Science.gov

Sample records for matter non-standard halos

  1. Cold dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinski, John Joseph

    The dark halos arising in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmology are simulated to investigate the relationship between the structure and kinematics of dark halos and galaxies. Realistic cosmological initial conditions and tidal field boundary conditions are used in N-body simulations of the collapse of density peaks to form dark halos. The core radii of dark halos are no greater than the softening radius, rs = 1.4 kpc. The density profiles can be fit with an analytical Hernquist (1990) profile with an effective power law which varies between -1 in the center to -4 at large radii. The rotation curves of dark halos resemble the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies in the observed range, 1.5 approximately less than r approximately less than 30 kpc. The halos are strongly triaxial and very flat with (c/a) = 0.50 and (b/a) = 0.71. The distribution of ellipticities for dark halos reaches a maximum at epsilon = 0.5 in contrast to the distribution for elliptical galaxies which peaks at epsilon = 0.2 suggesting that ellipticals are much rounder than dark halos. Dark halos are generally flatter than their progenitor density peaks. The final shape and orientation of a dark halo are largely determined by tidal torquing and are sensitive to changes in the strength and orientation of a tidal field. Dark halos are pressure supported objects with negligible rotational support as indicated by the mean dimensionless spin, lamda = 0.042 +/- 0.024. The angular momentum vector tends to align with the true minor axis of dark halos. Elliptical galaxies have a similar behavior implied by the observation of the tendency for alignment of the rotation vector and the apparent minor axis. The origin of this behavior may be traced to the tendency for tidal torques to misalign with the major axis of a density peak. Tidal torques are found to isotropize the velocity ellipsoids of dark halos at large radii, contrary to the expectation of radially anisotropic velocity ellipsoids in cold collapse

  2. Dark Matter Production in Non-Standard Early Universe Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehagen, Thomas Joseph

    Many dark matter candidates, including asymmetric Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and sterile neutrinos, are produced in the very early Universe, prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). We show that the relic abundance of asymmetric WIMPs and sterile neutrinos can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe prior to BBN. In particular, we find that if the production of asymmetric WIMPs occurs during a non-standard cosmological phase, a larger WIMP annihilation cross section is required to produce the present dark matter density than if the WIMPs were produced during a standard, radiation dominated phase. Because of this, the present dark matter annihilation rate could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter produced in the standard cosmology. We also show that if the production of sterile neutrinos occurs during a non-standard cosmological phase, the relic number density of sterile neutrinos could be reduced with respect to the number expected in the standard cosmology, consequently relaxing current bounds on active-sterile neutrino mixing. Finally, we examine whether low reheating temperature cosmologies are allowed by current Cosmic Microwave Background measurements. We find the allowed range of reheating temperatures using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials, and a variety of reheating models. We show that an inflationary model with a φ1 potential and canonical reheating allows the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating epoch, instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated.

  3. Computation of the halo mass function using physical collapse parameters: application to non-standard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Achitouv, I.; Weller, J.; Wagner, C.; Rasera, Y. E-mail: cwagner@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE E-mail: yann.rasera@obspm.fr

    2014-10-01

    In this article we compare the halo mass function predicted by the excursion set theory with a drifting diffusive barrier against the results of N-body simulations for several cosmological models. This includes the standard ΛCDM case for a large range of halo masses, models with different types of primordial non-Gaussianity, and the Ratra-Peebles quintessence model of Dark Energy. We show that in all those cosmological scenarios, the abundance of dark matter halos can be described by a drifting diffusive barrier, where the two parameters describing the barrier have physical content. In the case of the Gaussian ΛCDM, the statistics are precise enough to actually predict those parameters at different redshifts from the initial conditions. Furthermore, we found that the stochasticity in the barrier is non-negligible making the simple deterministic spherical collapse model a bad approximation even at very high halo masses. We also show that using the standard excursion set approach with a barrier inspired by peak patches leads to inconsistent predictions of the halo mass function.

  4. Quark matter as dark matter in modeling galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Farook; Kuhfittig, P. K. F.; Amin, Ruhul; Mandal, Gurudas; Ray, Saibal; Islam, Nasarul

    2012-08-01

    Considering the flat rotation curves as input and treating the matter content in the galactic halo region as quark matter, we have found out a background spacetime metric for the region of the galactic halo. We obtain fairly general conditions that ensure that gravity in the halo region is attractive. We also investigate the stability of circular orbits, along with a different role for quark matter. Bag-model quark matter meeting these conditions therefore provides a suitable model for dark matter.

  5. A combined study of source, detector and matter non-standard neutrino interactions at DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Choubey, Sandhya; Ohlsson, Tommy; Pramanik, Dipyaman; Raut, Sushant K.

    2016-08-01

    We simultaneously investigate source, detector and matter non-standard neutrino interactions at the proposed DUNE experiment. Our analysis is performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo exploring the full parameter space. We find that the sensitivity of DUNE to the standard oscillation parameters is worsened due to the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions. In particular, there are degenerate solutions in the leptonic mixing angle θ 23 and the Dirac CP-violating phase δ. We also compute the expected sensitivities at DUNE to the non-standard interaction parameters. We find that the sensitivities to the matter non-standard interaction parameters are substantially stronger than the current bounds (up to a factor of about 15). Furthermore, we discuss correlations between the source/detector and matter non-standard interaction parameters and find a degenerate solution in θ 23. Finally, we explore the effect of statistics on our results.

  6. Dark matter particles in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R. Belli, P.; Montecchia, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Prosperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, J. M.; Sheng, X. D.; Ye, Z. P.

    2009-12-15

    Arguments on the investigation of the DarkMatter particles in the galactic halo are addressed. Recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized and the perspectives are discussed.

  7. Dark matter particles in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Montecchia, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Prosperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, J. M.; Sheng, X. D.; Ye, Z. P.

    2009-12-01

    Arguments on the investigation of the DarkMatter particles in the galactic halo are addressed. Recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized and the perspectives are discussed.

  8. On physical scales of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Zemp, Marcel

    2014-09-10

    It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions 'virial'. In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.

  9. Mapping Dark Matter Halos with Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Greene, J. E.; Graves, G.

    2013-07-01

    Galaxies of all sizes form and evolve in the centers of dark matter halos. As these halos constitute the large majority of the total mass of a galaxy, dark matter certainly plays a central role in the galaxy's formation and evolution. Yet despite our understanding of the importance of dark matter, observations of the extent and shape of dark matter halos have been slow in coming. The paucity of data is particularly acute in elliptical galaxies. Happily, concerted effort over the past several years by a number of groups has been shedding light on the dark matter halos around galaxies over a wide range in mass. The development of new instrumentation and large surveys, coupled with the tantalizing evidence for a direct detection of dark matter from the AMS experiment, has brought on a golden age in the study of galactic scale dark matter halos. I report on results using extended stellar kinematics from integrated light to dynamically model massive elliptical galaxies in the local universe. I use the integral field power of the Mitchell Spectrograph to explore the kinematics of stars to large radii (R > 2.5 r_e). Once the line-of-sight stellar kinematics are measured, I employ orbit-based, axisymmetric dynamical modeling to explore a range of dark matter halo parameterizations. Globular cluster kinematics at even larger radii are used to further constrain the dynamical models. The dynamical models also return information on the anisotropy of the stars which help to further illuminate the primary formation mechanisms of the galaxy. Specifically, I will show dynamical modeling results for the first and second rank galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, M49 and M87. Although similar in total luminosity and ellipticity, these two galaxies show evidence for different dark matter halo shapes, baryon to dark matter fractions, and stellar anisotropy profiles. Moreover, the stellar velocity dispersion at large radii in M87 is significantly higher than the globular clusters at the same

  10. The properties of warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Mark R.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Eke, Vincent R.; Jenkins, Adrian; Gao, Liang; Theuns, Tom

    2014-03-01

    Well-motivated elementary particle candidates for the dark matter, such as the sterile neutrino, behave as warm dark matter (WDM). For particle masses of the order of a keV, free streaming produces a cutoff in the linear fluctuation power spectrum at a scale corresponding to dwarf galaxies. We investigate the abundance and structure of WDM haloes and subhaloes on these scales using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations of galactic haloes of mass similar to the Milky Way's. On scales larger than the free-streaming cutoff, the initial conditions have the same power spectrum and phases as one of the cold dark matter (CDM) haloes previously simulated by Springel et al. as part of the Virgo consortium Aquarius project. We have simulated four haloes with WDM particle masses in the range 1.5-2.3 keV and, for one case, we have carried out further simulations at varying resolution. N-body simulations in which the power spectrum cutoff is resolved are known to undergo artificial fragmentation in filaments producing spurious clumps which, for small masses (<107 M⊙ in our case) outnumber genuine haloes. We have developed a robust algorithm to identify these spurious objects and remove them from our halo catalogues. We find that the WDM subhalo mass function is suppressed by well over an order magnitude relative to the CDM case for masses <109 M⊙. Requiring that there should be at least as many subhaloes as there are observed satellites in the Milky Way leads to a conservative lower limit to the (thermal equivalent) WDM particle mass of ˜ 1.5 keV. WDM haloes and subhaloes have cuspy density distributions that are well described by Navarro-Frenk-White or Einasto profiles. Their central densities are lower for lower WDM particle masses and none of the models we have considered suffering from the `too big to fail' problem recently highlighted by Boylan-Kolchin et al.

  11. Halo cold dark matter and microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Evalyn; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-12-01

    There is good evidence that most of the baryons in the Universe are dark and some evidence that most of the matter in the Universe is nonbaryonic with cold dark matter (cdm) being a promising possibility. We discuss expectations for the abundance of baryons and cdm in the halo of our galaxy and locally. We show that in plausible cdm models the local density of cdm is at least $10^{-25}\\gcmm3$. We also discuss what one can learn about the the local cdm density from microlensing of stars in the LMC by dark stars in the halo and, based upon a suite of reasonable two-component halo models, conclude that microlensing is not a sensitive probe of the local cdm density.

  12. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  13. Dark Matter Halos with VIRUS-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.

    2010-05-01

    We present new, two-dimensional stellar kinematic data on several of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. These data were taken with the integral field spectrograph, VIRUS-P, and extend to unprecedented radial distances. Once robust stellar kinematics are in hand, we run orbit-based axisymmetric dynamical models in order to constrain the stellar mass-to-light ratio and dark matter halo parameters. We have run a large set of dynamical models on the second rank galaxy in the Virgo cluster, M87, and find clear evidence for a massive dark matter halo. The two-dimensional stellar kinematics for several of our other targets, all first and second rank galaxies, are also presented. Dark matter halos are known to dominate the mass profile of elliptical galaxies somewhere between one to two effective radii, yet due to the low surface brightness at these radial distances, determining stellar dynamics is technologically challenging. To overcome this, constraints on the dark matter halo are often made with planetary nebulae or globular clusters at large radii. However, as results from different groups have returned contradictory results, it remains unclear whether different dynamical tracers always follow the stellar kinematics. Due to VIRUS-P's large field of view and on-sky fiber diameter, we are able to determine stellar kinematics at radial distances that overlap with other dynamical tracers. Understanding what the dynamics of stars, planetary nebula and globular clusters tell us about both the extent of the dark matter halo profile and the formation histories of the largest elliptical galaxies is a primary science driver for this work.

  14. Asymmetric dark matter annihilation as a test of non-standard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Rehagen, Thomas E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu

    2013-08-01

    We show that the relic abundance of the minority component of asymmetric dark matter can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe and the temperature of transition between a non-standard pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmological phase and the standard radiation dominated phase, if chemical decoupling happens before this transition. In particular, because the annihilation cross section of asymmetric dark matter is typically larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology, the decrease in relic density of the minority component in non-standard cosmologies with respect to the majority component may be compensated by the increase in annihilation cross section, so that the annihilation rate at present of asymmetric dark matter, contrary to general belief, could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology. Thus, if the annihilation cross section of the asymmetric dark matter candidate is known, the annihilation rate at present, if detectable, could be used to test the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we do not yet have any data.

  15. The Shape of Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, Robert Paul

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing our current knowledge of dark matter (DM) in spiral galaxies (Chapter 1), I present a new method of deriving the shape of these dark halos (Chapter 2). Such information, if obtained for a large number of systems, can provide important boundary conditions for theories of the formation of galaxies (Chapter 5). The halo-shape determination method relies on the comparison of model predictions of the thickness of the gas layer with observations of this flaring. Calculating the model gas layer widths from the observed gaseous velocity dispersion and the potential due to the total mass distribution of the galaxy we learn the following: (a) beyond the optical disk the thickness of the gas layer is sensitive to the shape of the DM halo, (b) the thickness of the gas layer is proportional to the ratio of the gaseous velocity dispersion and the rotation speed, (c) the self-gravity of the gas contributes significantly to the vertical force, (d) the derived shape of the DM halo is independent of the dark matter's radial density distribution, and is independent of the mass-to-light ratio of the stellar disk (f). In Chapter 3 I present a new method (usable for inclinations larger than 60^circ) to determine the thickness of the gas layer of spiral galaxies from high resolution H sc I observations. I use VLA H sc I observations of the almost edge-on Scd galaxy NGC 4244 to determine the gaseous velocity dispersion, and the flaring and rotation curves. From the Keplerian decline of the rotation curve beyond the stellar disks it follows that the dark-to-luminous mass ratio is at most two and a half. Combining the model predictions for the radial variation of the thickness of the gas layer with the measured flaring curve I find that the dark matter halo of NGC 4244 is highly flattened. The best fit occurs for a halo with an E8 shape (with a mass one-eight of an E0 halo), while the uncertainty (E5-E9) is dominated by the errors in the gaseous velocity dispersion: a round

  16. The Structure of Dark Matter Halos in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkert, A.

    1995-07-01

    Recent observations indicate that dark matter halos have flat central density profiles. Cosmological simulations with nonbaryonic dark matter, however, predict self-similar halos with central density cusps. This contradiction has lead to the conclusion that dark matter must be baryonic. Here it is shown that the dark matter halos of dwarf spiral galaxies represent a one-parameter family with self-similar density profiles. The observed global halo parameters are coupled with each other through simple scaling relations which can be explained by the standard cold dark matter model if one assumes that all the halos formed from density fluctuations with the same primordial amplitude. We find that the finite central halo densities correlate with the other global parameters. This result rules out scenarios where the flat halo cores formed subsequently through violent dynamical processes in the baryonic component. These cores instead provide important information on the origin and nature of dark matter in dwarf galaxies.

  17. Universal properties of dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Boyarsky, A; Neronov, A; Ruchayskiy, O; Tkachev, I

    2010-05-14

    We discuss the universal relation between density and size of observed dark matter halos that was recently shown to hold on a wide range of scales, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Predictions of cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations are consistent with this relation. We demonstrate that this property of ΛCDM can be understood analytically in the secondary infall model. Qualitative understanding given by this model provides a new way to predict which deviations from ΛCDM or large-scale modifications of gravity can affect universal behavior and, therefore, to constrain them observationally. PMID:20866958

  18. Dark-Matter Halos of Tenuous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    A series of recent deep-imaging surveys has revealed dozens of lurking ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in nearby galaxy clusters. A new study provides key information to help us understand the origins of these faint giants.What are UDGs?There are three main possibilities for how UDGs galaxies with the sizes of giants, but luminosities no brighter than those of dwarfs formed:They are tidal dwarfs, created in galactic collisions when streams of matter were pulled away from the parent galaxies and halos to form dwarfs.They are descended from normal galaxies and were then altered by tidal interactions with the galaxy cluster.They are ancient remnant systems large galaxies whose gas was swept away, putting an early halt to star formation. The gas removal did not, however, affect their large dark matter halos, which permitted them to survive in the cluster environment.The key to differentiating between these options is to obtain mass measurements for the UDGs how large are their dark matter halos? In a recent study led by Michael Beasley (Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, University of La Laguna), a team of astronomers has determined a clever approach for measuring these galaxies masses: examine their globular clusters.Masses from Globular ClustersVCC 1287s mass measurements put it outside of the usual halo-mass vs. stellar-mass relationships for nearby galaxies: it has a significantly higher halo mass than is normal, given its stellar mass. [Adapted from Beasley et al. 2016]Beasley and collaborators selected one UDG, VCC 1287, from the Virgo galaxy cluster, and they obtained spectra of the globular clusters around it using the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Great Canary Telescope. They then determined VCC 1287s total halo mass in two ways: first by using the dynamics of the globular clusters, and then by relying on a relation between total globular cluster mass and halo mass.The two masses they found are in good agreement with each other; both are around 80

  19. Solitonic axion condensates modeling dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Castañeda Valle, David Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2013-09-15

    Instead of fluid type dark matter (DM), axion-like scalar fields with a periodic self-interaction or some truncations of it are analyzed as a model of galaxy halos. It is probed if such cold Bose–Einstein type condensates could provide a viable soliton type interpretation of the DM ‘bullets’ observed by means of gravitational lensing in merging galaxy clusters. We study solitary waves for two self-interacting potentials in the relativistic Klein–Gordon equation, mainly in lower dimensions, and visualize the approximately shape-invariant collisions of two ‘lump’ type solitons. -- Highlights: •An axion model of dark matter is considered. •Collision of axion type solitons are studied in a two dimensional toy model. •Relations to dark matter collisions in galaxy clusters are proposed.

  20. Halos of unified dark matter scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it

    2008-05-15

    We investigate the static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term, assumed to provide both the dark matter and dark energy components of the Universe. In particular, we give a prescription to obtain solutions (dark halos) whose rotation curve v{sub c}(r) is in good agreement with observational data. We show that there exist suitable scalar field Lagrangians that allow us to describe the cosmological background evolution and the static solutions with a single dark fluid.

  1. Splashback in accreting dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal; Chamberlain, Robert T. E-mail: dalaln@illinois.edu

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has shown that density profiles in the outskirts of dark matter halos can become extremely steep over a narrow range of radius. This behavior is produced by splashback material on its first apocentric passage after accretion. We show that the location of this splashback feature may be understood quite simply, from first principles. We present a simple model, based on spherical collapse, that accurately predicts the location of splashback without any free parameters. The important quantities that determine the splashback radius are accretion rate and redshift.

  2. One dark matter mystery: halos in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The current cold dark matter cosmological model explains the large scale cosmic web structure but is challenged by the observation of a relatively smooth distribution of matter in galactic clusters. We consider various aspects of modeling the dark matter around galaxies as distributed in smooth halos and, especially, the smoothness of the dark matter halos seen in N-body cosmological simulations. We conclude that the problems of the cold dark matter cosmology on small scales are more serious than normally admitted.

  3. Halo-Independent Comparison of Direct Dark Matter Detection Data

    DOE PAGES

    Del Nobile, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    We review the halo-independent formalism that allows comparing data from different direct dark matter detection experiments without making assumptions on the properties of the dark matter halo. We apply this method to spin-independent WIMP-nuclei interactions, for both isospin-conserving and isospin-violating couplings, and to WIMPs interacting through an anomalous magnetic moment.

  4. HALO-TO-HALO SIMILARITY AND SCATTER IN THE VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Strigari, Louis E.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Hahn, Oliver; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-02-10

    We examine the velocity distribution function (VDF) in dark matter halos from Milky Way to cluster mass scales. We identify an empirical model for the VDF with a wider peak and a steeper tail than a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, and discuss physical explanations. We quantify sources of scatter in the VDF of cosmological halos and their implication for direct detection of dark matter. Given modern simulations and observations, we find that the most significant uncertainty in the VDF of the Milky Way arises from the unknown radial position of the solar system relative to the dark matter halo scale radius.

  5. Rotation curves of ultralight BEC dark matter halos with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, F. S.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.

    2015-03-01

    We study the rotation curves of ultralight BEC dark matter halos. These halos are long lived solutions of initially rotating BEC fluctuations. In order to study the implications of the rotation characterizing these long-lived configurations we consider the particular case of a boson mass and no self-interaction. We find that these halos successfully fit samples of rotation curves of LSB galaxies.

  6. THE SPHERICALIZATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS BY GALAXY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Abadi, Mario G.; Navarro, Julio F. E-mail: mario@oac.uncor.ed

    2010-09-01

    Cosmological simulations indicate that cold dark matter (CDM) halos should be triaxial. Validating this theoretical prediction is, however, less than straightforward because the assembly of galaxies is expected to modify halo shapes and to render them more axisymmetric. We use a suite of N-body simulations to quantitatively investigate the effect of the growth of a central disk galaxy on the shape of triaxial dark matter halos. In most circumstances, the halo responds to the presence of the disk by becoming more spherical. The net effect depends weakly on the timescale of the disk assembly but noticeably on the orientation of the disk relative to the halo principal axes, and it is maximal when the disk symmetry axis is aligned with the major axis of the halo. The effect depends most sensitively on the overall gravitational importance of the disk. Our results indicate that exponential disks whose contribution peaks at less than {approx}50% of their circular velocity are unable to noticeably modify the shape of the gravitational potential of their surrounding halos. Many dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies are expected to be in this regime, and therefore their detailed kinematics could be used to probe halo triaxiality, one of the basic predictions of the CDM paradigm. We argue that the complex disk kinematics of the dwarf galaxy NGC 2976 might be the reflection of a triaxial halo. Such signatures of halo triaxiality should be common in galaxies where the luminous component is subdominant.

  7. ENVIRONMENT DEPENDENCE OF DARK MATTER HALOS IN SYMMETRON MODIFIED GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Winther, Hans A.; Mota, David F.; Li Baojiu

    2012-09-10

    We investigate the environment dependence of dark matter halos in the symmetron modified gravity scenario. The symmetron is one of three known mechanisms for screening a fifth force and thereby recovering general relativity in dense environments. The effectiveness of the screening depends on both the mass of the object and the environment it lies in. Using high-resolution N-body simulations we find a significant difference, which depends on the halo's mass and environment, between the lensing and dynamical masses of dark matter halos similar to the f(R) modified gravity. The symmetron can however yield stronger signatures due to a freedom in the strength of coupling to matter.

  8. On the assembly history of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Mo, H. J.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Lin, W. P.

    2007-08-01

    We study the mass assembly history (MAH) of dark matter haloes. We compare MAHs obtained using (i) merger trees constructed with the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism, (ii) numerical simulations and (iii) the Lagrangian perturbation code PINOCCHIO. We show that the PINOCCHIO MAHs are in excellent agreement with those obtained using numerical simulations, while the EPS formalism predicts MAHs that occur too late. PINOCCHIO, which is much less CPU intensive than N-body simulation, can be run on a simple personal computer, and does not require any labour intensive post-simulation analysis, therefore provides a unique and powerful tool to investigate the growth history of dark matter haloes. Using a suite of 55 PINOCCHIO simulations, with 2563 particles each, we study the MAHs of 12924 cold dark matter (CDM) haloes in a ΛCDM concordance cosmology. This is by far the largest set of haloes used for any such analysis. For each MAH we derive four different formation redshifts, which characterize different epochs during the assembly history of a dark matter halo. We show that haloes less massive than the characteristic non-linear mass scale establish their potential wells much before they acquire most of their mass. The time when a halo reaches its maximum virial velocity roughly divides its mass assembly into two phases, a fast-accretion phase which is dominated by major mergers, and a slow-accretion phase dominated by minor mergers. Each halo experiences about 3 +/- 2 major mergers since its main progenitor had a mass equal to 1 per cent of the final halo mass. This major merger statistic is found to be virtually independent of halo mass. However, the average redshift at which these major mergers occur is strongly mass dependent, with more massive haloes experiencing their major mergers later.

  9. Optimal linear reconstruction of dark matter from halo catalogues

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yan -Chuan; Bernstein, Gary; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-04-01

    The dark matter lumps (or "halos") that contain galaxies have locations in the Universe that are to some extent random with respect to the overall matter distributions. We investigate how best to estimate the total matter distribution from the locations of the halos. We derive the weight function w(M) to apply to dark-matter haloes that minimizes the stochasticity between the weighted halo distribution and its underlying mass density field. The optimal w(M) depends on the range of masses of halos being used. While the standard biased-Poisson model of the halo distribution predicts that bias weighting is optimal, the simple factmore » that the mass is comprised of haloes implies that the optimal w(M) will be a mixture of mass-weighting and bias-weighting. In N-body simulations, the Poisson estimator is up to 15× noisier than the optimal. Optimal weighting could make cosmological tests based on the matter power spectrum or cross-correlations much more powerful and/or cost effective.« less

  10. Optimal linear reconstruction of dark matter from halo catalogues

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yan -Chuan; Bernstein, Gary; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-04-01

    The dark matter lumps (or "halos") that contain galaxies have locations in the Universe that are to some extent random with respect to the overall matter distributions. We investigate how best to estimate the total matter distribution from the locations of the halos. We derive the weight function w(M) to apply to dark-matter haloes that minimizes the stochasticity between the weighted halo distribution and its underlying mass density field. The optimal w(M) depends on the range of masses of halos being used. While the standard biased-Poisson model of the halo distribution predicts that bias weighting is optimal, the simple fact that the mass is comprised of haloes implies that the optimal w(M) will be a mixture of mass-weighting and bias-weighting. In N-body simulations, the Poisson estimator is up to 15× noisier than the optimal. Optimal weighting could make cosmological tests based on the matter power spectrum or cross-correlations much more powerful and/or cost effective.

  11. The prolate dark matter halo of the Andromeda galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2014-07-01

    We present new limits on the global shape of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy using and generalizing non-spherical mass models developed by Hayashi and Chiba and compare our results with theoretical predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) models. This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Applying our models to the latest kinematic data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield a prolate shape for its dark halo, irrespective of assumed density profiles. We also find that this prolate dark halo in Andromeda is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web. Therefore, our result is profound in understanding internal dynamics of halo tracers in Andromeda, such as orbital evolutions of tidal stellar streams, which play important roles in extracting the abundance of CDM subhalos through their dynamical effects on stream structures.

  12. Testing gravity using the environmental dependence of dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2011-08-12

    In this Letter, we investigate the environmental dependence of dark matter halos in theories which attempt to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe by modifying general relativity (GR). Using high-resolution N-body simulations in f(R) gravity models which recover GR in dense environments by virtue of the chameleon mechanism, we find a significant difference, which depends on the environment, between the lensing and dynamical masses of dark matter halos. This environmental dependence of the halo properties can be used as a smoking gun to test GR observationally. PMID:21902382

  13. EFFECT OF DARK MATTER HALO SUBSTRUCTURES ON GALAXY ROTATION CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Nirupam

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of halo substructures on galaxy rotation curves is investigated using a simple model of dark matter clustering. A dark matter halo density profile is developed based only on the scale-free nature of clustering that leads to a statistically self-similar distribution of the substructures at the galactic scale. A semi-analytical method is used to derive rotation curves for such a clumpy dark matter density profile. It is found that the halo substructures significantly affect the galaxy velocity field. Based on the fractal geometry of the halo, this self-consistent model predicts a Navarro-Frenk-White-like rotation curve and a scale-free power spectrum of the rotation velocity fluctuations.

  14. SECULAR DAMPING OF STELLAR BARS IN SPINNING DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ ≳ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ ≳ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  15. The assembly bias of dark matter haloes to higher orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, R. E.; Baugh, C. M.; Lacey, C. G.

    2008-06-01

    We use an extremely large volume (2.4h-3Gpc3), high-resolution N-body simulation to measure the higher order clustering of dark matter haloes as a function of mass and internal structure. As a result of the large simulation volume and the use of a novel `cross-moment' counts-in-cells technique which suppresses discreteness noise, we are able to measure the clustering of haloes corresponding to rarer peaks than was possible in previous studies; the rarest haloes for which we measure the variance are 100 times more clustered than the dark matter. We are able to extract, for the first time, halo bias parameters from linear up to fourth order. For all orders measured, we find that the bias parameters are a strong function of mass for haloes more massive than the characteristic mass M*. Currently, no theoretical model is able to reproduce this mass dependence closely. We find that the bias parameters also depend on the internal structure of the halo up to fourth order. For haloes more massive than M*, we find that the more concentrated haloes are more weakly clustered than the less concentrated ones. We see no dependence of clustering on concentration for haloes with masses M < M* this is contrary to the trend reported in the literature when segregating haloes by their formation time. Our results are insensitive to whether haloes are labelled by the total mass returned by the friends-of-friends group finder or by the mass of the most massive substructure. This implies that our conclusions are not an artefact of the particular choice of group finding algorithm. Our results will provide important input to theoretical models of galaxy clustering.

  16. Orientations of Bright Galaxies within their Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.

    2013-07-01

    Few constraints exist on the ways in which large, bright galaxies are embedded within their dark matter halos. Understanding the relationships between visible galaxies and their invisible dark matter halos is, however, important for many applications, including measurements of halo shapes from weak lensing and intrinsic alignments of galaxies. A key component of the galaxy-halo relationship is the degree to which mass and light are aligned and, hence, whether the observed major axes of bright galaxies are aligned with the major axes of their dark matter halos. Here I will show that the locations of satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) can be used to constrain the orientations of the primary galaxies within their dark matter halos. In particular, the dependence of satellite galaxy location on the colors and stellar masses of the primaries can only be reproduced if elliptical and disk primaries are embedded within their halos in different ways: the principal axes of the luminous ellipticals are well-aligned with the principal axes of their dark matter halos, while the luminous disks are oriented such that the angular momentum of the disk is well-aligned with the net angular momentum of the dark matter halo. The latter induces a significant misalignment of mass and light in disk primaries. This has implications for the use of galaxy-galaxy lensing to measure halo shapes. If the dark matter halos are non-spherical, then the resulting anisotropic galaxy-galaxy lensing signal is likely to be detected only around elliptical lenses, not disk lenses. I will show that a preliminary analysis of the anisotropic galaxy-galaxy lensing signal in the SDSS supports this hypothesis. This analysis differs from previous galaxy-galaxy lensing studies in the SDSS in that the lenses are sufficiently isolated that they, themselves, will not have been lensed by any other objects along the line of sight. This insures that the observed major axes of the lens galaxies are

  17. STATISTICS OF DARK MATTER HALOS FROM THE EXCURSION SET APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Salucci, P.; Danese, L.

    2013-08-01

    We exploit the excursion set approach in integral formulation to derive novel, accurate analytic approximations of the unconditional and conditional first crossing distributions for random walks with uncorrelated steps and general shapes of the moving barrier; we find the corresponding approximations of the unconditional and conditional halo mass functions for cold dark matter (DM) power spectra to represent very well the outcomes of state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In addition, we apply these results to derive, and confront with simulations, other quantities of interest in halo statistics, including the rates of halo formation and creation, the average halo growth history, and the halo bias. Finally, we discuss how our approach and main results change when considering random walks with correlated instead of uncorrelated steps, and warm instead of cold DM power spectra.

  18. The outer profile of dark matter haloes: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xun

    2016-07-01

    A steepening feature in the outer density profiles of dark matter haloes indicating the splashback radius has drawn much attention recently. Possible observational detections have even been made for galaxy clusters. Theoretically, Adhikari et al. have estimated the location of the splashback radius by computing the secondary infall trajectory of a dark matter shell through a growing dark matter halo with an NFW profile. However, since they imposed a shape of the halo profile rather than computing it consistently from the trajectories of the dark matter shells, they could not provide the full shape of the dark matter profile around the splashback radius. We improve on this by extending the self-similar spherical collapse model of Fillmore & Goldreich to a ΛCDM universe. This allows us to compute the dark matter halo profile and the trajectories simultaneously from the mass accretion history. Our results on the splashback location agree qualitatively with Adhikari et al. but with small quantitative differences at large mass accretion rates. We present new fitting formulae for the splashback radius Rsp in various forms, including the ratios of Rsp/R200c and Rsp/R200m. Numerical simulations have made the puzzling discovery that the splashback radius scales well with R200m but not with R200c. We trace the origin of this to be the correlated increase of Ωm and the average halo mass accretion rate with an increasing redshift.

  19. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies. PMID:26317711

  20. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies.

  1. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo.

    PubMed

    Springel, V; White, S D M; Frenk, C S; Navarro, J F; Jenkins, A; Vogelsberger, M; Wang, J; Ludlow, A; Helmi, A

    2008-11-01

    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species. In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at a level that may soon be observable. Previous work has argued that the annihilation signal will be dominated by emission from very small clumps (perhaps smaller even than the Earth), which would be most easily detected where they cluster together in the dark matter haloes of dwarf satellite galaxies. Here we report that such small-scale structure will, in fact, have a negligible impact on dark matter detectability. Rather, the dominant and probably most easily detectable signal will be produced by diffuse dark matter in the main halo of the Milky Way. If the main halo is strongly detected, then small dark matter clumps should also be visible, but may well contain no stars, thereby confirming a key prediction of the cold dark matter model.

  2. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo.

    PubMed

    Springel, V; White, S D M; Frenk, C S; Navarro, J F; Jenkins, A; Vogelsberger, M; Wang, J; Ludlow, A; Helmi, A

    2008-11-01

    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species. In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at a level that may soon be observable. Previous work has argued that the annihilation signal will be dominated by emission from very small clumps (perhaps smaller even than the Earth), which would be most easily detected where they cluster together in the dark matter haloes of dwarf satellite galaxies. Here we report that such small-scale structure will, in fact, have a negligible impact on dark matter detectability. Rather, the dominant and probably most easily detectable signal will be produced by diffuse dark matter in the main halo of the Milky Way. If the main halo is strongly detected, then small dark matter clumps should also be visible, but may well contain no stars, thereby confirming a key prediction of the cold dark matter model. PMID:18987737

  3. Dark Matter Halos:. Shapes, the Substructure Crisis, and Indirect Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentner, A. R.; Koushiappas, S. M.; Kazantzidis, S.

    2005-04-01

    In this proceeding, we review three recent results. First, we show that halos formed in simulations with gas cooling are significantly rounder than halos formed in dissipationless N-body simulations. The increase in principle axis ratios is ~ 0.2 - 0.4 in the inner halo and remains significant at large radii. Second, we discuss the CDM substructure crisis and demonstrate the sensitivity of the crisis to the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations on small scales. Third, we assess the ability of experiments like VERITAS and GLAST to detect γ-rays from neutralino dark matter annihilation in dark subhalos about the MW.

  4. Flattened halos in a nontopological soliton model of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Eckehard W.; Peralta, Humberto H.

    2004-12-01

    Soliton type solutions of a scalar model with a Φ6 self-interaction are analyzed for their density profiles as toy model of dark matter halos. We construct exact solutions with nontrivial ellipticity due to angular momentum and propose a “nonlinear superposition” of round and flattened halos in order to improve the scaling relations and the correspondence of the predicted rotation curves to the empirical Burkert fit.

  5. Galaxy disruption in a halo of dark matter.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Duncan A; Beasley, Michael A; Bekki, Kenji; Brodie, Jean P; Strader, Jay

    2003-08-29

    The relics of disrupted satellite galaxies have been found around the Milky Way and Andromeda, but direct evidence of a satellite galaxy in the early stages of disruption has remained elusive. We have discovered a dwarf satellite galaxy in the process of being torn apart by gravitational tidal forces as it merges with a larger galaxy's dark matter halo. Our results illustrate the morphological transformation of dwarf galaxies by tidal interaction and the continued buildup of galaxy halos.

  6. THE BLACK HOLE–DARK MATTER HALO CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sabra, Bassem M.; Saliba, Charbel; Akl, Maya Abi; Chahine, Gilbert

    2015-04-10

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well-established SMBH mass–bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using intermediate relations may be misleading when one is studying them to decipher the active ingredients of galaxy formation and evolution. We believe that our approach will provide a more direct probe of the SMBH and the dark matter halo connection. We find that the correlation between the mass of SMBHs and the circular velocities of the host galaxies is extremely weak, leading us to state the dark matter halo may not play a major role in regulating the black hole growth in the present Universe.

  7. Concentration, ellipsoidal collapse, and the densest dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoli, Chiamaka; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2016-03-01

    The smallest dark matter haloes are the first objects to form in the hierarchical structure formation of cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology and are expected to be the densest and most fundamental building blocks of CDM structures in our Universe. Nevertheless, the physical characteristics of these haloes have stayed illusive, as they remain well beyond the current resolution of N-body simulations (at redshift zero). However, they dominate the predictions (and uncertainty) in expected dark matter annihilation signal, amongst other astrophysical observables. Using the conservation of total energy and the ellipsoidal collapse framework, we can analytically find the mean and scatter of concentration c and 1D velocity dispersion σ1d for haloes of different virial mass M200. Both c and σ _1d/M_{200}^{1/3} are in good agreement with numerical results within the regime probed by simulations - slowly decreasing functions of mass that approach constant values at large masses. In particular, the predictions for the 1D velocity dispersion of cluster mass haloes are surprisingly robust as the inverse heat capacity of cosmological haloes crosses zero at M200 ˜ 1014 M⊙. However, we find that current extrapolations from simulations to smallest CDM haloes dramatically depend on the assumed profile (e.g. NFW versus Einasto) and fitting function, which is why theoretical considerations, such as the one presented here, can significantly constrain the range of feasible predictions.

  8. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  9. Halo-independent tests of dark matter annual modulation signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Garcia, Juan

    2015-09-02

    New halo-independent lower bounds on the product of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section and the local dark matter density that are valid for annual modulations of dark matter direct detection signals are derived. They are obtained by making use of halo-independent bounds based on an expansion of the rate on the Earth’s velocity that were derived in previous works. In combination with astrophysical measurements of the local energy density, an observed annual modulation implies a lower bound on the cross section that is independent of the velocity distribution and that must be fulfilled by any particle physics model. In order to illustrate the power of the bounds we apply them to DAMA/LIBRA data and obtain quite strong results when compared to the standard halo model predictions. We also extend the bounds to the case of multi-target detectors.

  10. Investigating the Origins of Dark Matter Halo Density Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Liliya L. R.; Babul, Arif; Dalcanton, Julianne J.

    2004-03-01

    Although high-resolution N-body simulations make robust empirical predictions of the density distribution within cold dark matter halos, these studies have yielded little physical insight into the origins of the distribution. We therefore attempt to investigate the problem using analytic and semianalytic approaches. Simple analytic considerations suggest that the inner slope of the central cusps in dark matter halos cannot be steeper than α=2 (where ρ~r-α), with α=1.5-1.7 being a more realistic upper limit. Moreover, our analysis suggests that any number of effects, whether real (e.g., angular momentum imparted by tidal torques and secondary perturbations) or artificial (e.g., two-body interactions, the accuracy of the numerical integrator, round-off errors) will result in shallower slopes. We also find that the halos should exhibit a well-defined relationship between rperi/rapo and jθ/jr. We derive this relationship analytically and speculate that it may be ``universal.'' Using a semianalytic scheme based on Ryden & Gunn, we further explore the relationship between the specific angular momentum distribution in a halo and its density profile. For present purposes, we restrict ourselves to halos that form primarily via the nearly smooth accretion of matter, and consider only the specific angular momentum generated by secondary perturbations associated with the cold dark matter spectrum of density fluctuations. Compared to those formed in N-body simulations, our ``semianalytic'' halos are more extended, have flatter rotation curves, and have a higher specific angular momentum, even though we have not yet taken into account the effects of tidal torques. Whether the density profile of numerical halos is indeed the result of loss in angular momentum outside the central region, and whether this loss is a feature of hierarchical merging and major mergers in particular, is under investigation.

  11. The Copernicus Complexio: statistical properties of warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sownak; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Lovell, Mark R.; Helly, John C.; Li, Baojiu

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of a 3.5 keV X-ray line from the centres of galaxies and clusters by Bulbul et al. and Boyarsky et al. has been interpreted as emission from the decay of 7 keV sterile neutrinos which could make up the (warm) dark matter (WDM). As part of the Copernicus Complexio (COCO) programme, we investigate the properties of dark matter haloes formed in a high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation from initial conditions similar to those expected in a universe in which the dark matter consists of 7 keV sterile neutrinos. This simulation and its cold dark matter (CDM) counterpart have ˜13.4 bn particles, each of mass ˜105 h-1 M⊙, providing detailed information about halo structure and evolution down to dwarf galaxy mass scales. Non-linear structure formation on small scales (M200 ≲ 2 × 109 h-1 M⊙) begins slightly later in COCO-WARM than in COCO-COLD. The halo mass function at the present day in the WDM model begins to drop below its CDM counterpart at a mass ˜2 × 109 h-1 M⊙ and declines very rapidly towards lower masses so that there are five times fewer haloes of mass M200 = 108 h-1 M⊙ in COCO-WARM than in COCO-COLD. Halo concentrations on dwarf galaxy scales are correspondingly smaller in COCO-WARM, and we provide a simple functional form that describes its evolution with redshift. The shapes of haloes are similar in the two cases, but the smallest haloes in COCO-WARM rotate slightly more slowly than their CDM counterparts.

  12. The Highly Flattened Dark Matter Halo of NGC 4244

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, Rob P.

    1996-08-01

    In a previous paper (Olling 1995, AJ, 110,591) a method was developed to determine the shapes of dark matter halos of spiral galaxies from an accurate determination of the rotation curve, the flaring of the gas layer and the velocity dispersion in the HI. Here this method is applied to the almost edge-on Scd galaxy NGC 4244 for which the necessary parameters are determined in the accompanying paper (AJ, 112,457, 1996). The observed flaring of the HI beyond the optical disk puts significant constraints on the shape of the dark matter halo, which are almost independent of the stellar mass-to-light ratio. NGC 4244's dark matter halo is found to be highly flattened with a shortest-to-longest axis ratio of 0.2_-0.1_^+0.3^. If the dark matter is disk-like, the data presented in this paper imply that the vertical velocity dispersion of the dark matter must be 10%-30% larger than the measured tangential dispersion in the H I . Alternatively, the measured flaring curve is consistent with a round halo if the gaseous velocity dispersion ellipsoid is anisotropic. In that case the vertical dispersion of the gas is 50%- 70% of the measured tangential velocity dispersion.

  13. A New Model for Dark Matter Halos Hosting Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue; Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher

    2015-01-01

    A new model for quasar-hosting dark matter halos, meeting two physical conditions, is put forth. First, significant interactions are taken into consideration to trigger quasar activities. Second, satellites in very massive halos at low redshift are removed from consideration due to their deficiency in cold gas. We analyze the Millennium Simulation to find halos that meet these two conditions and simultaneously match two-point auto-correlation functions of quasars and cross-correlation functions between quasars and galaxies at z = 0.5-3.2. The masses of the quasar hosts found decrease with decreasing redshift, with the mass thresholds being [(2-5) × 1012, (2-5) × 1011, (1-3) × 1011] M ⊙ for median luminosities of ~[1046, 1046, 1045] erg s-1 at z = (3.2, 1.4, 0.53), respectively, an order of magnitude lower than those inferred based on halo occupation distribution modeling. In this model, quasar hosts are primarily massive central halos at z >= 2-3 but increasingly dominated by lower mass satellite halos experiencing major interactions toward lower redshift. However, below z = 1, satellite halos in groups more massive than ~2 × 1013 M ⊙ do not host quasars. Whether for central or satellite halos, imposing the condition of significant interactions substantially boosts the clustering strength compared to the total population with the same mass cut. The inferred lifetimes of quasars at z = 0.5-3.2 of 3-30 Myr are in agreement with observations. Quasars at z ~ 2 would be hosted by halos of mass ~5 × 1011 M ⊙ in this model, compared to ~3 × 1012 M ⊙ previously thought, which would help reconcile with the observed, otherwise puzzling high covering fractions for Lyman limit systems around quasars.

  14. Properties of Galaxy Dark Matter Halos from Weak Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Henk; Yee, H. K. C.; Gladders, Michael D.

    2004-05-01

    We present the results of a study of weak lensing by galaxies based on 45.5 deg2 of RC-band imaging data from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS). We define a sample of lenses with 19.5matter halos. We use a simple model in which the ellipticity of the halo is f times the observed ellipticity of the lens. We find a best-fit value of f=0.77+0.18-0.21, which suggests that the dark matter halos are somewhat rounder than the light distribution. The fact that we detect a significant flattening implies that the halos are well aligned with the light distribution. Given the average ellipticity of the lenses, this implies a halo ellipticity of =0.33+0.07-0.09, in fair agreement with results from numerical simulations of cold dark matter. We note that this result is formally a lower limit to the flattening, since the measurements imply a larger flattening if the halos are not aligned with the light distribution. Alternative theories of gravity (without dark matter) predict an isotropic lensing signal, which is excluded with 99.5% confidence. Hence, our results provide strong support for the existence of dark matter. We also study the average mass profile around the lenses, using a maximum likelihood analysis. We consider two models for the halo mass profile: a truncated isothermal sphere (TIS) and a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. We adopt observationally motivated scaling relations between the lens luminosity and the velocity dispersion and the extent of the halo. The TIS model yields a best-fit velocity dispersion of σ=136+/-5+/-3 km s-1 (all errors are 68% confidence limits; the first error bar indicates the statistical uncertainty, whereas the second error bar indicates the systematic error) and a truncation radius s=185+30-28h-1 kpc for a galaxy with a fiducial luminosity of LB=1010h-2LB,solar (under the assumption that

  15. Particle ejection during mergers of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H.; Joyce, Michael E-mail: sparre@dark-cosmology.dk E-mail: joyce@lpnhe.in2p3.fr

    2014-06-01

    Dark matter halos are built from accretion and merging. During merging some of the dark matter particles may be ejected with velocities higher than the escape velocity. We use both N-body simulations and single-particle smooth-field simulations to demonstrate that rapid changes to the mean field potential are responsible for such ejection, and in particular that dynamical friction plays no significant role in it. Studying a range of minor mergers, we find that typically between 5–15% of the particles from the smaller of the two merging structures are ejected. We also find that the ejected particles originate essentially from the small halo, and more specifically are particles in the small halo which pass later through the region in which the merging occurs.

  16. Systematic uncertainties from halo asphericity in dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Nicolás; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Garani, Raghuveer; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ific.uv.es

    2014-09-01

    Although commonly assumed to be spherical, dark matter halos are predicted to be non-spherical by N-body simulations and their asphericity has a potential impact on the systematic uncertainties in dark matter searches. The evaluation of these uncertainties is the main aim of this work, where we study the impact of aspherical dark matter density distributions in Milky-Way-like halos on direct and indirect searches. Using data from the large N-body cosmological simulation Bolshoi, we perform a statistical analysis and quantify the systematic uncertainties on the determination of local dark matter density and the so-called J factors for dark matter annihilations and decays from the galactic center. We find that, due to our ignorance about the extent of the non-sphericity of the Milky Way dark matter halo, systematic uncertainties can be as large as 35%, within the 95% most probable region, for a spherically averaged value for the local density of 0.3-0.4 GeV/cm {sup 3}. Similarly, systematic uncertainties on the J factors evaluated around the galactic center can be as large as 10% and 15%, within the 95% most probable region, for dark matter annihilations and decays, respectively.

  17. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  18. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2016-07-01

    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with Rvir (ΔM), a fixed-aperture (ΔR) ambient density, and a cosmic web classification (i.e. voids, sheets, filaments, and knots, as defined by the V-web algorithm). ΔM is the mean density around a halo evaluated within a sphere of a radius of 5Rvir, where Rvir is the virial radius. ΔR is the density field Gaussian smoothed with R = 4 h-1 Mpc, evaluated at the centre of the halo. The main result of the paper is that the difference between haloes in different web elements stems from the difference in their mass functions, and does not depend on their adaptive-aperture ambient density. A dependence on the fixed-aperture ambient density is induced by the cross-correlation between the mass of a halo and its fixed-aperture ambient density.

  19. Phase-space structure of cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.; Ipser, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    A galactic halo of cold dark matter particles has a sheet-like structure in phase-space. The energy and momentum spectra of such particles on earth has a set of peaks whose central values and intensities form a record of the formation of the Galaxy. Scattering of the dark matter particles by stars and globular clusters broadens the peaks but does not erase them entirely. The giant shells around some elliptical galaxies may be a manifestation of this structure.

  20. Dynamical evolution of primordial dark matter haloes through mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiya, Go; Nagai, Daisuke; Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2016-09-01

    Primordial dark matter (DM) haloes are the smallest gravitationally bound DM structures from which the first stars, black holes and galaxies form and grow in the early universe. However, their structures are sensitive to the free streaming scale of DM, which in turn depends on the nature of DM particles. In this work, we test the hypothesis that the slope of the central cusps in primordial DM haloes near the free streaming scale depends on the nature of merging process. By combining and analysing data from a cosmological simulation with the cutoff in the small-scale matter power spectrum as well as a suite of controlled, high-resolution simulations of binary mergers, we find that (1) the primordial DM haloes form preferentially through major mergers in radial orbits; (2) their central DM density profile is more susceptible to a merging process compared to that of galaxy- and cluster-sized DM haloes; (3) consecutive major mergers drive the central density slope to approach the universal form characterized by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, which is shown to be robust to the impacts of mergers and serves an attractor solution for the density structure of DM haloes. Our work highlights the importance of dynamical processes on the structure formation during the Dark Ages.

  1. Modeling Galactic Halos with Predominantly Quintessential Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, F.; Kuhfittig, Peter K. F.; Chakraborty, K.; Kalam, M.; Hossain, D.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses a new model for galactic dark matter by combining an anisotropic pressure field corresponding to normal matter and a quintessence dark energy field having a characteristic parameter ω q such that -1<ωq< -1/3. Stable stellar orbits together with an attractive gravity exist only if ω q is extremely close to -1/3, a result consistent with the special case studied by Guzman et al. (Rev. Mex. Fis. 49:303, 2003). Less exceptional forms of quintessence dark energy do not yield the desired stable orbits and are therefore unsuitable for modeling dark matter.

  2. Hierarchical formation of Dark Matter Halos near the Free Streaming Scale, and Their Implications on Indirect Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2016-10-01

    The smallest dark matter halos are formed first in the early universe. According to recent studies, the central density cusp is much steeper in these halos than in larger halos and scales as ρ ~ r -(1.5-1.3). We present results of very large cosmological N-body simulations of the hierarchical formation and evolution of halos over a wide mass range, beginning from the formation of the smallest halos. We confirmed early studies that the inner density cusps are steeper in halos at the free streaming scale. The cusp slope gradually becomes shallower as the halo mass increases. The slope of halos 50 times more massive than the smallest halo is approximately -1.3. The concentration parameter is nearly independent of halo mass, and ruling out simple power law mass-concentration relations. The steeper inner cusps of halos near the free streaming scale enhance the annihilation luminosity of a Milky Way sized halo between 12 to 67%.

  3. A Robust Measure of Dark Matter Halo Ellipticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evslin, Jarah

    2016-08-01

    In simulations of the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM), dark matter halos are aspherical. However, so far the asphericity of an individual galaxy’s halo has never been robustly established. We use the Jeans equations to define a quantity that robustly characterizes a deviation from rotational symmetry. This quantity is essentially the gravitational torque and it roughly provides the ellipticity projected along the line of sight. We show that the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), with a single epoch of observations combined with those of the Gaia Space Telescope, can distinguish the ΛCDM value of the torque from zero for each Sculptor-like dwarf galaxy with a confidence between 0 and 5σ, depending on the orientation of each halo. With two epochs of observations, TMT will achieve a 5σ discovery of torque and thus asphericity for most such galaxies, thus providing a new and powerful test of the ΛCDM model.

  4. Could wormholes form in dark matter galactic halos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Farook; Shit, G. C.; Sen, Banashree; Ray, Saibal

    2016-01-01

    We estimate expression for velocity as a function of the radial coordinate r by using polynomial interpolation based on the experimental data of rotational velocities at distant outer regions of galaxies. The interpolation technique has been used to estimate fifth degree polynomial followed by cubic spline interpolation. This rotational velocity is used to find the geometry of galactic halo regions within the framework of Einstein's general relativity. In this paper we have analyzed features of galactic halo regions based on two possible choices for the dark matter density profile, viz. Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) type (Navarro et al. in Astrophys. J. 462:563, 1996) and Universal Rotation Curve (URC) (Castignani et al. in Nat. Sci. 4:265, 2012). It is argued that spacetime of the galactic halo possesses some of the characteristics needed to support traversable wormholes.

  5. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Haiman, Zoltán; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with S /N >1 (where S /N is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find ≈50 % fewer counts for peaks near S /N =0 and significantly higher counts in the negative S /N tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within 20% for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the {Ωm,σ8} are ≈30 % larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with 2 3 ). Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14% improvement in parameter constraints. We identified the covariance estimation as the main driver behind differences in inference, and suggest possible ways to make Camelus even more useful as a highly accurate peak count emulator.

  6. Stellar spiral structures in triaxial dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoran; Sijacki, Debora

    2016-09-01

    We employ very high resolution simulations of isolated Milky Way-like galaxies to study the effect of triaxial dark matter haloes on exponential stellar discs. Non-adiabatic halo shape changes can trigger two-armed grand-design spiral structures which extend all the way to the edge of the disc. Their pattern speed coincides with the inner Lindblad resonance indicating that they are kinematic density waves which can persist up to several Gyr. In dynamically cold discs, grand-design spirals are swing amplified and after a few Gyr can lead to the formation of (multi-armed) transient recurrent spirals. Stellar discs misaligned to the principal planes of the host triaxial halo develop characteristic integral shaped warps, but otherwise exhibit very similar spiral structures as aligned discs. For the grand-design spirals in our simulations, their strength dependence with radius is determined by the torque on the disc, suggesting that by studying grand-design spirals without bars it may be possible to set constraints on the tidal field and host dark matter halo shape.

  7. A NEW MODEL FOR DARK MATTER HALOS HOSTING QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Renyue; Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher

    2015-01-10

    A new model for quasar-hosting dark matter halos, meeting two physical conditions, is put forth. First, significant interactions are taken into consideration to trigger quasar activities. Second, satellites in very massive halos at low redshift are removed from consideration due to their deficiency in cold gas. We analyze the Millennium Simulation to find halos that meet these two conditions and simultaneously match two-point auto-correlation functions of quasars and cross-correlation functions between quasars and galaxies at z = 0.5-3.2. The masses of the quasar hosts found decrease with decreasing redshift, with the mass thresholds being [(2-5) × 10{sup 12}, (2-5) × 10{sup 11}, (1-3) × 10{sup 11}] M {sub ☉} for median luminosities of ∼[10{sup 46}, 10{sup 46}, 10{sup 45}] erg s{sup –1} at z = (3.2, 1.4, 0.53), respectively, an order of magnitude lower than those inferred based on halo occupation distribution modeling. In this model, quasar hosts are primarily massive central halos at z ≥ 2-3 but increasingly dominated by lower mass satellite halos experiencing major interactions toward lower redshift. However, below z = 1, satellite halos in groups more massive than ∼2 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} do not host quasars. Whether for central or satellite halos, imposing the condition of significant interactions substantially boosts the clustering strength compared to the total population with the same mass cut. The inferred lifetimes of quasars at z = 0.5-3.2 of 3-30 Myr are in agreement with observations. Quasars at z ∼ 2 would be hosted by halos of mass ∼5 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} in this model, compared to ∼3 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} previously thought, which would help reconcile with the observed, otherwise puzzling high covering fractions for Lyman limit systems around quasars.

  8. Chandra's Find of Lonely Halo Raises Questions About Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Dark matter continues to confound astronomers, as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory demonstrated with the detection of an extensive envelope of dark matter around an isolated elliptical galaxy. This discovery conflicts with optical data that suggest a dearth of dark matter around similar galaxies, and raises questions about how galaxies acquire and keep such dark matter halos. The observed galaxy, known as NGC 4555, is unusual in that it is a fairly large, elliptical galaxy that is not part of a group or cluster of galaxies. In a paper to be published in the November 1, 2004 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Ewan O'Sullivan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA and Trevor Ponman of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, use the Chandra data to show that the galaxy is embedded in a cloud of 10-million-degree-Celsius gas. X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 This hot gas cloud has a diameter of about 400,000 light years, about twice that of the visible galaxy. An enormous envelope, or halo, of dark matter is needed to confine the hot cloud to the galaxy. The total mass of the dark matter halo is about ten times the combined mass of the stars in the galaxy, and 300 times the mass of the hot gas cloud. A growing body of evidence indicates that dark matter - which interacts with itself and "normal" matter only through gravity - is the dominant form of matter in the universe. According to the popular "cold dark matter" theory, dark matter consists of mysterious particles left over from the dense early universe that were moving slowly when galaxies and galaxy clusters began to form. "The observed properties of NGC 4555 confirm that elliptical galaxies can posses dark matter halos of their own, regardless of their environment," said O'Sullivan. "This raises an important question: what determines whether elliptical galaxies have dark matter halos?" DSS Optical Image of NGC

  9. HMcode: Halo-model matter power spectrum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    HMcode computes the halo-model matter power spectrum. It is written in Fortran90 and has been designed to quickly (~0.5s for 200 k-values across 16 redshifts on a single core) produce matter spectra for a wide range of cosmological models. In testing it was shown to match spectra produced by the 'Coyote Emulator' to an accuracy of 5 per cent for k less than 10h Mpc^-1. However, it can also produce spectra well outside of the parameter space of the emulator.

  10. The Dark Matter halo of the Milky Way, AD 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Nesti, Fabrizio; Salucci, Paolo E-mail: salucci@sissa.it

    2013-07-01

    We derive the mass model of the Milky Way (MW), crucial for Dark Matter (DM) direct and indirect detection, using recent data and a cored dark matter (DM) halo profile, which is favoured by studies of external galaxies. The method used consists in fitting a spherically symmetric model of the Galaxy with a Burkert DM halo profile to available data: MW terminal velocities in the region inside the solar circle, circular velocity as recently estimated from maser star forming regions at intermediate radii, and velocity dispersions of stellar halo tracers for the outermost Galactic region. The latter are reproduced by integrating the Jeans equation for every modeled mass distribution, and by allowing for different velocity anisotropies for different tracer populations. For comparison we also consider a Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We find that the cored profile is the preferred one, with a shallow central density of ρ{sub H} ∼ 4 × 10{sup 7}M{sub ☉}/kpc{sup 3} and a large core radius R{sub H} ∼ 10 kpc, as observed in external spirals and in agreement with the mass model underlying the Universal Rotation Curve of spirals. We describe also the derived model uncertainties, which are crucially driven by the poorly constrained velocity dispersion anisotropies of halo tracers. The emerging cored DM distribution has implications for the DM annihilation angular profile, which is much less boosted in the Galactic center direction with respect to the case of the standard ΛCDM, NFW profile. Using the derived uncertainties we discuss finally the limitations and prospects to discriminate between cored and cusped DM profile with a possible observed diffuse DM annihilation signal. The present mass model aims to characterize the present-day description of the distribution of matter in our Galaxy, which is needed to frame current crucial issues of Cosmology, Astrophysics and Elementary Particles.

  11. Subhaloes in self-interacting galactic dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsberger, Mark; Zavala, Jesus; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-07-01

    We present N-body simulations of a new class of self-interacting dark matter models, which do not violate any astrophysical constraints due to a non-power-law velocity dependence of the transfer cross-section which is motivated by a Yukawa-like new gauge boson interaction. Specifically, we focus on the formation of a Milky-Way-like dark matter halo taken from the Aquarius project and resimulate it for a couple of representative cases in the allowed parameter space of this new model. We find that for these cases, the main halo only develops a small core (˜1 kpc) followed by a density profile identical to that of the standard cold dark matter scenario outside of that radius. Neither the subhalo mass function nor the radial number density of subhaloes is altered in these models but there is a significant change in the inner density structure of subhaloes resulting in the formation of a large density core. As a consequence, the inner circular velocity profiles of the most massive subhaloes differ significantly from the cold dark matter predictions and we demonstrate that they are compatible with the observational data of the brightest Milky Way dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) in such a velocity-dependent self-interacting dark matter scenario. Specifically, and contrary to the cold dark matter case, there are no subhaloes that are more concentrated than what is inferred from the kinematics of the Milky Way dSphs. We conclude that these models offer an interesting alternative to the cold dark matter model that can reduce the recently reported tension between the brightest Milky Way satellites and the dense subhaloes found in cold dark matter simulations.

  12. Stochastic gravitational wave background from cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Matarrese, Sabino

    2006-03-15

    The current knowledge of cosmological structure formation suggests that Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halos possess a nonspherical density profile, implying that cosmic structures can be potential sources of gravitational waves via power transfer from scalar perturbations to tensor metric modes in the nonlinear regime. By means of a previously developed mathematical formalism and a triaxial collapse model, we numerically estimate the stochastic gravitational-wave background generated by CDM halos during the fully nonlinear stage of their evolution. Our results suggest that the energy density associated with this background is comparable to that produced by primordial tensor modes at frequencies {nu}{approx_equal}10{sup -18}-10{sup -17} Hz if the energy scale of inflation is V{sup 1/4}{approx_equal}1-2x10{sup 15} GeV, and that these gravitational waves could give rise to several cosmological effects, including secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization.

  13. Analysis Methods for Milky Way Dark Matter Halo Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, Aaron; Winer, Brian; Hughes, Richard; Wai, Larry; Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-10-11

    We present methods for the analysis of dark matter annihilation in the smooth halo of the Milky Way galaxy. We model the diffuse gamma-ray background using GALPROP, and model the halo using an NFW profile and the gamma-ray spectrum for WIMP pair annihilation. We plan to combine these models with the point source catalog and a simple model for the extragalactic gamma ray background. Using the downhill simplex method to converge on the maximum likelihood value, we can vary key parameters in these models and fit them to the gamma-ray data. Through the use of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method we can then map out the likelihood as a function of the model parameters to estimate the correlated errors on these parameters.

  14. Dwarf galaxies in multistate scalar field dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Robles, V. H.; Matos, T.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the velocity dispersion for eight of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellites in the context of finite temperature scalar field dark matter. In this model the finite temperature allows the scalar field to be in configurations that possess excited states, a feature that has proved to be necessary in order to explain the asymptotic rotational velocities found in low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. In this work we show that excited states are not only important in large galaxies but also have visible effects in dwarf spheroidals. Additionally, we stress that contrary to previous works where the scalar field dark matter halos are consider to be purely Bose-Einstein condensates, the inclusion of excited states in these halo configurations provides a consistent framework capable of describing LSB and dwarf galaxies of different sizes without arriving to contradictions within the scalar field dark matter model. Using this new framework we find that the addition of excited states accounts very well for the raise in the velocity dispersion in Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies improving the fit compared to the one obtained assuming all the dark matter to be in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

  15. Dark matter halo as the dispersional gravitational lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechin, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the time-variability of the dark matter (DM) parameter of state (PoS) type of ω (t) = ω 0+ ω α ḑot ((t)/(T))α , the conception of dispersional gravitational lens (DGL) was proposed. The dependency of refractive index of DM halo on its own global oscillations was found. It was shown that DM does not oscillate with optical or ultraviolet and X-ray diapasons, but it may oscillate with essentially low frequency — ϖDM≥10-15Hz. Hence, it is possible to talk about the ultra weak DM oscillations, and the very cold dark matter (VCDM) particles whose masses are larger than mVCDM≥10-42eV. It was marked briefly that DM global oscillations will gradually pump with elastic energy the galaxy's baryonic matter. Hence, they may be the real reason of its subsequent fragmentation and the inner galaxy structure formation.

  16. HaloSat: A CubeSat to Map the Distribution of Baryonic Matter in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Drew M.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately half of predicted baryonic matter in the Milky Way remains unidentified. One possible explanation for the location of this missing matter is in an extended Galactic halo. HaloSat is a CubeSat that aims to constrain the mass and distribution of the halo’s baryonic matter by obtaining an all-sky map of O VII and O VIII emission in the hot gas associated with the halo of the Milky Way. HaloSat offers an improvement in the quality of measurements of oxygen line emission over existing X-ray observatories and an observation plan dedicated to mapping the hot gas in the Galactic halo. In addition to the missing baryon problem, HaloSat will assign a portion of its observations to the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) in order to calibrate models of SCWX emission. We present here the current status of HaloSat and the progression of instrument development in anticipation of a 2018 launch.

  17. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes - II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum, we consider two quenching scenarios: (1) a `halo' quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and (2) a `hybrid' quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass, while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fitting models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above 1011 h-2 M⊙. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not tied to halo mass, including an age-matching model in which galaxy colour depends on halo age at fixed M*, fail to reproduce the observed halo mass for massive blue centrals. We find similar critical halo masses responsible for the quenching of centrals and satellites (˜1.5 × 1012 h-1 M⊙), hinting at a uniform quenching mechanism for both, e.g. the virial shock heating of infalling gas. The success of the iHOD halo quenching model provides strong evidence that the physical mechanism that quenches star formation in galaxies is tied principally to the masses of their dark matter haloes rather than the properties of their stellar components.

  18. Dissecting the spin distribution of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Dobrotka, A.; Becciani, U.; Cielo, S.; Giocoli, C.; Macciò, A. V.; Romeo-Veloná, A.

    2010-09-01

    The spin probability distribution of dark matter haloes has often been modelled as being very near to a lognormal. Most of the theoretical attempts to explain its origin and evolution invoke some hypotheses concerning the influence of tidal interactions or merging on haloes. Here we apply a very general statistical theorem introduced by Cramér (1936) to study the origin of the deviations from the reference lognormal shape: we find that these deviations originate from correlations between two quantities entering the definition of spin, namely the ratio J/M5/2 (which depends only on mass) and the modulus E of the total (gravitational + kinetic) energy. To reach this conclusion, we have made usage of the results deduced from two high spatial- and mass-resolution simulations. Our simulations cover a relatively small volume and produce a sample of more than 16000 gravitationally bound haloes, each traced by at least 300 particles. We verify that our results are stable to different systematics, by comparing our results with those derived by the GIF2 and by a more recent simulation performed by Macciò et al. We find that the spin probability distribution function shows systematic deviations from a lognormal, at all redshifts z <~ 1. These deviations depend on mass and redshift: at small masses they change little with redshift, and also the best lognormal fits are more stable. The J -M relationship is well described by a power law of exponent α very near to the linear theory prediction (α = 5/3), but systematically lower than this at z <~ 0.3. We argue that the fact that deviations from a lognormal PDF are present only for high-spin haloes could point to a role of large-scale tidal fields in the evolution of the spin PDF.

  19. Cold Dark Matter Substructures in Early-type Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Madau, Piero; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    We present initial results from the “Ponos” zoom-in numerical simulations of dark matter substructures in massive ellipticals. Two very highly resolved dark matter halos with M vir = 1.2 × 1013 {M}⊙ and M vir = 6.5 × 1012 {M}⊙ and different (“violent” versus “quiescent”) assembly histories have been simulated down to z = 0 in a ΛCDM cosmology with a total of 921,651,914 and 408,377,544 particles, respectively. Within the virial radius, the total mass fraction in self-bound M sub > 106 {M}⊙ subhalos at the present epoch is 15% for the violent host and 16.5% for the quiescent one. At z = 0.7, these fractions increase to 19% and 33%, respectively, as more recently accreted satellites are less prone to tidal destruction. In projection, the average fraction of surface mass density in substructure at a distance of R/R vir = 0.02 (˜5-10 kpc) from the two halo centers ranges from 0.6% to ≳2%, significantly higher than that measured in simulations of Milky Way-sized halos. The contribution of subhalos with M sub < 109 {M}⊙ to the projected mass fraction is between one-fifth and one-third of the total, with the smallest share found in the quiescent host. We assess the impact of baryonic effects via twin, lower-resolution hydrodynamical simulations that include metallicity-dependent gas cooling, star formation, and a delayed-radiative-cooling scheme for supernova feedback. Baryonic contraction produces a super-isothermal total density profile and increases the number of massive subhalos in the inner regions of the main host. The host density profiles and projected subhalo mass fractions appear to be broadly consistent with observations of gravitational lenses.

  20. Cold Dark Matter Substructures in Early-type Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Madau, Piero; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    We present initial results from the “Ponos” zoom-in numerical simulations of dark matter substructures in massive ellipticals. Two very highly resolved dark matter halos with M vir = 1.2 × 1013 {M}ȯ and M vir = 6.5 × 1012 {M}ȯ and different (“violent” versus “quiescent”) assembly histories have been simulated down to z = 0 in a ΛCDM cosmology with a total of 921,651,914 and 408,377,544 particles, respectively. Within the virial radius, the total mass fraction in self-bound M sub > 106 {M}ȯ subhalos at the present epoch is 15% for the violent host and 16.5% for the quiescent one. At z = 0.7, these fractions increase to 19% and 33%, respectively, as more recently accreted satellites are less prone to tidal destruction. In projection, the average fraction of surface mass density in substructure at a distance of R/R vir = 0.02 (˜5–10 kpc) from the two halo centers ranges from 0.6% to ≳2%, significantly higher than that measured in simulations of Milky Way-sized halos. The contribution of subhalos with M sub < 109 {M}ȯ to the projected mass fraction is between one-fifth and one-third of the total, with the smallest share found in the quiescent host. We assess the impact of baryonic effects via twin, lower-resolution hydrodynamical simulations that include metallicity-dependent gas cooling, star formation, and a delayed-radiative-cooling scheme for supernova feedback. Baryonic contraction produces a super-isothermal total density profile and increases the number of massive subhalos in the inner regions of the main host. The host density profiles and projected subhalo mass fractions appear to be broadly consistent with observations of gravitational lenses.

  1. Signatures of dark matter halo expansion in galaxy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Chris B.; Di Cintio, Arianna

    2015-10-01

    Dark matter cores within galaxy haloes can be formed by energy feedback from star-forming regions: an energy balance suggests that the maximum core formation efficiency arises in galaxies with Mstar ˜ 108.5 M⊙. We show that a model population of galaxies, in which the density profile has been modified by such baryonic feedback, is able to explain the observed galaxy velocity function and Tully-Fisher relations significantly better than a model in which a universal cuspy density profile is assumed. Alternative models, namely warm or self-interacting dark matter, also provide a better match to these observed relations than a universal profile model does, but make different predictions for how halo density profiles vary with mass compared to the baryonic feedback case. We propose that different core formation mechanisms may be distinguished based on the imprint they leave on galaxy populations over a wide range of mass. Within the current observational data we find evidence of the expected signatures of the mass dependence of core formation generated by baryonic feedback.

  2. The Impact of Baryonic Physics on the Structure of Dark Matter Halos: the View from the FIRE Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keung Chan, Tsang; Keres, Dusan; Oñorbe, Jose; Hopkins, Philip F.; Muratov, Alexander; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-06-01

    We study the distribution of cold dark matter (CDM) in cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project, which incorporates explicit stellar feedback in the multi-phase ISM, with energetics from stellar population models. We find that stellar feedback, without ``fine-tuned'' parameters, greatly alleviates small-scale problems in CDM. Feedback causes bursts of star formation and outflows, altering the DM distribution. As a result, the inner slope of the DM halo profile (α) shows a strong mass dependence: profiles are shallow at Mh ˜ 1010-1011 M⊙ and steepen at higher/lower masses. The resulting core sizes and slopes are consistent with observations. Because the star formation efficiency, Ms/Mh is strongly halo mass dependent, a rapid change in α occurs around Mh ˜1010M⊙, (Ms˜106-107M⊙) as sufficient feedback energy becomes available to perturb the DM. Large cores are not established during the period of rapid growth of halos because of ongoing DM mass accumulation. Instead, cores require several bursts of star formation after the rapid buildup has completed. Stellar feedback dramatically reduces circular velocities in the inner kpc of massive dwarfs; this could be sufficient to explain the ``Too Big To Fail'' problem without invoking non-standard DM. Finally, feedback and baryonic contraction in Milky Way-mass halos produce DM profiles slightly shallower than the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, consistent with the normalization of the observed Tully-Fisher relation.

  3. CALET's sensitivity to Dark Matter annihilation in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motz, H.; Asaoka, Y.; Torii, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2015-12-01

    CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), installed on the ISS in August 2015, directly measures the electron+positron cosmic rays flux up to 20 TeV. With its proton rejection capability of 1 : 105 and an aperture of 1200 cm2· sr, it will provide good statistics even well above one TeV, while also featuring an energy resolution of 2%, which allows it to detect fine structures in the spectrum. Such structures may originate from Dark Matter annihilation or decay, making indirect Dark Matter search one of CALET's main science objectives among others such as identification of signatures from nearby supernova remnants, study of the heavy nuclei spectra and gamma astronomy. The latest results from AMS-02 on positron fraction and total electron+positron flux can be fitted with a parametrization including a single pulsar as an extra power law source with exponential cut-off, which emits an equal amount of electrons and positrons. This single pulsar scenario for the positron excess is extrapolated into the TeV region and the expected CALET data for this case are simulated. Based on this prediction for CALET data, the sensitivity of CALET to Dark Matter annihilation in the galactic halo has been calculated. It is shown that CALET could significantly improve the limits compared to current data, especially for those Dark Matter candidates that feature a large fraction of annihilation directly into e+ + e-, such as the LKP (Lightest Kaluza-Klein particle).

  4. THE COSMIC HISTORY OF THE SPIN OF DARK MATTER HALOS WITHIN THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Trowland, Holly E.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-01-10

    We use N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the orientation and magnitude of dark matter halo angular momentum within the large-scale structure since z = 3. We look at the evolution of the alignment of halo spins with filaments and with each other, as well as the spin parameter, which is a measure of the magnitude of angular momentum. It was found that the angular momentum vectors of dark matter halos at high redshift have a weak tendency to be orthogonal to filaments and high-mass halos have a stronger orthogonal alignment than low-mass halos. Since z = 1, the spins of low-mass halos have become weakly aligned parallel to filaments, whereas high-mass halos kept their orthogonal alignment. This recent parallel alignment of low-mass halos casts doubt on tidal torque theory as the sole mechanism for the buildup of angular momentum. We see evidence for bulk flows and the broadening of filaments over time in the alignments of halo spin and velocities. We find a significant alignment of the spin of neighboring dark matter halos only at very small separations, r < 0.3 Mpc h {sup -1}, which is driven by substructure. A correlation of the spin parameter with halo mass is confirmed at high redshift.

  5. Possible evidence of thermodynamic equilibrium in dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Joshua; Sarker, Sanjoy K.; Stern, Allen E-mail: ssarker@ua.edu

    2014-06-10

    After deducing the density profiles and gravitational potential functions of eight galaxies from the rotation velocity data from THINGS, we find that the density decreases exponentially with the potential in substantial regions of the halos. This behavior is in agreement with that of a single-component isothermal Boltzmann gas, and it suggests that an effective description in terms of a Boltzmann gas is possible for dark matter in these regions. This could be an indication that dark matter self-interactions are sufficient in strength and number to lead to thermal equilibrium in these regions. We write down the dynamics and boundary conditions for a Boltzmann gas description and examine some of its qualitative and quantitative consequences. Solutions to the dynamical system are determined by three dimensionfull parameters, and they provide reasonable fits to the rotational velocity data in the regions where the Boltzmann-like behavior was found. Unlike in the usual approach to curve fitting, we do not assume a specific form for the dark matter density profile, and we do not require a detailed knowledge of the baryonic content of the galaxy.

  6. Detecting the Disruption of Dark-Matter Halos with Stellar Streams.

    PubMed

    Bovy, Jo

    2016-03-25

    Narrow stellar streams in the Milky Way halo are uniquely sensitive to dark-matter subhalos, but many of these subhalos may be tidally disrupted. I calculate the interaction between stellar and dark-matter streams using analytical and N-body calculations, showing that disrupting objects can be detected as low-concentration subhalos. Through this effect, we can constrain the lumpiness of the halo as well as the orbit and present position of individual dark-matter streams. This will have profound implications for the formation of halos and for direct- and indirect-detection dark-matter searches.

  7. Detecting the Disruption of Dark-Matter Halos with Stellar Streams.

    PubMed

    Bovy, Jo

    2016-03-25

    Narrow stellar streams in the Milky Way halo are uniquely sensitive to dark-matter subhalos, but many of these subhalos may be tidally disrupted. I calculate the interaction between stellar and dark-matter streams using analytical and N-body calculations, showing that disrupting objects can be detected as low-concentration subhalos. Through this effect, we can constrain the lumpiness of the halo as well as the orbit and present position of individual dark-matter streams. This will have profound implications for the formation of halos and for direct- and indirect-detection dark-matter searches. PMID:27058067

  8. Properties of dark matter haloes and their correlations: the lesson from principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skibba, Ramin A.; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2011-09-01

    We study the correlations between the structural parameters of dark matter haloes using principal component analysis. We consider a set of eight parameters, six of which are commonly used to characterize dark matter halo properties: mass, concentration, spin, shape, overdensity and the angle (ΦL) between the major axis and the angular momentum vector. Two additional parameters (xoff and ρrms) are used to describe the degree of 'relaxedness' of the halo. We find that we can account for much of the variance of these properties with halo mass and concentration, on the one hand, and halo relaxedness on the other. None the less, three principal components are usually required to account for most of the variance. We argue that halo mass is not as dominant as expected, which is a challenge for halo occupation models and semi-analytic models that assume that mass determines other halo (and galaxy) properties. In addition, we find that the angle ΦL is not significantly correlated with other halo parameters, which may present a difficulty for models in which galaxy discs are oriented in haloes in a particular way. Finally, at fixed mass, we find that a halo's environment (quantified by the large-scale overdensity) is relatively unimportant.

  9. Three-point galaxy-galaxy lensing as a probe of dark matter halo shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Susmita; Chue, Chun Yin Ricky; Dalal, Neal E-mail: chue2@illinois.edu

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the ellipticities of dark matter halos using the lens-shear-shear 3-point correlation function. This method is immune to effects of galaxy-halo misalignments that can potentially limit 2-point galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements of halo anisotropy. Using a simple model for the projected mass distributions of dark matter halos, we construct an ellipticity estimator that sums over all possible triangular configurations of the 3-point function. By applying our estimator to halos from N-body simulations, we find that systematic errors in the recovered ellipticity will be at the ∼< 5% fractional level. We estimate that future imaging surveys like LSST will have sufficient statistics to detect halo ellipticities using 3-point lensing.

  10. CALET's sensitivity to Dark Matter annihilation in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Motz, H.; Asaoka, Y.; Torii, S.; Bhattacharyya, S. E-mail: yoichi.asaoka@aoni.waseda.jp E-mail: saptashwab@ruri.waseda.jp

    2015-12-01

    CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), installed on the ISS in August 2015, directly measures the electron+positron cosmic rays flux up to 20 TeV. With its proton rejection capability of 1 : 10{sup 5} and an aperture of 1200 cm{sup 2·} sr, it will provide good statistics even well above one TeV, while also featuring an energy resolution of 2%, which allows it to detect fine structures in the spectrum. Such structures may originate from Dark Matter annihilation or decay, making indirect Dark Matter search one of CALET's main science objectives among others such as identification of signatures from nearby supernova remnants, study of the heavy nuclei spectra and gamma astronomy. The latest results from AMS-02 on positron fraction and total electron+positron flux can be fitted with a parametrization including a single pulsar as an extra power law source with exponential cut-off, which emits an equal amount of electrons and positrons. This single pulsar scenario for the positron excess is extrapolated into the TeV region and the expected CALET data for this case are simulated. Based on this prediction for CALET data, the sensitivity of CALET to Dark Matter annihilation in the galactic halo has been calculated. It is shown that CALET could significantly improve the limits compared to current data, especially for those Dark Matter candidates that feature a large fraction of annihilation directly into e{sup +} + e{sup −}, such as the LKP (Lightest Kaluza-Klein particle)

  11. The impact of baryonic physics on the structure of dark matter haloes: the view from the FIRE cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. K.; Kereš, D.; Oñorbe, J.; Hopkins, P. F.; Muratov, A. L.; Faucher-Giguère, C.-A.; Quataert, E.

    2015-12-01

    We study the distribution of cold dark matter (CDM) in cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project, for M* ˜ 104-11 M⊙ galaxies in Mh ˜ 109-12 M⊙ haloes. FIRE incorporates explicit stellar feedback in the multiphase interstellar medium, with energetics from stellar population models. We find that stellar feedback, without `fine-tuned' parameters, greatly alleviates small-scale problems in CDM. Feedback causes bursts of star formation and outflows, altering the DM distribution. As a result, the inner slope of the DM halo profile (α) shows a strong mass dependence: profiles are shallow at Mh ˜ 1010-1011 M⊙ and steepen at higher/lower masses. The resulting core sizes and slopes are consistent with observations. This is broadly consistent with previous work using simpler feedback schemes, but we find steeper mass dependence of α, and relatively late growth of cores. Because the star formation efficiency M*/Mh is strongly halo mass dependent, a rapid change in α occurs around Mh ˜ 1010 M⊙ (M* ˜ 106-107 M⊙), as sufficient feedback energy becomes available to perturb the DM. Large cores are not established during the period of rapid growth of haloes because of ongoing DM mass accumulation. Instead, cores require several bursts of star formation after the rapid build-up has completed. Stellar feedback dramatically reduces circular velocities in the inner kpc of massive dwarfs; this could be sufficient to explain the `Too Big To Fail' problem without invoking non-standard DM. Finally, feedback and baryonic contraction in Milky Way-mass haloes produce DM profiles slightly shallower than the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, consistent with the normalization of the observed Tully-Fisher relation.

  12. Evidence of lensing of the cosmic microwave background by dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Madhavacheril, Mathew; Sehgal, Neelima; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Caligiuri, Jerod; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Fogarty, Kevin; Grace, Emily; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-04-17

    We present evidence of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by 10(13) solar mass dark matter halos. Lensing convergence maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) are stacked at the positions of around 12 000 optically selected CMASS galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The mean lensing signal is consistent with simulated dark matter halo profiles and is favored over a null signal at 3.2σ significance. This result demonstrates the potential of microwave background lensing to probe the dark matter distribution in galaxy group and galaxy cluster halos.

  13. Evidence of lensing of the cosmic microwave background by dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Madhavacheril, Mathew; Sehgal, Neelima; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Caligiuri, Jerod; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Fogarty, Kevin; Grace, Emily; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-04-17

    We present evidence of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by 10(13) solar mass dark matter halos. Lensing convergence maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) are stacked at the positions of around 12 000 optically selected CMASS galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The mean lensing signal is consistent with simulated dark matter halo profiles and is favored over a null signal at 3.2σ significance. This result demonstrates the potential of microwave background lensing to probe the dark matter distribution in galaxy group and galaxy cluster halos. PMID:25933304

  14. A two-parameter matching scheme for massive galaxies and dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2015-10-01

    Halo abundance matching has been used to construct a one-parameter mapping between galaxies and dark matter haloes by assuming that halo mass and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass) are monotonically related. While this approach has been reasonably successful, it is known that galaxies must be described by at least two parameters, as can be seen from the two-parameter Fundamental Plane on which massive early-type galaxies lie. In this paper, we derive a connection between initial dark matter density perturbations in the early Universe and present-day virialized dark matter haloes by assuming simple spherical collapse combined with conservation of mass and energy. We find that z = 0 halo concentration, or alternatively the inner slope of the halo density profile α, is monotonically and positively correlated with the collapse redshift of the halo. This is qualitatively similar to the findings of some previous works based on numerical simulations, with which we compare our results. We then describe how the halo mass and concentration (or inner slope α) can be used as two halo parameters in combination with two parameters of early-type galaxies to create an improved abundance matching scheme. In a forthcoming paper, we will show an application of this scheme to galaxies on the Fundamental Plane.

  15. Effect of dark matter halo on global spiral modes in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumavo; Saini, Tarun Deep; Jog, Chanda J.

    2016-02-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies form a major class of galaxies, and are characterized by low disc surface density and low star formation rate. These are known to be dominated by dark matter halo from the innermost regions. Here, we study the role of the dark matter halo on the grand-design, m = 2, spiral modes in a galactic disc by carrying out a global mode analysis in the WKB approximation. The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule is used to determine how many discrete global spiral modes are permitted. First, a typical superthin, LSB galaxy UGC 7321 is studied by taking only the galactic disc, modelled as a fluid; and then the disc embedded in a dark matter halo. We find that both cases permit the existence of global spiral modes. This is in contrast to earlier results where the inclusion of dark matter halo was shown to nearly fully suppress local, swing-amplified spiral features. Although technically global modes are permitted in the fluid model as shown here, we argue that due to lack of tidal interactions, these are not triggered in LSB galaxies. For comparison, we carried out a similar analysis for the Galaxy, for which the dark matter halo does not dominate in the inner regions. We show that here too the dark matter halo has little effect, hence the disc embedded in a halo is also able to support global modes. The derived pattern speed of the global mode agrees fairly well with the observed value for the Galaxy.

  16. ASSEMBLY BIAS AND THE DYNAMICAL STRUCTURE OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Faltenbacher, Andreas; White, Simon D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Millennium Simulation we examine assembly bias for the halo properties: shape, triaxiality, concentration, spin, shape of the velocity ellipsoid, and velocity anisotropy. For consistency, we determine all these properties using the same set of particles, namely all gravitationally self-bound particles belonging to the most massive substructure of a given friends-of-friends halo. We confirm that near-spherical and high-spin halos show enhanced clustering. The opposite is true for strongly aspherical and low-spin halos. Further, below the typical collapse mass, M{sub *}, more concentrated halos show stronger clustering, whereas less concentrated halos are less clustered which is reversed for masses above M{sub *}. Going beyond earlier work we show that: (1) oblate halos are more strongly clustered than prolate ones; (2) the dependence of clustering on the shape of the velocity ellipsoid coincides with that of the real-space shape, although the signal is stronger; (3) halos with weak velocity anisotropy are more clustered, whereas radially anisotropic halos are more weakly clustered; (4) for all highly clustered subsets we find systematically less radially biased velocity anisotropy profiles. These findings indicate that the velocity structure of halos is tightly correlated with environment.

  17. MultiDark simulations: the story of dark matter halo concentrations and density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Prada, Francisco; Heß, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Predicting structural properties of dark matter haloes is one of the fundamental goals of modern cosmology. We use the suite of MultiDark cosmological simulations to study the evolution of dark matter halo density profiles, concentrations, and velocity anisotropies. We find that in order to understand the structure of dark matter haloes and to make 1-2 per cent accurate predictions for density profiles, one needs to realize that halo concentration is more complex than the ratio of the virial radius to the core radius in the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. For massive haloes, the average density profile is far from the NFW shape and the concentration is defined by both the core radius and the shape parameter α in the Einasto approximation. We show that haloes progress through three stages of evolution. They start as rare density peaks and experience fast and nearly radial infall that brings mass closer to the centre, producing a highly concentrated halo. Here, the halo concentration increases with increasing halo mass and the concentration is defined by the α parameter with a nearly constant core radius. Later haloes slide into the plateau regime where the accretion becomes less radial, but frequent mergers still affect even the central region. At this stage, the concentration does not depend on halo mass. Once the rate of accretion and merging slows down, haloes move into the domain of declining concentration-mass relation because new accretion piles up mass close to the virial radius while the core radius is staying constant. Accurate analytical fits are provided.

  18. Hierarchical Formation of Dark Matter Halos near the Cutoff Scale and Their Impact on Indirect Detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    The smallest dark matter halos are formed first in the early universe. We present results of very large cosmological N-body simulations of the hierarchical formation and evolution of halos over a wide mass range, beginning from the formation of the smallest halos. In the largest simulation, the motions of 40963 particles in comoving boxes of side lengths 400 pc and 200 pc were followed. The particle masses were 3.4 Χ 10-11 M⊙ and 4.3 Χ 10-12 M⊙, ensuring that halos at the cutoff scale were represented by ˜30,000 and ˜230,000 particles, respectively. We found that the central density cusp is much steeper in these halos than in larger halos (dwarf-galaxy-sized to cluster-sized halos), and scales as ρ ∝ r(-1.5—1.3). The cusp slope gradually becomes shallower as the halo mass increases. The slope of halos 50 times more massive than the smallest halo is approximately -1.3. No strong correlation exists between inner slope and the collapse epoch. The cusp slope of halos above the cutoff scale seems to be reduced primarily due to major merger processes. The concentration, estimated at the present universe, is predicted to be 60—70, consistent with theoretical models and earlier simulations, and ruling out simple power law mass-concentration relations. Such halos could still exist in the present universe with the same steep density profiles. Strongly depending on the subhalo mass function and the adopted concentration model, the steeper inner cusps of halos near the cutoff scale enhance the annihilation luminosity of a Milky Way sized halo between 12 to 67%.

  19. Recoiling Black Holes in Static and Evolving Dark Matter Halo Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smole, M.

    2015-12-01

    We follow trajectories of kicked black holes in static and evolving dark matter halo potential. We explore both NFW and Einasto dark matter density distributions. The considered dark matter halos represent hosts of massive spiral and elliptical field galaxies. We study the critical amplitude of kick velocity necessary for complete black hole ejection at various redshifts and find that ˜40 percent lower kick velocities can remove black holes from their host haloes at z=7 compared to z=1. The greatest difference between the static and evolving potential occurs near the critical velocity for black hole ejection and at high redshifts. When NFW and Einasto density distributions are compared ˜30 percent higher kick velocities are needed for complete removal of BHs from dark matter halo described by the NFW profile.

  20. Hierarchical formation of dark matter halos and the free streaming scale

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2014-06-10

    The smallest dark matter halos are formed first in the early universe. According to recent studies, the central density cusp is much steeper in these halos than in larger halos and scales as ρ∝r {sup –(1.5-1.3)}. We present the results of very large cosmological N-body simulations of the hierarchical formation and evolution of halos over a wide mass range, beginning from the formation of the smallest halos. We confirmed early studies that the inner density cusps are steeper in halos at the free streaming scale. The cusp slope gradually becomes shallower as the halo mass increases. The slope of halos 50 times more massive than the smallest halo is approximately –1.3. No strong correlation exists between the inner slope and the collapse epoch. The cusp slope of halos above the free streaming scale seems to be reduced primarily due to major merger processes. The concentration, estimated at the present universe, is predicted to be 60-70, consistent with theoretical models and earlier simulations, and ruling out simple power law mass-concentration relations. Microhalos could still exist in the present universe with the same steep density profiles.

  1. DETECTING TRIAXIALITY IN THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO THROUGH STELLAR KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas-Nino, Armando; Valenzuela, Octavio; Pichardo, Barbara; Aguilar, Luis A. E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx

    2012-10-01

    Assuming the dark matter halo of the Milky Way to be a non-spherical potential (i.e., triaxial, prolate, oblate), we show how the assembling process of the Milky Way halo may have left long-lasting stellar halo kinematic fossils due to the shape of the dark matter halo. In contrast with tidal streams, which are associated with recent satellite accretion events, these stellar kinematic groups will typically show inhomogeneous chemical and stellar population properties. However, they may be dominated by a single accretion event for certain mass assembling histories. If the detection of these peculiar kinematic stellar groups were confirmed, they would be the smoking gun for the predicted triaxiality of dark halos in cosmological galaxy formation scenarios.

  2. Resolving the outer density profile of dark matter halo in Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao

    2013-08-01

    Large-scale faint structure detected by the recent observations in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) provides an attractive window to explore the structure of outer cold dark matter (CDM) halo in M31. Using an N-body simulation of the interaction between an accreting satellite galaxy and M31, we investigate the mass-density profile of the CDM halo. We find the sufficient condition of the outer density profile of CDM halo in M31 to reproduce the Andromeda giant stream and the shells at the east and west sides of M31. The result indicates that the density profile of the outer dark matter halo of M31 is a steeper than the prediction of the theory of the structure formation based on the CDM model.

  3. The Cosmogrid Simulation: Statistical Properties of Small Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Rieder, Steven; Makino, Junichiro; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Groen, Derek; Nitadori, Keigo; de Laat, Cees; McMillan, Stephen; Hiraki, Kei; Harfst, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of the "Cosmogrid" cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30 Mpc box with 20483 particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28 × 105 M ⊙, which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth & Tormen fitting function down to ~107 M ⊙. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the innermost radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory proposed by Navarro et al. gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than ~108 M ⊙. The subhalo abundance depends on the halo mass. Galaxy-sized halos have 50% more subhalos than ~1011 M ⊙ halos have.

  4. How does gas cool in dark matter haloes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, M.; Monaco, P.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Tornatore, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the process of cooling in dark matter haloes and assess how well simple models can represent it, we run a set of radiative smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of isolated haloes, with gas sitting initially in hydrostatic equilibrium within Navarro-Frenk-White potential wells. Simulations include radiative cooling and a scheme to convert high-density cold gas particles into collisionless stars, neglecting any astrophysical source of energy feedback. After having assessed the numerical stability of the simulations, we compare the resulting evolution of the cooled mass with the predictions of the classical cooling model of White & Frenk and of the cooling model proposed in the MORGANA code of galaxy formation. We find that the classical model predicts fractions of cooled mass which, after about 2 central cooling times, are about one order of magnitude smaller than those found in simulations. Although this difference decreases with time, after 8 central cooling times, when simulations are stopped, the difference still amounts to a factor of 2-3. We ascribe this difference to the lack of validity of the assumption that a mass shell takes one cooling time, as computed on the initial conditions, to cool to very low temperature. Indeed, we find from simulations that cooling SPH particles take most time in travelling, at roughly constant temperature and increasing density, from their initial position to a central cooling region, where they quickly cool down to ~104 K. We show that in this case the total cooling time is shorter than that computed on the initial conditions, as a consequence of the stronger radiative losses associated to the higher density experienced by these particles. As a consequence the mass cooling flow is stronger than that predicted by the classical model. The MORGANA model, which computes the cooling rate as an integral over the contribution of cooling shells and does not make assumptions on the time needed by shells to

  5. Correlation Analysis between Spin, Velocity Shear, and Vorticity of Baryonic and Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L. L.

    2016-05-01

    Using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the alignments between velocity shear, vorticity, and the spin of dark matter halos, and study the correlation between baryonic and dark matter. We find that (1) mis-alignment between vorticity of baryonic and dark matter would develop on scales < 0.2h-1 Mpc; (2) the vorticity of baryonic matter exhibits stronger alignment/anti-alignment with the eigenvectors of velocity shear than that of dark matter; (3) small/massive halos spinning parallel/perpendicular to the host filaments are sensitive to the identification of cosmic web, simulation box size, and resolution. These factors might complicate the connection between the spins of dark matter halos and galaxies, and affect the correlation signal of the alignments of galaxy spin with nearby large-scale structures.

  6. THE SPIN AND ORIENTATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS WITHIN COSMIC FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Youcai; Yang Xiaohu; Lin Weipeng; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Springel, Volker; Wang Huiyuan

    2009-11-20

    Clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids are the building blocks of the cosmic web. Forming dark matter halos respond to these different large-scale environments, and this in turn affects the properties of galaxies hosted by the halos. It is therefore important to understand the systematic correlations of halo properties with the morphology of the cosmic web, as this informs both about galaxy formation physics and possible systematics of weak lensing studies. In this study, we present and compare two distinct algorithms for finding cosmic filaments and sheets, a task which is far less well established than the identification of dark matter halos or voids. One method is based on the smoothed dark matter density field and the other uses the halo distributions directly. We apply both techniques to one high-resolution N-body simulation and reconstruct the filamentary/sheet like network of the dark matter density field. We focus on investigating the properties of the dark matter halos inside these structures, in particular, on the directions of their spins and the orientation of their shapes with respect to the directions of the filaments and sheets. We find that both the spin and the major axes of filament halos with masses approx<10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub sun} are preferentially aligned with the direction of the filaments. The spins and major axes of halos in sheets tend to lie parallel to the sheets. There is an opposite mass dependence of the alignment strength for the spin (negative) and major (positive) axes, i.e. with increasing halo mass the major axis tends to be more strongly aligned with the direction of the filament, whereas the alignment between halo spin and filament becomes weaker with increasing halo mass. The alignment strength as a function of the distance to the most massive node halo indicates that there is a transit large-scale environment impact: from the two-dimensional collapse phase of the filament to the three-dimensional collapse phase of the

  7. The clustering of dark matter haloes: scale-dependent bias on quasi-linear scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Charles; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the spatial clustering of dark matter haloes, collapsing from 1σ-4σ fluctuations, in the redshift range 0-5 using N-body simulations. The halo bias of high redshift haloes (z ≥ 2) is found to be strongly nonlinear and scale dependent on quasi-linear scales that are larger than their virial radii (0.5-10 Mpc h-1). However, at lower redshifts, the scale dependence of nonlinear bias is weaker and is of the order of a few per cent on quasi-linear scales at z ˜ 0. We find that the redshift evolution of the scale-dependent bias of dark matter haloes can be expressed as a function of four physical parameters: the peak height of haloes, the nonlinear matter correlation function at the scale of interest, an effective power-law index of the rms linear density fluctuations and the matter density of the universe at the given redshift. This suggests that the scale dependence of halo bias is not a universal function of the dark matter power spectrum, which is commonly assumed. We provide a fitting function for the scale-dependent halo bias as a function of these four parameters. Our fit reproduces the simulation results to an accuracy of better than 4 per cent over the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 5. We also extend our model by expressing the nonlinear bias as a function of the linear matter correlation function. It is important to incorporate our results into the clustering models of dark matter haloes at any redshift, including those hosting early generations of stars and galaxies before reionization.

  8. THE GROWTH OF GALAXY STELLAR MASS WITHIN DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Zehavi, Idit; Patiri, Santiago; Zheng Zheng

    2012-02-20

    We study the evolution of stellar mass in galaxies as a function of host halo mass, using the 'MPA' and 'Durham' semi-analytic models, implemented on the Millennium Run simulation. For both models, the stellar mass of the central galaxies increases rapidly with halo mass at the low-mass end and more slowly in halos of larger masses at the three redshifts probed (z {approx} 0, 1, 2). About 45% of the stellar mass in central galaxies in present-day halos less massive than {approx}10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} is already in place at z {approx} 1, and this fraction increases to {approx}65% for more massive halos. The baryon conversion efficiency into stars has a peaked distribution with halo mass, and the peak location shifts toward lower mass from z {approx} 1 to z {approx} 0. The stellar mass in low-mass halos grows mostly by star formation since z {approx} 1, while in high-mass halos most of the stellar mass is assembled by mergers, reminiscent of 'downsizing'. We compare our findings to empirical results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and DEEP2 surveys utilizing galaxy clustering measurements to study galaxy evolution. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with these phenomenological results, but there are large discrepancies. The most significant one concerns the number of stars already in place in the progenitor galaxies at z {approx} 1, which is about a factor of two larger in both semi-analytic models. We demonstrate that methods studying galaxy evolution from the galaxy-halo connection are powerful in constraining theoretical models and can guide future efforts of modeling galaxy evolution. Conversely, semi-analytic models serve an important role in improving such methods.

  9. Physical Properties and Evolution of Gravitationally Bound Halo Structures in Cosmological Dark Matter Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, David; Rocha, Miguel E.; Primack, Joel R.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter halos existing around visible galaxies are important for studies of galaxy formation and evolution. Since dark matter does not interact with light and cannot be observed directly, studies of dark matter halos are advanced by computer simulations. Normally, halos are defined by their virialized regions; however, regions that are non-virialized can still be gravitationally bound, like the collision-bound Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. Our project is the first comprehensive characterization of gravitationally bound halo structures, their properties, and their evolution. This study found the bound regions surrounding every dark matter halo from a 100 Mpc cube of the Bolshoi Simulation at redshifts 0, 1, and 2. We optimized computation by removing subhalos, implementing a search radius, and parallelizing code across 160 supercomputer cores. Then, we created a mass function, circular velocity function, and correlation function to describe these regions. The evolution of these properties was consistent with predictions from a ΛCDM universe model. We characterized the sizes and shapes of these bound regions across different mass intervals and redshifts. Most bound regions are elongated, although they become more spheroidal with time. The results enable astronomers to predict how dark matter halos behave in non-virialized regions of space and deepen our understanding of galaxy formation.

  10. Behavior of luminous matter in the head-on encounter of two ultralight BEC dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, F. S.; González, J. A.; Cruz-Pérez, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Within the context of ultralight Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter, we analyze the head-on encounters of two structures. These structures are made of a BEC component, which is a ground-state equilibrium solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson (GPP) system, together with a component of luminous matter. The evolution of the condensate dark matter is carried out by solving the time-dependent GPP equations, whereas the luminous matter is modeled with particles interacting gravitationally on top of the BEC dark matter halos. We track the evolution of frontal encounters for various values of the collision velocity and analyze the high-velocity regime showing solitonic behavior of the BEC halos and that of slow velocities producing a single final structure. We measure the relative velocity of the dark matter with respect to the luminous matter after the encounters in the solitonic case and track the evolution of luminous matter in the case of merger.

  11. The mass-concentration-redshift relation of cold and warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bose, Sownak; Angulo, Raúl E.; Wang, Lan; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-08-01

    We use a suite of cosmological simulations to study the mass-concentration-redshift relation, c(M, z), of dark matter haloes. Our simulations include standard Λ-cold dark matter (CDM) models, and additional runs with truncated power spectra, consistent with a thermal warm dark matter (WDM) scenario. We find that the mass profiles of CDM and WDM haloes are self-similar and well approximated by the Einasto profile. The c(M, z) relation of CDM haloes is monotonic: concentrations decrease with increasing virial mass at fixed redshift, and decrease with increasing redshift at fixed mass. The mass accretion histories (MAHs) of CDM haloes are also scale-free, and can be used to infer concentrations directly. These results do not apply to WDM haloes: their MAHs are not scale-free because of the characteristic scale imposed by the power spectrum suppression. Further, the WDM c(M, z) relation is non-monotonic: concentrations peak at a mass scale dictated by the truncation scale, and decrease at higher and lower masses. We show that the assembly history of a halo can still be used to infer its concentration, provided that the total mass of its progenitors is considered (the `collapsed mass history'; CMH), rather than just that of its main ancestor. This exploits the scale-free nature of CMHs to derive a simple scaling that reproduces the mass-concentration-redshift relation of both CDM and WDM haloes over a vast range of halo masses and redshifts. Our model therefore provides a robust account of the mass, redshift, cosmology and power spectrum dependence of dark matter halo concentrations.

  12. Evidence for a Triaxial Milky Way Dark Matter Halo from the Sagittarius Stellar Tidal Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, David R.; Majewski, S. R.; Johnston, K. V.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the lengthy tidal streams produced by the destruction of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) are capable of providing strong constraints on the shape of the Galactic gravitational potential. However, previous work, based on modeling different stream properties in axisymmetric Galactic models has yielded conflicting results: while the angular precession of the Sgr leading arm is most consistent with a spherical or slightly oblate halo, the radial velocities of stars in this arm are only reproduced by prolate halo models. We demonstrate that this apparent paradox can be resolved by instead adopting a triaxial potential. Our new Galactic halo model, which simultaneously fits all well-established phase space constraints from the Sgr stream, provides the first conclusive evidence for, and tentative measurement of, triaxiality in an individual dark matter halo. In this model, the minor axis of the dark halo is approximately coincident with the Galactic X axis connecting the Sun and the Galactic Center.

  13. Detecting Triaxiality in the Galactic Dark Matter Halo through Stellar Kinematics. II. Dependence on Nature of Dark Matter and Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Niño, Armando; Martínez-Medina, Luis A.; Pichardo, Barbara; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence that the Milky Way global potential may be non-spherical. In this case, the assembling process of the Galaxy may have left long-lasting stellar halo kinematic fossils due to the shape of the dark matter halo, potentially originated by orbital resonances. We further investigate such a possibility, now considering potential models further away from ΛCDM halos, like scalar field dark matter halos and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and including several other factors that may mimic the emergence and permanence of kinematic groups, such as a spherical and triaxial halo with an embedded disk potential. We find that regardless of the density profile (DM nature), kinematic groups only appear in the presence of a triaxial halo potential. For the case of a MOND-like gravity theory no kinematic structure is present. We conclude that the detection of these kinematic stellar groups could confirm the predicted triaxiality of dark halos in cosmological galaxy formation scenarios.

  14. Testing the Caustic Ring Dark Matter Halo Model Against Observations in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Julie; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Niedzielski, Bethany; Susser, Adam; Thompson, Jeffery M.; Weiss, Jake; Lewis, Kim M.

    2016-06-01

    One prediction of axion dark matter models is they can form Bose-Einstein condensates and rigid caustic rings as a halo collapses in the non-linear regime. In this thesis, we undertake the first study of a caustic ring model for the Milky Way halo (Duffy & Sikivie 2008), paying particular attention to observational consequences. We first present the formalism for calculating the gravitational acceleration of a caustic ring halo. The caustic ring dark matter theory reproduces a roughly logarithmic halo, with large perturbations near the rings. We show that this halo can reasonably match the known Galactic rotation curve. We are not able to confirm or rule out an association between the positions of the caustic rings and oscillations in the observed rotation curve, due to insufficient rotation curve data. We explore the effects of dark matter caustic rings on dwarf galaxy tidal disruption with N-body simulations. Simulations of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy in a caustic ring halo potential, with disk and bulge parameters that are tuned to match the Galactic rotation curve, match observations of the Sgr trailing tidal tails as far as 90 kpc from the Galactic center. Like the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) halo, they are, however, unable to match the leading tidal tail. None of the caustic, NFW, or triaxial logarithmic halos are able to simultaneously match observations of the leading and trailing arms of the Sagittarius stream. We further show that simulations of dwarf galaxies that move through caustic rings are qualitatively similar to those moving in a logarithmic halo. This research was funded by NSF grant AST 10-09670, the NASA-NY Space Grant, and the American Fellowship from AAUW.

  15. Statistics of dark matter halos in the excursion set peak framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Danese, L. E-mail: danese@sissa.it

    2014-07-01

    We derive approximated, yet very accurate analytical expressions for the abundance and clustering properties of dark matter halos in the excursion set peak framework; the latter relies on the standard excursion set approach, but also includes the effects of a realistic filtering of the density field, a mass-dependent threshold for collapse, and the prescription from peak theory that halos tend to form around density maxima. We find that our approximations work excellently for diverse power spectra, collapse thresholds and density filters. Moreover, when adopting a cold dark matter power spectra, a tophat filtering and a mass-dependent collapse threshold (supplemented with conceivable scatter), our approximated halo mass function and halo bias represent very well the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations.

  16. Spin flips - II. Evolution of dark matter halo spin orientation, and its correlation with major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Philip E.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-09-01

    We expand our previous study on the relationship between changes in the orientation of the angular momentum vector of dark matter haloes (`spin flips') and changes in their mass, to cover the full range of halo masses in a simulation cube of length 100 h-1 Mpc. Since strong disturbances to a halo (such as might be indicated by a large change in the spin direction) are likely also to disturb the galaxy evolving within, spin flips could be a mechanism for galaxy morphological transformation without involving major mergers. We find that 35 per cent of haloes have, at some point in their lifetimes, had a spin flip of at least 45° that does not coincide with a major merger. Over 75 per cent of large spin flips coincide with non-major mergers; only a quarter coincide with major mergers. We find a similar picture for changes to the inner halo spin orientation, although here there is an increased likelihood of a flip occurring. Changes in halo angular momentum orientation, and other such measures of halo perturbation, are therefore very important quantities to consider, in addition to halo mergers, when modelling the formation and evolution of galaxies and confronting such models with observations.

  17. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  18. Puzzling outer-density profile of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao

    2014-12-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, which is the standard theory of the structure formation in the universe, predicts that the outer density profile of dark matter halos decreases with the cube of distance from the center. However, so far not much effort has been expended in examining this hypothesis. In the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M 31), large-scale stellar structures detected by the recent observations provide a potentially suitable window to investigate the mass-density distribution of the dark matter halo. We explore the density structure of the dark matter halo in M 31 using an N-body simulation of the interaction between an accreting satellite galaxy and M 31. To reproduce the Andromeda Giant Southern Stream and the stellar shells at the east and west sides of M 31, we find the sufficient condition for the power-law index α of the outer density distribution of the dark matter halo. The best-fitting parameter is α = -3.7, which is steeper than the CDM prediction.

  19. Predicting the Number, Spatial Distribution, and Merging History of Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Pierluigi; Theuns, Tom; Taffoni, Giuliano; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Tom; Stadel, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    We present a new algorithm (PINOCCHIO: pinpointing orbit-crossing collapsed hierarchical objects) to accurately predict the formation and evolution of individual dark matter halos in a given realization of an initial linear density field. Compared with the halo population formed in a large (3603 particles) collisionless simulation of a cold dark matter (CDM) universe, our method is able to predict to better than 10% statistical quantities such as the mass function, two-point correlation function, and progenitor mass function of the halos. Masses of individual halos are estimated accurately as well, with errors typically of order 30% in the mass range well resolved by the numerical simulation. These results show that the hierarchical formation of dark matter halos can be accurately predicted using local approximations to the dynamics when the correlations in the initial density field are properly taken into account. The approach allows one to automatically generate a large ensemble of accurate merging histories of halos with complete knowledge of their spatial distribution. The construction of the full merger tree for a 2563 realization requires a few hours of CPU time on a personal computer, orders of magnitude faster than the corresponding N-body simulation would take, and does not need any extensive postprocessing. The technique can be efficiently used, for instance, for generating the input for galaxy formation modeling.

  20. Lensing measurements of the ellipticity of luminous red galaxies dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2016-04-01

    Lensing measurements of the shapes of dark matter haloes can provide tests of gravity theories and possible dark matter interactions. We measure the quadrupole weak lensing signal from the elliptical haloes of 70 000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxies. We use a new estimator that nulls the spherical halo lensing signal, isolating the shear due to anisotropy in the dark matter distribution. One of the two Cartesian components of our estimator is insensitive to the primary systematic, a spurious alignment of lens and source ellipticities, allowing us to make robust measurements of halo ellipticity. Our best-fitting value for the ellipticity of the surface mass density is 0.24 ± 0.06, which translates to an axis ratio of 0.78. We rule out the hypothesis of no ellipticity at the 4σ confidence level, and ellipticity <0.12 (axis ratio >0.89) at the 2σ level. We discuss how our measurements of halo ellipticity are revised to higher values using estimates of the misalignment of mass and light from simulations. Finally, we apply the same techniques to a smaller sample of redMaPPer galaxy clusters and obtain a 3σ measurement of cluster ellipticity. We discuss how the improved signal-to-noise ratio properties of our estimator can enable studies of halo shapes for different galaxy populations with upcoming surveys.

  1. The Milky Way tomography with Sloan Digital Sky Survey. V. Mapping the dark matter halo

    SciTech Connect

    Loebman, Sarah R.; Ivezić, Željko; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio; Bovy, Jo; Christensen, Charlotte R.; Jurić, Mario; Roškar, Rok; Brooks, Alyson M.

    2014-10-20

    We present robust constraints from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) on the shape and distribution of the dark matter halo within the Milky Way (MW). Using the number density distribution and kinematics of SDSS halo stars, we probe the dark matter distribution to heliocentric distances exceeding ∼10 kpc and galactocentric distances exceeding ∼20 kpc. Our analysis utilizes Jeans equations to generate two-dimensional acceleration maps throughout the volume; this approach is thoroughly tested on a cosmologically derived N-body+SPH simulation of a MW-like galaxy. We show that the known accelerations (gradients of the gravitational potential) can be successfully recovered in such a realistic system. Leveraging the baryonic gravitational potential derived by Bovy and Rix, we show that the gravitational potential implied by the SDSS observations cannot be explained, assuming Newtonian gravity, by visible matter alone: the gravitational force experienced by stars at galactocentric distances of ∼20 kpc is as much as three times stronger than what can be attributed to purely visible matter. We also show that the SDSS data provide a strong constraint on the shape of the dark matter halo potential. Within galactocentric distances of ∼20 kpc, the dark matter halo potential is well described as an oblate halo with axis ratio q{sub DM}{sup Φ}=0.7±0.1; this corresponds to an axis ratio q{sub DM}{sup ρ}∼0.4±0.1 for the dark matter density distribution. Because of our precise two-dimensional measurements of the acceleration of the halo stars, we can reject several MOND models as an explanation of the observed behavior.

  2. ARE HALO-LIKE SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS MERELY A MATTER OF GEOMETRIC PROJECTION EFFECTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Zhang, Jie; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the physical nature of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) based on the stereoscopic observations from the two STEREO spacecraft, Ahead and Behind (hereafter A and B), and the SOHO spacecraft. Sixty-two halo CMEs occurred as observed by SOHO LASCO C2 for the three-year period from 2010 to 2012 during which the separation angles between SOHO and STEREO were nearly 90°. In such quadrature configuration, the coronagraphs of STEREO, COR2-A and -B, showed the side view of those halo CMEs seen by C2. It has been widely believed that the halo appearance of a CME is caused by the geometric projection effect, i.e., a CME moves along the Sun-observer line. In other words, it would appear as a non-halo CME if viewed from the side. However, to our surprise, we found that 41 out of 62 events (66%) were observed as halo CMEs by all coronagraphs. This result suggests that a halo CME is not just a matter of the propagating direction. In addition, we show that a CME propagating normal to the line of sight can be observed as a halo CME due to the associated fast magnetosonic wave or shock front. We conclude that the apparent width of CMEs, especially halos or partial halos is driven by the existence and the extent of the associated waves or shocks and does not represent an accurate measure of the CME ejecta size. This effect needs to be taken into careful consideration in space weather predictions and modeling efforts.

  3. Supernova explosions in magnetized, primordial dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Schleicher, D.

    2014-05-01

    The first supernova explosions are potentially relevant sources for the production of the first large-scale magnetic fields. For this reason, we present a set of high-resolution simulations studying the effect of supernova explosions on magnetized, primordial haloes. We focus on the evolution of an initially small-scale magnetic field formed during the collapse of the halo. We vary the degree of magnetization, the halo mass, and the amount of explosion energy in order to account for expected variations as well as to infer systematical dependences of the results on initial conditions. Our simulations suggest that core collapse supernovae with an explosion energy of 1051 erg and more violent pair instability supernovae with 1053 erg are able to disrupt haloes with masses up to about 106 and 107 M⊙, respectively. The peak of the magnetic field spectra shows a continuous shift towards smaller k-values, i.e. larger length scales, over time reaching values as low as k = 4. On small scales, the magnetic energy decreases at the cost of the energy on large scales resulting in a well-ordered magnetic field with a strength up to ˜10-8 G depending on the initial conditions. The coherence length of the magnetic field inferred from the spectra reaches values up to 250 pc in agreement with those obtained from autocorrelation functions. We find the coherence length to be as large as 50 per cent of the radius of the supernova bubble. Extrapolating this relation to later stages, we suggest that significantly strong magnetic fields with coherence lengths as large as 1.5 kpc could be created. We discuss possible implications of our results on processes like recollapse of the halo, first galaxy formation, and the magnetization of the intergalactic medium.

  4. Stochastic Model of the Spin Distribution of Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Juhan; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-09-01

    We employ a stochastic approach to probing the origin of the log-normal distributions of halo spin in N-body simulations. After analyzing spin evolution in halo merging trees, it was found that a spin change can be characterized by a stochastic random walk of angular momentum. Also, spin distributions generated by random walks are fairly consistent with those directly obtained from N-body simulations. We derived a stochastic differential equation from a widely used spin definition and measured the probability distributions of the derived angular momentum change from a massive set of halo merging trees. The roles of major merging and accretion are also statistically analyzed in evolving spin distributions. Several factors (local environment, halo mass, merging mass ratio, and redshift) are found to influence the angular momentum change. The spin distributions generated in the mean-field or void regions tend to shift slightly to a higher spin value compared with simulated spin distributions, which seems to be caused by the correlated random walks. We verified the assumption of randomness in the angular momentum change observed in the N-body simulation and detected several degrees of correlation between walks, which may provide a clue for the discrepancies between the simulated and generated spin distributions in the voids. However, the generated spin distributions in the group and cluster regions successfully match the simulated spin distribution. We also demonstrated that the log-normality of the spin distribution is a natural consequence of the stochastic differential equation of the halo spin, which is well described by the Geometric Brownian Motion model.

  5. STOCHASTIC MODEL OF THE SPIN DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Juhan; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-09-15

    We employ a stochastic approach to probing the origin of the log-normal distributions of halo spin in N-body simulations. After analyzing spin evolution in halo merging trees, it was found that a spin change can be characterized by a stochastic random walk of angular momentum. Also, spin distributions generated by random walks are fairly consistent with those directly obtained from N-body simulations. We derived a stochastic differential equation from a widely used spin definition and measured the probability distributions of the derived angular momentum change from a massive set of halo merging trees. The roles of major merging and accretion are also statistically analyzed in evolving spin distributions. Several factors (local environment, halo mass, merging mass ratio, and redshift) are found to influence the angular momentum change. The spin distributions generated in the mean-field or void regions tend to shift slightly to a higher spin value compared with simulated spin distributions, which seems to be caused by the correlated random walks. We verified the assumption of randomness in the angular momentum change observed in the N-body simulation and detected several degrees of correlation between walks, which may provide a clue for the discrepancies between the simulated and generated spin distributions in the voids. However, the generated spin distributions in the group and cluster regions successfully match the simulated spin distribution. We also demonstrated that the log-normality of the spin distribution is a natural consequence of the stochastic differential equation of the halo spin, which is well described by the Geometric Brownian Motion model.

  6. Imprint of primordial non-Gaussianity on dark matter halo profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Dodelson, Scott; Riotto, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity on the density profile of dark matter halos by using the semi-analytical model introduced recently by Dalal {\\it et al.} which relates the peaks of the initial linear density field to the final density profile of dark matter halos. Models with primordial non-Gaussianity typically produce an initial density field that differs from that produced in Gaussian models. We use the path-integral formulation of excursion set theory to calculate the non-Gaussian corrections to the peak profile and derive the statistics of the peaks of non-Gaussian density field. In the context of the semi-analytic model for halo profiles, currently allowed values for primordial non-Gaussianity would increase the shapes of the inner dark matter profiles, but only at the sub-percent level except in the very innermost regions.

  7. The stability of stellar discs in Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurin, Denis; Springel, Volker

    2015-09-01

    We employ an improved methodology to insert live stellar discs into high-resolution dark matter simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes, allowing us to investigate the fate of thin stellar discs in the tumultuous environment of cold dark matter structures. We study a set of eight different haloes, drawn from the Aquarius simulation project, in which stellar discs are adiabatically grown with a prescribed structure, and then allowed to self-consistently evolve. The initial velocity distribution is set-up in very good equilibrium with the help of the GALIC code. We find that the residual triaxiality of the haloes leads to significant disc tumbling, qualitatively confirming earlier work. We show that the disc turning motion is unaffected by structural properties of the galaxies such as the presence or absence of a bulge or bar. In typical Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes, we expect an average turning of the discs by about 40°between z = 1 and 0, over the course of 7.6 Gyr. We also investigate the impact of the discs on substructures, and conversely, the disc heating rate caused by the dark matter halo substructures. The presence of discs reduces the central subhalo abundance by a about a factor of 2, due to an increased evaporation rate by gravitational shocks from disc passages. We find that substructures are important for heating the outer parts of stellar discs but do not appear to significantly affect their inner parts.

  8. The warm dark matter halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artefacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. We then explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a strong cut-off in the halo mass function. This disfavours some analytic formulations that predict a halo mass function that would extend well below the free streaming mass. We argue for a more detailed exploration of the formation of the smallest structures expected to form in a given cosmology, which, we foresee, will advance our overall understanding of structure formation.

  9. Cores and revived cusps of dark matter haloes in disc galaxy formation through clump clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Saitoh, Takayuki R.

    2011-12-01

    The cusp-core problem is a controversial problem in galactic dark matter haloes. Cosmological N-body simulations have demonstrated that galactic dark matter haloes have a cuspy density profile at the centre. However, baryonic physics may affect the dark matter density profile. For example, it was suggested that adiabatic contraction of baryonic gas makes the dark matter cusp steeper. However, it is still an open question as to whether the gas falls into the galactic centre in a smooth adiabatic manner. Recent numerical studies suggested that disc galaxies might experience a clumpy phase in the early stage of disc formation, which could also explain the clump clusters and chain galaxies observed in the high-redshift Universe. In this paper, using numerical simulations with an isolated model, we study how the dark matter halo responds to the clumpy nature of baryon components in disc galaxy formation through the clump-cluster phase. Our simulation demonstrates that such a clumpy phase leads to a shallower density profile of the dark matter halo in the central region while clumps fall into the centre due to dynamical friction. This mechanism helps to make the central dark matter density profile shallower in galaxies with virial mass as large as 5.0 × 1011 M⊙. The halo draws the clumps into the galactic centre, while it is kinematically heated by the clumps. We additionally run a dark-matter-only simulation excluding baryonic components and confirm that the resultant shallower density profile is not due to a numerical artefact in the simulation, such as two-body relaxation.

  10. The First Billion Years project: dark matter haloes going from contraction to expansion and back again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Andrew J.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of baryons on the inner dark matter profile of the first galaxies using the First Billion Years simulation between z = 16 and 6 before secular evolution sets in. Using a large statistical sample from two simulations of the same volume and cosmological initial conditions, one with and one without baryons, we are able to directly compare haloes with their baryon-free counterparts, allowing a detailed study of the modifications to the dark matter density profile due to the presence of baryons during the first billion years of galaxy formation. For each of the ≈5000 haloes in our sample (3 × 107 M⊙ ≤ Mtot ≤ 5 × 109 M⊙), we quantify the impact of the baryons using η, defined as the ratio of dark matter mass enclosed in 100 pc in the baryonic run to its counterpart without baryons. During this epoch of rapid growth of galaxies, we find that many haloes of these first galaxies show an enhancement of dark matter in the halo centre compared to the baryon-free simulation, while many others show a deficit. We find that the mean value of η is close to unity, but there is a large dispersion, with a standard deviation of 0.677. The enhancement is cyclical in time and tracks the star formation cycle of the galaxy; as gas falls to the centre and forms stars, the dark matter moves in as well. Supernova (SN) feedback then removes the gas, and the dark matter again responds to the changing potential. We study three physical models relating the motion of baryons to that of the dark matter: adiabatic contraction, dynamical friction, and rapid outflows. We find that dynamical friction plays only a very minor role, while adiabatic contraction and the rapid outflows due to feedback describe well the enhancement (or decrement) of dark matter. For haloes which show significant decrements of dark matter in the core, we find that to remove the dark matter requires an energy input between 1051 and 1053 erg. For our SN feedback proscription, this requires as a

  11. Inferring Host Dark Matter Halo Masses of Individual Galaxies from Neighboring Galaxy Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Masamune; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2015-03-01

    How well can we infer host dark matter halo masses of individual galaxies? Based on the halo occupation distribution framework, we analytically compute the number of neighboring galaxies within a cylinder of some redshift interval and radius in transverse comoving distance. The result is used to derive the conditional probability distribution function (PDF) of the host halo mass of a galaxy, given the neighboring galaxy counts. We compare our analytic results with those obtained using a realistic mock galaxy catalog, finding reasonable agreements. We find the optimal cylinder radius to be ∼ 0.5-1 {{h}-1} Mpc for the inference of halo masses. The PDF is generally broad, and sometimes has two peaks at low- and high-mass regimes because of the effect of chance projection along the line of sight. Potential applications and extensions of the new theoretical framework developed herein are also discussed.

  12. DARK MATTER HALOS IN GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Michael J.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Harris, William E.

    2014-05-20

    We combine a new, comprehensive database for globular cluster populations in all types of galaxies with a new calibration of galaxy halo masses based entirely on weak lensing. Correlating these two sets of data, we find that the mass ratio η ≡ M {sub GCS}/M {sub h} (total mass in globular clusters, divided by halo mass) is essentially constant at (η) ∼ 4 × 10{sup –5}, strongly confirming earlier suggestions in the literature. Globular clusters are the only known stellar population that formed in essentially direct proportion to host galaxy halo mass. The intrinsic scatter in η appears to be at most 0.2 dex; we argue that some of this scatter is due to differing degrees of tidal stripping of the globular cluster systems between central and satellite galaxies. We suggest that this correlation can be understood if most globular clusters form at very early stages in galaxy evolution, largely avoiding the feedback processes that inhibited the bulk of field-star formation in their host galaxies. The actual mean value of η also suggests that about one-fourth of the initial gas mass present in protogalaxies collected into giant molecular clouds large enough to form massive, dense star clusters. Finally, our calibration of (η) indicates that the halo masses of the Milky Way and M31 are (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, respectively.

  13. Dark matter annihilation radiation in hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Calore, Francesca; Bertone, Gianfranco; Bozorgnia, Nassim; Crain, Robert A.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Sawala, Till; Schaye, Joop

    2016-02-01

    We obtain predictions for the properties of cold dark matter annihilation radiation using high-resolution hydrodynamic zoom-in cosmological simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies (APOSTLE project) carried out as part of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) programme. Galactic haloes in the simulation have significantly different properties from those assumed in the `standard halo model' often used in dark matter detection studies. The formation of the galaxy causes a contraction of the dark matter halo, whose density profile develops a steeper slope than the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile between r ≈ 1.5 kpc and r ≈ 10 kpc. At smaller radii, r ≲ 1.5 kpc, the haloes develop a flatter than NFW slope. This unexpected feature may be specific to our particular choice of subgrid physics model but nevertheless the dark matter density profiles agree within 30 per cent as the mass resolution is increased by a factor 150. The inner regions of the haloes are almost perfectly spherical (axis ratios b/a > 0.97 within r = 1 kpc) and there is no offset larger than 45 pc between the centre of the stellar distribution and the centre of the dark halo. The morphology of the predicted dark matter annihilation radiation signal is in broad agreement with γ-ray observations at large Galactic latitudes (b ≳ 3°). At smaller angles, the inferred signal in one of our four galaxies is similar to that which is observed but it is significantly weaker in the other three.

  14. The Dark Matter Halo Shape of NGC 2976 via Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Blanc, G. A.; van den Bosch, R.

    2010-10-01

    The observations of kinematics in low surface brightness (LSB) and dwarf late type galaxies have stubbornly resisted giving clear evidence for the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter (DM) halo profiles that simulations with ACDM inputs predict (Navarro, Frenk, & White 1996a). Instead, most LSBs and late type dwarfs suggest cored DM halos (Kuzio de Naray, McGaugh, & de Blok 2008) or the observations are not yet constraining enough to rule out cusps (Swaters et al. 2003; Simon et al. 2005). The most viable theory to explain cored DM halos relies on the gravitational perturbation of a growing baryonic disk that is then rapidly removed causing the halo to expand to a cored equilibrium (Navarro, Eke, & Frenk 1996b), so this problem looms large over small galaxy formation and growth. Some works have studied nearby disk galaxy kinematics for DM halo shapes with longslit stellar kinematics (Corsini et al. 1999; Corbelli & Walterbos 2007), but the best constraints come from 2D spectroscopy. So far, NGC 2976 has made the cleanest case for a cored DM halo via gaseous kinematics (Simon et al. 2003). We here report on observations of NGC 2976 with the large field-of-view fiber fed Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph Prototype (VIRUS-P) (Hill et al. 2008) to concurrently measure the gaseous and stellar kinematics and probe the DM halo. We find a velocity field likely indicating a weak bar's influence. We cannot yet discriminate between a cuspy DM halo or a purely baryonic potential, but our data and models disfavor a cored DM halo.

  15. The Average Star Formation Histories of Galaxies in Dark Matter Halos from z = 0-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-06-01

    We present a robust method to constrain average galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), star formation histories (SFHs), and the intracluster light (ICL) as a function of halo mass. Our results are consistent with observed galaxy stellar mass functions, specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and cosmic star formation rates (CSFRs) from z = 0 to z = 8. We consider the effects of a wide range of uncertainties on our results, including those affecting stellar masses, SFRs, and the halo mass function at the heart of our analysis. As they are relevant to our method, we also present new calibrations of the dark matter halo mass function, halo mass accretion histories, and halo-subhalo merger rates out to z = 8. We also provide new compilations of CSFRs and SSFRs; more recent measurements are now consistent with the buildup of the cosmic stellar mass density at all redshifts. Implications of our work include: halos near 1012 M ⊙ are the most efficient at forming stars at all redshifts, the baryon conversion efficiency of massive halos drops markedly after z ~ 2.5 (consistent with theories of cold-mode accretion), the ICL for massive galaxies is expected to be significant out to at least z ~ 1-1.5, and dwarf galaxies at low redshifts have higher stellar mass to halo mass ratios than previous expectations and form later than in most theoretical models. Finally, we provide new fitting formulae for SFHs that are more accurate than the standard declining tau model. Our approach places a wide variety of observations relating to the SFH of galaxies into a self-consistent framework based on the modern understanding of structure formation in ΛCDM. Constraints on the stellar mass-halo mass relationship and SFRs are available for download online.

  16. Is Sextans dwarf galaxy in a scalar field dark matter halo?

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, V.; Magaña, Juan E-mail: juan.magana@uv.cl

    2014-09-01

    The Bose-Einstein condensate/scalar field dark matter model, considers that the dark matter is composed by spinless-ultra-light particles which can be described by a scalar field. This model is an alternative model to the Λ-cold dark matter paradigm, and therefore should be studied at galactic and cosmological scales. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies have been very useful when studying any dark matter theory, because the dark matter dominates their dynamics. In this paper we study the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy, embedded in a scalar field dark matter halo. We explore how the dissolution time-scale of the stellar substructures in Sextans, constrain the mass, and the self-interacting parameter of the scalar field dark matter boson. We find that for masses in the range (0.12< m{sub φ}<8) ×10{sup -22} eV, scalar field dark halos without self-interaction would have cores large enough to explain the longevity of the stellar substructures in Sextans, and small enough mass to be compatible with dynamical limits. If the self-interacting parameter is distinct to zero, then the mass of the boson could be as high as m{sub φ}≈2×10{sup -21} eV, but it would correspond to an unrealistic low mass for the Sextans dark matter halo . Therefore, the Sextans dwarf galaxy could be embedded in a scalar field/BEC dark matter halo with a preferred self-interacting parameter equal to zero.

  17. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    PubMed

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars.

  18. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    PubMed

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars. PMID:25615301

  19. The Role of the Radial Orbit Instability in Dark Matter Halo Formation and Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. M.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Quinn, T. R.; Williams, L. L. R.; Barnes, E. I.; Babul, A.; Austin, C. G.; Maas, R.

    2007-05-01

    For nearly a decade, N-body simulations have revealed a nearly universal dark matter density profile. This density profile appears to be robust to changes in the overall density of the universe and the underlying power spectrum. Despite its universality, however, the physical origin of this profile has not yet been well understood. Semi-analytic models have suggested that scale lengths in dark matter halos may be determined by the onset of the radial orbit instability. We have tested this theory using N-body simulations of collapsing dark matter halos with a variety of initial conditions. We find that the radial orbit instability sets a scale length at which the velocity dispersion changes rapidly from isotropic to radially anisotropic. This scale length is reflected in the density distribution as the radius at which the density profile changes slope. The resulting halo structures are triaxial in shape, due to the mild aspect of the instability. We conclude that the radial orbit instability may be a key physical mechanism responsible for the nearly universal profiles of simulated dark matter halos.

  20. Surface density of dark matter haloes on galactic and cluster scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.; Cardone, V. F.; Belvedere, G.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we analysed the correlation between the central surface density and the halo core radius of galaxies, and cluster of galaxies dark matter (DM) haloes, in the framework of the secondary infall model. We used Del Popolo secondary infall model taking into account ordered and random angular momentum, dynamical friction and DM adiabatic contraction to calculate the density profile of haloes, and then these profiles are used to determine the surface density of DM haloes. The main result is that r* (the halo characteristic radius) is not a universal quantity as claimed by Donato et al. and Gentile et al. On the contrary, we find a correlation with the halo mass M200 in agreement with Cardone & Tortora, Boyarsky et al. and Napolitano, Romanowsky & Tortora, but with a significantly smaller scatter, namely 0.16 ± 0.05. We also consider the baryon column density finding this latter being indeed a constant for low-mass systems, such as dwarfs, but correlating with mass with a slope of α = 0.18 ± 0.05. In the case of the surface density of DM for a system composed only of DM, as in dissipationless simulations, we get α = 0.20 ± 0.05. These results leave little room for the recently claimed universality of (dark and stellar) column density.

  1. Evidence for a Triaxial Milky Way Dark Matter Halo from the Sagittarius Stellar Tidal Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, David R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2009-09-01

    Observations of the lengthy tidal streams produced by the destruction of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr dSph) are capable of providing strong constraints on the shape of the Galactic gravitational potential. However, previous work, based on modeling different stream properties in axisymmetric Galactic models, has yielded conflicting results: while the angular precession of the Sgr leading arm is most consistent with a spherical or slightly oblate halo, the radial velocities of stars in this arm are reproduced only by prolate halo models. We demonstrate that this apparent paradox can be resolved by instead adopting a triaxial potential. Our new Galactic halo model, which simultaneously fits all well-established phase space constraints from the Sgr stream, provides the first conclusive evidence for, and tentative measurement of, triaxiality in an individual dark matter halo. The Milky Way halo within ~60 kpc is best characterized by a minor/major axis ratio of the isovelocity contours c/a ≈ 0.67, intermediate/major axis ratio b/a ≈ 0.83, and triaxiality parameter T ~ 0.56. In this model, the minor axis of the dark halo is coincident with the Galactic X-axis connecting the Sun and the Galactic center to within ~15°, while the major axis also lies in the Galactic plane, approximately along the Galactic Y-axis.

  2. Models of dark matter halos based on statistical mechanics: The fermionic King model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Lemou, Mohammed; Méhats, Florian

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the nature of phase transitions in the fermionic King model which describes tidally truncated quantum self-gravitating systems. This distribution function takes into account the escape of high-energy particles and has a finite mass. On the other hand, the Pauli exclusion principle puts an upper bound on the phase-space density of the system and stabilizes it against gravitational collapse. As a result, there exists a statistical equilibrium state for all accessible values of energy and temperature. We plot the caloric curves and investigate the nature of phase transitions as a function of the degeneracy parameter in both microcanonical and canonical ensembles, extending the work of Chavanis [Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 20, 3113 (2006)] for box-confined configurations. We consider stable and metastable states and emphasize the importance of the latter for systems with long-range interactions. Phase transitions can take place between a "gaseous" phase unaffected by quantum mechanics and a "condensed" phase dominated by quantum mechanics. The phase diagram exhibits two critical points, one in each ensemble, beyond which the phase transitions disappear. There also exists a region of negative specific heats and a situation of ensemble inequivalence for sufficiently large systems. In the microcanonical ensemble, gravitational collapse (gravothermal catastrophe) results in the formation of a small degenerate object containing a small mass. This is accompanied by the expulsion of a hot envelope containing a large mass. In the canonical ensemble, gravitational collapse (isothermal collapse) leads to a small degenerate object containing almost all the mass. It is surrounded by a tenuous envelope. We apply the fermionic King model to the case of dark matter halos made of massive neutrinos following the work of de Vega, Salucci, and Sanchez [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2717 (2014)]. The gaseous phase describes large halos and the condensed phase describes dwarf halos

  3. Tetrahedral collapse: a rotational toy model of simultaneous dark-matter halo, filament and wall formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss an idealized model of halo formation, in which a collapsing halo node is tetrahedral, with a filament extruding from each of its four faces, and with a wall connecting each pair of filaments. In the model, filaments generally spin when they form, and the halo spins if and only if there is some rotation in filaments. This is the simplest possible fully three-dimensional halo collapse in the `origami approximation', in which voids are irrotational, and the dark-matter sheet out of which dark-matter structures form is allowed to fold in position-velocity phase space, but not stretch (i.e. it cannot vary in density along a stream). Up to an overall scaling, the four filament directions, and only three other quantities, such as filament spins, suffice to determine all of the collapse's properties: the shape, mass, and spin of the halo; the densities per unit length and spins of all filaments; and masses per unit area of the walls. If the filaments are arranged regular-tetrahedrally, filament properties obey simple laws, reminiscent of angular-momentum conservation. The model may be most useful in understanding spin correlations between neighbouring galaxies joined by filaments; these correlations would give intrinsic alignments between galaxies, essential to understand for accurate cosmological weak-lensing measurements.

  4. Weakly Self-interacting Dark Matter and the Structure of Dark Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Springel, Volker; White, Simon D. M.; Tormen, Giuseppe

    2000-12-01

    We study the formation of dark halos in a ΛCDM universe under the assumption that cold dark matter (CDM) particles have a finite cross section for elastic collisions. We compare evolution when CDM mean free paths are comparable to halo sizes with the collisionless and fluid limits. We show that a few collisions per particle per Hubble time at halo center can substantially affect the central density profile. Cross sections an order of magnitude larger produce sufficient relaxation for rich clusters to develop core radii in the range 100-200 h-1 kpc. The structural evolution of halos is a competition between collisional relaxation caused by individual particle interactions and violent relaxation resulting from the infall and merging processes by which clusters grow. Although our simulations concentrate on systems of cluster size, we can scale our results to address the halo structure expected for dwarf galaxies. We find that collision cross sections sufficiently large to significantly modify the cores of such galaxies produce cluster cores that are too large and/or too round to be consistent with observation. Thus, the simplest model for self-interacting dark matter is unable to improve fits to published dwarf galaxy rotation curves without violating other observational constraints.

  5. The Dark Matter Halo Profile Of NGC 2976 Via Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; Blanc, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    The observations of kinematics in low surface brightness (LSB) and dwarf late type galaxies have stubbornly resisted giving clear evidence for the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter (DM) halo profiles that simulations with ΛCDM inputs predict. Instead, most LSBs and late type dwarfs suggest cored DM halos or the observations are not yet constraining enough to rule out cusps. One viable theory to explain cored DM halos relies on the gravitational perturbation of a growing baryonic disk that is then rapidly removed causing the halo to expand to a cored equilibrium. Weakly self-interacting dark matter has also been invoked to explain cored DM halos. This problem may loom large over small galaxy formation and growth. However, different measurements can be taken to further test the apparent problem. Most previous data have relied on HI or Hα as kinematic tracers. A small number of works have studied the problem with longslit stellar kinematics. Ideally, the advantages of 2D spectroscopic coverage and a collisionless kinematic tracer would be combined. So far, NGC 2976 has made one of the cleanest cases for a cored DM halo via integral field spectroscopy in Hα. We here report on observations of NGC 2976 with the large field-of-view fiber-fed Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph Prototype (VIRUS-P) at R=3200 to concurrently measure the gaseous and stellar kinematics and probe the DM halo. We find that the gas and stellar kinematics disagree both in the magnitude of their second velocity moments and their detailed profiles. We unexpectedly find emission features in one of NGC 2976's two large star-forming regions which may be indicative of carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. A putative bar further complicates the use of gaseous tracers. We solve the Jeans equations with stellar kinematics to reevaluate the DM profile in this exemplar galaxy of the core-cusp problem.

  6. Observational probes of the connection between Star Formation Efficiency and Dark Matter halo mass of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinova, Veselina; Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Modern simulations predict that the stellar mass and the star formation efficiency of a galaxy are tightly linked to the dark matter (DM) halo mass of that galaxy. This prediction relies on a specific model of galaxy evolution and so testing this prediction directly tests our best models of galaxy formation and evolution. Recent DM numerical studies propose relationships between star formation efficiency and the DM halo mass with two domains based on SF feedback (low-mass) vs. AGN feedback (high-mass), see Moster et al. (2013). The observational probe of such parameters in the relationship imply globally important physics that are fundamental as, e.g., the star formation law (e.g., Kennicutt et al., 1998), the universal depletion time (Leroy et al. 2008), and the origin of the cold gas phase with respect to the stellar disc (Davis et al.2011). Thus, we can directly measure whether this parameterization is correct by estimating the stellar mass, star formation efficiency and dynamical (DM) mass for a set of galaxies at strategically selected points to test if they fall on the predicted relationship.We use CO data from the Extragalactic Database for Galaxy Evolution survey (EDGE) in conjunction with archival 21-cm data and spectroscopic data from Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field spectroscopy Area survey (CALIFA) to measure the stellar vs. halo mass and star-formation-efficiency vs. halo mass relations of the galaxies. We also analyze archival 21-cm spectra to estimate rotation speeds, atomic gas masses and halo masses for a set of EDGE galaxies. Data from CALIFA are used for high quality star formation efficiency and stellar mass measurements. By linking these three parameters - stellar mass, star formation efficiency (SFE) and DM halo mass - we can test the simulation models of how the gas is cooling in the potential wells of the dark matter halos and then forms stars.

  7. The dark matter distribution function and halo thermalization from the Eddington equation in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2016-05-01

    We find the distribution function f(E) for dark matter (DM) halos in galaxies and the corresponding equation of state from the (empirical) DM density profiles derived from observations. We solve for DM in galaxies the analogous of the Eddington equation originally used for the gas of stars in globular clusters. The observed density profiles are a good realistic starting point and the distribution functions derived from them are realistic. We do not make any assumption about the DM nature, the methods developed here apply to any DM kind, though all results are consistent with warm dark matter (WDM). With these methods we find: (i) Cored density profiles behaving quadratically for small distances ρ(r)= r → 0ρ(0) ‑ Kr2 produce distribution functions which are finite and positive at the halo center while cusped density profiles always produce divergent distribution functions at the center. (ii) Cored density profiles produce approximate thermal Boltzmann distribution functions for r ≲ 3rh where rh is the halo radius. (iii) Analytic expressions for the dispersion velocity and the pressure are derived yielding at each halo point an ideal DM gas equation of state with local temperature T(r) ≡ mv2(r)/3. T(r) turns out to be constant in the same region where the distribution function is thermal and exhibits the same temperature within the percent. The self-gravitating DM gas can thermalize despite being collisionless because it is an ergodic system. (iv) The DM halo can be consistently considered at local thermal equilibrium with: (a) a constant temperature T(r) = T0 for r ≲ 3rh, (b) a space dependent temperature T(r) for 3rh < r ≲ Rvirial, which slowly decreases with r. That is, the DM halo is realistically a collisionless self-gravitating thermal gas for r ≲ Rvirial. (v) T(r) outside the halo radius nicely follows the decrease of the circular velocity squared.

  8. An accurate tool for the fast generation of dark matter halo catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, P.; Sefusatti, E.; Borgani, S.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Sheth, R. K.; Theuns, T.

    2013-08-01

    We present a new parallel implementation of the PINpointing Orbit Crossing-Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) algorithm, a quick tool, based on Lagrangian Perturbation Theory, for the hierarchical build-up of dark matter (DM) haloes in cosmological volumes. To assess its ability to predict halo correlations on large scales, we compare its results with those of an N-body simulation of a 3 h-1 Gpc box sampled with 20483 particles taken from the MICE suite, matching the same seeds for the initial conditions. Thanks to the Fastest Fourier Transforms in the West (FFTW) libraries and to the relatively simple design, the code shows very good scaling properties. The CPU time required by PINOCCHIO is a tiny fraction (˜1/2000) of that required by the MICE simulation. Varying some of PINOCCHIO numerical parameters allows one to produce a universal mass function that lies in the range allowed by published fits, although it underestimates the MICE mass function of Friends-of-Friends (FoF) haloes in the high-mass tail. We compare the matter-halo and the halo-halo power spectra with those of the MICE simulation and find that these two-point statistics are well recovered on large scales. In particular, when catalogues are matched in number density, agreement within 10 per cent is achieved for the halo power spectrum. At scales k > 0.1 h Mpc-1, the inaccuracy of the Zel'dovich approximation in locating halo positions causes an underestimate of the power spectrum that can be modelled as a Gaussian factor with a damping scale of d = 3 h-1 Mpc at z = 0, decreasing at higher redshift. Finally, a remarkable match is obtained for the reduced halo bispectrum, showing a good description of non-linear halo bias. Our results demonstrate the potential of PINOCCHIO as an accurate and flexible tool for generating large ensembles of mock galaxy surveys, with interesting applications for the analysis of large galaxy redshift surveys.

  9. EVOLUTION OF A DWARF SATELLITE GALAXY EMBEDDED IN A SCALAR FIELD DARK MATTER HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Robles, Victor H.; Matos, T.; Lora, V.; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J. E-mail: vlora@ari.uni-heidelberg.de

    2015-09-10

    The cold dark matter (CDM) model has two unsolved issues: simulations overpredict the satellite abundance around the Milky Way (MW) and it disagrees with observations of the central densities of dwarf galaxies which prefer constant density (core) profiles. One alternative explanation known as the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model, assumes that dark matter is a scalar field of mass (∼10{sup −22} eV/c{sup 2}); this model can reduce the overabundance issue due to the lack of halo formation below a mass scale of ∼10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙} and successfully fits the density distribution in dwarfs. One of the attractive features of the model is predicting core profiles in halos, although the determination of the core sizes is set by fitting the observational data. We perform N-body simulations to explore the influence of tidal forces over a stellar distribution embedded in an SFDM halo orbiting a MW-like SFDM host halo with a disk. Our simulations intend to test the viability of SFDM as an alternative model by comparing the tidal effects that result in this paradigm with those obtained in the CDM for similar mass halos. We found that galaxies in subhalos with core profiles and high central densities survive for 10 Gyr. The same occurs for galaxies in low density subhalos located far from the host disk influence, whereas satellites in low density DM halos and in tight orbits can eventually be stripped of stars. We conclude that SFDM shows consistency with results from the CDM for dwarf galaxies, but naturally offer a possibility to solve the missing satellite problem.

  10. Evolution of a Dwarf Satellite Galaxy Embedded in a Scalar Field Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Victor H.; Lora, V.; Matos, T.; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.

    2015-09-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) model has two unsolved issues: simulations overpredict the satellite abundance around the Milky Way (MW) and it disagrees with observations of the central densities of dwarf galaxies which prefer constant density (core) profiles. One alternative explanation known as the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model, assumes that dark matter is a scalar field of mass (˜10-22 eV/c2); this model can reduce the overabundance issue due to the lack of halo formation below a mass scale of ˜108M⊙ and successfully fits the density distribution in dwarfs. One of the attractive features of the model is predicting core profiles in halos, although the determination of the core sizes is set by fitting the observational data. We perform N-body simulations to explore the influence of tidal forces over a stellar distribution embedded in an SFDM halo orbiting a MW-like SFDM host halo with a disk. Our simulations intend to test the viability of SFDM as an alternative model by comparing the tidal effects that result in this paradigm with those obtained in the CDM for similar mass halos. We found that galaxies in subhalos with core profiles and high central densities survive for 10 Gyr. The same occurs for galaxies in low density subhalos located far from the host disk influence, whereas satellites in low density DM halos and in tight orbits can eventually be stripped of stars. We conclude that SFDM shows consistency with results from the CDM for dwarf galaxies, but naturally offer a possibility to solve the missing satellite problem.

  11. Accurate Universal Models for the Mass Accretion Histories and Concentrations of Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Börner, G.

    2009-12-01

    A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance ΛCDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and ΛCDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the ΛCDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass, when

  12. ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Boerner, G.

    2009-12-10

    A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance LAMBDACDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and LAMBDACDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the LAMBDACDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass

  13. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  14. Positron line radiation as a signature of particle dark matter in the halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1990-08-01

    We suggest a new signature for particle dark-matter annihilation in the halo: high-energy, positron line radiation. Because the cosmic-ray positron spectrum falls rapidly with energy and the contribution of conventional sources is only expected to be about 5% of the cosmic-ray electron flux, monoenergetic e+'s from halo annihilations can be a significant and distinctive signal for very massive dark-matter particles (masses greater than about 30 GeV). If the e+e- annihilation channel has an appreciable branch-a few percent or more-the e+ signal could be observable in a future detector, such as have been proposed for ASTROMAG. A significant e+e- branching ratio can occur for neutralinos or Dirac neutrinos. In spite of the fact that a heavy Dirac neutrino is no longer an attractive dark-matter candidate and the fact that the e+e- branching ratios expected for the currently popular models of the neutralino are very small, the positron signature is so distinctive that we believe it is worthy of note: If seen, it is a ``smoking gun'' for particle dark matter in the halo. We also note that the positron signature will be of general importance for any future particle dark-matter candidate whose annihilation into e+e- is not suppressed.

  15. Earthly probes of the smallest dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Cornell, Jonathan M.; Profumo, Stefano E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu

    2012-06-01

    Dark matter kinetic decoupling involves elastic scattering of dark matter off of leptons and quarks in the early universe, the same process relevant for direct detection and for the capture rate of dark matter in celestial bodies; the resulting size of the smallest dark matter collapsed structures should thus correlate with quantities connected with direct detection rates and with the flux of high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun or in the Earth. In this paper we address this general question in the context of two widely studied and paradigmatic weakly-interacting particle dark matter models: the lightest neutralino of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, and the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED). We argue and show that while the scalar neutralino-nucleon cross section correlates poorly with the kinetic decoupling temperature, the spin-dependent cross section exhibits a strong correlation in a wide range of models. In UED models the correlation is present for both cross sections, and is extraordinarily tight for the spin-dependent case. A strong correlation is also found, for both models, for the flux of neutrinos from the Sun, especially for fluxes large enough to be at potentially detectable levels. We provide analytic guidance and formulae that illustrate our findings.

  16. Constraints on baryonic dark matter in the Galactic halo and Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richstone, Douglas; Gould, Andrew; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Flynn, Chris

    1992-04-01

    A four-color method and deep CCD data are used to search for very faint metal-poor stars in the direction of the south Galactic pole. The results make it possible to limit the contribution of ordinary old, metal-poor stars to the dynamical halo of the Galaxy or to the Local Group. The ratio of the mass of the halo to its ordinary starlight must be more than about 2000, unless the halo is very small. For the Local Group, this ratio is greater than about 400. If this local dark matter is baryonic, the process of compact-object formation must produce very few 'impurities' in the form of stars similar to those found in globular clusters. The expected number of unbound stars with MV not greater than 6 within 100 pc of the sun is less than 1 based on the present 90-percent upper limit to the Local Group starlight.

  17. Constraints on baryonic dark matter in the Galactic halo and Local Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richstone, Douglas; Gould, Andrew; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Flynn, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A four-color method and deep CCD data are used to search for very faint metal-poor stars in the direction of the south Galactic pole. The results make it possible to limit the contribution of ordinary old, metal-poor stars to the dynamical halo of the Galaxy or to the Local Group. The ratio of the mass of the halo to its ordinary starlight must be more than about 2000, unless the halo is very small. For the Local Group, this ratio is greater than about 400. If this local dark matter is baryonic, the process of compact-object formation must produce very few 'impurities' in the form of stars similar to those found in globular clusters. The expected number of unbound stars with MV not greater than 6 within 100 pc of the sun is less than 1 based on the present 90-percent upper limit to the Local Group starlight.

  18. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  19. Large-scale structure after COBE: Peculiar velocities and correlations of cold dark matter halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Warren, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Large N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers allow one to simultaneously investigate large-scale structure and the formation of galactic halos with unprecedented resolution. Our study shows that the masses as well as the spatial distribution of halos on scales of tens of megaparsecs in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe with the spectrum normalized to the anisotropies detected by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is compatible with the observations. We also show that the average value of the relative pairwise velocity dispersion sigma(sub v) - used as a principal argument against COBE-normalized CDM models-is significantly lower for halos than for individual particles. When the observational methods of extracting sigma(sub v) are applied to the redshift catalogs obtained from the numerical experiments, estimates differ significantly between different observation-sized samples and overlap observational estimates obtained following the same procedure.

  20. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SHAPE OF THE MILKY WAY DARK MATTER HALO FROM THE SAGITTARIUS STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Helmi, Amina

    2013-08-10

    We propose a new model for the dark matter halo of the Milky Way that fits the properties of the stellar stream associated with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Our dark halo is oblate with q{sub z} = 0.9 for r {approx}< 10 kpc, and can be made to follow the Law and Majewski model at larger radii. However, we find that the dynamical perturbations induced by the Large Magellanic Cloud on the orbit of Sgr cannot be neglected when modeling its streams. When taken into account, this leads us to constrain the Galaxy's outer halo shape to have minor-to-major axis ratio >(c/a){sub {Phi}} = 0.8 and intermediate-to-major axis ratio (b/a){sub {Phi}} = 0.9, in good agreement with cosmological expectations.

  1. Simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies formed in dark matter halos with different mass assembly histories

    SciTech Connect

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.; Valenzuela, O.; Colín, P.

    2014-04-10

    We present zoom-in N-body/hydrodynamics resimulations of dwarf galaxies formed in isolated cold dark matter (CDM) halos with the same virial mass (M{sub v} ≈ 2.5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}) at redshift z = 0. Our goals are to (1) study the mass assembly histories (MAHs) of the halo, stellar, and gaseous components; and (2) explore the effects of the halo MAHs on the stellar/baryonic assembly of simulated dwarfs. Overall, the dwarfs are roughly consistent with observations. More specific results include: (1) the stellar-to-halo mass ratio remains roughly constant since z ∼ 1, i.e., the stellar MAHs closely follow halo MAHs. (2) The evolution of the galaxy gas fractions, f{sub g} , are episodic, showing that the supernova-driven outflows play an important role in regulating f{sub g} —and hence, the star formation rate (SFR)—however, in most cases, a large fraction of the gas is ejected from the halo. (3) The star formation histories are episodic with changes in the SFRs, measured every 100 Myr, of factors of 2-10 on average. (4) Although the dwarfs formed in late assembled halos show more extended SF histories, their z = 0 specific SFRs are still below observations. (5) The inclusion of baryons most of the time reduces the virial mass by 10%-20% with respect to pure N-body simulations. Our results suggest that rather than increasing the strength of the supernova-driven outflows, processes that reduce the star formation efficiency could help to solve the potential issues faced by CDM-based simulations of dwarfs, such as low values of the specific SFR and high stellar masses.

  2. Tides or dark matter sub-haloes: Which ones are more attractive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeckinger, Sylvia

    2015-10-01

    Young tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) are observed in the tidal debris of gas-rich interacting galaxies. In contrast to what is generally assumed to be the case for isolated dwarf galaxies, TDGs are not embedded in their own dark matter (DM) sub-halo. Hence, they are more sensitive to stellar feedback and could be disrupted on a short time-scale. Detailed numerical and observational studies demonstrate that isolated DM-dominated dwarf galaxies can have lifetimes of more than 10 Gyr. For TDGs that evolve in a tidal field with compressing accelerations equal to the gravitational acceleration within a DM sub-halo typical of an isolated dwarf galaxy, a similar survival time is expected. The tidal acceleration profile depends on the virial mass of the host galaxy and the distance between the TDG and its host. We analytically compare the tidal compression to the gravitational acceleration due to either cuspy or cored DM sub-haloes of various virial masses. For example, the tidal field at a distance of 100 kpc to a host halo of 1013 M⊙ can be as stabilizing as a 109 M⊙ DM sub-halo. By linking the tidal field to the equivalent gravitational field of a DM sub-halo, we can use existing models of isolated dwarfs to estimate the survivability of TDGs. We show that part of the unexpectedly high dynamical masses inferred from observations of some TDGs can be explained by tidal compression and hence TDGs require to contain less unobservable matter to understand their rotation curves.

  3. Dynamic made-to-measure: A method of making dynamically self-consistent triaxial dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deg, Nathan James

    2010-11-01

    In this thesis we modify the Made-To-Measure (M2M) algorithm to be dynamically self-consistent and apply it to the problem of generating equilibrium collisionless systems with non-spherical halos. Our M2M algorithm systematically adjusts the masses of particles in a system slowly, keeping the system in equilibrium. The adjustments are performed according to some given constraints and proceed until pseudo-observations of the system match the constraints. We use this algorithm to generate isolated triaxial dark matter halos and disk-halo systems with prolate halos. The isolated triaxial dark-matter halo simulations provide a test for the algorithm. These tests show that our algorithm can generate equilibrium collisionless systems with non-spherical halos, but we also find that our algorithm requires a large amount of computational time to converge to the final target system. The disk-halo simulations show that prolate halos modify the morphology and velocity profile of dark matter dominated disks that cause errors in the measurement of the inclination and understanding the rotation curve. As a result of these errors, a mass estimate from the observed rotation curve of a disk in a prolate halo will depend on the observers position relative to the disk. The mass estimates from the same disk observed at different positions may vary by up to a factor of three.

  4. Probing the halo dark matter. gamma. ray line from a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Salati, P.; Bouquet, A.; Silk, J. Department of Astronomy and Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-03-15

    We study the possibility of detecting halo cold dark matter through the annihilation process {chi}{bar {chi}}{r arrow}{gamma}{gamma}. This process produces monoenergetic {gamma} rays, and may be a clear signature of particle dark matter. If there is a closure density of dark matter, we show that it will be very difficult to observe this annihilation line from a space station borne experiment. On the contrary, a large lunar based {gamma}-ray telescope could detect hundreds of events per year.

  5. PINOCCHIO and the hierarchical build-up of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffoni, Giuliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Theuns, Tom

    2002-07-01

    We study the ability of PINOCCHIO (PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects) to predict the merging histories of dark matter (DM) haloes, comparing the PINOCCHIO predictions with the results of two large N-body simulations run from the same set of initial conditions. We focus our attention on the quantities most relevant to galaxy formation and large-scale structure studies. PINOCCHIO is able to predict the statistics of merger trees with a typical accuracy of 20 per cent. Its validity extends to higher-order moments of the distribution of progenitors. The agreement is also valid at the object-by-object level, with 70-90 per cent of the progenitors cleanly recognized when the parent halo is cleanly recognized itself. Predictions are also presented for quantities that are usually not reproduced by semi-analytic codes, such as the two-point correlation function of the progenitors of massive haloes and the distribution of initial orbital parameters of merging haloes. For the accuracy of the prediction and for the facility with which merger histories are produced, PINOCCHIO provides a means to generate catalogues of DM haloes, which is extremely competitive with large-scale N-body simulations, making it a suitable tool for galaxy formation and large-scale structure studies.

  6. Systematic problems with using dark matter simulations to model stellar halos

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Valluri, Monica; Stinson, Greg S.; Debattista, Victor P.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Wadsley, James

    2014-03-10

    The limits of available computing power have forced models for the structure of stellar halos to adopt one or both of the following simplifying assumptions: (1) stellar mass can be 'painted' onto dark matter (DM) particles in progenitor satellites; (2) pure DM simulations that do not form a luminous galaxy can be used. We estimate the magnitude of the systematic errors introduced by these assumptions using a controlled set of stellar halo models where we independently vary whether we look at star particles or painted DM particles, and whether we use a simulation in which a baryonic disk galaxy forms or a matching pure DM simulation that does not form a baryonic disk. We find that the 'painting' simplification reduces the halo concentration and internal structure, predominantly because painted DM particles have different kinematics from star particles even when both are buried deep in the potential well of the satellite. The simplification of using pure DM simulations reduces the concentration further, but increases the internal structure, and results in a more prolate stellar halo. These differences can be a factor of 1.5-7 in concentration (as measured by the half-mass radius) and 2-7 in internal density structure. Given this level of systematic uncertainty, one should be wary of overinterpreting differences between observations and the current generation of stellar halo models based on DM-only simulations when such differences are less than an order of magnitude.

  7. The dark matter halos of Draco and Ursa Minor

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, C.; Kormendy, J. Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria )

    1990-07-01

    Published density profiles and central velocity dispersions place important constraints on the stellar velocity ellipsoid and on the distribution of dark matter (DM) in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Draco and Ursa Minor. Central velocity dispersions of 9 km/s are adopted for Draco and 11 km/s for Ursa Minor. Then, for an isotropic stellar velocity distribution, the central DM densities are 0.8 and 1.0 solar mass/cu pc, respectively, if visible and dark matter have the same core radius. If DM has a much larger core radius than visible matter but nevertheless dominates the potential, these densities are reduced by a factor of 2. Central DM densities can be lower than this only if the stellar velocity distribution is anisotropic. Simple two-component King models are used to investigate this and to look for the smallest DM densities that are consistent with the observations. 36 refs.

  8. Dark-matter haloes and the M-σ relation for supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Adam C.; McLaughlin, Dean E.

    2016-10-01

    We develop models of two-component spherical galaxies to establish scaling relations linking the properties of spheroids at z = 0 (total stellar masses, effective radii Re and velocity dispersions within Re) to the properties of their dark-matter haloes at both z = 0 and higher redshifts. Our main motivation is the widely accepted idea that the accretion-driven growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in protogalaxies is limited by quasar-mode feedback and gas blow-out. The SMBH masses, MBH, should then be connected to the dark-matter potential wells at the redshift zqso of the blow-out. We specifically consider the example of a power-law dependence on the maximum circular speed in a protogalactic dark-matter halo: M_{BH}∝ V^4_{d,pk}, as could be expected if quasar-mode feedback were momentum-driven. For haloes with a given Vd,pk at a given zqso ≥ 0, our model scaling relations give a typical stellar velocity dispersion σap(Re) at z = 0. Thus, they transform a theoretical MBH-Vd,pk relation into a prediction for an observable MBH-σap(Re) relation. We find the latter to be distinctly non-linear in log-log space. Its shape depends on the generic redshift evolution of haloes in a Λ cold dark matter cosmology and the systematic variation of stellar-to-dark matter mass fraction at z = 0, in addition to any assumptions about the physics underlying the MBH-Vd,pk relation. Despite some clear limitations of the form we use for MBH versus Vd,pk, and even though we do not include any SMBH growth through dry mergers at low redshift, our results for MBH-σap(Re) compare well to data for local early types if we take zqso ˜ 2-4.

  9. On the link between central black holes, bar dynamics and dark matter haloes in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treuthardt, Patrick; Seigar, Marc S.; Sierra, Amber D.; Al-Baidhany, Ismaeel; Salo, Heikki; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Lacy, Claud H. S.

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of a relationship between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and spiral arm pitch angle (P) is evidence that SMBHs are tied to the overall secular evolution of a galaxy. The discovery of SMBHs in late-type galaxies with little or no bulge suggests that an underlying correlation between the dark matter halo concentration and SMBH mass (MBH) exists, rather than between the bulge mass and MBH. In this paper we measure P using a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform and estimate the bar pattern speeds of 40 barred spiral galaxies from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. The pattern speeds were derived by estimating the gravitational potentials of our galaxies from Ks-band images and using them to produce dynamical simulation models. The pattern speeds allow us to identify those galaxies with low central dark halo densities, or fast rotating bars, while P provides an estimate of MBH. We find that a wide range of MBH exists in galaxies with low central dark matter halo densities, which appears to support other theoretical results. We also find that galaxies with low central dark halo densities appear to follow more predictable trends in P versus de Vaucouleurs morphological type (T) and bar strength versus T than barred galaxies in general. The empirical relationship between MBH and total gravitational mass of a galaxy (Mtot) allows us to predict the minimum Mtot that will be observationally measured of our fast bar galaxies. These predictions will be investigated in a subsequent paper.

  10. The formation and evolution of dark matter halos early in cosmic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.

    2015-08-01

    Observational evidence points to the formation of super-massive black holes, heavy elements and halo structure much earlier in cosmic history than expected [1], and this is challenging for Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. However, if photon scattering cross sections were less than expected it becomes possible for halos to form at earlier times and relax the tensions that exist with LCDM theory. This may indeed be the case: it has recently been shown [2,3] that photon-particle scattering cross sections vary significantly with the eigenspectral distribution of the scattering particle in deep gravity wells, an effect that depends on the degree of localization of the particle wavefunction and the proximity of the halo to thermal equilibrium. Cross sections tend to be lower the larger and deeper the gravitational well. This purely quantum effect means that accepted cross sections, as measured on Earth and used to determine the rate and timing of halo formation, may not be applicable to deep gravity wells, not only at the present epoch but throughout cosmic history.By combining reduced photon scattering cross sections with Carr’s primordial black hole mass spectrum formulation[4] calculated at the last phase transition (t = 1 s), it is possible to provide a scenario of halo formation that enables galaxies and halos to form much earlier in cosmic history, yet maintain consistency with cosmic microwave background observations and primordial nucleosynthesis. In addition this scenario provides a unified model relating globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges, enables an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, and enables prediction of dark to visible matter, based on the physical parameters of a halo. This scenario will be presented and discussed.[1] Xue-Bing Wu et al, 2015, Nature, 518,512-515 doi: 10.1038/nature14241[2] Ernest A. D., 2009, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 115207, 115208[3] Ernest A. D, 2012, in Advances in

  11. Bounds on Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2010-03-30

    We review the present model independent bounds on neutrino non-standard interactions both at neutrino production and detection and in its interactions with matter. For matter non-standard interactions the direct bounds are rather weak. However, matter non-standard interactions are related by gauge invariance to the production and detection ones as well as to flavour changing processes involving charged leptons. Taking into account these relations much stronger bounds of at least O(10{sup -2}) can be derived unless significant fine tunings are implemented. Testing non-standard interactions at this level at future neutrino oscillation facilities is challenging but still feasible at very ambitious proposals such as the Neutrino Factory.

  12. Dark matter annihilation and decay from non-spherical dark halos in galactic dwarf satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Ichikawa, Koji; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Ibe, Masahiro; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Sugai, Hajime

    2016-09-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Milky Way are the primary targets in the indirect searches for particle dark matter. To set robust constraints on candidate dark matter particles, understanding the dark halo structure of these systems is of substantial importance. In this paper, we first evaluate the astrophysical factors for dark matter annihilation and decay for 24 dSphs, taking into account a non-spherical dark halo, using generalized axisymmetric mass models based on axisymmetric Jeans equations. First, from a fitting analysis of the most recent kinematic data available, our axisymmetric mass models are a much better fit than previous spherical ones, thus, our work should be the most realistic and reliable estimator for astrophysical factors. Secondly, we find that among analysed dSphs, the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies Triangulum II and Ursa Major II are the most promising but large uncertain targets for dark matter annihilation while the classical dSph Draco is the most robust and detectable target for dark matter decay. It is also found that the non-sphericity of luminous and dark components influences the estimate of astrophysical factors, even though these factors largely depend on the sample size, the prior range of parameters and the spatial extent of the dark halo. Moreover, owing to these effects, the constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross-section are more conservative than those of previous spherical works. These results are important for optimizing and designing dark matter searches in current and future multi-messenger observations by space and ground-based telescopes.

  13. Positron line radiation from halo WIMP annihilations as a dark matter signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1989-01-01

    We suggest a new signature for dark matter annihilation in the halo: high energy positron line radiation. Because the cosmic ray positron spectrum falls rapidly with energy, e+'s from halo WIMP annihilations can be a significant, clean signal for very massive WIMP's (approx. greater than 30 GeV). In the case that the e+e- annihilation channel has an appreciable branch, the e+ signal should be above background in a future detector, such as have been proposed for ASTROMAG, and of potential importance as a dark matter signature. A significant e+e- branching ratio can occur for neutralinos or Dirac neutrinos. High-energy, continuum positron radiation may also be an important signature for massive neutralino annihilations, especially near or above the threshold of the W+W- and ZoZo annihilation channels.

  14. Simultaneous orbit fitting of stellar streams: Constraining the galactic dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Benjamin Arthur

    2010-12-01

    The Milky Way Galaxy serves as a laboratory for testing models of galaxy formation. Discovering the nature of dark matter is often cited as the second most important problem in astrophysics, preceded only by dark energy. Mapping the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way Galaxy can tell us how galaxies form, and place constraints on the properties of dark matter. We can map the distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way using tidal streams, collections of stars that have been gravitationally stripped from satellite dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. By knowing the positions and velocities of these stars, and assuming they came from a compact source, we can follow them back in time and constrain the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo. This Thesis presents a method that allows us to constrain the parameters of a static Galactic gravitational potential using the data from any number of tidal debris streams. The method is tested on simulated tidal streams, and successfully recovers the original model parameters in most cases. The importance of simultaneously fitting the measured rotation curve of the Milky Way is explored, and the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm are discussed. The orbit fitting algorithm is applied independently to the Stream of Grillmair and Dionatos (GD-1), the Orphan Stream, and the Cetus Polar Stream (CPS). We show that no known globular cluster or dwarf galaxy in the Milky Way has kinematics consistent with being the progenitor of the GD-1 stream. The Orphan Stream constrains the Milky Way dark matter halo as having a mass at the low end of previous measurements, giving a best fit halo speed of vhalo = 73 +/- 24 km s-1, compared to typical values of vhalo ≈ 115 km s -1. A lower halo speed implies a less massive halo. The GD-1 and Orphan streams are then fit simultaneously with the Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream (Sgr), within a triaxial dark matter halo. Results for restricted triaxial cases are shown to be consistent with

  15. Galaxy Kinematics with VIRUS-P: The Dark Matter Halo of M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Adams, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted axisymmetric, orbit-based dynamical modeling on M87, the second rank galaxy in the Virgo cluster, and find clear evidence for a large dark matter halo. The total enclosed mass within 47 kpc is 6e12 solar masses making M87 one of the most massive dark halos ever measured in the local universe. To construct these dynamical models we fit for the stellar mass-to-light ratio and two dark halo parameters, assuming a cored logarithmic dark halo profile. The dynamical data comes from existing globular cluster data, SAURON stellar kinematics in the center of M87, and new 2-D stellar kinematics taken with VIRUS-P, an integral field unit currently deployed at the McDonald Observatory. These kinematics add significantly to the current data set on M87 and allow for a direct comparison between different dynamical tracers. We find good agreement between the dynamics of the stars and globular cluster data at large radii, indicating these two systems are in equilibrium. However, the enclosed mass we measure is 60% higher than recent mass estimates calculated from X-ray gas measurements. Understanding the systematics present in the various tools used to estimate mass in local galaxies is critical to our understanding of the formation history and the role dark matter plays in the evolution of these galaxies. We also report on the current status of a VIRUS-P survey of the stellar kinematics of local, massive elliptical galaxies. Our data set includes giant field ellipticals, cluster members and brightest cluster galaxies. The goal of this project is to quantify the amount of dark matter in these systems in order to explore how the role of cluster environment influences both the amount and shape of the dark matter profile.

  16. The Formation of Dark Matter Halos and High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, Shy

    2011-03-01

    In the concordance ΛCDMcosmological model, galaxies form in the centers of dark matter halos and merge with one another following the mergers of their host halos. Thus, we set out to quantify the growth mechanisms of dark matter halos. For this purpose, we analyze several large N-body simulations of the growth of cosmic structure. We devise a novel merger tree construction algorithm that properly takes into account halo fragmentations. We find that the merger rate evolves rapidly with redshift but depends weakly on mass, and that the proportions between mergers of different mass ratios, e.g.major and minor mergers, are universal. We also show that the merger rate per progenitor halo (related to future mergers and to galaxy pair counting) is smaller than that per descendant halo (related to past mergers and galaxy disturbed morphplogies), and that their redshift and mass dependencies are different. We find that only ~60%of the mass accreted onto halos arrives in mergers that are resolved in our simulations. Moreover, the functional form of the merger rate suggests that the merger contribution saturates at that value. Using full particle histories, we confirm that smoothly-accreted particles make a significant fraction of dark matter halos. This has important implications for the smoothness of gas accretion. Disk galaxies at z~2are rapidly star-forming, but show regular rotation, indicating little merger activity. We use a large dark matter simulation to show that even non-merging z~2 halos grow fast enough to explain observed high star-formation rates. We also follow those halos to z=0, finding that many do not undergo major mergers at all. The z~2disks also show high velocity dispersions and irregular clumpy morphologies. We run "zoom-in" cosmological hydrodynamical simulations focusing on the formation of individual z~2 galaxies. We find that the clumpy morphologies are a result of gravitational instability, where the high random motions make the (turbulent

  17. Constraints on the Galactic Halo Dark Matter from Fermi-LAT Diffuse Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, Theresa J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cuoco, A.; Guiriec, Sylvain Germain; McEnery, Julie E.; Scargle. J. D.; Troja, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the Milky Way halo region, searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e+/e- produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. The resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as the annihilation of dark matter.

  18. Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Enikö J.M. E-mail: eniko.madarassy@physics.uu.se

    2012-01-01

    Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates.

  19. FastPM: a new scheme for fast simulations of dark matter and halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Chu, Man-Yat; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    We introduce FastPM, a highly-scalable approximated particle mesh N-body solver, which implements the particle mesh (PM) scheme enforcing correct linear displacement (1LPT) evolution via modified kick and drift factors. Employing a 2-dimensional domain decomposing scheme, FastPM scales extremely well with a very large number of CPUs. In contrast to COmoving-LAgrangian (COLA) approach, we do not require to split the force or track separately the 2LPT solution, reducing the code complexity and memory requirements. We compare FastPM with different number of steps (Ns) and force resolution factor (B) against 3 benchmarks: halo mass function from Friends of Friends halo finder, halo and dark matter power spectrum, and cross correlation coefficient (or stochasticity), relative to a high resolution TreePM simulation. We show that the modified time stepping scheme reduces the halo stochasticity when compared to COLA with the same number of steps and force resolution. While increasing Ns and B improves the transfer function and cross correlation coefficient, for many applications FastPM achieves sufficient accuracy at low Ns and B. For example, Ns = 10 and B = 2 simulation provides a substantial saving (a factor of 10) of computing time relative to Ns = 40, B = 3 simulation, yet the halo benchmarks are very similar at z = 0. We find that for abundance matched halos the stochasticity remains low even for Ns = 5. FastPM compares well against less expensive schemes, being only 7 (4) times more expensive than 2LPT initial condition generator for Ns = 10 (Ns = 5). Some of the applications where FastPM can be useful are generating a large number of mocks, producing non-linear statistics where one varies a large number of nuisance or cosmological parameters, or serving as part of an initial conditions solver.

  20. Galaxy Kinematics with VIRUS-P: The Dark Matter Halo of M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy D.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.

    2011-03-01

    We present two-dimensional stellar kinematics of M87 out to R = 238'' taken with the integral field spectrograph VIRUS-P. We run a large set of axisymmetric, orbit-based dynamical models and find clear evidence for a massive dark matter halo. While a logarithmic parameterization for the dark matter halo is preferred, we do not constrain the dark matter scale radius for a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile and therefore cannot rule it out. Our best-fit logarithmic models return an enclosed dark matter fraction of 17.2+5.0 -5.0% within one effective radius (Re cong 100''), rising to 49.4+7.2 -8.8% within 2 Re . Existing SAURON data (R <=13''), and globular cluster (GC) kinematic data covering 145'' <= R <= 554'' complete the kinematic coverage to R = 47 kpc (~5 Re ). At this radial distance, the logarithmic dark halo comprises 85.3+2.5 -2.4% of the total enclosed mass of 5.7+1.3 -0.9 × 1012 M sun making M87 one of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. Our best-fit logarithmic dynamical models return a stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of 9.1+0.2 -0.2 (V band), a dark halo circular velocity of 800+75 -25 km s-1, and a dark halo scale radius of 36+7 -3 kpc. The stellar M/L, assuming an NFW dark halo, is well constrained to 8.20+0.05 -0.10 (V band). The stars in M87 are found to be radially anisotropic out to R cong0.5 Re , then isotropic or slightly tangentially anisotropic to our last stellar data point at R = 2.4 Re where the anisotropy of the stars and GCs are in excellent agreement. The GCs then become radially anisotropic in the last two modeling bins at R = 3.4 Re and R = 4.8 Re . As one of the most massive galaxies in the local universe, constraints on both the mass distribution of M87 and anisotropy of its kinematic components strongly inform our theories of early-type galaxy formation and evolution in dense environments.

  1. The Inner Structure of Dwarf-sized Halos in Warm and Cold Dark Matter Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V.; Colín, P.

    2016-03-01

    By means of N-body + hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations we study the evolution of the inner dark matter and stellar mass distributions of central dwarf galaxies formed in halos of virial masses Mv = (2-3) × 1010 h-1 M⊙ at z = 0, both in a warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. The half-mode mass in the WDM power spectrum of our simulations is Mf = 2 × 1010 h-1 M⊙. In the dark matter (DM) only simulations halo density profiles are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White parametric fit in both cosmologies, though the WDM halos have concentrations lower by factors of 1.5-2.0 than their CDM counterparts. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the effects of baryons significantly flatten the inner density, velocity dispersion, and pseudo phase space density profiles of the WDM halos but not of the CDM ones. The density slope, measured at ≈0.02Rv, α0.02, becomes shallow in periods of 2-5 Gyr in the WDM runs. We explore whether this flattening process correlates with the global star formation (SF), Ms/Mv ratio, gas outflow, and internal specific angular momentum histories. We do not find any clear trends, but when α0.02 is shallower than -0.5, Ms/Mv is always between 0.25% and 1%. We conclude that the main reason for the formation of the shallow core is the presence of strong gas mass fluctuations inside the inner halo, which are a consequence of the feedback driven by a very bursty and sustained SF history in shallow gravitational potentials. Our WDM halos, which assemble late and are less concentrated than the CDM ones, obey these conditions. There are also (rare) CDM systems with extended mass assembly histories that obey these conditions and form shallow cores. The dynamical heating and expansion processes behind the DM core flattening apply also to the stars in such a way that the stellar age and metallicity gradients of the dwarfs are softened, their stellar half-mass radii strongly grow with time, and their central surface densities

  2. PROGRESSIVELY MORE PROLATE DARK MATTER HALO IN THE OUTER GALAXY AS TRACED BY FLARING H I GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Arunima; Jog, Chanda J. E-mail: cjjog@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2011-05-01

    A galactic disk in a spiral galaxy is generally believed to be embedded in an extended dark matter halo, which dominates its dynamics in the outer parts. However, the shape of the halo is not clearly understood. Here we show that the dark matter halo in the Milky Way is prolate in shape. Further, it is increasingly more prolate at larger radii, with the vertical-to-planar axis ratio monotonically increasing to 2.0 at 24 kpc. This is obtained by modeling the observed steeply flaring atomic hydrogen gas layer in the outer Galactic disk, where the gas is supported by pressure against the net gravitational field of the disk and the halo. The resulting prolate-shaped halo can explain several long-standing puzzles in galactic dynamics, for example, it permits long-lived warps thus explaining their ubiquitous nature.

  3. Pairwise velocities of dark matter haloes: a test for the Λ cold dark matter model using the bullet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    The existence of a bullet cluster (such as 1E 0657-56) poses a challenge to the concordance Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Here we investigate the velocity distribution of dark matter (DM) halo pairs in large N-body simulations with differing box sizes (250 h-1 Mpc? Gpc) and resolutions. We examine various basic statistics such as the halo masses, pairwise halo velocities (v12), collisional angles and pair separation distances. We then compare our results to the initial conditions required to reproduce the observational properties of 1E 0657-56 in non-cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We find that the high-velocity tail of the v12 distribution extends to greater velocities as we increase the simulation box size. We also find that the number of high v12 pairs increases as we increase the particle count and resolution with a fixed box size; however, this increase is mostly due to lower mass haloes which do not match the observed masses of 1E 0657-56. We find that the redshift evolution effect is not very strong for the v12 distribution function between z= 0.0 and z˜ 0.5. We identify some pairs whose v12 resemble the required initial conditions, however, even the best candidates have either wrong halo mass ratios or too large separations. Our simulations suggest that it is very difficult to produce such initial conditions at z= 0.0, 0.296 and 0.489 in comoving volumes as large as (2 h-1 Gpc)3. Based on the extrapolation of our cumulative v12 function, we find that one needs a simulation with a comoving box size of (4.48 h-1 Gpc)3 and 22403 DM particles in order to produce at least one pair of haloes that resembles the required v12 and observed masses of 1E 0657-56. From our simulated v12 probability distribution function, we find that the probability of finding a halo pair with v12≥ 3000 km s-1 and masses ? to be 2.76 × 10-8 at z= 0.489. We conclude that either 1E 0657-56 is incompatible with the concordance ΛCDM universe or the initial conditions

  4. Dark radiation alleviates problems with dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Dasgupta, Basudeb

    2014-10-17

    We show that a scalar and a fermion charged under a global U(1) symmetry can not only explain the existence and abundance of dark matter (DM) and dark radiation (DR), but can also imbue DM with improved scattering properties at galactic scales, while remaining consistent with all other observations. Delayed DM-DR kinetic decoupling eases the missing satellites problem, while scalar-mediated self-interactions of DM ease the cusp versus core and too big to fail problems. In this scenario, DM is expected to be pseudo-Dirac and have a mass 100 keV ≲ m(χ) ≲ 10 GeV. The predicted DR may be measurable using the primordial elemental abundances from big bang nucleosynthesis, and using the cosmic microwave background.

  5. Dark radiation alleviates problems with dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Dasgupta, Basudeb

    2014-10-17

    We show that a scalar and a fermion charged under a global U(1) symmetry can not only explain the existence and abundance of dark matter (DM) and dark radiation (DR), but can also imbue DM with improved scattering properties at galactic scales, while remaining consistent with all other observations. Delayed DM-DR kinetic decoupling eases the missing satellites problem, while scalar-mediated self-interactions of DM ease the cusp versus core and too big to fail problems. In this scenario, DM is expected to be pseudo-Dirac and have a mass 100 keV ≲ m(χ) ≲ 10 GeV. The predicted DR may be measurable using the primordial elemental abundances from big bang nucleosynthesis, and using the cosmic microwave background. PMID:25361246

  6. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part V: perturbation theory applied to dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš; Okumura, Teppei; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k < 0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and Eulerian halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k ∼ 0.15h/Mpc at z = 0, without the need to have free FoG parameters in the model.

  7. Nonsingular Density Profiles of Dark Matter Halos and Strong Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da-Ming

    2005-08-01

    We use the statistics of strong gravitational lenses to investigate whether mass profiles with a flat density core are supported. The probability for lensing by halos modeled by a nonsingular truncated isothermal sphere (NTIS) with image separations greater than a certain value (ranging from 0" to 10") is calculated. NTIS is an analytical model for the postcollapse equilibrium structure of virialized objects derived by Shapiro, Iliev, & Raga. This profile has a soft core and matches quite well with the mass profiles of dark matter-dominated dwarf galaxies deduced from their observed rotation curves. It also agrees well with the NFW (Navarro-Frenk-White) profile at all radii outside of a few NTIS core radii. Unfortunately, comparing the results with those for singular lensing halos (NFW and SIS + NFW) and strong lensing observations, the probabilities for lensing by NTIS halos are far too low. As this result is valid for any other nonsingular density profile (with a large core radius), we conclude that nonsingular density profiles (with a large core radius) for CDM halos are ruled out by statistics of strong gravitational lenses.

  8. Accurate halo-model matter power spectra with dark energy, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.

  9. The Dark Matter Halos of Massive, Relaxed Galaxy Clusters Observed With Chandra

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Robert W.; Allen, S.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-10-11

    We use the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the dark matter halos of 34 massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters, spanning the redshift range 0.06 < z < 0.7. The observed dark matter and total mass (dark-plus-luminous matter) profiles can be approximated by the Navarro Frenk & White (hereafter NFW) model for cold dark matter (CDM) halos; for {approx} 80 percent of the clusters, the NFW model provides a statistically acceptable fit. In contrast, the singular isothermal sphere model can, in almost every case, be completely ruled out. We observe a well-defined mass-concentration relation for the clusters with a normalization and intrinsic scatter in good agreement with the predictions from simulations. The slope of the mass-concentration relation, c {infinity} M{sub vir}{sup a}/(1 + z){sup b} with a = -0.41 {+-} 0.11 at 95 percent confidence, is steeper than the value a {approx} -0.1 predicted by CDM simulations for lower mass halos. With the slope a included as a free fit parameter, the redshift evolution of the concentration parameter, b = 0.54 {+-} 0.47 at 95 percent confidence, is also slower than, but marginally consistent with, the same simulations (b {approx} 1). Fixing a {approx} -0.1 leads to an apparent evolution that is significantly slower, b = 0.20 {+-} 0.45, although the goodness of fit in this case is significantly worse. Using a generalized NFW model, we find the inner dark matter density slope, a, to be consistent with unity at 95 percent confidence for the majority of clusters. Combining the results for all clusters for which the generalized NFW model provides a good description of the data, we measure ? = 0.88 {+-} 0.29 at 95 percent confidence, in agreement with CDM model predictions.

  10. Halo-shape and relic-density exclusions of Sommerfeld-enhanced dark matter explanations of cosmic ray excesses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jonathan L; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2010-04-16

    Dark matter with Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation has been proposed to explain observed cosmic ray positron excesses in the 10 GeV to TeV energy range. We show that the required enhancement implies thermal relic densities that are too small to be all of dark matter. We also show that the dark matter is sufficiently self-interacting that observations of elliptical galactic dark matter halos exclude large Sommerfeld enhancement for light force carriers. Resonant Sommerfeld enhancement does not modify these conclusions, and the astrophysical boosts required to resolve these discrepancies are disfavored, especially when significant self-interactions suppress halo substructure.

  11. Dynamics of minimally coupled dark energy in spherical halos of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Tsizh, Maksym; Kulinich, Yurij

    2016-03-01

    We analyse the evolution of scalar field dark energy in the spherical halos of dark matter at the late stages of formation of gravitationally bound systems in the expanding Universe. The dynamics of quintessential dark energy at the center of dark matter halo strongly depends on the value of effective sound speed c_s (in units of speed of light). If c_s˜ 1 (classical scalar field) then the dark energy in the gravitationally bound systems is only slightly perturbed and its density is practically the same as in cosmological background. The dark energy with small value of sound speed (c_s<0.1), on the contrary, is important dynamical component of halo at all stages of their evolution: linear, non-linear, turnaround, collapse, virialization and later up to current epoch. These properties of dark energy can be used for constraining the value of effective sound speed c_s by comparison the theoretical predictions with observational data related to the large scale gravitationally bound systems.

  12. The clustering of baryonic matter. II: halo model and hydrodynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fedeli, C.; Semboloni, E.; Velliscig, M.; Daalen, M. Van; Schaye, J.; Hoekstra, H. E-mail: sembolon@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: daalen@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: hoekstra@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-08-01

    We recently developed a generalization of the halo model in order to describe the spatial clustering properties of each mass component in the Universe, including hot gas and stars. In this work we discuss the complementarity of the model with respect to a set of cosmological simulations including hydrodynamics of different kinds. We find that the mass fractions and density profiles measured in the simulations do not always succeed in reproducing the simulated matter power spectra, the reason being that the latter encode information from a much larger range in masses than that accessible to individually resolved structures. In other words, this halo model allows one to extract information on the growth of structures from the spatial clustering of matter, that is complementary with the information coming from the study of individual objects. We also find a number of directions for improvement of the present implementation of the model, depending on the specific application one has in mind. The most relevant one is the necessity for a scale dependence of the bias of the diffuse gas component, which will be interesting to test with future detections of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. This investigation confirms the possibility to gain information on the physics of galaxy and cluster formation by studying the clustering of mass, and our next work will consist of applying the halo model to use future high-precision cosmic shear surveys to this end.

  13. The accretion history of dark matter haloes - I. The physical origin of the universal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Camila A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the universal accretion history of dark matter haloes is the first step towards determining the origin of their structure. We use the extended Press-Schechter formalism to derive the halo mass accretion history from the growth rate of initial density perturbations. We show that the halo mass history is well described by an exponential function of redshift in the high-redshift regime. However, in the low-redshift regime the mass history follows a power law because the growth of density perturbations is halted in the dark energy dominated era due to the accelerated expansion of the Universe. We provide an analytic model that follows the expression {M(z)=M0(1+z)^{af(M0)}e^{-f(M0)z}}, where M0 = M(z = 0), a depends on cosmology and f(M0) depends only on the linear matter power spectrum. The analytic model does not rely on calibration against numerical simulations and is suitable for any cosmology. We compare our model with the latest empirical models for the mass accretion history in the literature and find very good agreement. We provide numerical routines for the model online (available at https://bitbucket.org/astroduff/commah).

  14. Cold dark matter haloes in the Planck era: evolution of structural parameters for Einasto and NFW profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2014-07-01

    We present the evolution of the structure of relaxed cold dark matter (CDM) haloes in the cosmology from the Planck satellite. Our simulations cover five decades in halo mass, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Because of the increased matter density and power spectrum normalization the concentration-mass relation in the Planck cosmology has a ˜20 per cent higher normalization at redshift z = 0 compared to Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmology. We confirm that CDM haloes are better described by the Einasto profile; for example, at scales near galaxy half-light radii CDM haloes have significantly steeper density profiles than implied by Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) fits. There is a scatter of ˜0.2 dex in the Einasto shape parameter at fixed halo mass, adding further to the diversity of CDM halo profiles. The evolution of the concentration-mass relation in our simulations is not reproduced by any of the analytic models in the literature. We thus provide a simple fitting formula that accurately describes the evolution between redshifts z = 5 and 0 for both NFW and Einasto fits. Finally, the observed concentrations and halo masses of spiral galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies at low redshifts are in good agreement with our simulations, suggesting only mild halo response to galaxy formation on these scales.

  15. Dark Matter Halos in Galaxies and Globular Cluster Populations. II. Metallicity and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    An increasing body of data reveals a one-to-one linear correlation between galaxy halo mass and the total mass in its globular cluster (GC) population, {{M}GCS}∼ Mh1.03+/- 0.03, valid over five orders of magnitude. In this paper we explore the nature of this correlation for galaxies of different morphological types and for the subpopulations of metal-poor (blue) and metal-rich (red) GCs. For the subpopulations of different metallicity, we find {{M}GCS}(blue)∼ Mh0.96+/- 0.03 and {{M}GCS}(red)∼ Mh1.21+/- 0.03 with similar scatter. The numerical values of these exponents can be derived from the detailed behavior of the red and blue GC fractions with galaxy mass and provide a self-consistent set of relations. In addition, all morphological types (E, S0, S/Irr) follow the same relation, but with a second-order trend for spiral galaxies to have a slightly higher fraction of metal-rich GCs for a given mass. These results suggest that the amount of gas available for GC formation at high redshift was in nearly direct proportion to the dark matter halo potential, in strong contrast to the markedly nonlinear behavior of total stellar mass versus halo mass. Of the few available theoretical treatments that directly discuss the formation of GCs in a hierarchical-merging framework, we find that the model of Kravtsov & Gnedin best matches these observations. They find that the blue, metal-poor GCs formed in small halos at z\\gt 3 and did so in nearly direct proportion to halo mass. Similar models addressing the formation rate of the red, more metal-rich GCs in the same detail and continuing to lower redshift are still needed for a comprehensive picture.

  16. The clustering of baryonic matter. I: a halo-model approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fedeli, C.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper I generalize the halo model for the clustering of dark matter in order to produce the power spectra of the two main baryonic matter components in the Universe: stars and hot gas. As a natural extension, this can be also used to describe the clustering of all mass. According to the design of the halo model, the large-scale power spectra of the various matter components are physically connected with the distribution of each component within bound structures and thus, ultimately, with the complete set of physical processes that drive the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Besides being practical for cosmological and parametric studies, the semi-analytic model presented here has also other advantages. Most importantly, it allows one to understand on physical ground what is the relative contribution of each matter component to the total clustering of mass as a function of scale, and thus it opens an interesting new window to infer the distribution of baryons through high precision cosmic shear measurements. This is particularly relevant for future wide-field photometric surveys such as Euclid. In this work the concept of the model and its uncertainties are illustrated in detail, while in a companion paper we use a set of numerical hydrodynamic simulations to show a practical application and to investigate where the model itself needs to be improved.

  17. NIHAO IX: the role of gas inflows and outflows in driving the contraction and expansion of cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Dekel, Avishai; Wang, Liang; Stinson, Gregory; Obreja, Aura; Di Cintio, Arianna; Brook, Chris; Buck, Tobias; Kang, Xi

    2016-09-01

    We use ˜100 cosmological galaxy formation `zoom-in' simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GASOLINE to study the effect of baryonic processes on the mass profiles of cold dark matter haloes. The haloes in our study range from dwarf (M200 ˜ 1010 M⊙) to Milky Way (M200 ˜ 1012 M⊙) masses. Our simulations exhibit a wide range of halo responses, primarily varying with mass, from expansion to contraction, with up to factor ˜10 changes in the enclosed dark matter mass at 1 per cent of the virial radius. Confirming previous studies, the halo response is correlated with the integrated efficiency of star formation: ɛSF ≡ (Mstar/M200)/(Ωb/Ωm). In addition, we report a new correlation with the compactness of the stellar system: ɛR ≡ r1/2/R200. We provide an analytic formula depending on ɛSF and ɛR for the response of cold dark matter haloes to baryonic processes. An observationally testable prediction is that, at fixed mass, larger galaxies experience more halo expansion, while the smaller galaxies more halo contraction. This diversity of dark halo response is captured by a toy model consisting of cycles of adiabatic inflow (causing contraction) and impulsive gas outflow (causing expansion). For net outflow, or equal inflow and outflow fractions, f, the overall effect is expansion, with more expansion with larger f. For net inflow, contraction occurs for small f (large radii), while expansion occurs for large f (small radii), recovering the phenomenology seen in our simulations. These regularities in the galaxy formation process provide a step towards a fully predictive model for the structure of cold dark matter haloes.

  18. CFHTLenS: the relation between galaxy dark matter haloes and baryons from weak gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velander, Malin; van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Coupon, Jean; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kitching, Thomas D.; Mellier, Yannick; Miller, Lance; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Bonnett, Christopher; Fu, Liping; Giodini, Stefania; Hudson, Michael J.; Kuijken, Konrad; Rowe, Barnaby; Schrabback, Tim; Semboloni, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the relation between dark matter halo mass and the baryonic content of their host galaxies, quantified through galaxy luminosity and stellar mass. Our investigation uses 154 deg2 of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) lensing and photometric data, obtained from the CFHT Legacy Survey. To interpret the weak lensing signal around our galaxies, we employ a galaxy-galaxy lensing halo model which allows us to constrain the halo mass and the satellite fraction. Our analysis is limited to lenses at redshifts between 0.2 and 0.4, split into a red and a blue sample. We express the relationship between dark matter halo mass and baryonic observable as a power law with pivot points of 10^{11} h_{70}^{-2} L_{{⊙}} and 2× 10^{11} h_{70}^{-2} M_{{⊙}} for luminosity and stellar mass, respectively. For the luminosity-halo mass relation, we find a slope of 1.32 ± 0.06 and a normalization of 1.19^{+0.06}_{-0.07}× 10^{13} h_{70}^{-1} M_{{⊙}} for red galaxies, while for blue galaxies the best-fitting slope is 1.09^{+0.20}_{-0.13} and the normalization is 0.18^{+0.04}_{-0.05}× 10^{13} h_{70}^{-1} M_{{⊙}}. Similarly, we find a best-fitting slope of 1.36^{+0.06}_{-0.07} and a normalization of 1.43^{+0.11}_{-0.08}× 10^{13} h_{70}^{-1} M_{{⊙}} for the stellar mass-halo mass relation of red galaxies, while for blue galaxies the corresponding values are 0.98^{+0.08}_{-0.07} and 0.84^{+0.20}_{-0.16}× 10^{13} h_{70}^{-1} M_{{⊙ }}. All numbers convey the 68 per cent confidence limit. For red lenses, the fraction which are satellites inside a larger halo tends to decrease with luminosity and stellar mass, with the sample being nearly all satellites for a stellar mass of 2× 109 h_{70}^{-2} M_{{⊙}}. The satellite fractions are generally close to zero for blue lenses, irrespective of luminosity or stellar mass. This, together with the shallower relation between halo mass and baryonic tracer, is a direct confirmation from galaxy

  19. Halo-independent direct detection of momentum-dependent dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M. E-mail: frandsen@cp3-origins.net

    2014-10-01

    We show that the momentum dependence of dark matter interactions with nuclei can be probed in direct detection experiments without knowledge of the dark matter velocity distribution. This is one of the few properties of DM microphysics that can be determined with direct detection alone, given a signal of dark matter in multiple direct detection experiments with different targets. Long-range interactions arising from the exchange of a light mediator are one example of momentum-dependent DM. For data produced from the exchange of a massless mediator we find for example that the mediator mass can be constrained to be ∼< 10 MeV for DM in the 20-1000 GeV range in a halo-independent manner.

  20. Long GRBs as a tool to investigate star formation in dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Hao, Jing-Meng; Wu, Xue-Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2016-03-01

    First stars can only form in structures that are suitably dense, which can be parametrized by the minimum dark matter halo mass Mmin. Mmin must play an important role in star formation. The connection of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) with the collapse of massive stars has provided a good opportunity for probing star formation in dark matter halos. We place some constraints on Mmin using the latest Swift LGRB data. We conservatively consider that LGRB rate is proportional to the cosmic star formation rate (CSFR) and an additional evolution parametrized as (1 + z) α, where the CSFR model is a function of Mmin. Using the χ2 statistic, the contour constraints on the Mmin-α plane show that at the 1σ confidence level, we have Mmin <1010.5M⊙ from 118 LGRBs with redshift z < 4 and luminosity Liso > 1.8 ×1051 ergs-1. We also find that adding 12 high-z (4 < z < 5) LGRBs (consisting of 104 LGRBs with z < 5 and Liso > 3.1 ×1051 ergs-1) could result in much tighter constraints on Mmin, for which, 107.7M⊙ matter halos.

  1. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: THE MASS OF THE MILKY WAY'S DARK MATTER HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Besla, Gurtina

    2013-05-10

    We combine our Hubble Space Telescope measurement of the proper motion of the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (presented in a companion paper) with the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galaxy-size dark matter halos in existence to constrain the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo (M{sub vir,MW}). Despite Leo I's large Galactocentric space velocity (200 km s{sup -1}) and distance (261 kpc), we show that it is extremely unlikely to be unbound if Galactic satellites are associated with dark matter substructure, as 99.9% of subhalos in the simulations are bound to their host. The observed position and velocity of Leo I strongly disfavor a low-mass Milky Way: if we assume that Leo I is the least bound of the Milky Way's classical satellites, then we find that M{sub vir,MW} > 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence for a variety of Bayesian priors on M{sub vir,MW}. In lower mass halos, it is vanishingly rare to find subhalos at 261 kpc moving as fast as Leo I. Should an additional classical satellite be found to be less bound than Leo I, this lower limit on M{sub vir,MW} would increase by 30%. Imposing a mass-weighted {Lambda}CDM prior, we find a median Milky Way virial mass of M{sub vir,MW} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with a 90% confidence interval of [1.0-2.4] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. We also confirm a strong correlation between subhalo infall time and orbital energy in the simulations and show that proper motions can aid significantly in interpreting the infall times and orbital histories of satellites.

  2. The Space Motion of Leo I: The Mass of the Milky Way's Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Besla, Gurtina; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2013-05-01

    We combine our Hubble Space Telescope measurement of the proper motion of the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (presented in a companion paper) with the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galaxy-size dark matter halos in existence to constrain the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo (M vir, MW). Despite Leo I's large Galactocentric space velocity (200 km s-1) and distance (261 kpc), we show that it is extremely unlikely to be unbound if Galactic satellites are associated with dark matter substructure, as 99.9% of subhalos in the simulations are bound to their host. The observed position and velocity of Leo I strongly disfavor a low-mass Milky Way: if we assume that Leo I is the least bound of the Milky Way's classical satellites, then we find that M vir, MW > 1012 M ⊙ at 95% confidence for a variety of Bayesian priors on M vir, MW. In lower mass halos, it is vanishingly rare to find subhalos at 261 kpc moving as fast as Leo I. Should an additional classical satellite be found to be less bound than Leo I, this lower limit on M vir, MW would increase by 30%. Imposing a mass-weighted ΛCDM prior, we find a median Milky Way virial mass of M vir, MW = 1.6 × 1012 M ⊙, with a 90% confidence interval of [1.0-2.4] × 1012 M ⊙. We also confirm a strong correlation between subhalo infall time and orbital energy in the simulations and show that proper motions can aid significantly in interpreting the infall times and orbital histories of satellites.

  3. Glow in the Dark Matter: Observing Galactic Halos with Scattered Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jonathan H.; Silk, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    We consider the observation of diffuse halos of light around the discs of spiral galaxies, as a probe of the interaction cross section between dark matter (DM) and photons. Using the galaxy M101 as an example, we show that for a scattering cross section at the level of 10-23(m /GeV ) cm2 or greater dark matter in the halo will scatter light out from the more luminous center of the disc to larger radii, contributing to an effective increased surface brightness at the edges of the observed area on the sky. This allows us to set an upper limit on the DM-photon cross section using data from the Dragonfly instrument. We then show how to improve this constraint, and the potential for discovery, by combining the radial profile of DM-photon scattering with measurements at multiple wavelengths. Observation of diffuse light presents a new and potentially powerful way to probe the interactions of dark matter with photons, a way that is complementary to existing searches.

  4. Glow in the dark matter: observing galactic halos with scattered light.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan H; Silk, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    We consider the observation of diffuse halos of light around the discs of spiral galaxies, as a probe of the interaction cross section between dark matter (DM) and photons. Using the galaxy M101 as an example, we show that for a scattering cross section at the level of 10(-23)(m/GeV)  cm(2) or greater dark matter in the halo will scatter light out from the more luminous center of the disc to larger radii, contributing to an effective increased surface brightness at the edges of the observed area on the sky. This allows us to set an upper limit on the DM-photon cross section using data from the Dragonfly instrument. We then show how to improve this constraint, and the potential for discovery, by combining the radial profile of DM-photon scattering with measurements at multiple wavelengths. Observation of diffuse light presents a new and potentially powerful way to probe the interactions of dark matter with photons, a way that is complementary to existing searches.

  5. Glow in the dark matter: observing galactic halos with scattered light.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan H; Silk, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    We consider the observation of diffuse halos of light around the discs of spiral galaxies, as a probe of the interaction cross section between dark matter (DM) and photons. Using the galaxy M101 as an example, we show that for a scattering cross section at the level of 10(-23)(m/GeV)  cm(2) or greater dark matter in the halo will scatter light out from the more luminous center of the disc to larger radii, contributing to an effective increased surface brightness at the edges of the observed area on the sky. This allows us to set an upper limit on the DM-photon cross section using data from the Dragonfly instrument. We then show how to improve this constraint, and the potential for discovery, by combining the radial profile of DM-photon scattering with measurements at multiple wavelengths. Observation of diffuse light presents a new and potentially powerful way to probe the interactions of dark matter with photons, a way that is complementary to existing searches. PMID:25699431

  6. Properties of Dark Matter Halos and Novel Signatures of Baryons in Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Douglas Seth

    This thesis investigates the properties of dark matter halos and places constraints on the baryons within them by utilizing observational data. In Chapter 2, we use spherical collapse dynamics to calculate the non-linear over-density of a dark matter halo at virialization given realistic initial and final density profiles in an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology and cosmologies with matter, dark energy and possible curvature. We find that the non-linear over-density at virialization can be reduced by as much as a factor of 10 as compared to the standard value. In Chapter 3 we present novel analytic solutions to the non-linear dynamics of dark matter structures. We use the spherical collapse model to consider collapsing over-dense regions, over-dense regions which never collapse (due to the cosmological constant) and under-dense voids. These calculations can be applied to studies about the formation and abundance of cosmic structure. In Chapter 4 we use a novel method to constrain the initial mass function (IMF) of stars in the Galactic center. We calculate the mass loss rate in the Galactic center due to stellar collisions given a present-day mass function (PDMF) of stars. We model the total x-ray luminosity due to the ejected mass and utilize x-ray observations of the Galactic center to constrain the PDMF. By considering several star formation histories, we are able to constrain the IMF of stars in the Galactic center. In the final chapter, we calculate the expected kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) signal from the diffuse gas associated with the Local Group (LG) halo. By modeling the distribution of gas in the LG we find that the kSZ sky map is dominated by a hot spot in the direction of M31. By performing a correlation analysis with the CMB temperature map measured by the Planck satellite, we find no statistical evidence that the LG kSZ signal is embedded in the Planck map. We constrain the total mass of the LG halo by limiting the kSZ temperature shift around the hot

  7. Some like it triaxial: the universality of dark matter halo shapes and their evolution along the cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despali, Giulia; Giocoli, Carlo; Tormen, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of dark matter halo shapes, studying how the distributions of ellipticity, prolateness and axial ratios evolve as a function of time and mass. With this purpose in mind, we analysed the results of three cosmological simulations, running an ellipsoidal halo finder to measure triaxial halo shapes. The simulations have different scales, mass limits and cosmological parameters, which allows us to ensure a good resolution and statistics in a wide mass range, and to investigate the dependence of halo properties on the cosmological model. We confirm the tendency of haloes to be prolate at all times, even if they become more triaxial going to higher redshifts. Regarding the dependence on mass, more massive haloes are also less spherical at all redshifts, since they are the most recent forming systems and so still retain memory of their original shape at the moment of collapse. We then propose a rescaling of the shape-mass relations, using the variable ν = δc/σ to represent the mass, which absorbs the dependence on both cosmology and time, allowing us to find universal relations between halo masses and shape parameters (ellipticity, prolateness and the axial ratios) which hold at any redshift. This may be very useful to determine prior distributions of halo shapes for observational studies.

  8. Investigating the outer density profile of the dark matter halo of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu

    2015-08-01

    In the context of the hierarchical structure formation in the universe, cosmological N -body simulations predict that cold dark matter (CDM) halos have a universal mass-density profile(Navarro et al. 1996; Fukushige & Makino 1997; Moore et al. 1998).Especially, the density profile of CDM outer halos decreases with the cube of the radius from the galactic center. However, so far, not much effort has examined this hypothesis because it is extremely difficult to measure the mass distribution of the outer region of a galaxy.On the other hand, a recent observation discovered a giant stellar stream (GSS) and stellar shells in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). The GSS extends over 120 kpc further away along the line of sight from M31, and its spatial and velocity structure have been observed in detail. So far, N -body simulations of a galaxy merger between a satellite dwarf galaxy and M31 nicely reproduced these structures (Fardal et al. 2007; Mori & Rich 2008).We present the result of the N -body simulation of the galaxy merger to investigate the mass distribution of the DM halo in M31. We vary the power-law index of the outer-density profile and the total mass of the CDM halo of M31. To reproduce the observed structures, we find the sufficient condition for the power-law index x. The best-fit parameter is x=-3.7, which is steeper than the CDM prediction (x=-3).In addition, we also focus on the morphology of the progenitor galaxy. We perform large parameter surveys of the galaxy merger varying thickness and rotation velocity of a disk-like component of the progenitor. The result suggests that a rotating component of the progenitor is required to reproduce an asymmetric internal structure of the GSS. Using the parameter that reproduces the observed structures in detail, we discuss the evolution and relaxation of the dark matter component that initially associated with the progenitor.

  9. ANISOTROPIC LOCATIONS OF SATELLITE GALAXIES: CLUES TO THE ORIENTATIONS OF GALAXIES WITHIN THEIR DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Agustsson, Ingolfur; Brainerd, Tereasa G. E-mail: brainerd@bu.ed

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the locations of the satellites of relatively isolated host galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Millennium Run simulation. Provided we use two distinct prescriptions to embed luminous galaxies within the simulated dark matter halos (ellipticals share the shapes of their halos, while disks have angular momenta that are aligned with the net angular momenta of their halos), we find a fair agreement between observation and theory. Averaged over scales r{sub p} <= 500 kpc, the satellites of red, high-mass hosts with low star formation rates are found preferentially near the major axes of their hosts. In contrast, the satellites of blue, low-mass hosts with low star formation rates show little to no anisotropy when averaged over the same scale. The difference between the locations of the satellites of red and blue hosts cannot be explained by the effects of interlopers in the data. Instead, it is caused primarily by marked differences in the dependence of the mean satellite location, (phi), on the projected distance at which the satellites are found. We also find that the locations of red, high-mass satellites with low star formation rates show considerably more anisotropy than do the locations of blue, low-mass satellites with high star formation rates. There are two contributors to this result. First, the blue satellites have only recently arrived within their hosts' halos, while the red satellites arrived in the far distant past. Second, the sample of blue satellites is heavily contaminated by interlopers, which suppresses the measured anisotropy compared to the intrinsic anisotropy.

  10. Dark Matter annihilations in halos and high-redshift sources of reionization of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that annihilations in the homogeneous fluid of dark matter (DM) can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. However, the relevance of DM annihilations in halos for cosmological observables is still subject to debate, with previous works reaching different conclusions on this point. Also, all previous studies used a single type of parameterization for the astrophysical reionization, and included no astrophysical source for the heating of the intergalactic medium. In this work, we revisit these problems. When standard approaches are adopted, we find that the ionization fraction does exhibit a very particular (and potentially constraining) pattern, but the currently measurable τreio is left almost unchanged: in agreement with most of the previous literature, for plausible halo models we find that the modification of the signal with respect to the one coming from annihilations in the smooth background is tiny, below cosmic variance within currently allowed parameter space. However, if different and probably more realistic treatments of the astrophysical sources of reionization and heating are adopted, a more pronounced effect of the DM annihilation in halos is possible. We thus conclude that within currently adopted baseline models the impact of the virialised DM structures cannot be uncovered by CMB power spectra measurements, but a larger impact is possible if peculiar models are invoked for the redshift evolution of the DM annihilation signal or different assumptions are made for the astrophysical contributions. A better understanding (both theoretical and observational) of the reionization and temperature history of the universe, notably via the 21 cm signal, seems the most promising way for using halo formation as a tool in DM searches, improving over the sensitivity of current cosmological probes.

  11. WSRT HI imaging of candidate gas-bearing dark matter halos in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elizabeth A.; Oosterloo, Tom; Cannon, John M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2016-01-01

    A long standing problem in cosmology is the mismatch between the number of low mass dark matter halos predicted by simulations and the number of low mass galaxies observed in the Local Group. We recently presented a set of isolated ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) identified within the dataset of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) HI line survey that are consistent with representing low mass gas-bearing dark matter halos within the Local Group (Adams+ 2013). At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have HI masses of ~10^5 Msun and indicative dynamical masses of ~10^7 Msun. The HI diameters of the UCHVCs range from 4' to 20', or 1 to 6 kpc at a distance of 1 Mpc. We have selected the most compact and isolated UCHVCs with the highest average column densities as representing the best galaxy candidates. These systems have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) to enable higher spatial resolution studies of the HI distribution. From these data, the sources break into two clear categories. Two of the sources maintain a smooth HI morphology at higher resolution, show a velocity gradient and have the highest peak column densities of the sample, indicating they are good candidates to represent gas in dark matter halos. In fact, one of these sources, AGC 198606, has a tentative stellar counterpart detection (Janesh+ 2015). Nine of the sources break into clumps at higher angular resolution, show no ordered velocity motion, and have significantly lower peak column densities, indicating they are likely Galactic halo HI clouds. One source straddles the two categories with a relatively smooth HI morphology and some evidence for ordered velocity motion while having a lower peak column density. These observations show that higher resolution HI data is a good way to address the galaxy hypothesis for isolated HI clouds, and future HI surveys with phased-array feeds on interferometers, such as Apertif, will be able to directly detect and

  12. Collision of the Smith Cloud and its dark matter halo with the magnetized Galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galyardt, Jason; Shelton, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    The Smith Cloud is a massive High Velocity Cloud (HVC) that may have passed through the Milky Way disk in the recent past. Previous studies using hydrodynamic simulations suggest that a dark matter halo may have provided the confinement neccessary for the Smith Cloud to survive passage through the Galactic corona and disk. However, the models of the Galaxy that were used in these studies did not include a magnetic field, while magnetic fields are known to have confining properties. Other studies have shown that the Galactic magnetic field can inhibit mass exchange between the corona and the disk due to magnetic field compression. We extend upon these studies via FLASH magnetohydrodynamic simulations to consider the effects of a Galactic magnetic field on an infalling, dark matter confined HVC.

  13. The shape of `dark matter' haloes of disc galaxies according to MOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2001-10-01

    Analyses of halo shapes for disc galaxies are said to give conflicting results. I point out that the modified dynamics (MOND) predicts for disc galaxies a distribution of fictitious dark matter that comprises two components: a pure disc and a rounder halo. The former dominates the true disc in regions of small accelerations, where it controls the z-dynamics in the disc (disc flaring etc.); it has a finite total mass. It also dominates the round component near the centre where the geometry is nearly planar. The second component controls motions far from the plane, has a total enclosed mass that diverges linearly with radius, and determines the rotation curve at large radii. Its ellipticity may be appreciable at small radii but vanishes asymptotically. This prediction of MOND differs from what one expects from galaxy formation scenarios with dark matter. Analyses to date, which, as they do, assume one component - usually with a constant ellipticity - perforce give conflicting results for the best value of ellipticity, depending on whether they probe the disc or the sphere, small radii or large ones.

  14. TIDAL STREAM MORPHOLOGY AS AN INDICATOR OF DARK MATTER HALO GEOMETRY: THE CASE OF PALOMAR 5

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Sarah; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Küpper, Andreas H. W.

    2015-01-20

    This paper presents an example where the morphology of a single stellar stream can be used to rule out a specific galactic potential form without the need for velocity information. We investigate the globular cluster Palomar 5 (Pal 5), which is tidally disrupting into a cold, thin stream mapped over 22 deg on the sky with a typical width of 0.7 deg. We generate models of this stream by fixing Pal 5's present-day position, distance, and radial velocity via observations, while allowing its proper motion to vary. In a spherical dark matter halo we easily find models that fit the observed morphology. However, no plausible Pal 5 model could be found in the triaxial potential of Law and Majewski, which has been proposed to explain the properties of the Sagittarius stream. In this case, the long, thin, and curved morphology of the Pal 5 stream alone can be used to rule out such a potential configuration. Pal 5-like streams in this potential are either too straight, missing the curvature of the observations, or show an unusual morphology which we dub stream-fanning: a signature sensitive to the triaxiality of a potential. We conclude that the mere existence of other thin tidal streams must provide broad constraints on the orientation and shape of the dark matter halo they inhabit.

  15. Enhanced tidal stripping of satellites in the galactic halo from dark matter self-interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Zavala, Jesús; Frebel, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the effects of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the tidal stripping and evaporation of satellite galaxies in a Milky Way-like host. We use a suite of five zoom-in, dark-matter-only simulations, two with velocity-independent SIDM cross-sections, two with velocity-dependent SIDM cross-sections, and one cold dark matter (CDM) simulation for comparison. After carefully assigning stellar mass to satellites at infall, we find that stars are stripped at a higher rate in SIDM than in CDM. In contrast, the total bound dark matter mass-loss rate is minimally affected, with subhalo evaporation having negligible effects on satellites for viable SIDM models. Centrally located stars in SIDM haloes disperse out to larger radii as cores grow. Consequently, the half-light radius of satellites increases, stars become more vulnerable to tidal stripping, and the stellar mass function is suppressed. We find that the ratio of core radius to tidal radius accurately predicts the relative strength of enhanced SIDM stellar stripping. Velocity-independent SIDM models show a modest increase in the stellar stripping effect with satellite mass, whereas velocity-dependent SIDM models show a large increase in this effect towards lower masses, making observations of ultrafaint dwarfs prime targets for distinguishing between and constraining SIDM models. Due to small cores in the largest satellites of velocity-dependent SIDM, no identifiable imprint is left on the all-sky properties of the stellar halo. While our results focus on SIDM, the main physical mechanism of enhanced tidal stripping of stars apply similarly to satellites with cores formed via other means.

  16. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a major

  17. A Study of Non-Standard English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labov, William

    American education has always considered the non-standard or sub-standard form of speech used by children to be an imperfect copy of standard English. The defects of this approach have now become a matter of urgent concern in the face of the tremendous educational problems of the urban ghettos. This paper reverses the usual focus and looks…

  18. Light versus dark in strong-lens galaxies: dark matter haloes that are rounder than their stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruderer, Claudio; Read, Justin I.; Coles, Jonathan P.; Leier, Dominik; Falco, Emilio E.; Ferreras, Ignacio; Saha, Prasenjit

    2016-02-01

    We measure the projected density profile, shape and alignment of the stellar and dark matter mass distribution in 11 strong-lens galaxies. We find that the projected dark matter density profile - under the assumption of a Chabrier stellar initial mass function - shows significant variation from galaxy to galaxy. Those with an outermost image beyond ˜10 kpc are very well fit by a projected Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile; those with images within 10 kpc appear to be more concentrated than NFW, as expected if their dark haloes contract due to baryonic cooling. We find that over several half-light radii, the dark matter haloes of these lenses are rounder than their stellar mass distributions. While the haloes are never more elliptical than edm = 0.2, their stars can extend to e* > 0.2. Galaxies with high dark matter ellipticity and weak external shear show strong alignment between light and dark; those with strong shear (γ ≳ 0.1) can be highly misaligned. This is reassuring since isolated misaligned galaxies are expected to be unstable. Our results provide a new constraint on galaxy formation models. For a given cosmology, these must explain the origin of both very round dark matter haloes and misaligned strong-lens systems.

  19. Elliptical Galaxy Kinematics and Dark Matter Halos with VIRUS-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Greene, J. E.; Graves, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter is now ubiquitous in galactic astronomy, yet our understanding of both its extent, shape, and influence on the evolution of galaxies remains poorly understood. In the case of giant elliptical galaxies, which typically reside in dense environments and accumulate their mass via a range of processes, yet maintain tight scaling relations between a wide variety of their parameters, our understanding of the dizzying variety of mechanisms involved is a work in progress. To this end I will discuss an ongoing project being carried out at McDonald Observatory using the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph to characterize the dark matter halos, stellar anisotropy and stellar abundance patterns of the most massive galaxies in the local universe from measurements of integrated stellar light. We have observed 23 giant elliptical galaxies over a range of environments. Seven of the 23 galaxies in our data set our Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG). I will present spectra and kinematics for a subsample of the survey. Three-integral axisymmetric dynamical modeling, based on Schwarzschild's method of orbit-superposition, will be presented for 3 BCGs in our sample (NGC 4472, M87 and NGC 2832). For the case of M87 we have data extending to 5 effective radii which allows for a direct comparison between stellar kinematics and other mass tracers typically used at large radial distances where the stellar light has historically been too faint to extract reliable kinematics. The mass distribution of all 3 of these galaxies is dominated by their dark matter halo at large radii. The degree of stellar radial and tangential anisotropy of the stars is returned from the modeling process. I will discuss how the stellar anisotropy, combined with stellar abundance patterns from measurements of the Lick indices, can be used to infer how the most massive galaxies accumulated their mass over time.

  20. SELF-SIMILAR DYNAMICAL RELAXATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS IN AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Cavaliere, A.

    2011-12-20

    We investigate the structure of cold dark matter halos using advanced models of spherical collapse and accretion in an expanding universe. These are based on solving time-dependent equations for the moments of the phase-space distribution function in the fluid approximation; our approach includes non-radial random motions and, most importantly, an advanced treatment of both dynamical relaxation effects that take place in the infalling matter: phase-mixing associated with shell crossing and collective collisions related to physical clumpiness. We find self-similar solutions for the spherically averaged profiles of mass density {rho}(r), pseudo phase-space density Q(r), and anisotropy parameter {beta}(r). These profiles agree with the outcomes of state-of-the-art N-body simulations in the radial range currently probed by the latter; at smaller radii, we provide specific predictions. In the perspective provided by our self-similar solutions, we link the halo structure to its two-stage growth history and propose the following picture. During the early fast collapse of the inner region dominated by a few merging clumps, efficient dynamical relaxation plays a key role in producing closely universal mass density and pseudo phase-space density profiles; in particular, these are found to depend only weakly on the detailed shape of the initial perturbation and the related collapse times. The subsequent inside-out growth of the outer regions feeds on the slow accretion of many small clumps and diffuse matter; thus the outskirts are only mildly affected by dynamical relaxation but are more sensitive to asymmetries and cosmological variance.

  1. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2011-01-20

    Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges.

  2. A novel approach to derive halo-independent limits on dark matter properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Francesc; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian

    2015-09-21

    We propose a method that allows to place an upper limit on the dark matter elastic scattering cross section with nucleons which is independent of the velocity distribution. Our approach combines null results from direct detection experiments with indirect searches at neutrino telescopes, and goes beyond previous attempts to remove astrophysical uncertainties in that it directly constrains the particle physics properties of the dark matter. The resulting halo-independent upper limits on the scattering cross section of dark matter are remarkably strong and reach σ{sub SI}{sup p}≲10{sup −43} (10{sup −42}) cm{sup 2} and σ{sub SD}{sup p}≲10{sup −37} (3×10{sup −37}) cm{sup 2}, for dark matter particles of m{sub DM}∼1 TeV annihilating into W{sup +}W{sup −} (bb-bar), assuming ρ{sub loc}=0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}.

  3. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2011-01-20

    Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges. PMID:21248846

  4. Cold dark matter halos in Multi-coupled Dark Energy cosmologies: Structural and statistical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marco

    2014-04-01

    The recently proposed Multi-coupled Dark Energy (McDE) scenario - characterised by two distinct cold dark matter (CDM) particle species with opposite couplings to a Dark Energy scalar field - introduces a number of novel features in the small-scale dynamics of cosmic structures, most noticeably the simultaneous existence of both attractive and repulsive fifth-forces. Such small-scale features are expected to imprint possibly observable footprints on nonlinear cosmic structures, that might provide a direct way to test the scenario. In order to unveil such footprints, we have performed the first suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of McDE cosmologies, covering the coupling range |β| ≤ 1. We find that for coupling values corresponding to fifth-forces weaker than standard gravity, the impact on structure formation is very mild, thereby showing a new type of screening mechanism for long-range scalar interactions. On the contrary, for fifth-forces comparable to or stronger than standard gravity a number of effects appear in the statistical and structural properties of CDM halos. Collapsed structures start to fragment into pairs of smaller objects that move on different trajectories, providing a direct evidence of the violation of the weak equivalence principle. Consequently, the relative abundance of halos of different masses is significantly modified. For sufficiently large coupling values, the expected number of clusters is strongly suppressed, which might alleviate the present tension between CMB- and cluster-based cosmological constraints. Finally, the internal structure of halos is also modified, with a significant suppression of the inner overdensity, and a progressive segregation of the two CDM species.

  5. An empirical model to form and evolve galaxies in dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-Jie; Zhang, You-Cai; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Tweed, Dylan; Liu, Cheng-Ze; Yang, Lei; Shi, Feng; Lu, Yi; Luo, Wen-Tao; Wei, Jian-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Based on the star formation histories of galaxies in halos with different masses, we develop an empirical model to grow galaxies in dark matter halos. This model has very few ingredients, any of which can be associated with observational data and thus be efficiently assessed. By applying this model to a very high resolution cosmological N-body simulation, we predict a number of galaxy properties that are a very good match to relevant observational data. Namely, for both centrals and satellites, the galaxy stellar mass functions up to redshift z ≃ 4 and the conditional stellar mass functions in the local universe are in good agreement with observations. In addition, the two point correlation function is well predicted in the different stellar mass ranges explored by our model. Furthermore, after applying stellar population synthesis models to our stellar composition as a function of redshift, we find that the luminosity functions in the 0.1 u, 0.1 g, 0.1 r, 0.1 i and 0.1 z bands agree quite well with the SDSS observational results down to an absolute magnitude at about -17.0. The SDSS conditional luminosity function itself is predicted well. Finally, the cold gas is derived from the star formation rate to predict the HI gas mass within each mock galaxy. We find a remarkably good match to observed HI-to-stellar mass ratios. These features ensure that such galaxy/gas catalogs can be used to generate reliable mock redshift surveys.

  6. The derivation of constraints on the msugra parameter space from the entropy of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Nellen, L.; Nunez, D.; Sussmann, R.; Zavala, J.

    2009-04-20

    We derive an expression for the entropy of a present dark matter halo described by a Navarro-Frenk-White modified model with a central core. We obtain an expression for the relic abundance of neutralinos by comparing this entropy of the halo with the value it had during the freeze-out era. Using WMAP observations, we constrain the parameter space for mSUGRA models. Combining our results with the usual abundance criteria, we are able to discriminate clearly among different validity regions for tan {beta} values. For this, we require both criteria to be consistent within a 2{sigma} bound of the WMAP observations for the relic density: 0.112<{omega}h{sup 2}<0.122. We find that for sgn {mu} = +1, small values of tan {beta} are not favored; only for tan {beta}{approx}50 are both criteria significantly consistent. Both criteria allow us to put a lower bound on the neutralino mass, m{sub {chi}}{>=}141 GeV.

  7. An empirical model to form and evolve galaxies in dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-Jie; Zhang, You-Cai; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Tweed, Dylan; Liu, Cheng-Ze; Yang, Lei; Shi, Feng; Lu, Yi; Luo, Wen-Tao; Wei, Jian-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Based on the star formation histories of galaxies in halos with different masses, we develop an empirical model to grow galaxies in dark matter halos. This model has very few ingredients, any of which can be associated with observational data and thus be efficiently assessed. By applying this model to a very high resolution cosmological N-body simulation, we predict a number of galaxy properties that are a very good match to relevant observational data. Namely, for both centrals and satellites, the galaxy stellar mass functions up to redshift z ≃ 4 and the conditional stellar mass functions in the local universe are in good agreement with observations. In addition, the two point correlation function is well predicted in the different stellar mass ranges explored by our model. Furthermore, after applying stellar population synthesis models to our stellar composition as a function of redshift, we find that the luminosity functions in the 0.1 u, 0.1 g, 0.1 r, 0.1 i and 0.1 z bands agree quite well with the SDSS observational results down to an absolute magnitude at about ‑17.0. The SDSS conditional luminosity function itself is predicted well. Finally, the cold gas is derived from the star formation rate to predict the HI gas mass within each mock galaxy. We find a remarkably good match to observed HI-to-stellar mass ratios. These features ensure that such galaxy/gas catalogs can be used to generate reliable mock redshift surveys.

  8. Particle Dark Matter in the galactic halo: results from DAMA/LIBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Nozzoli, F.; Montecchia, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Presperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, X. H.; Sheng, X. D.

    2010-02-10

    The DAMA/LIBRA experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the I.N.F.N. has confirmed with higher sensitivity the model independent evidence for Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo obtained by the former DAMA/NaI experiment by investigating the DM annual modulation signature. Considering the data collected by DAMA/LIBRA together with the data collected by the former DAMA/NaI (cumulative exposure of 0.82 tonxyr) a confidence level of 8.2 sigma has been achieved. The experiment is in data taking; a first upgrading of the set-up has been carried out in Spetember 2008 and a second one--aiming to decrease the experimental energy threshold--is foreseen in September 2010.

  9. The Lyman-alpha glow of gas falling into the dark matter halo of a z = 3 galaxy.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Michael; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall

    2004-08-26

    Quasars are the visible signatures of gas falling into the deep potential well of super-massive black holes in the centres of distant galaxies. It has been suggested that quasars are formed when two massive galaxies collide and merge, leading to the prediction that quasars should be found in the centres of regions of largest overdensity in the early Universe. In dark matter (DM)-dominated models of the early Universe, massive DM halos are predicted to attract the surrounding gas, which falls towards their centres. The neutral gas is not detectable in emission by itself, but gas falling into the ionizing cone of such a quasar will glow in the Lyman-alpha line of hydrogen, effectively imaging the DM halo. Here we present a Lyalpha image of a DM halo at redshift z = 3, along with a two-dimensional spectrum of the gaseous halo. Our observations are best understood in the context of the standard model for DM haloes; we infer a mass of (2 - 7) x 10(12) solar masses (M(\\circ)) for the halo.

  10. The Lyman-alpha glow of gas falling into the dark matter halo of a z = 3 galaxy.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Michael; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall

    2004-08-26

    Quasars are the visible signatures of gas falling into the deep potential well of super-massive black holes in the centres of distant galaxies. It has been suggested that quasars are formed when two massive galaxies collide and merge, leading to the prediction that quasars should be found in the centres of regions of largest overdensity in the early Universe. In dark matter (DM)-dominated models of the early Universe, massive DM halos are predicted to attract the surrounding gas, which falls towards their centres. The neutral gas is not detectable in emission by itself, but gas falling into the ionizing cone of such a quasar will glow in the Lyman-alpha line of hydrogen, effectively imaging the DM halo. Here we present a Lyalpha image of a DM halo at redshift z = 3, along with a two-dimensional spectrum of the gaseous halo. Our observations are best understood in the context of the standard model for DM haloes; we infer a mass of (2 - 7) x 10(12) solar masses (M(\\circ)) for the halo. PMID:15329713

  11. Constraining the mSUGRA (minimal supergravity) parameter space using the entropy of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, Dario; Zavala, Jesus; Nellen, Lukas; Sussman, Roberto A; Cabral-Rosetti, Luis G; Mondragon, Myriam E-mail: jzavala@nucleares.unam.mx E-mail: lukas@nucleares.unam.mx E-mail: lgcabral@ciidet.edu.mx; Collaboration: For the Instituto Avanzado de Cosmologia, IAC

    2008-05-15

    We derive an expression for the entropy of a dark matter halo described using a Navarro-Frenk-White model with a core. The comparison of this entropy with that of dark matter in the freeze-out era allows us to constrain the parameter space in mSUGRA models. Moreover, combining these constraints with the ones obtained from the usual abundance criterion and demanding that these criteria be consistent with the 2{sigma} bounds for the abundance of dark matter: 0.112{<=}{Omega}{sub DM}h{sup 2}{<=}0.122, we are able to clearly identify validity regions among the values of tan{beta}, which is one of the parameters of the mSUGRA model. We found that for the regions of the parameter space explored, small values of tan{beta} are not favored; only for tan {beta} Asymptotically-Equal-To 50 are the two criteria significantly consistent. In the region where the two criteria are consistent we also found a lower bound for the neutralino mass, m{sub {chi}}{>=}141 GeV.

  12. Extended maximum likelihood halo-independent analysis of dark matter direct detection data

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Georgescu, Andreea; Gondolo, Paolo; Huh, Ji-Haeng

    2015-11-24

    We extend and correct a recently proposed maximum-likelihood halo-independent method to analyze unbinned direct dark matter detection data. Instead of the recoil energy as independent variable we use the minimum speed a dark matter particle must have to impart a given recoil energy to a nucleus. This has the advantage of allowing us to apply the method to any type of target composition and interaction, e.g. with general momentum and velocity dependence, and with elastic or inelastic scattering. We prove the method and provide a rigorous statistical interpretation of the results. As first applications, we find that for dark matter particles with elastic spin-independent interactions and neutron to proton coupling ratio f{sub n}/f{sub p}=−0.7, the WIMP interpretation of the signal observed by CDMS-II-Si is compatible with the constraints imposed by all other experiments with null results. We also find a similar compatibility for exothermic inelastic spin-independent interactions with f{sub n}/f{sub p}=−0.8.

  13. The Survival of Dark Matter Halos in the Cluster Cl 0024+16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Priyamvada; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Smail, Ian; Treu, Tommaso; Ellis, Richard; Moran, Sean; Limousin, Marceau; Czoske, Oliver

    2009-03-01

    Theories of structure formation in a cold dark matter dominated universe predict that massive clusters of galaxies assemble from the hierarchical merging of lower mass subhalos. Exploiting strong and weak gravitational lensing signals inferred from panoramic Hubble Space Telescope imaging data, we present a high-resolution reconstruction of the mass distribution in the massive, lensing cluster Cl 0024+16 at z = 0.39. Applying galaxy-galaxy lensing techniques we track the fate of dark matter subhalos as a function of projected cluster-centric radius out to 5 Mpc, well beyond the virial radius. We report the first detection of the statistical lensing signal of dark matter subhalos associated with late-type galaxies in clusters. The mass of a fiducial dark matter halo that hosts an early-type L* galaxy varies from M = 6.3+2.7 -2.0 × 1011 M sun within r < 0.6 Mpc, 1.3+0.8 -0.6 × 1012 M sun within r < 2.9 Mpc, and increases further to M = 3.7+1.4 -1.1 × 1012 M sun in the outskirts. The mass of a typical dark matter subhalo that hosts an L* galaxy increases with projected cluster-centric radius in line with expectations from the tidal stripping hypothesis. The mass of a dark matter subhalo that hosts a late-type L* galaxy is 1.06+0.52 -0.41 × 1012 M sun. Early-type galaxies appear to be hosted on average in more massive dark matter subhalos compared to late-type galaxies. Early-type galaxies also trace the overall mass distribution of the cluster whereas late-type galaxies are biased tracers. We interpret our findings as evidence for the active assembly of mass via tidal stripping in galaxy clusters. The mass function of dark matter subhalos as a function of projected cluster-centric radius is compared with an equivalent mass function derived from clusters in the Millennium Run simulation populated with galaxies using semianalytic models. The shape of the observationally determined mass functions based on an I-band-selected sample of cluster members and lensing data

  14. The accretion history of dark matter haloes - III. A physical model for the concentration-mass relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Camila A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R.

    2015-09-01

    We present a semi-analytic, physically motivated model for dark matter halo concentration as a function of halo mass and redshift. The semi-analytic model combines an analytic model for the halo mass accretion history (MAH), based on extended Press-Schechter (EPS) theory, with an empirical relation between concentration and formation time obtained through fits to the results of numerical simulations. Because the semi-analytic model is based on EPS theory, it can be applied to wide ranges in mass, redshift and cosmology. The resulting concentration-mass (c-M) relations are found to agree with the simulations, and because the model applies only to relaxed haloes, they do not exhibit the upturn at high masses or high redshifts found by some recent works. We predict a change of slope in the z ˜ 0 c-M relation at a mass-scale of 1011 M⊙. We find that this is due to the change in the functional form of the halo MAH, which goes from being dominated by an exponential (for high-mass haloes) to a power law (for low-mass haloes). During the latter phase, the core radius remains approximately constant, and the concentration grows due to the drop of the background density. We also analyse how the c-M relation predicted by this work affects the power produced by dark matter annihilation, finding that at z = 0 the power is two orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from extrapolating best-fitting c-M relations. We provide fits to the c-M relations as well as numerical routines to compute concentrations and MAHs.†

  15. The shape of galaxy cluster dark matter haloes: systematics of its imprint on cluster gas and comparison to observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Ricardo A.; Allgood, Brandon; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Primack, Joel R.; Buote, David A.; Bullock, James S.

    2007-05-01

    We study predictions for galaxy cluster observables that can test the statistics of dark matter halo shapes expected in a flat Λ cold dark matter (CDM) universe. We present a simple analytical model for the prediction of cluster-scale X-ray observations, approximating clusters as isothermal systems in hydrostatic equilibrium, and dark matter haloes as ellipsoids with uniform axial ratios (homeoidal ellipsoids). We test the model against high-resolution, hydrodynamic cluster simulations to gauge its reliability. We find that this simple prescription does a good job of predicting cluster X-ray ellipticities compared to the simulations as long as one focuses on cluster regions that are less sensitive to recent mergers. Based on this simple model, the distribution of cluster-size halo shapes expected in the concordance ΛCDM cosmology implies an X-ray ellipticity distribution with a mean <ɛX> = 0.32 +/- 0.01, and a scatter σɛ = 0.14 +/- 0.01 for the mass range (1-4) × 1014h-1Msolar. We find it important to include the mass dependence of halo shape when making comparisons to observational samples. We analyse the systematics of four observational samples of cluster ellipticities and find that our results are statistically compatible with these observations. In particular, we find remarkably good agreement between two recent ROSAT samples and ΛCDM predictions that do not include gas cooling. We also test how well our analytical model can predict Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement maps and find that it is less successful although still useful; the model does not perform as well as a function of flux level in this case because of the changing triaxiality of dark matter haloes as a function of radial distance. Both this effect and the changing alignment of isodensity shells of dark matter haloes leave an imprint on cluster gas that appears to be seen in observational data. Thus, dark matter haloes cannot be accurately characterized as homeoidal ellipsoids for all comparisons.

  16. Dark matter and halo bispectrum in redshift space: theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Percival, Will; Wagner, Christian; Noreña, Jorge; Verde, Licia E-mail: cwagner@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu

    2014-12-01

    We present a phenomenological modification of the standard perturbation theory prediction for the bispectrum in redshift space that allows us to extend the model to mildly non-linear scales over a wide range of redshifts, z≤1.5. Our model require 18 free parameters that are fitted to N-body simulations using the shapes k{sub 2}/k{sub 1}=1, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5. We find that we can describe the bispectrum of dark matter particles with ∼5% accuracy for k{sub i}∼<0.10 h/Mpc at z=0, for k{sub i}∼<0.15 h/Mpc at z=0.5, for k{sub i}∼<0.17 h/Mpc at z=1.0 and for k{sub i}∼<0.20 h/Mpc at z=1.5. For very squeezed triangles with k{sub 1}=k{sub 2}∼>0.1 hMpc{sup -1} and k{sub 3}≤0.02 hMpc{sup -1}, however, neither SPT nor the proposed fitting formula are able to describe the measured dark matter bispectrum with this accuracy. We show that the fitting formula is sufficiently general that can be applied to other intermediate shapes such as k{sub 2}/k{sub 1}=1.25, 1.75, and 2.25. We also test that the fitting formula is able to describe with similar accuracy the bispectrum of cosmologies with different Ω{sub m}, in the range 0.2∼< Ω{sub m} ∼< 0.4, and consequently with different values of the logarithmic grow rate f at z=0, 0.4∼< f(z=0) ∼< 0.6. We apply this new formula to recover the bias parameters, f and σ{sub 8}, by combining the redshift space power spectrum monopole and quadrupole with the bispectrum monopole for both dark matter particles and haloes. We find that the combination of these three statistics can break the degeneracy between b{sub 1}, f and σ{sub 8}. For dark matter particles the new model can be used to recover f and σ{sub 8} with ∼1% accuracy. For dark matter haloes we find that f and σ{sub 8} present larger systematic shifts, ∼10%. The systematic offsets arise because of limitations in the modelling of the interplay between bias and redshift space distortions, and represent a limitation as the statistical errors of

  17. Dark matter and halo bispectrum in redshift space: theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Wagner, Christian; Noreña, Jorge; Verde, Licia; Percival, Will

    2014-12-01

    We present a phenomenological modification of the standard perturbation theory prediction for the bispectrum in redshift space that allows us to extend the model to mildly non-linear scales over a wide range of redshifts, z<=1.5. Our model require 18 free parameters that are fitted to N-body simulations using the shapes k2/k1=1, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5. We find that we can describe the bispectrum of dark matter particles with ~5% accuracy for kilesssim0.10 h/Mpc at z=0, for kilesssim0.15 h/Mpc at z=0.5, for kilesssim0.17 h/Mpc at z=1.0 and for kilesssim0.20 h/Mpc at z=1.5. For very squeezed triangles with k1=k2gtrsim0.1 hMpc-1 and k3<=0.02 hMpc-1, however, neither SPT nor the proposed fitting formula are able to describe the measured dark matter bispectrum with this accuracy. We show that the fitting formula is sufficiently general that can be applied to other intermediate shapes such as k2/k1=1.25, 1.75, and 2.25. We also test that the fitting formula is able to describe with similar accuracy the bispectrum of cosmologies with different Ωm, in the range 0.2lesssim Ωm lesssim 0.4, and consequently with different values of the logarithmic grow rate f at z=0, 0.4lesssim f(z=0) lesssim 0.6. We apply this new formula to recover the bias parameters, f and σ8, by combining the redshift space power spectrum monopole and quadrupole with the bispectrum monopole for both dark matter particles and haloes. We find that the combination of these three statistics can break the degeneracy between b1, f and σ8. For dark matter particles the new model can be used to recover f and σ8 with ~1% accuracy. For dark matter haloes we find that f and σ8 present larger systematic shifts, ~10%. The systematic offsets arise because of limitations in the modelling of the interplay between bias and redshift space distortions, and represent a limitation as the statistical errors of forthcoming surveys reach this level. Conveniently, we find that these residual systematics are mitigated for

  18. Cosmology with massive neutrinos I: towards a realistic modeling of the relation between matter, haloes and galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Marulli, Federico; Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Saito, Shun E-mail: federico.marulli3@unibo.it E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it E-mail: esefusat@ictp.it

    2014-03-01

    By using a suite of large box-size N-body simulations that incorporate massive neutrinos as an extra set of particles, with total masses of 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 eV, we investigate the impact of neutrino masses on the spatial distribution of dark matter haloes and on the distribution of galaxies within the haloes. We compute the bias between the spatial distribution of dark matter haloes and the overall matter and cold dark matter distributions using statistical tools such as the power spectrum and the two-point correlation function. Overall we find a scale-dependent bias on large scales for the cosmologies with massive neutrinos. In particular, we find that the bias decreases with the scale, being this effect more important for higher neutrino masses and at high redshift. However, our results indicate that the scale-dependence in the bias is reduced if the latter is computed with respect to the cold dark matter distribution only. We find that the value of the bias on large scales is reasonably well reproduced by the Tinker fitting formula once the linear cold dark matter power spectrum is used, instead of the total matter power spectrum. We also investigate whether scale-dependent bias really comes from purely neutrino's effect or from nonlinear gravitational collapse of haloes. For this purpose, we address the Ω{sub ν}-σ{sub 8} degeneracy and find that such degeneracy is not perfect, implying that neutrinos imprint a slight scale dependence on the large-scale bias. Finally, by using a simple halo occupation distribution (HOD) model, we investigate the impact of massive neutrinos on the distribution of galaxies within dark matter haloes. We use the main galaxy sample in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II Data Release 7 to investigate if the small-scale galaxy clustering alone can be used to discriminate among different cosmological models with different neutrino masses. Our results suggest that different choices of the HOD parameters can reproduce the

  19. "Invisible" Galactic Halos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugt, Karel Vander

    1993-01-01

    Develops a simple core-halo model of a galaxy that exhibits the main features of observed rotation curves and quantitatively illustrates the need to postulate halos of dark matter. Uses only elementary mechanics. (Author/MVL)

  20. The formation of massive black holes in z ˜ 30 dark matter haloes with large baryonic streaming velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Li, Miao

    2014-03-01

    The origins of the ˜109 M⊙ quasar supermassive black holes (BHs) at redshifts z > 6 remain a theoretical puzzle. One possibility is that they grew from ˜105 M⊙ BHs formed in the `direct collapse' of pristine, atomic-cooling (temperatures ≳ 8000 K; PAC) gas that did not fragment to form ordinary stars due to a lack of molecular hydrogen and metals. We propose that baryonic streaming - the relic relative motion of gas with respect to dark matter from cosmological recombination - provides a natural mechanism for establishing the conditions necessary for direct collapse. This effect delays the formation of the first stars by inhibiting the infall of gas into dark matter haloes; streaming velocities more than twice the root-mean-square value could forestall star formation until halo virial temperatures ≳ 8000 K. The resulting PAC gas can proceed to form massive BHs by any of the mechanisms proposed in the literature to induce direct collapse in the absence of an ultraviolet background. This scenario produces haloes containing PAC gas at a characteristic redshift z ˜ 30. It can explain the abundance of the most luminous quasars at z ≈ 6, regardless of whether direct collapse occurs in nearly all or less than 1 per cent of PAC haloes.

  1. Using Dark Matter Haloes to Learn about Cosmic Acceleration: A New Proposal for a Universal Mass Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2011-01-01

    Structure formation provides a strong test of any cosmic acceleration model because a successful dark energy model must not inhibit or overpredict the development of observed large-scale structures. Traditional approaches to studies of structure formation in the presence of dark energy or a modified gravity implement a modified Press-Schechter formalism, which relates the linear overdensities to the abundance of dark matter haloes at the same time. We critically examine the universality of the Press-Schechter formalism for different cosmologies, and show that the halo abundance is best correlated with spherical linear overdensity at 94% of collapse (or observation) time. We then extend this argument to ellipsoidal collapse (which decreases the fractional time of best correlation for small haloes), and show that our results agree with deviations from modified Press-Schechter formalism seen in simulated mass functions. This provides a novel universal prescription to measure linear density evolution, based on current and future observations of cluster (or dark matter) halo mass function. In particular, even observations of cluster abundance in a single epoch will constrain the entire history of linear growth of cosmological of perturbations.

  2. THE CORE-CUSP PROBLEM IN COLD DARK MATTER HALOS AND SUPERNOVA FEEDBACK: EFFECTS OF MASS LOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Ogiya, Go; Mori, Masao

    2011-07-20

    The core-cusp problem remains as one of the unsolved discrepancies between observations and theories predicted by the standard paradigm of cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. To solve this problem, we perform N-body simulations to study the nonlinear response of CDM halos to the variance of the gravitational potential induced by gas removal from galaxy centers. In this study, we focus on the timescale of the gas ejection, which is strongly correlated with stellar activities, and demonstrate that it is one of the key factors in determining the dynamical response of CDM halos. The results of simulations show that the power-law index of the mass-density profile of the dark matter (DM) halo is correlated with the timescale of the mass loss and it is flatter when the mass loss occurs over a short time than when it occurs over a long time. However, it is still larger than typical observational values; in other words, the central cusp remains in the simulations for any mass-loss model. Moreover, for the slow mass-loss case, the final density profile of the DM halo recovers the universal density profiles predicted by the CDM cosmology. Therefore, the mass loss driven by stellar feedback may not be an effective mechanism to flatten the central cusp.

  3. AN OFF-CENTER DENSITY PEAK IN THE MILKY WAY'S DARK MATTER HALO?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlen, Michael; Guedes, Javiera; Pillepich, Annalisa; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-03-01

    We show that the position of the central dark matter (DM) density peak may be expected to differ from the dynamical center of the Galaxy by several hundred parsecs. In Eris, a high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of a realistic Milky-Way-analog disk galaxy, this offset is 300-400 pc ({approx}3 gravitational softening lengths) after z = 1. In its dissipationless DM-only twin simulation ErisDark, as well as in the Via Lactea II and GHalo simulations, the offset remains below one softening length for most of its evolution. The growth of the DM offset coincides with a flattening of the central DM density profile in Eris inward of {approx}1 kpc, and the direction from the dynamical center to the point of maximum DM density is correlated with the orientation of the stellar bar, suggesting a bar-halo interaction as a possible explanation. A DM density offset of several hundred parsecs greatly affects expectations of the DM annihilation signals from the Galactic center. It may also support a DM annihilation interpretation of recent reports by Weniger and Su and Finkbeiner of highly significant 130 GeV gamma-ray line emission from a region 1. Degree-Sign 5 ({approx}200 pc projected) away from Sgr A* in the Galactic plane.

  4. Baryonic distributions in galaxy dark matter haloes - I. New observations of neutral and ionized gas kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Emily E.; van Zee, L.; Barnes, K. L.; Staudaher, S.; Dale, D. A.; Braun, T. T.; Wavle, D. C.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Bullock, J. S.; Chandar, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a combination of new and archival neutral hydrogen (H I) observations and new ionized gas spectroscopic observations for 16 galaxies in the statistically representative Extended Disk Galaxy Explore Science kinematic sample. H I rotation curves are derived from new and archival radio synthesis observations from the Very Large Array (VLA) as well as processed data products from the Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope (WSRT). The H I rotation curves are supplemented with optical spectroscopic integral field unit (IFU) observations using SparsePak on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope to constrain the central ionized gas kinematics in 12 galaxies. The full rotation curves of each galaxy are decomposed into baryonic and dark matter halo components using 3.6μm images from the Spitzer Space Telescope for the stellar content, the neutral hydrogen data for the atomic gas component, and, when available, CO data from the literature for the molecular gas component. Differences in the inferred distribution of mass are illustrated under fixed stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and maximum disc/bulge assumptions in the rotation curve decomposition.

  5. NIHAO project II: halo shape, phase-space density and velocity distribution of dark matter in galaxy formation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butsky, Iryna; Macciò, Andrea V.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Wang, Liang; Obreja, Aura; Stinson, Greg S.; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W.; Wadsley, James

    2016-10-01

    We use the NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of Hundred Astrophysical Objects) cosmological simulations to study the effects of galaxy formation on key properties of dark matter (DM) haloes. NIHAO consists of ≈90 high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that include (metal-line) cooling, star formation, and feedback from massive stars and supernovae, and cover a wide stellar and halo mass range: 106 ≲ M*/M⊙ ≲ 1011(109.5 ≲ Mhalo/M⊙ ≲ 1012.5). When compared to DM-only simulations, the NIHAO haloes have similar shapes at the virial radius, Rvir, but are substantially rounder inside ≈0.1Rvir. In NIHAO simulations, c/a increases with halo mass and integrated star formation efficiency, reaching ˜0.8 at the Milky Way mass (compared to 0.5 in DM-only), providing a plausible solution to the long-standing conflict between observations and DM-only simulations. The radial profile of the phase-space Q parameter (ρ/σ3) is best fit with a single power law in DM-only simulations, but shows a flattening within ≈0.1Rvir for NIHAO for total masses M > 1011 M⊙. Finally, the global velocity distribution of DM is similar in both DM-only and NIHAO simulations, but in the solar neighbourhood, NIHAO galaxies deviate substantially from Maxwellian. The distribution is more symmetric, roughly Gaussian, with a peak that shifts to higher velocities for Milky Way mass haloes. We provide the distribution parameters which can be used for predictions for direct DM detection experiments. Our results underline the ability of the galaxy formation processes to modify the properties of DM haloes.

  6. Discussion on the energy content of the galactic dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate halo in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, J.C.C.; Pires, M.O.C. E-mail: marcelo.pires@ufabc.edu.br

    2014-03-01

    We show that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [6] trapped by a self-graviting potential [5], may be stable in the Thomas-Fermi approximation since appropriate choices for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length are made. The demonstration is performed by means of the calculation of the potential, kinetic and self-interaction energy terms of a galactic halo described by a Boehmer-Harko density profile. We discuss the validity of the Thomas-Fermi approximation for the halo system, and show that the kinetic energy contribution is indeed negligible.

  7. Dark matter halo properties of GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, M.; Cacciato, M.; Brouwer, M.; Kuijken, K.; Hoekstra, H.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; van Uitert, E.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Choi, A.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Driver, S. P.; Erben, T.; Grado, A.; Graham, Alister W.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A. M.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Loveday, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Schneider, P.; Sifón, C.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

    2015-10-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey is an optical wide-field survey designed to map the matter distribution in the Universe using weak gravitational lensing. In this paper, we use these data to measure the density profiles and masses of a sample of ˜1400 spectroscopically identified galaxy groups and clusters from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We detect a highly significant signal (signal-to-noise-ratio ˜120), allowing us to study the properties of dark matter haloes over one and a half order of magnitude in mass, from M ˜ 1013-1014.5 h-1 M⊙. We interpret the results for various subsamples of groups using a halo model framework which accounts for the mis-centring of the brightest cluster galaxy (used as the tracer of the group centre) with respect to the centre of the group's dark matter halo. We find that the density profiles of the haloes are well described by an NFW profile with concentrations that agree with predictions from numerical simulations. In addition, we constrain scaling relations between the mass and a number of observable group properties. We find that the mass scales with the total r-band luminosity as a power law with slope 1.16 ± 0.13 (1σ) and with the group velocity dispersion as a power law with slope 1.89 ± 0.27 (1σ). Finally, we demonstrate the potential of weak lensing studies of groups to discriminate between models of baryonic feedback at group scales by comparing our results with the predictions from the Cosmo-OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project, ruling out models without AGN feedback.

  8. A universality of dark-halo surface density for the Milky Way and Andromeda dwarf satellites as a probe of the coldness of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new astrophysical test on the nature of dark matter based on the properties of dark halos associated with dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The method adopts a mean surface density of a dark halo defined within a radius of maximum circular velocity, which is derivable for a wide variety of galaxies with any dark-matter density profiles. We find that even though dark halo density profiles are derived based on the different assumptions for each galaxy sample, this surface density is generally constant across a wide mass range of galaxy. We find that at higher halo-mass scales, this constancy for real galaxies can be naturally reproduced by both cold and warm dark matter (CDM and WDM) models. However, at low-mass scales, for which we have estimated from the Milky Way and Andromeda dwarf satellites, the mean surface density derived from WDM models largely deviates from the observed constancy, whereas CDM models are in reasonable agreement with observations.

  9. DARK MATTER CORES IN THE FORNAX AND SCULPTOR DWARF GALAXIES: JOINING HALO ASSEMBLY AND DETAILED STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Amorisco, N. C.; Zavala, J.; De Boer, T. J. L.

    2014-02-20

    We combine the detailed star formation histories of the Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals with the mass assembly history of their dark matter (DM) halo progenitors to estimate if the energy deposited by Type II supernovae (SNe II) is sufficient to create a substantial DM core. Assuming the efficiency of energy injection of the SNe II into DM particles is ε{sub gc} = 0.05, we find that a single early episode, z ≳ z {sub infall}, that combines the energy of all SNe II due to explode over 0.5 Gyr is sufficient to create a core of several hundred parsecs in both Sculptor and Fornax. Therefore, our results suggest that it is energetically plausible to form cores in cold dark matter (CDM) halos via early episodic gas outflows triggered by SNe II. Furthermore, based on CDM merger rates and phase-space density considerations, we argue that the probability of a subsequent complete regeneration of the cusp is small for a substantial fraction of dwarf-size halos.

  10. Dynamics of groups around interacting double ellipticals: Measuring dark matter haloes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, H.

    1990-01-01

    Binary galaxies, as binary stars, are important to measure masses, as suggested by Page (1952). Because three orbit parameters are measurable for galaxies at one instant of time, severe uncertainties remain in the orbit and mass determinations. These uncertainties can partly be overcome by statistical studies of selected samples and/or n-body simulations. Close double galaxies (and isolated galaxies) could also be useful to estimate dynamical masses if we can find test particles around them. Interacting elliptical pairs or dumb-bell galaxies are found with a large range, between 0-1200 km s(exp -1), of relative radial velocities. Standard 2-body orbit calculations, highly uncertain due to projection factors, suggest for the largest velocity differences very large galaxy masses, if the systems are bound and stationary. However, recent n-body simulations model these binaries as galaxies captured from hyperbolic orbits, requiring masses of order a few times 10(exp 11) solar maximum (Borne et al. 1988), but producing systems that are short lived. A different picture appears when we study observationally the dynamical mass of interacting double ellipticals using faint satellite galaxies. These satellites contribute little luminosity and, presumably, little mass to the system. The authors present results of two such groups, basically forming systems of test particles, around the dumb-bells NGC 4782/3 and IC 5049. They also briefly discuss the satellite group around the central dumb-bell in the cluster Sersic 40/6. Apparently, they detect large quantities of dark matter in the vicinity of these dumb-bell galaxies, because the system masses of approx. 4.5 times 10(exp 13) solar mass and 8 times 10(exp 13) solar mass for NGC 4782/3 and IC 5049, respectively, are quite high. Likewise, the mass of the Sersic 40/6 inner core is 7 times 10(exp 13) solar mass. The possibility that a common massive dark matter halo increases the merging times of these types of galaxies is

  11. Unveiling hidden black holes in the cosmic web: Dark matter halos of WISE quasars from Planck CMB lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickox, Ryan

    The WISE and Planck surveys have now produced groundbreaking data sets which, in concert, can be exploited to obtain revolutionary constraints on the evolution of structure in the Universe. One particularly powerful application of WISE has been to uncover millions of the previously "hidden" obscured quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes that are shrouded in gas and dust and so are not detectable using traditional ground-based optical and near-IR techniques. Recently, Planck has produced the most precise all-sky map to date of dark matter structures via the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose to combine these data sets to obtain a uniquely powerful measurement of the link between rapidly growing black holes and their host dark matter structures, by cross-correlating the density field of WISE-selected quasars with the CMB lensing convergence maps obtained from Planck. This proposal will build on our current ADAP program (NNX12AE38G), which studies the host dark matter halos of WISE-selected quasars via spatial clustering. NNX12AE38G involves a detailed characterization of the redshifts, luminosities, and spectral energy distributions of WISE-selected quasars and uses new techniques to measure how quasars cluster around themselves. NNX12AE38G has contributed to more than 10 journal articles and 5 conference proceedings. Building on our current work, an even more complete understanding of the link between black holes and their host dark matter structures is possible if we employ an independent method for measuring the clustering bias (and thus characteristic halo mass) of the quasar population. This has recently become possible using CMB lensing maps. In the past two years, our team has conducted an initial analysis covering 2500 square degrees using WISE-selected quasars and lensing maps from the South Pole Telescope (Geach, Hickox, Myers et al., 2013), and have implemented this technique with Planck over part of the SDSS region

  12. The link between the assembly of the inner dark matter halo and the angular momentum evolution of galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Jesús; Frenk, Carlos S.; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Trayford, James W.; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    We explore the co-evolution of the specific angular momentum of dark matter haloes and the cold baryons that comprise the galaxies within. We study over 2000 galaxies within the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) project. We employ a methodology within which the evolutionary history of a system is specified by the time-evolving properties of the Lagrangian particles that define it at z = 0. We find a strong correlation between the evolution of the specific angular momentum of today's stars (cold gas) and that of the inner (whole) dark matter halo they are associated with. This link is particularly strong for the stars formed before the epoch of maximum expansion and subsequent collapse of the central dark matter halo (turnaround). Spheroids are assembled primarily from stars formed prior to turnaround, and suffer a net loss of angular momentum associated with the strong merging activity during the assembly of the inner dark matter halo. Stellar discs retain their specific angular momentum since they are comprised of stars formed mainly after turnaround, from gas that mostly preserves the high specific angular momentum it acquired by tidal torques during the linear growth of the halo. Since the specific angular momentum loss of the stars is tied to the galaxy's morphology today, it may be possible to use our results to predict, statistically, the maximum loss of specific angular momentum of the inner part of a halo given the morphology of the galaxy it hosts.

  13. Taking Halo-Independent Dark Matter Methods Out of the Bin

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2014-10-30

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons between multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.

  14. Taking Halo-Independent Dark Matter Methods Out of the Bin

    DOE PAGES

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2014-10-30

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons betweenmore » multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.« less

  15. Taking Halo-independent dark matter methods out of the bin

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew E-mail: ykahn@mit.edu

    2014-10-01

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons between multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.

  16. Dark Matter Halos as Particle Colliders: Unified Solution to Small-Scale Structure Puzzles from Dwarfs to Clusters.

    PubMed

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-29

    Astrophysical observations spanning dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters indicate that dark matter (DM) halos are less dense in their central regions compared to expectations from collisionless DM N-body simulations. Using detailed fits to DM halos of galaxies and clusters, we show that self-interacting DM (SIDM) may provide a consistent solution to the DM deficit problem across all scales, even though individual systems exhibit a wide diversity in halo properties. Since the characteristic velocity of DM particles varies across these systems, we are able to measure the self-interaction cross section as a function of kinetic energy and thereby deduce the SIDM particle physics model parameters. Our results prefer a mildly velocity-dependent cross section, from σ/m≈2  cm^{2}/g on galaxy scales to σ/m≈0.1  cm^{2}/g on cluster scales, consistent with the upper limits from merging clusters. Our results dramatically improve the constraints on SIDM models and may allow the masses of both DM and dark mediator particles to be measured even if the dark sector is completely hidden from the standard model, which we illustrate for the dark photon model.

  17. Dark Matter Halos as Particle Colliders: Unified Solution to Small-Scale Structure Puzzles from Dwarfs to Clusters.

    PubMed

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-29

    Astrophysical observations spanning dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters indicate that dark matter (DM) halos are less dense in their central regions compared to expectations from collisionless DM N-body simulations. Using detailed fits to DM halos of galaxies and clusters, we show that self-interacting DM (SIDM) may provide a consistent solution to the DM deficit problem across all scales, even though individual systems exhibit a wide diversity in halo properties. Since the characteristic velocity of DM particles varies across these systems, we are able to measure the self-interaction cross section as a function of kinetic energy and thereby deduce the SIDM particle physics model parameters. Our results prefer a mildly velocity-dependent cross section, from σ/m≈2  cm^{2}/g on galaxy scales to σ/m≈0.1  cm^{2}/g on cluster scales, consistent with the upper limits from merging clusters. Our results dramatically improve the constraints on SIDM models and may allow the masses of both DM and dark mediator particles to be measured even if the dark sector is completely hidden from the standard model, which we illustrate for the dark photon model. PMID:26871320

  18. Dark-matter halo mergers as a fertile environment for low-mass Population III star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovino, S.; Latif, M. A.; Grassi, T.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2014-07-01

    While Population III (Pop III) stars are typically thought to be massive, pathways towards lower mass Pop III stars may exist when the cooling of the gas is particularly enhanced. A possible route is enhanced HD cooling during the merging of dark-matter haloes. The mergers can lead to a high ionization degree catalysing the formation of HD molecules and may cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature. In this paper, we investigate the merging of mini-haloes with masses of a few 105 M⊙ and explore the feasibility of this scenario. We have performed three-dimensional cosmological hydrodynamics calculations with the ENZO code, solving the thermal and chemical evolution of the gas by employing the astrochemistry package KROME. Our results show that the HD abundance is increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the no-merging case and the halo cools down to ˜60 K triggering fragmentation. Based on Jeans estimates, the expected stellar masses are about 10 M⊙. Our findings show that the merging scenario is a potential pathway for the formation of low-mass stars.

  19. The most luminous quasars do not live in the most massive dark matter haloes at any redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanidakis, N.; Macciò, A. V.; Baugh, C. M.; Lacey, C. G.; Frenk, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Quasars (QSOs) represent the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Universe and are thought to indicate the location of prodigiously growing black holes (BHs), with luminosities as high as 1048 erg s-1. It is often expected though that such an extremely energetic process takes place in the most massive bound structures in the dark matter (DM) distribution. We show that in contrast to this expectation, in a galaxy formation model which includes AGN feedback, QSOs are predicted to live in DM haloes with typical masses of a few times 1012 M⊙. Such an environment is considered to be average in the low-redshift universe (z ≲ 2-3) and almost comparable to a Milky Way halo. This fundamental prediction arises from the fact that QSO activity (i.e. BH accretion with luminosity greater than 1046 erg s-1) is inhibited in more massive DM haloes, where AGN feedback operates. The galactic hosts of QSOs in our simulations have typical stellar masses of 1010-1011 M⊙, and represent remnants of massive disc galaxies that have undergone a disc instability or galaxy merger. Interestingly, we find no dependence of QSO activity on environment; thus, the typical QSO halo mass remains constant over two orders of magnitude in luminosity. We further show that the z ˜ 6 QSOs do not inhabit the largest DM haloes at that time as these environments are already subject to feedback. Their descendants at z = 0 span a wide range of morphologies and galaxy masses, and their BHs typically grow only by a modest factor between z ˜ 6 and the present day. We predict that there should be an enhancement in the abundance of galaxies around QSOs at z ˜ 5. However, these enhancements are considerably weaker compared to the overdensities expected at the extreme peaks of the DM distribution. Given that high-z QSO descendants are typically found in rich clusters (˜1014 M⊙) and very seldom in the most massive haloes, we conclude that it is very unlikely that QSOs observed at z ≳ 5 trace the

  20. Small scale anisotropies of UHECRs from super-heavy halo dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    P. Blasi; R. K. Sheth

    2001-10-23

    The decay of very heavy metastable relics of the Early Universe can produce ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) in the halo of our own Galaxy. In this model, no Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff is expected because of the short propagation distances. They show here that, as a consequence of the hierarchical build up of the halo, this scenario predicts the existence of small scale anisotropies in the arrival directions of UHECRs, in addition to a large scale anisotropy, known from previous studies. They also suggest some other observable consequences of this scenario which will be testable with upcoming experiments, as Auguer, EUSO and OWL.

  1. Interpreting short gamma-ray burst progenitor kicks and time delays using the host galaxy-dark matter halo connection

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2014-09-10

    Nearly 20% of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) have no observed host galaxies. Combining this finding with constraints on galaxies' dark matter halo potential wells gives strong limits on the natal kick velocity distribution for sGRB progenitors. For the best-fitting velocity distribution, one in five sGRB progenitors receives a natal kick above 150 km s{sup –1}, consistent with merging neutron star models but not with merging white dwarf binary models. This progenitor model constraint is robust to a wide variety of systematic uncertainties, including the sGRB progenitor time-delay model, the Swift redshift sensitivity, and the shape of the natal kick velocity distribution. We also use constraints on the galaxy-halo connection to determine the host halo and host galaxy demographics for sGRBs, which match extremely well with available data. Most sGRBs are expected to occur in halos near 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and in galaxies near 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} (L {sub *}); unobserved faint and high-redshift host galaxies contribute a small minority of the observed hostless sGRB fraction. We find that sGRB redshift distributions and host galaxy stellar masses weakly constrain the progenitor time-delay model; the active versus passive fraction of sGRB host galaxies may offer a stronger constraint. Finally, we discuss how searches for gravitational wave optical counterparts in the local universe can reduce follow-up times using these findings.

  2. Universality of dark matter haloes shape over six decades in mass: insights from the Millennium XXL and SBARBINE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamigo, Mario; Despali, Giulia; Limousin, Marceau; Angulo, Raul; Giocoli, Carlo; Soucail, Geneviève

    2015-05-01

    For the last 30 yr many observational and theoretical evidences have shown that galaxy clusters are not spherical objects, and that their shape is much better described by a triaxial geometry. With the advent of multiwavelength data of increasing quality, triaxial investigations of galaxy clusters is gathering a growing interest from the community, especially in the time of `precision cosmology'. In this work, we aim to provide the first statistically significant predictions in the unexplored mass range above 3 × 1014 M⊙h-1, using haloes from two redshift snapshots (z = 0 and z = 1) of the Millennium XXL simulation. The size of this cosmological dark matter-only simulation (4.1 Gpc) allows the formation of a statistically significant number of massive cluster scale haloes (≈500 with M > 2× 1015 M⊙ h-1, and 780 000 with M > 1014 M⊙ h-1). Besides, we aim to extend this investigation to lower masses in order to look for universal predictions across nearly six orders of magnitude in mass, from 1010 to almost 1016 M⊙ h-1. For this purpose we use the SBARBINE simulations, allowing us to model haloes of masses starting from ≈1010 M⊙ h-1. We use an elliptical overdensity method to select haloes and compute the shapes of the unimodal ones (approximately 50 per cent), while we discard the more unrelaxed. The minor to major and intermediate to major axis ratio distributions are found to be well described by simple universal functional forms that do not depend on cosmology or redshift. Our results extend the findings of Jing & Suto to a higher precision and a wider range of mass. This `recipe' is made available to the community in this paper and in a dedicated web page.

  3. Populating dark matter haloes with galaxies: comparing the 2dFGRS with mock galaxy redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Jing, Y. P.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Chu, YaoQuan

    2004-06-01

    In two recent papers, we developed a powerful technique to link the distribution of galaxies to that of dark matter haloes by considering halo occupation numbers as a function of galaxy luminosity and type. In this paper we use these distribution functions to populate dark matter haloes in high-resolution N-body simulations of the standard ΛCDM cosmology with Ωm= 0.3, ΩΛ= 0.7 and σ8= 0.9. Stacking simulation boxes of 100 h-1 Mpc and 300 h-1 Mpc with 5123 particles each we construct mock galaxy redshift surveys out to a redshift of z= 0.2 with a numerical resolution that guarantees completeness down to 0.01L*. We use these mock surveys to investigate various clustering statistics. The predicted two-dimensional correlation function ξ(rp, π) reveals clear signatures of redshift space distortions. The projected correlation functions for galaxies with different luminosities and types, derived from ξ(rp, π), match the observations well on scales larger than ~3 h-1 Mpc. On smaller scales, however, the model overpredicts the clustering power by about a factor two. Modelling the `finger-of-God' effect on small scales reveals that the standard ΛCDM model predicts pairwise velocity dispersions (PVD) that are ~400 km s-1 too high at projected pair separations of ~1 h-1 Mpc. A strong velocity bias in massive haloes, with bvel≡σgal/σdm~ 0.6 (where σgal and σdm are the velocity dispersions of galaxies and dark matter particles, respectively) can reduce the predicted PVD to the observed level, but does not help to resolve the overprediction of clustering power on small scales. Consistent results can be obtained within the standard ΛCDM model only when the average mass-to-light ratio of clusters is of the order of 1000 (M/L)solar in the B-band. Alternatively, as we show by a simple approximation, a ΛCDM model with σ8~= 0.75 may also reproduce the observational results. We discuss our results in light of the recent WMAP results and the constraints on σ8 obtained

  4. Experimental limits on the dark matter halo of the galaxy from gravitational microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.A.; Axelrod, T.S.; Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Griest, K.; Guern, J.A.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; Park, H.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B.A.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Stubbs, C.W.; Sutherland, W. |||||||

    1995-04-10

    We monitored 8.6{times}10{sup 6} stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud for 1.1 years and have found three events consistent with gravitational microlensing. We place strong constraints on Galactic halo lensing objects in the mass range 10{sup {minus}4}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup {minus}1}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. Three events are fewer than expected for a standard spherical halo of objects in this mass range, but appear to exceed the number expected from known Galactic populations. Fitting a naive spherical halo model to our data yields a MACHO fraction {ital f} of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs), {ital f}=0.19{sub {minus}0.10}{sup +0.16}, a total MACHO mass (inside 50 kpc) of 7.6{sub {minus}4}{sup +6}{times}10{sup 10}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}, and a microlensing optical depth 8.8{sub {minus}5}{sup +7}{times}10{sup {minus}8} (68% C.L.).

  5. High Resolution Simulations for Hierarchical Formation of Dark Matter Halos Hosting Galaxies and AGNs at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the LCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained by the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12h-1Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20×108 h-1M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1h-1Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. Compared with the Millennium simulation (Springel et al. 2005), our simulation offers the advantages of a mass resolution that is four times better and a spatial volume that is 11 times larger. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billions particles in a box of 70h-1Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44×106 -1M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate fitting functions for the Planck cosmology, from redshift 10 to 0. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semi-analytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be made publicly available in the near future.

  6. Planck intermediate results. XI. The gas content of dark matter halos: the Sunyaev-Zeldovich-stellar mass relation for locally brightest galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Luzzi, G.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wang, W.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, S. D. M.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present the scaling relation between Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and stellar mass for almost 260,000 locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). These are predominantly the central galaxies of their dark matter halos. We calibrate the stellar-to-halo mass conversion using realistic mock catalogues based on the Millennium Simulation. Applying a multi-frequency matched filter to the Planck data for each LBG, and averaging the results in bins of stellar mass, we measure the mean SZ signal down to M∗ ~ 2 × 1011 M⊙, with a clear indication of signal at even lower stellar mass. We derive the scaling relation between SZ signal and halo mass by assigning halo properties from our mock catalogues to the real LBGs and simulating the Planck observation process. This relation shows no evidence for deviation from a power law over a halo mass range extending from rich clusters down to M500 ~ 2 × 1013 M⊙, and there is a clear indication of signal down to M500 ~ 4 × 1012 M⊙. Planck's SZdetections in such low-mass halos imply that about a quarter of all baryons have now been seen in the form of hot halo gas, and that this gas must be less concentrated than the dark matter in such halos in order to remain consistent with X-ray observations. At the high-mass end, the measured SZ signal is 20% lower than found from observations of X-ray clusters, a difference consistent with the magnitude of Malmquist bias effects that were previously estimated for the X-ray sample.

  7. Study of the X-ray Source Population and the Dark Matter Halo in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxiess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Manami; Saeedi, Sara; Ducci, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The Local Group of galaxies consists of the large spiral galaxies Milky Way, M31, and M33, and a large number of dwarf galaxies. Most of the galaxies are dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, which are the least luminous galaxies with the largest mass-to-light ratios. In general, dSphs show no recent star formation, which means that they are ideal laboratories to study the old, pristine stellar populations formed in the earliest epochs of chemical enrichment of the Universe. Observations with today's X-ray telescopes have revealed X-ray sources in the fields of the dSphs that are satellites of our Milky Way. The study of X-ray source population in these galaxies and their X-ray luminosity function will help us to understand the source population in galaxies at the early stages of galaxy evolution. Moreover, the existence of X-ray binaries in these galaxies, if confirmed, would indicate that these galaxies are able to retain their compact objects, which are believed to obtain high kick-velocities at their birth in asymmetric supernova explosions. Therefore, the search for and the study of X-ray sources in dSph galaxies in the Local Group will enable us to constrain the mass of dark matter in these galaxies and test different models of the formation and growth of galaxies out of primordial dark-matter halos.I will discuss, how, owing to the large effective area, large field of view and high spatial and time resolution, Athena and its WFI will make it possible to obtain unprecedented observational data of the stellar populations in primordial galaxies and dark-matter halo distribution in our Local Group through the study of high-energy sources.

  8. Updated measurements of the dark matter halo masses of obscured quasars with improved WISE and Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Myers, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Using the most recent releases of WISE and Planck data, we perform updated measurements of the bias and typical dark matter halo mass of infrared (IR)-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using the angular autocorrelation function and cosmic microwave background lensing cross-correlations. Since our recent work of this kind, the WISE ALLWISE catalogue was released with improved photometry, and the Planck mission was completed and released improved products. These new data provide a more reliable measurement of the quasar bias and provide an opportunity to explore the role of changing survey pipelines in results downstream. We present a comparison of IR colour-selected quasars, split into obscured and unobscured populations based on optical-IR colours, selected from two versions of the WISE data. Which combination of data is used impacts the final results, particularly for obscured quasars, both because of mitigation of some systematics and because the newer catalogue provides a slightly different sample. We show that ALLWISE data is superior in several ways, though there may be some systematic trends with Moon contamination that were not present in the previous catalogue. We opt currently for the most conservative sample that meet our selection criteria in both the previous and new WISE catalogues. We measure a higher bias and halo mass for obscured quasars (bobsc ˜ 2.1, bunob ˜ 1.8) - at odds with simple orientation models - but at a reduced significance (˜1.5σ) as compared to our work with previous survey data.

  9. the Important Role of Dark Matter Halo in Retaining Hot Gas Content in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy; White, Raymond Edwin; Buote, David A.; Gu, Liyi

    2014-08-01

    It has been an ongoing puzzle as to why there is a large scatter in the amount of hot X-ray gas in optically-similar early-type galaxies. With Chandra observations, we investigated the hot gas content of a sample of early-type galaxies. We found their hot X-ray gas per stellar light (L_X/L_opt) is highly correlated with their total masses estimated through stellar kinematics. Furthermore, we found no difference in the scatter in L_X/L_opt between galaxies in the field and in groups and clusters. This suggests that a dark matter halo is the primary factor in determining the hot gas content, as smaller galaxies are more vulnerable to mechanisms that remove hot gas from galaxies such as galactic winds. Other factors such as flattening, environment, rotation, and star formation history may have played a relatively secondary role.

  10. Origins of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2015-08-01

    This talk will review ideas about the formation of stellar halos. It will include discussion of the observational evidence for stellar populations formed "in situ" (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), "kicked-out" (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and "accreted" (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). The properties of these (and other) populations seen in simulations of stellar halo formation will also be examined.

  11. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - II. Spin and concentration parameters for dark matter haloes during the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Poole, Gregory B.; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-06-01

    We use high-resolution N-body simulations to study the concentration and spin parameters of dark matter haloes in the mass range 108 M⊙ h-1 < M < 1011 M⊙ h-1 and redshifts 5 < z < 10, corresponding to the haloes of galaxies thought to be responsible for reionization. We build a subsample of equilibrium haloes and contrast their properties to the full population that also includes unrelaxed systems. Concentrations are calculated by fitting both NFW and Einasto profiles to the spherically averaged density profiles of individual haloes. After removing haloes that are out of equilibrium, we find a z > 5 concentration-mass (c(M)) relation that is almost flat and well described by a simple power law for both NFW and Einasto fits. The intrinsic scatter around the mean relation is Δcvir ˜ 1 (or 20 per cent) at z = 5. We also find that the analytic model proposed by Ludlow et al. reproduces the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. Our best-fitting Einasto shape parameter, α, depends on peak height, ν, in a manner that is accurately described by α = 0.0070ν2 + 0.1839. The distribution of the spin parameter, λ, has a weak dependence on equilibrium state; λ peaks at roughly ˜0.033 for our relaxed sample, and at ˜0.04 for the full population. The spin-virial mass relation has a mild negative correlation at high redshift.

  12. Remapping simulated halo catalogues in redshift space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the extension to redshift space of a rescaling algorithm, designed to alter the effective cosmology of a pre-existing simulated particle distribution or catalogue of dark matter haloes. The rescaling approach was initially developed by Angulo & White and was adapted and applied to halo catalogues in real space in our previous work. This algorithm requires no information other than the initial and target cosmological parameters, and it contains no tuned parameters. It is shown here that the rescaling method also works well in redshift space, and that the rescaled simulations can reproduce the growth rate of cosmological density fluctuations appropriate for the target cosmology. Even when rescaling a grossly non-standard model with Λ = 0 and zero baryons, the redshift-space power spectrum of standard Λ cold dark matter can be reproduced to about 5 per cent error for k < 0.2 h Mpc-1. The ratio of quadrupole-to-monopole power spectra remains correct to the same tolerance up to k = 1 h Mpc-1, provided that the input halo catalogue contains measured internal velocity dispersions.

  13. PROBING THE TRUNCATION OF GALAXY DARK MATTER HALOS IN HIGH-DENSITY ENVIRONMENTS FROM HYDRODYNAMICAL N-BODY SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Limousin, Marceau; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2009-05-10

    We analyze high-resolution, N-body hydrodynamical simulations of fiducial galaxy clusters to probe tidal stripping of the dark matter subhalos. These simulations include a prescription for star formation allowing us to track the fate of the stellar component as well. We investigate the effect of tidal stripping on cluster galaxies hosted in these dark matter subhalos as a function of projected cluster-centric radius. To quantify the extent of the dark matter halos of cluster galaxies, we introduce the half-mass radius r {sub 1/2} as a diagnostic, and study its evolution with projected cluster-centric distance R as a function of redshift. We find a well-defined trend for (r {sub 1/2}, R): the closer the galaxies are to the center of the cluster, the smaller the half-mass radius. Interestingly, this trend is inferred in all redshift frames examined in this work ranging from z = 0 to z = 0.7. At z = 0, galaxy halos in the central regions of clusters are found to be highly truncated, with the most compact half-mass radius of 10 kpc. We also find that r {sub 1/2} depends on luminosity and we present scaling relations of r {sub 1/2} with galaxy luminosity. The corresponding total mass of the cluster galaxies is also found to increase with projected cluster-centric distance and luminosity, but with more scatter than the (r {sub 1/2}, R) trend. Comparing the distribution of stellar mass to total mass for cluster galaxies, we find that the dark matter component is preferentially stripped, whereas the stellar component is much less affected by tidal forces. We compare these results with galaxy-galaxy lensing probes of r {sub 1/2} and find qualitative agreement. Future surveys with space-based telescopes such as DUNE and SNAP, that combine wide-field and high-resolution imaging, will be able to probe the predicted (r {sub 1/2}, R) relation observationally.

  14. Gravitational lensing of extended high-redshift sources by dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, F.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bartelmann, M.; De Zotti, G.; Granato, G. L.

    2002-01-01

    High-redshift galaxies and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) are most likely to be strongly lensed by intervening haloes between the source and the observer. In addition, a large fraction of lensed sources is expected to be seen in the submillimetre region, as a result of the enhanced magnification bias on the steep intrinsic number counts. We extend in three directions Blain's earlier study of this effect. First, we use a modification of the Press-Schechter mass function and detailed lens models to compute the magnification probability distribution. We compare the magnification cross-sections of populations of singular isothermal spheres and Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) haloes and find that they are very similar, in contrast to the image-splitting statistics which were recently investigated in other studies. The distinction between the two types of density profile is therefore irrelevant for our purposes. Secondly, we discuss quantitatively the maximum magnification, μmax, that can be achieved for extended sources (galaxies) with realistic luminosity profiles, taking into account the possible ellipticity of the lensing potential. We find that μmax plausibly falls into the range 10-30 for sources of 1-10h-1kpc effective radius at redshifts within 1-4. Thirdly, we apply our model for the lensing magnification to a class of sources following the luminosity evolution typical for a unified scheme of QSO formation. As a result of the peculiar steepness of their intrinsic number counts, we find that the lensed source counts at a fiducial wave length of 850μm can exceed the unlensed counts by several orders of magnitude at flux densities >~100mJy, even with a conservative choice of the maximum magnification.

  15. WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AS A PROBE OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRUCTURES IN DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Shirasaki, Masato

    2015-02-01

    We propose a novel method to select satellite galaxies in outer regions of galaxy groups or clusters using weak gravitational lensing. The method is based on the theoretical expectation that the tangential shear pattern around satellite galaxies would appear with negative values at an offset distance from the center of the main halo. We can thus locate the satellite galaxies statistically with an offset distance of several lensing smoothing scales by using the standard reconstruction of surface mass density maps from weak lensing observation. We test the idea using high-resolution cosmological simulations. We show that subhalos separated from the center of the host halo are successfully located even without assuming the position of the center. For a number of such subhalos, the characteristic mass and offset length can be also estimated on a statistical basis. We perform a Fisher analysis to show how well upcoming weak lensing surveys can constrain the mass density profile of satellite galaxies. In the case of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope with a sky coverage of 20,000 deg{sup 2}, the mass of the member galaxies in the outer region of galaxy clusters can be constrained with an accuracy of ∼0.1 dex for galaxy clusters with mass 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉} at z = 0.15. Finally we explore the detectability of tidal stripping features for subhalos having a wide range of masses of 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}.

  16. A 14.6 Arcsecond Quasar Lens Split by a Massive Dark Matter Halo

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, N; Oguri, M; Pindor, B; Hennawi, J; Chiu, K; Zheng, W; Ichikawa, S; Gregg, M; Becker, R; Suto, Y; Strauss, M; Turner, E; Keeton, C; Annis, J; Castander, F; Eisenstein, D; Frieman, J; Fukugita, M; Gunn, J; Johnston, D; Kent, S; Nichol, R; Richards, G; Rix, H; Sheldon, E; Bahcall, N; Brinkmann, J; Ivezic, Z; Lamb, D; Mckay, T; Schneider, D; York, D

    2003-12-04

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful tool to study the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The cold dark matter model of structure formation predicts the existence of quasars gravitationally lensed by concentrations of dark matter so massive that the quasar images would be split by over 7 inches. However, numerous searches for large-separation lensed quasars have been unsuccessful; all of the roughly 70 lensed quasars known to date, such as Q0957+561, have smaller splittings, and can be explained in terms of galaxy scale concentrations of baryonic matter that have undergone dissipative collapse. Here they report the discovery of the first large-separation lensed quasar, SDSS J1004+4112, with a maximum separation of 14.62 inches; at this separation, the lensing object must be dominated by dark matter. While gravitationally lensed galaxies of even large separation are known, large-separation quasars are more useful cosmological probes because of the simplicity of the resulting lens systems. The discovery in their current quasar sample is fully consistent with the theoretical expectations based on the cold dark matter model.

  17. Connecting massive galaxies to dark matter haloes in BOSS - I. Is galaxy colour a stochastic process in high-mass haloes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shun; Leauthaud, Alexie; Hearin, Andrew P.; Bundy, Kevin; Zentner, Andrew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Reid, Beth A.; Sinha, Manodeep; Coupon, Jean; Tinker, Jeremy L.; White, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    We use subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) to model the stellar mass function (SMF) and clustering of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) `CMASS' sample at z ˜ 0.5. We introduce a novel method which accounts for the stellar mass incompleteness of CMASS as a function of redshift, and produce CMASS mock catalogues which include selection effects, reproduce the overall SMF, the projected two-point correlation function wp, the CMASS dn/dz, and are made publicly available. We study the effects of assembly bias above collapse mass in the context of `age matching' and show that these effects are markedly different compared to the ones explored by Hearin et al. at lower stellar masses. We construct two models, one in which galaxy colour is stochastic (`AbM' model) as well as a model which contains assembly bias effects (`AgM' model). By confronting the redshift dependent clustering of CMASS with the predictions from our model, we argue that that galaxy colours are not a stochastic process in high-mass haloes. Our results suggest that the colours of galaxies in high-mass haloes are determined by other halo properties besides halo peak velocity and that assembly bias effects play an important role in determining the clustering properties of this sample.

  18. Dark-matter halo assembly bias: Environmental dependence in the non-Markovian excursion-set theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Ma, Chung-Pei; Riotto, Antonio

    2014-02-10

    In the standard excursion-set model for the growth of structure, the statistical properties of halos are governed by the halo mass and are independent of the larger-scale environment in which the halos reside. Numerical simulations, however, have found the spatial distributions of halos to depend not only on their mass but also on the details of their assembly history and environment. Here we present a theoretical framework for incorporating this 'assembly bias' into the excursion-set model. Our derivations are based on modifications of the path-integral approach of Maggiore and Riotto that models halo formation as a non-Markovian random-walk process. The perturbed density field is assumed to evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale and exhibits correlated walks in the presence of a density barrier. We write down conditional probabilities for multiple barrier crossings and derive from them analytic expressions for descendant and progenitor halo mass functions and halo merger rates as a function of both halo mass and the linear overdensity δ {sub e} of the larger-scale environment of the halo. Our results predict a higher halo merger rate and higher progenitor halo mass function in regions of higher overdensity, consistent with the behavior seen in N-body simulations.

  19. Dearth of dark matter or massive dark halo? Mass-shape-anisotropy degeneracies revealed by NMAGIC dynamical models of the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzi, F.; Gerhard, O.; Coccato, L.; Arnaboldi, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N. G.; Freeman, K. C.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Noordermeer, E.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Debattista, V. P.

    2009-05-01

    Recent results from the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PNS) survey have revealed a rapidly falling velocity dispersion profile in the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 3379, casting doubts on whether this intermediate-luminosity galaxy has the kind of dark matter (DM) halo expected in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. We present a detailed dynamical study of this galaxy, combining ground based long-slit spectroscopy, integral-field data from the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae (SAURON) instrument and PNS data reaching to more than seven effective radii. We construct dynamical models with the flexible χ2-made-to-measure (χ2M2M) particle method implemented in the NMAGIC code. We fit spherical, axisymmetric and some triaxial models to the photometric and combined kinematic data in a sequence of gravitational potentials whose circular velocity curves at large radii vary between a near-Keplerian decline and the nearly flat shapes generated by massive haloes. We find that models with a range of halo masses, anisotropies, shapes and inclinations are good representations of the data. In particular, the data are consistent both with near-isotropic systems dominated by the stellar mass and with models in moderately massive haloes with strongly radially anisotropic outer parts (β >~ 0.8 at 7Re). Formal likelihood limits would exclude (at 1σ) the model with stars only, as well as halo models with vcirc(7Re) >~ 250kms-1. All valid models fitting all the data are dynamically stable over gigayears, including the most anisotropic ones. Overall the kinematic data for NGC 3379 out to 7Re are consistent with a range of mass distributions in this galaxy. NGC 3379 may well have a DM halo as predicted by recent merger models within ΛCDM cosmology, provided its outer envelope is strongly radially anisotropic.

  20. Tests of non-standard cosmological theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies-Gow, Dylan R.

    This dissertation investigates some propositions that fall outside the mainstream of the standard big bang cosmology. We begin with partial evidence from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) that the universe may be finite, compactified and flat, or at least nearly flat. The simplest interpretation of a flat universe is that it is infinite and non-compact. However, there are a great variety of ways that infinite universes can be 'wrapped up' and given a compact finite volume, without the need to modify general relativity. Detailed analysis of the CMB could potentially tell us the nature of the compactification, except that there is considerable uncertainty over sources of error. Another approach is to correlate the positions of distant luminous objects. While this cannot probe so broad a set of possibilities, it may be more sensitive for those that it can. In this thesis a new technique is developed that is much more sensitive to the very-nearly flat cases than previous tests of this type. Application to existing catalogs rules out a compact dimension smaller than 90% of the present horizon radius. The test requires that the position of objects is corrected for relativistic aberration. This gives rise to a second piece of work that systemizes corrections for objects and also the microwave background. The final part looks at an unusual explanation for galaxy rotation curves. These are conventionally thought to be the result of a dark matter halo that enshrouds each galaxy. Such dark matter also helps to account for the large quantity dark matter deduced from observations of the CMB. However, it has been suggested that the rotation curves could be a classical general relativistic effect, despite the non-relativistic velocities and densities involved. Such a claim is very unusual and has created considerable contraversy. The chapter presents a conclusive analysis to demonstrate that the suggested model is unphysical by implying an infinite mass for each galaxy.

  1. Non-standard structure formation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebe, Alexander; Little, Brett; Islam, Ranty; Devriendt, Julien; Mahmood, Asim; Silk, Joe

    2003-04-01

    Observations on galactic scales seem to be in contradiction with recent high resolution N-body simulations. This so-called cold dark matter (CDM) crisis has been addressed in several ways, ranging from a change in fundamental physics by introducing self-interacting cold dark matter particles to a tuning of complex astrophysical processes such as global and/or local feedback. All these efforts attempt to soften density profiles and reduce the abundance of satellites in simulated galaxy halos. In this contribution we are exploring the differences between a Warm Dark Matter model and a CDM model where the power on a certain scale is reduced by introducing a narrow negative feature (`dip'). This dip is placed in a way so as to mimic the loss of power in the WDM model: both models have the same integrated power out to the scale where the power of the Dip model rises to the level of the unperturbed CDM spectrum again. Using N-body simulations we show that that the new Dip model appears to be a viable alternative to WDM while being based on different physics: where WDM requires the introduction of a new particle species the Dip stems from anon-standard inflationary period. If we are looking for an alternative to the currently challenged standard ΛCDM structure formation scenario, neither the ΛWDM nor the new Dip model can be ruled out with respect to the analysis presented in this contribution. They both make very similar predictions and the degeneracy between them can only be broken with observations yet to come.

  2. A halo-independent lower bound on the dark matter capture rate in the Sun from a direct detection signal

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas

    2015-05-21

    We show that a positive signal in a dark matter (DM) direct detection experiment can be used to place a lower bound on the DM capture rate in the Sun, independent of the DM halo. For a given particle physics model and DM mass we obtain a lower bound on the capture rate independent of the local DM density, velocity distribution, galactic escape velocity, as well as the scattering cross section. We illustrate this lower bound on the capture rate by assuming that upcoming direct detection experiments will soon obtain a significant signal. When comparing the lower bound on the capture rate with limits on the high-energy neutrino flux from the Sun from neutrino telescopes, we can place upper limits on the branching fraction of DM annihilation channels leading to neutrinos. With current data from IceCube and Super-Kamiokande non-trivial limits can be obtained for spin-dependent interactions and direct annihilations into neutrinos. In some cases also annihilations into ττ or bb start getting constrained. For spin-independent interactions current constraints are weak, but they may become interesting for data from future neutrino telescopes.

  3. Transonic galactic outflows in a dark matter halo with a central black hole and its application to the Sombrero galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Asuka; Mori, Masao; Nitta, Shin-ya

    2014-10-01

    We have classified possible transonic solutions of galactic outflows in the gravitational potential of the dark matter halo (DMH) and supermassive black hole (SMBH) under the assumptions of isothermal, spherically symmetric and steady state. It is clarified that the gravity of SMBH adds a new branch of transonic solutions with the transonic point in very close proximity to the centre in addition to the outer transonic point generated by the gravity of DMH. Because these two transonic solutions have substantially different mass fluxes and starting points, these solutions may have different influences on the evolution of galaxies and the release of metals into intergalactic space. We have applied our model to the Sombrero galaxy and obtained a new type of galactic outflow: a slowly accelerated transonic outflow through the transonic point at very distant region (≃126 kpc). In this galaxy, previous works reported that although the trace of the galactic outflow is observed by X-ray, the gas density distribution is consistent with the hydrostatic state. We have clarified that the slowly accelerating outflow has a gas density profile quite similar to that of the hydrostatic solution in the widely spread subsonic region. Thus, the slowly accelerating transonic solution cannot be distinguished from the hydrostatic solution in the observed region (≤25 kpc) even if slow transonic flow exists. Our model provides a new perspective of galactic outflows and is applicable even to quiescent galaxies with inactive star formation.

  4. A halo-independent lower bound on the dark matter capture rate in the Sun from a direct detection signal

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas E-mail: juhg@kth.se

    2015-05-01

    We show that a positive signal in a dark matter (DM) direct detection experiment can be used to place a lower bound on the DM capture rate in the Sun, independent of the DM halo. For a given particle physics model and DM mass we obtain a lower bound on the capture rate independent of the local DM density, velocity distribution, galactic escape velocity, as well as the scattering cross section. We illustrate this lower bound on the capture rate by assuming that upcoming direct detection experiments will soon obtain a significant signal. When comparing the lower bound on the capture rate with limits on the high-energy neutrino flux from the Sun from neutrino telescopes, we can place upper limits on the branching fraction of DM annihilation channels leading to neutrinos. With current data from IceCube and Super-Kamiokande non-trivial limits can be obtained for spin-dependent interactions and direct annihilations into neutrinos. In some cases also annihilations into ττ or b b start getting constrained. For spin-independent interactions current constraints are weak, but they may become interesting for data from future neutrino telescopes.

  5. No-go theorem for static scalar field dark matter halos with no Noether charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X.

    2013-09-01

    Classical scalar fields have been considered as a possible effective description of dark matter. We show that, for any metric theory of gravity, no static, spherically symmetric, regular, spatially localized, attractive, stable spacetime configuration can be sourced by the coherent excitation of a scalar field with positive definite energy density and no Noether charges. In the weak field regime, the result also applies for configurations with a repulsive gravitational potential. This extends Derrick’s theorem to the case of a general (noncanonical) scalar field, including the self-gravitational effects. Some possible ways out are briefly discussed.

  6. Dark matter substructure modelling and sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to Galactic dark halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütten, M.; Combet, C.; Maier, G.; Maurin, D.

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchical structure formation leads to a clumpy distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way. These clumps are possible targets to search for dark matter annihilation with present and future γ-ray instruments. Many uncertainties exist on the clump distribution, leading to disputed conclusions about the expected number of detectable clumps and the ensuing limits that can be obtained from non-detection. In this paper, we use the CLUMPY code to simulate thousands of skymaps for several clump distributions. This allows us to statistically assess the typical properties (mass, distance, angular size, luminosity) of the detectable clumps. Varying parameters of the clump distributions allows us to identify the key quantities to which the number of detectable clumps is the most sensitive. Focusing our analysis on two extreme clump configurations, yet consistent with results from numerical simulations, we revisit and compare various calculations made for the Fermi-LAT instrument, in terms of number of dark clumps expected and the angular power spectrum for the Galactic signal. We then focus on the prospects of detecting dark clumps with the future CTA instrument, for which we make a detailed sensitivity analysis using open-source CTA software. Based on a realistic scenario for the foreseen CTA extragalactic survey, and accounting for a post-trial sensitivity in the survey, we show that we obtain competitive and complementary limits to those based on long observation of a single bright dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  7. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SHAPE OF THE MILKY WAY DARK MATTER HALO FROM JEANS EQUATIONS APPLIED TO SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Loebman, Sarah R.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio; Brooks, Alyson M.; Christensen, Charlotte R.; Juric, Mario

    2012-10-10

    We search for evidence of dark matter in the Milky Way by utilizing the stellar number density distribution and kinematics measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to heliocentric distances exceeding {approx}10 kpc. We employ the cylindrically symmetric form of Jeans equations and focus on the morphology of the resulting acceleration maps, rather than the normalization of the total mass as done in previous, mostly local, studies. Jeans equations are first applied to a mock catalog based on a cosmologically derived N-body+SPH simulation, and the known acceleration (gradient of gravitational potential) is successfully recovered. The same simulation is also used to quantify the impact of dark matter on the total acceleration. We use Galfast, a code designed to quantitatively reproduce SDSS measurements and selection effects, to generate a synthetic stellar catalog. We apply Jeans equations to this catalog and produce two-dimensional maps of stellar acceleration. These maps reveal that in a Newtonian framework, the implied gravitational potential cannot be explained by visible matter alone. The acceleration experienced by stars at galactocentric distances of {approx}20 kpc is three times larger than what can be explained by purely visible matter. The application of an analytic method for estimating the dark matter halo axis ratio to SDSS data implies an oblate halo with q{sub DM} = 0.47 {+-} 0.14 within the same distance range. These techniques can be used to map the dark matter halo to much larger distances from the Galactic center using upcoming deep optical surveys, such as LSST.

  8. Caustics of 1/rn binary gravitational lenses: from galactic haloes to exotic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, V.; Melchiorre, C.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the caustic topologies for binary gravitational lenses made up of two objects whose gravitational potential declines as 1/rn. With n<1 this corresponds to power-law dust distributions like the singular isothermal sphere. The n>1 regime can be obtained with some violations of the energy conditions, one famous example being the Ellis wormhole. Gravitational lensing provides a natural arena to distinguish and identify such exotic objects in our Universe. We find that there are still three topologies for caustics as in the standard Schwarzschild binary lens, with the main novelty coming from the secondary caustics of the close topology, which become huge at higher n. After drawing caustics by numerical methods, we derive a large amount of analytical formulae in all limits that are useful to provide deeper insight in the mathematics of the problem. Our study is useful to better understand the phenomenology of galaxy lensing in clusters as well as the distinct signatures of exotic matter in complex systems.

  9. Evolution and statistics of non-sphericity of dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    We revisit the non-sphericity of cluster-mass-scale halos from cosmological N-body simulation on the basis of triaxial modeling. In order to understand the difference between the simulation results and the conventional ellipsoidal collapse model (EC), we first consider the evolution of individual simulated halos. The major difference between EC and the simulation becomes appreciable after the turnaround epoch. Moreover, it is sensitive to the individual evolution history of each halo. Despite such strong dependence on individual halos, the resulting non-sphericity of halos exhibits weak but robust mass dependence in a statistical fashion; massive halos are more spherical up to the turnaround, but gradually become less spherical by z = 0. This is clearly inconsistent with the EC prediction: massive halos are usually more spherical. In addition, at z = 0, inner regions of the simulated halos are less spherical than outer regions; that is, the density distribution inside the halos is highly inhomogeneous and therefore not self-similar (concentric ellipsoids with the same axis ratio and orientation). This is also inconsistent with the homogeneous density distribution that is commonly assumed in EC. Since most of previous fitting formulae for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the axis ratio of triaxial ellipsoids have been constructed under the self-similarity assumption, they are not accurate. Indeed, we compute the PDF of the projected axis ratio a1/a2 directly from the simulation data without the self-similarity assumption, and find that it is very sensitive to the assumption. The latter needs to be carefully taken into account in direct comparison with observations, and therefore we provide an empirical fitting formula for the PDF of a1/a2. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the derived PDF of a1/a2 roughly agrees with the current weak-lensing observations. More importantly, the present results will be useful for future exploration of the non

  10. Submillimetre galaxies reside in dark matter haloes with masses greater than 3 × 10(11) solar masses.

    PubMed

    Amblard, Alexandre; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Khostovan, A A; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sánchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2011-02-24

    The extragalactic background light at far-infrared wavelengths comes from optically faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe with star formation rates of a few hundred solar masses per year. These faint, submillimetre galaxies are challenging to study individually because of the relatively poor spatial resolution of far-infrared telescopes. Instead, their average properties can be studied using statistics such as the angular power spectrum of the background intensity variations. A previous attempt at measuring this power spectrum resulted in the suggestion that the clustering amplitude is below the level computed with a simple ansatz based on a halo model. Here we report excess clustering over the linear prediction at arcminute angular scales in the power spectrum of brightness fluctuations at 250, 350 and 500 μm. From this excess, we find that submillimetre galaxies are located in dark matter haloes with a minimum mass, M(min), such that log(10)[M(min)/M(⊙)] = 11.5(+0.7)(-0.2) at 350 μm, where M(⊙) is the solar mass. This minimum dark matter halo mass corresponds to the most efficient mass scale for star formation in the Universe, and is lower than that predicted by semi-analytical models for galaxy formation.

  11. Halo velocity bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Riotto, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    It has been recently shown that any halo velocity bias present in the initial conditions does not decay to unity, in agreement with predictions from peak theory. However, this is at odds with the standard formalism based on the coupled-fluids approximation for the coevolution of dark matter and halos. Starting from conservation laws in phase space, we discuss why the fluid momentum conservation equation for the biased tracers needs to be modified in accordance with the change advocated in Baldauf et al. Our findings indicate that a correct description of the halo properties should properly take into account peak constraints when starting from the Vlasov-Boltzmann equation.

  12. Supermassive black hole formation by direct collapse: keeping protogalactic gas H2 free in dark matter haloes with virial temperatures Tvir > rsim 104 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Cien; Bryan, Greg L.; Haiman, Z.

    2010-02-01

    In the absence of H2 molecules, the primordial gas in early dark matter haloes with virial temperatures just above Tvir >~ 104K cools by collisional excitation of atomic H. Although it cools efficiently, this gas remains relatively hot, at a temperature near T ~ 8000 K, and consequently might be able to avoid fragmentation and collapse directly into a supermassive black hole. In order for H2 formation and cooling to be strongly suppressed, the gas must be irradiated by a sufficiently intense ultraviolet (UV) flux. We performed a suite of three-dimensional hydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations of gas collapse in three different protogalactic haloes with Tvir >~ 104K, irradiated by a UV flux with various intensities and spectra. We determined the critical specific intensity, Jcrit21, required to suppress H2 cooling in each of the three haloes. For a hard spectrum representative of metal-free stars, we find (in units of 10-21ergs-1Hz-1sr-1cm-2) 104 < Jcrit21 < 105, while for a softer spectrum, which is characteristic of a normal stellar population, and for which H- dissociation is important, we find 30 < Jcrit21 < 300. These values are a factor of 3-10 lower than previous estimates. We attribute the difference to the higher, more accurate H2 collisional dissociation rate we adopted. The reduction in Jcrit21 exponentially increases the number of rare haloes exposed to supercritical radiation. When H2 cooling is suppressed, gas collapse starts with a delay, but it ultimately proceeds more rapidly. The infall velocity is near the increased sound speed, and an object as massive as M ~ 105Msolar may form at the centre of these haloes, compared to the M ~ 102Msolar stars forming when H2 cooling is efficient.

  13. Core Formation And Gravothermal Collapse Of Self-interacting Dark Matter Halos: Monte Carlo N-body simulation versus Conducting Fluid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Jun; Shapiro, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) has been proposed to solve the cuspy core problem of dark matter halos in standard CDM. There are two ways to investigate the effect of the 2-body, non-gravitational, elastic collisions of SIDM, Monte-Carlo N-body simulation and a conducting fluid model. The former is a gravitational N-body simulation with a Monte Carlo algorithm for the SIDM scattering that changes the direction of N-body particles randomly according to a given scattering cross section. The latter is a system of fluid conservation equations with a thermal conduction that describes the collisional effect, which was originally invented to describe the gravothermal collapse of globular clusters. Our previous work found a significant disagreement as regards the strength of collisionality required to solve cuspy core problem. However the two methods have not been properly tested against each other. Here, we make direct comparisons between Monte Carlo N-body simulations and analytic and numerical solutions of the conducting fluid (gaseous) model, for various isolated self-interacting dark matter halos. The N-body simulations reproduce the analytical self-similar solution of gravothermal collapse in the fluid model when one free parameter, the coefficient of heat conduction C, is chosen to be 0.75. The gravothermal collapse results of the simulations agrees well with our 1D numerical hydro solutions of the fluid model within 20% for other initial conditions, including Plummer model, Hernquist profile and NFW profile. In conclusion the conducting fluid model is in reasonably good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations for isolated halos. We will pursue the origin of the reported disagreement between two methods in a cosmological environment by comparing new N-body simulations with fully cosmological initial conditions.

  14. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  15. How to calculate dark matter direct detection exclusion limits that are consistent with gamma rays from annihilation in the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fornasa, Mattia; Green, Anne M.; Peiró, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    When comparing constraints on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) properties from direct and indirect detection experiments it is crucial that the assumptions made about the dark matter (DM) distribution are realistic and consistent. For instance, if the Fermi-LAT Galactic center GeV gamma-ray excess was due to WIMP annihilation, its morphology would be incompatible with the standard halo model that is usually used to interpret data from direct detection experiments. In this article, we calculate exclusion limits from direct detection experiments using self-consistent velocity distributions, derived from mass models of the Milky Way where the DM halo has a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We use two different methods to make the mass model compatible with a DM interpretation of the Galactic center gamma-ray excess. First, we fix the inner slope of the DM density profile to the value that best fits the morphology of the excess. Second, we allow the inner slope to vary and include the morphology of the excess in the data sets used to constrain the gravitational potential of the Milky Way. The resulting direct detection limits differ significantly from those derived using the standard halo model, in particular for light WIMPs, due to the differences in both the local DM density and velocity distribution.

  16. Constraining Dark Matter Halo Profiles and Galaxy Formation Models Using Spiral Arm Morphology. II. Dark and Stellar Mass Concentrations for 13 Nearby Face-on Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  17. Propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei in a diffusing galaxy with convective halo and thin matter disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Lee, M. A.; Gupta, M.

    1992-01-01

    A diffusion model for cosmic-ray propagation in the galaxy that includes the effects of convection in the halo is presented. Calculations are made for 13 primary and secondary nuclei with rigidities between 1 and 1000 GV using interaction loss rates, secondary production rates, and radioactive decay on the basis of recent new cross-section measurements. It is found that, in order to fit the rather weak radial dependence of cosmic-ray protons derived from gamma-ray data, the radial profile of the cosmic-ray sources must also have a weak radial dependence. It is suggested that convection perpendicular to the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy may not be important even at rigidities less than a few GV. The obtained limits on halo thicknesses are consistent with what can be determined for the distribution of cosmic-ray electrons in the halo based on the distribution of radio synchrotron emission in this and other galaxies.

  18. FORMATION HISTORY OF METAL-POOR HALO STARS WITH THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL AND THE EFFECT OF INTERSTELLAR MATTER ACCRETION ON THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Komiya, Yutaka; Habe, Asao; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate star formation and chemical evolution in the early universe by considering the merging history of the Galaxy in the {Lambda} cold dark matter scenario according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We give some possible constraints from comparisons with observation of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, made available by the recent large-scale surveys and by the follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy. We demonstrate that (1) the hierarchical structure formation can explain the characteristics of the observed metallicity distribution function including a break around [Fe/H] = -4; (2) a high-mass initial mass function (IMF) of peak mass {approx}10 M{sub sun} with the contribution of binaries, derived from the statistics of carbon-enhanced EMP stars, predicts the frequency of low-mass survivors consistent with the number of EMP stars observed for -4 {approx_lt} [Fe/H] {approx_lt} -2.5; (3) the stars formed from primordial gas before the first supernova (SN) explosions in their host mini-halos are assigned to the hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars with [Fe/H] {approx} -5; and (4) there is no indication of significant changes in the IMF and the binary contribution at metallicities -4 {approx_gt} [Fe/H] {approx_gt} -2.5, or even larger, as far as the field stars of the Galactic halo are concerned. We further study the effects of surface pollution through the accretion of interstellar matter (ISM) along the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy for low-mass Population III and EMP survivors. Because of the shallower potential of smaller halos, the accretion of ISM in the mini-halos in which these stars were born dominates the surface metal pollution. This can account for the surface iron abundances as observed for the HMP stars if the cooling and concentration of gas in their birth mini-halos are taken into account. We also study the feedback effect from the very massive Population III stars. The metal pre-pollution by pair-instability SNe is shown to be

  19. Chaotic motion and the evolution of morphological components in a time-dependent model of a barred galaxy within a dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, R. E. G.; Manos, T.

    2016-06-01

    Studies of dynamical stability (chaotic versus regular motion) in galactic dynamics often rely on static analytical models of the total gravitational potential. Potentials based upon self-consistent N-body simulations offer more realistic models, fully incorporating the time-dependent nature of the systems. Here we aim at analysing the fractions of chaotic motion within different morphological components of the galaxy. We wish to investigate how the presence of chaotic orbits evolves with time, and how their spatial distribution is associated with morphological features of the galaxy. We employ a time-dependent analytical potential model that was derived from an N-body simulation of a strongly barred galaxy. With this analytical potential, we may follow the dynamical evolution of ensembles of orbits. Using the Generalized Alignment Index (GALI) chaos detection method, we study the fraction of chaotic orbits, sampling the dynamics of both the stellar disc and of the dark matter halo. Within the stellar disc, the global trend is for chaotic motion to decrease in time, specially in the region of the bar. We scrutinized the different changes of regime during the evolution (orbits that are permanently chaotic, permanently regular, those that begin regular and end chaotic, and those that begin chaotic and end regular), tracing the types of orbits back to their common origins. Within the dark matter halo, chaotic motion also decreases globally in time. The inner halo (r < 5 kpc) is where most chaotic orbits are found and it is the only region where chaotic orbits outnumber regular orbits, in the early evolution.

  20. The SL2S Galaxy-scale Lens Sample. V. Dark Matter Halos and Stellar IMF of Massive Early-type Galaxies Out to Redshift 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the universe. We perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and Sloan ACS Lens Survey and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar initial mass function (IMF) across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. We find that the dark matter mass projected within the inner 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at log M * = 11.5 and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. The anti-correlation between dark matter mass and stellar mass density supports the idea of mergers being more frequent in more massive dark matter halos.

  1. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. V. DARK MATTER HALOS AND STELLAR IMF OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OUT TO REDSHIFT 0.8

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2015-02-20

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the universe. We perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and Sloan ACS Lens Survey and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar initial mass function (IMF) across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. We find that the dark matter mass projected within the inner 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at log M {sub *} = 11.5 and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. The anti-correlation between dark matter mass and stellar mass density supports the idea of mergers being more frequent in more massive dark matter halos.

  2. Where are the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs)? Using correlation measurements and lensing to relate LRGs to dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikage, Chiaki; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Takada, Masahiro; Spergel, David N.

    2013-11-01

    Non-linear redshift-space distortions, the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect, can complicate the interpretation of the galaxy power spectrum. Here, we demonstrate the method proposed by Hikage, Takada & Spergel to use complimentary observations to directly constrain this effect on the data. We use catalogues of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and photometric galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) to measure the redshift-space power spectrum of LRGs, the cross-correlation of LRGs with the shapes of background photometric galaxies (galaxy-galaxy weak lensing) and the projected cross-correlation of LRGs with photometric galaxies having similar photometric redshifts to the LRG spectroscopic redshift. All of these measurements use a reconstructed halo field. While we use the position of each LRG for single LRG systems, we compare the measurements using different halo-centre proxies for multiple-LRG systems (4.5 per cent of all the haloes): the brightest LRG position (BLRG), the faintest LRG position (FLRG) and their arithmetical mean position (Mean), respectively, in each system. We find significant differences in the measured correlations of different centres, showing consistent off-centring effects in the three observables. By comparing the measurements with a halo model that treats the satellite photometric galaxies as being distributed according to a generalized Navarro, Frenk and White profile, we find that ˜40 (70) per cent of BLRGs (FLRGs) are off-centred satellite galaxies in the multiple-LRG systems. The satellite LRGs have typical off-centring radius of ˜400 kpc h-1, and velocity dispersion of about 500 km s-1 in host haloes with a mean mass of 1.6 × 1014 M⊙ h-1. We show that, if LRGs in the single LRG systems have similar offsets, the residual FoG contamination in the LRG power spectrum can be significant at k ≳ 0.1 h Mpc-1, which may cause a bias in cosmological parameters determined by the shape of the power spectrum, such as

  3. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects from annihilating dark matter in the Milky Way: Smooth halo, subhalos, and intermediate-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavalle, Julien

    2010-10-01

    We study the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect potentially generated by relativistic electrons injected from dark matter annihilation or decay in the Galaxy, and check whether it could be observed by Planck or the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), or even imprint the current CMB data as, e.g., the specific fluctuation excess claimed from an recent reanalysis of the WMAP-5 data. We focus on high-latitude regions to avoid contamination of the Galactic astrophysical electron foreground, and consider the annihilation or decay coming from the smooth dark matter halo as well as from subhalos, further extending our analysis to a generic modeling of spikes arising around intermediate-mass black holes. We show that all these dark Galactic components are unlikely to produce any observable Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect. For a self-annihilating dark matter particle of 10 GeV with canonical properties, the largest optical depth we find is τe≲10-7 for massive isolated subhalos hosting intermediate-mass black holes. We conclude that dark matter annihilation or decay on the Galactic scale cannot lead to significant Sunyaev-Zel’dovich distortions of the CMB spectrum.

  4. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  5. An Unusual Lunar Halo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

  6. In the Dusty Recesses: Characterizing the Dark Matter Halos of Obscured Quasars via Clustering and CMB Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Adam D.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Runnoe, Jessie C.

    2016-06-01

    The spatial clustering of obscured and unobscured quasars provides an interesting constraint on the connection between the growth of supermassive black holes and the evolution of galaxies and large-scale structure. In pursuit of these constraints, we update our recent measurements of quasar clustering using WISE and Planck data. We carefully assess how alterations in these missions' data reduction pipelines result in different systematics on a range of angular scales, and define samples of WISE-selected quasars that appear to be least-influenced by differences in data calibration. With these samples we analyze quasar clustering via two complementary methods; the angular autocorrelation function and cosmic microwave background lensing cross-correlations. We measure a higher bias and halo mass for obscured quasars (b ~ 2.1) as compared to unobscured quasars (b ~ 1.8). This is at odds with simple orientation models but at a reduced significance (1.5σ) as compared to our work with previous survey data. Assuming that some fraction (as high as 75%) of obscured quasars are intrinsically similar to unobscured quasars but viewed through a "dusty torus," we infer that the remaining non-torus obscured quasar population must have a large clustering bias of ~3, and inhabit typical halo masses of ~3 × 1013 h-1M⊙ at a redshift of z ~ 1. These massive halos are likely the descendants of high-mass unobscured quasars at high redshift, and will evolve into members of galaxy groups by z ~ 0. This work was supported in part by NSF grants 1211112, 1515404 and 1515364.

  7. Origins of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2016-08-01

    This contribution reviews ideas about the origins of stellar halos. It includes discussion of the theoretical understanding of and observational evidence for stellar populations formed ``in situ'' (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), ``kicked-out'' (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and ``accreted'' (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). At this point there is general agreement that a significant fraction of any stellar halo population is likely ``accreted''. There is modest evidence for the presence of a ``kicked-out'' population around both the Milky Way and M31. Our theoretical understanding of and the observational evidence for an ``in situ'' population are less clear.

  8. Non-standard neutrino interactions in the earth and the flavor of astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele; Martinez-Soler, Ivan; Song, Ningqiang

    2016-11-01

    We study the modification of the detected flavor content of ultra high-energy astrophysical neutrinos in the presence of non-standard interactions of neutrinos with the Earth matter. Unlike the case of new physics affecting the propagation from the source to the Earth, non-standard Earth matter effects induce a dependence of the flavor content on the arrival direction of the neutrino. We find that, within the current limits on non-standard neutrino interaction parameters, large deviations from the standard 3ν oscillation predictions can be expected, in particular for fluxes dominated by one flavor at the source. Conversely they do not give sizable corrections to the expectation of equalized flavors in the Earth for sources dominated by production via pion-muon decay-chain.

  9. Grains in galactic haloes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, Andrea; Barsella, Bruno; Ferrini, F.; Greenberg, J. Mayo; Aiello, Santi

    1989-01-01

    Researchers considered the effect of extensive forces on dust grains subjected to the light and matter distribution of a spiral galaxy (Greenberg et al. (1987), Ferrini et al. (1987), Barsella et al (1988). Researchers showed that the combined force on a small particle located above the plane of a galactic disk may be either attractive or repulsive depending on a variety of parameters. They found, for example, that graphite grains from 20 nm to 250 nm radius are expelled from a typical galaxy, while silicates and other forms of dielectrics, after initial expulsion, may settle in potential minimum within the halo. They discuss only the statistical behavior of the forces for 17 galaxies whose luminosity and matter distribution in the disk, bulge and halo components are reasonably well known. The preliminary results of the study of the motion of a dust grain for NGC 3198 are given.

  10. The surface density of haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.; Lee, Xi-Guo

    We study the correlation between the central surface density and the core radius of the dark matter haloes of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. We find that the surface density within the halo characteristic radius r* is not a universal quantity as claimed by some authors (e.g., Milgrom 2009), but it correlates with several physical quantities (e.g., the halo mass M200, and the magnitude MB). The slope of the surface density-mass relation is 0.18 ± 0.05, leaving small room to the possibility of a constant surface density. Finally, we compare the results with MOND predictions.

  11. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu

    2012-01-01

    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  12. Non-standard neutrino interactions at DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin J.

    2016-07-01

    We explore the effects of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) and how they modify neutrino propagation in the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). We find that NSI can significantly modify the data to be collected by the DUNE experiment as long as the new physics parameters are large enough. For example, if the DUNE data are consistent with the standard three-massive-neutrinos paradigm, order 0.1 (in units of the Fermi constant) NSI effects will be ruled out. On the other hand, if large NSI effects are present, DUNE will be able to not only rule out the standard paradigm but also measure the new physics parameters, sometimes with good precision. We find that, in some cases, DUNE is sensitive to new sources of CP-invariance violation. We also explored whether DUNE data can be used to distinguish different types of new physics beyond nonzero neutrino masses. In more detail, we asked whether NSI can be mimicked, as far as the DUNE setup is concerned, by the hypothesis that there is a new light neutrino state.

  13. Non-standard symmetries and Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai

    2009-10-01

    Higher order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard supersymmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated with a Killing-Yano tensor. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. The 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space and its generalizations introduced by Iwai and Katayama are analyzed from the point of view of hidden symmetries. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, is computed for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed Sasakian structures.

  14. THE STRIKINGLY SIMILAR RELATION BETWEEN SATELLITE AND CENTRAL GALAXIES AND THEIR DARK MATTER HALOS SINCE z = 2

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-08-01

    Satellite galaxies in rich clusters are subject to numerous physical processes that can significantly influence their evolution. However, the typical L* satellite galaxy resides in much lower mass galaxy groups, where the processes capable of altering their evolution are generally weaker and have had less time to operate. To investigate the extent to which satellite and central galaxy evolution differs, we separately model the stellar mass-halo mass (M{sub *}-M{sub h} ) relation for these two populations over the redshift interval 0 < z < 1. This relation for central galaxies is constrained by the galaxy stellar mass function while the relation for satellite galaxies is constrained against recent measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function (2PCF). Our approach does not rely on the abundance matching technique but instead adopts a flexible functional form for the relation between satellite galaxy stellar mass and subhalo mass, where subhalo mass is considered as the maximum mass that a subhalo has ever reached in its merger history, M{sub peak}. At z {approx} 0 the satellites, on average, have {approx}10% larger stellar masses at fixed M{sub peak} compared to central galaxies of the same halo mass (although the two relations are consistent at 2{sigma}-3{sigma} for M{sub peak} {approx}> 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }). This is required in order to reproduce the observed stellar mass-dependent 2PCF and satellite fractions. At low masses our model slightly under-predicts the correlation function at {approx}1 Mpc scales. At z {approx} 1 the satellite and central galaxy M{sub *}-M{sub h} relations are consistent within the errors, and the model provides an excellent fit to the clustering data. At present, the errors on the clustering data at z {approx} 2 are too large to constrain the satellite model. A simple model in which satellite and central galaxies share the same M{sub *}-M{sub h} relation is able to reproduce the extant z {approx} 2 clustering data. We

  15. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF.

  16. Halo model and halo properties in Galileon gravity cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Lombriser, Lucas; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk E-mail: silvia.pascoli@durham.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the performance of semi-analytical modelling of large-scale structure in Galileon gravity cosmologies using results from N-body simulations. We focus on the Cubic and Quartic Galileon models that provide a reasonable fit to CMB, SNIa and BAO data. We demonstrate that the Sheth-Tormen mass function and linear halo bias can be calibrated to provide a very good fit to our simulation results. We also find that the halo concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law. The nonlinear matter power spectrum computed in the halo model approach is found to be inaccurate in the mildly nonlinear regime, but captures reasonably well the effects of the Vainshtein screening mechanism on small scales. In the Cubic model, the screening mechanism hides essentially all of the effects of the fifth force inside haloes. In the case of the Quartic model, the screening mechanism leaves behind residual modifications to gravity, which make the effective gravitational strength time-varying and smaller than the standard value. Compared to normal gravity, this causes a deficiency of massive haloes and leads to a weaker matter clustering on small scales. For both models, we show that there are realistic halo occupation distributions of Luminous Red Galaxies that can match both the observed large-scale clustering amplitude and the number density of these galaxies.

  17. Reionization histories of Milky Way mass halos

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Abel, Tom; Alvarez, Marcelo A. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu E-mail: malvarez@cita.utoronto.ca

    2014-04-20

    We investigate the connection between the reionization era and the present-day universe by examining the mass reionization histories of z = 0 dark matter halos. In a 600{sup 3} Mpc{sup 3} volume, we combine a dark matter N-body simulation with a three-dimensional seminumerical reionization model. This tags each particle with a reionization redshift, so that individual present-day halos can be connected to their reionization histories and environments. We find that the vast majority of present-day halos with masses larger than ∼ few × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} reionize earlier than the rest of the universe. We also find significant halo-to-halo diversity in mass reionization histories, and find that in realistic inhomogeneous models, the material within a given halo is not expected to reionize at the same time. In particular, the scatter in reionization times within individual halos is typically larger than the scatter among halos. From our fiducial reionization model, we find that the typical 68% scatter in reionization times within halos is ∼115 Myr for 10{sup 12±0.25} M {sub ☉} halos, decreasing slightly to ∼95 Myr for 10{sup 15±0.25} M {sub ☉} halos. We find a mild correlation between reionization history and environment: halos with shorter reionization histories are typically in more clustered environments, with the strongest trend on a scale of ∼20 Mpc. Material in Milky Way mass halos with short reionization histories is preferentially reionized in relatively large H II regions, implying reionization mostly by sources external to the progenitors of the present-day halo. We investigate the impact on our results of varying the reionization model parameters, which span a range of reionization scenarios with varying timing and morphology.

  18. Halotools: Galaxy-Halo connection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearin, Andrew; Tollerud, Erik; Robitaille, Thomas; Droettboom, Michael; Zentner, Andrew; Bray, Erik; Craig, Matt; Bradley, Larry; Barbary, Kyle; Deil, Christoph; Tan, Kevin; Becker, Matthew R.; More, Surhud; Günther, Hans Moritz; Sipocz, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Halotools builds and tests models of the galaxy-halo connection and analyzes catalogs of dark matter halos. The core functions of the package include fast generation of synthetic galaxy populations using HODs, abundance matching, and related methods; efficient algorithms for calculating galaxy clustering, lensing, z-space distortions, and other astronomical statistics; a modular, object-oriented framework for designing galaxy evolution models; and end-to-end support for reducing halo catalogs and caching them as hdf5 files.

  19. A new look at massive clusters: weak lensing constraints on the triaxial dark matter haloes of A1689, A1835 and A2204

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corless, Virginia L.; King, Lindsay J.; Clowe, Douglas

    2009-03-01

    Measuring the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of mass on galaxy cluster scales is a crucial test of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, providing constraints on the nature of dark matter. Recent work investigating mass distributions of individual galaxy clusters (e.g. Abell1689) using weak and strong gravitational lensing has revealed potential inconsistencies between the predictions of structure formation models relating halo mass to concentration and those relationships as measured in massive clusters. However, such analyses employ simple spherical halo models while a growing body of work indicates that triaxial 3D halo structure is both common and important in parameter estimates. We recently introduced a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit fully triaxial models to weak lensing data that gives parameter and error estimates that fully incorporate the true shape uncertainty present in nature. In this paper we apply that method to weak lensing data obtained with the ESO/MPG Wide Field Imager for galaxy clusters A1689, A1835 and A2204, under a range of Bayesian priors derived from theory and from independent X-ray and strong lensing observations. For Abell1689, using a simple strong lensing prior we find marginalized mean parameter values M200 = (0.83 +/- 0.16) × 1015h-1Msolar and C = 12.2 +/- 6.7, which are marginally consistent with the mass-concentration relation predicted in ΛCDM. With the same strong lensing prior we find for Abell1835 M200 = (0.67 +/- 0.22) × 1015h-1Msolar and C = 7.1+10.6-7.1, and using weak lensing information alone find for Abell2204 M200 = (0.50 +/- 0.19) × 1015h-1Msolar and C = 7.1 +/- 6.2. The large error contours that accompany our triaxial parameter estimates more accurately represent the true extent of our limited knowledge of the structure of galaxy cluster lenses, and make clear the importance of combining many constraints from other theoretical, lensing (strong, flexion), or other observational (X-ray, Sunyaev

  20. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ``smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  1. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  2. Halo-independent tests of dark matter direct detection signals: local DM density, LHC, and thermal freeze-out

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2015-08-19

    From an assumed signal in a Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiment a lower bound on the product of the DM-nucleon scattering cross section and the local DM density is derived, which is independent of the local DM velocity distribution. This can be combined with astrophysical determinations of the local DM density. Within a given particle physics model the bound also allows a robust comparison of a direct detection signal with limits from the LHC. Furthermore, the bound can be used to formulate a condition which has to be fulfilled if the particle responsible for the direct detection signal is a thermal relic, regardless of whether it constitutes all DM or only part of it. We illustrate the arguments by adopting a simplified DM model with a Z{sup ′} mediator and assuming a signal in a future xenon direct detection experiment.

  3. Search for Non-standard Interactions with the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Isvan, Zeynep

    2011-10-01

    MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos between two detectors, over a baseline of 735 km. We recently reported the most precise measurement of neutrino oscillations in the atmospheric sector and the first tagged measurement of antineutrino oscillations. The neutrino mass splitting and mixing angle are measured to be |{Delta}m{sup 2}| = 2.32{sub -0.08}{sup +0.12} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 (90% C.L.) for an exposure of 7.25 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target (PoT). Antineutrino oscillation parameters are measured as {Delta}{bar m}{sup 2} = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat.) {+-} 0.06(syst.)) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{bar {theta}}) = 0.86{sub -0.12}{sup +0.11}(stat.) {+-} 0.01(syst.) with an exposure of 1.7 x 10{sup 20} PoT in NuMI antineutrino running mode. We use the apparent difference in neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters to constrain non-standard matter interactions which could occur during propagation through the Earth's crust to the Far Detector.

  4. Lepton flavor violating non-standard interactions via light mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Yasaman; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-07-01

    Non-Standard neutral current Interactions (NSIs) of neutrinos with matter can alter the pattern of neutrino oscillation due to the coherent forward scattering of neutrinos on the medium. This effect makes long-baseline neutrino experiments such as NO νA and DUNE a sensitive probe of beyond standard model (BSM) physics. We construct light mediator models that can give rise to both lepton flavor conserving as well as Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) neutral current NSI. We outline the present phenomenological viability of these models and future prospects to test them. We predict a lower bound on Br( H → μτ ) in terms of the parameters that can be measured by DUNE and NO νA, and show that the hint for H → μτ in current LHC data can be accommodated in our model. A large part of the parameter space of the model is already constrained by the bound on Br( τ → Z ' μ) and by the bounds on rare meson decays and can be in principle fully tested by improving these bounds.

  5. Alignments of galaxies and halos in hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, Isha; Libeskind, Noam I.

    2016-10-01

    We use a 200 h -1Mpc cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to examine the alignments of galaxies with respect to the host halo. We do separate study for the different components of the halo, such as stars, gas and dark matter. We show that angular momentum of gas is more aligned with the angular momentum of host halo compared with the stellar component.

  6. Search for a dark matter annihilation signal from the galactic center halo with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abramowski, A; Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barnacka, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Conrad, J; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füssling, M; Gallant, Y A; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hague, J D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Keogh, D; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C-C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; Maxted, N; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Ryde, F; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schönwald, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Wierzcholska, A; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H-S

    2011-04-22

    A search for a very-high-energy (VHE; ≥100  GeV) γ-ray signal from self-annihilating particle dark matter (DM) is performed towards a region of projected distance r∼45-150  pc from the Galactic center. The background-subtracted γ-ray spectrum measured with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) γ-ray instrument in the energy range between 300 GeV and 30 TeV shows no hint of a residual γ-ray flux. Assuming conventional Navarro-Frenk-White and Einasto density profiles, limits are derived on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section (σv) as a function of the DM particle mass. These are among the best reported so far for this energy range and in particular differ only little between the chosen density profile parametrizations. In particular, for the DM particle mass of ∼1  TeV, values for (σv) above 3×10(-25)  cm(3) s(-1) are excluded for the Einasto density profile.

  7. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations towards the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Lui, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Öttl, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The inner region of the Milky Way halo harbors a large amount of dark matter (DM). Given its proximity, it is one of the most promising targets to look for DM. We report on a search for the annihilations of DM particles using γ -ray observations towards the inner 300 pc of the Milky Way, with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. The analysis is based on a 2D maximum likelihood method using Galactic Center (GC) data accumulated by H.E.S.S. over the last 10 years (2004-2014), and does not show any significant γ -ray signal above background. Assuming Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White DM density profiles at the GC, we derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section ⟨σ v ⟩. These constraints are the strongest obtained so far in the TeV DM mass range and improve upon previous limits by a factor 5. For the Einasto profile, the constraints reach ⟨σ v ⟩ values of 6 ×10-26 cm3 s-1 in the W+W- channel for a DM particle mass of 1.5 TeV, and 2 ×10-26 cm3 s-1 in the τ+τ- channel for a 1 TeV mass. For the first time, ground-based γ -ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to probe ⟨σ v ⟩ values expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles.

  8. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations towards the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, H; Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J-P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J-P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Leser, E; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Lui, R; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Öttl, S; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spieß, F; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-09-01

    The inner region of the Milky Way halo harbors a large amount of dark matter (DM). Given its proximity, it is one of the most promising targets to look for DM. We report on a search for the annihilations of DM particles using γ-ray observations towards the inner 300 pc of the Milky Way, with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. The analysis is based on a 2D maximum likelihood method using Galactic Center (GC) data accumulated by H.E.S.S. over the last 10 years (2004-2014), and does not show any significant γ-ray signal above background. Assuming Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White DM density profiles at the GC, we derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section ⟨σv⟩. These constraints are the strongest obtained so far in the TeV DM mass range and improve upon previous limits by a factor 5. For the Einasto profile, the constraints reach ⟨σv⟩ values of 6×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1} in the W^{+}W^{-} channel for a DM particle mass of 1.5 TeV, and 2×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1} in the τ^{+}τ^{-} channel for a 1 TeV mass. For the first time, ground-based γ-ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to probe ⟨σv⟩ values expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles. PMID:27661677

  9. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations towards the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, H; Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J-P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J-P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Leser, E; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Lui, R; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Öttl, S; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spieß, F; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-09-01

    The inner region of the Milky Way halo harbors a large amount of dark matter (DM). Given its proximity, it is one of the most promising targets to look for DM. We report on a search for the annihilations of DM particles using γ-ray observations towards the inner 300 pc of the Milky Way, with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. The analysis is based on a 2D maximum likelihood method using Galactic Center (GC) data accumulated by H.E.S.S. over the last 10 years (2004-2014), and does not show any significant γ-ray signal above background. Assuming Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White DM density profiles at the GC, we derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section ⟨σv⟩. These constraints are the strongest obtained so far in the TeV DM mass range and improve upon previous limits by a factor 5. For the Einasto profile, the constraints reach ⟨σv⟩ values of 6×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1} in the W^{+}W^{-} channel for a DM particle mass of 1.5 TeV, and 2×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1} in the τ^{+}τ^{-} channel for a 1 TeV mass. For the first time, ground-based γ-ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to probe ⟨σv⟩ values expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles.

  10. THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-03-20

    A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M{sub 200{rho}-bar} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.

  11. Alignments between galaxies, satellite systems and haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S.; Gao, Liang; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the satellite populations of the Milky Way and Andromeda are puzzling in that they are nearly perpendicular to the discs of their central galaxies. To understand the origin of such configurations we study the alignment of the central galaxy, satellite system and dark matter halo in the largest of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) simulation. We find that centrals and their satellite systems tend to be well aligned with their haloes, with a median misalignment angle of 33° in both cases. While the centrals are better aligned with the inner 10 kpc halo, the satellite systems are better aligned with the entire halo indicating that satellites preferentially trace the outer halo. The central-satellite alignment is weak (median misalignment angle of 52°) and we find that around 20 per cent of systems have a misalignment angle larger than 78°, which is the value for the Milky Way. The central-satellite alignment is a consequence of the tendency of both components to align with the dark matter halo. As a consequence, when the central is parallel to the satellite system, it also tends to be parallel to the halo. In contrast, if the central is perpendicular to the satellite system, as in the case of the Milky Way and Andromeda, then the central-halo alignment is much weaker. Dispersion-dominated (spheroidal) centrals have a stronger alignment with both their halo and their satellites than rotation-dominated (disc) centrals. We also found that the halo, the central galaxy and the satellite system tend to be aligned with the surrounding large-scale distribution of matter, with the halo being the better aligned of the three.

  12. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    SciTech Connect

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  13. A Lyα blob and zabs ≈ zem damped Lyα absorber in the dark matter halo of the binary quasar Q 0151+048

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, T.; Møller, P.; Ledoux, C.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Nilsson, K. K.; Christensen, L.; D'Odorico, S.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Michałowski, M. J.; Ferreira, D. D. M.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Q 0151+048 is a physical quasar (QSO) pair at z ~ 1.929 with a separation of 3.3 arcsec on the sky. In the spectrum of the brighter member of this pair, Q 0151+048A, a damped Lyα absorber (DLA) is observed at a higher redshift. We have previously detected the host galaxies of both QSOs, as well as a Lyα blob whose emission surrounding Q 0151+048A extends over 5 × 3.3 arcsec. Aims: We seek to constrain the geometry of the system and understand the possible relations between the DLA, the Lyα blob, and the two QSOs. We also aim at characterizing the former two objects in more detail. Methods: To study the nature of the Lyα blob, we performed low-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy with the slit aligned with the extended emission. We also observed the whole system using the medium-resolution VLT/X-shooter spectrograph and the slit aligned with the two QSOs. The systemic redshift of both QSOs was determined from rest-frame optical emission lines redshifted into the NIR. We employed line-profile fitting technique, to measure metallicities and the velocity width of low-ionization metal absorption lines associated to the DLA and photo-ionization modeling to characterize the DLA further. Results: We measure systemic redshifts of zem(A) = 1.92924 ± 0.00036 and zem(B) = 1.92863 ± 0.00042 from the H β and H α emission lines, respectively. In other words, the two QSOs have identical redshifts within 2σ. From the width of Balmer emission lines and the strength of the rest-frame optical continuum, we estimate the masses of the black holes of the two QSOs to be 109.33 M⊙ and 108.38 M⊙ for Q 0151+048A and Q 0151+048B, respectively. We then use the correlation between black hole mass and dark matter halo mass to infer the mass of the dark matter halos hosting the two QSOs: 1013.74 M⊙ and 1013.13 M⊙ for Q 0151+048A and Q 0151+048B, respectively. We observe a velocity gradient along the major axis of the Lyα blob consistent with the rotation curve of a large

  14. The Galactic Halo and CDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, M. R.

    2004-07-01

    This paper reviews the available information on the central density distribution and shape of the Milky Way's halo. At present, there is no strong evidence that the Milky Way's halo properties conflict with the predictions of cold dark matter (CDM): a primordial central power law cusp can be accommodated by the observations, and the current constraints on flattening are also consistent with the predictions of the theory. If you want to pick a fight with CDM, then the Milky Way is probably not the place to do it.

  15. Linking Galaxies to Dark Matter Halos at z ~ 1 : Dependence of Galaxy Clustering on Stellar Mass and Specific Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Seong-Kook; Edge, Alastair C.; Wake, David A.; Merson, Alexander I.; Jeon, Yiseul

    2015-06-01

    We study the dependence of angular two-point correlation functions on stellar mass (M*) and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of {M}*\\gt {10}10{M}ȯ galaxies at z∼ 1. The data from the UK Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey Deep eXtragalactic Survey and Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey cover 8.2 deg2 sample scales larger than 100 {h}-1 {Mpc} at z∼ 1, allowing us to investigate the correlation between clustering, M*, and star formation through halo modeling. Based on halo occupation distributions (HODs) of M* threshold samples, we derive HODs for M* binned galaxies, and then calculate the {M}*/{M}{halo} ratio. The ratio for central galaxies shows a peak at {M}{halo}∼ {10}12{h}-1{M}ȯ , and satellites predominantly contribute to the total stellar mass in cluster environments with {M}*/{M}{halo} values of 0.01–0.02. Using star-forming galaxies split by sSFR, we find that main sequence galaxies ({log} {sSFR}/{{yr}}-1∼ -9) are mainly central galaxies in ∼ {10}12.5{h}-1{M}ȯ halos with the lowest clustering amplitude, while lower sSFR galaxies consist of a mixture of both central and satellite galaxies where those with the lowest M* are predominantly satellites influenced by their environment. Considering the lowest {M}{halo} samples in each M* bin, massive central galaxies reside in more massive halos with lower sSFRs than low mass ones, indicating star-forming central galaxies evolve from a low M*–high sSFR to a high M*–low sSFR regime. We also find that the most rapidly star-forming galaxies ({log} {sSFR}/{{yr}}-1\\gt -8.5) are in more massive halos than main sequence ones, possibly implying galaxy mergers in dense environments are driving the active star formation. These results support the conclusion that the majority of star-forming galaxies follow secular evolution through the sustained but decreasing formation of stars.

  16. The scale-dependence of halo assembly bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Tomomi; Hearin, Andrew P.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Leauthaud, Alexie

    2016-05-01

    The two-point clustering of dark matter haloes is influenced by halo properties besides mass, a phenomenon referred to as halo assembly bias. Using the depth of the gravitational potential well, Vmax, as our secondary halo property, in this paper, we present the first study of the scale-dependence of assembly bias. In the large-scale linear regime, r ≥ 10 h-1 Mpc, our findings are in keeping with previous results. In particular, at the low-mass end (haloes with high Vmax show stronger large-scale clustering relative to haloes with low Vmax of the same mass; this trend weakens and reverses for Mvir ≳ Mcoll. In the non-linear regime, assembly bias in low-mass haloes exhibits a pronounced scale-dependent `bump' at 500 kpc h-1-5 Mpc h-1. This feature weakens and eventually vanishes for haloes of higher mass. We show that this scale-dependent signature can primarily be attributed to a special subpopulation of ejected haloes, defined as present-day host haloes that were previously members of a higher mass halo at some point in their past history. A corollary of our results is that galaxy clustering on scales of r ˜ 1-2 Mpc h-1 can be impacted by up to ˜15 per cent by the choice of the halo property used in the halo model, even for stellar mass-limited samples.

  17. Interpretation of MINOS data in terms of non-standard neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Joachim; Machado, Pedro A.N.; Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    The MINOS experiment at Fermilab has recently reported a tension between the oscillation results for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. We show that this tension, if it persists, can be understood in the framework of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI). While neutral current NSI (non-standard matter effects) are disfavored by atmospheric neutrinos, a new charged current coupling between tau neutrinos and nucleons can fit the MINOS data without violating other constraints. In particular, we show that loop-level contributions to flavor-violating {tau} decays are sufficiently suppressed. However, conflicts with existing bounds could arise once the effective theory considered here is embedded into a complete renormalizable model. We predict the future sensitivity of the T2K and NOvA experiments to the NSI parameter region favored by the MINOS fit, and show that both experiments are excellent tools to test the NSI interpretation of the MINOS data.

  18. The mass of spiral galaxy halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    A discussion is presented of previous and current work on the determination of the mass distribution of spiral galaxy halos. The two most common tools utilized to determine the mass of spiral galaxies, i.e., companion galaxies and rotation curves are discussed. The most recent research of companion galaxies, which probes the potential to larger distances and utilizes more accurate dynamic modeling, demonstrates that isolated late-type galaxies do have very large dark-matter halos.

  19. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos.

  20. 40 CFR 610.60 - Non-standard ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-standard ambient conditions. 610.60 Section 610.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Special Test Procedures §...

  1. 40 CFR 610.60 - Non-standard ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-standard ambient conditions. 610.60 Section 610.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Special Test Procedures §...

  2. 40 CFR 610.60 - Non-standard ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-standard ambient conditions. 610.60 Section 610.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Special Test Procedures §...

  3. Higher Education in Non-Standard Wage Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to verify whether higher education increases the likelihood of young Italian workers moving from non-standard to standard wage contracts. Design/methodology/approach: The authors exploit a data set on labour market flows, produced by the Italian National Statistical Office, by interviewing about 85,000…

  4. NON-STANDARD HIGGS AND mh≃125 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    We review non-Standard Model Higgs signatures which are missed in standard analyses by both ATLAS and CMS and show how the strong bounds by recent measurements can be relaxed in strongly-interacting theories. We also review strategies how to measure or constrain exotic Higgs decay at the LHC and a future linear collider.

  5. CP-violation and non-standard interactions at the MOMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhti, Pouya; Farzan, Yasaman

    2016-07-01

    To measure the last unknown 3 ν oscillation parameter ( δ), several long baseline neutrino experiments have been designed or proposed. Recently it has been shown that turning on neutral current Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter can induce degeneracies that may even hinder the proposed state-of-the-art DUNE long baseline experiment from measuring the value of δ. We study how the result of the proposed MOMENT experiment with a baseline of 150 km and 200 MeV < E ν < 600 MeV can help to solve the degeneracy induced by NSI and determine the true value of δ.

  6. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  7. The dark halo of the milky Way

    PubMed

    Alcock

    2000-01-01

    Most of the matter in the Milky Way is invisible to astronomers. Precise numbers are elusive, but it appears that the dark component is 20 times as massive as the visible disk of stars and gas. This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars. The composition of this dark halo is unknown, but it may comprise a mixture of ancient, degenerate dwarf stars and exotic, hypothetical elementary particles.

  8. ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Bullock, James S.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Diemand, Juerg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2013-05-20

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with {approx}70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by {lambda} {approx} 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.

  9. Halo formation and evolution: unification of structure and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Allan D.; Collins, Matthew P.

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a wide variety of halo structures, often with enigmatic consequences. Giant spiral galaxies, for example, contain both dark matter and hot gas, while dwarf spheroidal galaxies, with weaker gravity, contain much larger fractions of dark matter, but little gas. Globular clusters, superficially resembling these dwarf spheroidals, have little or no dark matter. Halo temperatures are also puzzling: hot cluster halos contain cooler galaxy halos; dwarf galaxies have no hot gas at all despite their similar internal processes. Another mystery is the origin of the gas that galaxies require to maintain their measured star formation rates (SFRs). We outline how gravitational quantum theory solves these problems, and enables baryons to function as weakly-interacting-massive-particles (WIMPs) in Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. Significantly, these dark-baryon ensembles may also be consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies.

  10. Detection of non-standard atmospheric effects in FSO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilfert, Otakar; Poliak, Juraj; Barcík, Peter; Arce-Diego, José L.; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Ortega Quijano, Noé

    2013-09-01

    Modern free-space optical (FSO) communication systems in many aspects overcome wire or radio communications. They offer a license-free operation and a large bandwidth. Operation of outdoor FSO links struggles with many atmospheric phenomena that deteriorate phase and amplitude of the transmitted optical beam. Thanks to the recent advancing development, these effects are more or less well understood and described. Goal driven research increased the link availability. Besides increasing the availability of data links it is necessary to focus on the accuracy and reliability of testing optical links. Research of the data optical links is focused on the transmission of a large amount of data whereas the testing FSO link is designed to achieve maximal resolution and sensitivity thus improving accuracy and repeatability of the atmospheric effects measurement. Given the fact that testing links are located in the measured media, they are themselves influenced by it. Phenomena such as the condensation on transceiver windows (rain, frost) and the deviation of the optical beam path caused by the wind are referred to as non-standard effects. Non-standard effects never occur independently; therefore we must always verify the cross-sensitivity of the testing link. In the paper we respond to an increasing number of articles dealing with influence of the atmosphere on the link but ignoring the cross-sensitivity of the testing link on other variables than tested. In conclusion, we carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis of self-identified non-standard effects.

  11. Halo mass distribution reconstruction across the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cheng; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Tao, Charling

    2015-08-01

    We study the relation between halo mass and its environment from a probabilistic perspective. We find that halo mass depends not only on local dark matter density, but also on non-local quantities such as the cosmic web environment and the halo-exclusion effect. Given these accurate relations, we have developed the HADRON-code (Halo mAss Distribution ReconstructiON), a technique which permits us to assign halo masses to a distribution of haloes in three-dimensional space. This can be applied to the fast production of mock galaxy catalogues, by assigning halo masses, and reproducing accurately the bias for different mass cuts. The resulting clustering of the halo populations agree well with that drawn from the BigMultiDark N-body simulation: the power spectra are within 1σ up to scales of k = 0.2 h Mpc-1, when using augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory based mock catalogues. Only the most massive haloes show a larger deviation. For these, we find evidence of the halo-exclusion effect. A clear improvement is achieved when assigning the highest masses to haloes with a minimum distance separation. We also compute the two- and three-point correlation functions, and find an excellent agreement with N-body results. Our work represents a quantitative application of the cosmic web classification. It can have further interesting applications in the multitracer analysis of the large-scale structure for future galaxy surveys.

  12. Tidal effects and the environment dependence of halo assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Oliver; Porciani, Cristiano; Dekel, Avishai; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2009-10-01

    We explore a possible origin for the puzzling anti-correlation between the formation epoch of galactic dark-matter haloes and their environment density. This correlation has been revealed from cosmological N-body simulations and is in conflict with the extended Press-Schechter model of halo clustering. Using similar simulations, we first quantify the straightforward association of an early formation epoch with a reduced mass-growth rate at late times. We then find that a primary driver of suppressed growth, by accretion and mergers, is tidal effects dominated by a neighbouring massive halo. The tidal effects range from a slowdown of the assembly of haloes due to the shear along the large-scale filaments that feed the massive halo to actual mass loss in haloes that pass through the massive halo. Using the restricted three-body problem, we show that haloes are prone to tidal mass loss within 1.5 virial radii of a larger halo. Our results suggest that the dependence of the formation epoch on environment density is a secondary effect induced by the enhanced density of haloes in filaments near massive haloes where the tides are strong. Our measures of assembly rate are particularly correlated with the tidal field at high redshifts z ~ 1.

  13. The Impact of Stellar Feedback on the Structure, Size, and Morphology of Galaxies in Milky-Way-sized Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agertz, Oscar; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2016-06-01

    We use cosmological zoom-in simulations of galaxy formation in a Milky-Way-sized halo started from identical initial conditions to investigate the evolution of galaxy sizes, baryon fractions, morphologies, and angular momenta in runs with different parameters of the star formation–feedback cycle. Our fiducial model with a high local star formation efficiency, which results in efficient feedback, produces a realistic late-type galaxy that matches the evolution of basic properties of late-type galaxies: stellar mass, disk size, morphology dominated by a kinematically cold disk, stellar and gas surface density profiles, and specific angular momentum. We argue that feedback’s role in this success is twofold: (1) removal of low angular momentum gas, and (2) maintaining a low disk-to-halo mass fraction, which suppresses disk instabilities that lead to angular momentum redistribution and a central concentration of baryons. However, our model with a low local star formation efficiency, but large energy input per supernova, chosen to produce a galaxy with a similar star formation history as our fiducial model, leads to a highly irregular galaxy with no kinematically cold component, overly extended stellar distribution, and low angular momentum. This indicates that only when feedback is allowed to become vigorous via locally efficient star formation in dense cold gas do resulting galaxy sizes, gas/stellar surface density profiles, and stellar disk angular momenta agree with observed z = 0 galaxies.

  14. Parametrisation D'effets Non-Standard EN Phenomenologie Electrofaible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymyk, Ivan

    Cette these pat articles porte sur la parametrisation d'effets non standard en physique electrofaible. Dans chaque analyse, nous avons ajoute plusieurs operateurs non standard au lagrangien du modele standard electrofaible. Les operateurs non standard decrivent les nouveaux effets decoulant d'un modele sous-jacent non-specefie. D'emblee, le nombre d'operateurs non standard que l'on peut inclure dans une telle analyse est illimite. Mais pour une classe specifique de modeles sous-jacents, les effets non standard peuvent etre decrits par un nombre raisonnable d'operateurs. Dans chaque analyse nous avons developpe des expressions pour des observables electrofaibles, en fonction des coefficients des operateurs nouveaux. En effectuant un "fit" statistique sur un ensemble de donnees experimentales precises, nous avons obtenu des contraintes phenomenologiques sur ces coefficients. Dans "Model-Independent Global Constraints on New Physics", nous avons adopte des hypotheses tres peu contraignantes relatives aux modeles sous-jacents. Nous avons tronque le lagrangien effectif a la dimension cinq (inclusivement). Visant la plus grande generalite possible, nous avons admis des interactions qui ne respectent pas les symetries discretes (soit C, P et CP) ainsi que des interactions qui ne conservent pas la saveur. Le lagrangien effectif contient une quarantaine d'operateurs nouveaux. Nous avons determine que, pour la plupart des coefficients des nouveaux operateurs, les contraintes sont assez serrees (2 ou 3%), mais il y a des exceptions interessantes. Dans "Bounding Anomalous Three-Gauge-Boson Couplings", nous avons determine des contraintes phenomenologiques sur les deviations des couplages a trois bosons de jauge par rapport aux interactions prescrites par le modele standard. Pour ce faire, nous avons calcule les contributions indirectes des CTBJ non standard aux observables de basse energie. Puisque le lagrangien effectif est non-renormalisable, certaines difficultes techniques

  15. The First Six Months of the LLNL-CfPA-MSSSO Search for Baryonic Dark Matter in the Galaxy's Halo via its Gravitational Microlensing Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.; Axelrod, T.; Bennett, D.; Marshall, S.; Stubbs, C.; Griest, K.; Perlmutter, S.; Sutherland, W.; Freeman, K.; Peterson, B.; Quinn, P.; Rodgers, A.

    1992-12-01

    This collaboration, dubbed the MACHO Project (an acronym for MAssive Compact Halo Objects), has refurbished the 1.27-m, Great Melbourne Telescope at Mt. Stromlo and equipped it with a corrected {1°} FOV. The prime focus corrector yields a red and blue beam for simultaneous imaging in two passbands, 4500{ Angstroms}--6100{ Angstroms} and 6100{ Angstroms}--7900{ Angstroms}. Each beam is imaged by a 2x2 array of 2048x2048 pixel CCDs which are simultaneously read out from two amplifiers on each CCD. A 32 Megapixel dual-color image of 0.5 square degree is clocked directly into computer memory in less than 70 seconds. We are using this system to monitor more than 10(7) stars in the Magellanic Clouds for gravitational microlensing events and will soon monitor an additional 10(7) stars in the bulge of our galaxy. Image data goes directly into a reduction pipeline where photometry for stars in an image is determined and stored in a database. An early version of this pipeline has used a simple aperture photometry code and results from this will be presented. A more sophisticated PSF fitting photometry code is currently being installed in the pipeline and results should also be available at the meeting. The PSF fitting code has also been used to produce ~ 10(7) photometric measurements outside of the pipeline. This poster will present details of the instrumentation, data pipeline, observing conditions (weather and seeing), reductions and analyses for the first six months of dual-color observing. Eventually, we expect to be able to determine whether MACHOs are a significant component of the galactic halo in the mass range of \\(10^{-6} M_{\\sun} < M \\ {lower .5exhbox {\\: \\buildrel < \\over \\sim ;}} \\ 100 M_{\\sun}\\).

  16. Squeezing the halo bispectrum: a test of bias models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradinezhad Dizgah, Azadeh; Chan, Kwan Chuen; Noreña, Jorge; Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    We study the halo-matter cross bispectrum in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type. We restrict ourselves to the squeezed limit, for which the calculation are straightforward, and perform the measurements in the initial conditions of N-body simulations, to mitigate the contamination induced by nonlinear gravitational evolution. Interestingly, the halo-matter cross bispectrum is not trivial even in this simple limit as it is strongly sensitive to the scale-dependence of the quadratic and third-order halo bias. Therefore, it can be used to test biasing prescriptions. We consider three different prescription for halo clustering: excursion set peaks (ESP), local bias and a model in which the halo bias parameters are explicitly derived from a peak-background split. In all cases, the model parameters are fully constrained with statistics other than the cross bispectrum. We measure the cross bispectrum involving one halo fluctuation field and two mass overdensity fields for various halo masses and collapse redshifts. We find that the ESP is in reasonably good agreement with the numerical data, while the other alternatives we consider fail in various cases. This suggests that the scale-dependence of halo bias also is a crucial ingredient to the squeezed limit of the halo bispectrum.

  17. Halo abundance matching: accuracy and conditions for numerical convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Heß, Steffen; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Accurate predictions of the abundance and clustering of dark matter haloes play a key role in testing the standard cosmological model. Here, we investigate the accuracy of one of the leading methods of connecting the simulated dark matter haloes with observed galaxies- the halo abundance matching (HAM) technique. We show how to choose the optimal values of the mass and force resolution in large volume N-body simulations so that they provide accurate estimates for correlation functions and circular velocities for haloes and their subhaloes - crucial ingredients of the HAM method. At the 10 per cent accuracy, results converge for ˜50 particles for haloes and ˜150 particles for progenitors of subhaloes. In order to achieve this level of accuracy a number of conditions should be satisfied. The force resolution for the smallest resolved (sub)haloes should be in the range (0.1-0.3)rs, where rs is the scale radius of (sub)haloes. The number of particles for progenitors of subhaloes should be ˜150. We also demonstrate that the two-body scattering plays a minor role for the accuracy of N-body simulations thanks to the relatively small number of crossing-times of dark matter in haloes, and the limited force resolution of cosmological simulations.

  18. DM haloes in the fifth-force cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Juszkiewicz, Roman; Cautun, Marius; Knebe, Alexander; Knollmann, Steffen E-mail: cautun@astro.rug.nl

    2013-10-01

    We investigate how long-range scalar interactions affect the properties of dark matter haloes. For doing so we employ the ReBEL model which implements an additional interaction between dark matter particles. On the phenomenological level this is equivalent to a modification of gravity. We analyse the differences between five ReBEL models and ΛCDM using a series of high resolution cosmological simulations. Emphasis is placed on investigating how halo properties change in the presence of a fifth force. We report that the density profile of ReBEL haloes is well described by the NFW profile but with mean concentrations from 5% to a few times higher than the standard ΛCDM value. We also find a slight increase of the halo spin for haloes more massive than 5 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ☉}, reflecting a higher rotational support of those haloes due to scalar forces. In addition, the dark matter haloes in our models are more spherical than their counterparts in ΛCDM. The ReBEL haloes are also more virialised, with a large difference from ΛCDM for strong fifth forces and a much smaller change for weak scalar interactions.

  19. Bringing the Galaxy's dark halo to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piffl, T.; Penoyre, Z.; Binney, J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method to construct fully self-consistent equilibrium models of multicomponent disc galaxies similar to the Milky Way. We define distribution functions for the stellar disc and dark halo that depend on phase-space position only through action coordinates. We then use an iterative approach to find the corresponding gravitational potential. We study the adiabatic response of the initially spherical dark halo to the introduction of the baryonic component and find that the halo flattens in its inner regions with final minor-major axis ratios q = 0.75-0.95. The extent of the flattening depends on the velocity structure of the halo particles with radially biased models exhibiting a stronger response. In this latter case, which is according to cosmological simulations the most likely one, the new density structure resembles a `dark disc' superimposed on a spherical halo. We discuss the implications of these results for our recent estimate of the local dark matter (DM) density. The velocity distribution of the DM particles near the Sun is very non-Gaussian. All three principal velocity dispersions are boosted as the halo contracts, and at low velocities a plateau develops in the distribution of vz. For models similar to a state-of-the-art Galaxy model, we find velocity dispersions around 180 km s-1 for vz and the tangential velocity, vϕ, and 150-205 km s-1 for the in-plane radial velocity, vR, depending on the anisotropy of the model.

  20. A UNIVERSAL MODEL FOR HALO CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2015-01-20

    We present a numerical study of dark matter halo concentrations in ΛCDM and self-similar cosmologies. We show that the relation between concentration, c, and peak height, ν, exhibits the smallest deviations from universality if halo masses are defined with respect to the critical density of the universe. These deviations can be explained by the residual dependence of concentration on the local slope of the matter power spectrum, n, which affects both the normalization and shape of the c-ν relation. In particular, there is no well-defined floor in the concentration values. Instead, the minimum concentration depends on redshift: at fixed ν, halos at higher z experience steeper slopes n, and thus have lower minimum concentrations. We show that the concentrations in our simulations can be accurately described by a universal seven-parameter function of only ν and n. This model matches our ΛCDM results to ≲ 5% accuracy up to z = 6, and matches scale-free Ω{sub m} = 1 models to ≲ 15%. The model also reproduces the low concentration values of Earth-mass halos at z ≈ 30, and thus correctly extrapolates over 16 orders of magnitude in halo mass. The predictions of our model differ significantly from all models previously proposed in the literature at high masses and redshifts. Our model is in excellent agreement with recent lensing measurements of cluster concentrations.

  1. Stellar halos: a rosetta stone for galaxy formation and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis Read, Justin

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos make up about a percent of the total stellar mass in galaxies. Yet their old age and long phase mixing times make them living fossil records of galactic history. In this talk, I review the latest simulations of structure formation in our standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmology. I discuss the latest predictions for stellar halos and the relationship between the stellar halo light and the underlying dark matter. Finally, I discuss how these simulations compare to observations of the Milky Way and Andromeda and, ultimately, what this means for our cosmological model and the formation history of the Galaxy.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF HALO-TO-HALO VARIATION ON SUBSTRUCTURE LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jacqueline; Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Zentner, Andrew R. E-mail: koushiappas@brown.edu

    2011-11-10

    We explore the halo-to-halo variation of dark matter (DM) substructure in galaxy-sized DM halos, focusing on its implications for strongly gravitational lensed systems. We find that the median value for projected substructure mass fractions within projected radii of 3% of the host halo virial radius is approximately f{sub sub} Almost-Equal-To 0.25%, but that the variance is large with a 95 percentile range of 0 {<=} f{sub sub} {<=} 1%. We quantify possible effects of substructure on quadruply imaged lens systems using the cusp relation and the simple statistic, R{sub cusp}. We estimate that the probability of obtaining the large values of the R{sub cusp} which have been observed from substructure effects is roughly {approx}10{sup -3} to {approx}10{sup -2}. We consider a variety of possible correlations between host halo properties and substructure properties in order to probe possible sample biases. In particular, low-concentration host DM halos have more large substructures and give rise to large values of R{sub cusp} more often. However, there is no known observational bias that would drive observed quadruply imaged quasars to be produced by low-concentration lens halos. Finally, we show that the substructure mass fraction is a relatively reliable predictor of the value of R{sub cusp}.

  3. Is the Milky Way's hot halo convectively unstable?

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the convective stability of two popular types of model of the gas distribution in the hot Galactic halo. We first consider models in which the halo density and temperature decrease exponentially with height above the disk. These halo models were created to account for the fact that, on some sight lines, the halo's X-ray emission lines and absorption lines yield different temperatures, implying that the halo is non-isothermal. We show that the hot gas in these exponential models is convectively unstable if γ < 3/2, where γ is the ratio of the temperature and density scale heights. Using published measurements of γ and its uncertainty, we use Bayes' theorem to infer posterior probability distributions for γ, and hence the probability that the halo is convectively unstable for different sight lines. We find that, if these exponential models are good descriptions of the hot halo gas, at least in the first few kiloparsecs from the plane, the hot halo is reasonably likely to be convectively unstable on two of the three sight lines for which scale height information is available. We also consider more extended models of the halo. While isothermal halo models are convectively stable if the density decreases with distance from the Galaxy, a model of an extended adiabatic halo in hydrostatic equilibrium with the Galaxy's dark matter is on the boundary between stability and instability. However, we find that radiative cooling may perturb this model in the direction of convective instability. If the Galactic halo is indeed convectively unstable, this would argue in favor of supernova activity in the Galactic disk contributing to the heating of the hot halo gas.

  4. Is the Milky Way's Hot Halo Convectively Unstable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the convective stability of two popular types of model of the gas distribution in the hot Galactic halo. We first consider models in which the halo density and temperature decrease exponentially with height above the disk. These halo models were created to account for the fact that, on some sight lines, the halo's X-ray emission lines and absorption lines yield different temperatures, implying that the halo is non-isothermal. We show that the hot gas in these exponential models is convectively unstable if γ < 3/2, where γ is the ratio of the temperature and density scale heights. Using published measurements of γ and its uncertainty, we use Bayes' theorem to infer posterior probability distributions for γ, and hence the probability that the halo is convectively unstable for different sight lines. We find that, if these exponential models are good descriptions of the hot halo gas, at least in the first few kiloparsecs from the plane, the hot halo is reasonably likely to be convectively unstable on two of the three sight lines for which scale height information is available. We also consider more extended models of the halo. While isothermal halo models are convectively stable if the density decreases with distance from the Galaxy, a model of an extended adiabatic halo in hydrostatic equilibrium with the Galaxy's dark matter is on the boundary between stability and instability. However, we find that radiative cooling may perturb this model in the direction of convective instability. If the Galactic halo is indeed convectively unstable, this would argue in favor of supernova activity in the Galactic disk contributing to the heating of the hot halo gas.

  5. The halo model in a massive neutrino cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Massara, Elena; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it

    2014-12-01

    We provide a quantitative analysis of the halo model in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies. We discuss all the ingredients necessary to model the non-linear matter and cold dark matter power spectra and compare with the results of N-body simulations that incorporate massive neutrinos. Our neutrino halo model is able to capture the non-linear behavior of matter clustering with a ∼20% accuracy up to very non-linear scales of k = 10 h/Mpc (which would be affected by baryon physics). The largest discrepancies arise in the range k = 0.5 – 1 h/Mpc where the 1-halo and 2-halo terms are comparable and are present also in a massless neutrino cosmology. However, at scales k < 0.2 h/Mpc our neutrino halo model agrees with the results of N-body simulations at the level of 8% for total neutrino masses of < 0.3 eV. We also model the neutrino non-linear density field as a sum of a linear and clustered component and predict the neutrino power spectrum and the cold dark matter-neutrino cross-power spectrum up to k = 1 h/Mpc with ∼30% accuracy. For masses below 0.15 eV the neutrino halo model captures the neutrino induced suppression, casted in terms of matter power ratios between massive and massless scenarios, with a 2% agreement with the results of N-body/neutrino simulations. Finally, we provide a simple application of the halo model: the computation of the clustering of galaxies, in massless and massive neutrinos cosmologies, using a simple Halo Occupation Distribution scheme and our halo model extension.

  6. Rockstar: Phase-space halo finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2012-10-01

    Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.

  7. Updated constraints on non-standard neutrino interactions from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk

    2014-07-01

    We provide updated bounds on non-standard neutrino interactions based on data from the Planck satellite as well as auxiliary cosmological measurements. Two types of models are studied - A Fermi-like 4-point interaction and an interaction mediated by a light pseudoscalar - and we show that these two models are representative of models in which neutrinos either decouple or recouple in the early Universe. Current cosmological data constrain the effective 4-point coupling to be G{sub X} ≤ (0.06 GeV){sup -2}, corresponding to G{sub X} ≤ 2.5 × 10{sup 7} G{sub F}. For non-standard pseudoscalar interactions we set a limit on the diagonal elements of the dimensionless coupling matrix, g{sub ij}, of g{sub ii} ≤ 1.2 × 10{sup -7}. For the off-diagonal elements which induce neutrino decay the bound is significantly stronger, corresponding to g{sub ij} ≤ 2.3 × 10{sup -11}(m/0.05 eV){sup -2}, or a lifetime constraint of τ ≥ 1.2 × 10{sup 9} s (m/0.05 eV){sup 3} . This is currently the strongest known bound on this particular type of neutrino decay. We finally note that extremely strong neutrino self-interactions which completely suppress anisotropic stress over all of cosmic history are very highly disfavored by current data Δ χ{sup 2} ∼ 10{sup 4})

  8. Simulating Halos with the Caterpillar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The Caterpillar Project is a beautiful series of high-resolution cosmological simulations. The goal of this project is to examine the evolution of dark-matter halos like the Milky Ways, to learn about how galaxies like ours formed. This immense computational project is still in progress, but the Caterpillar team is already providing a look at some of its first results.Lessons from Dark-Matter HalosWhy simulate the dark-matter halos of galaxies? Observationally, the formation history of our galaxy is encoded in galactic fossil record clues, like the tidal debris from disrupted satellite galaxies in the outer reaches of our galaxy, or chemical abundance patterns throughout our galactic disk and stellar halo.But to interpret this information in a way that lets us learn about our galaxys history, we need to first test galaxy formation and evolution scenarios via cosmological simulations. Then we can compare the end result of these simulations to what we observe today.This figure illustrates the difference that mass resolution makes. In the left panel, the mass resolution is 1.5*10^7 solar masses per particle. In the right panel, the mass resolution is 3*10^4 solar masses per particle [Griffen et al. 2016]A Computational ChallengeDue to how computationally expensive such simulations are, previous N-body simulations of the growth of Milky-Way-like halos have consisted of only one or a few halos each. But in order to establish a statistical understanding of how galaxy halos form and find out whether the Milky Ways halo is typical or unusual! it is necessary to simulate a larger number of halos.In addition, in order to accurately follow the formation and evolution of substructure within the dark-matter halos, these simulations must be able to resolve the smallest dwarf galaxies, which are around a million solar masses. This requires an extremely high mass resolution, which adds to the computational expense of the simulation.First OutcomesThese are the challenges faced by

  9. Probing the CP violation signal at DUNE in the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, Mehedi; Chatterjee, Animesh; Mehta, Poonam

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the impact of non-standard neutrino matter interactions (NSIs) in propagation on the determination of the CP phase in the context of long baseline accelerator experiments such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). DUNE will mainly address the issue of CP violation in the leptonic sector. Here we study the role of NSI and its impact on observing the CP violation signal at DUNE. We consider two scenarios of oscillation with three active neutrinos in the absence and presence of NSI. We elucidate the importance of ruling out subdominant new physics effects introduced by NSI in inferring the CP violation signal at DUNE by considering NSI terms collectively as well as by exploiting the non-trivial interplay of moduli and phases of the NSI terms. We demonstrate the existence of NSI-SI degeneracies which need to be eliminated in reliable manner in order to make conclusive statements about the CP phase.

  10. Spherical collapse in Galileon gravity: fifth force solutions, halo mass function and halo bias

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: liqb@mail.ihep.ac.cn E-mail: silvia.pascoli@durham.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    We study spherical collapse in the Quartic and Quintic Covariant Galileon gravity models within the framework of the excursion set formalism. We derive the nonlinear spherically symmetric equations in the quasi-static and weak-field limits, focusing on model parameters that fit current CMB, SNIa and BAO data. We demonstrate that the equations of the Quintic model do not admit physical solutions of the fifth force in high density regions, which prevents the study of structure formation in this model. For the Quartic model, we show that the effective gravitational strength deviates from the standard value at late times (z∼<1), becoming larger if the density is low, but smaller if the density is high. This shows that the Vainshtein mechanism at high densities is not enough to screen all of the modifications of gravity. This makes halos that collapse at z∼<1 feel an overall weaker gravity, which suppresses halo formation. However, the matter density in the Quartic model is higher than in standard ΛCDM, which boosts structure formation and dominates over the effect of the weaker gravity. In the Quartic model there is a significant overabundance of high-mass halos relative to ΛCDM. Dark matter halos are also less biased than in ΛCDM, with the difference increasing appreciably with halo mass. However, our results suggest that the bias may not be small enough to fully reconcile the predicted matter power spectrum with LRG clustering data.

  11. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}−g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  12. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR),more » the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.« less

  13. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew E-mail: pjfox@fnal.gov E-mail: matthew.mccullough@cern.ch

    2015-10-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}− g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-tilde (p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde (v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde (p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde (p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde (v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  14. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  15. Discovery of solar system-size halos around young stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, S.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Zuckerman, B.; Dyck, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Near-infrared speckle interferometric observations of five pre-main-sequence stars reveal a core-halo structure around two of these stars: HL Tau and R Mon. The halo light distribution is shown to arise from scattered light from small circumstellar particles. Halo sizes of 320 x 200 AU (alpha x delta FWHM) and 1300 x 1300 AU are deduced for HL Tau and R Mon, respectively, and the halo light is substantially bluer than the stellar light. The minimum mass of small particles in the scattering regions is comparable to the earth's mass in HL Tau and ten times greater in R Mon. Mass loss from the stars is almost certainly insufficient to produce the halo matter. The halos probably consist of relatively slowly moving matter bound gravitationally to the stars. From the size and mass of the circumstellar matter, it appears likely that these halos are in the early stage in the formation of planet-forming disks around the young stars.

  16. Using accurate phase space coordinates of ~100,00 halo field stars to constrain the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valluri, Monica

    2015-08-01

    The current cosmological paradigm predicts that dark matter halos are triaxial overall, but oblate in regions where baryons dominate. However recent measurements of the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo find it to be very triaxial with a shape and orientation that are significantly at odds with theoretical predictions. The ESA’s Gaia satellite will soon map the entire Milky Way giving us six phase-space coordinates, ages and abundances for hundreds of thousands of halo stars. I will report progress on a new code based on the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method and orbital frequency mapping, to determine the global shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo using field stars from Gaia. This technique will simultaneously yield the self-consistent phase-space distribution function of the stellar halo in the inner 20-30kpc region. Detailed analysis of correlations between the chemical abundances, ages and orbits of halo stars in this distribution function will enable us to extract clues to the formation history of the Milky Way that are encoded in orbital properties of halo stars.

  17. Structure of relativistic accretion disk with non-standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khesali, A. R.; Salahshoor, K.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of stationary, axisymmetric advection-dominated accretion disk (ADAF) around rotating black hole, using non-standard model, was examined. In this model, the transport efficiency of the angular momentum α was dependent on the magnetic Prandtl number α ∝ Pm^{δ } . The full relativistic shear stress recently obtained by a new manner, was used. By considering black hole spin and Prandtl number instantaneously, the structure of ADAFs was changed in inner and outer region of the disk. It was discovered that the accretion flow was denser and hotter in the inner region, due to the black hole spin, and in the outer region, due to the presence of Prandtl parameter. Inasmuch as the rotation of the black hole affected the transport efficiency of angular momentum in parts of the disk very close to the even horizon, then in these regions, the viscosity depended on the rotation of black hole. Also, it was discovered that the effect of the black hole spin on the structure of the disk was related to the presence of Prandtl parameter.

  18. The Impact of Theoretical Uncertainties in the Halo Mass Function and Halo

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Pittsburgh U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2010-06-04

    We study the impact of theoretical uncertainty in the dark matter halo mass function and halo bias on dark energy constraints from imminent galaxy cluster surveys. We find that for an optical cluster survey like the Dark Energy Survey, the accuracy required on the predicted halo mass function to make it an insignificant source of error on dark energy parameters is {approx}1%. The analogous requirement on the predicted halo bias is less stringent ({approx}5%), particularly if the observable-mass distribution can be well constrained by other means. These requirements depend upon survey area but are relatively insensitive to survey depth. The most stringent requirements are likely to come from a survey over a significant fraction of the sky that aims to observe clusters down to relatively low mass, M{sub th}{approx} 10{sup 13.7} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}; for such a survey, the mass function and halo bias must be predicted to accuracies of {approx}0.5% and {approx}1%, respectively. These accuracies represent a limit on the practical need to calibrate ever more accurate halo mass and bias functions. We find that improving predictions for the mass function in the low-redshift and low-mass regimes is the most effective way to improve dark energy constraints.

  19. AHF: AMIGA'S HALO FINDER

    SciTech Connect

    Knollmann, Steffen R.; Knebe, Alexander

    2009-06-15

    Cosmological simulations are the key tool for investigating the different processes involved in the formation of the universe from small initial density perturbations to galaxies and clusters of galaxies observed today. The identification and analysis of bound objects, halos, is one of the most important steps in drawing useful physical information from simulations. In the advent of larger and larger simulations, a reliable and parallel halo finder, able to cope with the ever-increasing data files, is a must. In this work we present the freely available MPI parallel halo finder AHF. We provide a description of the algorithm and the strategy followed to handle large simulation data. We also describe the parameters a user may choose in order to influence the process of halo finding, as well as pointing out which parameters are crucial to ensure untainted results from the parallel approach. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of AHF to scale to high-resolution simulations.

  20. Halo vest instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  1. THE OVERDENSITY AND MASSES OF THE FRIENDS-OF-FRIENDS HALOS AND UNIVERSALITY OF HALO MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    More, Surhud; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Dalal, Neal; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    The friends-of-friends algorithm (hereafter FOF) is a percolation algorithm which is routinely used to identify dark matter halos from N-body simulations. We use results from percolation theory to show that the boundary of FOF halos does not correspond to a single density threshold but to a range of densities close to a critical value that depends upon the linking length parameter, b. We show that for the commonly used choice of b = 0.2, this critical density is equal to 81.62 times the mean matter density. Consequently, halos identified by the FOF algorithm enclose an average overdensity which depends on their density profile (concentration) and therefore changes with halo mass, contrary to the popular belief that the average overdensity is {approx}180. We derive an analytical expression for the overdensity as a function of the linking length parameter b and the concentration of the halo. Results of tests carried out using simulated and actual FOF halos identified in cosmological simulations show excellent agreement with our analytical prediction. We also find that the mass of the halo that the FOF algorithm selects crucially depends upon mass resolution. We find a percolation-theory-motivated formula that is able to accurately correct for the dependence on number of particles for the mock realizations of spherical and triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White halos. However, we show that this correction breaks down when applied to the real cosmological FOF halos due to the presence of substructures. Given that abundance of substructure depends on redshift and cosmology, we expect that the resolution effects due to substructure on the FOF mass and halo mass function will also depend on redshift and cosmology and will be difficult to correct for in general. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the universality of the mass function.

  2. Signatures of Kinematic Substructure in the Galactic Stellar Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Spergel, David N.; Madau, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Tidal debris from infalling satellites can leave observable structure in the phase-space distribution of the Galactic halo. Such substructure can be manifest in the spatial and/or velocity distributions of the stars in the halo. This paper focuses on a class of substructure that is purely kinematic in nature, with no accompanying spatial features. To study its properties, we use a simulated stellar halo created by dynamically populating the Via Lactea II high-resolution N-body simulation with stars. A significant fraction of the stars in the inner halo of Via Lactea share a common speed and metallicity, despite the fact that they are spatially diffuse. We argue that this kinematic substructure is a generic feature of tidal debris from older mergers and may explain the detection of radial-velocity substructure in the inner halo made by the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. The GAIA satellite, which will provide the proper motions of an unprecedented number of stars, should further characterize the kinematic substructure in the inner halo. Our study of the Via Lactea simulation suggests that the stellar halo can be used to map the speed distribution of the local dark matter (DM) halo, which has important consequences for DM direct-detection experiments.

  3. The gamma-ray-flux PDF from galactic halo substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Samuel K.; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kamionkowski, Marc E-mail: ando@tapir.caltech.edu

    2009-07-01

    One of the targets of the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a diffuse gamma-ray background from dark-matter annihilation or decay in the Galactic halo. N-body simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that the dark matter in the Galactic halo may be clumped into substructure, rather than smoothly distributed. Here we propose the gamma-ray-flux probability distribution function (PDF) as a probe of substructure in the Galactic halo. We calculate this PDF for a phenomenological model of halo substructure and determine the regions of the substructure parameter space in which the PDF may be distinguished from the PDF for a smooth distribution of dark matter. In principle, the PDF allows a statistical detection of substructure, even if individual halos cannot be detected. It may also allow detection of substructure on the smallest microhalo mass scales, ∼ M{sub ⊕}, for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Furthermore, it may also provide a method to measure the substructure mass function. However, an analysis that assumes a typical halo substructure model and a conservative estimate of the diffuse background suggests that the substructure PDF may not be detectable in the lifespan of Fermi in the specific case that the WIMP is a neutralino. Nevertheless, for a large range of substructure, WIMP annihilation, and diffuse background models, PDF analysis may provide a clear signature of substructure.

  4. Remarks on Several Non-standard Location Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jih, R.

    2004-05-01

    In this study, several non-standard location procedures are reviewed, contrasted, and compared. Though independently developed, two methods among those been tested, the "Induced Perpendicular Bisector" [IPB] (or,equivalently, the "Yin Zhong Zian" [YZX] in Chinese) method and Jih's (PEPI, 1999) "J0" method, appear to be extremely similar in concept. For several decades, i.e., since before the advent of digital computers, Asian seismic network operators have been locating earthquakes by triangulation using the IPB technique. In the ideal case where two seismographs happen to report identical arrival times of the same seismic phase, then under the assumption of a uniform earth structure, the hypocenter should lie on the perpendicular bisector of the line segment (great circle) which connects these two specific seismographs. Depending on the epicentral distances, the perpendicular bisector itself could be a great circle along the Earth's surface or a normal section cutting through the Earth. If two or more such perpendicular bisectors are available, then the hypocenter or epicenter can be determined via triangulation. The challenge lies in how the perpendicular bisector is derived for the more general situation when arrival times vary from station to station, which is more typically the case. An advantage of the technique is that it can be used when waveform data are not available, thus rendering techniques based on full waveforms (such as correlation analysis, polarization analysis and frequency-wavenumber [FK] technique) not applicable. The so-called YZX algorithm, is a variation of IPB procedure, in which one computes an IPB (via interpolation) for each group of three seismographs. Also relying on azimuth triangulation for seismic location, Jih (1999) proposed a procedure J0 to derive the backazimuth with a large aperture network where all seismographs are on one side of the event. Any standard Geiger-type of least-squares inversion routine can be applied to

  5. Stochastic Evolution of Halo Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Juhan

    2015-08-01

    We will introduce an excursion set model for the evolution of halo spin from cosmological N-body simulations. A stochastic differential equation is derived from the definition of halo spin and the distribution of angular momentum changes are measured from simulations. The log-normal distribution of halo spin is found to be a natural consequence of the stochastic differential equation and the resulting spin distribution is found be a function of local environments, halo mass, and redshift.

  6. Non-standard models and the sociology of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, Martín

    2014-05-01

    I review some theoretical ideas in cosmology different from the standard "Big Bang": the quasi-steady state model, the plasma cosmology model, non-cosmological redshifts, alternatives to non-baryonic dark matter and/or dark energy, and others. Cosmologists do not usually work within the framework of alternative cosmologies because they feel that these are not at present as competitive as the standard model. Certainly, they are not so developed, and they are not so developed because cosmologists do not work on them. It is a vicious circle. The fact that most cosmologists do not pay them any attention and only dedicate their research time to the standard model is to a great extent due to a sociological phenomenon (the "snowball effect" or "groupthink"). We might well wonder whether cosmology, our knowledge of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other fields of physics or a predominant ideology.

  7. The Outer Halo -- Halo Origins and Mass of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Heather; Arabadjis, John; Dohm-Palmer, Robbie; Freeman, Ken; Harding, Paul; Mateo, Mario; Norris, John; Olszewski, Ed; Sneden, Chris

    2000-02-01

    Through our detection of distant halo stars, we are now well placed to map the regions of the Galactic halo where previously only satellite galaxies and a few globular clusters were known. Mapping this region is crucial for answering questions like: How and over what timescales was the Milky Way's stellar halo assembled? What is the total mass and shape of its dark halo? The Sagittarius dwarf has demonstrated that at least some of the stellar halo was accreted. But, HOW MUCH of the halo was accreted? Our previous efforts have proven that the Washington photometric system, in conjuction with spectroscopy, is capable of efficiently and unambiguously identifying halo stars out to 100 kpc or more. We require followup spectroscopy to map velocity substructure, which is more likely visible in the outer halo because of the long dynamical timescales, and to identify the rare objects in the extreme outer halo which will constrain the shape and size of its dark halo. We are applying for 4m/RCSP time at both CTIO and KPNO to observe faint outer-halo giant and BHB candidates.

  8. An Improved RF Cavity Search for Halo Axions

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, S; Bradley, R; Duffy, L; Hagmann, C; Kinion, D; Moltz, D; Rosenberg, L; Sikivie, P; Stoeffl, W; Sullivan, N; Tanner, D; van Bibber, K; Yu, D

    2003-11-11

    The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle and cold dark matter candidate. In this RF cavity experiment, halo axions entering a resonant cavity immersed in a static magnetic field convert into microwave photons, with the resulting photons detected by a low-noise receiver. The ADMX Collaboration presents new limits on the axion-to-photon coupling and local axion dark matter halo mass density from a RF cavity axion search in the axion mass range 1.9-2.3 {micro}eV, broadening the search range to 1.9-3.3 {micro}eV. In addition, we report first results from an improved analysis technique.

  9. Halo formation and evolution: unifying physical properties with structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.

    2015-08-01

    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a variety of structures with diverse properties. For example, massive halos of clusters of galaxies have temperatures often an order of magnitude or more higher than the individual galaxy halos within the cluster, or the temperatures of isolated galaxy halos. Giant spiral galaxies contain large quantities of both dark matter and hot gas while other structures like globular clusters appear to have little or no dark matter or gas. Still others, like the dwarf spheroidal galaxies have low gravity and little hot gas, but ironically contain some of the largest fractions of dark matter in the universe. Star forming rates (SFRs) also vary: compare for example the SFRs of giant elliptical galaxies, globular clusters, spiral and starburst galaxies. Furthermore there is evidence that the various structure types have existed over a large fraction of cosmic history. How can this array of variation in properties be reconciled with galaxy halo formation and evolution?We propose a model of halo formation [1] and evolution [2] that is consistent with both primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the isotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The model uses two simple parameters, the total mass and size of a structure, to (1) explain why galaxies have the fractions of dark matter that they do (including why dwarf spheroidals are so dark matter dominated despite their weak gravity), (2) enable an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, (3) explain how fully formed massive galaxies can occur so early in cosmic history, (4) understand the connection between spiral and elliptical galaxies (5) unify the nature of globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges and (6) predict the temperatures of hot gas halos and understand how cool galaxy halos can remain stable in the hot environments of cluster-galaxy halos.[1] Ernest, A. D., 2012, in Prof. Ion Cotaescu (Ed) Advances in Quantum Theory, pp

  10. Reactions of Prospective English Teachers toward Speakers of a Non-Standard Dialect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewett, Nancy

    This study supports the hypothesis that educated white listeners react negatively to the phonological variations of non-standard English. White college freshmen and seniors listened to a recorded tape of ten speakers, black and white with standard and non-standard styles of pronunciation, all reading the same passage. Students were asked to judge…

  11. Scaling Limit Analysis of Borromean Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, L. A.; Bellotti, F. F.; Frederico, T.; Yamashita, M. T.; Tomio, Lauro

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of the core recoil momentum distribution of neutron-rich isotopes of light exotic nuclei is performed within a model of halo nuclei described by a core and two neutrons dominated by the s-wave channel. We adopt the renormalized three-body model with a zero-range force, which accounts for the Efimov physics. This model is applicable to nuclei with large two-neutron halos compared to the core size, and a neutron-core scattering length larger than the interaction range. The halo wave function in momentum space is obtained by using as inputs the two-neutron separation energy and the energies of the singlet neutron-neutron and neutron-core virtual states. Within our model, we obtain the momentum probability densities for the Borromean exotic nuclei Lithium-11 (^{11}Li), Berylium-14 (^{14}Be) and Carbon-22 (^{22}C). A fair reproduction of the experimental data was obtained in the case of the core recoil momentum distribution of ^{11}Li and ^{14}Be, without free parameters. By extending the model to ^{22}C, the combined analysis of the core momentum distribution and matter radius suggest (i) a ^{21}C virtual state well below 1 MeV; (ii) an overestimation of the extracted matter ^{22}C radius; and (iii) a two-neutron separation energy between 100 and 400 keV.

  12. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nagai, Daisuke; Zheng Zheng; Shen Yue

    2012-08-10

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h{sup -1} Mpc < r{sub p} < 120 h{sup -1} Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing {approx}48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.5 with median redshift 1.4. We interpret these precise 2PCF measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework and constrain the occupation functions of central and satellite quasars in dark matter halos. In order to explain the small-scale clustering, the HOD modeling requires that a small fraction of z {approx} 1.4 quasars, f{sub sat} = (7.4 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, be satellites in dark matter halos. At z {approx} 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be M{sub cen} = 4.1{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and M{sub sat} = 3.6{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }, respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos-the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z {approx} 3.2 is M{sub cen} = 14.1{sup +5.8}{sub -6.9} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }. The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be f{sub q

  13. Optimization study for non-standard interaction search in a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Joachim; Ota, Toshihiko; Winter, Walter

    2010-03-30

    We study the optimization of a neutrino factory with respect to non-standard neutral current neutrino interactions. We discuss the muon energy, baselines, and oscillation channels as degrees of freedom. We consider all possible non-standard parameters, and include their complex phases. We identify the impact of the different parameters on the golden, silver, and disappearance channels. We come to the conclusion that, even in the presence of non-standard interactions, the performance of the neutrino factory hardly profits from a silver channel detector. We demonstrate that the IDS-NF setup is close to optimal even if non-standard interactions are considered. We find that one very long baseline is a key component in the search for non-standard interactions, in particular for epsilon{sub m}u{sub t}au{sup m} and epsilon{sub t}au{sub t}au{sup m}.

  14. Building Blocks of the Milky Way's Stellar Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Nelemans, Gijs

    2016-08-01

    We study the assembly history of the stellar halo of Milky Way-like galaxies using the six high-resolution Aquarius dark matter simulations combined with the Munich-Groningen semi-analytic galaxy formation model. Our goal is to understand the stellar population contents of the building blocks of the Milky Way halo, including their star formation histories and chemical evolution, as well as their internal dynamical properties. We are also interested in how they relate or are different from the surviving satellite population. Finally, we will use our models to compare to observations of halo stars in an attempt to reconstruct the assembly history of the Milky Way's stellar halo itself.

  15. Cosmological shock waves: clues to the formation history of haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planelles, Susana; Quilis, Vicent

    2013-01-01

    Shock waves developed during the formation and evolution of cosmic structures are key features encoding crucial information on the hierarchical formation of the Universe. We present the analysis of an Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical and N-body simulation in a Λ cold dark matter cosmology especially focused on the study of cosmological shock waves. The combination of a shock-capturing algorithm together with the use of a halo finder allows us to study the morphological structures of the shock patterns, the statistical properties of shocked cells and the correlations between the cosmological shock waves appearing at different scales and the properties of the haloes harbouring them. According to their localization with respect to the population of haloes in the simulation, shocks can be split into two broad classes: internal weak shocks related with evolutionary events within haloes and external strong shocks associated with large-scale events. The shocks' segregation according to their characteristic sizes is also visible in the shock distribution function. This function contains information on the abundances and strength of the different shocks, and it can be fitted by a double power law with a break in the slope around a Mach number of 20. We introduce a generalized scaling relation that correlates the average Mach numbers within the virial radius of haloes and their virial masses. In this plane, Mach number-virial mass, two well-differentiated regimes appear. Haloes occupy different areas of such plane according to their early evolutionary histories: those haloes with a relatively quiet evolution have an almost constant Mach number independently of their masses, whereas haloes undergoing significant merger events very early in their evolution show a linear dependence on their masses. At high redshift, the distribution of haloes in this plane forms an L-like pattern that evolves with time, bending the vertical branch towards the horizontal one. We

  16. Bar-Halo Friction in Galaxies. I. Scaling Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.

    2006-02-01

    It has been known for some time that rotating bars in galaxies slow due to dynamical friction against the halo. However, recent attempts to use this process to place constraints on the dark matter density in galaxies and possibly also to drive dark matter out of the center have been challenged. This paper uses simplified numerical experiments to clarify several aspects of the friction mechanism. I explicitly demonstrate the Chandrasekhar scaling of the friction force with bar mass, halo density, and halo velocity dispersion. I present direct evidence that exchanges between the bar and halo orbits at major resonances are responsible for friction and study both individual orbits and the net changes at these resonances. I also show that friction alters the phase space density of particles in the vicinity of a major resonance, which is the reason the magnitude of the friction force depends on the prior evolution. I demonstrate that bar slowdown can be captured correctly in simulations having modest spatial resolution and a practicable numbers of particles. Subsequent papers in this series delineate the dark matter density that can be tolerated in halos of different density profiles.

  17. Assembly history of subhalo populations in galactic and cluster sized dark haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lizhi; Gao, Liang

    2015-12-01

    We make use of two suits of ultrahigh resolution N-body simulations of individual dark matter haloes from the Phoenix and the Aquarius Projects to investigate systematics of assembly history of subhaloes in dark matter haloes differing by a factor of 1000 in the halo mass. We have found that real progenitors which built up present-day subhalo population are relatively more abundant for high-mass haloes, in contrast to previous studies claiming a universal form independent of the host halo mass. That is mainly because of repeated counting of the `re-accreted' (progenitors passed through and were later re-accreted to the host more than once) and inclusion of the `ejected' progenitor population (progenitors were accreted to the host in the past but no longer members at present day) in previous studies. The typical accretion time for all progenitors vary strongly with the host halo mass, which is typical about z ˜ 5 for the galactic Aquarius and about z ˜ 3 for the cluster sized Phoenix haloes. Once these progenitors start to orbit their parent haloes, they rapidly lose their original mass but not their identifiers, more than 55 (50) per cent of them survive to present day for the Phoenix (Aquarius) haloes. At given redshift, survival fraction of the accreted subhalo is independent of the parent halo mass, whilst the mass-loss of the subhalo is more efficient in high-mass haloes. These systematics results in similarity and difference in the subhalo population in dark matter haloes of different masses at present day.

  18. Melanocyte halo explained.

    PubMed

    Tata, M; Sidhu, G S

    1994-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination was performed of skin biopsy specimens processed for electron microscopy directly after formaldehyde fixation, after retrieval from paraffin blocks, and as for paraffin embedding but with retrieval after clearing with xylene, the last step before paraffin infiltration. The halos surrounding melanocytes in the epidermis are a retraction artifact that develops during paraffin infiltration of the tissue. It is proposed that this artifact is related to the high temperature of the paraffin bath. PMID:8066827

  19. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    cool (4,800 K) companion star in a wide orbit, likely separated by several AU.An Unknown Past and FutureWhy are these new observations of J1211 such a big deal? Because all the acceleration scenarios for a star originating in the Galactic disk fail in the case of J1211. The authors find by modeling J1211s motion that the system cant have originated in the Galactic center, so interactions with the supermassive black hole are out. And supernova explosions or dynamical interactions would tear the wide binary apart in the process of accelerating it. Nmeth and collaborators suggest instead that J1211 was either born in the halo population or accreted later from the debris of a destroyed satellite galaxy.J1211s speed is so extreme that its orbit could be either bound or unbound. Interestingly, when the authors model the binarys orbit, they find that the assumed mass of the Milky Ways dark-matter halo determines whether J1211s orbit is bound. This means that future observations of J1211 may provide a new way to probe the Galactic potential and determine the mass of the dark matter halo, in addition to revealing unexpected origins of high-velocity halo stars.CitationPter Nmeth et al 2016 ApJ 821 L13. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/821/1/L13

  20. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  1. Towards a self-consistent halo model for the nonlinear large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2016-03-01

    The halo model is a theoretically and empirically well-motivated framework for predicting the statistics of the nonlinear matter distribution in the Universe. However, current incarnations of the halo model suffer from two major deficiencies: (i) they do not enforce the stress-energy conservation of matter; (ii) they are not guaranteed to recover exact perturbation theory results on large scales. Here, we provide a formulation of the halo model (EHM) that remedies both drawbacks in a consistent way, while attempting to maintain the predictivity of the approach. In the formulation presented here, mass and momentum conservation are guaranteed on large scales, and results of the perturbation theory and the effective field theory can, in principle, be matched to any desired order on large scales. We find that a key ingredient in the halo model power spectrum is the halo stochasticity covariance, which has been studied to a much lesser extent than other ingredients such as mass function, bias, and profiles of halos. As written here, this approach still does not describe the transition regime between perturbation theory and halo scales realistically, which is left as an open problem. We also show explicitly that, when implemented consistently, halo model predictions do not depend on any properties of low-mass halos that are smaller than the scales of interest.

  2. Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.

  3. Zoomed cosmological simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes in f(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Christian; Springel, Volker; Puchwein, Ewald

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the impact of f(R) modified gravity on the internal properties of Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes in a set of cosmological zoom simulations of seven haloes from the Aquarius suite, carried out with our code MG-GADGET in the Hu & Sawicki f(R) model. Also, we calculate the fifth forces in ideal NFW-haloes as well as in our cosmological simulations and compare them against analytic model predictions for the fifth force inside spherical objects. We find that these theoretical predictions match the forces in the ideal haloes very well, whereas their applicability is somewhat limited for realistic cosmological haloes. Our simulations show that f(R) gravity significantly affects the dark matter density profile of Milky Way-sized objects as well as their circular velocities. In unscreened regions, the velocity dispersions are increased by up to 40 per cent with respect to ΛCDM for viable f(R) models. This difference is larger than reported in previous works. The Solar circle is fully screened in bar{f}_{R0} = -10^{-6} models for Milky Way-sized haloes, while this location is unscreened for slightly less massive objects. Within the scope of our limited halo sample size, we do not find a clear dependence of the concentration parameter of dark matter haloes on bar{f}_{R0}.

  4. The importance of the cosmic web and halo substructure for power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Francesco; Manera, Marc; Bacon, David J.; Crittenden, Robert; Percival, Will J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we study the relevance of the cosmic web and substructures on the matter and lensing power spectra measured from halo mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. Since N-body simulations are computationally expensive, it is common to use faster methods that approximate the dark matter field as a set of haloes. In this approximation, we replace mass concentrations in N-body simulations by a spherically symmetric Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile. We also consider the full mass field as the sum of two distinct fields: dark matter haloes (M > 9 × 1012 M⊙ h-1) and particles not included into haloes. Mock haloes reproduce well the matter power spectrum, but underestimate the lensing power spectrum on large and small scales. For sources at zs = 1 the lensing power spectrum is underestimated by up to 40 per cent at ℓ ≈ 104 with respect to the simulated haloes. The large-scale effect can be alleviated by combining the mock catalogue with the dark matter distribution outside the haloes. In addition, to evaluate the contribution of substructures we have smeared out the intrahalo substructures in an N-body simulation while keeping the halo density profiles unchanged. For the matter power spectrum the effect of this smoothing is only of the order of 5 per cent, but for lensing substructures and ellipticity are much more important: for ℓ ≈ 104 modifications to the internal structure contribute to 30 per cent of the total spectrum. These findings have important implications in the way mock catalogues have to be created, suggesting that some approximate methods currently used for galaxy surveys will be inadequate for future weak lensing surveys.

  5. Constraining the halo mass function with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Tiago; Marra, Valerio; Quartin, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The abundances of dark matter halos in the universe are described by the halo mass function (HMF). It enters most cosmological analyses and parametrizes how the linear growth of primordial perturbations is connected to these abundances. Interestingly, this connection can be made approximately cosmology independent. This made it possible to map in detail its near-universal behavior through large-scale simulations. However, such simulations may suffer from systematic effects, especially if baryonic physics is included. In this paper we ask how well observations can constrain directly the HMF. The observables we consider are galaxy cluster number counts, galaxy cluster power spectrum and lensing of type Ia supernovae. Our results show that DES is capable of putting the first meaningful constraints on the HMF, while both Euclid and J-PAS can give stronger constraints, comparable to the ones from state-of-the-art simulations. We also find that an independent measurement of cluster masses is even more important for measuring the HMF than for constraining the cosmological parameters, and can vastly improve the determination of the halo mass function. Measuring the HMF could thus be used to cross-check simulations and their implementation of baryon physics. It could even, if deviations cannot be accounted for, hint at new physics.

  6. Galaxy halo formation in the absence of violent relaxation and a universal density profile of the halo center

    SciTech Connect

    Baushev, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    While N-body simulations testify to a cuspy profile of the central region of dark matter halos, observations favor a shallow, cored density profile of the central region of at least some spiral galaxies and dwarf spheroidals. We show that a central profile, very close to the observed one, inevitably forms in the center of dark matter halos if we make a supposition about a moderate energy relaxation of the system during the halo formation. If we assume the energy exchange between dark matter particles during the halo collapse is not too intensive, the profile is universal: it depends almost not at all on the properties of the initial perturbation and is very akin, but not identical, to the Einasto profile with a small Einasto index n ∼ 0.5. We estimate the size of the 'central core' of the distribution, i.e., the extent of the very central region with a respectively gentle profile, and show that the cusp formation is unlikely, even if the dark matter is cold. The obtained profile is in good agreement with observational data for at least some types of galaxies but clearly disagrees with N-body simulations.

  7. The Making of the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    The VLT Watches a Dissolving Stellar Cluster A group of ESO astronomers [1] has used new observations, obtained with the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT1) during the "Science Verification" programme, to show that a globular cluster in the Milky Way galaxy is "evaporating" and has already lost its faintest stars. This is the first observational result of its kind and has important implications for future studies. It may be explained by a gradual loss of such stars from the cluster into the Milky Way halo, a roughly spherical region around the much flatter, spiral structure in which most of the stars and nebulae are located. The new result lends strong support to current theories about the evolution of the structure of this halo and also provides insights into the formation of the galaxy in which we live. Globular clusters and the halo of the Milky Way The stars that we observe in the halo of the Milky Way represent only a small fraction of the total mass in this region. Investigations of the motions of stars in our Galaxy have shown that this halo must harbour much more matter, which is hidden from our view. The same phenomenon has been observed in other galaxies, and astronomers refer to it as "dark matter". It is at this moment not known what this matter consists of. The brightest objects in the halo are the globular clusters . They are large groupings of stars that were formed together in the very early evolutionary phases of the Milky Way, some 12,000 - 14,000 million years ago. This happened soon after the moment when the first structures emerged in the large cloud of primordial hydrogen in which our Galaxy was born. A popular scenario describes the first build-up of galactic structure, i.e. of stars and gas, as when normal matter began to collect inside the dark-matter halo, due to its strong gravitational attraction. The globular clusters were most probably the first denizens of this protogalaxy . It is believed that the Milky Way Galaxy subsequently

  8. The discovery reach of CP violation in neutrino oscillation with non-standard interaction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zini; Dasgupta, Arnab; Adhikari, Rathin

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the CP violation discovery reach in a neutrino oscillation experiment with superbeam, neutrino factory and monoenergetic neutrino beam from the electron capture process. For NSI satisfying model-dependent bound for shorter baselines (like CERN-Fréjus set-up) there is insignificant effect of NSI on the the discovery reach of CP violation due to δ. Particularly, for the superbeam and neutrino factory we have also considered relatively longer baselines for which there could be significant NSI effects on CP violation discovery reach for higher allowed values of NSI. For the monoenergetic beam only shorter baselines are considered to study CP violation with different nuclei as neutrino sources. Interestingly for non-standard interactions—{{\\varepsilon }eμ } and {{\\varepsilon }eτ } of neutrinos with matter during propagation in longer baselines in the superbeam, there is the possibility of better discovery reach of CP violation than that with only Standard Model interactions of neutrinos with matter. For complex NSI we have shown the CP violation discovery reach in the plane of Dirac phase δ and NSI phase {{φ }ij}. The CP violation due to some values of δ remain unobservable with present and near future experimental facilities in the superbeam and neutrino factory. However, in the presence of some ranges of off-diagonal NSI phase values there are some possibilities of discovering total CP violation for any {{δ }CP} value even at 5σ confidence level for neutrino factory. Our analysis indicates that for some values of NSI phases total CP violation may not be at all observable for any values of δ. Combination of shorter and longer baselines could indicate in some cases the presence of NSI. However, in general for NSIs ≲ 1 the CP violation discovery reach is better in neutrino factory set-ups. Using a neutrino beam from the electron capture process for nuclei 50110Sn and 152Yb, we have shown the discovery reach of CP violation in a neutrino

  9. Adiabatic Halo Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G.

    2005-06-08

    In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.

  10. Scale dependence of halo and galaxy bias: Effects in real space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Scoccimarro, Román; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2007-03-01

    We examine the scale dependence of dark matter halo and galaxy clustering on very large scales (0.01halo bias. We pursue a two line offensive: high-resolution numerical simulations are used to establish some old and some new results, and an analytic model is developed to understand their origins. Our simulations show: (i) that the z=0 dark matter power spectrum is suppressed relative to linear theory by ˜5% on scales 0.05halo bias is nonlinear over the scales we probe and that the scale dependence is a strong function of halo mass. High mass haloes show no suppression of power on scales k<0.07[hMpc-1], and only show amplification on smaller scales, whereas low mass haloes show strong, ˜5% 10%, suppression over the range 0.05matter and haloes, which circumvents the thorny issue of shot-noise correction. The halo-halo power spectrum, however, is highly sensitive to the shot-noise correction; we show that halo exclusion effects make this sub-Poissonian and a new correction is presented. Our results have special relevance for studies of the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the halo power spectra. Nonlinear mode-mode coupling: (i) damps these features on progressively larger scales as halo mass increases; (ii) produces small shifts in the positions of the peaks and troughs which depend on halo mass. We show that these effects on halo clustering are important over the redshift range relevant to such studies (0halo model.” The halo-halo clustering term is propagated into the nonlinear regime using “1-loop” perturbation theory and a nonlinear halo bias model. Galaxies are then

  11. Are Halo CMEs special events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, A.; Xie, H.; Mendoza, E.

    2005-12-01

    We re-visit the properties of wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs) called halo CMEs. Using the large LASCO/SOHO CMEs data set, from 1996 to 2004, we examine the statistical properties of (partial and full) halo CMEs and compare with the same properties of ``normal'' width (lower than 120°) CMEs, we found that halo CMEs have different properties than ``normal'' CMEs which can not be explained by the current geometric interpretation of halos, as CMEs traveling in the Sun Earth direction. We found that the CME width distribution is formed by, at least, three different populations. Two gaussians one narrow and one medium centered at ~17° and ~38°, respectively. It is highly probable, that the narrow population corresponds to ``true'' observed widths, whereas the medium width population is the product of projection effects. The number of wider CMEs (80° < W < 210°) decreases as a power law. After this width, i. e. partial and full halo CMEs, do not follow any particular distribution. This lack of regularity, may be due to the small number of such events. In particular, we found that the number of observed full halo CMEs is lower than the expected. The CME speed follows a log-normal distribution, except for the very low speed CME population, wich follows a gaussian distribution centered at ~100 km/s and probably is due to projection effects. When the CMEs are dividing by width into no, partial and full halo groups we found that the peak of the distributions are shifted towards higher speeds, ~300, ~400 and ~600 km/s for no, partial and full halo CMEs. This confirms that halo CMEs tend to be high speed CMEs. We introduce a new observational CME parameter: the final observed distance (FOD) which is the highest point, inside the coronograph field of view, where the CME can be distinguished from the background. In other words, the highest CME altitude measured. The FOD for no halo CMEs decreases exponentialy from ~5 to ~30 Ro˙ in the LASCO field of view. On the other

  12. Halo abundances within the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, D.; Eardley, E.; Peacock, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the dependence of the mass function of dark-matter haloes on their environment within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. A dependence of the halo mass function on large-scale mean density is a standard element of cosmological theory, allowing mass-dependent biasing to be understood via the peak-background split. On the assumption of a Gaussian density field, this analysis can be extended to ask how the mass function depends on the geometrical environment: clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, as classified via the tidal tensor (the Hessian matrix of the gravitational potential). In linear theory, the problem can be solved exactly, and the result is attractively simple: the conditional mass function has no explicit dependence on the local tidal field, and is a function only of the local density on the filtering scale used to define the tidal tensor. There is nevertheless a strong implicit predicted dependence on geometrical environment, because the local density couples statistically to the derivatives of the potential. We compute the predictions of this model and study the limits of their validity by comparing them to results deduced empirically from N-body simulations. We have verified that, to a good approximation, the abundance of haloes in different environments depends only on their densities, and not on their tidal structure. In this sense we find relative differences between halo abundances in different environments with the same density which are smaller than ˜13 per cent. Furthermore, for sufficiently large filtering scales, the agreement with the theoretical prediction is good, although there are important deviations from the Gaussian prediction at small, non-linear scales. We discuss how to obtain improved predictions in this regime, using the `effective-universe' approach.

  13. The Caterpillar Project: A Large Suite of Milky Way Sized Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffen, Brendan F.; Ji, Alexander P.; Dooley, Gregory A.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Vogelsberger, Mark; O'Shea, Brian W.; Frebel, Anna

    2016-02-01

    We present the largest number of Milky Way sized dark matter halos simulated at very high mass (˜104{M}⊙ /particle) and temporal resolution (5 Myr/snapshot) done to date, quadrupling what is currently available in the literature. This initial suite consists of the first 24 halos of the Caterpillar Project whose project goal of 60-70 halos will be made public when complete. We do not bias our halo selection by the size of the Lagrangian volume. We resolve ˜20,000 gravitationally bound subhalos within the virial radius of each host halo. Improvements were made upon current state-of-the-art halo finders to better identify substructure at such high resolutions, and on average we recover ˜4 subhalos in each host halo above 108 {M}⊙ which would have otherwise not been found. The density profiles of relaxed host halos are reasonably fit by Einasto profiles (α = 0.169 ± 0.023) with dependence on the assembly history of a given halo. Averaging over all halos, the substructure mass fraction is {f}m,{subs}\\quad =\\quad 0.121+/- 0.041, and mass function slope is dN/dM\\propto {M}-1.88+/- 0.10. We find concentration-dependent scatter in the normalizations at fixed halo mass. Our detailed contamination study of 264 low-resolution halos has resulted in unprecedentedly large high-resolution regions around our host halos for our fiducial resolution (sphere of radius ˜ 1.4+/- 0.4 Mpc). This suite will allow detailed studies of low mass dwarf galaxies out to large galactocentric radii and the very first stellar systems at high redshift (z ≥slant 15).

  14. The universality of the virial halo mass function and models for non-universality of other halo definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despali, Giulia; Giocoli, Carlo; Angulo, Raul E.; Tormen, Giuseppe; Sheth, Ravi K.; Baso, Giacomo; Moscardini, Lauro

    2016-03-01

    The abundance of galaxy clusters can constrain both the geometry and growth of structure in our Universe. However, this probe could be significantly complicated by recent claims of non-universality-non-trivial dependences with respect to the cosmological model and redshift. In this work, we analyse the dependence of the mass function on the way haloes are identified and establish if this can cause departures from universality. In order to explore this dependence, we use a set of different N-body cosmological simulations (Le SBARBINE simulations), with the latest cosmological parameters from the Planck collaboration; this first suite of simulations is followed by a lower resolution set, carried out with different cosmological parameters. We identify dark matter haloes using a spherical overdensity algorithm with varying overdensity thresholds (virial, 2000, 1000, 500, 200 ρc and 200 ρb) at all redshifts. We notice that, when expressed in terms of the rescaled variable ν, the mass function for virial haloes is a nearly universal as a function of redshift and cosmology, while this is clearly not the case for the other overdensities we considered. We provide fitting functions for the halo mass function parameters as a function of overdensity, that allow us to predict, to within a few per cent accuracy, the halo mass function for a wide range of halo definitions, redshifts and cosmological models. We then show how the departures from universality associated with other halo definitions can be derived by combining the universality of the virial definition with the expected shape of the density profile of haloes.

  15. Approach to photorealistic halo simulations.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2011-10-01

    A multiple-scattering Monte Carlo model that can produce near-photographic quality images is developed and used to simulate several dramatic halo displays. The model atmosphere contains an absorbing ozone layer plus two clear, molecular air layers with Rayleigh scattering surrounding a cloud layer and an atmospheric boundary layer with aerosol particles subject to Lorentz-Mie scattering. Halos are produced by right hexagonal or pyramidal crystals that reflect and refract according to geometric optics without diffraction, although "junk" crystals with a pronounced forward-scattering peak but no halo peaks may be included to simulate typical, faint halos. Model parameters include ozone height and content, surface and cloud pressure, cloud optical thickness, crystal shapes, orientations and abundances, atmospheric turbidity, aerosol radius, and albedo. Beams for each wavelength are sorted into small bins as halo beams if they have been scattered once only by a single crystal and otherwise as sky beams, which are smoothed and combined with the halo beams to produce images. Multiple scattering generally vitiates halos, but extremely rare halos, such as Kern's arc, can be produced if a significant fraction of crystals in optically thick clouds have identical shapes and are highly oriented. Albedo is a model by-product with potential value in climate studies.

  16. HALOE test and evaluation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, W.; Natarajan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Computer programming, system development and analysis efforts during this contract were carried out in support of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) at NASA/Langley. Support in the major areas of data acquisition and monitoring, data reduction and system development are described along with a brief explanation of the HALOE project. Documented listings of major software are located in the appendix.

  17. Toward a universal formulation of the halo mass function.

    PubMed

    Corasaniti, P S; Achitouv, I

    2011-06-17

    We compute the dark matter halo mass function using the excursion set formalism for a diffusive barrier with linearly drifting average which captures the main features of the ellipsoidal collapse model. We evaluate the non-Markovian corrections due to the sharp filtering of the linear density field in real space with a path-integral method. We find an unprecedented agreement with N-body simulation data with deviations ≲5% over the range of masses probed by the simulations. This indicates that the excursion set in combination with a realistic modeling of the collapse threshold can provide a robust estimation of the halo mass function. PMID:21770562

  18. Stellar halos and the link to galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmi, Amina

    2016-08-01

    I present a brief overview of how stellar halos may be used to constrain the process of galaxy formation. In particular, streams and substructure in stellar halos trace merger events but can also be used to determine the mass distribution of the host galaxy and hence put constraints on the nature of dark matter. Much of the focus of this contribution is on the Milky Way, but I also present an attempt to understand the kinematics of the globular cluster system of M31.

  19. Halo Pairs in the Millennium Simulation: Love and Deception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this work I investigate the statistical properties of a huge catalog of closely interacting pairs of dark matter haloes, extracted from the Millennium Simulation database. Only haloes that reach a minimum mass ≥ 8.6 × 1010 M⊙ h-1 (corresponding to 100 particles) are considered. Close pairs are selected if they come within a critical distance dcrit. I explore the effects of replacing dcrit = 1 Mpc h-1 → 200 kpc h-1 on the evolution of separations, lifetimes, total masses and mass ratios of these pairs.

  20. The influence of halo evolution on galaxy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Simon

    2015-03-01

    If Einstein-Newton gravity holds on galactic and larger scales, then current observations demonstrate that the stars and interstellar gas of a typical bright galaxy account for only a few percent of its total nonlinear mass. Dark matter makes up the rest and cannot be faint stars or any other baryonic form because it was already present and decoupled from the radiation plasma at z = 1000, long before any nonlinear object formed. The weak gravito-sonic waves so precisely measured by CMB observations are detected again at z = 4 as order unity fluctuations in intergalactic matter. These subsequently collapse to form today's galaxy/halo systems, whose mean mass profiles can be accurately determined through gravitational lensing. High-resolution simulations link the observed dark matter structures seen at all these epochs, demonstrating that they are consistent and providing detailed predictions for all aspects of halo structure and growth. Requiring consistency with the abundance and clustering of real galaxies strongly constrains the galaxy-halo relation, both today and at high redshift. This results in detailed predictions for galaxy assembly histories and for the gravitational arena in which galaxies live. Dark halos are not expected to be passive or symmetric but to have a rich and continually evolving structure which will drive evolution in the central galaxy over its full life, exciting warps, spiral patterns and tidal arms, thickening disks, producing rings, bars and bulges. Their growth is closely related to the provision of new gas for galaxy building.

  1. The Highly Flattened Dark Halo of NGC 4244

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, R. P.

    1995-12-01

    In a previous paper (Olling 1995, AJ, 110, 591) a method was developed to determine the shapes of dark matter halos of spiral galaxies from an accurate determination of the rotation curve and the flaring of the gas layer. Here this method is applied to the almost edge-on spiral NGC 4244. I present sensitive high resolution VLA B, C, and D array observations in the 21-cm spectral line of neutral atomic hydrogen of the nearby Scd galaxy NGC 4244. The observed flaring of the HI beyond the optical disk puts significant constraints on the dark matter halo, which are almost independent of the stellar mass-to-light ratio. I find that NGC 4244's dark matter halo is highly flattened: c/a=0.1 - 0.5. Alternatively, the measured flaring curve is consistent with a round halo if the gaseous velocity dispersion ellipsoid is anisotropic. In that case the vertical dispersion of the gas is 50 - 70% of the measured tangential velocity dispersion. A new technique is presented to determine simultaneously the inclination and the thickness of the gas layer from high resolution HI observations. This procedure uses the apparent widths at many azimuths rather than just the edge channels, and can be used at inclinations as low as 60^o .

  2. The Sizes of Globular Clusters as Tracers of Galactic Halo Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonoozi, A. H.; Rabiee, M.; Haghi, H.; Küpper, A. H. W.

    2016-02-01

    We present N-body simulations of globular clusters, exploring the effect of different galactic potentials on cluster sizes, rh. For various galactocentric distances, RG, we assess how cluster sizes change when we vary the virial mass and concentration of the host galaxy’s dark-matter halo. We show that sizes of GCs are determined by the local galactic mass density rather than the virial mass of the host galaxy. We find that clusters evolving in the inner halos of less concentrated galaxies are significantly more extended than those evolving in more concentrated ones, while the sizes of those orbiting in the outer halo are almost independent of concentration. Adding a baryonic component to our galaxy models does not change these results much, since its effect is only significant in the very inner halo. Our simulations suggest that there is a relation between rh and RG, which systematically depends on the physical parameters of the halo. Hence, observing such relations in individual galaxies can put a new observational constraint on dark-matter halo characteristics. However, by varying the halo mass in a wide range of {10}9≤slant {M}{vir}/{M}⊙ ≤slant {10}13, we find that the rh - RG relationship will be nearly independent of halo mass, if one assumes Mvir and cvir as two correlated parameters, as is suggested by cosmological simulations.

  3. HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE DARK HALO IN NGC 821

    SciTech Connect

    Forestell, Amy D.; Gebhardt, Karl E-mail: gebhardt@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2010-06-10

    We present stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) of elliptical galaxy NGC 821 obtained to approximately 100'' (over two effective radii) with long-slit spectroscopy from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Our measured stellar LOSVDs are larger than the planetary nebulae measurements at similar radii. We fit axisymmetric orbit-superposition models with a range of dark halo density profiles, including two-dimensional kinematics at smaller radii from SAURON data. Within our assumptions, the best-fitted model gives a total enclosed mass of 2.0 x 10{sup 11} M {sub sun} within 100'', with an accuracy of 2%; this mass is equally divided between halo and stars. At 1 R{sub e} , the best-fitted dark matter halo accounts for 13% of the total mass in the galaxy. This dark halo is inconsistent with previous claims of little to no dark matter halo in this galaxy from planetary nebula measurements. We find that a power-law dark halo with a slope 0.1 is the best-fitted model; both the no dark halo and Navarro-Frenk-White models are worse fits at a greater than 99% confidence level. NGC 821 does not appear to have the expected dark halo density profile. The internal moments of the stellar velocity distribution show that the model with no dark halo is radially anisotropic at small radii and tangentially isotropic at large radii, while the best-fitted halo models are slightly radially anisotropic at all radii. We test the potential effects of model smoothing and find that there are no effects on our results within the errors. Finally, we run models using the planetary nebula kinematics and assuming our best-fitted halos and find that the planetary nebulae require radial orbits throughout the galaxy.

  4. Do Not Forget the Forest for the Trees: The Stellar-mass Halo-mass Relation in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Cen, Renyue

    2015-10-01

    The connection between dark matter halos and galactic baryons is often not well constrained nor well resolved in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Thus, halo occupation distribution models that assign galaxies to halos based on halo mass are frequently used to interpret clustering observations, even though it is well known that the assembly history of dark matter halos is related to their clustering. In this paper we use high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to compare the halo and stellar mass growth of galaxies in a large-scale overdensity to those in a large-scale underdensity (on scales of about 20 Mpc). The simulation reproduces assembly bias, in which halos have earlier formation times in overdense environments than in underdense regions. We find that the ratio of stellar mass to halo mass is larger in overdense regions in central galaxies residing in halos with masses between 1011 and 1012.9 M⊙. When we force the local density (within 2 Mpc) at z = 0 to be the same for galaxies in the large-scale over- and underdensities, we find the same results. We posit that this difference can be explained by a combination of earlier formation times, more interactions at early times with neighbors, and more filaments feeding galaxies in overdense regions. This result puts the standard practice of assigning stellar mass to halos based only on their mass, rather than considering their larger environment, into question.

  5. DO NOT FORGET THE FOREST FOR THE TREES: THE STELLAR-MASS HALO-MASS RELATION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Cen, Renyue E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu

    2015-10-20

    The connection between dark matter halos and galactic baryons is often not well constrained nor well resolved in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Thus, halo occupation distribution models that assign galaxies to halos based on halo mass are frequently used to interpret clustering observations, even though it is well known that the assembly history of dark matter halos is related to their clustering. In this paper we use high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to compare the halo and stellar mass growth of galaxies in a large-scale overdensity to those in a large-scale underdensity (on scales of about 20 Mpc). The simulation reproduces assembly bias, in which halos have earlier formation times in overdense environments than in underdense regions. We find that the ratio of stellar mass to halo mass is larger in overdense regions in central galaxies residing in halos with masses between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 12.9} M{sub ⊙}. When we force the local density (within 2 Mpc) at z = 0 to be the same for galaxies in the large-scale over- and underdensities, we find the same results. We posit that this difference can be explained by a combination of earlier formation times, more interactions at early times with neighbors, and more filaments feeding galaxies in overdense regions. This result puts the standard practice of assigning stellar mass to halos based only on their mass, rather than considering their larger environment, into question.

  6. Kinematically Detected Halo Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Martin C.

    Clues to the origins and evolution of our Galaxy can be found in the kinematics of stars around us. Remnants of accreted satellite galaxies produce over-densities in velocity-space, which can remain coherent for much longer than spatial over-densities. This chapter reviews a number of studies that have hunted for these accretion relics, both in the nearby solar-neighborhood and the more-distant stellar halo. Many observational surveys have driven this field forwards, from early work with the Hipparcos mission, to contemporary surveys like RAVE and SDSS. This active field continues to flourish, providing many new discoveries, and will be revolutionized as the Gaia mission delivers precise proper motions for a billion stars in our Galaxy.

  7. Halo traction device.

    PubMed

    Manthey, D E

    1994-08-01

    A thorough understanding of the underlying diseases and of the halo pin traction device will allow for appropriate treatment of complications. Consultation or referral to the neurosurgeon is advised to prevent serious sequelae. The following points should be remembered: 1. Pins should only be tightened during the first 24-hour period after application. 2. Pin infection is treated by local wound care in most cases. 3. CT scan cannot completely exclude the presence of an abscess secondary to artifact, but MRI may be compatible with the newer devices. 4. Pin penetration of the inner table of the skull requires admission. 5. Any suspected loss of alignment or reduction of the cervical spine requires C-spine immobilization. 5. Nasotracheal or fiberoptic intubation or emergent cricothyroidotomy should be used if orotracheal intubation proves difficult due to the device. 7. The anterior portion of the vest is removable for cardiopulmonary resuscitation without compromising the stability of the device. PMID:8062799

  8. Non-standard interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-01

    We study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ɛ ˜ {O} (0.05 - 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.

  9. Non-Standard Interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-03

    Here, we study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ε ~more » $$ \\mathcal{O} $$ (0.05 – 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.« less

  10. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  11. On the (non-)universality of halo density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemer, Benedikt

    We present a systematic study of the density profiles of dark matter halos in LambdaCDM cosmologies, focusing on the question whether these profiles are "universal", i.e., whether they follow the same functional form regardless of halo mass, redshift, cosmology, and other parameters. The inner profiles (r [special character omitted] R vir) can be described as a function of only mass and concentration, and we thus begin by investigating whether there is a universal, cosmology-independent relation between those two parameters. We propose a model in which concentration is a function only of a halo's peak height and the local slope of the matter power spectrum. This model matches the concentrations in LambdaCDM and scale-free simulations, correctly extrapolates over 16 orders of magnitude in halo mass, and differs significantly from all previously proposed models at high masses and redshifts. We find that the outer profiles (r [special character omitted] Rvir) are remarkably universal across redshifts when radii are rescaled by R200m, whereas the inner profiles are most universal in units of R200c, highlighting that universality depends upon the definition of the halo boundary. Furthermore, we discover that the profiles exhibit significant deviations from the supposedly universal analytic formulae previously suggested in the literature, such as the NFW and Einasto forms. In particular, the logarithmic slope of the profiles of massive or rapidly accreting halos steepens more sharply than predicted around r ≈ R200m, where the steepness increases with increasing peak height or mass accretion rate. We propose a new, accurate fitting formula that takes these dependencies into account. Finally, we demonstrate that the profile steepening corresponds to the caustic at the apocenter of infalling matter on its first orbit. We call the location of the caustic the splashback radius, Rsp, and propose this radius as a new, physically motivated definition of the halo boundary. We

  12. HALOGEN: a tool for fast generation of mock halo catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Santiago; Murray, Steven G.; Knebe, Alexander; Power, Chris; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Garcia-Bellido, Juan

    2015-06-01

    We present a simple method of generating approximate synthetic halo catalogues: HALOGEN. This method uses a combination of second-order Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (2LPT) in order to generate the large-scale matter distribution, analytical mass functions to generate halo masses, and a single-parameter stochastic model for halo bias to position haloes. HALOGEN represents a simplification of similar recently published methods. Our method is constrained to recover the two-point function at intermediate (10 h-1 Mpc < r < 50 h-1 Mpc) scales, which we show is successful to within 2 per cent. Larger scales (˜100 h-1 Mpc) are reproduced to within 15 per cent. We compare several other statistics (e.g. power spectrum, point distribution function, redshift space distortions) with results from N-body simulations to determine the validity of our method for different purposes. One of the benefits of HALOGEN is its flexibility, and we demonstrate this by showing how it can be adapted to varying cosmologies and simulation specifications. A driving motivation for the development of such approximate schemes is the need to compute covariance matrices and study the systematic errors for large galaxy surveys, which requires thousands of simulated realizations. We discuss the applicability of our method in this context, and conclude that it is well suited to mass production of appropriate halo catalogues. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/savila/halogen.

  13. The Outer Halo Metallicity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MA, ZHIBO; Morrison, H.; Harding, P.; Xue, X.; Rix, H.; Rockosi, C.; Johnson, J.; Lee, Y.; Cudworth, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new determination of the metallicity distribution function in the Milky Way halo, based on an in situ sample of more than 5000 K giants from SDSS/SEGUE. We have also measured the metallicity gradient in the halo, using our sample which stretches from 5 kpc to more than 100 kpc from the galactic center. The halo metallicity gradient has been a controversial topic in recent studies, but our in-situ study overcomes the problems caused in these studies by their extrapolations from local samples to the distant halo. We also describe our extensive checks of the log g and [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters pipeline, using globular and open cluster stars and SEGUE stars with follow-up high-resolution analysis. In addition, we present a new Bayesian estimate of distances to the K giants, which avoids the distance bias introduced by the red giant branch luminosity function.

  14. Supernumerary ice-crystal halos?

    PubMed

    Berry, M V

    1994-07-20

    Geometric-optics singularities in the intensity profiles of refraction halos formed by randomly oriented ice crystals are softened by diffraction and decorated with fine supernumerary fringes. If the crystals have a fixed symmetry axis (as in parhelia), the geometric singularity is a square-root divergence, as in the rainbow. However, the universal curve that describes diffraction is different from the rainbow's Airy function, with weak maxima (supernumerary fringes) on the geometrically dark region inside the halo (and even fainter fringes outside); these are much smaller than their counterparts on the light side of rainbows. If the crystals have no preferred orientation (as in the 22° halo), the geometric singularity is a step. In this case the universal diffraction function has no maxima, and its supernumeraries are shoulders rather than maxima. The low contrast of the fringes is probably the main reason why supernumerary halos are rarely if ever seen. PMID:20935824

  15. Strong lensing in the inner halo of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, C.; Campusano, L. E.; Cypriano, E. S.; Sodré, L.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2016-08-01

    We present an axially symmetric formula to calculate the probability of finding gravitational arcs in galaxy clusters, being induced by their massive dark matter haloes, as a function of clusters redshifts and virial masses. The formula includes the ellipticity of the clusters dark matter potential by using a pseudo-elliptical approximation. The probabilities are calculated and compared for two dark matter halo profiles, the Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) and the non-singular-isothermal-sphere (NSIS). We demonstrate the power of our formulation through a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test on the strong lensing statistics of an X-ray bright sample of low-redshift Abell clusters. This KS test allows us to establish limits on the values of the concentration parameter for the NFW profile (c_Δ) and the core radius for the NSIS profile (rc), which are related to the lowest cluster redshift (zcut) where strong arcs can be observed. For NFW dark matter profiles, we infer cluster haloes with concentrations that are consistent to those predicted by ΛCDM simulations. As for NSIS dark matter profiles, we find only upper limits for the clusters core radii and thus do not rule out a purely SIS model. For alternative mass profiles, our formulation provides constraints through zcut on the parameters that control the concentration of mass in the inner region of the clusters haloes. We find that zcut is expected to lie in the 0.0-0.2 redshift, highlighting the need to include very low-z clusters in samples to study the clusters mass profiles.

  16. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  17. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  18. Creating mock catalogues of stellar haloes from cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowing, Ben; Wang, Wenting; Cooper, Andrew; Kennedy, Rachel; Helly, John; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique for creating mock catalogues of the individual stars that make up the accreted component of stellar haloes in cosmological simulations and show how the catalogues can be used to test and interpret observational data. The catalogues are constructed from a combination of methods. A semi-analytic galaxy formation model is used to calculate the star formation history in haloes in an N-body simulation and dark matter particles are tagged with this stellar mass. The tags are converted into individual stars using a stellar population synthesis model to obtain the number density and evolutionary stage of the stars, together with a phase-space sampling method that distributes the stars while ensuring that the phase-space structure of the original N-body simulation is maintained. A set of catalogues based on the Λ cold dark matter Aquarius simulations of Milky Way mass haloes have been created and made publicly available on a website. Two example applications are discussed that demonstrate the power and flexibility of the mock catalogues. We show how the rich stellar substructure that survives in the stellar halo precludes a simple measurement of its density profile and demonstrate explicitly how pencil-beam surveys can return almost any value for the slope of the profile. We also show that localized variations in the abundance of particular types of stars, a signature of differences in the composition of stellar populations, allow streams to be easily identified.

  19. Modern Standard Arabic vs. Non-Standard Arabic: Where Do Arab Students of EFL Transfer From?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Abdulmoneim

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) by Arabic-speaking secondary school students. To see which variety students transferred from, they were asked to translate into English two versions of a short Arabic text: one Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and the other non-standard Arabic (NSA). Results indicate the importance of…

  20. The Voices People Read: Orthography and the Representation of Non-Standard Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Alexandra; Walton, Shana

    2000-01-01

    By combining features of matched guise tests with sociolinguistic interviewing and oral performance, this study investigates the social meanings carried by non-standard orthographies. Participant evaluations of the personas showed that people connected orthography to social identities. Specifically, results found people uncritically and…

  1. Academics on Non-Standard Contracts in UK Universities: Portfolio Work, Choice and Compulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna; Gold, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the profile and motivation of over 1,300 academics employed on part-time, fixed term or temporary contracts at 10 post-1992 UK universities, whom it categorises as "non-standard academics". Based on a questionnaire survey, it investigates their demographic background, including age, gender and ethnic background, as well as the…

  2. Educational Failure or Success: Aboriginal Children's Non-Standard English Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Within the Australian education system, Aboriginal students' use of non-standard English features is often viewed simplistically as evidence of non-attainment of literacy and oral-English milestones. One reason for this is the widespread use of assessment tools which fail to differentiate between native-English speakers and students who are…

  3. Non-Standard Italian Dialect Heritage Speakers' Acquisition of Clitic Placement in Standard Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the acquisition of object clitic placement in Standard Italian by heritage speakers (HSs) of non-standard Italian dialects. It compares two different groups of Standard Italian learners--Northern Italian dialect HSs and Southern Italian dialect HSs--whose heritage dialects contrast with each other in clitic word order.…

  4. PARALLEL HOP: A SCALABLE HALO FINDER FOR MASSIVE COSMOLOGICAL DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    Skory, Stephen; Turk, Matthew J.; Norman, Michael L.; Coil, Alison L. E-mail: mjturk@ucsd.ed E-mail: acoil@ucsd.ed

    2010-11-15

    Modern N-body cosmological simulations contain billions (10{sup 9}) of dark matter particles. These simulations require hundreds to thousands of gigabytes of memory and employ hundreds to tens of thousands of processing cores on many compute nodes. In order to study the distribution of dark matter in a cosmological simulation, the dark matter halos must be identified using a halo finder, which establishes the halo membership of every particle in the simulation. The resources required for halo finding are similar to the requirements for the simulation itself. In particular, simulations have become too extensive to use commonly employed halo finders, such that the computational requirements to identify halos must now be spread across multiple nodes and cores. Here, we present a scalable-parallel halo finding method called Parallel HOP for large-scale cosmological simulation data. Based on the halo finder HOP, it utilizes message passing interface and domain decomposition to distribute the halo finding workload across multiple compute nodes, enabling analysis of much larger data sets than is possible with the strictly serial or previous parallel implementations of HOP. We provide a reference implementation of this method as a part of the toolkit {sup yt}, an analysis toolkit for adaptive mesh refinement data that include complementary analysis modules. Additionally, we discuss a suite of benchmarks that demonstrate that this method scales well up to several hundred tasks and data sets in excess of 2000{sup 3} particles. The Parallel HOP method and our implementation can be readily applied to any kind of N-body simulation data and is therefore widely applicable.

  5. IMPROVED MODELING OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF DISK GALAXIES BY THE EINASTO HALO MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Chemin, Laurent; De Blok, W. J. G.; Mamon, Gary A. E-mail: edeblok@ast.uct.ac.za

    2011-10-15

    Analysis of the rotation curves (RCs) of spiral galaxies provides an efficient diagnostic for studying the properties of dark matter halos and their relations with baryonic material. Since the cored pseudo-isothermal (Iso) model usually provides a better description of observed RCs than does the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model, there have been concerns that the {Lambda}CDM primordial density fluctuation spectrum may not be the correct one. We have modeled the RCs of galaxies from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) with the Einasto halo model, which has emerged as the best-fitting model of the halos arising in dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations. We find that the RCs are significantly better fit with the Einasto halo than with either Iso or NFW halo models. In our best-fit Einasto models, the radius of density slope -2 and the density at this radius are highly correlated. The Einasto index, which controls the overall shape of the density profile, is near unity on average for intermediate and low mass halos. This is not in agreement with the predictions from {Lambda}CDM simulations. The indices of the most massive halos are in rough agreement with those cosmological simulations and appear correlated with the halo virial mass. We find that a typical Einasto density profile declines more strongly in its outermost parts than any of the Iso or NFW models whereas it is relatively shallow in its innermost regions. The core nature of those regions of halos thus extends the cusp-core controversy found for the NFW model with low surface density galaxies to the Einasto halo with more massive galaxies like those of THINGS. The Einasto concentrations decrease as a function of halo mass, in agreement with trends seen in numerical simulations. However, they are generally smaller than values expected for simulated Einasto halos. We thus find that, so far, the Einasto halo model provides the best match to the observed RCs and can therefore be considered as a new

  6. MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The primary aim of the MACHO Project is to test the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way is made up of objects like brown dwarfs or planets: these objects have come to be known as MACHOs, for MAssive Compact Halo Objects. The signature of these objects is the occasional amplification of the light from extragalactic stars by the gravitational lens effect. The amplification can be large, but events are extremely rare: it is necessary to monitor photometrically several million stars for a period of years in order to obtain a useful detection rate. For this purpose MACHO has a two channel system that employs eight CCDs, mounted on the 50 inch telescope at Mt. Stromlo. The high data rate (several GBytes per night) is accommodated by custom electronics and on-line data reduction. The Project has taken more than 27,000 images with this system since June 1992. Analysis of a subset of these data has yielded databases containing light curves in two colors for 8 million stars in the LMC and 10 million in the bulge of the Milky Way. A search for microlensing has turned up four candidates toward the Large Magellanic Cloud and 45 toward the Galactic Bulge. The web page for data provides links to MACHO Project data portals and various specialized interfaces for viewing or searching the data. (Specialized Interface)

  7. Stellar Streams in the Andromeda Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardal, Mark A.; PAndAS Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    The PAndAS survey detects RGB and AGB stars in our neighbor galaxy M31, out to 150 kpc from the galaxy center with an extension to M33. Maps of this survey display a spectacular collection of stellar streams extending tens to hundreds of kpc in length. Many of these streams overlap with each other or with M31's central regions, making it difficult to disentangle the different streams. I discuss what is currently known about the nature, origin, significance, and eventual fate of these stellar streams. Photometric observations from the PAndAS survey and follow-up work constrain the metallicity, age, luminosity, and stellar mass of the stellar population. I discuss scenarios for how some of these streams formed, while for others their origin remains a mystery. I present observationally constrained numerical simulations for the formation of some of the streams. The streams also are probes of the mass profile and lumpiness of M31's dark matter halo. Spectroscopic samples are used to constrain M31's halo mass at large radius.

  8. Testing DARKexp against energy and density distributions of Millennium-II halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolting, Chris; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-09-01

    We test the DARKexp model for relaxed, self-gravitating, collisionless systems against equilibrium dark matter halos from the Millennium-II simulation. While limited tests of DARKexp against simulations and observations have been carried out elsewhere, this is the first time the testing is done with a large sample of simulated halos spanning a factor of ~ 50 in mass, and using independent fits to density and energy distributions. We show that DARKexp, a one shape parameter family, provides very good fits to the shapes of density profiles, ρ(r), and differential energy distributions, N(E), of individual simulated halos. The best fit shape parameter phi0 obtained from the two types of fits are correlated, though with scatter. Our most important conclusions come from ρ(r) and N(E) that have been averaged over many halos. These show that the bulk of the deviations between DARKexp and individual Millennium-II halos come from halo-to-halo fluctuations, likely driven by substructure, and other density perturbations. The average ρ(r) and N(E) are quite smooth and follow DARKexp very closely. The only deviation that remains after averaging is small, and located at most bound energies for N(E) and smallest radii for ρ(r). Since the deviation is confined to 3-4 smoothing lengths, and is larger for low mass halos, it is likely due to numerical resolution effects.

  9. Rotation of tokamak halo currents

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-05-15

    During tokamak disruptions, halo currents, which can be tenths of the total plasma current, can flow at the plasma edge along the magnetic field lines that intercept the chamber walls. Non-axisymmetric halo currents are required to maintain force balance as the plasma kinks when the edge safety factor drops to about two in a vertical displacement event. The plasma quickly assumes a definite toroidal velocity v{sub a}(r) with respect to that of the magnetic kink, v{sub k}, where v{sub a}(r) is set by the radial electric field required for ambipolarity. The plasma velocity, v{sub pl}=v{sub a}+v{sub k}, near the edge is influenced by the interaction with neutrals and with the potential in the halo required for quasi-neutrality on open magnetic field lines, and the plasma velocity in the core is influenced by external error fields. When plasma effects dominate magnetic locking, the magnetic kink should rotate at a diamagnetic speed of either the edge or the core. If the magnetic field lines of the halo plasma intercept the wall at locations of very different electrical conductivity, the toroidal rotation of the halo currents can intermittently stall at wall locations of high conductivity. Such stalling is seen in experiments. The toroidal phase difference between the stalled halo currents and the kink, which is expected to rotate smoothly, must satisfy {delta}{phi}<{+-}{pi}/2. A concern cited by ITER engineers is that the time varying force of the rotating halo could substantially increase the disruption loads on in-vessel components.

  10. Galactic Halos of Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows two companion galaxies, NGC 4625 (top) and NGC 4618 (bottom), and their surrounding cocoons of cool hydrogen gas (purple). The huge set of spiral arms on NGC 4625 (blue) was discovered by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Though these arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light, they glow brightly in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The vibrant spiral arms are also quite lengthy, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Astronomers do not know why NGC 4625 grew arms while NGC 4618 did not. The purple nebulosity shown here illustrates that hydrogen gas - an ingredient of star formation - is diffusely distributed around both galaxies. This means that other unknown factors led to the development of the arms of NGC 4625.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet, visible-light and radio data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, the Netherlands, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. Radio emissions are colored purple.

  11. What's up in the Milky Way? The orientation of the disc relative to the triaxial halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debattista, Victor P.; Roškar, Rok; Valluri, Monica; Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Ben; Wadsley, James

    2013-10-01

    Models of the Sagittarius stream have consistently found that the Milky Way disc is oriented such that its short axis is along the intermediate axis of the triaxial dark matter halo. We attempt to build models of disc galaxies in such an `intermediate-axis orientation'. We do this with three models. In the first two cases we simply rigidly grow a disc in a triaxial halo such that the disc ends up perpendicular to the global intermediate axis. We also attempt to coax a disc to form in an intermediate-axis orientation by producing a gas+dark matter triaxial system with gas angular momentum about the intermediate axis. In all cases we fail to produce systems which remain with stellar angular momentum aligned with the halo's intermediate axis, even when the disc's potential flattens the inner halo such that the disc is everywhere perpendicular to the halo's local minor axis. For one of these unstable simulations we show that the potential is even rounder than the models of the Milky Way potential in the region probed by the Sagittarius stream. We conclude that the Milky Way's disc is very unlikely to be in an intermediate-axis orientation. However we find that a disc can persist off one of the principal planes of the potential. We propose that the disc of the Milky Way must be tilted relative to the principal axes of the dark matter halo. Direct confirmation of this prediction would constitute a critical test of Modified Newtonian Dynamics.

  12. Cosmology with massive neutrinos II: on the universality of the halo mass function and bias

    SciTech Connect

    Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Sheth, Ravi K.; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it

    2014-02-01

    We use a large suite of N-body simulations to study departures from universality in halo abundances and clustering in cosmologies with non-vanishing neutrino masses. To this end, we study how the halo mass function and halo bias factors depend on the scaling variable σ{sup 2}(M,z), the variance of the initial matter fluctuation field, rather than on halo mass M and redshift z themselves. We show that using the variance of the cold dark matter rather than the total mass field, i.e., σ{sup 2}{sub cdm}(M,z) rather than σ{sup 2}{sub m}(M,z), yields more universal results. Analysis of halo bias yields similar conclusions: when large-scale halo bias is defined with respect to the cold dark matter power spectrum, the result is both more universal, and less scale- or k-dependent. These results are used extensively in Papers I and III of this series.

  13. The origin of spin in galaxies: clues from simulations of atomic cooling haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Jimenez, Raul; Haiman, Zoltán; González, Roberto E.

    2015-09-01

    In order to elucidate the origin of spin in both dark matter and baryons in galaxies, we have performed hydrodynamical simulations from cosmological initial conditions. We study atomic cooling haloes in the redshift range 100 > z > 9 with masses of the order of 109 M⊙ at redshift z = 10. We assume that the gas has primordial composition and that H2-cooling and prior star formation in the haloes have been suppressed. We present a comprehensive analysis of the gas and dark matter properties of four haloes with very low (λ ≈ 0.01), low (λ ≈ 0.04), high (λ ≈ 0.06) and very high (λ ≈ 0.1) spin parameter. Our main conclusion is that the spin orientation and magnitude is initially well described by tidal torque linear theory, but later on is determined by the merging and accretion history of each halo. We provide evidence that the topology of the merging region, i.e. the number of colliding filaments, gives an accurate prediction for the spin of dark matter and gas: haloes at the centre of knots will have low spin while those in the centre of filaments will have high spin. The spin of a halo is given by λ ≈ 0.05 × (7.6/number of filaments)^{5.1}.

  14. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  15. Refined analysis and updated constraints on general non-standard tbW couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Zenrō; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Uejima, Akira

    2016-10-01

    We recently studied possible non-standard tbW couplings based on the effective-Lagrangian which consists of four kinds of SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) invariant dimension-6 effective operators and gave an experimentally allowed region for each non-standard coupling. We here re-perform that analysis much more precisely based on the same experimental data but on a new computational procedure using the Graphics-Processing-Unit (GPU) calculation system. Comparing these two analyses with each other, the previous one is found to have given quite reliable results despite of its limited computation capability. We then apply this new procedure to the latest data and present updated results.

  16. Non-Standard Genetic Codes Define New Concepts for Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ana R; Guimarães, Ana R; Santos, Manuel A S

    2015-01-01

    The essential feature of the genetic code is the strict one-to-one correspondence between codons and amino acids. The canonical code consists of three stop codons and 61 sense codons that encode 20% of the amino acid repertoire observed in nature. It was originally designated as immutable and universal due to its conservation in most organisms, but sequencing of genes from the human mitochondrial genomes revealed deviations in codon assignments. Since then, alternative codes have been reported in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and genetic code engineering has become an important research field. Here, we review the most recent concepts arising from the study of natural non-standard genetic codes with special emphasis on codon re-assignment strategies that are relevant to engineering genetic code in the laboratory. Recent tools for synthetic biology and current attempts to engineer new codes for incorporation of non-standard amino acids are also reviewed in this article. PMID:26569314

  17. Non-Standard Genetic Codes Define New Concepts for Protein Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Ana R.; Guimarães, Ana R.; Santos, Manuel A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The essential feature of the genetic code is the strict one-to-one correspondence between codons and amino acids. The canonical code consists of three stop codons and 61 sense codons that encode 20% of the amino acid repertoire observed in nature. It was originally designated as immutable and universal due to its conservation in most organisms, but sequencing of genes from the human mitochondrial genomes revealed deviations in codon assignments. Since then, alternative codes have been reported in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and genetic code engineering has become an important research field. Here, we review the most recent concepts arising from the study of natural non-standard genetic codes with special emphasis on codon re-assignment strategies that are relevant to engineering genetic code in the laboratory. Recent tools for synthetic biology and current attempts to engineer new codes for incorporation of non-standard amino acids are also reviewed in this article. PMID:26569314

  18. CORGEN: a FORTRAN-77 generator of standard and non-standard DNA helices from the sequence.

    PubMed

    Galat, A

    1989-10-01

    An analytical procedure CORGEN generates a variety of DNA double-stranded structures from user-supplied sequence using a nucleic acid database incorporated into a standard FORTRAN-77 program. Alternatively, the cylindrical polar coordinates of DNA components may be supplied from the external table. An algorithm that performs intercalation sites in DNA is described. This procedure can be used to generate complexes of antibiotics with DNA. Non-standard DNA structures can be built by alternating the global helical twist and global helical rise in the regular DNA helix. The procedures described can be used for computer generation of a variety of non-standard DNA structures which can be subjected to molecular mechanics and dynamics simulations.

  19. Grains in galactic haloes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, A.; Barsella, B.; Ferrini, F.; Greenberg, J. M.; Aiello, S.

    1989-12-01

    The authors considered the effect of extensive forces on dust grains subjected to the light and matter distribution of the spiral galaxy NGC 3198. They have shown that the combined force on a small particle located above the plane of a galactic disk may be either attractive or repulsive depending on a variety of parameters. The authors present here the preliminary results of the study of the motion of a dust grain for NGC 3198.

  20. Regularity Results for a Class of Functionals with Non-Standard Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acerbi, Emilio; Mingione, Giuseppe

    We consider the integral functional under non-standard growth assumptions that we call p(x) type: namely, we assume that a relevant model case being the functional Under sharp assumptions on the continuous function p(x)>1 we prove regularity of minimizers. Energies exhibiting this growth appear in several models from mathematical physics.

  1. The outer haloes of massive, elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Payel; Gerhard, Ortwin; de Lorenzi, Flavio; McNeil, Emily; Churazov, Eugene; Coccato, Lodovico

    2010-11-01

    The outer haloes of massive elliptical galaxies are dark-matter dominated regions where stellar orbits have longer dynamical timescales than the central regions and therefore better preserve their formation history. Dynamical models out to large radii suffer from a degeneracy between mass and orbital structure, as the outer kinematics are unable to resolve higher moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution. We mitigate this degeneracy for a sample of quiescent, massive, nearby ellipticals by determining their mass distributions independently using a non-parametric method on X-ray observations of the surrounding hot interstellar medium. We then create dynamical models using photometric and kinematic constraints consisting of integral-eld, long-slit and planetary nebulae (PNe) data extending to ~50 kpc. The rst two galaxies of our sample, NGC 5846 and NGC 1399, were found to have very shallow pro jected light distributions with a power law index of ~1.5 and a dark matter content of 70-80% at 50 kpc. Spherical Jeans models of the data show that, in the outer haloes of both galaxies, the pro jected velocity dispersions are almost inde- pendent of the anisotropy and that the PNe prefer the lower end of the range of mass distributions consistent with the X-ray data. Using the N-body code NMAGIC, we cre- ated axisymmetric models of NGC 5846 using the individual PNe radial velocities in a likelihood method and found them to be more constraining than the binned velocity dispersions. Characterising the orbital structure in terms of spherically averaged proles of the velocity dispersions we nd σψ > σr > σθ.

  2. Antineutrino Oscillations and a Search for Non-standard Interactions with the MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Isvan, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos from the NuMI beam at Fermilab between two detectors. The Near Detector, located near the source, measures the beam composition before flavor change occurs. The energy spectrum is measured again at the Far Detector after neutrinos travel a distance. The mixing angle and mass splitting between the second and third mass states are extracted from the energy dependent difference between the spectra at the two detectors. NuMI is able to produce an antineutrino-enhanced beam as well as a neutrino-enhanced beam. Collecting data in antineutrino-mode allows the direct measurement of antineutrino oscillation parameters. From the analysis of the antineutrino mode data we measure $|\\Delta\\bar{m}^{2}_{\\text{atm}}| = 2.62^{+0.31}_{-0.28}\\times10^{-3}\\text{eV}^{2}$ and $\\sin^{2}(2\\bar{\\theta})_{23} = 0.95^{+0.10}_{-0.11}$, which is the most precise measurement of antineutrino oscillation parameters to date. A difference between neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters may indicate new physics involving interactions that are not part of the Standard Model, called non-standard interactions, that alter the apparent disappearance probability. Collecting data in neutrino and antineutrino mode independently allows a direct search for non-standard interactions. In this dissertation non-standard interactions are constrained by a combined analysis of neutrino and antineutrino datasets and no evidence of such interactions is found.

  3. Are ancient dwarf satellites the building blocks of the Galactic halo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitoni, E.; Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.; Romano, D.

    2016-05-01

    According to the current cosmological cold dark matter paradigm, the Galactic halo could have been the result of the assemblage of smaller structures. Here we explore the hypothesis that the classical and ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way have been the building blocks of the Galactic halo by comparing their [α/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] versus [Fe/H] patterns with the ones observed in Galactic halo stars. The α elements deviate substantially from the observed abundances in the Galactic halo stars for [Fe/H] values larger than -2 dex, while they overlap for lower metallicities. On the other hand, for the [Ba/Fe] ratio, the discrepancy is extended at all [Fe/H] values, suggesting that the majority of stars in the halo are likely to have been formed in situ. Therefore, we suggest that [Ba/Fe] ratios are a better diagnostic than [α/Fe] ratios. Moreover, for the first time we consider the effects of an enriched infall of gas with the same chemical abundances as the matter ejected and/or stripped from dwarf satellites of the Milky Way on the chemical evolution of the Galactic halo. We find that the resulting chemical abundances of the halo stars depend on the assumed infall time-scale, and the presence of a threshold in the gas for star formation. In particular, in models with an infall time-scale for the halo around 0.8 Gyr coupled with a threshold in the surface gas density for the star formation (4 M⊙ pc-2), and the enriched infall from dwarf spheroidal satellites, the first halo stars formed show [Fe/H]>-2.4 dex. In this case, to explain [α/Fe] data for stars with [Fe/H]<-2.4 dex, we need stars formed in dSph systems.

  4. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  5. Simulation of halo particles with Simpsons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Shinji

    2003-12-01

    Recent code improvements and some simulation results of halo particles with Simpsons will be presented. We tried to identify resonance behavior of halo particles by looking at tune evolution of individual macro particle.

  6. Searching for dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Three teams of astronomers believe they have independently found evidence for dark matter in our galaxy. A brief history of the search for dark matter is presented. The use of microlensing-event observation for spotting dark matter is described. The equipment required to observe microlensing events and three groups working on dark matter detection are discussed. The three groups are the Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO) Project team, the Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres (EROS) team, and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) team. The first apparent detections of microlensing events by the three teams are briefly reported.

  7. The Dark Matter Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    2014-02-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters revisited: missing mass found; 8. CDM confronts galaxy rotation curves; 9. The new cosmology: dark matter is not enough; 10. An alternative to dark matter: Modified Newtonian Dynamics; 11. Seeing dark matter: the theory and practice of detection; 12. Reflections: a personal point of view; Appendix; References; Index.

  8. A strip search for new very wide halo binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, D. P.; Smith, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a search for new wide halo binary stars in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. A list of new halo wide binary candidates which satisfy common proper motion and photometric constraints is provided. The projected separations of the sample lie between 0.007 and 0.25 pc. Although the sample is not large enough to improve constraints on dark matter in the halo, we find the wide binary angular separation function is broadly consistent with past work. We discuss the significance of the new sample for a number of astrophysical applications, including as a testbed for ideas about wide binary formation. For the subset of candidates which have radial velocity information, we make use of integrals of motion to investigate one such scheme in which the origin of Galactic wide binaries is associated with the accretion/disruption of stellar systems in the Galaxy. Additional spectroscopic observations of these candidate binaries will strengthen their usefulness in many of these respects. Based on our search experience in Stripe 82 we estimate that the upcoming Pan-STARRS survey will increase the sample size of wide halo binaries by over an order of magnitude.

  9. Halo detection via large-scale Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merson, Alexander I.; Jasche, Jens; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lahav, Ofer; Wandelt, Benjamin; Jones, D. Heath; Colless, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    We present a proof-of-concept of a novel and fully Bayesian methodology designed to detect haloes of different masses in cosmological observations subject to noise and systematic uncertainties. Our methodology combines the previously published Bayesian large-scale structure inference algorithm, HAmiltonian Density Estimation and Sampling algorithm (HADES), and a Bayesian chain rule (the Blackwell-Rao estimator), which we use to connect the inferred density field to the properties of dark matter haloes. To demonstrate the capability of our approach, we construct a realistic galaxy mock catalogue emulating the wide-area 6-degree Field Galaxy Survey, which has a median redshift of approximately 0.05. Application of HADES to the catalogue provides us with accurately inferred three-dimensional density fields and corresponding quantification of uncertainties inherent to any cosmological observation. We then use a cosmological simulation to relate the amplitude of the density field to the probability of detecting a halo with mass above a specified threshold. With this information, we can sum over the HADES density field realisations to construct maps of detection probabilities and demonstrate the validity of this approach within our mock scenario. We find that the probability of successful detection of haloes in the mock catalogue increases as a function of the signal to noise of the local galaxy observations. Our proposed methodology can easily be extended to account for more complex scientific questions and is a promising novel tool to analyse the cosmic large-scale structure in observations.

  10. Struggling toward "ALL" in State and District Assessments: What about Those Who Need Non-Standard Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Miriam Kurtzig

    This paper outlines concerns relating to the inclusion of students with disabilities in state and district educational assessments and the provision of non-standard accommodations (NSAs). The major concerns are that: (1) the term "non-standard accommodation" is an oxymoron and muddies the issue; (2) NSAs change the plain meaning of words beyond…

  11. Spurious haloes and discreteness-driven relaxation in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Obreschkow, D.; Hobbs, A.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-10-01

    There is strong evidence that cosmological N-body simulations dominated by warm dark matter (WDM) contain spurious or unphysical haloes, most readily apparent as regularly spaced low-mass haloes strung along filaments. We show that spurious haloes are a feature of traditional N-body simulations of cosmological structure formation models, including WDM and cold dark matter models, in which gravitational collapse proceeds in an initially anisotropic fashion, and arises naturally as a consequence of discreteness-driven relaxation. We demonstrate this using controlled N-body simulations of plane-symmetric collapse and show that spurious haloes are seeded at shell crossing by localized velocity perturbations induced by the discrete nature of the density field, and that their characteristic separation should be approximately the mean inter-particle separation of the N-body simulation, which is fixed by the mass resolution within the volume. Using cosmological N-body simulations in which particles are split into two collisionless components of fixed mass ratio, we find that the spatial distribution of the two components show signatures of discreteness-driven relaxation on both large and small scales. Adopting a spline kernel gravitational softening that is of order the comoving mean inter-particle separation helps to suppress the effect of discreteness-driven relaxation, but cannot eliminate it completely. These results provide further motivation for recent developments of new algorithms, which include, for example, revisions of the traditional N-body approach by means of spatially adaptive anistropric gravitational softenings or explicit solution of the evolution of dark matter in phase space.

  12. The Effects of Varying Cosmological Parameters on Halo Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Zukin, Phillip; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars E.; Frebel, Anna

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, ns ; matter density, Ω M ; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ8, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the "same" subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V max, which remain greater for higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  13. The effects of varying cosmological parameters on halo substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Frebel, Anna; Zukin, Phillip; Hernquist, Lars E.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, n{sub s} ; matter density, Ω {sub M}; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ{sub 8}, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the 'same' subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and Ω {sub m} simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V {sub max}, which remain greater for higher σ{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and Ω {sub m} simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  14. The Structure and Dark Halo Core Properties of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkert, A.

    2015-08-01

    The structure and dark matter halo core properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are investigated. A double-isothermal (DIS) model of an isothermal, non-self-gravitating stellar system embedded in an isothermal dark halo core provides an excellent fit to the various observed stellar surface density distributions. The stellar core scale length a* is sensitive to the central dark matter density ρ0,d. The maximum stellar radius traces the dark halo core radius {r}c,d. The concentration c* of the stellar system, determined by a King profile fit, depends on the ratio of the stellar-to-dark-matter velocity dispersion {σ }*/{σ }d. Simple empirical relationships are derived that allow us to calculate the dark halo core parameters ρ0,d, {r}c,d, and σd given the observable stellar quantities σ*, a*, and c*. The DIS model is applied to the Milky Way’s dSphs. All dSphs closely follow the same universal dark halo scaling relations {ρ }0,d× {r}c,d={75}-45+85 M⊙ pc‑2 that characterize the cores of more massive galaxies over a large range in masses. The dark halo core mass is a strong function of core radius, {M}c,d∼ {r}c,d2. Inside a fixed radius of ∼400 pc the total dark matter mass is, however, roughly constant with {M}d=2.6+/- 1.4× {10}7 M⊙, although outliers are expected. The dark halo core densities of the Galaxy’s dSphs are very high, with {ρ }0,d ≈ 0.2 M⊙ pc‑3. dSphs should therefore be tidally undisturbed. Evidence for tidal effects might then provide a serious challenge for the CDM scenario.

  15. Strong bimodality in the host halo mass of central galaxies from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Wang, Wenting; Zu, Ying; White, Simon; Henriques, Bruno; More, Surhud

    2016-04-01

    We use galaxy-galaxy lensing to study the dark matter haloes surrounding a sample of locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure mean halo mass as a function of the stellar mass and colour of the central galaxy. Mock catalogues constructed from semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations demonstrate that most LBGs are the central objects of their haloes, greatly reducing interpretation uncertainties due to satellite contributions to the lensing signal. Over the full stellar mass range, 10.3 < log [M*/M⊙] < 11.6, we find that passive central galaxies have haloes that are at least twice as massive as those of star-forming objects of the same stellar mass. The significance of this effect exceeds 3σ for log [M*/M⊙] > 10.7. Tests using the mock catalogues and on the data themselves clarify the effects of LBG selection and show that it cannot artificially induce a systematic dependence of halo mass on LBG colour. The bimodality in halo mass at fixed stellar mass is reproduced by the astrophysical model underlying our mock catalogue, but the sign of the effect is inconsistent with recent, nearly parameter-free age-matching models. The sign and magnitude of the effect can, however, be reproduced by halo occupation distribution models with a simple (few-parameter) prescription for type dependence.

  16. The effect of active galactic nuclei feedback on the halo mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weiguang; Borgani, Stefano; Murante, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    We investigate baryon effects on the halo mass function (HMF), with emphasis on the role played by active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback. Haloes are identified with both friends-of-friends (FoF) and spherical overdensity (SO) algorithms. We embed the standard SO algorithm into a memory-controlled frame program and present the Python spherIcAl Overdensity code - PIAO (Chinese character: ). For both FoF and SO haloes, the effect of AGN feedback is that of suppressing the HMFs to a level even below that of dark matter (DM) simulations. The ratio between the HMFs in the AGN and in the DM simulations is ˜0.8 at overdensity Δc = 500, a difference that increases at higher overdensity Δc = 2500, with no significant redshift and mass dependence. A decrease of the halo masses ratio with respect to the DM case induces the decrease of the HMF in the AGN simulation. The shallower inner density profiles of haloes in the AGN simulation witnesses that mass reduction is induced by the sudden displacement of gas induced by thermal AGN feedback. We provide fitting functions to describe halo mass variations at different overdensities, which can recover the HMFs with a residual random scatter ≲5 per cent for halo masses larger than 1013 h-1 M⊙.

  17. The ROCKSTAR Phase-space Temporal Halo Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 105 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>1010 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s-1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  18. Visibility of halos and rainbows.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, S D

    1980-09-15

    A theory for the visibility of halos and rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer's eye from the direction of the halo or rainbow is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) a beam of singly scattered sunlight (or moonlight) from a cloud of ice crystals or a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its passage to the observer, and (2) the general background brightness. The model is able to account for several long-known qualitative observations concerning halos, namely, that the brightest halos are produced by optically thin cirrostratus clouds (i.e., for which the cloud optical depth tau(c), halo is visible much more frequently than the bottom. (This is shown to result in good part from extinction by the turbid atmosphere.) With the rainbow the brightness of the beam increases monotonically with the optical depth tau(R) of the sunlit part of the rainswath, but the increase is quite small for tau(R) >/=1. On the other hand, the brightness of the background increases more rapidly with tau(R) for tau(R)> 1 so that the rainbow appears most easily visible for tau(R) less, similar1. This implies that the most easily visible rainbows are produced by light or moderate showers rather than heavy downpours. Finally, suggestions are made for applying the theory to other atmospheric optical phenomena, such as coronas and glories.

  19. Visibility of halos and rainbows.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, S D

    1980-09-15

    A theory for the visibility of halos and rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer's eye from the direction of the halo or rainbow is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) a beam of singly scattered sunlight (or moonlight) from a cloud of ice crystals or a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its passage to the observer, and (2) the general background brightness. The model is able to account for several long-known qualitative observations concerning halos, namely, that the brightest halos are produced by optically thin cirrostratus clouds (i.e., for which the cloud optical depth tau(c), halo is visible much more frequently than the bottom. (This is shown to result in good part from extinction by the turbid atmosphere.) With the rainbow the brightness of the beam increases monotonically with the optical depth tau(R) of the sunlit part of the rainswath, but the increase is quite small for tau(R) >/=1. On the other hand, the brightness of the background increases more rapidly with tau(R) for tau(R)> 1 so that the rainbow appears most easily visible for tau(R) less, similar1. This implies that the most easily visible rainbows are produced by light or moderate showers rather than heavy downpours. Finally, suggestions are made for applying the theory to other atmospheric optical phenomena, such as coronas and glories. PMID:20234562

  20. A non-standard Lax formulation of the Harry Dym hierarchy and its supersymmetric extension