, combining the anatomical and functional information, has important clinical meaning. An effective registration of PET and CT images is the basis of image fusion. This paper presents a multithread registration method based on contour point cloud for 3D whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, a geometric feature-based segmentation (GFS) method and a dynamic threshold denoising (DTD) method are creatively proposed to preprocess CT and PET images, respectively. Next, a new automated trunk slices extraction method is presented for extracting feature point clouds. Finally, the multithread Iterative Closet Point is adopted to drive an affine transform. We compare our method with a multiresolution registration method based on Mattes Mutual Information on 13 pairs (246~286 slices per pair) of 3D whole-body PET and CT data. Experimental results demonstrate the registration effectiveness of our method with lower negative normalization correlation (NC = −0.933) on feature images and less Euclidean distance error (ED = 2.826) on landmark points, outperforming the source data (NC = −0.496, ED = 25.847) and the compared method (NC = −0.614, ED = 16.085). Moreover, our method is about ten times faster than the compared one. PMID:28316979

  18. Material properties derived from three-dimensional shape representations.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Phillip J; Anderson, Barton L

    2015-10-01

    Retinal image structure is due to a complex mixture of physical sources that includes the surface's 3D shape, light-reflectance and transmittance properties, and the light field. The visual system can somehow discriminate between these different sources of image structure and recover information about the objects and surfaces in the scene. There has been significant debate about the nature of the representations that are used to derive surface reflectance properties such as specularity (gloss). Specularity could be derived either directly from 2D image properties or by exploiting information that can only be derived from representations in which 3D shape has been made explicit. We recently provided evidence that 3D shape information can play a critical role in the perception of material specularity, but the shape manipulation in our prior study also significantly changed 2D image properties (Marlow, Todorović, & Anderson, 2015). Here, we held fixed all monocularly visible 2D image properties and manipulated 3D shape stereoscopically. When binocularly fused, the depicted 3D shapes induced striking transformations in the surfaces' apparent material properties, which vary from matte to 'metallic'. Our psychophysical measurements of perceived specularity reveal that 3D shape information can play a critical role in material perception for both singly-curved surfaces and more complex geometries that curve in two directions. These results provide strong evidence that the perception of material specularity can depend on physical constraints derived from representations in which three-dimensional shape has been made explicit.

  19. Superconductivity from two dimensional interfaces: CuCl/Si, GaP/Si, ZnS/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, S. H.; Saniz, R.; Freeman, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) interfaces of hetero-bonded semiconductor superlattices are studied using the highly precise FLAPW ootnotetextWimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, and Freeman, Phys.Rev.B, 24, 864 (1981) method. The 2D system, of metal-insulator-metal, is one of the candidate geometries to realize the excitonic mechanism of superconductvity, ootnotetextV.L. Ginzburg, Sov. Phys. JETP 20,1549 (1965) where TC can be greatly enhanced over phonon mediation. Epitaxially grown CuCl on Si (111) was reported to exhibit an anomalous diamagnetic susceptibility at 60˜150 K. ootnotetextMattes and Foiles,Physica 135B, 139 (1985) For all superlattices, 2D metallicity was found at the interfaces due to charge transfer from the polarity mismatch, ootnotetextRhim, Saniz, Yu, Ye, and Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 76, 184505 (2007) as evidenced by their bands, Fermi surfaces, and charge densities. The TC, calculated within the crude RMTA and the McMillan-Hopfield formula, is 0.04˜4.4K for the CuCl/Si case, but vanishes for the other cases. To pursue the excitonic mechanism, we are determining the Kernel function K(φ), i.e. the average of the effective Coulomb interfaction, with q dependent dynamic screening. First results for CuCl/Si show K(φ) to be attractive for a certain energy range

  20. Possible superconductivity in hetero-polar interfaces of CuCl/Si superlattices: (001) and (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, S. H.; Saniz, R.; Freeman, A. J.; Yu, J. J.

    2006-03-01

    To investigate possible interfacial superconductivity in CuCl/Si superlattices, we carried out first-principles calculations using the highly precise FLAPW method. Two possible growth directions, (001) and (111), are compared through their band structures, density of states (DOS), charge densities and Fermi surfaces. While the (111) superlattice is always metallic, the (001) superlattice is metallic or insulating depending on the number of Si and CuCl layers. Both directions exhibit two dimensional (2D) character at the interfaces which is a result of charge transfer between CuCl and Si layers. For metallic superlattices, the 2D conduction bands at the interfaces, resemble the 2D Cu-O dpσ bands of cuprate superconductors. To obtain TC based on conventional electron-phonon (e-p) interactions, we calculated the e-p coupling constant, λ, within the rigid muffin-tin approximation. The results indicate that while e-p coupling is present in both directions, it gives TC=0.41˜1.69 K, i.e. one order of magnitude lower than the previously reported high transition temperature^2- which, if confirmed, would indicate a possible role for excitonic effects. Mattes and Foiles, Physica 135B, 139 (1985) Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, and Freeman, Phys.Rev.B, 24, 864 (1981) Gaspari and Gyoffry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 801, (1972)

  1. A high absorbance material for solar collectors' applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, A. I.; Maldonado, R. D.; Díaz, E. A.; Montalvo, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we proposed a low cost material to be used as an excellent absorber for solar collectors, to increase its thermal efficiency by the high capacity to absorb solar radiation. The material, known as "smoke black" (soot) can be obtained by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, such as the oxygen-acetylene, paraffin, or candles. A comparative analysis between the optical properties (reflectance, absorbance, and emissivity) measured on three covered copper surfaces (without paint, with a commercial matte black paint, and with smoke black) shows amazing optical results for the smoke black. Reflectance values of the smoke black applied over copper surfaces improves 56 times the values obtained from commercial black paints. High values of emissivity (E=0.9988) were measured on the surface covered with smoke black by spectrophotometry in the UV-VIS range, which represents about 7% of increment as compared with the value obtained for commercial black paints (E=0.938). The proposed high absorbance material can be easily applied on any kind of surfaces at low cost.

  2. SuperGaussian distribution functions in inhomogenous plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, Jean-Pierre

    2008-11-01

    In plasmas heated by a narrow laser beam, the shape of the distribution function is influenced by both the absorption, which tends to give a superGaussian (DLM) distribution function [1], and the effects of heat flow, which tends to make the distribution more Maxwellian, when the hot region is considerably wider than the laser beam [2]. Thus, it is only at early times that the deformation is as strong as predicted by our uniform intensity formula [1]. A large number of electron kinetic simulations of a finite width laser beam heating a uniform density plasma were performed with the electron kinetic code FPI [1] to study the competition between these two mechanisms. In some cases, the deformation is approximately given by this formula if we average the laser intensity over the entire plasma. This may explain why distributions were more Maxwellian than expected in some experiments [3]. [0pt] [1] J.-P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 30, 1665 (1988) [2] S. Brunner and E. Valeo, Phys. Plasmas 9, 923 (2002) [3] S.H. Glenzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 97 (1999).

  3. Non-local Lateral electron heat transport from one or more hot spots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, Jean-Pierre; Alouani-Bibi, Fathallah

    2000-10-01

    Fokker-Planck simulations of collisional absorption and transport in long scale length, preformed, underdense plasmas heated by intense and narrow laser hot spots, as in certain recent LANL experiments [1], are presented. The temperature profiles compared with those obtained from flux limited or delocalized heat flow models. For the former, the temperature peaks can be matched only if a very low flux limiter is used, and even then, the scale length of the temperature profile is always overestimated. The electron distribution function will be characterized, and compared to the "DLM" shape, exp(-(v/u)^m), [2] and the best fit for m will be compared to older formulas for uniform plasmas [2]. Hydrodynamic effects are also addressed with simulations which include ion motion; both with and without the ponderomotive force. The enhancement of sound velocity due to the "DLM" shape [3] inside the hot spot will be quantified. [1] J.A. Cobble et al., Phys. Plasmas, 7, 323 (2000) [2] J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. and Contr. Fusion, 30, 1665, (1988) [3] B. B. Afeyan et al., PRL 81, 2322 (1998).

  4. Desolvation effects and topology-dependent protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Allison; Liu, Zhirong; Chan, Hue Sun

    2007-03-01

    As a protein folds, water molecules must be excluded from the hydrophobic core, and thus desolvation barriers between the protein's constituents must be crossed in order to reach the final folded state. Previous research on continuum Go-like protein models has demonstrated that pairwise-additive desolvation potentials lead to more thermodynamically and kinetically cooperative folding/unfolding transitions (Z. Liu and H. S. Chan, Phys. Biol. 2, S75-S85, 2005). The present work focuses on the role of this elementary desolvation potential in improving predictions of the well-known topology-folding rate relationship (K. W. Plaxco et al, J. Mol. Biol. 277, 985-994, 1998) of small single-domain proteins. Recent computational studies without desolvation barriers have shown (S. Wallin and H. S. Chan, J. Phys.: Condens. Matt. 18, S307-S328, 2006) that the observed correlation between topological parameters and folding rates is because these parameters may be proxies for rate-determining properties of the transition state, such as the activation free energy δG^ and activation conformational entropy δS^. Including the desolvation barrier in the model results in stronger correlations between measures of topology and simulated folding rates / transition state properties, reinforcing the theory that even simple representations of the desolvation effect are important for understanding crucial features of protein folding.

  5. Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

    PubMed Central

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed. PMID:20419093

  6. The STS-93 crew look over orbiter Columbia's main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the STS-93 crew look over the Space Shuttle Columbia's main engine in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Facility as they listen to Al Strainer, with United Space Alliance. From left, the crew members are Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley, and Commander Eileen Collins. At the far right is Matt Gaetjens, with the Vehicle Integration Test Team. The fifth crew member (not shown) is Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman. STS-93, scheduled to launch July 9, has the primary mission of the deployment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  7. Glandular epithelium as a possible source of a fertility signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    PubMed

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-04-19

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

  8. Coordination between growth, phenology and carbon storage in three coexisting deciduous tree species in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Vitasse, Yann; Hoch, Günter

    2016-07-01

    In deciduous trees growing in temperate forests, bud break and growth in spring must rely on intrinsic carbon (C) reserves. Yet it is unclear whether growth and C storage occur simultaneously, and whether starch C in branches is sufficient for refoliation. To test in situ the relationships between growth, phenology and C utilization, we monitored stem growth, leaf phenology and stem and branch nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics in three deciduous species: Carpinus betulus L., Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. To quantify the role of NSC in C investment into growth, a C balance approach was applied. Across the three species, >95% of branchlet starch was consumed during bud break, confirming the importance of C reserves for refoliation in spring. The C balance calculation showed that 90% of the C investment in foliage (7.0-10.5 kg tree(-1) and 5-17 times the C needed for annual stem growth) was explained by simultaneous branchlet starch degradation. Carbon reserves were recovered sooner than expected, after leaf expansion, in parallel with stem growth. Carpinus had earlier leaf phenology (by ∼25 days) but delayed cambial growth (by ∼15 days) than Fagus and Quercus, the result of a competitive strategy to flush early, while having lower NSC levels.

  9. PASS2 database for the structure-based sequence alignment of distantly related SCOP domain superfamilies: update to version 5 and added features

    PubMed Central

    Gandhimathi, Arumugam; Ghosh, Pritha; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Mathew, Oommen K.; Sowdhamini, R.

    2016-01-01

    Structure-based sequence alignment is an essential step in assessing and analysing the relationship of distantly related proteins. PASS2 is a database that records such alignments for protein domain superfamilies and has been constantly updated periodically. This update of the PASS2 version, named as PASS2.5, directly corresponds to the SCOPe 2.04 release. All SCOPe structural domains that share less than 40% sequence identity, as defined by the ASTRAL compendium of protein structures, are included. The current version includes 1977 superfamilies and has been assembled utilizing the structure-based sequence alignment protocol. Such an alignment is obtained initially through MATT, followed by a refinement through the COMPARER program. The JOY program has been used for structural annotations of such alignments. In this update, we have automated the protocol and focused on inclusion of new features such as mapping of GO terms, absolutely conserved residues among the domains in a superfamily and inclusion of PDBs, that are absent in SCOPe 2.04, using the HMM profiles from the alignments of the superfamily members and are provided as a separate list. We have also implemented a more user-friendly manner of data presentation and options for downloading more features. PASS2.5 version is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pass2/. PMID:26553811

  10. Use of copper slag in glass-epoxy composites for improved wear resistance.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sandhyarani; Satapathy, Alok

    2010-07-01

    Copper slag is a by-product obtained during matte smelting and refining of copper. The common management options for copper slag are recycling, recovery of metal and production of value-added products. In the present study using copper slag as a filler in glass-epoxy composites, the tensile modulus increased from 8.77 GPa to 9.64 GPa when using up to 10 wt% of copper slag but on further addition of copper slag (up to 20 wt%), the tensile modulus started to decrease down to 7.11 GPa. Similar trends were observed in the case of flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength. With the incorporation of copper slag particles, the impact strength increased about 10-15%. This work includes the processing, characterization and study of the erosion behaviour of a class of such copper slag filled glass-epoxy composites based on Taguchi's experimental approach to characterise erosion behaviour. The results show that peak erosion takes place at an impingement angle of 60 degrees for the unfilled composites whereas for the copper slag filled glass-epoxy composites it occurs at a 45 degrees impingement angle. This paper considers the possible utilisation of copper slag as filler material for the preparation of composite materials and preparation of added-value products such as abrasive tools, cutting tools and railroad ballast.

  11. The search for minimum-energy atomic configurations on a lattice: Lamarckian twist on Darwinian Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avezac, Mayeul; Zunger, Alex

    2008-03-01

    We examine how two different mechanisms proposed historically for biological evolution compare for the determination of crystal structures from random initial lattice-configurations. The Darwinian theory of evolution contends that the genetic makeup inherited at birth is the one passed on to offsprings. Lamarck surmised additionally that offspring can inherit acquired traits. In the case of lattice-configurations, such improvements consist in A<->B transmutations of atomic sites as guided by ``Virtual Atom'' energy-gradients(M. d'Avezac and Alex Zunger, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt. 19, 402201 (2007)). This hybrid evolution is shown to provide an efficient solution to a generalized Ising Hamiltonian, illustrated by finding the ground-states of face-centered cubic Au1-xPdx using a cluster-expansion functional fitted to first-principles total-energies. For example, finding all minimum-energy structures of a 32-atom supercell with 95,% confidence requires evaluating 750, 000 configurations using local improvements only, 150, 000 using a reciprocal-space genetic algorithm only, and 14,000 using the hybrid approach. We consider applying the lamarckian search to further functionals.

  12. The Kerr Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.; Visser, Matt; Scott, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    List of illustrations; Contributors; Foreword; Part I. General Relativity: Classical Studies of the Kerr Geometry: 1. The Kerr spacetime: a brief introduction Matt Visser; 2. The Kerr and Kerr-Schild metrics Roy P. Kerr; 3. Roy Kerr and twistor theory Roger Penrose; 4. Global and local problems solved by the Kerr metric Brandon Carter; 5. Four decades of black hole uniqueness theorems David C. Robinson; 6. Ray-traced visualisations Benjamin R. Lewis, Susan M. Scott; Part II. Astrophysics: The Ongoing Observational Revolution: 7. The ergosphere and dyadosphere of the Kerr black hole Remo Ruffini; 8. Supermassive Black Holes Fulvio Melia; 9. The X-ray spectra of accreting Kerr black holes Andrew C. Fabian, Giovanni Miniutti; 10. Cosmological flashes from rotating black holes Maurice H.P.M. van Putten; Part III. Quantum Gravity: Rotating Black Holes at the Theoretical Frontiers: 11. Horizon constraints and black hole entropy Steve Carlip; 12. Higher dimensional generalizations of the Kerr black hole Gary T. Horowitz; Part IV. Appendices: 13. Gravitational field of a spinning mass … Roy P. Kerr; 14. Gravitational collapse and rotation Roy P. Kerr; Index.

  13. Discontinuity-preserving decoding of one-shot shape acquisition using regularized color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Youfu; Zhu, Limin

    2012-10-01

    The 3D scene acquisition is becoming increasingly crucial in practical application. In this paper, a new method is proposed to measure the surface of objects, which just require one color pattern image. In our decoding method, advancements are made at two steps. First, color identification is modeled as an unsupervised classification problem and K-means are adopted on a new color feature, called regularized color. It is insensitive to surface orientation, illumination direction and illumination intensity for matte, dull surfaces. Second, a discontinuity-preserving method is proposed in the sequence matching, which is based on the window voting to judge correct correspondences and potential borders. In the experiments, this new color feature is compared with RGB, normalized color, HSI. Their class separability measurements are evaluated by scattering criteria and Bhattacharyya distance. The results show that regularized color has much higher discriminating power than RGB and equivalent performance with HSI. Our matching method is also compared with the traditional local matching methods. The results affirm that ours has higher accuracies on six different objects.

  14. Key characteristics of specular stereo.

    PubMed

    Muryy, Alexander A; Fleming, Roland W; Welchman, Andrew E

    2014-12-24

    Because specular reflection is view-dependent, shiny surfaces behave radically differently from matte, textured surfaces when viewed with two eyes. As a result, specular reflections pose substantial problems for binocular stereopsis. Here we use a combination of computer graphics and geometrical analysis to characterize the key respects in which specular stereo differs from standard stereo, to identify how and why the human visual system fails to reconstruct depths correctly from specular reflections. We describe rendering of stereoscopic images of specular surfaces in which the disparity information can be varied parametrically and independently of monocular appearance. Using the generated surfaces and images, we explain how stereo correspondence can be established with known and unknown surface geometry. We show that even with known geometry, stereo matching for specular surfaces is nontrivial because points in one eye may have zero, one, or multiple matches in the other eye. Matching features typically yield skew (nonintersecting) rays, leading to substantial ortho-epipolar components to the disparities, which makes deriving depth values from matches nontrivial. We suggest that the human visual system may base its depth estimates solely on the epipolar components of disparities while treating the ortho-epipolar components as a measure of the underlying reliability of the disparity signals. Reconstructing virtual surfaces according to these principles reveals that they are piece-wise smooth with very large discontinuities close to inflection points on the physical surface. Together, these distinctive characteristics lead to cues that the visual system could use to diagnose specular reflections from binocular information.

  15. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy. PMID:27564015

  16. Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rao, P U

    1996-01-01

    Two varieties of mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds were analysed for their proximal composition. Their protein (18.8-22.3%), fat (19.1-22.8%) and dietary fiber (39.5-42.6%) content were found to be high. The seeds were found to be a good source of minerals like phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. Their lysine and tryptophan contents were also high. Sulphur containing amino acids were limiting in this seed protein and the chemical score of mesta seed protein was 40 and 57 for AMV-2 and Bhimili-1 varieties respectively. Mesta seed oil is rich in unsaturate fatty acids (70%), of which linoleic acid constituted 44%. Weanling rats were fed with 10% mesta seed protein before and after cooking for 4 weeks. Food intake of animals receiving raw mesta seed diets was significantly lower than those receiving cooked mesta seed diets as well as the casein control diet. Protein and dry matter digestibilities of raw and cooked mesta seed diets were lower than that of casein control diet. Cooking improved the food intake, gain in body weight, dry matte and protein digestibility of mesta seed diets. PER and NPU of cooked mesta seed diets were significantly higher than the corresponding raw diets. These results indicate that cooked mesta seed protein is of relatively good quality.

  17. User's guide for mapIMG 3--Map image re-projection software package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Mattli, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Version 0.0 (1995), Dan Steinwand, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)/Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC)--Version 0.0 was a command line version for UNIX that required four arguments: the input metadata, the output metadata, the input data file, and the output destination path. Version 1.0 (2003), Stephen Posch and Michael P. Finn, USGS/Mid-Continent Mapping Center (MCMC--Version 1.0 added a GUI interface that was built using the Qt library for cross platform development. Version 1.01 (2004), Jason Trent and Michael P. Finn, USGS/MCMC--Version 1.01 suggested bounds for the parameters of each projection. Support was added for larger input files, storage of the last used input and output folders, and for TIFF/ GeoTIFF input images. Version 2.0 (2005), Robert Buehler, Jason Trent, and Michael P. Finn, USGS/National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC)--Version 2.0 added Resampling Methods (Mean, Mode, Min, Max, and Sum), updated the GUI design, and added the viewer/pre-viewer. The metadata style was changed to XML and was switched to a new naming convention. Version 3.0 (2009), David Mattli and Michael P. Finn, USGS/Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS)--Version 3.0 brings optimized resampling methods, an updated GUI, support for less than global datasets, UTM support and the whole codebase was ported to Qt4.

  18. In-Situ, Model and Satellite-Derived Snow Water Equivalent Comparisons in Alaskan Permafrost Biosequestration Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, R. R.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost stability and biosequestration are affected by changes of snow cover and changes of land-surface temperature. Satellite retrieval algorithms for estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) have been performed since the NOAA NIMBUS-7 Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer beginning in October 1978. A key parameter of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) retrieval algorithm is snow density from surveys in Canada during 1946-1995 and Eurasia during 1966-1996. We compare in-situ measures of SWE model-derived and satellite-derived SWE in Alaska. On-average, AMSR-E underperforms (is less than) in-situ measured SWE. Snow density measurement along the Alaska permafrost transect in April 2009 and 2010 show a significant gradient, less dense snow in central Alaska to more dense snow near the Arctic coast of Prudhoe Bay. Air and land-surface temperatures show increases in the Arctic that are greater than the global average increase. We hypothesize that a factor in the AMSR-E SWE underperformance is caused by assumption of snow densities from the 1950s to 1990s that are no longer representative of Arctic snow packs due to effects from Arctic climate change, when other factors are negligible. Acknowledgements: GIPL SWE provided by Sergei Marchenko. Alaska Permafrost Transect data provided by Vladimir Romanovsky and William Cable, and Yukon Flats data provided by Matt Strum (CRREL) and Mark Waldrop (USGS). Funded by V. Romanovsky.

  19. Non-Maxwellian effects in underdense plasmas heated by non-uniform laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, Jean-Pierre

    2005-10-01

    The collisionl heating of plasmas by intense laser beams is known to drive the electron distribution function into a super-Gaussian [1] or ``DLM'' [2] shape. This reduces the absorption [1], and the reduction is stronger if the beam is very non-uniform, for a given average intensity, as there is a depletion of slow electrons, compared to a Maxwellian of the same density and average energy. If the beam irradiates most or a good fraction of the plasma volume, these non-Maxwellian effects also imply a depletion of high energy electrons, with the resulting strong reduction of Landau damping of Langmuir waves [2], contrary to the results of Brunner and Valeo [3] which were obtained in the limit of a narrow beam heating a wide plasma. The depletion of fast electrons depends essentially on the average laser intensity. We will show how these two aspects vary with the laser and plasma parameters.[1] A.B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 575 (1980) [2] B.B. Afeyan, A.E. Chou, J.P. Matte et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2322 (1998). [3] S. Brunner and E. Valeo, Phys. Plasmas 9, 923 (2002).

  20. Benthic community responses to macroalgae invasions in seagrass beds: Diversity, isotopic niche and food web structure at community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Vázquez-Luis, M.; Arroyo, N. L.

    2014-04-01

    Trophic paths between species are a useful tool for analysing the impact of species invasions of a biotic community. Species invasions produce changes at trophic level and diversity shifts by replacing native species with species of similar ecological niche. This study focused on the effects of macroalgal invasions on seagrass ecosystems. We conducted two - year bimonthly sampling of a pristine Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow and dead matte colonized by three Caulerpa species bimonthly. The largest changes in faunal composition were found in meadows colonized by Caulerpa prolifera, where major differences in infaunal taxonomic distinctness were apparent. On the other hand, the infaunal community was quite similar between the two invasive Caulerpa species (Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa). The isotopic niche based on the main trophic guilds established using stable isotope signatures at community level resulted in a highly compacted and 15N-enriched C. prolifera food web structure, indicating high overlap of food source utilization among faunal components, which is typical of degraded systems. Conversely, the P. oceanica ecosystem presented the most complex food web, while the influence of the 2 invasive species were similar. An attempt to reconstruct the food web at each vegetated habitat revealed high trophic linkages among the different trophic levels with a continuous transition among them by the various trophic guilds suggesting an adaptation response of the different organisms to the new habitat forming species.

  1. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Steven A; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  2. Short-term response to waterlogging in Quercus petraea and Quercus robur: A study of the root hydraulic responses and the transcriptional pattern of aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Rasheed-Depardieu, Claire; Parelle, Julien; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne; Parent, Claire; Capelli, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    We characterized the short-term response to waterlogging in Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus robur L. as the initial response towards their known long-term differences in tolerance to waterlogging. One-month old seedlings were subjected to hypoxic stress and leaf gas exchange, shoot water potential (Ψs) and root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) were measured. In parallel, the expression of nine aquaporins (AQPs) along the primary root was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed a similar reduction in net assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) for the two species. Notably, the response of Lpr differed temporally between the two species. Q. robur seedlings exhibited a significant early decline of Lpr within the first 5 h that returned to control levels after 48 h, whereas Q. petraea seedlings showed a delayed response with a significant decrease of Lpr exhibited only after 48 h. Transcriptional profiling revealed that three genes (PIP1;3, TIP2;1 and TIP2;2) were differentially regulated under stress conditions in the two oak species. Taken together, these results suggested species-specific responses to short-term waterlogging in terms of root water transport.

  3. Seasonal changes of C and N non-structural compounds in the stem sapwood of adult sessile oak and beech trees.

    PubMed

    El Zein, R; Maillard, P; Bréda, N; Marchand, J; Montpied, P; Gérant, D

    2011-08-01

    We assessed the pools of non-structural nitrogen compounds (NSNC) through a year, thereby addressing the question of whether mature sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.] and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), which differ in wood anatomy and growth patterns, exhibit contrasting seasonal dynamics of NSNC pools as previously shown for non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools. Seasonal fluctuations of NSNC (amino acids and soluble proteins) and NSC (starch and soluble sugars) pools were analyzed in the inner and the outer stem sapwood. In oak, NSC showed marked seasonal variation within the stem sapwood (accumulation during winter and decrease during bud burst and early wood growth), whereas in beech seasonal fluctuations in NSC were of minor amplitude. Even if the distribution and intensity of the NSNC pools differed between the two species, NSNC of the stem sapwood did not show seasonal variation. The most significant change in NSNC pools was the seasonal fluctuation of protein composition. In both species, two polypeptides of 13 kDa (PP13) and 26 kDa (PP26) accumulated during the coldest period in parallel with starch to sugar conversion and disappeared with the onset of spring growth. The absence of seasonal changes in total soluble protein concentration suggests that the polypeptides are involved in the internal nitrogen (N) cycling of the stem rather than in N storage and remobilization to the other growing organs of the tree.

  4. Optimization of the polyplanar optical display electronics for a monochrome B-52 display

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten-inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a new 200 mW green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments (TI). In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. In order to achieve increased brightness a monochrome digitizing interface was investigated. The operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with the RS-170 video format specific to the B-52 aircraft will be discussed, including the increased brightness of the monochrome digitizing interface. A brief description of the electronics required to drive the new 200 mW laser is also presented.

  5. The logic of turmoil: some epistemological and clinical considerations on emotional experience and the infinite.

    PubMed

    Bria, Pietro; Lombardi, Riccardo

    2008-08-01

    The idea of the infinite has its origins in the very beginnings of western philosophy and was developed significantly by modern philosophers such as Galileo and Leibniz. Freud discovered the Unconscious which does not respect the laws of classical logic, flouting its fundamental principle of non-contradiction. This opened the way to a new epistemology in which classical logic coexists with an aberrant logic of infinite affects. Matte Blanco reorganized this Freudian revolution in logic and introduced the concept of bi-logic, which is an intermingling of symmetric and Aristotelic logics. The authors explore some epistemological and clinical aspects of the functioning of the deep unconscious where the emergence of infinity threatens to overwhelm the containing function of thought, connecting this topic to some of Bion's propositions. They then suggest that bodily experiences can be considered a prime source of the logic of turmoil, and link a psychoanalytic consideration of the infinite to the mind-body relation. Emotional catastrophe is seen both as a defect-a breakdown of the unfolding function which translates unconscious material into conscious experience-and as the consequence of affective bodily pressures. These pressures function in turn as symmetrizing or infinitizing operators. Two clinical vignettes are presented to exemplify the hypotheses.

  6. Mechanism of Mineral Phase Reconstruction for Improving the Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jan; Zhang, Feng

    2016-09-01

    To maximize the recovery of iron and copper from copper slag, the modification process by adding a compound additive (a mixture of hematite, pyrite and manganous oxide) and optimizing the cooling of the slag was studied. The phase reconstruction mechanism of the slag modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the synergy between the burnt lime and the compound additive promotes the generation of target minerals, such as magnetite and copper matte. In addition, the multifunctional compound additive is able to improve the fluidity of the molten slag, which facilitates the coalescence and growth of fine particles of the target minerals. As a result, the percentage of iron distributed in the form of magnetite increased from 32.9% to 65.1%, and that of the copper exiting in the form of metallic copper and copper sulfide simultaneously increased from 80.0% to 90.3%. Meanwhile, the grains of the target minerals in the modified slag grew markedly to a mean size of over 50 μm after slow cooling. Ultimately, the beneficiation efficiency of copper and iron was improved because of the ease with which the target minerals could be liberated.

  7. The Dynamic Range of Human Lightness Perception

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Allred, Sarah R.; Gilchrist, Alan L.; Brainard, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Natural viewing challenges the visual system with images that have a dynamic range of light intensity (luminance) that can approach 1,000,000:1 and that often exceeds 10,000:1 [1, 2]. The range of perceived surface reflectance (lightness), however, can be well-approximated by the Munsell matte neutral scale (N 2.0/ to N 9.5/), consisting of surfaces whose reflectance varies by about 30:1. Thus, the visual system, must map a large range of surface luminance onto a much smaller range of surface lightness. We measured this mapping in images with a dynamic range close to that of natural images. We studied simple images that lacked segmentation cues that would indicate multiple regions of illumination. We found a remarkable degree of compression: at a single image location, a stimulus luminance range of 5905:1 can be mapped onto an extended lightness scale that has a reflectance range of 100:1. We characterized how the luminance-to-lightness mapping changes with stimulus context. Our data rule out theories that predict perceived lightness from luminance ratios or Weber contrast. A mechanistic model connects our data to theories of adaptation and provides insight about how the underlying visual response varies with context. PMID:22079116

  8. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  9. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron T.

    2013-04-01

    Asymmetric, thermal and non-thermal dark matter and its detection”. The first of these workshops (RG Flows) was held from September 17-21 with local organizers Henriette Elvang and Jim Liu, and external organizer Matt Headrick (Brandeis). There were a total of 40 participants, 27 of which were external. The conference website is http://www.umich.edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/2012/rgflows/, with slides available at http://www.umich.edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/ 2012/rgflows/sciprog.html. The second workshop (Light DM), was held April 15th-17th. It was especially timely as it coincided with the announcment of events seen by the CDMS collaboration consistent with a possible hint of a Light Dark Matter signal. The conference website is available at: http://www.umich. edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/2013/dm2013/ with slides available on-line at http://www.umich.edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/2013/dm2013/program. html.

  10. Gleaming and dull surface textures from photonic-crystal-type nanostructures in the butterfly Cyanophrys remus.

    PubMed

    Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Vértesy, Zofia; Márk, Géza I; Lousse, Virginie; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Rassart, Marie; Biró, László P

    2006-08-01

    Photonic-crystal-type nanostructures occurring in the scales of the butterfly Cyanophrys remus were investigated by optical and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), reflectance measurements (specular, integrated, and goniometric), by fast Fourier transform analysis of micrographs, by modeling, and by numerical simulation of the measured reflectance data. By evaluating the collected data in a cross-correlated way, we show that the metallic blue dorsal coloration originates from scales which individually are photonic single crystals of 50 x 120 microm2 , while the matt pea-green coloration of the ventral side arises from the cumulative effect of randomly arranged, bright photonic crystallites (blue, green, and yellow) with typical diameters in the 3-10-mum range. Both structures are based on a very moderate refractive index contrast between air and chitin. Using a bleached specimen in which the pigment has decayed with time, we investigated the role of pigment in photonic-crystal material in the process of color generation. The possible biologic utility of the metallic blue (single-crystal) and dull green (polycrystal) textures both achieved with photonic crystals are briefly discussed. Potential applications in the field of colorants, flat panel displays, smart textiles, and smart papers are surveyed.

  11. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Wrońska-Pilarek, Dorota; Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy.

  12. Detection of light transformations and concomitant changes in surface albedo.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, Holly E; Maloney, Laurence T

    2010-07-16

    We report two experiments demonstrating that (1) observers are sensitive to information about changes in the light field not captured by local scene statistics and that (2) they can use this information to enhance detection of changes in surface albedo. Observers viewed scenes consisting of matte surfaces at many orientations illuminated by a collimated light source. All surfaces were achromatic, all lights neutral. In the first experiment, observers attempted to discriminate small changes in direction of the collimated light source (light transformations) from matched changes in the albedos of all surfaces (non-light transformations). Light changes and non-light changes shared the same local scene statistics and edge ratios, but the latter were not consistent with any change in direction to the collimated source. We found that observers could discriminate light changes as small as 5 degrees with sensitivity d' > 1 and accurately judge the direction of change. In a second experiment, we measured observers' ability to detect a change in the surface albedo of an isolated surface patch during either a light change or a surface change. Observers were more accurate in detecting isolated albedo changes during light changes. Measures of sensitivity d' were more than twice as great.

  13. Talker-specific auditory imagery during reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygaard, Lynne C.; Duke, Jessica; Kawar, Kathleen; Queen, Jennifer S.

    2004-05-01

    The present experiment was designed to determine if auditory imagery during reading includes talker-specific characteristics such as speaking rate. Following Kosslyn and Matt (1977), participants were familiarized with two talkers during a brief prerecorded conversation. One talker spoke at a fast speaking rate and one spoke at a slow speaking rate. During familiarization, participants were taught to identify each talker by name. At test, participants were asked to read two passages and told that either the slow or fast talker wrote each passage. In one condition, participants were asked to read each passage aloud, and in a second condition, they were asked to read each passage silently. Participants pressed a key when they had completed reading the passage, and reading times were collected. Reading times were significantly slower when participants thought they were reading a passage written by the slow talker than when reading a passage written by the fast talker. However, the effects of speaking rate were only present in the reading-aloud condition. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the role of attention to talker's voice during familiarization. These results suggest that readers may engage in auditory imagery while reading that preserves perceptual details of an author's voice.

  14. Spin-Diffusion Lengths in Ag(4%Sn) and Cu(2%Ge) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit; Richard, Brandon; Fowler, Quinton; Loloee, Reza; Pratt, William, Jr.; Bass, Jack

    2008-03-01

    Alloying Ag with a little Sn, or Cu with a little Ge, greatly increases elastic scattering of electrons---i.e., greatly decreases the electron mean-free-path (mfp), but does not produce much spin-flipping---i.e., leaves the electron spin-diffusion length, l, relatively long. Thus, dilute AgSn and CuGe alloys were used to study effects of changing the mfp on current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance [1] and current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS) [2], while leaving spin-flipping weak. Published transport data in dilute AgSn and CuGe alloys give only lower bounds for l [3-5]. We find l = 34 ± 4 nm for Ag(4%Sn) and l = 125 ± 10 nm for Cu(2%Ge). [1] K. Eid et al., J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 224, L205 (2001). [2] N. Theodoropoulou et al., Phys. Rev. B (rapid comm.) in press. [3] S.-F.Lee et al., J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 118, L1 (993). [4] J. Bass et al, Mat. Sci. and Eng. B31, 77 (1995). [5] J. Bass and W.P. Pratt Jr., J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 19, 183201 (2007).

  15. From Spintronics to CFD/ContractForDifferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    Involve the CFD/Computational Fluid Dynamics & HCCI/Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition - Marcine Frackowiak, dissertation, 2009, for CFD/Contract For Differences accompanied by ``One Man's Crusade to Exonerate Hydrogen for Hindenburg Disaster'' of Addison BAIN, APS News, v. 9, n.7 (July 2000) concludes ``ignition of the blaze'' are responsible to those May, 1937 Accidents. Spintronics their selves include active control & manipulation of spin degree of freedom ever denotes: the nano-obelisk of scanning electron microscopy of galliumnitride/GaN nanostructures-Yong-Hon Cho et al.:``Novel Photonic Device using core-shell nanostructures'', SPIE-newsroom,10.1117/2.1201503.005864. Herewith commercial activated carbon/C can be imaged directly using abberation-corrected transmission electron microscopy[PJF Harris et al.: ``Imaging the Atomic Structures of activated C'', J. Phys. Condens. Matt, 20 (2008) in fig b & c- images networks of hexagonal rings can be clearly be seen depicts equal etchings of 340 px Akhenaten, Nefertiti & their childrens. Incredible acknowledgments to Minister of Education & Culture RI 1998-1999 HE. Mr. Prof. Ir. WIRANTO ARISMUNANDAR, MSME.

  16. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis of the cerebral aqueduct in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Meller, S T; Dennis, B J

    1993-09-01

    An examination of the surface of the cerebral aqueduct with the scanning electron microscope revealed that the walls of the cerebral aqueduct were so heavily ciliated that most of the ependymal surface was obscured, yet certain specialized supraependymal structures could be discerned lying on (or embedded within) this matt of cilia. These structures were determined by transmission electron microscopy and Golgi analysis to be either macrophages, supraependymal neurons, dendrites from medial periaqueductal gray neurons, or axons of unknown origin. Some axons, which were found to contain vesicles, appeared to make synaptic contacts with ependymal cells. Using the transmission electron microscope, the ependymal lining was found to consist of two different cell types: normal ependymal cells and tanycytes which have a long tapering basal process that was observed to contact blood vessels or, more rarely, seemed to terminate in relation to neuronal elements. While there have been previous reports on the structure of the third and lateral ventricles in other species, there are limited reports in the rabbit. The present report is not only the first description for the rabbit, but it is the first complete scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis of the cerebral aqueduct in any species.

  17. A Decade of Diminishing Sunspot Vigor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, W. C.; Penn, M.; Svalgard, L.

    2011-05-01

    1A Decade of Diminishing Sunspot Vigor William Livingston1 Matt Penn1 Leif Svalgard2 Sunspots are small dark areas on the solar disk where internal magnetism, 1500 to 3500 Gauss, has been buoyed to the surface. (Spot life times are the order of one day to a couple of weeks or more. They are thought to be dark because convection inhibits the outward transport of energy there). Their "vigor” can be described by spot area, spot brightness intensity, and magnetic field. From 2001 to 2011 we have measured field strength and brightness at the darkest position in umbrae of 1750 spots using the Zeeman splitting of the Fe 1564.8 nm line. Only one observation per spot per day is carried out during our monthly telescope time of 3-4 days average. Over this interval the temporal mean magnetic field has declined about 500 Gauss and mean spot intensity has risen about 20%. We do not understand the physical mechanism behind these changes or the effect, if any, it will have on the Earth environment. 1. wcl@noao.edu mpenn@noao.edu 2. leif@leif.org

  18. Skyrmion Flux Lattices in p,-wave Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich

    2007-03-01

    In p,-wave superconductors, topological excitations known as skyrmions are allowed, in addition to the usual vortices. In strongly type-II materials in an external magnetic field, a skyrmion flux lattice is expected to be energetically favored compared to a vortex flux lattice [1]. We analytically calculate the energy, magnetization curves (B(H)), and elasticity of skyrmion flux lattices in p,-wave superconductors near the lower critical field Hc1, and use these results with the Lindemann criterion to predict their melting curve [2]. In striking contrast to vortex flux lattices, which always melt at an external field H > Hc1, skyrmion flux lattices never melt near Hc1. This provides a simple and unambiguous test for the presence of skyrmions. In addition, the internal magnetic field distributions (which are measurable by muon spin rotation techniques [3]) of skyrmion and vortex lattices are very different. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, cond-mat/0607391 [3] J.E. Sonier, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, S4499 (2004)

  19. Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots

    SciTech Connect

    S. Brunner; E. Valeo

    2001-08-30

    Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background.

  20. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.