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Sample records for matter non-standard halos

  1. Dwarf Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colín, P.; Klypin, A.; Valenzuela, O.; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    We study properties of dark matter halos at high redshifts z=2-10 for a vast range of masses with the emphasis on dwarf halos with masses of 107-109 h-1 Msolar. We find that the density profiles of relaxed dwarf halos are well fitted by the Navarro, Frenk, & White (NFW) profile and do not have cores. We compute the halo mass function and the halo spin parameter distribution and find that the former is very well reproduced by the Sheth & Tormen model, while the latter is well fitted by a lognormal distribution with λ0=0.042 and σλ=0.63. We estimate the distribution of concentrations for halos in a mass range that covers 6 orders of magnitude, from 107 to 1013 h-1 Msolar, and find that the data are well reproduced by the model of Bullock et al. The extrapolation of our results to z=0 predicts that present-day isolated dwarf halos should have a very large median concentration of ~35. We measure the subhalo circular velocity functions for halos with masses that range from 4.6×109 to 1013 h-1 Msolar and find that they are similar when normalized to the circular velocity of the parent halo. Dwarf halos studied in this paper are many orders of magnitude smaller than well-studied cluster- and Milky Way-sized halos. Yet, in all respects the dwarfs are just downscaled versions of the large halos. They are cuspy and, as expected, more concentrated. They have the same spin parameter distribution and follow the same mass function that was measured for large halos.

  2. Computation of the halo mass function using physical collapse parameters: application to non-standard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Achitouv, I.; Weller, J.; Wagner, C.; Rasera, Y. E-mail: cwagner@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE E-mail: yann.rasera@obspm.fr

    2014-10-01

    In this article we compare the halo mass function predicted by the excursion set theory with a drifting diffusive barrier against the results of N-body simulations for several cosmological models. This includes the standard ΛCDM case for a large range of halo masses, models with different types of primordial non-Gaussianity, and the Ratra-Peebles quintessence model of Dark Energy. We show that in all those cosmological scenarios, the abundance of dark matter halos can be described by a drifting diffusive barrier, where the two parameters describing the barrier have physical content. In the case of the Gaussian ΛCDM, the statistics are precise enough to actually predict those parameters at different redshifts from the initial conditions. Furthermore, we found that the stochasticity in the barrier is non-negligible making the simple deterministic spherical collapse model a bad approximation even at very high halo masses. We also show that using the standard excursion set approach with a barrier inspired by peak patches leads to inconsistent predictions of the halo mass function.

  3. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Loeb, Abraham; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2013-06-13

    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  4. Dark matter haloes: a multistream view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Nesar S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2017-09-01

    Mysterious dark matter constitutes about 85 per cent of all masses in the Universe. Clustering of dark matter plays a dominant role in the formation of all observed structures on scales from a fraction to a few hundreds of Mega-parsecs. Galaxies play a role of lights illuminating these structures so they can be observed. The observations in the last several decades have unveiled opulent geometry of these structures currently known as the cosmic web. Haloes are the highest concentrations of dark matter and host luminous galaxies. Currently the most accurate modelling of dark matter haloes is achieved in cosmological N-body simulations. Identifying the haloes from the distribution of particles in N-body simulations is one of the problems attracting both considerable interest and efforts. We propose a novel framework for detecting potential dark matter haloes using the field unique for dark matter-multistream field. The multistream field emerges at the non-linear stage of the growth of perturbations because the dark matter is collisionless. Counting the number of velocity streams in gravitational collapses supplements our knowledge of spatial clustering. We assume that the virialized haloes have convex boundaries. Closed and convex regions of the multistream field are hence isolated by imposing a positivity condition on all three eigenvalues of the Hessian estimated on the smoothed multistream field. In a single-scale analysis of high multistream field resolution and low softening length, the halo substructures with local multistream maxima are isolated as individual halo sites.

  5. A combined study of source, detector and matter non-standard neutrino interactions at DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Choubey, Sandhya; Ohlsson, Tommy; Pramanik, Dipyaman; Raut, Sushant K.

    2016-08-01

    We simultaneously investigate source, detector and matter non-standard neutrino interactions at the proposed DUNE experiment. Our analysis is performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo exploring the full parameter space. We find that the sensitivity of DUNE to the standard oscillation parameters is worsened due to the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions. In particular, there are degenerate solutions in the leptonic mixing angle θ 23 and the Dirac CP-violating phase δ. We also compute the expected sensitivities at DUNE to the non-standard interaction parameters. We find that the sensitivities to the matter non-standard interaction parameters are substantially stronger than the current bounds (up to a factor of about 15). Furthermore, we discuss correlations between the source/detector and matter non-standard interaction parameters and find a degenerate solution in θ 23. Finally, we explore the effect of statistics on our results.

  6. Glueball dark matter in non-standard cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Bobby S.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Hardy, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Hidden sector glueball dark matter is well motivated by string theory, compactifications of which often have extra gauge groups uncoupled to the visible sector. We study the dynamics of glueballs in theories with a period of late time primordial matter domination followed by a low final reheating temperature due to a gravitationally coupled modulus. Compared to scenarios with a high reheating temperature, the required relic abundance is possible with higher hidden sector confinement scales, and less extreme differences in the entropy densities of the hidden and visible sectors. Both of these can occur in string derived models, and relatively light moduli are helpful for obtaining viable phenomenology. We also study the effects of hidden sector gluinos. In some parts of parameter space these can be the dominant dark matter component, while in others their abundance is much smaller than that of glueballs. Finally, we show that heavy glueballs produced from energy in the hidden sector prior to matter domination can have the correct relic abundance if they are sufficiently long lived.

  7. Dark matter particles in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R. Belli, P.; Montecchia, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Prosperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, J. M.; Sheng, X. D.; Ye, Z. P.

    2009-12-15

    Arguments on the investigation of the DarkMatter particles in the galactic halo are addressed. Recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized and the perspectives are discussed.

  8. The total mass of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Jürg

    2011-07-01

    The simple, conventional dark matter halo mass definitions commonly used in cosmological simulations ('virial' mass, FoF mass, M50, 100, 200, …) only capture part of the collapsed material and are therefore inconsistent with the halo mass concept used in analytical treatments of structure formation. Simulations have demonstrated that typical dark matter particle orbits extend out to about 90 per cent of their turnaround radius, which results in apocentre passages outside of the current 'virial' radius on the first and also on the second orbit. Here we describe how the formation history of haloes can be used to identify those particles which took part in the halo collapse, but are missed by conventional group finders because of their remote present location. These particles are added to the part of the halo already identified by FoF. The corrected masses of dark haloes are significantly higher (the median mass increase is 25 per cent) and there is a considerable shift of the halo mass function towards the Press and Schechter form. We conclude that meaningful quantitative comparisons between (semi-)analytic predictions of halo properties (e.g. mass functions, mass accretion rates, merger rates, spatial clustering, etc.) and simulation results will require using the same halo definition in both approaches.

  9. Halo bias in mixed dark matter cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, Marilena

    2014-10-01

    The large-scale distribution of cold dark matter halos is generally assumed to trace the large-scale distribution of matter. In a universe with multiple types of matter fluctuations, as is the case with massive neutrinos, the relation between the halo field and the matter fluctuations may be more complicated. We develop a method for calculating the linear bias factor relating fluctuations in the halo number density to fluctuations in the mass density in the presence of multiple fluctuating components of the energy density. In the presence of massive neutrinos we find a small but pronounced feature in the halo bias near the neutrino free-streaming scale. The neutrino feature is a small step with amplitude that increases with halo mass and neutrino mass density. The scale-dependent halo bias lessens the suppression of the small-scale halo power spectrum and should therefore weaken constraints on neutrino mass from the galaxy autopower spectrum and correlation function. On the other hand, the feature in the bias is itself a novel signature of massive neutrinos that can be studied independently.

  10. Dark Matter Properties and Halo Central Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, S. M. Khairul; Bullock, James S.; Weinberg, David H.

    2002-06-01

    Using an analytic model calibrated against numerical simulations, we calculate the central densities of dark matter halos in a ``conventional'' cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (LCDM) and in a ``tilted'' model (TLCDM) with slightly modified parameters motivated by recent analyses of Lyα forest data. We also calculate how warm dark matter (WDM) would modify these predicted densities by delaying halo formation and imposing phase-space constraints. As a measure of central density, we adopt the quantity ΔV/2, the density within the radius RV/2 at which the halo rotation curve falls to half of its maximum value, in units of the critical density. We compare the theoretical predictions to values of ΔV/2 estimated from the rotation curves of dark matter-dominated disk galaxies. Assuming that dark halos are described by Navarro-Frenk-White profiles, our results suggest that the conventional LCDM model predicts excessively high dark matter densities, unless there is some selection bias in the data toward the low-concentration tail of the halo distribution. A WDM model with particle mass 0.5-1 keV provides a better match to the observational data. However, the modified cold dark matter model, TLCDM, fits the data equally well, suggesting that the solution to the ``halo cores'' problem might lie in moderate changes to cosmological parameters rather than radical changes to the properties of dark matter. If cold dark matter halos have the steeper density profiles found by Moore et al., then neither conventional LCDM nor TLCDM can reproduce the observed central densities.

  11. Dark energy and dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlen, Michael; Strigari, Louis E.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Primack, Joel R.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate the effect of dark energy on the density profiles of dark matter haloes with a suite of cosmological N-body simulations and use our results to test analytic models. We consider constant equation of state models, and allow both w>=-1 and w < -1. Using five simulations with w ranging from -1.5 to -0.5, and with more than ~1600 well-resolved haloes each, we show that the halo concentration model of Bullock et al. accurately predicts the median concentrations of haloes over the range of w, halo masses and redshifts that we are capable of probing. We find that the Bullock et al. model works best when halo masses and concentrations are defined relative to an outer radius set by a cosmology-dependent virial overdensity. For a fixed power spectrum normalization and fixed-mass haloes, larger values of w lead to higher concentrations and higher halo central densities, both because collapse occurs earlier and because haloes have higher virial densities. While precise predictions of halo densities are quite sensitive to various uncertainties, we make broad comparisons to galaxy rotation curve data. At fixed power spectrum normalization (fixed σ8), w > -1 quintessence models seem to exacerbate the central density problem relative to the standard w=-1 model. For example, models with w~=- 0.5 seem disfavoured by the data, which can be matched only by allowing extremely low normalizations, σ8<~ 0.6. Meanwhile w < -1 models help to reduce the apparent discrepancy. We confirm that the halo mass function of Jenkins et al. provides an excellent approximation to the abundance of haloes in our simulations and extend its region of validity to include models with w < -1.

  12. On physical scales of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Zemp, Marcel

    2014-09-10

    It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions 'virial'. In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.

  13. Concentrations of Simulated Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Child, Hillary

    2017-01-01

    We present the concentration-mass (c-M) relation of dark matter halos in two new high-volume high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, Q Continuum and Outer Rim. Concentration describes the density of the central regions of halos; it is highest for low-mass halos at low redshift, decreasing at high mass and redshift. The shape of the c-M relation is an important probe of cosmology. We discuss the redshift dependence of the c-M relation, several different methods to determine concentrations of simulated halos, and potential sources of bias in concentration measurements. To connect to lensing observations, we stack halos, which also allows us to assess the suitability of the Navarro-Frenk-White profile and other profiles, such as Einasto, with an additional shape parameter. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144082.

  14. Mapping Dark Matter Halos with Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Greene, J. E.; Graves, G.

    2013-07-01

    Galaxies of all sizes form and evolve in the centers of dark matter halos. As these halos constitute the large majority of the total mass of a galaxy, dark matter certainly plays a central role in the galaxy's formation and evolution. Yet despite our understanding of the importance of dark matter, observations of the extent and shape of dark matter halos have been slow in coming. The paucity of data is particularly acute in elliptical galaxies. Happily, concerted effort over the past several years by a number of groups has been shedding light on the dark matter halos around galaxies over a wide range in mass. The development of new instrumentation and large surveys, coupled with the tantalizing evidence for a direct detection of dark matter from the AMS experiment, has brought on a golden age in the study of galactic scale dark matter halos. I report on results using extended stellar kinematics from integrated light to dynamically model massive elliptical galaxies in the local universe. I use the integral field power of the Mitchell Spectrograph to explore the kinematics of stars to large radii (R > 2.5 r_e). Once the line-of-sight stellar kinematics are measured, I employ orbit-based, axisymmetric dynamical modeling to explore a range of dark matter halo parameterizations. Globular cluster kinematics at even larger radii are used to further constrain the dynamical models. The dynamical models also return information on the anisotropy of the stars which help to further illuminate the primary formation mechanisms of the galaxy. Specifically, I will show dynamical modeling results for the first and second rank galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, M49 and M87. Although similar in total luminosity and ellipticity, these two galaxies show evidence for different dark matter halo shapes, baryon to dark matter fractions, and stellar anisotropy profiles. Moreover, the stellar velocity dispersion at large radii in M87 is significantly higher than the globular clusters at the same

  15. Halo cold dark matter and microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Evalyn; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-12-01

    There is good evidence that most of the baryons in the Universe are dark and some evidence that most of the matter in the Universe is nonbaryonic with cold dark matter (cdm) being a promising possibility. We discuss expectations for the abundance of baryons and cdm in the halo of our galaxy and locally. We show that in plausible cdm models the local density of cdm is at least $10^{-25}\\gcmm3$. We also discuss what one can learn about the the local cdm density from microlensing of stars in the LMC by dark stars in the halo and, based upon a suite of reasonable two-component halo models, conclude that microlensing is not a sensitive probe of the local cdm density.

  16. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  17. Dark Matter Halos with VIRUS-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.

    2010-05-01

    We present new, two-dimensional stellar kinematic data on several of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. These data were taken with the integral field spectrograph, VIRUS-P, and extend to unprecedented radial distances. Once robust stellar kinematics are in hand, we run orbit-based axisymmetric dynamical models in order to constrain the stellar mass-to-light ratio and dark matter halo parameters. We have run a large set of dynamical models on the second rank galaxy in the Virgo cluster, M87, and find clear evidence for a massive dark matter halo. The two-dimensional stellar kinematics for several of our other targets, all first and second rank galaxies, are also presented. Dark matter halos are known to dominate the mass profile of elliptical galaxies somewhere between one to two effective radii, yet due to the low surface brightness at these radial distances, determining stellar dynamics is technologically challenging. To overcome this, constraints on the dark matter halo are often made with planetary nebulae or globular clusters at large radii. However, as results from different groups have returned contradictory results, it remains unclear whether different dynamical tracers always follow the stellar kinematics. Due to VIRUS-P's large field of view and on-sky fiber diameter, we are able to determine stellar kinematics at radial distances that overlap with other dynamical tracers. Understanding what the dynamics of stars, planetary nebula and globular clusters tell us about both the extent of the dark matter halo profile and the formation histories of the largest elliptical galaxies is a primary science driver for this work.

  18. Substructure of fuzzy dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaolong; Behrens, Christoph; Niemeyer, Jens C.

    2017-02-01

    We derive the halo mass function (HMF) for fuzzy dark matter (FDM) by solving the excursion set problem explicitly with a mass-dependent barrier function, which has not been done before. We find that compared to the naive approach of the Sheth-Tormen HMF for FDM, our approach has a higher cutoff mass and the cutoff mass changes less strongly with redshifts. Using merger trees constructed with a modified version of the Lacey & Cole formalism that accounts for suppressed small-scale power and the scale-dependent growth of FDM haloes and the semi-analytic GALACTICUS code, we study the statistics of halo substructure including the effects from dynamical friction and tidal stripping. We find that if the dark matter is a mixture of cold dark matter (CDM) and FDM, there will be a suppression on the halo substructure on small scales which may be able to solve the missing satellites problem faced by the pure CDM model. The suppression becomes stronger with increasing FDM fraction or decreasing FDM mass. Thus, it may be used to constrain the FDM model.

  19. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, F. S.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González-Avilés, J. J.; Rivera-Paleo, F. J.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  20. Stellar discs in Aquarius dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBuhr, Jackson; Ma, Chung-Pei; White, Simon D. M.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the gravitational interactions between live stellar discs and their dark matter haloes, using Λ cold dark matter haloes similar in mass to that of the Milky Way taken from the Aquarius Project. We introduce the stellar discs by first allowing the haloes to respond to the influence of a growing rigid disc potential from z = 1.3 to 1.0. The rigid potential is then replaced with star particles which evolve self-consistently with the dark matter particles until z = 0.0. Regardless of the initial orientation of the disc, the inner parts of the haloes contract and change from prolate to oblate as the disc grows to its full size. When the disc's normal is initially aligned with the major axis of the halo at z = 1.3, the length of the major axis contracts and becomes the minor axis by z = 1.0. Six out of the eight discs in our main set of simulations form bars, and five of the six bars experience a buckling instability that results in a sudden jump in the vertical stellar velocity dispersion and an accompanying drop in the m = 2 Fourier amplitude of the disc surface density. The bars are not destroyed by the buckling but continue to grow until the present day. Bars are largely absent when the disc mass is reduced by a factor of 2 or more; the relative disc-to-halo mass is therefore a primary factor in bar formation and evolution. A subset of the discs is warped at the outskirts and contains prominent non-coplanar material with a ring-like structure. Many discs reorient by large angles between z = 1 and 0, following a coherent reorientation of their inner haloes. Larger reorientations produce more strongly warped discs, suggesting a tight link between the two phenomena. The origins of bars and warps appear independent: some discs with strong bars show little disturbances at the outskirts, while the discs with the weakest bars show severe warps.

  1. Asymmetric dark matter annihilation as a test of non-standard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Rehagen, Thomas E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu

    2013-08-01

    We show that the relic abundance of the minority component of asymmetric dark matter can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe and the temperature of transition between a non-standard pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmological phase and the standard radiation dominated phase, if chemical decoupling happens before this transition. In particular, because the annihilation cross section of asymmetric dark matter is typically larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology, the decrease in relic density of the minority component in non-standard cosmologies with respect to the majority component may be compensated by the increase in annihilation cross section, so that the annihilation rate at present of asymmetric dark matter, contrary to general belief, could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology. Thus, if the annihilation cross section of the asymmetric dark matter candidate is known, the annihilation rate at present, if detectable, could be used to test the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we do not yet have any data.

  2. Stellar Spirals in Triaxial Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoran; Sijacki, Debora

    2017-03-01

    Two-armed grand-design spirals may form if the shape of its dark matter halo changes abruptly enough. The feasibility of such a mechanism is tested in realistic simulations. The interplay of such externally-driven spirals and self-induced transient spirals is then studied. Subhaloes are also found to lead to transient grand-design spiral structures when they impact the disk.

  3. Baryonic distributions in galaxy dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Emily E.

    In our best current understanding of the growth of structure in the Universe, visibly complex distributions of gas and stars form and evolve into a wide range of galaxies inside overdensities of dark matter. Re-creating the observed diversity in the organization of baryonic mass within dark matter halos represents a key challenge for galaxy formation models. In this dissertation, I constrain the distribution of baryonic and non-baryonic matter in a statistically representative sample of 44 nearby galaxies defined from the Extended Disk Galaxy Exploration Science (EDGES) survey to address the growth of galaxy disks in dark matter halos. I trace the gravitational potentials of each galaxy using rotation curves derived from new and archival radio synthesis observations of neutral hydrogen (HI). The measured rotation curves are decomposed into baryonic and dark matter halo components using 3.6 mum images for the stellar content, the HI observations for the atomic gas component, and, when available, CO data from the literature for the molecular gas component. The HI kinematics are supplemented with optical integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations to measure the central ionized gas kinematics in 26 galaxies. Distributions of baryonic-to-total mass ratios are determined from the rotation curve decompositions under different assumptions about the contribution of the stellar component, and are compared to global and radial properties of the dominant stellar populations extracted from optical and near-infrared photometry. Galaxies are grouped into clusters of similar baryonic-to-total mass distributions to examine whether they also exhibit similar star and gas properties. The radial distribution of baryonic-to-total mass in a galaxy does not appear to correlate with any characteristics of its star formation history. This result encapsulates the challenge facing simulations to create galaxies which evolve with different star formation histories but similar

  4. Dark-Matter Halos of Tenuous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    A series of recent deep-imaging surveys has revealed dozens of lurking ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in nearby galaxy clusters. A new study provides key information to help us understand the origins of these faint giants.What are UDGs?There are three main possibilities for how UDGs galaxies with the sizes of giants, but luminosities no brighter than those of dwarfs formed:They are tidal dwarfs, created in galactic collisions when streams of matter were pulled away from the parent galaxies and halos to form dwarfs.They are descended from normal galaxies and were then altered by tidal interactions with the galaxy cluster.They are ancient remnant systems large galaxies whose gas was swept away, putting an early halt to star formation. The gas removal did not, however, affect their large dark matter halos, which permitted them to survive in the cluster environment.The key to differentiating between these options is to obtain mass measurements for the UDGs how large are their dark matter halos? In a recent study led by Michael Beasley (Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, University of La Laguna), a team of astronomers has determined a clever approach for measuring these galaxies masses: examine their globular clusters.Masses from Globular ClustersVCC 1287s mass measurements put it outside of the usual halo-mass vs. stellar-mass relationships for nearby galaxies: it has a significantly higher halo mass than is normal, given its stellar mass. [Adapted from Beasley et al. 2016]Beasley and collaborators selected one UDG, VCC 1287, from the Virgo galaxy cluster, and they obtained spectra of the globular clusters around it using the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Great Canary Telescope. They then determined VCC 1287s total halo mass in two ways: first by using the dynamics of the globular clusters, and then by relying on a relation between total globular cluster mass and halo mass.The two masses they found are in good agreement with each other; both are around 80

  5. Splashback Shells of Cold Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Philip; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Diemer, Benedikt

    2017-05-01

    The density field in the outskirts of dark matter halos is discontinuous as a result of a caustic formed by matter at its first apocenter after infall. In this paper, we present an algorithm to identify the “splashback shell” formed by these apocenters in individual simulated halos using only a single snapshot of the density field. We implement this algorithm in the code Shellfish (SHELL Finding In Spheroidal Halos) and demonstrate that the code identifies splashback shells correctly and measures their properties with an accuracy of < 5 % for halos with more than 50,000 particles and mass accretion rates of {{{Γ }}}{DK14}> 0.5. Using Shellfish, we present the first estimates for several basic properties of individual splashback shells, such as radius, {R}{sp}, mass, and overdensity, and provide fits to the distribution of these quantities as functions of {{{Γ }}}{DK14}, {ν }200{{m}}, and z. We confirm previous findings that {R}{sp} decreases with increasing {{{Γ }}}{DK14}, but we show that, independent of accretion rate, it also decreases with increasing {ν }200{{m}}. We also study the 3D structures of these shells and find that they generally have non-ellipsoidal oval shapes. We find that splashback radii estimated by Shellfish are 20%-30% larger than those estimated in previous studies from stacked density profiles at high accretion rates. We demonstrate that the latter are biased low owing to the contribution of high-mass subhalos to these profiles, and we show that using the median instead of mean density in each radial bin mitigates the effect of substructure on density profiles and removes the bias.

  6. Halos of unified dark matter scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it

    2008-05-15

    We investigate the static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term, assumed to provide both the dark matter and dark energy components of the Universe. In particular, we give a prescription to obtain solutions (dark halos) whose rotation curve v{sub c}(r) is in good agreement with observational data. We show that there exist suitable scalar field Lagrangians that allow us to describe the cosmological background evolution and the static solutions with a single dark fluid.

  7. The segregation of baryons and dark matter during halo assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shihong; Gao, Liang; Frenk, Carlos S.; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    The standard galaxy formation theory assumes that baryons and dark matter are initially well mixed before becoming segregated due to radiative cooling. We use non-radiative hydrodynamical simulations to explicitly examine this assumption and find that baryons and dark matter can also be segregated due to different characteristics of gas and dark matter during the buildup of the halo. As a result, baryons in many haloes do not originate from the same Lagrangian region as the dark matter. When using the fraction of corresponding dark matter and gas particles in the initial conditions (the 'paired fraction') as a proxy of the dark matter and gas segregation strength of a halo, on average about 25 per cent of the baryonic and dark matter of the final halo are segregated in the initial conditions. This is at odds with the assumption of the standard galaxy formation model. A consequence of this effect is that the baryons and dark matter of the same halo initially experience different tidal torques and thus their angular momentum vectors are often misaligned. The degree of the misalignment is largely preserved during later halo assembly and can be understood with the tidal torque theory. The result challenges the precision of some semi-analytical approaches that utilize dark matter halo merger trees to infer properties of gas associated with dark matter haloes.

  8. Baryonic Distributions in Galaxy Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Emily E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role and significance of dark matter in the evolution of baryonic components (i.e., conversion of the gaseous disk into stars) is a critical aspect for realistic models of galaxy evolution. In an effort to address fundamental questions regarding the growth and distribution of stellar disks in dark matter halos in a statistical manner, we have undertaken a project correlating structural properties and star formation activity with the dark matter properties of the host galaxy. The project uses a statistical sample of 45 nearby galaxies which are optimally suited for rotation curve decomposition analysis. The dataset includes deep Spitzer 3.6μm images to trace the stellar distribution, neutral and ionized gas rotation curves to trace the total mass distribution, and optical images to examine the dominant stellar populations. Using a sub-set of galaxies from the full sample, we find that the distribution of the baryonic mass relative to the total mass is roughly self-similar in more massive galaxies when normalized by the average stellar disk scale length measured at 3.6μm. We additionally observe an emerging trend between total baryonic mass and the radius at which the total mass distribution transitions from baryon-dominated to dark matter-dominated. However, we find no significant correlation between the distribution of dark matter and structural properties of the stellar disk, such as changes in color or star formation activity.

  9. The Edges Of Dark Matter Halos: Theory And Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Surhud

    2017-06-01

    I discuss recent theoretical advances which have led us to suggest a physical definition for the boundary of dark matter halos. We propose using the "splashback radius" which corresponds to the apocenter of recently infalling material as a physical boundary for dark matter halos. We also present how the splashback radius can be detected in observations.

  10. Halo-Independent Comparison of Direct Dark Matter Detection Data

    DOE PAGES

    Del Nobile, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    We review the halo-independent formalism that allows comparing data from different direct dark matter detection experiments without making assumptions on the properties of the dark matter halo. We apply this method to spin-independent WIMP-nuclei interactions, for both isospin-conserving and isospin-violating couplings, and to WIMPs interacting through an anomalous magnetic moment.

  11. The Angular Momentum Distribution within Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Jing, Y.

    We study the angular momentum profile of dark matter halos for a statistical sample drawn from a set of high-resolution cosmological simulations of 2563 particles. Two typical Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models have been analyzed, and the halos are selected to have at least 3× 104 particles in order to reliably measure the angular momentum profile. In contrast with the recent claims of Bullock et al. (2001), we find that the degree of misalignment of angular momentum within a halo is very high. About 50 percent of halos have more than 10 percent of halo mass in the mass of negative angular momentum j. After the mass of negative j is excluded, the cumulative mass function M(halos (˜ 50%) which exhibit systematic deviations from the universal function. Our results, however, are broadly in good agreement with the recent work of van den Bosch et al. (2002). We also study the angular momentum profile of halos in a Warm Dark Matter (WDM) model and a Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM) model. We find that the angular momentum profile of halos in the WDM is statistically indistinguishable from that in the CDM model, but the angular momentum of halos in the SIDM is reduced by the self-interaction of dark matter.

  12. Particle Dark Matter in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; D'Angelo, S.; di Marco, A.; Montecchia, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, X. H.; Sheng, X. D.; Wang, R. G.; Ye, Z. P.

    2015-10-01

    The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI data (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton × yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles) give evidence at 9.3σ C.L. for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target. Results and comparisons will be shortly recalled. Recent analyses on possible diurnal effects and on the Earth shadowing effect (the latter holds only for some DM candidates) will be mentioned. The analysis of the time distribution of the low-energy single-hit events in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 is reported for the first time. Finally, some perspectives of the presently running DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 will be mentioned.

  13. Angular Momentum Profiles of Warm Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, James S.; Kravtsov, and Andrey V.; Colín, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    We compare the specific angular momentum profiles of virialized dark halos in cold dark matter (CDM) and warm dark matter (WDM) models, using high-resolution dissipationless simulations. The simulations were initialized using the same set of modes, except on small scales, where the power was suppressed in WDM below the filtering length. Remarkably, WDM as well as CDM halos are well described by the two-parameter angular momentum profile of Bullock and coworkers, even though the halo masses are below the filtering scale of the WDM. Although the best-fit shape parameters change quantitatively for individual halos in the two simulations, we find no systematic variation in profile shapes as a function of the dark matter type. The scatter in shape parameters is significantly smaller for the WDM halos, suggesting that substructure and/or merging history plays a role in producing scatter about the mean angular momentum distribution, but that the average angular momentum profiles of halos originate from larger scale phenomena or a mechanism associated with the virialization process. The known mismatch between the angular momentum distributions of dark halos and disk galaxies is, therefore, present in WDM as well as CDM models. Our WDM halos tend to have a less coherent (more misaligned) angular momentum structure and smaller spin parameters than do their CDM counterparts, although we caution that this result is based on a small number of halos.

  14. Optimal linear reconstruction of dark matter from halo catalogues

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yan -Chuan; Bernstein, Gary; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-04-01

    The dark matter lumps (or "halos") that contain galaxies have locations in the Universe that are to some extent random with respect to the overall matter distributions. We investigate how best to estimate the total matter distribution from the locations of the halos. We derive the weight function w(M) to apply to dark-matter haloes that minimizes the stochasticity between the weighted halo distribution and its underlying mass density field. The optimal w(M) depends on the range of masses of halos being used. While the standard biased-Poisson model of the halo distribution predicts that bias weighting is optimal, the simple factmore » that the mass is comprised of haloes implies that the optimal w(M) will be a mixture of mass-weighting and bias-weighting. In N-body simulations, the Poisson estimator is up to 15× noisier than the optimal. Optimal weighting could make cosmological tests based on the matter power spectrum or cross-correlations much more powerful and/or cost effective.« less

  15. Optimal linear reconstruction of dark matter from halo catalogues

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yan -Chuan; Bernstein, Gary; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-04-01

    The dark matter lumps (or "halos") that contain galaxies have locations in the Universe that are to some extent random with respect to the overall matter distributions. We investigate how best to estimate the total matter distribution from the locations of the halos. We derive the weight function w(M) to apply to dark-matter haloes that minimizes the stochasticity between the weighted halo distribution and its underlying mass density field. The optimal w(M) depends on the range of masses of halos being used. While the standard biased-Poisson model of the halo distribution predicts that bias weighting is optimal, the simple fact that the mass is comprised of haloes implies that the optimal w(M) will be a mixture of mass-weighting and bias-weighting. In N-body simulations, the Poisson estimator is up to 15× noisier than the optimal. Optimal weighting could make cosmological tests based on the matter power spectrum or cross-correlations much more powerful and/or cost effective.

  16. N-body dark matter haloes with simple hierarchical histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lilian; Helly, John C.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2014-05-01

    We present a new algorithm which groups the subhaloes found in cosmological N-body simulations by structure finders such as SUBFIND into dark matter haloes whose formation histories are strictly hierarchical. One advantage of these `Dhaloes' over the commonly used friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes is that they retain their individual identity in the cases when FoF haloes are artificially merged by tenuous bridges of particles or by an overlap of their outer diffuse haloes. Dhaloes are thus well suited for modelling galaxy formation and their merger trees form the basis of the Durham semi-analytic galaxy formation model, GALFORM. Applying the Dhalo construction to the Λ cold dark matter Millennium II Simulation, we find that approximately 90 per cent of Dhaloes have a one-to-one, bijective match with a corresponding FoF halo. The remaining 10 per cent are typically secondary components of large FoF haloes. Although the mass functions of both types of haloes are similar, the mass of Dhaloes correlates much more tightly with the virial mass, M200, than FoF haloes. Approximately 80 per cent of FoF and bijective and non-bijective Dhaloes are relaxed according to standard criteria. For these relaxed haloes, all three types have similar concentration-M200 relations and, at fixed mass, the concentration distributions are described accurately by log-normal distributions.

  17. The prolate dark matter halo of the Andromeda galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2014-07-01

    We present new limits on the global shape of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy using and generalizing non-spherical mass models developed by Hayashi and Chiba and compare our results with theoretical predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) models. This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Applying our models to the latest kinematic data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield a prolate shape for its dark halo, irrespective of assumed density profiles. We also find that this prolate dark halo in Andromeda is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web. Therefore, our result is profound in understanding internal dynamics of halo tracers in Andromeda, such as orbital evolutions of tidal stellar streams, which play important roles in extracting the abundance of CDM subhalos through their dynamical effects on stream structures.

  18. Testing gravity using the environmental dependence of dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2011-08-12

    In this Letter, we investigate the environmental dependence of dark matter halos in theories which attempt to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe by modifying general relativity (GR). Using high-resolution N-body simulations in f(R) gravity models which recover GR in dense environments by virtue of the chameleon mechanism, we find a significant difference, which depends on the environment, between the lensing and dynamical masses of dark matter halos. This environmental dependence of the halo properties can be used as a smoking gun to test GR observationally.

  19. EFFECT OF DARK MATTER HALO SUBSTRUCTURES ON GALAXY ROTATION CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Nirupam

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of halo substructures on galaxy rotation curves is investigated using a simple model of dark matter clustering. A dark matter halo density profile is developed based only on the scale-free nature of clustering that leads to a statistically self-similar distribution of the substructures at the galactic scale. A semi-analytical method is used to derive rotation curves for such a clumpy dark matter density profile. It is found that the halo substructures significantly affect the galaxy velocity field. Based on the fractal geometry of the halo, this self-consistent model predicts a Navarro-Frenk-White-like rotation curve and a scale-free power spectrum of the rotation velocity fluctuations.

  20. SECULAR DAMPING OF STELLAR BARS IN SPINNING DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ ≳ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ ≳ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  1. STATISTICS OF DARK MATTER HALOS FROM THE EXCURSION SET APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Salucci, P.; Danese, L.

    2013-08-01

    We exploit the excursion set approach in integral formulation to derive novel, accurate analytic approximations of the unconditional and conditional first crossing distributions for random walks with uncorrelated steps and general shapes of the moving barrier; we find the corresponding approximations of the unconditional and conditional halo mass functions for cold dark matter (DM) power spectra to represent very well the outcomes of state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In addition, we apply these results to derive, and confront with simulations, other quantities of interest in halo statistics, including the rates of halo formation and creation, the average halo growth history, and the halo bias. Finally, we discuss how our approach and main results change when considering random walks with correlated instead of uncorrelated steps, and warm instead of cold DM power spectra.

  2. The outer profile of dark matter haloes: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xun

    2016-07-01

    A steepening feature in the outer density profiles of dark matter haloes indicating the splashback radius has drawn much attention recently. Possible observational detections have even been made for galaxy clusters. Theoretically, Adhikari et al. have estimated the location of the splashback radius by computing the secondary infall trajectory of a dark matter shell through a growing dark matter halo with an NFW profile. However, since they imposed a shape of the halo profile rather than computing it consistently from the trajectories of the dark matter shells, they could not provide the full shape of the dark matter profile around the splashback radius. We improve on this by extending the self-similar spherical collapse model of Fillmore & Goldreich to a ΛCDM universe. This allows us to compute the dark matter halo profile and the trajectories simultaneously from the mass accretion history. Our results on the splashback location agree qualitatively with Adhikari et al. but with small quantitative differences at large mass accretion rates. We present new fitting formulae for the splashback radius Rsp in various forms, including the ratios of Rsp/R200c and Rsp/R200m. Numerical simulations have made the puzzling discovery that the splashback radius scales well with R200m but not with R200c. We trace the origin of this to be the correlated increase of Ωm and the average halo mass accretion rate with an increasing redshift.

  3. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f (R ) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian-hua; Hawken, Adam J.; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f (R ) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N -body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f (R ) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (Λ CDM ). Thus, when using effective halos, an f (R ) model can be viewed as a Λ CDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f (R ) cosmologies.

  4. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies.

  5. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo.

    PubMed

    Springel, V; White, S D M; Frenk, C S; Navarro, J F; Jenkins, A; Vogelsberger, M; Wang, J; Ludlow, A; Helmi, A

    2008-11-06

    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species. In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at a level that may soon be observable. Previous work has argued that the annihilation signal will be dominated by emission from very small clumps (perhaps smaller even than the Earth), which would be most easily detected where they cluster together in the dark matter haloes of dwarf satellite galaxies. Here we report that such small-scale structure will, in fact, have a negligible impact on dark matter detectability. Rather, the dominant and probably most easily detectable signal will be produced by diffuse dark matter in the main halo of the Milky Way. If the main halo is strongly detected, then small dark matter clumps should also be visible, but may well contain no stars, thereby confirming a key prediction of the cold dark matter model.

  6. THE BLACK HOLE–DARK MATTER HALO CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sabra, Bassem M.; Saliba, Charbel; Akl, Maya Abi; Chahine, Gilbert

    2015-04-10

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well-established SMBH mass–bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using intermediate relations may be misleading when one is studying them to decipher the active ingredients of galaxy formation and evolution. We believe that our approach will provide a more direct probe of the SMBH and the dark matter halo connection. We find that the correlation between the mass of SMBHs and the circular velocities of the host galaxies is extremely weak, leading us to state the dark matter halo may not play a major role in regulating the black hole growth in the present Universe.

  7. Concentration, ellipsoidal collapse, and the densest dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoli, Chiamaka; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2016-03-01

    The smallest dark matter haloes are the first objects to form in the hierarchical structure formation of cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology and are expected to be the densest and most fundamental building blocks of CDM structures in our Universe. Nevertheless, the physical characteristics of these haloes have stayed illusive, as they remain well beyond the current resolution of N-body simulations (at redshift zero). However, they dominate the predictions (and uncertainty) in expected dark matter annihilation signal, amongst other astrophysical observables. Using the conservation of total energy and the ellipsoidal collapse framework, we can analytically find the mean and scatter of concentration c and 1D velocity dispersion σ1d for haloes of different virial mass M200. Both c and σ _1d/M_{200}^{1/3} are in good agreement with numerical results within the regime probed by simulations - slowly decreasing functions of mass that approach constant values at large masses. In particular, the predictions for the 1D velocity dispersion of cluster mass haloes are surprisingly robust as the inverse heat capacity of cosmological haloes crosses zero at M200 ˜ 1014 M⊙. However, we find that current extrapolations from simulations to smallest CDM haloes dramatically depend on the assumed profile (e.g. NFW versus Einasto) and fitting function, which is why theoretical considerations, such as the one presented here, can significantly constrain the range of feasible predictions.

  8. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  9. A Universal Angular Momentum Profile for Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shihong; Chen, Jianxiong; Chu, M.-C.

    2017-07-01

    The angular momentum distribution in dark matter halos and galaxies is a key ingredient in understanding their formation. Specifically, the internal distribution of angular momenta is closely related to the formation of disk galaxies. In this article, we use halos identified from a high-resolution simulation, the Bolshoi simulation, to study the spatial distribution of specific angular momenta, j(r,θ ). We show that by stacking halos with similar masses to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the profile can be fitted as a simple function, j{(r,θ )={j}s{\\sin }2{(θ /{θ }s)(r/{r}s)}2/(1+r/{r}s)}4, with three free parameters, {j}s,{r}s, and {θ }s. Specifically, j s correlates with the halo mass M vir as {j}s\\propto {M}{vir}2/3, r s has a weak dependence on the halo mass as {r}s\\propto {M}{vir}0.040, and {θ }s is independent of M vir. This profile agrees with that from a rigid shell model, though its origin is unclear. Our universal specific angular momentum profile j(r,θ ) is useful in modeling the angular momenta of halos. Furthermore, by using an empirical stellar mass-halo mass relation, we can infer the average angular momentum distribution of a dark matter halo. The specific angular momentum-stellar mass relation within a halo computed from our profile is shown to share a similar shape as that from the observed disk galaxies.

  10. Halo-independent tests of dark matter annual modulation signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Garcia, Juan

    2015-09-02

    New halo-independent lower bounds on the product of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section and the local dark matter density that are valid for annual modulations of dark matter direct detection signals are derived. They are obtained by making use of halo-independent bounds based on an expansion of the rate on the Earth’s velocity that were derived in previous works. In combination with astrophysical measurements of the local energy density, an observed annual modulation implies a lower bound on the cross section that is independent of the velocity distribution and that must be fulfilled by any particle physics model. In order to illustrate the power of the bounds we apply them to DAMA/LIBRA data and obtain quite strong results when compared to the standard halo model predictions. We also extend the bounds to the case of multi-target detectors.

  11. Halo-independent tests of dark matter annual modulation signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Garcia, Juan

    2015-09-01

    New halo-independent lower bounds on the product of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section and the local dark matter density that are valid for annual modulations of dark matter direct detection signals are derived. They are obtained by making use of halo-independent bounds based on an expansion of the rate on the Earth's velocity that were derived in previous works. In combination with astrophysical measurements of the local energy density, an observed annual modulation implies a lower bound on the cross section that is independent of the velocity distribution and that must be fulfilled by any particle physics model. In order to illustrate the power of the bounds we apply them to DAMA/LIBRA data and obtain quite strong results when compared to the standard halo model predictions. We also extend the bounds to the case of multi-target detectors.

  12. The Structure and Evolution of Cold Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemand, Jürg; Moore, Ben

    2011-02-01

    In the standard cosmological model a mysterious cold dark matter (CDM) component dominates the formation of structures. Numerical studies of the f ormation of CDM halos have produced several robust results that allow unique tests of the hierarchical clustering paradigm. Universal properties of halos, including their mass profiles and substructure properties are roughly consistent with observational data from the scales of dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Resolving the fine grained structure of halos has enabled us to make predictions for ongoing and planned direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. While simulations of pure CDM halos are now very accurate and in good agreement (recently claimed discrepancies are addressed in detail in this review), we are still unable to make robust, quantitative predictions about galaxy formation and about how the dark matter distribution changes in the process. Whilst discrepancies between observations and simulations have been the subject of much debate in the literature, galaxy formation and evolution needs to be understood in more detail in order to fully test the CDM paradigm. Whatever the true nature of the dark matter particle is, its clustering properties must not be too different from a cold neutralino like particle to maintain all the successes of the model in matching large scale structure data and the global properties of halos which are mostly in good agreement with observations.

  13. A correlation between spin parameter and dark matter halo mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebe, A.; Power, C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a set of high-resolution dark matter only cosmological simulations we found a correlation between the dark matter halo mass M and its spin parameter λ for objects forming at redshifts z > 10: the spin parameter decreases with increasing mass. However, halos forming at later times do not exhibit such a strong correlation, in agreement with the findings of previous studies. While we presented such a correlation in a previous study using the Bullock et al. (2001) spin parameter defintion we now defer to the classical definition showing that the results are independent of the definition.

  14. Dark matter annihilation in the first galaxy haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, S.; Mack, K. J.; Avram, C. A.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Barberio, E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the impact of energy released from self-annihilating dark matter (DM) on heating of gas in the small, high-redshift DM haloes thought to host the first stars. A supersymmetric (SUSY)-neutralino-like particle is implemented as our DM candidate. The PYTHIA code is used to model the final, stable particle distributions produced during the annihilation process. We use an analytic treatment in conjunction with the code MEDEA2 to find the energy transfer and subsequent partition into heating, ionizing and Lyman α photon components. We consider a number of halo density models, DM particle masses and annihilation channels. We find that the injected energy from DM exceeds the binding energy of the gas within a 105-106 M⊙ halo at redshifts above 20, preventing star formation in early haloes in which primordial gas would otherwise cool. Thus we find that DM annihilation could delay the formation of the first galaxies.

  15. WEIGHING THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO: A LOWER MASS LIMIT FROM THE FASTEST HALO STAR KNOWN

    SciTech Connect

    Przybilla, Norbert; Tillich, Alfred; Heber, Ulrich; Scholz, Ralf-Dieter

    2010-07-20

    The mass of the Galactic dark matter halo is under vivid discussion. A recent study by Xue et al. revised the Galactic halo mass downward by a factor of {approx}2 relative to previous work, based on the line-of-sight velocity distribution of {approx}2400 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) halo stars. The observations were interpreted with a statistical approach using cosmological galaxy formation simulations, as only four of the six-dimensional phase-space coordinates were determined. Here we concentrate on a close investigation of the stars with the highest negative radial velocity from that sample. For one star, SDSSJ153935.67+023909.8 (J1539+0239 for short), we succeed in measuring a significant proper motion, i.e., full phase-space information is obtained. We confirm the star to be a Population II BHB star from an independent quantitative analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectrum-providing the first non-LTE (NLTE) study of any halo BHB star-and reconstruct its three-dimensional trajectory in the Galactic potential. J1539+0239 turns out to be the fastest halo star known to date, with a Galactic rest-frame velocity of 694{sup +300}{sub -221} km s{sup -1} (full uncertainty range from Monte Carlo error propagation) at its current position. The extreme kinematics of the star allows a significant lower limit to be put on the halo mass in order to keep it bound, of M {sub halo} {>=} 1.7{sup +2.3}{sub -1.1} x 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}. We conclude that the Xue et al. results tend to underestimate the true halo mass as their most likely mass value is consistent with our analysis only at a level of 4%. However, our result confirms other studies that make use of the full phase-space information.

  16. A New Model for Dark Matter Halos Hosting Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue; Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher

    2015-01-01

    A new model for quasar-hosting dark matter halos, meeting two physical conditions, is put forth. First, significant interactions are taken into consideration to trigger quasar activities. Second, satellites in very massive halos at low redshift are removed from consideration due to their deficiency in cold gas. We analyze the Millennium Simulation to find halos that meet these two conditions and simultaneously match two-point auto-correlation functions of quasars and cross-correlation functions between quasars and galaxies at z = 0.5-3.2. The masses of the quasar hosts found decrease with decreasing redshift, with the mass thresholds being [(2-5) × 1012, (2-5) × 1011, (1-3) × 1011] M ⊙ for median luminosities of ~[1046, 1046, 1045] erg s-1 at z = (3.2, 1.4, 0.53), respectively, an order of magnitude lower than those inferred based on halo occupation distribution modeling. In this model, quasar hosts are primarily massive central halos at z >= 2-3 but increasingly dominated by lower mass satellite halos experiencing major interactions toward lower redshift. However, below z = 1, satellite halos in groups more massive than ~2 × 1013 M ⊙ do not host quasars. Whether for central or satellite halos, imposing the condition of significant interactions substantially boosts the clustering strength compared to the total population with the same mass cut. The inferred lifetimes of quasars at z = 0.5-3.2 of 3-30 Myr are in agreement with observations. Quasars at z ~ 2 would be hosted by halos of mass ~5 × 1011 M ⊙ in this model, compared to ~3 × 1012 M ⊙ previously thought, which would help reconcile with the observed, otherwise puzzling high covering fractions for Lyman limit systems around quasars.

  17. Particle ejection during mergers of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H.; Joyce, Michael E-mail: sparre@dark-cosmology.dk E-mail: joyce@lpnhe.in2p3.fr

    2014-06-01

    Dark matter halos are built from accretion and merging. During merging some of the dark matter particles may be ejected with velocities higher than the escape velocity. We use both N-body simulations and single-particle smooth-field simulations to demonstrate that rapid changes to the mean field potential are responsible for such ejection, and in particular that dynamical friction plays no significant role in it. Studying a range of minor mergers, we find that typically between 5–15% of the particles from the smaller of the two merging structures are ejected. We also find that the ejected particles originate essentially from the small halo, and more specifically are particles in the small halo which pass later through the region in which the merging occurs.

  18. Axionic dark matter signatures in various halo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergados, J. D.; Semertzidis, Y. K.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work we study possible signatures in the Axion Dark Matter searches. We focus on the dependence of the expected width in resonant cavities for various popular halo models, leading to standard velocity distributions, e.g. Maxwell-Boltzmann, as well as phase-mixed and non-virialized axionic dark matter (flows, caustic rings). We study, in particular, the time dependence of the resonance width (modulation) arising from such models. We find that the difference between the maximum (in June) and the minimum (in December) can vary by about 10% in the case of standard halos. In the case of mixed phase halos the variation is a bit bigger and for caustic rings the maximum is expected to occur a bit later. Experimentally such a modulation is observable with present technology.

  19. Halo-independent methods for inelastic dark matter scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Zupan, Jure E-mail: juan.a.herrero@uv.es E-mail: jure.zupan@cern.ch

    2013-07-01

    We present halo-independent methods to analyze the results of dark matter direct detection experiments assuming inelastic scattering. We focus on the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and present three different halo-independent tests. First, we compare it to the upper limit on the unmodulated rate from XENON100 using (a) the trivial requirement that the amplitude of the annual modulation has to be smaller than the bound on the unmodulated rate, and (b) a bound on the annual modulation amplitude based on an expansion in the Earth's velocity. The third test uses the special predictions of the signal shape for inelastic scattering and allows for an internal consistency check of the data without referring to any astrophysics. We conclude that a strong conflict between DAMA/LIBRA and XENON100 in the framework of spin-independent inelastic scattering can be established independently of the local properties of the dark matter halo.

  20. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Koda, Jun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z=0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  1. Systematic uncertainties from halo asphericity in dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Nicolás; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Garani, Raghuveer; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ific.uv.es

    2014-09-01

    Although commonly assumed to be spherical, dark matter halos are predicted to be non-spherical by N-body simulations and their asphericity has a potential impact on the systematic uncertainties in dark matter searches. The evaluation of these uncertainties is the main aim of this work, where we study the impact of aspherical dark matter density distributions in Milky-Way-like halos on direct and indirect searches. Using data from the large N-body cosmological simulation Bolshoi, we perform a statistical analysis and quantify the systematic uncertainties on the determination of local dark matter density and the so-called J factors for dark matter annihilations and decays from the galactic center. We find that, due to our ignorance about the extent of the non-sphericity of the Milky Way dark matter halo, systematic uncertainties can be as large as 35%, within the 95% most probable region, for a spherically averaged value for the local density of 0.3-0.4 GeV/cm {sup 3}. Similarly, systematic uncertainties on the J factors evaluated around the galactic center can be as large as 10% and 15%, within the 95% most probable region, for dark matter annihilations and decays, respectively.

  2. Generalized halo independent comparison of direct dark matter detection data

    SciTech Connect

    Nobile, Eugenio Del; Gelmini, Graciela; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu

    2013-10-01

    We extend the halo-independent method to compare direct dark matter detection data, so far used only for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions, to any type of interaction. As an example we apply the method to magnetic moment interactions.

  3. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  4. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  5. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2016-07-01

    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with Rvir (ΔM), a fixed-aperture (ΔR) ambient density, and a cosmic web classification (i.e. voids, sheets, filaments, and knots, as defined by the V-web algorithm). ΔM is the mean density around a halo evaluated within a sphere of a radius of 5Rvir, where Rvir is the virial radius. ΔR is the density field Gaussian smoothed with R = 4 h-1 Mpc, evaluated at the centre of the halo. The main result of the paper is that the difference between haloes in different web elements stems from the difference in their mass functions, and does not depend on their adaptive-aperture ambient density. A dependence on the fixed-aperture ambient density is induced by the cross-correlation between the mass of a halo and its fixed-aperture ambient density.

  6. Phase-space structure of cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.; Ipser, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    A galactic halo of cold dark matter particles has a sheet-like structure in phase-space. The energy and momentum spectra of such particles on earth has a set of peaks whose central values and intensities form a record of the formation of the Galaxy. Scattering of the dark matter particles by stars and globular clusters broadens the peaks but does not erase them entirely. The giant shells around some elliptical galaxies may be a manifestation of this structure.

  7. Phase-space structure of cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.; Ipser, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A galactic halo of cold dark matter particles has a sheet-like structure in phase-space. The energy and momentum spectra of such particles on earth has a set of peaks whose central values and intensities form a record of the formation of the Galaxy. Scattering of the dark matter particles by stars and globular clusters broadens the peaks but does not erase them entirely. The giant shells around some elliptical galaxies may be a manifestation of this structure.

  8. Dynamical evolution of primordial dark matter haloes through mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiya, Go; Nagai, Daisuke; Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2016-09-01

    Primordial dark matter (DM) haloes are the smallest gravitationally bound DM structures from which the first stars, black holes and galaxies form and grow in the early universe. However, their structures are sensitive to the free streaming scale of DM, which in turn depends on the nature of DM particles. In this work, we test the hypothesis that the slope of the central cusps in primordial DM haloes near the free streaming scale depends on the nature of merging process. By combining and analysing data from a cosmological simulation with the cutoff in the small-scale matter power spectrum as well as a suite of controlled, high-resolution simulations of binary mergers, we find that (1) the primordial DM haloes form preferentially through major mergers in radial orbits; (2) their central DM density profile is more susceptible to a merging process compared to that of galaxy- and cluster-sized DM haloes; (3) consecutive major mergers drive the central density slope to approach the universal form characterized by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, which is shown to be robust to the impacts of mergers and serves an attractor solution for the density structure of DM haloes. Our work highlights the importance of dynamical processes on the structure formation during the Dark Ages.

  9. The Adiabatic Contraction of Dark Matter Halos in Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesseit, R.; Burkert, A.; Naab, T.

    The flatness of rotation curves in the outer parts of galaxies led to the postulation of a dark component to compensate for the missing mass. The origin of this component is still unknown. Bahcall & Soneira first pointed out in 1985 that a unique ratio for disk to halo mass is needed to produce the flat and featureless rotation curves in agreement with observations. They called this the disk-halo conspiracy. To explain this conspiracy Blumenthal et al. proposed that an adiabtically forming baryonic disk can influence the density structure of its surrounding dark halo. They assumed that the time scale of the baryonic infall is very slow such and the change of mass inside the orbit of a dark matter particle is neglegible. They further assumed that the dark matter particles revolve on circular orbits and are dissipationless. In this case their radial action integral is an adiabatic invariant during the contraction. Blumenthal et al. could find the final density profile of the dark matter, if the final distribution of the baryonic matter is known, through an iterative algorithm. We tested the above assumptions using collisionless N-body simulations. We set up a dark matter halo with a Hernquist density profile and analytically added the potential of an exponential disk. Initially the disk had a very large scale length compared to the halo scale length. During the simulation we reduced the sclae length of the disk and followed the evolution of the dark component. We examined different contraction speeds as well as different combinations of disk mass and scale lenght. We find that the theoretical prediction for the adiabatic contraction is

  10. Analytical shear and flexion of Einasto dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retana-Montenegro, E.; Frutos-Alfaro, F.; Baes, M.

    2012-10-01

    N-body simulations predict that dark matter haloes are described by specific density profiles on both galactic- and cluster-sized scales. Weak gravitational lensing through the measurements of their first and second order properties, shear and flexion, is a powerful observational tool for investigating the true shape of these profiles. One of the three-parameter density profiles recently favoured in the description of dark matter haloes is the Einasto profile. We present exact expressions for the shear and the first and second flexions of Einasto dark matter haloes derived using a Mellin-transform formalism in terms of the Fox H and Meijer G functions, that are valid for general values of the Einasto index. The resulting expressions can be written as series expansions that permit us to investigate the asymptotic behaviour of these quantities. Moreover, we compare the shear and flexion of the Einasto profile with those of different mass profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, and the Sérsic profile. We investigate the concentration and index dependences of the Einasto profile, finding that the shear and second flexion could be used to determine the halo concentration, whilst for the Einasto index the shear and first and second flexions may be employed. We also provide simplified expressions for the weak lensing properties and other lensing quantities in terms of the generalized hypergeometric function.

  11. Large-scale assembly bias of dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazeyras, Titouan; Musso, Marcello; Schmidt, Fabian

    2017-03-01

    We present precise measurements of the assembly bias of dark matter halos, i.e. the dependence of halo bias on other properties than the mass, using curved "separate universe" N-body simulations which effectively incorporate an infinite-wavelength matter overdensity into the background density. This method measures the LIMD (local-in-matter-density) bias parameters bn in the large-scale limit. We focus on the dependence of the first two Eulerian biases bE1 and bE2 on four halo properties: the concentration, spin, mass accretion rate, and ellipticity. We quantitatively compare our results with previous works in which assembly bias was measured on fairly small scales. Despite this difference, our findings are in good agreement with previous results. We also look at the joint dependence of bias on two halo properties in addition to the mass. Finally, using the excursion set peaks model, we attempt to shed new insights on how assembly bias arises in this analytical model.

  12. Dark matter halo environment for primordial star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Ciardi, B.; Maio, U.; Ferrara, A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical properties (such as shape and spin) of high-z haloes likely hosting the first (PopIII) stars with cosmological simulations including detailed gas physics. In the redshift range considered (11 < z < 16) the average sphericity is = 0.3 ± 0.1, and for more than 90 per cent of haloes the triaxiality parameter is T ≲ 0.4, showing a clear preference for oblateness over prolateness. Larger haloes in the simulation tend to be both more spherical and prolate: we find s∝Mαsh and T∝MαTh, with αs ≈ 0.128 and αT = 0.276 at z = 11. The spin distributions of dark matter and gas are considerably different at z = 16, with the baryons rotating slower than the dark matter. At lower redshift, instead, the spin distributions of dark matter and gas track each other almost perfectly, as a consequence of a longer time interval available for momentum redistribution between the two components. The spin of both the gas and dark matter follows a lognormal distribution, with a mean value at z = 16 of <λ> = 0.0184, virtually independent of halo mass. This is in good agreement with previous studies. Using the results of two feedback models (MT1 and MT2) by McKee & Tan and mapping our halo spin distribution into a PopIII initial mass function (IMF), we find that at high z, the IMF closely tracks the spin lognormal distribution. Depending on the feedback model, though, the distribution can be centred at ≈ 65 M⊙ (MT1) or ≈ 140 M⊙ (MT2). At later times, model MT1 evolves into a bimodal distribution with a second prominent peak located at 35-40 M⊙ as a result of the non-linear relation between rotation and halo mass. We conclude that the dark matter halo properties might be a key factor shaping the IMF of the first stars.

  13. Analytical and numerical studies of dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Crystal Gayle

    This dissertation focuses on the evolution and structure of dark matter halos of galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies. I explore the dependence of the final halo's properties on the initial conditions and the physical processes that guide the halo to equilibrium, with special focus on the power-law nature of the r/s 3 profile, where r is the density profile and s is the velocity dispersion profile. As the astronomy community does not yet fully understand these processes, this research expands our understanding of collisionless, gravitationally-interacting systems. In the initial chapters, I study the collisionless semi-analytic halo simulations and show that the final properties are sensitive to the initial conditions, such as the power-spectra filtering scale, the secondary velocities' magnitudes and directions, and the accretion rate. The general conclusions are that semi-analytic halos are in hydrostatic equilibrium and have a power-law r/s 3 profile. If there were discontinuities in the initial conditions, the power-law feature in r/s 3 breaks. Because of this, hydrostatic equilibrium is a less restrictive condition than the r/s 3 profile. These halos can recover from moderate discontinuities by either correcting a single profile by sacrificing other quantities or by sufficient post-accretion. Finally, I compare collisionless semi-analytic and N-body simulations directly. This novel comparison is useful because these techniques use different physics to collapse the proto-halo. The physical differences between these two methods are used to determine causes of the final halo profiles. Specifically, I find the NFW density profile and power-law r/s 3 are due to the slow rate of evolution, which is determined from the initial conditions and cosmology. The density slope-velocity anisotropy relationship is dependent, rather, on the physical processes (notably the radial orbit instability) and three-dimensional evolution used to collapse the proto-halos. We also

  14. Self-Interacting Dark Matter Halos and the Gravothermal Catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balberg, Shmuel; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Inagaki, Shogo

    2002-04-01

    We study the evolution of an isolated spherical halo of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) in the gravothermal fluid formalism. We show that the thermal relaxation time tr of an SIDM halo with the central density and velocity dispersion of a typical dwarf galaxy is significantly shorter than its age. We find a self-similar solution for the evolution of an SIDM halo in the limit where the mean free path between collisions, λ, is longer than the gravitational scale height H everywhere. Typical halos formed in this long mean free path regime relax to a quasi-stationary gravothermal density profile characterized by a nearly homogeneous core and a power-law halo where ρ~r-2.19. We solve the more general time-dependent problem and show that the contracting core evolves to sufficiently high density that λ inevitably becomes smaller than H in the innermost region. The core undergoes secular collapse to a singular state (the ``gravothermal catastrophe'') in a time tcoll~290tr, which is longer than the Hubble time for a typical dark matter-dominated galaxy core at the present epoch. Our model calculations are consistent with previous more detailed N-body simulations for SIDM, providing a simple physical interpretation of their results and extending them to higher spatial resolution and longer evolution times. At late times, mass loss from the contracting dense inner core to the ambient halo is significantly moderated, so that the final mass of the inner core may be appreciable when it becomes relativistic and radially unstable to dynamical collapse to a black hole.

  15. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Haiman, Zoltán; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with S /N >1 (where S /N is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find ≈50 % fewer counts for peaks near S /N =0 and significantly higher counts in the negative S /N tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within 20% for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the {Ωm,σ8} are ≈30 % larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with 2 3 ). Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14% improvement in parameter constraints. We identified the covariance estimation as the main driver behind differences in inference, and suggest possible ways to make Camelus even more useful as a highly accurate peak count emulator.

  16. Galaxy halos and the nature of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ben

    1995-07-01

    One of the few observational facts that we know about dark matter is that within about one tenth of the virial radius, the dark halos of some galaxies have density profiles which fall with the radius as ρ(r)~rn, where n~=0. Any successful dark matter candidate must be able to reproduce these observations. Cold dark matter (CDM) particles interact primarily by gravity and therefore cluster with no preferred scale, hence galaxy halos are predicted to have singular density profiles with approximately isothermal power law slopes on all scales (Filmore & Goldreich 1984, Bertschinger 1985). The theoretical predictions do not take account of the irregular merging and virialisation processes taking place during structure formation. Therefore, we must compare the observations with numerical N-body simulations which are ideally suited for this type of problem and have just begun to probe structure formation on these scales. The highest resolution simulations (Dubinski & Carlberg 1991, Warren et al. 1992, Carlberg 1993, Crone et al. 1994) produce halo density profiles which fall too steeply to match the data (Moore 1994, Flores & Primack 1994). Moreover, Crone et al. (1994) claim that after correcting for force softening the density profiles match the analytic predictions. If these results are confirmed by higher resolution studies then we can reject the hypothesis that the dark matter is a cold, dissipationless particle. However, there is some disagreement between the results of the above authors and the slightly lower resolution studies of Katz & White (1993) and Navarro, Frenk & White (1994).

  17. A NEW MODEL FOR DARK MATTER HALOS HOSTING QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Renyue; Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher

    2015-01-10

    A new model for quasar-hosting dark matter halos, meeting two physical conditions, is put forth. First, significant interactions are taken into consideration to trigger quasar activities. Second, satellites in very massive halos at low redshift are removed from consideration due to their deficiency in cold gas. We analyze the Millennium Simulation to find halos that meet these two conditions and simultaneously match two-point auto-correlation functions of quasars and cross-correlation functions between quasars and galaxies at z = 0.5-3.2. The masses of the quasar hosts found decrease with decreasing redshift, with the mass thresholds being [(2-5) × 10{sup 12}, (2-5) × 10{sup 11}, (1-3) × 10{sup 11}] M {sub ☉} for median luminosities of ∼[10{sup 46}, 10{sup 46}, 10{sup 45}] erg s{sup –1} at z = (3.2, 1.4, 0.53), respectively, an order of magnitude lower than those inferred based on halo occupation distribution modeling. In this model, quasar hosts are primarily massive central halos at z ≥ 2-3 but increasingly dominated by lower mass satellite halos experiencing major interactions toward lower redshift. However, below z = 1, satellite halos in groups more massive than ∼2 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} do not host quasars. Whether for central or satellite halos, imposing the condition of significant interactions substantially boosts the clustering strength compared to the total population with the same mass cut. The inferred lifetimes of quasars at z = 0.5-3.2 of 3-30 Myr are in agreement with observations. Quasars at z ∼ 2 would be hosted by halos of mass ∼5 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} in this model, compared to ∼3 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} previously thought, which would help reconcile with the observed, otherwise puzzling high covering fractions for Lyman limit systems around quasars.

  18. Chandra's Find of Lonely Halo Raises Questions About Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Dark matter continues to confound astronomers, as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory demonstrated with the detection of an extensive envelope of dark matter around an isolated elliptical galaxy. This discovery conflicts with optical data that suggest a dearth of dark matter around similar galaxies, and raises questions about how galaxies acquire and keep such dark matter halos. The observed galaxy, known as NGC 4555, is unusual in that it is a fairly large, elliptical galaxy that is not part of a group or cluster of galaxies. In a paper to be published in the November 1, 2004 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Ewan O'Sullivan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA and Trevor Ponman of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, use the Chandra data to show that the galaxy is embedded in a cloud of 10-million-degree-Celsius gas. X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 This hot gas cloud has a diameter of about 400,000 light years, about twice that of the visible galaxy. An enormous envelope, or halo, of dark matter is needed to confine the hot cloud to the galaxy. The total mass of the dark matter halo is about ten times the combined mass of the stars in the galaxy, and 300 times the mass of the hot gas cloud. A growing body of evidence indicates that dark matter - which interacts with itself and "normal" matter only through gravity - is the dominant form of matter in the universe. According to the popular "cold dark matter" theory, dark matter consists of mysterious particles left over from the dense early universe that were moving slowly when galaxies and galaxy clusters began to form. "The observed properties of NGC 4555 confirm that elliptical galaxies can posses dark matter halos of their own, regardless of their environment," said O'Sullivan. "This raises an important question: what determines whether elliptical galaxies have dark matter halos?" DSS Optical Image of NGC

  19. The Power Spectrum Dependence of Dark Matter Halo Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eke, Vincent R.; Navarro, Julio F.; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2001-06-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations are used to examine the power spectrum dependence of the concentration of galaxy-sized dark matter halos. It is found that dark halo concentrations depend on the amplitude of mass fluctuations as well as on the ratio of power between small and virial mass scales. This finding is consistent with the original results of Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW) and allows their model to be extended to include power spectra substantially different from cold dark matter (CDM). In particular, the single-parameter model presented here fits the concentration dependence on halo mass for truncated power spectra, such as those expected in the warm dark matter scenario, and predicts a stronger redshift dependence for the concentration of CDM halos than proposed by NFW. The latter conclusion confirms recent suggestions by Bullock and coworkers, although this new modeling differs from theirs in detail. These findings imply that observational limits on the concentration, such as those provided by estimates of the dark matter content within individual galaxies, may be used to constrain the amplitude of mass fluctuations on galactic and subgalactic scales. The constraints on ΛCDM models posed by the dark mass within the solar circle in the Milky Way and by the zero point of the Tully-Fisher relation are revisited, with the result that neither data set is clearly incompatible with the ``concordance'' (Ω0=0.3, Λ0=0.7, σ8=0.9) ΛCDM cosmogony. This conclusion differs from that reached recently by Navarro and Steinmetz, a disagreement that can be traced to inconsistencies in the normalization of the ΛCDM power spectrum used in that work.

  20. Gravitational collapse of Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu

    2014-04-01

    We study the mechanisms of the gravitational collapse of the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos, described by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schrödinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive interparticle interactions. By using a variational approach, and by choosing an appropriate trial wave function, we reformulate the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with spherical symmetry as Newton's equation of motion for a particle in an effective potential, which is determined by the zero-point kinetic energy, the gravitational energy, and the particles interaction energy, respectively. The velocity of the condensate is proportional to the radial distance, with a time-dependent proportionality function. The equation of motion of the collapsing dark matter condensate is studied by using both analytical and numerical methods. The collapse of the condensate ends with the formation of a stable configuration, corresponding to the minimum of the effective potential. The radius and the mass of the resulting dark matter object are obtained, as well as the collapse time of the condensate. The numerical values of these global astrophysical quantities, characterizing condensed dark matter systems, strongly depend on the two parameters describing the condensate, the mass of the dark matter particle, and of the scattering length, respectively. The stability of the condensate under small perturbations is also studied, and the oscillations frequency of the halo is obtained. Hence these results show that the gravitational collapse of the condensed dark matter halos can lead to the formation of stable astrophysical systems with both galactic and stellar sizes.

  1. HMcode: Halo-model matter power spectrum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    HMcode computes the halo-model matter power spectrum. It is written in Fortran90 and has been designed to quickly ( 0.5s for 200 k-values across 16 redshifts on a single core) produce matter spectra for a wide range of cosmological models. In testing it was shown to match spectra produced by the 'Coyote Emulator' to an accuracy of 5 per cent for k less than 10h Mpc^-1. However, it can also produce spectra well outside of the parameter space of the emulator.

  2. Dark matter halo merger histories beyond cold dark matter - I. Methods and application to warm dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Andrew J.; Farahi, Arya; Cole, Shaun; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Jenkins, Adrian; Lovell, Mark; Kennedy, Rachel; Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We describe a methodology to accurately compute halo mass functions, progenitor mass functions, merger rates and merger trees in non-cold dark matter universes using a self-consistent treatment of the generalized extended Press-Schechter formalism. Our approach permits rapid exploration of the subhalo population of galactic haloes in dark matter models with a variety of different particle properties or universes with rolling, truncated or more complicated power spectra. We make detailed comparisons of analytically derived mass functions and merger histories with recent warm dark matter cosmological N-body simulations, and find excellent agreement. We show that once the accretion of smoothly distributed matter is accounted for, coarse-grained statistics such as the mass accretion history of haloes can be almost indistinguishable between cold and warm dark matter cases. However, the halo mass function and progenitor mass functions differ significantly, with the warm dark matter cases being strongly suppressed below the free-streaming scale of the dark matter. We demonstrate the importance of using the correct solution for the excursion set barrier first-crossing distribution in warm dark matter - if the solution for a flat barrier is used instead, the truncation of the halo mass function is much slower, leading to an overestimate of the number of low-mass haloes.

  3. The evolution of the galaxy content of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, S.; Zehavi, I.; Baugh, C. M.; Padilla, N.; Norberg, P.

    2017-03-01

    We use the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework to characterize the predictions from two independent galaxy formation models for the galactic content of dark matter haloes and its evolution with redshift. Our galaxy samples correspond to a range of fixed number densities defined by stellar mass and span 0 ≤ z ≤ 3. We find remarkable similarities between the model predictions. Differences arise at low galaxy number densities which are sensitive to the treatment of heating of the hot halo by active galactic nuclei. The evolution of the form of the HOD can be described in a relatively simple way, and we model each HOD parameter using its value at z = 0 and an additional evolutionary parameter. In particular, we find that the ratio between the characteristic halo masses for hosting central and satellite galaxies can serve as a sensitive diagnostic for galaxy evolution models. Our results can be used to test and develop empirical studies of galaxy evolution, and can facilitate the construction of mock galaxy catalogues for future surveys.

  4. The Dark Matter halo of the Milky Way, AD 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Nesti, Fabrizio; Salucci, Paolo E-mail: salucci@sissa.it

    2013-07-01

    We derive the mass model of the Milky Way (MW), crucial for Dark Matter (DM) direct and indirect detection, using recent data and a cored dark matter (DM) halo profile, which is favoured by studies of external galaxies. The method used consists in fitting a spherically symmetric model of the Galaxy with a Burkert DM halo profile to available data: MW terminal velocities in the region inside the solar circle, circular velocity as recently estimated from maser star forming regions at intermediate radii, and velocity dispersions of stellar halo tracers for the outermost Galactic region. The latter are reproduced by integrating the Jeans equation for every modeled mass distribution, and by allowing for different velocity anisotropies for different tracer populations. For comparison we also consider a Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We find that the cored profile is the preferred one, with a shallow central density of ρ{sub H} ∼ 4 × 10{sup 7}M{sub ☉}/kpc{sup 3} and a large core radius R{sub H} ∼ 10 kpc, as observed in external spirals and in agreement with the mass model underlying the Universal Rotation Curve of spirals. We describe also the derived model uncertainties, which are crucially driven by the poorly constrained velocity dispersion anisotropies of halo tracers. The emerging cored DM distribution has implications for the DM annihilation angular profile, which is much less boosted in the Galactic center direction with respect to the case of the standard ΛCDM, NFW profile. Using the derived uncertainties we discuss finally the limitations and prospects to discriminate between cored and cusped DM profile with a possible observed diffuse DM annihilation signal. The present mass model aims to characterize the present-day description of the distribution of matter in our Galaxy, which is needed to frame current crucial issues of Cosmology, Astrophysics and Elementary Particles.

  5. Precision measurement of the local bias of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Lazeyras, Titouan; Wagner, Christian; Schmidt, Fabian; Baldauf, Tobias E-mail: cwagner@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2016-02-01

    We present accurate measurements of the linear, quadratic, and cubic local bias of dark matter halos, using curved 'separate universe' N-body simulations which effectively incorporate an infinite-wavelength overdensity. This can be seen as an exact implementation of the peak-background split argument. We compare the results with the linear and quadratic bias measured from the halo-matter power spectrum and bispectrum, and find good agreement. On the other hand, the standard peak-background split applied to the Sheth and Tormen (1999) and Tinker et al. (2008) halo mass functions matches the measured linear bias parameter only at the level of 10%. The prediction from the excursion set-peaks approach performs much better, which can be attributed to the stochastic moving barrier employed in the excursion set-peaks prediction. We also provide convenient fitting formulas for the nonlinear bias parameters b{sub 2}(b{sub 1}) and b{sub 3}(b{sub 1}), which work well over a range of redshifts.

  6. Stochastic gravitational wave background from cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Matarrese, Sabino

    2006-03-15

    The current knowledge of cosmological structure formation suggests that Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halos possess a nonspherical density profile, implying that cosmic structures can be potential sources of gravitational waves via power transfer from scalar perturbations to tensor metric modes in the nonlinear regime. By means of a previously developed mathematical formalism and a triaxial collapse model, we numerically estimate the stochastic gravitational-wave background generated by CDM halos during the fully nonlinear stage of their evolution. Our results suggest that the energy density associated with this background is comparable to that produced by primordial tensor modes at frequencies {nu}{approx_equal}10{sup -18}-10{sup -17} Hz if the energy scale of inflation is V{sup 1/4}{approx_equal}1-2x10{sup 15} GeV, and that these gravitational waves could give rise to several cosmological effects, including secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization.

  7. Self-similar infall models for cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Delliou, Morgan Patrick

    2002-04-01

    How can we understand the mechanisms for relaxation and the constitution of the density profile in CDM halo formation? Can the old Self-Similar Infall Model (SSIM) be made to contain all the elements essential for this understanding? In this work, we have explored and improved the SSIM, showing it can at once explain large N-body simulations and indirect observations of real haloes alike. With the use of a carefully-crafted simple shell code, we have followed the accretion of secondary infalls in different settings, ranging from a model for mergers to a distribution of angular momentum for the shells, through the modeling of a central black hole. We did not assume self-similar accretion from initial conditions but allowed for it to develop and used coordinates that make it evident. We found self-similar accretion to appear very prominently in CDM halo formation as an intermediate stable (quasi-equilibrium) stage of Large Scale Structure formation. Dark Matter haloes density profiles are shown to be primarily influenced by non-radial motion. The merger paradigm reveals itself through the SSIM to be a secondary but non-trivial factor in those density profiles: it drives the halo profile towards a unique attractor, but the main factor for universality is still the self-similarity. The innermost density cusp flattening observed in some dwarf and Low Surface Brightness galaxies finds a natural and simple explanation in the SSIM embedding a central black hole. Relaxation in cold collisionless collapse is clarified by the SSIM. It is a continuous process involving only the newly-accreted particles for just a few dynamical times. All memory of initial energy is not lost so relaxation is only moderately violent. A sharp cut off, or population inversion, originates in initial conditions and is maintained through relaxation. It characterises moderately violent relaxation in the system's Distribution Function. Finally, the SSIM has shown this relaxation to arise from phase

  8. Revealing modified gravity signals in matter and halo hierarchical clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Bose, Benjamin; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2017-07-01

    We use a set of N-body simulations employing a modified gravity (MG) model with Vainshtein screening to study matter and halo hierarchical clustering. As test-case scenarios we consider two normal branch Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (nDGP) gravity models with mild and strong growth rate enhancement. We study higher-order correlation functions ξn(R ) up to n =9 and associated reduced cumulants Sn(R )≡ξn(R )/σ (R )2n -2. We find that the matter probability distribution functions are strongly affected by the fifth force on scales up to 50 h-1 Mpc , and the deviations from general relativity (GR) are maximized at z =0 . For reduced cumulants Sn, we find that at small scales R ≤6 h-1 Mpc the MG is characterized by lower values, with the deviation growing from 7% in the reduced skewness up to even 40% in S5. To study the halo clustering we use a simple abundance matching and divide haloes into thee fixed number density samples. The halo two-point functions are weakly affected, with a relative boost of the order of a few percent appearing only at the smallest pair separations (r ≤5 h-1 Mpc ). In contrast, we find a strong MG signal in Sn(R )'s, which are enhanced compared to GR. The strong model exhibits a >3 σ level signal at various scales for all halo samples and in all cumulants. In this context, we find that the reduced kurtosis to be an especially promising cosmological probe of MG. Even the mild nDGP model leaves a 3 σ imprint at small scales R ≤3 h-1 Mpc , while the stronger model deviates from a GR signature at nearly all scales with a significance of >5 σ . Since the signal is persistent in all halo samples and over a range of scales, we advocate that the reduced kurtosis estimated from galaxy catalogs can potentially constitute a strong MG-model discriminatory as well as GR self-consistency test.

  9. HaloSat: A CubeSat to Map the Distribution of Baryonic Matter in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Drew M.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately half of predicted baryonic matter in the Milky Way remains unidentified. One possible explanation for the location of this missing matter is in an extended Galactic halo. HaloSat is a CubeSat that aims to constrain the mass and distribution of the halo’s baryonic matter by obtaining an all-sky map of O VII and O VIII emission in the hot gas associated with the halo of the Milky Way. HaloSat offers an improvement in the quality of measurements of oxygen line emission over existing X-ray observatories and an observation plan dedicated to mapping the hot gas in the Galactic halo. In addition to the missing baryon problem, HaloSat will assign a portion of its observations to the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) in order to calibrate models of SCWX emission. We present here the current status of HaloSat and the progression of instrument development in anticipation of a 2018 launch.

  10. Dynamical evolution of globular clusters in dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, Phil; Varri, Anna Lisa; Penarrubia, Jorge; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2017-06-01

    The formation of globular clusters in a cosmological context is a topical open problem. One possible formation scenario is that globular clusters have formed in their own dark matter halos, and, as a result, some clusters may have retained it to the present day. In such a case, collisional processes taking place in the central regions of globulars may lead to the formation of a tenuous stellar envelope extending far beyond the tidal boundary of the parent cluster.The synergy between the astrometric mission Gaia and forthcoming multi-object spectrographs such as WEAVE will allow us to explore, with unprecedented accuracy, the outer regions of selected Galactic globular clusters, therefore it is particularly timely to consider to what extent the presence of dark matter is consistent with their dynamics and structure at large distances from the cluster centre.Driven by these motivations, we present the results of a series of direct N-body simulations where globular clusters have been evolved self-consistently in a static dark matter potential. Special attention will be given to the exploration of the effects of the dark halo on the traditional phases of the long-term evolution of collisional systems and the dynamical interplay with other fundamental physical ingredients, such as stellar-mass black holes, will be discussed.

  11. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes - II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum, we consider two quenching scenarios: (1) a `halo' quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and (2) a `hybrid' quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass, while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fitting models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above 1011 h-2 M⊙. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not tied to halo mass, including an age-matching model in which galaxy colour depends on halo age at fixed M*, fail to reproduce the observed halo mass for massive blue centrals. We find similar critical halo masses responsible for the quenching of centrals and satellites (˜1.5 × 1012 h-1 M⊙), hinting at a uniform quenching mechanism for both, e.g. the virial shock heating of infalling gas. The success of the iHOD halo quenching model provides strong evidence that the physical mechanism that quenches star formation in galaxies is tied principally to the masses of their dark matter haloes rather than the properties of their stellar components.

  12. Signatures of dark matter halo expansion in galaxy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Chris B.; Di Cintio, Arianna

    2015-10-01

    Dark matter cores within galaxy haloes can be formed by energy feedback from star-forming regions: an energy balance suggests that the maximum core formation efficiency arises in galaxies with Mstar ˜ 108.5 M⊙. We show that a model population of galaxies, in which the density profile has been modified by such baryonic feedback, is able to explain the observed galaxy velocity function and Tully-Fisher relations significantly better than a model in which a universal cuspy density profile is assumed. Alternative models, namely warm or self-interacting dark matter, also provide a better match to these observed relations than a universal profile model does, but make different predictions for how halo density profiles vary with mass compared to the baryonic feedback case. We propose that different core formation mechanisms may be distinguished based on the imprint they leave on galaxy populations over a wide range of mass. Within the current observational data we find evidence of the expected signatures of the mass dependence of core formation generated by baryonic feedback.

  13. Cosmological simulations of decaying dark matter: implications for small-scale structure of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Peter, Annika H. G.; Strigari, Louis E.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Arant, Bryan; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Rocha, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    We present a set of N-body simulations of a class of models in which an unstable dark matter particle decays into a stable dark matter particle and a non-interacting light particle with decay lifetime comparable to the Hubble time. We study the effects of the recoil kick velocity (Vk) received by the stable dark matter on the structures of dark matter haloes ranging from galaxy-cluster to Milky Way-mass scales. For Milky Way-mass haloes, we use high-resolution, zoom-in simulations to explore the effects of decays on Galactic substructure. In general, haloes with circular velocities comparable to the magnitude of kick velocity are most strongly affected by decays. We show that models with lifetimes Γ-1 ˜ H_0^{-1} and recoil speeds Vk ˜ 20-40 km s-1 can significantly reduce both the abundance of Galactic subhaloes and their internal densities. We find that decaying dark matter models that do not violate current astrophysical constraints can significantly mitigate both the `missing satellites problem' and the more recent `too big to fail problem'. These decaying models predict significant time evolution of haloes, and this implies that at high redshifts decaying models exhibit the similar sequence of structure formation as cold dark matter. Thus, decaying dark matter models are significantly less constrained by high-redshift phenomena than warm dark matter models. We conclude that models of decaying dark matter make predictions that are relevant for the interpretation of small galaxies observations in the Local Group and can be tested as well as by forthcoming large-scale surveys.

  14. An MCMC fitting method for triaxial dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corless, Virginia L.; King, Lindsay J.

    2008-11-01

    Measuring the 3D distribution of mass on galaxy cluster scales is a crucial test of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, providing constraints on the behaviour of dark matter. Recent work investigating mass distributions of individual galaxy clusters (e.g. Abell 1689) using weak and strong gravitational lensing has revealed potential inconsistencies between the predictions of structure formation models relating halo mass to concentration and those relationships as measured in massive clusters. However, such analyses employ simple spherical halo models while a growing body of work indicates that triaxial 3D halo structure is both common and important in parameter estimates. Though lensing is sensitive only to 2D projected structure and is thus incapable of independently constraining 3D models, the very strong assumptions about the symmetry of the lensing halo implied with circular or perturbative elliptical Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) models are not physically motivated and lead to incorrect parameter estimates with significantly underestimated error bars. We here introduce a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to fit fully triaxial models to weak lensing data that gives parameter and error estimates that fully incorporate the true uncertainty present in nature. Using weak lensing data alone, the fits are sensitive to the Bayesian priors on axis ratio; we explore the impact of various general and physically motivated priors, and emphasize the need for future work combining lensing data with other data types to fully constrain the 3D structure of galaxy clusters. Applying the MCMC triaxial fitting method to a population of NFW triaxial lenses drawn from the shape distribution of structure formation simulations, we find that including triaxiality cannot explain a population of massive, highly concentrated clusters within the framework of ΛCDM, but easily explains rare cases of apparently massive, highly concentrated, very efficient lensing clusters. Our MCMC

  15. The Impact of Baryonic Physics on the Structure of Dark Matter Halos: the View from the FIRE Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keung Chan, Tsang; Keres, Dusan; Oñorbe, Jose; Hopkins, Philip F.; Muratov, Alexander; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-06-01

    We study the distribution of cold dark matter (CDM) in cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project, which incorporates explicit stellar feedback in the multi-phase ISM, with energetics from stellar population models. We find that stellar feedback, without ``fine-tuned'' parameters, greatly alleviates small-scale problems in CDM. Feedback causes bursts of star formation and outflows, altering the DM distribution. As a result, the inner slope of the DM halo profile (α) shows a strong mass dependence: profiles are shallow at Mh ˜ 1010-1011 M⊙ and steepen at higher/lower masses. The resulting core sizes and slopes are consistent with observations. Because the star formation efficiency, Ms/Mh is strongly halo mass dependent, a rapid change in α occurs around Mh ˜1010M⊙, (Ms˜106-107M⊙) as sufficient feedback energy becomes available to perturb the DM. Large cores are not established during the period of rapid growth of halos because of ongoing DM mass accumulation. Instead, cores require several bursts of star formation after the rapid buildup has completed. Stellar feedback dramatically reduces circular velocities in the inner kpc of massive dwarfs; this could be sufficient to explain the ``Too Big To Fail'' problem without invoking non-standard DM. Finally, feedback and baryonic contraction in Milky Way-mass halos produce DM profiles slightly shallower than the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, consistent with the normalization of the observed Tully-Fisher relation.

  16. THE COSMIC HISTORY OF THE SPIN OF DARK MATTER HALOS WITHIN THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Trowland, Holly E.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-01-10

    We use N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the orientation and magnitude of dark matter halo angular momentum within the large-scale structure since z = 3. We look at the evolution of the alignment of halo spins with filaments and with each other, as well as the spin parameter, which is a measure of the magnitude of angular momentum. It was found that the angular momentum vectors of dark matter halos at high redshift have a weak tendency to be orthogonal to filaments and high-mass halos have a stronger orthogonal alignment than low-mass halos. Since z = 1, the spins of low-mass halos have become weakly aligned parallel to filaments, whereas high-mass halos kept their orthogonal alignment. This recent parallel alignment of low-mass halos casts doubt on tidal torque theory as the sole mechanism for the buildup of angular momentum. We see evidence for bulk flows and the broadening of filaments over time in the alignments of halo spin and velocities. We find a significant alignment of the spin of neighboring dark matter halos only at very small separations, r < 0.3 Mpc h {sup -1}, which is driven by substructure. A correlation of the spin parameter with halo mass is confirmed at high redshift.

  17. The Cosmic History of the Spin of Dark Matter Halos within the Large-scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowland, Holly E.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the orientation and magnitude of dark matter halo angular momentum within the large-scale structure since z = 3. We look at the evolution of the alignment of halo spins with filaments and with each other, as well as the spin parameter, which is a measure of the magnitude of angular momentum. It was found that the angular momentum vectors of dark matter halos at high redshift have a weak tendency to be orthogonal to filaments and high-mass halos have a stronger orthogonal alignment than low-mass halos. Since z = 1, the spins of low-mass halos have become weakly aligned parallel to filaments, whereas high-mass halos kept their orthogonal alignment. This recent parallel alignment of low-mass halos casts doubt on tidal torque theory as the sole mechanism for the buildup of angular momentum. We see evidence for bulk flows and the broadening of filaments over time in the alignments of halo spin and velocities. We find a significant alignment of the spin of neighboring dark matter halos only at very small separations, r < 0.3 Mpc h -1, which is driven by substructure. A correlation of the spin parameter with halo mass is confirmed at high redshift. Research undertaken as part of the Commonwealth Cosmology Initiative (CCI), an international collaboration supported by the Australian Research Council.

  18. Evidence against cuspy dark matter haloes in large galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Davi C.; del Popolo, Antonino; Marra, Valerio; de Oliveira, Paulo L. C.

    2017-09-01

    We develop and apply new techniques to uncover systematic effects in galaxy rotation curves (RCs). Considering that an ideal dark matter (DM) profile should yield RCs that have no bias towards any particular radius, we find that the Burkert DM profile satisfies the test, while the Navarro-Frenk-While (NFW) profile is better at fitting the region between one and two disc scale lengths than the inner disc scale length region. Our sample indicates that this behaviour happens to more than 75 per cent of the galaxies fitted with an NFW halo. Also, this tendency is not weakened by considering large galaxies, for instance those with M* ≳ 1010 M⊙. Besides the tests on the homogeneity of the fits, we also use a sample of 62 galaxies of diverse types to test the quality of the overall fit of each galaxy, and to search for correlations with stellar mass, gas mass and the disc scale length. In particular, we find that only 13 galaxies are better fitted by the NFW halo, and that even for the galaxies with M* ≳ 1010 M⊙, the Burkert profile either fits as well as, or better than, the NFW profile. This result is relevant since different baryonic effects important for the smaller galaxies, like supernova feedback and dynamical friction from baryonic clumps, indicate that at such large stellar masses the NFW profile should be preferred over the Burkert profile. Hence, our results suggest either there is a new baryonic effect or a change to the DM physics is required.

  19. The angular momentum distribution within haloes in different dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. N.; Jing, Y. P.

    2002-10-01

    We study the angular momentum profile of dark matter haloes for a statistical sample drawn from a set of high-resolution cosmological simulations of 2563 particles. Two typical cold dark matter (CDM) models have been analysed, and the haloes are selected to have at least 3 × 104 particles in order to measure the angular momentumprofile reliably. In contrast with the recent claims of Bullock et al., we find that the degree of misalignment of angular momentum within a halo is very high. Approximately 50 per cent of haloes have more than 10 per cent of the halo mass in the mass of negative angular momentum j. After the mass of negative j is excluded, the cumulative mass function M(haloes (~50 per cent) that exhibit systematic deviations from the universal function. Our results, however, are broadly in good agreement with a recent work of van den Bosch et al. We also study the angular momentum profile of haloes in a warm dark matter (WDM) model and a self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) model. We find that the angular momentum profile of haloes in the WDM is statistically indistinguishable from that in the CDM model, but the angular momentum of haloes in the SIDM is reduced by the self-interaction of dark matter.

  20. Fingerprints of the initial conditions on the density profiles of cold and warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polisensky, E.; Ricotti, M.

    2015-06-01

    We use N-body simulations of dark matter haloes in cold dark matter (CDM) and a large set of different warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies to demonstrate that the spherically averaged density profile of dark matter haloes has a shape that depends on the power spectrum of matter perturbations. Density profiles are steeper in WDM but become shallower at r < 0.01Rvir. Virialization isotropizes the velocity dispersion in the inner regions of the halo but does not erase the memory of the initial conditions in phase space. The location of the observed deviations from CDM in the density profile and in phase space can be directly related to the ratio between the halo mass and the filtering mass and are most evident in small mass haloes, even for a 34 keV thermal relic WDM. The rearrangement of mass within the haloes supports analytic models of halo structure that include angular momentum. We also find evidence of a dependence of the slope of the inner density profile in CDM cosmologies on the halo mass with more massive haloes exhibiting steeper profiles, in agreement with the model predictions and with previous simulation results. Our work complements recent studies of microhaloes near the filtering scale in CDM and strongly argue against a universal shape for the density profile.

  1. Detecting the Disruption of Dark-Matter Halos with Stellar Streams.

    PubMed

    Bovy, Jo

    2016-03-25

    Narrow stellar streams in the Milky Way halo are uniquely sensitive to dark-matter subhalos, but many of these subhalos may be tidally disrupted. I calculate the interaction between stellar and dark-matter streams using analytical and N-body calculations, showing that disrupting objects can be detected as low-concentration subhalos. Through this effect, we can constrain the lumpiness of the halo as well as the orbit and present position of individual dark-matter streams. This will have profound implications for the formation of halos and for direct- and indirect-detection dark-matter searches.

  2. Small-scale Substructure in Dark Matter Haloes: Where Does Galaxy Formation Come to an End?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. E.; Silk, J.; Babul, A.

    2004-07-01

    Models of structure formation based on cold dark matter predict that most of the small dark matter haloes that first formed at high redshift would have merged into larger systems by the present epoch. Substructure in present-day haloes preserves the remains of these ancient systems, providing the only direct information we may ever have about the low-mass end of the power spectrum. We describe some recent attempts to model halo substructure down to very small masses, using a semi-analytic model of halo formation. We make a preliminary comparison between the model predictions, observations of substructure in lensed systems, and the properties of local satellite galaxies.

  3. Three-point galaxy-galaxy lensing as a probe of dark matter halo shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Susmita; Chue, Chun Yin Ricky; Dalal, Neal E-mail: chue2@illinois.edu

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the ellipticities of dark matter halos using the lens-shear-shear 3-point correlation function. This method is immune to effects of galaxy-halo misalignments that can potentially limit 2-point galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements of halo anisotropy. Using a simple model for the projected mass distributions of dark matter halos, we construct an ellipticity estimator that sums over all possible triangular configurations of the 3-point function. By applying our estimator to halos from N-body simulations, we find that systematic errors in the recovered ellipticity will be at the ∼< 5% fractional level. We estimate that future imaging surveys like LSST will have sufficient statistics to detect halo ellipticities using 3-point lensing.

  4. The spin and shape of dark matter haloes in the Millennium simulation of a Λ cold dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Philip; Eke, Vincent; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Helly, John; Navarro, Julio

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the spins and shapes of over a million dark matter haloes identified at z = 0 in the Millennium simulation. Our sample spans halo masses ranging from dwarf galaxies to rich galaxy clusters. The very large dynamic range of this Λ cold dark matter cosmological simulation enables the distribution of spins and shapes and their variation with halo mass and environment to be characterized with unprecedented precision. We compare results for haloes identified using three different algorithms, and investigate (and remove) biases in the estimate of angular momentum introduced both by the algorithm itself and by numerical effects. We introduce a novel halo definition called the TREE halo, based on the branches of the halo merger trees, which is more appropriate for comparison with real astronomical objects than the traditional `friends-of-friends' and `spherical overdensity' (SO) algorithms. We find that for this many objects, the traditional lognormal function is no longer an adequate description of the distribution, P(λ), of the dimensionless spin parameter λ, and we provide a different function that gives a better fit for TREE and SO haloes. The variation in spin with halo mass is weak but detectable, although the trend depends strongly on the halo definition used. For the entire population of haloes, we find median values of λmed = 0.0367-0.0429, depending on the definition of a halo. The haloes exhibit a range of shapes, with a preference for prolateness over oblateness. More-massive haloes tend to be less spherical and more prolate. We find that the more-spherical haloes have less coherent rotation in the median, and those closest to being spherical have a spin independent of mass (λmed ~ 0.033). The most-massive haloes have a spin independent of shape (λmed ~ 0.032). The majority of haloes have their angular momentum vector aligned with their minor axis and perpendicular to their major axis. We find a general trend for higher spin haloes to be

  5. CALET's sensitivity to Dark Matter annihilation in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Motz, H.; Asaoka, Y.; Torii, S.; Bhattacharyya, S. E-mail: yoichi.asaoka@aoni.waseda.jp E-mail: saptashwab@ruri.waseda.jp

    2015-12-01

    CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), installed on the ISS in August 2015, directly measures the electron+positron cosmic rays flux up to 20 TeV. With its proton rejection capability of 1 : 10{sup 5} and an aperture of 1200 cm{sup 2·} sr, it will provide good statistics even well above one TeV, while also featuring an energy resolution of 2%, which allows it to detect fine structures in the spectrum. Such structures may originate from Dark Matter annihilation or decay, making indirect Dark Matter search one of CALET's main science objectives among others such as identification of signatures from nearby supernova remnants, study of the heavy nuclei spectra and gamma astronomy. The latest results from AMS-02 on positron fraction and total electron+positron flux can be fitted with a parametrization including a single pulsar as an extra power law source with exponential cut-off, which emits an equal amount of electrons and positrons. This single pulsar scenario for the positron excess is extrapolated into the TeV region and the expected CALET data for this case are simulated. Based on this prediction for CALET data, the sensitivity of CALET to Dark Matter annihilation in the galactic halo has been calculated. It is shown that CALET could significantly improve the limits compared to current data, especially for those Dark Matter candidates that feature a large fraction of annihilation directly into e{sup +} + e{sup −}, such as the LKP (Lightest Kaluza-Klein particle)

  6. DARK MATTER HALO PROFILES OF MASSIVE CLUSTERS: THEORY VERSUS OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2013-03-20

    Dark-matter-dominated cluster-scale halos act as an important cosmological probe and provide a key testing ground for structure formation theory. Focusing on their mass profiles, we have carried out (gravity-only) simulations of the concordance {Lambda}CDM cosmology, covering a mass range of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} and a redshift range of z = 0-2, while satisfying the associated requirements of resolution and statistical control. When fitting to the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, our concentration-mass (c-M) relation differs in normalization and shape in comparison to previous studies that have limited statistics in the upper end of the mass range. We show that the flattening of the c-M relation with redshift is naturally expressed if c is viewed as a function of the peak height parameter, {nu}. Unlike the c-M relation, the slope of the c-{nu} relation is effectively constant over the redshift range z = 0-2, while the amplitude varies by {approx}30% for massive clusters. This relation is, however, not universal: using a simulation suite covering the allowed wCDM parameter space, we show that the c-{nu} relation varies by about {+-}20% as cosmological parameters are varied. At fixed mass, the c(M) distribution is well fit by a Gaussian with {sigma}{sub c}/(c) {approx_equal} 1/3, independent of the radius at which the concentration is defined, the halo dynamical state, and the underlying cosmology. We compare the {Lambda}CDM predictions with observations of halo concentrations from strong lensing, weak lensing, galaxy kinematics, and X-ray data, finding good agreement for massive clusters (M{sub vir} > 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }), but with some disagreements at lower masses. Because of uncertainty in observational systematics and modeling of baryonic physics, the significance of these discrepancies remains unclear.

  7. The impact of baryonic physics on the structure of dark matter haloes: the view from the FIRE cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. K.; Kereš, D.; Oñorbe, J.; Hopkins, P. F.; Muratov, A. L.; Faucher-Giguère, C.-A.; Quataert, E.

    2015-12-01

    We study the distribution of cold dark matter (CDM) in cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project, for M* ˜ 104-11 M⊙ galaxies in Mh ˜ 109-12 M⊙ haloes. FIRE incorporates explicit stellar feedback in the multiphase interstellar medium, with energetics from stellar population models. We find that stellar feedback, without `fine-tuned' parameters, greatly alleviates small-scale problems in CDM. Feedback causes bursts of star formation and outflows, altering the DM distribution. As a result, the inner slope of the DM halo profile (α) shows a strong mass dependence: profiles are shallow at Mh ˜ 1010-1011 M⊙ and steepen at higher/lower masses. The resulting core sizes and slopes are consistent with observations. This is broadly consistent with previous work using simpler feedback schemes, but we find steeper mass dependence of α, and relatively late growth of cores. Because the star formation efficiency M*/Mh is strongly halo mass dependent, a rapid change in α occurs around Mh ˜ 1010 M⊙ (M* ˜ 106-107 M⊙), as sufficient feedback energy becomes available to perturb the DM. Large cores are not established during the period of rapid growth of haloes because of ongoing DM mass accumulation. Instead, cores require several bursts of star formation after the rapid build-up has completed. Stellar feedback dramatically reduces circular velocities in the inner kpc of massive dwarfs; this could be sufficient to explain the `Too Big To Fail' problem without invoking non-standard DM. Finally, feedback and baryonic contraction in Milky Way-mass haloes produce DM profiles slightly shallower than the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, consistent with the normalization of the observed Tully-Fisher relation.

  8. Evidence of lensing of the cosmic microwave background by dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Madhavacheril, Mathew; Sehgal, Neelima; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Caligiuri, Jerod; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Fogarty, Kevin; Grace, Emily; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-04-17

    We present evidence of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by 10(13) solar mass dark matter halos. Lensing convergence maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) are stacked at the positions of around 12 000 optically selected CMASS galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The mean lensing signal is consistent with simulated dark matter halo profiles and is favored over a null signal at 3.2σ significance. This result demonstrates the potential of microwave background lensing to probe the dark matter distribution in galaxy group and galaxy cluster halos.

  9. Effect of dark matter halo on global spiral modes in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumavo; Saini, Tarun Deep; Jog, Chanda J.

    2016-02-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies form a major class of galaxies, and are characterized by low disc surface density and low star formation rate. These are known to be dominated by dark matter halo from the innermost regions. Here, we study the role of the dark matter halo on the grand-design, m = 2, spiral modes in a galactic disc by carrying out a global mode analysis in the WKB approximation. The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule is used to determine how many discrete global spiral modes are permitted. First, a typical superthin, LSB galaxy UGC 7321 is studied by taking only the galactic disc, modelled as a fluid; and then the disc embedded in a dark matter halo. We find that both cases permit the existence of global spiral modes. This is in contrast to earlier results where the inclusion of dark matter halo was shown to nearly fully suppress local, swing-amplified spiral features. Although technically global modes are permitted in the fluid model as shown here, we argue that due to lack of tidal interactions, these are not triggered in LSB galaxies. For comparison, we carried out a similar analysis for the Galaxy, for which the dark matter halo does not dominate in the inner regions. We show that here too the dark matter halo has little effect, hence the disc embedded in a halo is also able to support global modes. The derived pattern speed of the global mode agrees fairly well with the observed value for the Galaxy.

  10. Baryonic impact on the dark matter orbital properties of Milky Way-sized haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qirong; Hernquist, Lars; Marinacci, Federico; Springel, Volker; Li, Yuexing

    2017-04-01

    We study the orbital properties of dark matter haloes by combining a spectral method and cosmological simulations of Milky Way-sized Galaxies. We compare the dynamics and orbits of individual dark matter particles from both hydrodynamic and N-body simulations, and find that the fraction of box, tube and resonant orbits of the dark matter halo decreases significantly due to the effects of baryons. In particular, the central region of the dark matter halo in the hydrodynamic simulation is dominated by regular, short-axis tube orbits, in contrast to the chaotic, box and thin orbits dominant in the N-body run. This leads to a more spherical dark matter halo in the hydrodynamic run compared to a prolate one as commonly seen in the N-body simulations. Furthermore, by using a kernel-based density estimator, we compare the coarse-grained phase-space densities of dark matter haloes in both simulations and find that it is lower by ˜0.5 dex in the hydrodynamic run due to changes in the angular momentum distribution, which indicates that the baryonic process that affects the dark matter is irreversible. Our results imply that baryons play an important role in determining the shape, kinematics and phase-space density of dark matter haloes in galaxies.

  11. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly

    2017-08-01

    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (<2 per cent level) model of the distinct halo mass function. We also model the subhalo mass function and its relation to the distinct halo mass function. The set of models obtained provides a complete and precise framework for the description of haloes in the concordance Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z < 2.3 to push for the development of halo occupation distribution using Vmax. The data and the analysis code are made publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  12. MultiDark simulations: the story of dark matter halo concentrations and density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Prada, Francisco; Heß, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Predicting structural properties of dark matter haloes is one of the fundamental goals of modern cosmology. We use the suite of MultiDark cosmological simulations to study the evolution of dark matter halo density profiles, concentrations, and velocity anisotropies. We find that in order to understand the structure of dark matter haloes and to make 1-2 per cent accurate predictions for density profiles, one needs to realize that halo concentration is more complex than the ratio of the virial radius to the core radius in the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. For massive haloes, the average density profile is far from the NFW shape and the concentration is defined by both the core radius and the shape parameter α in the Einasto approximation. We show that haloes progress through three stages of evolution. They start as rare density peaks and experience fast and nearly radial infall that brings mass closer to the centre, producing a highly concentrated halo. Here, the halo concentration increases with increasing halo mass and the concentration is defined by the α parameter with a nearly constant core radius. Later haloes slide into the plateau regime where the accretion becomes less radial, but frequent mergers still affect even the central region. At this stage, the concentration does not depend on halo mass. Once the rate of accretion and merging slows down, haloes move into the domain of declining concentration-mass relation because new accretion piles up mass close to the virial radius while the core radius is staying constant. Accurate analytical fits are provided.

  13. Hierarchical phase space structure of dark matter haloes: Tidal debris, caustics, and dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Mohayaee, Roya; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2009-04-15

    Most of the mass content of dark matter haloes is expected to be in the form of tidal debris. The density of debris is not constant, but rather can grow due to formation of caustics at the apocenters and pericenters of the orbit, or decay as a result of phase mixing. In the phase space, the debris assemble in a hierarchy that is truncated by the primordial temperature of dark matter. Understanding this phase structure can be of significant importance for the interpretation of many astrophysical observations and, in particular, dark matter detection experiments. With this purpose in mind, we develop a general theoretical framework to describe the hierarchical structure of the phase space of cold dark matter haloes. We do not make any assumption of spherical symmetry and/or smooth and continuous accretion. Instead, working with correlation functions in the action-angle space, we can fully account for the hierarchical structure (predicting a two-point correlation function {proportional_to}{delta}J{sup -1.6} in the action space), as well as the primordial discreteness of the phase space. As an application, we estimate the boost to the dark matter annihilation signal due to the structure of the phase space within virial radius: the boost due to the hierarchical tidal debris is of order unity, whereas the primordial discreteness of the phase structure can boost the total annihilation signal by up to an order of magnitude. The latter is dominated by the regions beyond 20% of the virial radius, and is largest for the recently formed haloes with the least degree of phase mixing. Nevertheless, as we argue in a companion paper, the boost due to small gravitationally-bound substructure can dominate this effect at low redshifts.

  14. THE LARGE-SCALE BIAS OF DARK MATTER HALOS: NUMERICAL CALIBRATION AND MODEL TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Robertson, Brant E.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Klypin, Anatoly; Warren, Michael S.; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    We measure the clustering of dark matter halos in a large set of collisionless cosmological simulations of the flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology. Halos are identified using the spherical overdensity algorithm, which finds the mass around isolated peaks in the density field such that the mean density is {Delta} times the background. We calibrate fitting functions for the large-scale bias that are adaptable to any value of {Delta} we examine. We find a {approx}6% scatter about our best-fit bias relation. Our fitting functions couple to the halo mass functions of Tinker et al. such that the bias of all dark matter is normalized to unity. We demonstrate that the bias of massive, rare halos is higher than that predicted in the modified ellipsoidal collapse model of Sheth et al. and approaches the predictions of the spherical collapse model for the rarest halos. Halo bias results based on friends-of-friends halos identified with linking length 0.2 are systematically lower than for halos with the canonical {Delta} = 200 overdensity by {approx}10%. In contrast to our previous results on the mass function, we find that the universal bias function evolves very weakly with redshift, if at all. We use our numerical results, both for the mass function and the bias relation, to test the peak-background split model for halo bias. We find that the peak-background split achieves a reasonable agreement with the numerical results, but {approx}20% residuals remain, both at high and low masses.

  15. Hierarchical formation of dark matter halos and the free streaming scale

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2014-06-10

    The smallest dark matter halos are formed first in the early universe. According to recent studies, the central density cusp is much steeper in these halos than in larger halos and scales as ρ∝r {sup –(1.5-1.3)}. We present the results of very large cosmological N-body simulations of the hierarchical formation and evolution of halos over a wide mass range, beginning from the formation of the smallest halos. We confirmed early studies that the inner density cusps are steeper in halos at the free streaming scale. The cusp slope gradually becomes shallower as the halo mass increases. The slope of halos 50 times more massive than the smallest halo is approximately –1.3. No strong correlation exists between the inner slope and the collapse epoch. The cusp slope of halos above the free streaming scale seems to be reduced primarily due to major merger processes. The concentration, estimated at the present universe, is predicted to be 60-70, consistent with theoretical models and earlier simulations, and ruling out simple power law mass-concentration relations. Microhalos could still exist in the present universe with the same steep density profiles.

  16. DETECTING TRIAXIALITY IN THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO THROUGH STELLAR KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas-Nino, Armando; Valenzuela, Octavio; Pichardo, Barbara; Aguilar, Luis A. E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx

    2012-10-01

    Assuming the dark matter halo of the Milky Way to be a non-spherical potential (i.e., triaxial, prolate, oblate), we show how the assembling process of the Milky Way halo may have left long-lasting stellar halo kinematic fossils due to the shape of the dark matter halo. In contrast with tidal streams, which are associated with recent satellite accretion events, these stellar kinematic groups will typically show inhomogeneous chemical and stellar population properties. However, they may be dominated by a single accretion event for certain mass assembling histories. If the detection of these peculiar kinematic stellar groups were confirmed, they would be the smoking gun for the predicted triaxiality of dark halos in cosmological galaxy formation scenarios.

  17. Concentration, spin and shape of dark matter haloes: scatter and the dependence on mass and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macciò, Andrea V.; Dutton, Aaron A.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Moore, Ben; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    We use a series of cosmological N-body simulations for a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology to investigate the structural properties of dark matter haloes, at redshift zero, in the mass range 3 × 109h-1 <~ Mvir <~ 3 × 1013h-1Msolar. These properties include the concentration parameter, c, the spin parameter, λ, and the mean axis ratio, . For the concentration-mass relation we find c ~ M-0.11vir in agreement with the model proposed by Bullock et al., but inconsistent with the alternative model of Eke et al. The normalization of the concentration-mass relation, however, is 15 per cent lower than suggested by Bullock et al. The results for λ and are in good agreement with previous studies, when extrapolated to the lower halo masses probed here, while c and λ are anticorrelated, in that high-spin haloes have, on average, lower concentrations. In an attempt to remove unrelaxed haloes from the sample, we compute for each halo the offset parameter, xoff, defined as the distance between the most bound particle and the centre of mass, in units of the virial radius. Removing haloes with large xoff increases the mean concentration by ~10 per cent, lowers the mean spin parameter by ~15 per cent, and removes the most prolate haloes. In addition, it largely removes the anticorrelation between c and λ, though not entirely. We also investigate the relation between halo properties and their large-scale environment density. For low-mass haloes we find that more concentrated haloes live in denser environments than their less concentrated counterparts of the same mass, consistent with recent correlation function analyses. Note, however, that the trend is weak compared to the scatter. For the halo spin parameters we find no environment dependence, while there is a weak indication that the most spherical haloes reside in slightly denser environments. Finally, using a simple model for disc galaxy formation we show that haloes that host low surface brightness galaxies are

  18. THE SPIN AND ORIENTATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS WITHIN COSMIC FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Youcai; Yang Xiaohu; Lin Weipeng; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Springel, Volker; Wang Huiyuan

    2009-11-20

    Clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids are the building blocks of the cosmic web. Forming dark matter halos respond to these different large-scale environments, and this in turn affects the properties of galaxies hosted by the halos. It is therefore important to understand the systematic correlations of halo properties with the morphology of the cosmic web, as this informs both about galaxy formation physics and possible systematics of weak lensing studies. In this study, we present and compare two distinct algorithms for finding cosmic filaments and sheets, a task which is far less well established than the identification of dark matter halos or voids. One method is based on the smoothed dark matter density field and the other uses the halo distributions directly. We apply both techniques to one high-resolution N-body simulation and reconstruct the filamentary/sheet like network of the dark matter density field. We focus on investigating the properties of the dark matter halos inside these structures, in particular, on the directions of their spins and the orientation of their shapes with respect to the directions of the filaments and sheets. We find that both the spin and the major axes of filament halos with masses approx<10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub sun} are preferentially aligned with the direction of the filaments. The spins and major axes of halos in sheets tend to lie parallel to the sheets. There is an opposite mass dependence of the alignment strength for the spin (negative) and major (positive) axes, i.e. with increasing halo mass the major axis tends to be more strongly aligned with the direction of the filament, whereas the alignment between halo spin and filament becomes weaker with increasing halo mass. The alignment strength as a function of the distance to the most massive node halo indicates that there is a transit large-scale environment impact: from the two-dimensional collapse phase of the filament to the three-dimensional collapse phase of the

  19. Correlation Analysis between Spin, Velocity Shear, and Vorticity of Baryonic and Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L. L.

    2016-05-01

    Using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the alignments between velocity shear, vorticity, and the spin of dark matter halos, and study the correlation between baryonic and dark matter. We find that (1) mis-alignment between vorticity of baryonic and dark matter would develop on scales < 0.2h-1 Mpc; (2) the vorticity of baryonic matter exhibits stronger alignment/anti-alignment with the eigenvectors of velocity shear than that of dark matter; (3) small/massive halos spinning parallel/perpendicular to the host filaments are sensitive to the identification of cosmic web, simulation box size, and resolution. These factors might complicate the connection between the spins of dark matter halos and galaxies, and affect the correlation signal of the alignments of galaxy spin with nearby large-scale structures.

  20. How does gas cool in dark matter haloes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, M.; Monaco, P.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Tornatore, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the process of cooling in dark matter haloes and assess how well simple models can represent it, we run a set of radiative smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of isolated haloes, with gas sitting initially in hydrostatic equilibrium within Navarro-Frenk-White potential wells. Simulations include radiative cooling and a scheme to convert high-density cold gas particles into collisionless stars, neglecting any astrophysical source of energy feedback. After having assessed the numerical stability of the simulations, we compare the resulting evolution of the cooled mass with the predictions of the classical cooling model of White & Frenk and of the cooling model proposed in the MORGANA code of galaxy formation. We find that the classical model predicts fractions of cooled mass which, after about 2 central cooling times, are about one order of magnitude smaller than those found in simulations. Although this difference decreases with time, after 8 central cooling times, when simulations are stopped, the difference still amounts to a factor of 2-3. We ascribe this difference to the lack of validity of the assumption that a mass shell takes one cooling time, as computed on the initial conditions, to cool to very low temperature. Indeed, we find from simulations that cooling SPH particles take most time in travelling, at roughly constant temperature and increasing density, from their initial position to a central cooling region, where they quickly cool down to ~104 K. We show that in this case the total cooling time is shorter than that computed on the initial conditions, as a consequence of the stronger radiative losses associated to the higher density experienced by these particles. As a consequence the mass cooling flow is stronger than that predicted by the classical model. The MORGANA model, which computes the cooling rate as an integral over the contribution of cooling shells and does not make assumptions on the time needed by shells to

  1. The Origin of Angular Momentum in Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvitska, Maya; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Primack, Joel R.; Bullock, James S.

    2002-12-01

    We propose a new explanation for the origin of angular momentum in galaxies and their dark halos, in which the halos obtain their spin through the cumulative acquisition of angular momentum from satellite accretion. In our model, the buildup of angular momentum is a random walk process associated with the mass assembly history of the halo's major progenitor. We assume no correlation between the angular momenta of accreted objects. The main role of tidal torques in this approach is to produce the random tangential velocities of merging satellites. Using the extended Press-Schechter approximation, we calculate the growth of mass, angular momentum, and spin parameter λ for many halos. Our random walk model reproduces the key features of the angular momentum of halos found in ΛCDM N-body simulations: a lognormal distribution in λ with an average of <λ>~0.045 and dispersion σλ=0.56, independent of mass and redshift. The evolution of the spin parameter in individual halos in this model is quite different from the steady increase with time of angular momentum in the tidal torque picture. We find both in N-body simulations and in our random walk model that the value of λ changes significantly with time for a halo's major progenitor. It typically has a sharp increase due to major mergers and a steady decline during periods of gradual accretion of small satellites. The model predicts that, on average, the λ of ~1012 Msolar halos that had major mergers after redshift z=3 should be substantially larger than the λ of those that did not. Perhaps surprisingly, this suggests that halos that host later forming elliptical galaxies should rotate faster than halos of spiral galaxies.

  2. The clustering of dark matter haloes: scale-dependent bias on quasi-linear scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Charles; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the spatial clustering of dark matter haloes, collapsing from 1σ-4σ fluctuations, in the redshift range 0-5 using N-body simulations. The halo bias of high redshift haloes (z ≥ 2) is found to be strongly nonlinear and scale dependent on quasi-linear scales that are larger than their virial radii (0.5-10 Mpc h-1). However, at lower redshifts, the scale dependence of nonlinear bias is weaker and is of the order of a few per cent on quasi-linear scales at z ˜ 0. We find that the redshift evolution of the scale-dependent bias of dark matter haloes can be expressed as a function of four physical parameters: the peak height of haloes, the nonlinear matter correlation function at the scale of interest, an effective power-law index of the rms linear density fluctuations and the matter density of the universe at the given redshift. This suggests that the scale dependence of halo bias is not a universal function of the dark matter power spectrum, which is commonly assumed. We provide a fitting function for the scale-dependent halo bias as a function of these four parameters. Our fit reproduces the simulation results to an accuracy of better than 4 per cent over the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 5. We also extend our model by expressing the nonlinear bias as a function of the linear matter correlation function. It is important to incorporate our results into the clustering models of dark matter haloes at any redshift, including those hosting early generations of stars and galaxies before reionization.

  3. THE GROWTH OF GALAXY STELLAR MASS WITHIN DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Zehavi, Idit; Patiri, Santiago; Zheng Zheng

    2012-02-20

    We study the evolution of stellar mass in galaxies as a function of host halo mass, using the 'MPA' and 'Durham' semi-analytic models, implemented on the Millennium Run simulation. For both models, the stellar mass of the central galaxies increases rapidly with halo mass at the low-mass end and more slowly in halos of larger masses at the three redshifts probed (z {approx} 0, 1, 2). About 45% of the stellar mass in central galaxies in present-day halos less massive than {approx}10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} is already in place at z {approx} 1, and this fraction increases to {approx}65% for more massive halos. The baryon conversion efficiency into stars has a peaked distribution with halo mass, and the peak location shifts toward lower mass from z {approx} 1 to z {approx} 0. The stellar mass in low-mass halos grows mostly by star formation since z {approx} 1, while in high-mass halos most of the stellar mass is assembled by mergers, reminiscent of 'downsizing'. We compare our findings to empirical results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and DEEP2 surveys utilizing galaxy clustering measurements to study galaxy evolution. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with these phenomenological results, but there are large discrepancies. The most significant one concerns the number of stars already in place in the progenitor galaxies at z {approx} 1, which is about a factor of two larger in both semi-analytic models. We demonstrate that methods studying galaxy evolution from the galaxy-halo connection are powerful in constraining theoretical models and can guide future efforts of modeling galaxy evolution. Conversely, semi-analytic models serve an important role in improving such methods.

  4. THE GROWTH OF DARK MATTER HALOS: EVIDENCE FOR SIGNIFICANT SMOOTH ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Genel, Shy; Bouche, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Naab, Thorsten; Sternberg, Amiel E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.d E-mail: naab@mpa-garching.mpg.d

    2010-08-10

    We study the growth of dark matter halos in the concordance {Lambda}CDM cosmology using several N-body simulations of large cosmological volumes. We construct merger trees from the Millennium and Millennium-II Simulations, covering the ranges 10{sup 9}-10{sup 15} M {sub sun} in halo mass and 1-10{sup 5} in merger mass ratio. Our algorithm takes special care of halo fragmentation and ensures that the mass contribution of each merger to halo growth is only counted once. This way the integrated merger rate converges and we can consistently determine the contribution of mergers of different mass ratios to halo growth. We find that all resolved mergers, up to mass ratios of 10{sup 5}:1, contribute only {approx}60% of the total halo mass growth, while major mergers are subdominant, e.g., mergers with mass ratios smaller than 3:1 (10:1) contribute only {approx}20% ({approx}30%). This is verified with an analysis of two additional simulation boxes, where we follow all particles individually throughout cosmic time. Our results are also robust against using several halo definitions. Under the assumption that the power-law behavior of the merger rate at large mass ratios can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large mass ratios, it is found that, independent of halo mass, {approx}40% of the mass in halos comes from genuinely smooth accretion of dark matter that was never bound in smaller halos. We discuss possible implications of our findings for galaxy formation. One implication, assuming as is standard that the pristine intergalactic medium is heated and photoionized by UV photons, is that all halos accrete >40% of their baryons in smooth 'cold' T {approx}> 10{sup 4} K gas, rather than as warm, enriched, or clumpy gas or as stars.

  5. Correlation Analysis between Spin, Velocity Shear, and Vorticity of Baryonic and Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-li, Liu

    2017-04-01

    Based on the cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the correlations between the spin, velocity shear and vorticity in dark matter halos, as well as the relationship between the baryonic matter and the dark matter. We find that (1) the difference between the vorticity of baryonic matter and that of dark matter is evident on the scales of < 0.2 h-1 Mpc; (2) the vorticity of baryonic matter exhibits a stronger correlation with the tensor of velocity shear than the vorticity of dark matter does; and (3) the spinning direction of small-mass dark matter halos tends to be parallel to the direction of their host filaments, while the spinning direction of massive dark matter halos tends to be perpendicular to the direction of their host filaments, and the intensity of this kind correlation depends on the size of simulation box, and the simulation accuracy. These factors may cause the relationship between the the spins of dark matter halos and those of galaxies to be complicated, and affect the correlation between the galaxy spins and the nearby large-scale structures.

  6. The mass-concentration-redshift relation of cold and warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bose, Sownak; Angulo, Raúl E.; Wang, Lan; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-08-01

    We use a suite of cosmological simulations to study the mass-concentration-redshift relation, c(M, z), of dark matter haloes. Our simulations include standard Λ-cold dark matter (CDM) models, and additional runs with truncated power spectra, consistent with a thermal warm dark matter (WDM) scenario. We find that the mass profiles of CDM and WDM haloes are self-similar and well approximated by the Einasto profile. The c(M, z) relation of CDM haloes is monotonic: concentrations decrease with increasing virial mass at fixed redshift, and decrease with increasing redshift at fixed mass. The mass accretion histories (MAHs) of CDM haloes are also scale-free, and can be used to infer concentrations directly. These results do not apply to WDM haloes: their MAHs are not scale-free because of the characteristic scale imposed by the power spectrum suppression. Further, the WDM c(M, z) relation is non-monotonic: concentrations peak at a mass scale dictated by the truncation scale, and decrease at higher and lower masses. We show that the assembly history of a halo can still be used to infer its concentration, provided that the total mass of its progenitors is considered (the `collapsed mass history'; CMH), rather than just that of its main ancestor. This exploits the scale-free nature of CMHs to derive a simple scaling that reproduces the mass-concentration-redshift relation of both CDM and WDM haloes over a vast range of halo masses and redshifts. Our model therefore provides a robust account of the mass, redshift, cosmology and power spectrum dependence of dark matter halo concentrations.

  7. Response of Dark Matter Halos to Condensation of Baryons: Cosmological Simulations and Improved Adiabatic Contraction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2004-11-01

    The cooling of gas in the centers of dark matter halos is expected to lead to a more concentrated dark matter distribution. The response of dark matter to the condensation of baryons is usually calculated using the model of adiabatic contraction, which assumes spherical symmetry and circular orbits. In contrast, halos in the hierarchical structure formation scenarios grow via multiple violent mergers and accretion along filaments, and particle orbits in the halos are highly eccentric. We study the effects of the cooling of gas in the inner regions of halos using high-resolution cosmological simulations that include gas dynamics, radiative cooling, and star formation. We find that the dissipation of gas indeed increases the density of dark matter and steepens its radial profile in the inner regions of halos compared to the case without cooling. For the first time, we test the adiabatic contraction model in cosmological simulations and find that the standard model systematically overpredicts the increase of dark matter density in the inner 5% of the virial radius. We show that the model can be improved by a simple modification of the assumed invariant from M(r)r to M(r)r, where r and r are the current and orbit-averaged particle positions. This modification approximately accounts for orbital eccentricities of particles and reproduces simulation profiles to within 10%-20%. We present analytical fitting functions that accurately describe the transformation of the dark matter profile in the modified model and can be used for interpretation of observations.

  8. DETECTING TRIAXIALITY IN THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO THROUGH STELLAR KINEMATICS. II. DEPENDENCE ON NATURE DARK MATTER AND GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas-Niño, Armando; Pichardo, Barbara; Valenzuela, Octavio; Martínez-Medina, Luis A. E-mail: octavio@astro.unam.mx

    2015-05-20

    Recent studies have presented evidence that the Milky Way global potential may be non-spherical. In this case, the assembling process of the Galaxy may have left long-lasting stellar halo kinematic fossils due to the shape of the dark matter halo, potentially originated by orbital resonances. We further investigate such a possibility, now considering potential models further away from ΛCDM halos, like scalar field dark matter halos and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and including several other factors that may mimic the emergence and permanence of kinematic groups, such as a spherical and triaxial halo with an embedded disk potential. We find that regardless of the density profile (DM nature), kinematic groups only appear in the presence of a triaxial halo potential. For the case of a MOND-like gravity theory no kinematic structure is present. We conclude that the detection of these kinematic stellar groups could confirm the predicted triaxiality of dark halos in cosmological galaxy formation scenarios.

  9. Testing the Caustic Ring Dark Matter Halo Model Against Observations in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Julie; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Niedzielski, Bethany; Susser, Adam; Thompson, Jeffery M.; Weiss, Jake; Lewis, Kim M.

    2016-06-01

    One prediction of axion dark matter models is they can form Bose-Einstein condensates and rigid caustic rings as a halo collapses in the non-linear regime. In this thesis, we undertake the first study of a caustic ring model for the Milky Way halo (Duffy & Sikivie 2008), paying particular attention to observational consequences. We first present the formalism for calculating the gravitational acceleration of a caustic ring halo. The caustic ring dark matter theory reproduces a roughly logarithmic halo, with large perturbations near the rings. We show that this halo can reasonably match the known Galactic rotation curve. We are not able to confirm or rule out an association between the positions of the caustic rings and oscillations in the observed rotation curve, due to insufficient rotation curve data. We explore the effects of dark matter caustic rings on dwarf galaxy tidal disruption with N-body simulations. Simulations of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy in a caustic ring halo potential, with disk and bulge parameters that are tuned to match the Galactic rotation curve, match observations of the Sgr trailing tidal tails as far as 90 kpc from the Galactic center. Like the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) halo, they are, however, unable to match the leading tidal tail. None of the caustic, NFW, or triaxial logarithmic halos are able to simultaneously match observations of the leading and trailing arms of the Sagittarius stream. We further show that simulations of dwarf galaxies that move through caustic rings are qualitatively similar to those moving in a logarithmic halo. This research was funded by NSF grant AST 10-09670, the NASA-NY Space Grant, and the American Fellowship from AAUW.

  10. Statistics of dark matter halos in the excursion set peak framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Danese, L. E-mail: danese@sissa.it

    2014-07-01

    We derive approximated, yet very accurate analytical expressions for the abundance and clustering properties of dark matter halos in the excursion set peak framework; the latter relies on the standard excursion set approach, but also includes the effects of a realistic filtering of the density field, a mass-dependent threshold for collapse, and the prescription from peak theory that halos tend to form around density maxima. We find that our approximations work excellently for diverse power spectra, collapse thresholds and density filters. Moreover, when adopting a cold dark matter power spectra, a tophat filtering and a mass-dependent collapse threshold (supplemented with conceivable scatter), our approximated halo mass function and halo bias represent very well the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations.

  11. Gravothermal collapse of self-interacting dark matter halos and the origin of massive black holes.

    PubMed

    Balberg, Shmuel; Shapiro, Stuart L

    2002-03-11

    Black hole formation is an inevitable consequence of relativistic core collapse following the gravothermal catastrophe in self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) halos. Very massive SIDM halos form supermassive black holes (SMBHs) > or about 10(6)M(middle dot in circle) directly. Smaller halos believed to form by redshift z = 5 produce seed black holes of (10(2)-10(3))M(middle dot in circle) which can merge and/or accrete to reach the observational SMBH range. This scenario for SMBH formation requires no baryons, no prior star formation, and no other black hole seed mechanism.

  12. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  13. The behaviour of shape and velocity anisotropy in dark matter haloes

    SciTech Connect

    Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H. E-mail: hansen@dark-cosmology.dk

    2012-10-01

    Dark matter haloes from cosmological N-body simulations typically have triaxial shapes and anisotropic velocity distributions. Recently it has been shown that the velocity anisotropy, β, of cosmological haloes and major merger remnants depend on direction in such a way that β is largest along the major axis and smallest along the minor axis. In this work we use a wide range of non-cosmological N-body simulations to examine halo shapes and direction-dependence of velocity anisotropy profiles. For each of our simulated haloes we define 48 cones pointing in different directions, and from the particles inside each cone we compute velocity anisotropy profiles. We find that elongated haloes can have very distinct velocity anisotropies. We group the behaviour of haloes into three different categories, that range from spherically symmetric profiles to a much more complex behaviour, where significant differences are found for β along the major and minor axes. We encourage future studies of velocity anisotropies in haloes from cosmological simulations to calculate β-profiles in cones, since it reveals information, which is hidden from a spherically averaged profile. Finally, we show that spherically averaged profiles often obey a linear relation between β and the logarithmic density slope in the inner parts of haloes, but this relation is not necessarily obeyed, when properties are calculated in cones.

  14. The mass function of unprocessed dark matter haloes and merger tree branching rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Andrew J.

    2017-05-01

    A common approach in semi-analytic modelling of galaxy formation is to construct Monte Carlo realizations of merger histories of dark matter haloes whose masses are sampled from a halo mass function. Both the mass function itself and the merger rates used to construct merging histories are calibrated to N-body simulations. Typically, 'backsplash' haloes (those which were once subhaloes within a larger halo, but which have since moved outside of the halo) are counted in both the halo mass functions and in the merger rates (or, equivalently, progenitor mass functions). This leads to a double counting of mass in Monte Carlo merger histories, which will bias results relative to N-body results. We measure halo mass functions and merger rates with this double counting removed in a large, cosmological N-body simulation with cosmological parameters consistent with current constraints. Furthermore, we account for the inherently noisy nature of N-body halo mass estimates when fitting functions to N-body data, and show that ignoring these errors leads to a significant systematic bias given the precision statistics available from state-of-the-art N-body cosmological simulations.

  15. Matter density distributions and elastic form factors of some two-neutron halo nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Ahmed N.

    2017-09-01

    The Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) method with MSK7 Skyrme parameter has been used to investigate the ground-state properties for two-neutron halo nuclei 6He, ^{11}Li, ^{12}Be and ^{14}Be. These ground-state properties include the proton, neutron and matter density distributions, the corresponding rms radii, the binding energy per nucleon and the charge form factors. These calculations clearly reveal the long tail characterizing the halo nuclei as a distinctive feature.

  16. Puzzling outer-density profile of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao

    2014-12-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, which is the standard theory of the structure formation in the universe, predicts that the outer density profile of dark matter halos decreases with the cube of distance from the center. However, so far not much effort has been expended in examining this hypothesis. In the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M 31), large-scale stellar structures detected by the recent observations provide a potentially suitable window to investigate the mass-density distribution of the dark matter halo. We explore the density structure of the dark matter halo in M 31 using an N-body simulation of the interaction between an accreting satellite galaxy and M 31. To reproduce the Andromeda Giant Southern Stream and the stellar shells at the east and west sides of M 31, we find the sufficient condition for the power-law index α of the outer density distribution of the dark matter halo. The best-fitting parameter is α = -3.7, which is steeper than the CDM prediction.

  17. Cosmic web alignments with the shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson

    2014-09-01

    We study the alignment of dark matter haloes with the cosmic web characterized by the tidal and velocity shear fields. We focus on the alignment of their shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities. We use a cosmological N-body simulation that allows us to study dark matter haloes spanning almost five orders of magnitude in mass (109-1014) h-1 M⊙ and spatial scales of (0.5-1.0) h-1 Mpc to define the cosmic web. The strongest alignment is measured for halo shape along the smallest tidal eigenvector, e.g. along filaments and walls, with a signal that gets stronger as the halo mass increases. In the case of the velocity shear field only massive haloes >1012 h-1 M⊙ tend to have their shapes aligned along the largest tidal eigenvector, i.e. perpendicular to filaments and walls. For the angular momentum we find alignment signals only for haloes more massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙ both in the tidal and velocity shear fields where the preferences is to be parallel to the middle eigenvector; perpendicular to filaments and parallel to walls. Finally, the peculiar velocities show a strong alignment along the smallest tidal eigenvector for all halo masses; haloes move along filaments and walls. The same alignment is present with the velocity shear, albeit weaker and only for haloes less massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙. Our results show that the two different algorithms used to define the cosmic web describe different physical aspects of non-linear collapse and should be used in a complementary way to understand the cosmic web influence on galaxy evolution.

  18. ARE HALO-LIKE SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS MERELY A MATTER OF GEOMETRIC PROJECTION EFFECTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Zhang, Jie; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the physical nature of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) based on the stereoscopic observations from the two STEREO spacecraft, Ahead and Behind (hereafter A and B), and the SOHO spacecraft. Sixty-two halo CMEs occurred as observed by SOHO LASCO C2 for the three-year period from 2010 to 2012 during which the separation angles between SOHO and STEREO were nearly 90°. In such quadrature configuration, the coronagraphs of STEREO, COR2-A and -B, showed the side view of those halo CMEs seen by C2. It has been widely believed that the halo appearance of a CME is caused by the geometric projection effect, i.e., a CME moves along the Sun-observer line. In other words, it would appear as a non-halo CME if viewed from the side. However, to our surprise, we found that 41 out of 62 events (66%) were observed as halo CMEs by all coronagraphs. This result suggests that a halo CME is not just a matter of the propagating direction. In addition, we show that a CME propagating normal to the line of sight can be observed as a halo CME due to the associated fast magnetosonic wave or shock front. We conclude that the apparent width of CMEs, especially halos or partial halos is driven by the existence and the extent of the associated waves or shocks and does not represent an accurate measure of the CME ejecta size. This effect needs to be taken into careful consideration in space weather predictions and modeling efforts.

  19. The redshift dependence of the structure of massive Λ cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Neto, Angelo F.

    2008-06-01

    We use two very large cosmological simulations to study how the density profiles of relaxed Λ cold dark matter dark haloes depend on redshift and on halo mass. We confirm that these profiles deviate slightly but systematically from the NFW form and are better approximated by the empirical formula, d logρ/d logr ~ rα, first used by Einasto to fit star counts in the Milky Way. The best-fitting value of the additional shape parameter, α, increases gradually with mass, from α ~ 0.16 for present-day galaxy haloes to α ~ 0.3 for the rarest and most massive clusters. Halo concentrations depend only weakly on mass at z = 0, and this dependence weakens further at earlier times. At z ~ 3 the average concentration of relaxed haloes does not vary appreciably over the mass range accessible to our simulations (M >~ 3 × 1011h-1Msolar). Furthermore, in our biggest simulation, the average concentration of the most massive, relaxed haloes is constant at ~ 3.5-4 for 0 <= z <= 3. These results agree well with those of Zhao et al. and support the idea that halo densities reflect the density of the universe at the time they formed, as proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White. With their original parameters, the NFW prescription overpredicts halo concentrations at high redshift. This shortcoming can be reduced by modifying the definition of halo formation time, although the evolution of the concentrations of Milky Way mass haloes is still not reproduced well. In contrast, the much-used revisions of the NFW prescription by Bullock et al. and Eke, Navarro & Steinmetz predict a steeper drop in concentration at the highest masses and stronger evolution with redshift than are compatible with our numerical data. Modifying the parameters of these models can reduce the discrepancy at high masses, but the overly rapid redshift evolution remains. These results have important implications for currently planned surveys of distant clusters.

  20. Dark Matter Halos in Galaxies and Globular Cluster Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Michael J.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Harris, William E.

    2014-05-01

    We combine a new, comprehensive database for globular cluster populations in all types of galaxies with a new calibration of galaxy halo masses based entirely on weak lensing. Correlating these two sets of data, we find that the mass ratio η ≡ M GCS/M h (total mass in globular clusters, divided by halo mass) is essentially constant at langηrang ~ 4 × 10-5, strongly confirming earlier suggestions in the literature. Globular clusters are the only known stellar population that formed in essentially direct proportion to host galaxy halo mass. The intrinsic scatter in η appears to be at most 0.2 dex we argue that some of this scatter is due to differing degrees of tidal stripping of the globular cluster systems between central and satellite galaxies. We suggest that this correlation can be understood if most globular clusters form at very early stages in galaxy evolution, largely avoiding the feedback processes that inhibited the bulk of field-star formation in their host galaxies. The actual mean value of η also suggests that about one-fourth of the initial gas mass present in protogalaxies collected into giant molecular clouds large enough to form massive, dense star clusters. Finally, our calibration of langηrang indicates that the halo masses of the Milky Way and M31 are (1.2 ± 0.5) × 1012 M ⊙ and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1012 M ⊙, respectively.

  1. Core-halo mass relation of ultralight axion dark matter from merger history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaolong; Behrens, Christoph; Niemeyer, Jens C.; Schwabe, Bodo

    2017-02-01

    In the context of structure formation with ultralight axion dark matter, we offer an alternative explanation for the mass relation of solitonic cores and their host halos observed in numerical simulations. Our argument is based entirely on the mass gain that occurs during major mergers of binary cores and largely independent of the initial core-halo mass relation assigned to hosts that have just collapsed. We find a relation between the halo mass Mh and corresponding core mass Mc, Mc∝Mh2 β -1, where (1 -β ) is the core mass loss fraction. Following the evolution of core masses in stochastic merger trees, we find empirical evidence for our model. Our results are useful for statistically modeling the effects of dark matter cores on the properties of galaxies and their substructures in axion dark matter cosmologies.

  2. Imprint of primordial non-Gaussianity on dark matter halo profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Dodelson, Scott; Riotto, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity on the density profile of dark matter halos by using the semi-analytical model introduced recently by Dalal {\\it et al.} which relates the peaks of the initial linear density field to the final density profile of dark matter halos. Models with primordial non-Gaussianity typically produce an initial density field that differs from that produced in Gaussian models. We use the path-integral formulation of excursion set theory to calculate the non-Gaussian corrections to the peak profile and derive the statistics of the peaks of non-Gaussian density field. In the context of the semi-analytic model for halo profiles, currently allowed values for primordial non-Gaussianity would increase the shapes of the inner dark matter profiles, but only at the sub-percent level except in the very innermost regions.

  3. Numerical Convergence in the Dark Matter Halos Properties Using Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera-Escobar, X. E.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the accepted cosmological model is the so called -Cold Dark Matter (CDM). In such model, the universe is considered to be homogeneous and isotropic, composed of diverse components as the dark matter and dark energy, where the latter is the most abundant one. Dark matter plays an important role because it is responsible for the generation of gravitational potential wells, commonly called dark matter halos. At the end, dark matter halos are characterized by a set of parameters (mass, radius, concentration, spin parameter), these parameters provide valuable information for different studies, such as galaxy formation, gravitational lensing, etc. In this work we use the publicly available code Gadget2 to perform cosmological simulations to find to what extent the numerical parameters of the simu- lations, such as gravitational softening, integration time step and force calculation accuracy affect the physical properties of the dark matter halos. We ran a suite of simulations where these parameters were varied in a systematic way in order to explore accurately their impact on the structural parameters of dark matter halos. We show that the variations on the numerical parameters affect the structural pa- rameters of dark matter halos, such as concentration, virial radius, and concentration. We show that these modifications emerged when structures become non- linear (at redshift 2) for the scale of our simulations, such that these variations affected the formation and evolution structure of halos mainly at later cosmic times. As a quantitative result, we propose which would be the most appropriate values for the numerical parameters of the simulations, such that they do not affect the halo properties that are formed. For force calculation accuracy we suggest values smaller or equal to 0.0001, integration time step smaller o equal to 0.005 and for gravitational softening we propose equal to 1/60th of the mean interparticle distance, these values, correspond to the

  4. STOCHASTIC MODEL OF THE SPIN DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Juhan; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-09-15

    We employ a stochastic approach to probing the origin of the log-normal distributions of halo spin in N-body simulations. After analyzing spin evolution in halo merging trees, it was found that a spin change can be characterized by a stochastic random walk of angular momentum. Also, spin distributions generated by random walks are fairly consistent with those directly obtained from N-body simulations. We derived a stochastic differential equation from a widely used spin definition and measured the probability distributions of the derived angular momentum change from a massive set of halo merging trees. The roles of major merging and accretion are also statistically analyzed in evolving spin distributions. Several factors (local environment, halo mass, merging mass ratio, and redshift) are found to influence the angular momentum change. The spin distributions generated in the mean-field or void regions tend to shift slightly to a higher spin value compared with simulated spin distributions, which seems to be caused by the correlated random walks. We verified the assumption of randomness in the angular momentum change observed in the N-body simulation and detected several degrees of correlation between walks, which may provide a clue for the discrepancies between the simulated and generated spin distributions in the voids. However, the generated spin distributions in the group and cluster regions successfully match the simulated spin distribution. We also demonstrated that the log-normality of the spin distribution is a natural consequence of the stochastic differential equation of the halo spin, which is well described by the Geometric Brownian Motion model.

  5. Supernova explosions in magnetized, primordial dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Schleicher, D.

    2014-05-01

    The first supernova explosions are potentially relevant sources for the production of the first large-scale magnetic fields. For this reason, we present a set of high-resolution simulations studying the effect of supernova explosions on magnetized, primordial haloes. We focus on the evolution of an initially small-scale magnetic field formed during the collapse of the halo. We vary the degree of magnetization, the halo mass, and the amount of explosion energy in order to account for expected variations as well as to infer systematical dependences of the results on initial conditions. Our simulations suggest that core collapse supernovae with an explosion energy of 1051 erg and more violent pair instability supernovae with 1053 erg are able to disrupt haloes with masses up to about 106 and 107 M⊙, respectively. The peak of the magnetic field spectra shows a continuous shift towards smaller k-values, i.e. larger length scales, over time reaching values as low as k = 4. On small scales, the magnetic energy decreases at the cost of the energy on large scales resulting in a well-ordered magnetic field with a strength up to ˜10-8 G depending on the initial conditions. The coherence length of the magnetic field inferred from the spectra reaches values up to 250 pc in agreement with those obtained from autocorrelation functions. We find the coherence length to be as large as 50 per cent of the radius of the supernova bubble. Extrapolating this relation to later stages, we suggest that significantly strong magnetic fields with coherence lengths as large as 1.5 kpc could be created. We discuss possible implications of our results on processes like recollapse of the halo, first galaxy formation, and the magnetization of the intergalactic medium.

  6. Millennium simulation dark matter haloes: multifractal and lacunarity analysis and the transition to homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón-Cardona, C. A.; Casas-Miranda, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate from a fractal viewpoint the way in which dark matter is grouped at z = 0 in the Millennium dark matter cosmological simulation. Determination of the crossing point to homogeneity in the Millennium Simulation data is described with regard to the behaviour of the fractal dimension and lacunarity. We use the sliding-window technique to calculate the fractal mass-radius dimension, the pre-factor F and the lacunarity of this fractal relation. Additionally, we determine the multifractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum, including their dependence on radial distance. The calculations show a radial distance dependence of all fractal quantities, with heterogeneous clustering of dark matter haloes up to depths of 100 Mpc h-1. Dark matter halo clustering in the Millennium Simulation shows a radial distance dependence, with two regions clearly defined. The lacunarity spectrum for values of the structure parameter q ≥ 1 shows regions with relative maxima, revealing the formation of clusters and voids in the dark matter halo distribution. With use of the multifractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum, the transition to homogeneity at depths between 100 Mpc h-1 and 120 Mpc h-1 for Millennium Simulation dark matter haloes is detected.

  7. Quantifying and Controlling Biases in Estimates of Dark Matter Halo Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda-Ruiz, C. N.; Forero-Romero, J. E.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    We use bootstrapping to estimate the bias on estimates of concentration of N-body dark matter (DM) halos as a function of particle number. We find that algorithms based on the maximum radial velocity and radial particle binning tend to overestimate the concentration by 15%-20% for halos sampled with 200 particles and by 7%-10% for halos sampled with 500 particles. To control this bias at low particle numbers we propose a new algorithm that estimates halo concentrations based on the integrated mass profile. The method uses the full particle information without any binning, making it reliable in cases when low numerical resolution becomes a limitation for other methods. This method reduces the bias to \\lt 3 % for halos sampled with 200-500 particles. The methods based on velocity and density have to use halos with at least ˜4000 particles in order to keep the biases down to the same low level. We also show that the mass-concentration relationship could be shallower than expected once the biases of the different concentration measurements are taken into account. These results show that bootstrapping and the estimates of concentration based on the integrated mass profile are valuable tools to probe the internal structure of DM halos in numerical simulations.

  8. DARK MATTER HALOS IN THE STANDARD COSMOLOGICAL MODEL: RESULTS FROM THE BOLSHOI SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klypin, Anatoly A.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Primack, Joel

    2011-10-20

    Lambda Cold Dark Matter ({Lambda}CDM) is now the standard theory of structure formation in the universe. We present the first results from the new Bolshoi dissipationless cosmological {Lambda}CDM simulation that uses cosmological parameters favored by current observations. The Bolshoi simulation was run in a volume 250 h{sup -1} Mpc on a side using {approx}8 billion particles with mass and force resolution adequate to follow subhalos down to the completeness limit of V{sub circ} = 50 km s{sup -1} maximum circular velocity. Using merger trees derived from analysis of 180 stored time steps we find the circular velocities of satellites before they fall into their host halos. Using excellent statistics of halos and subhalos ({approx}10 million at every moment and {approx}50 million over the whole history) we present accurate approximations for statistics such as the halo mass function, the concentrations for distinct halos and subhalos, the abundance of halos as a function of their circular velocity, and the abundance and the spatial distribution of subhalos. We find that at high redshifts the concentration falls to a minimum value of about 4.0 and then rises for higher values of halo mass-a new result. We present approximations for the velocity and mass functions of distinct halos as a function of redshift. We find that while the Sheth-Tormen (ST) approximation for the mass function of halos found by spherical overdensity is quite accurate at low redshifts, the ST formula overpredicts the abundance of halos by nearly an order of magnitude by z = 10. We find that the number of subhalos scales with the circular velocity of the host halo as V{sup 1/2}{sub host}, and that subhalos have nearly the same radial distribution as dark matter particles at radii 0.3-2 times the host halo virial radius. The subhalo velocity function N(> V{sub sub}) scales as V{sup -3}{sub circ}. Combining the results of Bolshoi and Via Lactea-II simulations, we find that inside the virial radius

  9. Description of the evolution of inhomogeneities on a dark matter halo with the Vlasov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Fernández, Paola; Jiménez-Vázquez, Erik; Alcubierre, Miguel; Montoya, Edison; Núñez, Darío

    2017-09-01

    We use a direct numerical integration of the Vlasov equation in spherical symmetry with a background gravitational potential to determine the evolution of a collection of particles in different models of a galactic halo in order to test its stability against perturbations. Such collection is assumed to represent a dark matter inhomogeneity which is represented by a distribution function defined in phase-space. Non-trivial stationary states are obtained and determined by the virialization of the system. We describe some features of these stationary states by means of the properties of the final distribution function and final density profile. We compare our results using the different halo models and find that the NFW halo model is the most stable of them, in the sense that an inhomogeneity in this halo model requires a shorter time to virialize.

  10. Profiles of dark matter haloes at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.

    2001-08-01

    I study the evolution of halo density profiles as a function of time in the SCDM and ΛCDM cosmologies. Following Del PopoloQ1, I calculate the concentration parameter c=rv /a and study its time evolution. For a given halo mass, I find that c(z)~1/(1+z) in both the ΛCDM and SCDM cosmology, in agreement with the analytic model of Bullock et al.Q1 and N-body simulations. In both models, a(z) is roughly constant. The present model predicts a stronger evolution of c(z) with respect to the Navarro, Frenk & WhiteQ1 model. Finally I show some consequences of the results on galaxy modelling.

  11. DARK MATTER HALOS IN GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Michael J.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Harris, William E.

    2014-05-20

    We combine a new, comprehensive database for globular cluster populations in all types of galaxies with a new calibration of galaxy halo masses based entirely on weak lensing. Correlating these two sets of data, we find that the mass ratio η ≡ M {sub GCS}/M {sub h} (total mass in globular clusters, divided by halo mass) is essentially constant at (η) ∼ 4 × 10{sup –5}, strongly confirming earlier suggestions in the literature. Globular clusters are the only known stellar population that formed in essentially direct proportion to host galaxy halo mass. The intrinsic scatter in η appears to be at most 0.2 dex; we argue that some of this scatter is due to differing degrees of tidal stripping of the globular cluster systems between central and satellite galaxies. We suggest that this correlation can be understood if most globular clusters form at very early stages in galaxy evolution, largely avoiding the feedback processes that inhibited the bulk of field-star formation in their host galaxies. The actual mean value of η also suggests that about one-fourth of the initial gas mass present in protogalaxies collected into giant molecular clouds large enough to form massive, dense star clusters. Finally, our calibration of (η) indicates that the halo masses of the Milky Way and M31 are (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, respectively.

  12. Models of dark matter halos based on statistical mechanics: The classical King model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Lemou, Mohammed; Méhats, Florian

    2015-03-01

    We consider the possibility that dark matter halos are described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution at finite temperature. This is the case if dark matter is a self-gravitating quantum gas made of massive neutrinos at statistical equilibrium. This is also the case if dark matter can be treated as a self-gravitating collisionless gas experiencing Lynden-Bell's type of violent relaxation. In order to avoid the infinite mass problem and carry out a rigorous stability analysis, we consider the fermionic King model. In this paper, we study the nondegenerate limit leading to the classical King model. This model was initially introduced to describe globular clusters. We propose to apply it also to large dark matter halos where quantum effects are negligible. We determine the caloric curve and study the thermodynamical stability of the different configurations. Equilibrium states exist only above a critical energy Ec in the microcanonical ensemble and only above a critical temperature Tc in the canonical ensemble. For E matter halos. Because of collisions and evaporation, the central density increases while the slope of the halo density profile decreases until an instability takes place. We show that large dark matter halos are relatively well described by the King model at, or close to, the point of marginal microcanonical stability. At that point, the King model generates a density profile that can be approximated by the modified Hubble profile. This profile has a flat core and decreases as r-3 at large distances, like the observational Burkert profile. Less steep halos are unstable. For large halos, the flat core is due to finite temperature effects, not to quantum mechanics. We argue that statistical

  13. Angular momentum - mass relation for dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shihong; Cheng, Dalong; Chu, Ming-Chung; Tang, Jiayu

    2015-04-01

    We study the empirical relation between an astronomical object's angular momentum J and mass M, J = βMα , the J - M relation, using N-body simulations. In particular, we investigate the time evolution of the J - M relation to study how the initial power spectrum and cosmological model affect this relation, and to test two popular models of its origin - mechanical equilibrium and tidal torque theory. We find that in the ΛCDM model, α starts with a value of 1.5 at high redshift z, increases monotonically, and finally reaches 5/3 near z = 0 , whereas β evolves linearly with time in the beginning, reaches a maximum and decreases, and stabilizes finally. A three-regime scheme is proposed to understand this newly observed picture. We show that the tidal torque theory accounts for this time evolution behaviour in the linear regime, whereas α = 5 / 3 comes from the virial equilibrium of haloes. The J - M relation in the linear regime contains the information of the power spectrum and cosmological model. The J - M relations for haloes in different environments and with different merging histories are also investigated to study the effects of a halo's non-linear evolution. An updated and more complete understanding of this relation is thus obtained.

  14. Effect of dark matter halo on global spiral modes in a collisionless galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumavo; Saini, Tarun Deep; Jog, Chanda J.

    2017-07-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are dominated by dark matter halo from the innermost radii; hence they are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of dark matter on different dynamical aspects of spiral galaxies. Here, we study the effect of dark matter halo on grand-design, m = 2 , spiral modes in a galactic disk, treated as a collisionless system, by carrying out a global modal analysis within the WKB approximation. First, we study a superthin, LSB galaxy UGC 7321 and show that it does not support discrete global spiral modes when modeled as a disk-alone system or as a disk plus dark matter system. Even a moderate increase in the stellar central surface density does not yield any global spiral modes. This naturally explains the observed lack of strong large-scale spiral structure in LSBs. An earlier work (Ghosh et al., 2016) where the galactic disk was treated as a fluid system for simplicity had shown that the dominant halo could not arrest global modes. We found that this difference arises due to the different dispersion relation used in the two cases and which plays a crucial role in the search for global spiral modes. Thus the correct treatment of stars as a collisionless system as done here results in the suppression of global spiral modes, in agreement with the observations. We performed a similar modal analysis for the Galaxy, and found that the dark matter halo has a negligible effect on large-scale spiral structure.

  15. Ecology of dark matter haloes -II. Effects of interactions on the alignment of halo pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2017-01-01

    We use the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation to study the effects of distant and close interactions on the alignments of the shapes, spins, and orbits of targets haloes with their neighbours, and their dependence on the local density environment and neighbour separation. Interacting targets have a significantly lower spin and higher sphericity and oblateness than all targets. Interacting pairs initially have anti-parallel spins, but the spins develop parallel alignment as time goes on. Neighbours tend to evolve in the plane of rotation of the target, and in the direction of the major axis of prolate haloes. Moreover, interactions are preferentially radial, while pairs with non-radial orbits are preferentially prograde. The alignment signals are stronger at high-mass and for close separations, and independent on the large-scale density. Positive alignment signals are found at redshifts up to 4, and increase with decreasing redshifts. Moreover, the orbits tend to become prograde at low redshift, while no alignment is found at high redshift (z = 4).

  16. Ecology of dark matter haloes - II. Effects of interactions on the alignment of halo pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2017-04-01

    We use the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation to study the effects of distant and close interactions on the alignments of the shapes, spins and orbits of targets haloes with their neighbours, and their dependence on the local density environment and neighbour separation. Interacting targets have a significantly lower spin and higher sphericity and oblateness than all targets. Interacting pairs initially have antiparallel spins, but the spins develop parallel alignment as time goes on. Neighbours tend to evolve in the plane of rotation of the target, and in the direction of the major axis of prolate haloes. Moreover, interactions are preferentially radial, while pairs with non-radial orbits are preferentially prograde. The alignment signals are stronger at high mass and for close separations, and independent of the large-scale density. Positive alignment signals are found at redshifts up to 4, and increase with decreasing redshifts. Moreover, the orbits tend to become prograde at low redshift, while no alignment is found at high redshift (z = 4).

  17. Spin flips - I. Evolution of the angular momentum orientation of Milky Way-mass dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Philip E.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2012-03-01

    During the growth of a cold dark matter halo, the direction of its spin can undergo rapid changes. These could disrupt or even destroy a stellar disc forming in the halo, possibly resulting in the generation of a bulge or spheroid. We investigate the frequency of significant changes in the orientation of the angular momentum vector of dark matter haloes ('spin flips') and their degree of correlation with mergers. We focus on haloes of mass similar to that of the Milky Way halo at redshift z= 0 (log10 M/h-1 M⊙= 12.0 → 12.5) and consider flips in the spin of the whole halo or just its inner parts. We find that a greater fraction of major mergers are associated with large spin flips than minor mergers. However, since major mergers are rare, the vast majority (93 per cent) of large whole-halo spin flips (θ≥ 45°) coincide with small mass changes, not major mergers. The spin vector of the inner halo experiences much more frequent flips than the halo as a whole. Over their entire lifetimes (i.e. after a halo acquires half of its final mass), more than 10 per cent of haloes experience a flip of at least 45° in the spin of the entire halo and nearly 60 per cent experience a flip this large in the inner halo. These numbers are reduced to 9 per cent for the whole halo and 47 per cent for the inner halo when we consider only haloes with no major mergers after formation. Our analysis suggests that spin flips (whose effects are not currently included in galaxy formation models) could be an important factor in the morphological transformation of disc galaxies.

  18. Search for dark matter from the Galactic halo with the IceCube Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Denger, T.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Stür, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.

    2011-07-01

    Self-annihilating or decaying dark matter in the Galactic halo might produce high energy neutrinos detectable with neutrino telescopes. We have conducted a search for such a signal using 276 days of data from the IceCube 22-string configuration detector acquired during 2007 and 2008. The effect of halo model choice in the extracted limit is reduced by performing a search that considers the outer halo region and not the Galactic Center. We constrain any large-scale neutrino anisotropy and are able to set a limit on the dark matter self-annihilation cross section of ⟨σAv⟩≃10-22cm3s-1 for weakly interacting massive particle masses above 1 TeV, assuming a monochromatic neutrino line spectrum.

  19. On the Shape of Dark Matter Halos in Milky Way-like Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Biwei; Robertson, Brant E.; Madau, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Recent constraints on the shape of the Milky Way’s gravitational potential show that its dark matter halo is close to spherical, inconsistent with the predictions from collisionless N-body simulations of cosmological structure formation. Motivated by this result, we measure the shape of the dark matter halo in Eris, a 120pc-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of a close analogy of the Milky Way. We construct a set of bi-orthogonal density-potential pair bases by solving the Sturm-Liouville equation, and apply them to represent compactly the detailed structure of the Eris gravitational potential. Assuming that the isodensity and isopotential contours are elliptical, we measure their shape as a function of radius and find that dissipation increases their sphericity beyond what is found in collisionless simulations. We also analyze the Eris halo shape as a function of redshift, demonstrating that the shape has been stable for more than a billion years.

  20. How baryonic feedback processes can affect dark matter halos: a stochastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundlich, J.; El-Zant, A.; Combes, F.

    2016-12-01

    Feedback processes from stars and active galactic nuclei result in gas density fluctuations which can contribute to `heating' dark matter haloes, decrease their density at the center and hence form more realistic `cores' than the steep `cusps' predicted by cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. We present a theoretical model deriving this effect from first principles: stochastic density variations in the gas distribution perturb the gravitational potential and hence affect the halo particles. We analytically derive the velocity dispersion imparted to the CDM particles and the corresponding relaxation time, and further perform numerical simulations to show that the assumed process can indeed lead to the formation of a core in an initially cuspy halo within a timescale comparable to the derived relaxation time. This suggests that feedback-induced cusp-core transformations observed in hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation may be understood and parametrized in relatively simple terms.

  1. Is Sextans dwarf galaxy in a scalar field dark matter halo?

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, V.; Magaña, Juan E-mail: juan.magana@uv.cl

    2014-09-01

    The Bose-Einstein condensate/scalar field dark matter model, considers that the dark matter is composed by spinless-ultra-light particles which can be described by a scalar field. This model is an alternative model to the Λ-cold dark matter paradigm, and therefore should be studied at galactic and cosmological scales. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies have been very useful when studying any dark matter theory, because the dark matter dominates their dynamics. In this paper we study the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy, embedded in a scalar field dark matter halo. We explore how the dissolution time-scale of the stellar substructures in Sextans, constrain the mass, and the self-interacting parameter of the scalar field dark matter boson. We find that for masses in the range (0.12< m{sub φ}<8) ×10{sup -22} eV, scalar field dark halos without self-interaction would have cores large enough to explain the longevity of the stellar substructures in Sextans, and small enough mass to be compatible with dynamical limits. If the self-interacting parameter is distinct to zero, then the mass of the boson could be as high as m{sub φ}≈2×10{sup -21} eV, but it would correspond to an unrealistic low mass for the Sextans dark matter halo . Therefore, the Sextans dwarf galaxy could be embedded in a scalar field/BEC dark matter halo with a preferred self-interacting parameter equal to zero.

  2. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    PubMed

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars.

  3. Surface density of dark matter haloes on galactic and cluster scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.; Cardone, V. F.; Belvedere, G.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we analysed the correlation between the central surface density and the halo core radius of galaxies, and cluster of galaxies dark matter (DM) haloes, in the framework of the secondary infall model. We used Del Popolo secondary infall model taking into account ordered and random angular momentum, dynamical friction and DM adiabatic contraction to calculate the density profile of haloes, and then these profiles are used to determine the surface density of DM haloes. The main result is that r* (the halo characteristic radius) is not a universal quantity as claimed by Donato et al. and Gentile et al. On the contrary, we find a correlation with the halo mass M200 in agreement with Cardone & Tortora, Boyarsky et al. and Napolitano, Romanowsky & Tortora, but with a significantly smaller scatter, namely 0.16 ± 0.05. We also consider the baryon column density finding this latter being indeed a constant for low-mass systems, such as dwarfs, but correlating with mass with a slope of α = 0.18 ± 0.05. In the case of the surface density of DM for a system composed only of DM, as in dissipationless simulations, we get α = 0.20 ± 0.05. These results leave little room for the recently claimed universality of (dark and stellar) column density.

  4. Models of dark matter halos based on statistical mechanics: The fermionic King model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Lemou, Mohammed; Méhats, Florian

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the nature of phase transitions in the fermionic King model which describes tidally truncated quantum self-gravitating systems. This distribution function takes into account the escape of high-energy particles and has a finite mass. On the other hand, the Pauli exclusion principle puts an upper bound on the phase-space density of the system and stabilizes it against gravitational collapse. As a result, there exists a statistical equilibrium state for all accessible values of energy and temperature. We plot the caloric curves and investigate the nature of phase transitions as a function of the degeneracy parameter in both microcanonical and canonical ensembles, extending the work of Chavanis [Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 20, 3113 (2006)] for box-confined configurations. We consider stable and metastable states and emphasize the importance of the latter for systems with long-range interactions. Phase transitions can take place between a "gaseous" phase unaffected by quantum mechanics and a "condensed" phase dominated by quantum mechanics. The phase diagram exhibits two critical points, one in each ensemble, beyond which the phase transitions disappear. There also exists a region of negative specific heats and a situation of ensemble inequivalence for sufficiently large systems. In the microcanonical ensemble, gravitational collapse (gravothermal catastrophe) results in the formation of a small degenerate object containing a small mass. This is accompanied by the expulsion of a hot envelope containing a large mass. In the canonical ensemble, gravitational collapse (isothermal collapse) leads to a small degenerate object containing almost all the mass. It is surrounded by a tenuous envelope. We apply the fermionic King model to the case of dark matter halos made of massive neutrinos following the work of de Vega, Salucci, and Sanchez [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2717 (2014)]. The gaseous phase describes large halos and the condensed phase describes dwarf halos

  5. Tetrahedral collapse: a rotational toy model of simultaneous dark-matter halo, filament and wall formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss an idealized model of halo formation, in which a collapsing halo node is tetrahedral, with a filament extruding from each of its four faces, and with a wall connecting each pair of filaments. In the model, filaments generally spin when they form, and the halo spins if and only if there is some rotation in filaments. This is the simplest possible fully three-dimensional halo collapse in the `origami approximation', in which voids are irrotational, and the dark-matter sheet out of which dark-matter structures form is allowed to fold in position-velocity phase space, but not stretch (i.e. it cannot vary in density along a stream). Up to an overall scaling, the four filament directions, and only three other quantities, such as filament spins, suffice to determine all of the collapse's properties: the shape, mass, and spin of the halo; the densities per unit length and spins of all filaments; and masses per unit area of the walls. If the filaments are arranged regular-tetrahedrally, filament properties obey simple laws, reminiscent of angular-momentum conservation. The model may be most useful in understanding spin correlations between neighbouring galaxies joined by filaments; these correlations would give intrinsic alignments between galaxies, essential to understand for accurate cosmological weak-lensing measurements.

  6. Using tidal streams to investigate the rotation of the Milky Way's dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valluri, Monica; Snyder, Sarah Jean; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2017-06-01

    The dark matter halos surrounding Milky Way-like galaxies that are formed in cosmological simulations are triaxial. These simulated triaxial halos are expected to be slowly rotating with log-normal distribution of pattern speeds centered on ~0.148h km/s/kpc (Bailin & Steinmetz 2004, ApJ., 616, 27). Stellar streams arising from a satellite experiencing tidal disruption inside such a slowly rotating triaxial halo are expected to be subject to additional forces (e.g. Coriolis forces) that affect the structure of the tidal streams. Using the Python Galaxy dynamics package Gala (Price-Whelan, http://gala.adrian.pw) we have generated simulations of tidal streams in a range of triaxial potentials to explore how the structure of Milky Way's tidal streams, especially the structure of stream bifurcations and the stream orbital plane, are altered by a slow figure rotation of the triaxial dark matter halo. We investigate what can be inferred about halo rotation from current and future data including upcoming data from Gaia. This work is supported by NASA-ATP award NNX15AK79G to the University of Michigan.

  7. Halo-independent upper limits on the dark matter scattering cross section with nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Sebastian; Ferrer, Francesc; Ibarra, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel method that allows to derive an upper limit on the scattering cross section of dark matter with nucleons which is independent of the velocity distribution. To this end, we combine null results from direct detection experiments and neutrino telescopes, and use the fact that taken together, these classes of experiments probe the whole range of possible dark matter velocities. The resulting halo-independent upper limits on the dark matter scattering cross section are remarkably strong, and can be used to robustly rule out models of dark matter, without the need to invoke specific assumptions about the local velocity distribution.

  8. The Dark Matter Halo Profile Of NGC 2976 Via Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; Blanc, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    The observations of kinematics in low surface brightness (LSB) and dwarf late type galaxies have stubbornly resisted giving clear evidence for the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter (DM) halo profiles that simulations with ΛCDM inputs predict. Instead, most LSBs and late type dwarfs suggest cored DM halos or the observations are not yet constraining enough to rule out cusps. One viable theory to explain cored DM halos relies on the gravitational perturbation of a growing baryonic disk that is then rapidly removed causing the halo to expand to a cored equilibrium. Weakly self-interacting dark matter has also been invoked to explain cored DM halos. This problem may loom large over small galaxy formation and growth. However, different measurements can be taken to further test the apparent problem. Most previous data have relied on HI or Hα as kinematic tracers. A small number of works have studied the problem with longslit stellar kinematics. Ideally, the advantages of 2D spectroscopic coverage and a collisionless kinematic tracer would be combined. So far, NGC 2976 has made one of the cleanest cases for a cored DM halo via integral field spectroscopy in Hα. We here report on observations of NGC 2976 with the large field-of-view fiber-fed Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph Prototype (VIRUS-P) at R=3200 to concurrently measure the gaseous and stellar kinematics and probe the DM halo. We find that the gas and stellar kinematics disagree both in the magnitude of their second velocity moments and their detailed profiles. We unexpectedly find emission features in one of NGC 2976's two large star-forming regions which may be indicative of carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. A putative bar further complicates the use of gaseous tracers. We solve the Jeans equations with stellar kinematics to reevaluate the DM profile in this exemplar galaxy of the core-cusp problem.

  9. The dark matter distribution function and halo thermalization from the Eddington equation in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2016-05-01

    We find the distribution function f(E) for dark matter (DM) halos in galaxies and the corresponding equation of state from the (empirical) DM density profiles derived from observations. We solve for DM in galaxies the analogous of the Eddington equation originally used for the gas of stars in globular clusters. The observed density profiles are a good realistic starting point and the distribution functions derived from them are realistic. We do not make any assumption about the DM nature, the methods developed here apply to any DM kind, though all results are consistent with warm dark matter (WDM). With these methods we find: (i) Cored density profiles behaving quadratically for small distances ρ(r)= r → 0ρ(0) - Kr2 produce distribution functions which are finite and positive at the halo center while cusped density profiles always produce divergent distribution functions at the center. (ii) Cored density profiles produce approximate thermal Boltzmann distribution functions for r ≲ 3rh where rh is the halo radius. (iii) Analytic expressions for the dispersion velocity and the pressure are derived yielding at each halo point an ideal DM gas equation of state with local temperature T(r) ≡ mv2(r)/3. T(r) turns out to be constant in the same region where the distribution function is thermal and exhibits the same temperature within the percent. The self-gravitating DM gas can thermalize despite being collisionless because it is an ergodic system. (iv) The DM halo can be consistently considered at local thermal equilibrium with: (a) a constant temperature T(r) = T0 for r ≲ 3rh, (b) a space dependent temperature T(r) for 3rh < r ≲ Rvirial, which slowly decreases with r. That is, the DM halo is realistically a collisionless self-gravitating thermal gas for r ≲ Rvirial. (v) T(r) outside the halo radius nicely follows the decrease of the circular velocity squared.

  10. Observational probes of the connection between Star Formation Efficiency and Dark Matter halo mass of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinova, Veselina; Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Modern simulations predict that the stellar mass and the star formation efficiency of a galaxy are tightly linked to the dark matter (DM) halo mass of that galaxy. This prediction relies on a specific model of galaxy evolution and so testing this prediction directly tests our best models of galaxy formation and evolution. Recent DM numerical studies propose relationships between star formation efficiency and the DM halo mass with two domains based on SF feedback (low-mass) vs. AGN feedback (high-mass), see Moster et al. (2013). The observational probe of such parameters in the relationship imply globally important physics that are fundamental as, e.g., the star formation law (e.g., Kennicutt et al., 1998), the universal depletion time (Leroy et al. 2008), and the origin of the cold gas phase with respect to the stellar disc (Davis et al.2011). Thus, we can directly measure whether this parameterization is correct by estimating the stellar mass, star formation efficiency and dynamical (DM) mass for a set of galaxies at strategically selected points to test if they fall on the predicted relationship.We use CO data from the Extragalactic Database for Galaxy Evolution survey (EDGE) in conjunction with archival 21-cm data and spectroscopic data from Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field spectroscopy Area survey (CALIFA) to measure the stellar vs. halo mass and star-formation-efficiency vs. halo mass relations of the galaxies. We also analyze archival 21-cm spectra to estimate rotation speeds, atomic gas masses and halo masses for a set of EDGE galaxies. Data from CALIFA are used for high quality star formation efficiency and stellar mass measurements. By linking these three parameters - stellar mass, star formation efficiency (SFE) and DM halo mass - we can test the simulation models of how the gas is cooling in the potential wells of the dark matter halos and then forms stars.

  11. Baryon effects on the dark matter haloes constrained from strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Chen, Da-Ming; Li, Ran

    2017-10-01

    Simulations are expected to be a powerful tool to investigate the baryon effects on dark matter (DM) haloes. Recent high resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations predict that the inner density profiles of DM haloes depend systematically on the ratio of stellar to DM mass (M*/Mhalo), which is thought to be able to provide good fits to the observed rotation curves of galaxies. The Di Cintio et al. (hereafter DC14) profile is fitted from the simulations that are confined to Mhalo ≤ 1012 M⊙; in order to investigate the physical processes that may affect all haloes, we extrapolate it to much larger halo mass, including that of galaxy clusters. The inner slope of the DC14 profile is flat for low halo mass, it approaches 1 when the halo mass increases towards 1012 M⊙ and decreases rapidly after that mass. We use the DC14 profile for lenses and find that it predicts too few lenses compared with the most recent strong lensing observations Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search (SQLS). We also calculate the strong lensing probabilities for a simulated density profile that continues the halo mass from the mass end of DC14 (∼1012 M⊙) to the mass that covers the galaxy clusters, and find that this Schaller et al. (hereafter Schaller15) model predict too many lenses compared with other models and SQLS observations. Interestingly, Schaller15 profile has no core, however, like DC14, the rotation curves of the simulated haloes are in excellent agreement with observational data. Furthermore, we show that the standard two-population model SIS+NFW cannot match the most recent SQLS observations for large image separations.

  12. INTERACTION BETWEEN DARK MATTER SUB-HALOS AND A GALACTIC GASEOUS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, Rahul; Maccio, Andrea V.; Walter, Fabian; Pasquali, Anna; Moster, Benjamin P.

    2012-02-10

    We investigate the idea that the interaction of dark matter (DM) sub-halos with the gaseous disks of galaxies can be the origin for the observed holes and shells found in their neutral hydrogen (H I) distributions. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to show that pure DM sub-halos impacting a galactic disk are not able to produce holes; on the contrary, they result in high-density regions in the disk. However, sub-halos containing a small amount of gas (a few percent of the total DM mass of the sub-halo) are able to displace the gas in the disk and form holes and shells. The sizes and lifetimes of these holes depend on the sub-halo gas mass, density, and impact velocity. A DM sub-halo, of mass 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} and a gas mass fraction of {approx}3%, is able to create a kiloparsec-scale hole with a lifetime similar to those observed in nearby galaxies. We also register an increase in the star formation rate at the rim of the hole, again in agreement with observations. Even though the properties of these simulated structures resemble those found in observations, we find that the number of predicted holes (based on mass and orbital distributions of DM halos derived from cosmological N-body simulations) falls short compared to the observations. Only a handful of holes are produced per gigayear. This leads us to conclude that DM halo impact is not the major channel through which these holes are formed.

  13. Angular Momentum-Mass Relation for Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shihong; Cheng, Dalong; Chu, M.-C.; Tang, Jiayu

    2015-08-01

    We study the empirical relation between an astronomical object’s angular momentum J and mass M, J = βMα, the J-M relation, using N-body simulations. In particular, we investigate the time evolution of the J-M relation to study how the initial power spectrum and cosmological model affect this relation and to test two popular models of its origin—mechanical equilibrium and tidal torque theory (TTT). We find that in the ΛCDM model, α starts with a value of ˜1.5 at high redshift z, increases monotonically, and finally reaches 5/3 near z = 0, whereas β evolves linearly with time in the beginning, reaches a maximum and decreases, and, finally, stabilizes. A three-regime scheme is proposed to understand this newly observed picture. We show that the TTT accounts for this time-evolution behavior in the linear regime, whereas α = 5/3 comes from the virial equilibrium of halos. The J-M relation in the linear regime contains the information of the power spectrum and cosmological model. The J-M relations for halos in different environments and with different merging histories are also investigated to study the effects of a halo’s nonlinear evolution. An updated and more complete understanding of the J-M relation is thus obtained.

  14. Evolution of the Galaxy-Dark Matter Connection and the Assembly of Galaxies in Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Zhang, Youcai; Han, Jiaxin

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model to describe the galaxy-dark matter connection across cosmic time, which unlike the popular subhalo abundance-matching technique is self-consistent in that it takes account of the facts that (1) subhalos are accreted at different times and (2) the properties of satellite galaxies may evolve after accretion. Using observations of galaxy stellar mass functions (SMFs) out to z ~ 4, the conditional SMF at z ~ 0.1 obtained from Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy group catalogs, and the two-point correlation function (2PCF) of galaxies at z ~ 0.1 as a function of stellar mass, we constrain the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos over the entire cosmic history from z ~ 4 to the present. This relation is then used to predict the median assembly histories of different stellar mass components within dark matter halos (central galaxies, satellite galaxies, and halo stars). We also make predictions for the 2PCFs of high-z galaxies as function of stellar mass. Our main findings are the following: (1) Our model reasonably fits all data within the observational uncertainties, indicating that the ΛCDM concordance cosmology is consistent with a wide variety of data regarding the galaxy population across cosmic time. (2) At low-z, the stellar mass of central galaxies increases with halo mass as M 0.3 and M gsim 4.0 at the massive and low-mass ends, respectively. The ratio M *, c /M reveals a maximum of ~0.03 at a halo mass M ~ 1011.8 h -1 M ⊙, much lower than the universal baryon fraction (~0.17). At higher redshifts the maximum in M *, c /M remains close to ~0.03, but shifts to higher halo mass. (3) The inferred timescale for the disruption of satellite galaxies is about the same as the dynamical friction timescale of their subhalos. (4) The stellar mass assembly history of central galaxies is completely decoupled from the assembly history of its host halo; the ratio M *, c /M initially increases rapidly with time until the halo mass reaches ~1012

  15. An accurate tool for the fast generation of dark matter halo catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, P.; Sefusatti, E.; Borgani, S.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Sheth, R. K.; Theuns, T.

    2013-08-01

    We present a new parallel implementation of the PINpointing Orbit Crossing-Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) algorithm, a quick tool, based on Lagrangian Perturbation Theory, for the hierarchical build-up of dark matter (DM) haloes in cosmological volumes. To assess its ability to predict halo correlations on large scales, we compare its results with those of an N-body simulation of a 3 h-1 Gpc box sampled with 20483 particles taken from the MICE suite, matching the same seeds for the initial conditions. Thanks to the Fastest Fourier Transforms in the West (FFTW) libraries and to the relatively simple design, the code shows very good scaling properties. The CPU time required by PINOCCHIO is a tiny fraction (˜1/2000) of that required by the MICE simulation. Varying some of PINOCCHIO numerical parameters allows one to produce a universal mass function that lies in the range allowed by published fits, although it underestimates the MICE mass function of Friends-of-Friends (FoF) haloes in the high-mass tail. We compare the matter-halo and the halo-halo power spectra with those of the MICE simulation and find that these two-point statistics are well recovered on large scales. In particular, when catalogues are matched in number density, agreement within 10 per cent is achieved for the halo power spectrum. At scales k > 0.1 h Mpc-1, the inaccuracy of the Zel'dovich approximation in locating halo positions causes an underestimate of the power spectrum that can be modelled as a Gaussian factor with a damping scale of d = 3 h-1 Mpc at z = 0, decreasing at higher redshift. Finally, a remarkable match is obtained for the reduced halo bispectrum, showing a good description of non-linear halo bias. Our results demonstrate the potential of PINOCCHIO as an accurate and flexible tool for generating large ensembles of mock galaxy surveys, with interesting applications for the analysis of large galaxy redshift surveys.

  16. The shape of dark matter haloes - V. Analysis of observations of edge-on galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Allen, R. J.; Freeman, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    In previous papers in this series, we measured the stellar and H I content in a sample of edge-on galaxies. In the present paper, we perform a simultaneous rotation curve and vertical force field gradient decomposition for five of these edge-on galaxies. The rotation curve decomposition provides a measure of the radial dark matter potential, while the vertical force field gradient provides a measure of the vertical dark matter potential. We fit dark matter halo models to these potentials. Using our H I self-absorption results, we find that a typical dark matter halo has a less dense core (0.094 ± 0.230 M⊙ pc-3) than that for an optically thin H I model (0.150 ± 0.124 M⊙ pc-3). The H I self-absorption dark matter halo has a longer scale-length Rc of 1.42 ± 3.48 kpc, versus 1.10 ± 1.81 kpc for the optically thin H I model. The median halo shape is spherical at q = 1.0 ± 0.6 for self-absorbing H I, while it is prolate at q = 1.5 ± 0.6 for the optically thin case. Our best results were obtained for ESO 274-G001 and UGC 7321, for which we were able to measure the velocity dispersion in Paper III. These two galaxies have very different halo shapes, with one oblate and one strongly prolate. Overall, we find that the many assumptions required make this type of analysis susceptible to errors.

  17. Evolution of a Dwarf Satellite Galaxy Embedded in a Scalar Field Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Victor H.; Lora, V.; Matos, T.; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.

    2015-09-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) model has two unsolved issues: simulations overpredict the satellite abundance around the Milky Way (MW) and it disagrees with observations of the central densities of dwarf galaxies which prefer constant density (core) profiles. One alternative explanation known as the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model, assumes that dark matter is a scalar field of mass (˜10-22 eV/c2); this model can reduce the overabundance issue due to the lack of halo formation below a mass scale of ˜108M⊙ and successfully fits the density distribution in dwarfs. One of the attractive features of the model is predicting core profiles in halos, although the determination of the core sizes is set by fitting the observational data. We perform N-body simulations to explore the influence of tidal forces over a stellar distribution embedded in an SFDM halo orbiting a MW-like SFDM host halo with a disk. Our simulations intend to test the viability of SFDM as an alternative model by comparing the tidal effects that result in this paradigm with those obtained in the CDM for similar mass halos. We found that galaxies in subhalos with core profiles and high central densities survive for 10 Gyr. The same occurs for galaxies in low density subhalos located far from the host disk influence, whereas satellites in low density DM halos and in tight orbits can eventually be stripped of stars. We conclude that SFDM shows consistency with results from the CDM for dwarf galaxies, but naturally offer a possibility to solve the missing satellite problem.

  18. EVOLUTION OF A DWARF SATELLITE GALAXY EMBEDDED IN A SCALAR FIELD DARK MATTER HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Robles, Victor H.; Matos, T.; Lora, V.; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J. E-mail: vlora@ari.uni-heidelberg.de

    2015-09-10

    The cold dark matter (CDM) model has two unsolved issues: simulations overpredict the satellite abundance around the Milky Way (MW) and it disagrees with observations of the central densities of dwarf galaxies which prefer constant density (core) profiles. One alternative explanation known as the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model, assumes that dark matter is a scalar field of mass (∼10{sup −22} eV/c{sup 2}); this model can reduce the overabundance issue due to the lack of halo formation below a mass scale of ∼10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙} and successfully fits the density distribution in dwarfs. One of the attractive features of the model is predicting core profiles in halos, although the determination of the core sizes is set by fitting the observational data. We perform N-body simulations to explore the influence of tidal forces over a stellar distribution embedded in an SFDM halo orbiting a MW-like SFDM host halo with a disk. Our simulations intend to test the viability of SFDM as an alternative model by comparing the tidal effects that result in this paradigm with those obtained in the CDM for similar mass halos. We found that galaxies in subhalos with core profiles and high central densities survive for 10 Gyr. The same occurs for galaxies in low density subhalos located far from the host disk influence, whereas satellites in low density DM halos and in tight orbits can eventually be stripped of stars. We conclude that SFDM shows consistency with results from the CDM for dwarf galaxies, but naturally offer a possibility to solve the missing satellite problem.

  19. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-10-20

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  20. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  1. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SHAPE OF THE MILKY WAY DARK MATTER HALO FROM THE SAGITTARIUS STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Helmi, Amina

    2013-08-10

    We propose a new model for the dark matter halo of the Milky Way that fits the properties of the stellar stream associated with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Our dark halo is oblate with q{sub z} = 0.9 for r {approx}< 10 kpc, and can be made to follow the Law and Majewski model at larger radii. However, we find that the dynamical perturbations induced by the Large Magellanic Cloud on the orbit of Sgr cannot be neglected when modeling its streams. When taken into account, this leads us to constrain the Galaxy's outer halo shape to have minor-to-major axis ratio >(c/a){sub {Phi}} = 0.8 and intermediate-to-major axis ratio (b/a){sub {Phi}} = 0.9, in good agreement with cosmological expectations.

  2. Large-scale structure after COBE: Peculiar velocities and correlations of cold dark matter halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Warren, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Large N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers allow one to simultaneously investigate large-scale structure and the formation of galactic halos with unprecedented resolution. Our study shows that the masses as well as the spatial distribution of halos on scales of tens of megaparsecs in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe with the spectrum normalized to the anisotropies detected by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is compatible with the observations. We also show that the average value of the relative pairwise velocity dispersion sigma(sub v) - used as a principal argument against COBE-normalized CDM models-is significantly lower for halos than for individual particles. When the observational methods of extracting sigma(sub v) are applied to the redshift catalogs obtained from the numerical experiments, estimates differ significantly between different observation-sized samples and overlap observational estimates obtained following the same procedure.

  3. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  4. Constraints on baryonic dark matter in the Galactic halo and Local Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richstone, Douglas; Gould, Andrew; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Flynn, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A four-color method and deep CCD data are used to search for very faint metal-poor stars in the direction of the south Galactic pole. The results make it possible to limit the contribution of ordinary old, metal-poor stars to the dynamical halo of the Galaxy or to the Local Group. The ratio of the mass of the halo to its ordinary starlight must be more than about 2000, unless the halo is very small. For the Local Group, this ratio is greater than about 400. If this local dark matter is baryonic, the process of compact-object formation must produce very few 'impurities' in the form of stars similar to those found in globular clusters. The expected number of unbound stars with MV not greater than 6 within 100 pc of the sun is less than 1 based on the present 90-percent upper limit to the Local Group starlight.

  5. Constraints on baryonic dark matter in the Galactic halo and Local Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richstone, Douglas; Gould, Andrew; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Flynn, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A four-color method and deep CCD data are used to search for very faint metal-poor stars in the direction of the south Galactic pole. The results make it possible to limit the contribution of ordinary old, metal-poor stars to the dynamical halo of the Galaxy or to the Local Group. The ratio of the mass of the halo to its ordinary starlight must be more than about 2000, unless the halo is very small. For the Local Group, this ratio is greater than about 400. If this local dark matter is baryonic, the process of compact-object formation must produce very few 'impurities' in the form of stars similar to those found in globular clusters. The expected number of unbound stars with MV not greater than 6 within 100 pc of the sun is less than 1 based on the present 90-percent upper limit to the Local Group starlight.

  6. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  7. Large-scale structure after COBE: Peculiar velocities and correlations of cold dark matter halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Warren, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Large N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers allow one to simultaneously investigate large-scale structure and the formation of galactic halos with unprecedented resolution. Our study shows that the masses as well as the spatial distribution of halos on scales of tens of megaparsecs in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe with the spectrum normalized to the anisotropies detected by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is compatible with the observations. We also show that the average value of the relative pairwise velocity dispersion sigma(sub v) - used as a principal argument against COBE-normalized CDM models-is significantly lower for halos than for individual particles. When the observational methods of extracting sigma(sub v) are applied to the redshift catalogs obtained from the numerical experiments, estimates differ significantly between different observation-sized samples and overlap observational estimates obtained following the same procedure.

  8. SCALING LAWS FOR DARK MATTER HALOS IN LATE-TYPE AND DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kormendy, John; Freeman, K. C. E-mail: kenneth.freeman@anu.edu.au

    2016-02-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos of Sc–Im and dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies satisfy scaling laws: halos in lower-luminosity galaxies have smaller core radii, higher central densities, and smaller velocity dispersions. These results are based on maximum-disk rotation curve decompositions for giant galaxies and Jeans equation analysis for dwarfs. (1) We show that spiral, Im, and Sph galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub V} > −18 form a sequence of decreasing baryon-to-DM surface density with decreasing luminosity. We suggest that this is a sequence of decreasing baryon retention versus supernova-driven losses or decreasing baryon capture after cosmological reionization. (2) The structural differences between S+Im and Sph galaxies are small. Both are affected mostly by the physics that controls baryon depletion. (3) There is a linear correlation between the maximum rotation velocities of baryonic disks and the outer circular velocities V{sub circ} of test particles in their DM halos. Baryons become unimportant at V{sub circ} = 42 ± 4 km s{sup −1}. Smaller galaxies are dim or dark. (4) We find that, absent baryon “depletion” and with all baryons converted into stars, dSph galaxies would be brighter by ∼4.6 mag and dIm galaxies would be brighter by ∼3.5 mag. Both have DM halos that are massive enough to help to solve the “too big to fail” problem with DM galaxy formation. (5) We suggest that there exist many galaxies that are too dark to be discovered by current techniques, as required by cold DM theory. (6) Central surface densities of DM halos are constant from M{sub B} ∼ −5 to −22. This implies a Faber–Jackson law with halo mass M ∝ (halo dispersion){sup 4}.

  9. Simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies formed in dark matter halos with different mass assembly histories

    SciTech Connect

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.; Valenzuela, O.; Colín, P.

    2014-04-10

    We present zoom-in N-body/hydrodynamics resimulations of dwarf galaxies formed in isolated cold dark matter (CDM) halos with the same virial mass (M{sub v} ≈ 2.5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}) at redshift z = 0. Our goals are to (1) study the mass assembly histories (MAHs) of the halo, stellar, and gaseous components; and (2) explore the effects of the halo MAHs on the stellar/baryonic assembly of simulated dwarfs. Overall, the dwarfs are roughly consistent with observations. More specific results include: (1) the stellar-to-halo mass ratio remains roughly constant since z ∼ 1, i.e., the stellar MAHs closely follow halo MAHs. (2) The evolution of the galaxy gas fractions, f{sub g} , are episodic, showing that the supernova-driven outflows play an important role in regulating f{sub g} —and hence, the star formation rate (SFR)—however, in most cases, a large fraction of the gas is ejected from the halo. (3) The star formation histories are episodic with changes in the SFRs, measured every 100 Myr, of factors of 2-10 on average. (4) Although the dwarfs formed in late assembled halos show more extended SF histories, their z = 0 specific SFRs are still below observations. (5) The inclusion of baryons most of the time reduces the virial mass by 10%-20% with respect to pure N-body simulations. Our results suggest that rather than increasing the strength of the supernova-driven outflows, processes that reduce the star formation efficiency could help to solve the potential issues faced by CDM-based simulations of dwarfs, such as low values of the specific SFR and high stellar masses.

  10. Velocity and mass bias in the distribution of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Elise; Baugh, Carlton M.; Hatt, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    The non-linear, scale-dependent bias in the mass distribution of galaxies and the underlying dark matter is a key systematic affecting the extraction of cosmological parameters from galaxy clustering. Using 95 million haloes from the Millennium-XXL N-body simulation, we find that the mass bias is scale independent only for k < 0.1 h Mpc-1 today (z = 0) and for k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 at z = 0.7. We test analytic halo bias models against our simulation measurements and find that the model of Tinker et al. is accurate to better than 5 per cent at z = 0. However, the simulation results are better fitted by an ellipsoidal collapse model at z = 0.7. We highlight, for the first time, another potentially serious systematic due to a sampling bias in the halo velocity divergence power spectra which will affect the comparison between observations and any redshift-space distortion model which assumes dark matter velocity statistics with no velocity bias. By measuring the velocity divergence power spectra for different sized halo samples, we find that there is a significant bias which increases with decreasing number density. This bias is approximately 20 per cent at k = 0.1 h Mpc-1 for a halo sample of number density bar{n} = 10^{-3} (h/ Mpc)3 at both z = 0 and 0.7 for the velocity divergence auto power spectrum. Given the importance of redshift-space distortions as a probe of dark energy and the major ongoing effort to advance models for the clustering signal in redshift space, our results show that this velocity bias introduces another systematic, alongside scale-dependent halo mass bias, which cannot be neglected.

  11. Globular clusters, satellite galaxies and stellar haloes from early dark matter peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ben; Diemand, Juerg; Madau, Piero; Zemp, Marcel; Stadel, Joachim

    2006-05-01

    The Milky Way contains several distinct old stellar components that provide a fossil record of its formation. We can understand their spatial distribution and kinematics in a hierarchical formation scenario by associating the protogalactic fragments envisaged by Searle & Zinn (1978) with the rare peaks able to cool gas in the cold dark matter density field collapsing at redshift z > 10. We use hierarchical structure formation simulations to explore the kinematics and spatial distribution of these early star-forming structures in galaxy haloes today. Most of the protogalaxies rapidly merge, their stellar contents and dark matter becoming smoothly distributed and forming the inner Galactic halo. The metal-poor globular clusters and old halo stars become tracers of this early evolutionary phase, centrally biased and naturally reproducing the observed steep fall off with radius. The most outlying peaks fall in late and survive to the present day as satellite galaxies. The observed radial velocity dispersion profile and the local radial velocity anisotropy of Milky Way halo stars are successfully reproduced in this model. If this epoch of structure formation coincides with a suppression of further cooling into lower sigma peaks then we can reproduce the rarity, kinematics and spatial distribution of satellite galaxies as suggested by Bullock, Kravtsov & Weinberg (2000). Reionization at z= 12 +/- 2 provides a natural solution to the missing satellites problem. Measuring the distribution of globular clusters and halo light on scales from galaxies to clusters could be used to constrain global versus local reionization models. If reionization occurs contemporary, our model predicts a constant frequency of blue globulars relative to the host halo mass, except for dwarf galaxies where the average relative frequencies become smaller.

  12. Systematic problems with using dark matter simulations to model stellar halos

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Valluri, Monica; Stinson, Greg S.; Debattista, Victor P.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Wadsley, James

    2014-03-10

    The limits of available computing power have forced models for the structure of stellar halos to adopt one or both of the following simplifying assumptions: (1) stellar mass can be 'painted' onto dark matter (DM) particles in progenitor satellites; (2) pure DM simulations that do not form a luminous galaxy can be used. We estimate the magnitude of the systematic errors introduced by these assumptions using a controlled set of stellar halo models where we independently vary whether we look at star particles or painted DM particles, and whether we use a simulation in which a baryonic disk galaxy forms or a matching pure DM simulation that does not form a baryonic disk. We find that the 'painting' simplification reduces the halo concentration and internal structure, predominantly because painted DM particles have different kinematics from star particles even when both are buried deep in the potential well of the satellite. The simplification of using pure DM simulations reduces the concentration further, but increases the internal structure, and results in a more prolate stellar halo. These differences can be a factor of 1.5-7 in concentration (as measured by the half-mass radius) and 2-7 in internal density structure. Given this level of systematic uncertainty, one should be wary of overinterpreting differences between observations and the current generation of stellar halo models based on DM-only simulations when such differences are less than an order of magnitude.

  13. White Dwarfs:. Contributors and Tracers of the Galactic Dark-Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmans, L. V. E.; Blandford, R. D.

    2002-03-01

    We examine the claim by Oppenheimer et al. (2001) that the local halo density of white dwarfs is an order of magnitude higher than previously thought. As it stands, the observational data support the presence of a kinematically distinct population of halo white dwarfs at the >99% confidence level. A maximum-likelihood analysis gives a radial velocity dispersion of σ hU = 150+80-40\\ km s-1 and an asymmetric drift of ν ha = 176+102-80\\ km s-1, for a Schwarzschild velocity distribution function with σU:σV:σW = 1:2/3:1/2. Halo white dwarfs have a local number density of 1.1+2.1-0.7 × 10-4\\ pc-3, which amounts to 0.8+1.6-0.5 per cent of the nominal local dark-matter halo density and is 5.0+9.5-3.2 times (90% C.L.) higher and thus only marginally in agreement with previous estimates. We discuss several direct consequences of this white-dwarf population (e.g. microlensing) and postulate a potential mechanism to eject young white dwarfs from the disc to the halo, through the orbital instabilities in triple or multiple stellar systems.

  14. WHAT DO DARK MATTER HALO PROPERTIES TELL US ABOUT THEIR MASS ASSEMBLY HISTORIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Anson W. C.; Taylor, James E. E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca

    2012-09-20

    Individual dark matter halos in cosmological simulations vary widely in their detailed structural properties, properties such as concentration, shape, spin, and degree of internal relaxation. Recent non-parametric (principal component) analyses suggest that a few principal components explain a large fraction of the scatter in these structural properties. The main principal component is closely aligned with concentration, which in turn is known to be related to the mass accretion history (MAH) of the halo, as described by its merger tree. Here, we examine more generally the connection between the MAH and structural parameters. The space of mass accretion histories has principal components of its own. The strongest, accounting for almost 60% of the scatter between individual histories, can be interpreted as the age of the system. We give an analytic fit for this first component, which provides a rigorous way of defining the dynamical age of a halo. The second strongest component, representing acceleration or deceleration of growth at late times, accounts for 25% of the scatter. Relating structural parameters to formation history, we find that concentration correlates strongly with the early history of the halo, while shape and degree of relaxation or dynamical equilibrium correlate with the later history. We examine the inferences about formation history that can be drawn by splitting halos into sub-samples based on observable properties such as concentration and shape. Applications include the definition young and old samples of galaxy clusters in a quantitative way, or empirical tests of environmental processing rates in clusters.

  15. Off-center dark matter halo leading to strong central disk lopsidedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Chaitanya; Jog, Chanda J.

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing evidence from simulations and observations that the center of the dark matter halo in a Milky Way-type galaxy could be off-center by a few 100 pc with respect to the galactic disk. We study the effect of such an offset halo on the orbits and kinematics in the central few kpc of the disk via a simple, analytical model. The equations of motion in the disk plane can be written in terms of the potentials of the disk and halo when they are concentric, and a perturbation term arising due to the offset halo. We show that this perturbation potential has an m = 1 azimuthal variation, or is lopsided, and its magnitude increases at small radii. On solving these equations, we find that the perturbed orbit shows a large deviation, 40% in radius at R = 1.5 kpc, and also strong kinematical lopsidedness. Thus, even a small halo offset of 350 pc can induce surprisingly strong spatial and kinematical lopsidedness in the central region within a 3 kpc radius. The disk lopsidedness would have important implications for the evolution of this region; for example, it could help fuel the central active galactic nucleus.

  16. Neutrino propagation in the Galactic dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Salas, P. F.; Lineros, R. A.; Tórtola, M.

    2016-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations are a widely observed and well-established phenomenon. It is also well known that deviations with respect to flavor conversion probabilities in vacuum arise due to neutrino interactions with matter. In this work, we analyze the impact of new interactions between neutrinos and the dark matter present in the Milky Way on the neutrino oscillation pattern. The dark matter-neutrino interaction is modeled by using an effective coupling proportional to the Fermi constant GF with no further restrictions on its flavor structure. For the galactic dark matter profile we consider a homogeneous distribution as well as several density profiles, estimating in all cases the size of the interaction required to get an observable effect at different neutrino energies. Our discussion is mainly focused in the PeV neutrino energy range, to be explored in observatories like IceCube and KM3NeT. The obtained results may be interpreted in terms of a light O (sub -eV - keV ) or weakly interacting massive particlelike dark matter particle or as a new interaction with a mediator of O (sub -eV - keV ) mass.

  17. The dark matter halos of Draco and Ursa Minor

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, C.; Kormendy, J. Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria )

    1990-07-01

    Published density profiles and central velocity dispersions place important constraints on the stellar velocity ellipsoid and on the distribution of dark matter (DM) in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Draco and Ursa Minor. Central velocity dispersions of 9 km/s are adopted for Draco and 11 km/s for Ursa Minor. Then, for an isotropic stellar velocity distribution, the central DM densities are 0.8 and 1.0 solar mass/cu pc, respectively, if visible and dark matter have the same core radius. If DM has a much larger core radius than visible matter but nevertheless dominates the potential, these densities are reduced by a factor of 2. Central DM densities can be lower than this only if the stellar velocity distribution is anisotropic. Simple two-component King models are used to investigate this and to look for the smallest DM densities that are consistent with the observations. 36 refs.

  18. A model for halo formation with axion mixed dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, David J. E.; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    There are several issues to do with dwarf galaxy predictions in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology that have suscitated much recent debate about the possible modification of the nature of dark matter as providing a solution. We explore a novel solution involving ultralight axions that can potentially resolve the missing satellites problem, the cusp-core problem and the `too big to fail' problem. We discuss approximations to non-linear structure formation in dark matter models containing a component of ultralight axions across four orders of magnitude in mass, 10-24 ≲ ma ≲ 10-20 eV, a range too heavy to be well constrained by linear cosmological probes such as the cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum, and too light/non-interacting for other astrophysical or terrestrial axion searches. We find that an axion of mass ma ≈ 10-21 eV contributing approximately 85 per cent of the total dark matter can introduce a significant kpc scale core in a typical Milky Way satellite galaxy in sharp contrast to a thermal relic with a transfer function cut off at the same scale, while still allowing such galaxies to form in significant number. Therefore, ultralight axions do not suffer from the Catch 22 that applies to using a warm dark matter as a solution to the small-scale problems of CDM. Our model simultaneously allows formation of enough high-redshift galaxies to allow reconciliation with observational constraints, and also reduces the maximum circular velocities of massive dwarfs so that baryonic feedback may more plausibly resolve the predicted overproduction of massive Milky Way Galaxy dwarf satellites.

  19. Dark-matter haloes and the M-σ relation for supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Adam C.; McLaughlin, Dean E.

    2016-10-01

    We develop models of two-component spherical galaxies to establish scaling relations linking the properties of spheroids at z = 0 (total stellar masses, effective radii Re and velocity dispersions within Re) to the properties of their dark-matter haloes at both z = 0 and higher redshifts. Our main motivation is the widely accepted idea that the accretion-driven growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in protogalaxies is limited by quasar-mode feedback and gas blow-out. The SMBH masses, MBH, should then be connected to the dark-matter potential wells at the redshift zqso of the blow-out. We specifically consider the example of a power-law dependence on the maximum circular speed in a protogalactic dark-matter halo: M_{BH}∝ V^4_{d,pk}, as could be expected if quasar-mode feedback were momentum-driven. For haloes with a given Vd,pk at a given zqso ≥ 0, our model scaling relations give a typical stellar velocity dispersion σap(Re) at z = 0. Thus, they transform a theoretical MBH-Vd,pk relation into a prediction for an observable MBH-σap(Re) relation. We find the latter to be distinctly non-linear in log-log space. Its shape depends on the generic redshift evolution of haloes in a Λ cold dark matter cosmology and the systematic variation of stellar-to-dark matter mass fraction at z = 0, in addition to any assumptions about the physics underlying the MBH-Vd,pk relation. Despite some clear limitations of the form we use for MBH versus Vd,pk, and even though we do not include any SMBH growth through dry mergers at low redshift, our results for MBH-σap(Re) compare well to data for local early types if we take zqso ˜ 2-4.

  20. Testing feedback-modified dark matter haloes with galaxy rotation curves: estimation of halo parameters and consistency with ΛCDM scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Harley; Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Di Cintio, Arianna; Brook, Chris B.; Schombert, James M.

    2017-04-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations predict dark matter (DM) haloes with steep central cusps (e.g. NFW). This contradicts observations of gas kinematics in low-mass galaxies that imply the existence of shallow DM cores. Baryonic processes such as adiabatic contraction and gas outflows can, in principle, alter the initial DM density profile, yet their relative contributions to the halo transformation remain uncertain. Recent high-resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations by Di Cintio et al. (DC14) predict that inner density profiles depend systematically on the ratio of stellar-to-DM mass (M*/Mhalo). Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, we test the NFW and the M*/Mhalo-dependent DC14 halo models against a sample of 147 galaxy rotation curves from the new Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves data set. These galaxies all have extended H I rotation curves from radio interferometry as well as accurate stellar-mass-density profiles from near-infrared photometry. The DC14 halo profile provides markedly better fits to the data compared to the NFW profile. Unlike NFW, the DC14 halo parameters found in our rotation-curve fits naturally fall within two standard deviations of the mass-concentration relation predicted by Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and the stellar mass-halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching with few outliers. Halo profiles modified by baryonic processes are therefore more consistent with expectations from ΛCDM cosmology and provide better fits to galaxy rotation curves across a wide range of galaxy properties than do halo models that neglect baryonic physics. Our results offer a solution to the decade long cusp-core discrepancy.

  1. The formation and evolution of dark matter halos early in cosmic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.

    2015-08-01

    Observational evidence points to the formation of super-massive black holes, heavy elements and halo structure much earlier in cosmic history than expected [1], and this is challenging for Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. However, if photon scattering cross sections were less than expected it becomes possible for halos to form at earlier times and relax the tensions that exist with LCDM theory. This may indeed be the case: it has recently been shown [2,3] that photon-particle scattering cross sections vary significantly with the eigenspectral distribution of the scattering particle in deep gravity wells, an effect that depends on the degree of localization of the particle wavefunction and the proximity of the halo to thermal equilibrium. Cross sections tend to be lower the larger and deeper the gravitational well. This purely quantum effect means that accepted cross sections, as measured on Earth and used to determine the rate and timing of halo formation, may not be applicable to deep gravity wells, not only at the present epoch but throughout cosmic history.By combining reduced photon scattering cross sections with Carr’s primordial black hole mass spectrum formulation[4] calculated at the last phase transition (t = 1 s), it is possible to provide a scenario of halo formation that enables galaxies and halos to form much earlier in cosmic history, yet maintain consistency with cosmic microwave background observations and primordial nucleosynthesis. In addition this scenario provides a unified model relating globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges, enables an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, and enables prediction of dark to visible matter, based on the physical parameters of a halo. This scenario will be presented and discussed.[1] Xue-Bing Wu et al, 2015, Nature, 518,512-515 doi: 10.1038/nature14241[2] Ernest A. D., 2009, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 115207, 115208[3] Ernest A. D, 2012, in Advances in

  2. Dark matter annihilation and decay from non-spherical dark halos in galactic dwarf satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Ichikawa, Koji; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Ibe, Masahiro; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Sugai, Hajime

    2016-09-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Milky Way are the primary targets in the indirect searches for particle dark matter. To set robust constraints on candidate dark matter particles, understanding the dark halo structure of these systems is of substantial importance. In this paper, we first evaluate the astrophysical factors for dark matter annihilation and decay for 24 dSphs, taking into account a non-spherical dark halo, using generalized axisymmetric mass models based on axisymmetric Jeans equations. First, from a fitting analysis of the most recent kinematic data available, our axisymmetric mass models are a much better fit than previous spherical ones, thus, our work should be the most realistic and reliable estimator for astrophysical factors. Secondly, we find that among analysed dSphs, the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies Triangulum II and Ursa Major II are the most promising but large uncertain targets for dark matter annihilation while the classical dSph Draco is the most robust and detectable target for dark matter decay. It is also found that the non-sphericity of luminous and dark components influences the estimate of astrophysical factors, even though these factors largely depend on the sample size, the prior range of parameters and the spatial extent of the dark halo. Moreover, owing to these effects, the constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross-section are more conservative than those of previous spherical works. These results are important for optimizing and designing dark matter searches in current and future multi-messenger observations by space and ground-based telescopes.

  3. Positron line radiation from halo WIMP annihilations as a dark matter signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1989-01-01

    We suggest a new signature for dark matter annihilation in the halo: high energy positron line radiation. Because the cosmic ray positron spectrum falls rapidly with energy, e+'s from halo WIMP annihilations can be a significant, clean signal for very massive WIMP's (approx. greater than 30 GeV). In the case that the e+e- annihilation channel has an appreciable branch, the e+ signal should be above background in a future detector, such as have been proposed for ASTROMAG, and of potential importance as a dark matter signature. A significant e+e- branching ratio can occur for neutralinos or Dirac neutrinos. High-energy, continuum positron radiation may also be an important signature for massive neutralino annihilations, especially near or above the threshold of the W+W- and ZoZo annihilation channels.

  4. Nonlinear cosmological matter power spectrum with massive neutrinos: The halo model

    SciTech Connect

    Abazajian, Kevork; Habib, Salman; Switzer, Eric R.; Dodelson, Scott; Heitmann, Katrin

    2005-02-15

    Measurements of the linear power spectrum of galaxies have placed tight constraints on neutrino masses. We extend the framework of the halo model of cosmological nonlinear matter clustering to include the effect of massive neutrino infall into cold dark matter (CDM) halos. The magnitude of the effect of neutrino clustering for three degenerate mass neutrinos with m{sub {nu}{sub i}}=0.9 eV is of order {approx}1%, within the potential sensitivity of upcoming weak lensing surveys. In order to use these measurements to further constrain--or eventually detect--neutrino masses, accurate theoretical predictions of the nonlinear power spectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos will be needed, likely only possible through high-resolution multiple particle (neutrino, CDM and baryon) simulations.

  5. The Nonlinear cosmological matter power spectrum with massive neutrinos. 1. The Halo model

    SciTech Connect

    Abazajian, Kevork; Switzer, Eric R.; Dodelson, Scott; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; /Los Alamos

    2004-11-01

    Measurements of the linear power spectrum of galaxies have placed tight constraints on neutrino masses. We extend the framework of the halo model of cosmological nonlinear matter clustering to include the effect of massive neutrino infall into cold dark matter (CDM) halos. The magnitude of the effect of neutrino clustering for three degenerate mass neutrinos with m{sub v{sub 1}} = 0.9 eV is of order {approx}1%, within the potential sensitivity of upcoming weak lensing surveys. In order to use these measurements to further constrain--or eventually detect--neutrino masses, accurate theoretical predictions of the nonlinear power spectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos will be needed, likely only possible through high-resolution multiple particle (neutrino, CDM and baryon) simulations.

  6. Simultaneous orbit fitting of stellar streams: Constraining the galactic dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Benjamin Arthur

    2010-12-01

    The Milky Way Galaxy serves as a laboratory for testing models of galaxy formation. Discovering the nature of dark matter is often cited as the second most important problem in astrophysics, preceded only by dark energy. Mapping the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way Galaxy can tell us how galaxies form, and place constraints on the properties of dark matter. We can map the distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way using tidal streams, collections of stars that have been gravitationally stripped from satellite dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. By knowing the positions and velocities of these stars, and assuming they came from a compact source, we can follow them back in time and constrain the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo. This Thesis presents a method that allows us to constrain the parameters of a static Galactic gravitational potential using the data from any number of tidal debris streams. The method is tested on simulated tidal streams, and successfully recovers the original model parameters in most cases. The importance of simultaneously fitting the measured rotation curve of the Milky Way is explored, and the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm are discussed. The orbit fitting algorithm is applied independently to the Stream of Grillmair and Dionatos (GD-1), the Orphan Stream, and the Cetus Polar Stream (CPS). We show that no known globular cluster or dwarf galaxy in the Milky Way has kinematics consistent with being the progenitor of the GD-1 stream. The Orphan Stream constrains the Milky Way dark matter halo as having a mass at the low end of previous measurements, giving a best fit halo speed of vhalo = 73 +/- 24 km s-1, compared to typical values of vhalo ≈ 115 km s -1. A lower halo speed implies a less massive halo. The GD-1 and Orphan streams are then fit simultaneously with the Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream (Sgr), within a triaxial dark matter halo. Results for restricted triaxial cases are shown to be consistent with

  7. Joint constraints on the Galactic dark matter halo and Galactic Centre from hypervelocity stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Elena M.; Marchetti, T.; Cacciato, M.; Kuiack, M.; Sari, R.

    2017-05-01

    The mass assembly history of the Milky Way can inform both theory of galaxy formation and the underlying cosmological model. Thus, observational constraints on the properties of both its baryonic and dark matter contents are sought. Here, we show that hypervelocity stars (HVSs) can in principle provide such constraints. We model the observed velocity distribution of HVSs, produced by tidal break-up of stellar binaries caused by Sgr A*. Considering a Galactic Centre (GC) binary population consistent with that inferred in more observationally accessible regions, a fit to current HVS data with significance level >5 per cent can only be obtained if the escape velocity from the GC to 50 kpc is VG ≲ 850 km s-1, regardless of the enclosed mass distribution. When a Navarro, Frenk and White matter density profile for the dark matter halo is assumed, haloes with VG ≲ 850 km s-1 are in agreement with predictions in the Λ cold dark matter model and a subset of models around M200 ˜ 0.5-1.5 × 1012 M⊙ and rs ≲ 35 kpc can also reproduce Galactic circular velocity data. HVS data alone cannot currently exclude potentials with VG > 850 km s-1. Finally, specific constraints on the halo mass from HVS data are highly dependent on the assumed baryonic mass potentials. This first attempt to simultaneously constrain GC and dark halo properties is primarily hampered by the paucity and quality of data. It nevertheless demonstrates the potential of our method, that may be fully realized with the ESA Gaia mission.

  8. Galaxy Kinematics with VIRUS-P: The Dark Matter Halo of M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Adams, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted axisymmetric, orbit-based dynamical modeling on M87, the second rank galaxy in the Virgo cluster, and find clear evidence for a large dark matter halo. The total enclosed mass within 47 kpc is 6e12 solar masses making M87 one of the most massive dark halos ever measured in the local universe. To construct these dynamical models we fit for the stellar mass-to-light ratio and two dark halo parameters, assuming a cored logarithmic dark halo profile. The dynamical data comes from existing globular cluster data, SAURON stellar kinematics in the center of M87, and new 2-D stellar kinematics taken with VIRUS-P, an integral field unit currently deployed at the McDonald Observatory. These kinematics add significantly to the current data set on M87 and allow for a direct comparison between different dynamical tracers. We find good agreement between the dynamics of the stars and globular cluster data at large radii, indicating these two systems are in equilibrium. However, the enclosed mass we measure is 60% higher than recent mass estimates calculated from X-ray gas measurements. Understanding the systematics present in the various tools used to estimate mass in local galaxies is critical to our understanding of the formation history and the role dark matter plays in the evolution of these galaxies. We also report on the current status of a VIRUS-P survey of the stellar kinematics of local, massive elliptical galaxies. Our data set includes giant field ellipticals, cluster members and brightest cluster galaxies. The goal of this project is to quantify the amount of dark matter in these systems in order to explore how the role of cluster environment influences both the amount and shape of the dark matter profile.

  9. FASTPM: a new scheme for fast simulations of dark matter and haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Chu, Man-Yat; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    We introduce FASTPM, a highly scalable approximated particle mesh (PM) N-body solver, which implements the PM scheme enforcing correct linear displacement (1LPT) evolution via modified kick and drift factors. Employing a two-dimensional domain decomposing scheme, FASTPM scales extremely well with a very large number of CPUs. In contrast to Comoving-Lagrangian (COLA) approach, we do not require to split the force or track separately the 2LPT solution, reducing the code complexity and memory requirements. We compare FASTPM with different number of steps (Ns) and force resolution factor (B) against three benchmarks: halo mass function from friends-of-friends halo finder; halo and dark matter power spectrum; and cross-correlation coefficient (or stochasticity), relative to a high-resolution TREEPM simulation. We show that the modified time stepping scheme reduces the halo stochasticity when compared to COLA with the same number of steps and force resolution. While increasing Ns and B improves the transfer function and cross-correlation coefficient, for many applications FASTPM achieves sufficient accuracy at low Ns and B. For example, Ns = 10 and B = 2 simulation provides a substantial saving (a factor of 10) of computing time relative to Ns = 40, B = 3 simulation, yet the halo benchmarks are very similar at z = 0. We find that for abundance matched haloes the stochasticity remains low even for Ns = 5. FASTPM compares well against less expensive schemes, being only 7 (4) times more expensive than 2LPT initial condition generator for Ns = 10 (Ns = 5). Some of the applications where FASTPM can be useful are generating a large number of mocks, producing non-linear statistics where one varies a large number of nuisance or cosmological parameters, or serving as part of an initial conditions solver.

  10. Constraints on the Galactic Halo Dark Matter From FERMI-LAT Diffuse Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; ...

    2012-11-28

    For this study, we have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the Milky Way halo region, searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e+/e– produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derivedmore » based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. In conclusion, the resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as the annihilation of dark matter.« less

  11. Constraints on the Galactic Halo Dark Matter from Fermi-LAT Diffuse Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the Milky Way halo region, searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e+/e- produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. The resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as the annihilation of dark matter.

  12. Constraints on the Galactic Halo Dark Matter From FERMI-LAT Diffuse Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Poon, H.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romoli, C.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-11-28

    For this study, we have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the Milky Way halo region, searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e+/e produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. In conclusion, the resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as the annihilation of dark matter.

  13. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC HALO DARK MATTER FROM FERMI-LAT DIFFUSE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the Milky Way halo region, searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e {sup +}/e {sup -} produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. The resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as the annihilation of dark matter.

  14. A general explanation on the correlation of dark matter halo spin with the large-scale environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    Both simulations and observations have found that the spin of halo/galaxy is correlated with the large-scale environment, and particularly the spin of halo flips in filament. A consistent picture of halo spin evolution in different environments is still lacked. Using N-body simulation, we find that halo spin with its environment evolves continuously from sheet to cluster, and the flip of halo spin happens both in filament and nodes. The flip in filament can be explained by halo formation time and migrating time when its environment changes from sheet to filament. For low-mass haloes, they form first in sheets and migrate into filaments later, so their mass and spin growth inside filament are lower, and the original spin is still parallel to filament. For high-mass haloes, they migrate into filaments first, and most of their mass and spin growth are obtained in filaments, so the resulted spin is perpendicular to filament. Our results well explain the overall evolution of cosmic web in the cold dark matter model and can be tested using high-redshift data. The scenario can also be tested against alternative models of dark matter, such as warm/hot dark matter, where the structure formation will proceed in a different way.

  15. THE INNER STRUCTURE OF DWARF-SIZED HALOS IN WARM AND COLD DARK MATTER COSMOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V.; Colín, P.

    2016-03-10

    By means of N-body + hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations we study the evolution of the inner dark matter and stellar mass distributions of central dwarf galaxies formed in halos of virial masses M{sub v} = (2–3) × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} at z = 0, both in a warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. The half-mode mass in the WDM power spectrum of our simulations is M{sub f} = 2 × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. In the dark matter (DM) only simulations halo density profiles are well described by the Navarro–Frenk–White parametric fit in both cosmologies, though the WDM halos have concentrations lower by factors of 1.5–2.0 than their CDM counterparts. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the effects of baryons significantly flatten the inner density, velocity dispersion, and pseudo phase space density profiles of the WDM halos but not of the CDM ones. The density slope, measured at ≈0.02R{sub v}, α{sub 0.02}, becomes shallow in periods of 2–5 Gyr in the WDM runs. We explore whether this flattening process correlates with the global star formation (SF), M{sub s}/M{sub v} ratio, gas outflow, and internal specific angular momentum histories. We do not find any clear trends, but when α{sub 0.02} is shallower than −0.5, M{sub s}/M{sub v} is always between 0.25% and 1%. We conclude that the main reason for the formation of the shallow core is the presence of strong gas mass fluctuations inside the inner halo, which are a consequence of the feedback driven by a very bursty and sustained SF history in shallow gravitational potentials. Our WDM halos, which assemble late and are less concentrated than the CDM ones, obey these conditions. There are also (rare) CDM systems with extended mass assembly histories that obey these conditions and form shallow cores. The dynamical heating and expansion processes behind the DM core flattening apply also to the stars in such a way that the stellar age and metallicity gradients of the

  16. Galaxy Kinematics with VIRUS-P: The Dark Matter Halo of M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy D.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.

    2011-03-01

    We present two-dimensional stellar kinematics of M87 out to R = 238'' taken with the integral field spectrograph VIRUS-P. We run a large set of axisymmetric, orbit-based dynamical models and find clear evidence for a massive dark matter halo. While a logarithmic parameterization for the dark matter halo is preferred, we do not constrain the dark matter scale radius for a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile and therefore cannot rule it out. Our best-fit logarithmic models return an enclosed dark matter fraction of 17.2+5.0 -5.0% within one effective radius (Re cong 100''), rising to 49.4+7.2 -8.8% within 2 Re . Existing SAURON data (R <=13''), and globular cluster (GC) kinematic data covering 145'' <= R <= 554'' complete the kinematic coverage to R = 47 kpc (~5 Re ). At this radial distance, the logarithmic dark halo comprises 85.3+2.5 -2.4% of the total enclosed mass of 5.7+1.3 -0.9 × 1012 M sun making M87 one of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. Our best-fit logarithmic dynamical models return a stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of 9.1+0.2 -0.2 (V band), a dark halo circular velocity of 800+75 -25 km s-1, and a dark halo scale radius of 36+7 -3 kpc. The stellar M/L, assuming an NFW dark halo, is well constrained to 8.20+0.05 -0.10 (V band). The stars in M87 are found to be radially anisotropic out to R cong0.5 Re , then isotropic or slightly tangentially anisotropic to our last stellar data point at R = 2.4 Re where the anisotropy of the stars and GCs are in excellent agreement. The GCs then become radially anisotropic in the last two modeling bins at R = 3.4 Re and R = 4.8 Re . As one of the most massive galaxies in the local universe, constraints on both the mass distribution of M87 and anisotropy of its kinematic components strongly inform our theories of early-type galaxy formation and evolution in dense environments.

  17. Pairwise velocities of dark matter haloes: a test for the Λ cold dark matter model using the bullet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    The existence of a bullet cluster (such as 1E 0657-56) poses a challenge to the concordance Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Here we investigate the velocity distribution of dark matter (DM) halo pairs in large N-body simulations with differing box sizes (250 h-1 Mpc? Gpc) and resolutions. We examine various basic statistics such as the halo masses, pairwise halo velocities (v12), collisional angles and pair separation distances. We then compare our results to the initial conditions required to reproduce the observational properties of 1E 0657-56 in non-cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We find that the high-velocity tail of the v12 distribution extends to greater velocities as we increase the simulation box size. We also find that the number of high v12 pairs increases as we increase the particle count and resolution with a fixed box size; however, this increase is mostly due to lower mass haloes which do not match the observed masses of 1E 0657-56. We find that the redshift evolution effect is not very strong for the v12 distribution function between z= 0.0 and z˜ 0.5. We identify some pairs whose v12 resemble the required initial conditions, however, even the best candidates have either wrong halo mass ratios or too large separations. Our simulations suggest that it is very difficult to produce such initial conditions at z= 0.0, 0.296 and 0.489 in comoving volumes as large as (2 h-1 Gpc)3. Based on the extrapolation of our cumulative v12 function, we find that one needs a simulation with a comoving box size of (4.48 h-1 Gpc)3 and 22403 DM particles in order to produce at least one pair of haloes that resembles the required v12 and observed masses of 1E 0657-56. From our simulated v12 probability distribution function, we find that the probability of finding a halo pair with v12≥ 3000 km s-1 and masses ? to be 2.76 × 10-8 at z= 0.489. We conclude that either 1E 0657-56 is incompatible with the concordance ΛCDM universe or the initial conditions

  18. Self-Gravitating System of Semidegenerated Fermions as Central Objects and Dark Matter Halos in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Bernardo M. O.; Argüelles, Carlos R.; Ruffini, Remo

    2013-01-01

    We propose a unified model for dark matter haloes and central galactic objects as a self-gravitating system of semidegenerated fermions in thermal equilibrium. We consider spherical symmetry and then we solve the equations of gravitational equilibrium using the Fermi integrals in a dimensionless manner, obtaining the density profile and velocity curve. We also obtain scaling laws for the observables of the system and show that, for a wide range of our parameters, our model is consistent with the so called universality of the surface density of dark matter.

  19. CFHTLenS: weak lensing constraints on the ellipticity of galaxy-scale matter haloes and the galaxy-halo misalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrabback, Tim; Hilbert, Stefan; Hoekstra, Henk; Simon, Patrick; van Uitert, Edo; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kitching, Thomas D.; Mellier, Yannick; Miller, Lance; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Bett, Philip; Coupon, Jean; Fu, Liping; Hudson, Michael J.; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kilbinger, Martin; Kuijken, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    We present weak lensing constraints on the ellipticity of galaxy-scale matter haloes and the galaxy-halo misalignment. Using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), we measure the weighted-average ratio of the aligned projected ellipticity components of galaxy matter haloes and their embedded galaxies, fh, split by galaxy type. We then compare our observations to measurements taken from the Millennium Simulation, assuming different models of galaxy-halo misalignment. Using the Millennium Simulation, we verify that the statistical estimator used removes contamination from cosmic shear. We also detect an additional signal in the simulation, which we interpret as the impact of intrinsic shape-shear alignments between the lenses and their large-scale structure environment. These alignments are likely to have caused some of the previous observational constraints on fh to be biased high. From CFHTLenS, we find fh = -0.04 ± 0.25 for early-type galaxies, which is consistent with current models for the galaxy-halo misalignment predicting fh ≃ 0.20. For late-type galaxies we measure f_h=0.69_{-0.36}^{+0.37} from CFHTLenS. This can be compared to the simulated results which yield fh ≃ 0.02 for misaligned late-type models.

  20. Nonsingular Density Profiles of Dark Matter Halos and Strong Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da-Ming

    2005-08-01

    We use the statistics of strong gravitational lenses to investigate whether mass profiles with a flat density core are supported. The probability for lensing by halos modeled by a nonsingular truncated isothermal sphere (NTIS) with image separations greater than a certain value (ranging from 0" to 10") is calculated. NTIS is an analytical model for the postcollapse equilibrium structure of virialized objects derived by Shapiro, Iliev, & Raga. This profile has a soft core and matches quite well with the mass profiles of dark matter-dominated dwarf galaxies deduced from their observed rotation curves. It also agrees well with the NFW (Navarro-Frenk-White) profile at all radii outside of a few NTIS core radii. Unfortunately, comparing the results with those for singular lensing halos (NFW and SIS + NFW) and strong lensing observations, the probabilities for lensing by NTIS halos are far too low. As this result is valid for any other nonsingular density profile (with a large core radius), we conclude that nonsingular density profiles (with a large core radius) for CDM halos are ruled out by statistics of strong gravitational lenses.

  1. The Nature of Dark Matter and the Density Profile and Central Behavior of Relaxed Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Manrique, Alberto; González-Casado, Guillermo; Hansen, Steen H.

    2007-09-01

    We show that the two basic assumptions of the model recently proposed by Manrique and coworkers for the universal density profile of cold dark matter (CDM) halos, namely, that these objects grow inside out during periods of smooth accretion and that their mass profile and its radial derivatives are all continuous functions, are both well understood in terms of the very nature of CDM. Those two assumptions allow one to derive the typical density profile of halos of a given mass from the accretion rate characteristic of the particular cosmology. This profile was shown by Manrique and coworkers to recover the results of numerical simulations. In the present paper, we investigate its behavior beyond the ranges covered by present-day N-body simulations. We find that the central asymptotic logarithmic slope depends crucially on the shape of the power spectrum of density perturbations: it is equal to a constant negative value for power-law spectra and has central cores for the standard CDM power spectrum. The predicted density profile in the CDM case is well fitted by the 3D Sérsic profile over at least 10 decades in halo mass. The values of the Sérsic parameters depend on the mass of the structure considered. A practical procedure is provided that allows one to infer the typical values of the best NFW or Sérsic fitting law parameters for halos of any mass and redshift in any given standard CDM cosmology.

  2. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part V: perturbation theory applied to dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš; Okumura, Teppei; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k < 0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and Eulerian halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k ∼ 0.15h/Mpc at z = 0, without the need to have free FoG parameters in the model.

  3. Accurate halo-model matter power spectra with dark energy, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.

  4. Joint constraints on the Galactic dark matter halo and GC from hypervelocity stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Elena M.; Marchetti, T.; Cacciato, M.; Kuiack, M.; Sari, R.

    2017-01-01

    The mass assembly history of the Milky Way can inform both theory of galaxy formation and the underlying cosmological model. Thus, observational constraints on the properties of both its baryonic and dark matter contents are sought. Here we show that hypervelocity stars (HVSs) can in principle provide such constraints. We model the observed velocity distribution of HVSs, produced by tidal break-up of stellar binaries caused by Sgr A*. Considering a Galactic Centre (GC) binary population consistent with that inferred in more observationally accessible regions, a fit to current HVS data with significance level >5% can only be obtained if the escape velocity from the GC to 50 kpc is V_G ≲ 850 km s-1, regardless of the enclosed mass distribution. When a NFW matter density profile for the dark matter halo is assumed, haloes with V_G ≲ 850 km s-1are in agreement with predictions in the ΛCDM model and that a subset of models around M200 ˜ 0.5 - 1.5 × 1012M⊙ and r_s ≲ 35 kpc can also reproduce Galactic circular velocity data. HVS data alone cannot currently exclude potentials with VG > 850 km s-1. Finally, specific constraints on the halo mass from HVS data are highly dependent on the assumed baryonic mass potentials. This first attempt to simultaneously constrain GC and dark halo properties is primarily hampered by the paucity and quality of data. It nevertheless demonstrates the potential of our method, that may be fully realised with the ESA Gaia mission.

  5. Halo-shape and relic-density exclusions of Sommerfeld-enhanced dark matter explanations of cosmic ray excesses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jonathan L; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2010-04-16

    Dark matter with Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation has been proposed to explain observed cosmic ray positron excesses in the 10 GeV to TeV energy range. We show that the required enhancement implies thermal relic densities that are too small to be all of dark matter. We also show that the dark matter is sufficiently self-interacting that observations of elliptical galactic dark matter halos exclude large Sommerfeld enhancement for light force carriers. Resonant Sommerfeld enhancement does not modify these conclusions, and the astrophysical boosts required to resolve these discrepancies are disfavored, especially when significant self-interactions suppress halo substructure.

  6. The Dark Matter Halos of Massive, Relaxed Galaxy Clusters Observed With Chandra

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Robert W.; Allen, S.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-10-11

    We use the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the dark matter halos of 34 massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters, spanning the redshift range 0.06 < z < 0.7. The observed dark matter and total mass (dark-plus-luminous matter) profiles can be approximated by the Navarro Frenk & White (hereafter NFW) model for cold dark matter (CDM) halos; for {approx} 80 percent of the clusters, the NFW model provides a statistically acceptable fit. In contrast, the singular isothermal sphere model can, in almost every case, be completely ruled out. We observe a well-defined mass-concentration relation for the clusters with a normalization and intrinsic scatter in good agreement with the predictions from simulations. The slope of the mass-concentration relation, c {infinity} M{sub vir}{sup a}/(1 + z){sup b} with a = -0.41 {+-} 0.11 at 95 percent confidence, is steeper than the value a {approx} -0.1 predicted by CDM simulations for lower mass halos. With the slope a included as a free fit parameter, the redshift evolution of the concentration parameter, b = 0.54 {+-} 0.47 at 95 percent confidence, is also slower than, but marginally consistent with, the same simulations (b {approx} 1). Fixing a {approx} -0.1 leads to an apparent evolution that is significantly slower, b = 0.20 {+-} 0.45, although the goodness of fit in this case is significantly worse. Using a generalized NFW model, we find the inner dark matter density slope, a, to be consistent with unity at 95 percent confidence for the majority of clusters. Combining the results for all clusters for which the generalized NFW model provides a good description of the data, we measure ? = 0.88 {+-} 0.29 at 95 percent confidence, in agreement with CDM model predictions.

  7. A new halo-independent approach to dark matter direct detection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Feldstein, Brian; Kahlhoefer, Felix E-mail: felix.kahlhoefer@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty in the local dark matter velocity distribution is a key difficulty in the analysis of data from direct detection experiments. Here we propose a new approach for dealing with this uncertainty, which does not involve any assumptions about the structure of the dark matter halo. Given a dark matter model, our method yields the velocity distribution which best describes a set of direct detection data as a finite sum of streams with optimised speeds and densities. The method is conceptually simple and numerically very efficient. We give an explicit example in which the method is applied to determining the ratio of proton to neutron couplings of dark matter from a hypothetical set of future data.

  8. Dark-ages Reionization & Galaxy Formation Simulation VIII. Suppressed growth of dark matter halos during the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Angel, Paul W.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how the hydrostatic suppression of baryonic accretion affects the growth rate of dark matter halos during the Epoch of Reionization. By comparing halo properties in a simplistic hydrodynamic simulation in which gas only cools adiabatically, with its collisionless equivalent, we find that halo growth is slowed as hydrostatic forces prevent gas from collapsing. In our simulations, at the high redshifts relevant for reionization (between ˜6 and ˜11), halos that host dwarf galaxies (≲ 109M⊙) can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 in mass due to the hydrostatic pressure of baryons. Consequently, the inclusion of baryonic effects reduces the amplitude of the low mass tail of the halo mass function by factors of 2 to 4. In addition, we find that the fraction of baryons in dark matter halos hosting dwarf galaxies at high redshift never exceeds ˜90% of the cosmic baryon fraction. When implementing baryonic processes, including cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and reionization, the suppression effects become more significant with further reductions of ˜30% to 60%. Although convergence tests suggest that the suppression may become weaker in higher resolution simulations, this suppressed growth will be important for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation, in which the halo mass inherited from an underlying N-body simulation directly determines galaxy properties. Based on the adiabatic simulation, we provide tables to account for these effects in N-body simulations, and present a modification of the halo mass function along with explanatory analytic calculations.

  9. The clustering of baryonic matter. II: halo model and hydrodynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fedeli, C.; Semboloni, E.; Velliscig, M.; Daalen, M. Van; Schaye, J.; Hoekstra, H. E-mail: sembolon@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: daalen@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: hoekstra@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-08-01

    We recently developed a generalization of the halo model in order to describe the spatial clustering properties of each mass component in the Universe, including hot gas and stars. In this work we discuss the complementarity of the model with respect to a set of cosmological simulations including hydrodynamics of different kinds. We find that the mass fractions and density profiles measured in the simulations do not always succeed in reproducing the simulated matter power spectra, the reason being that the latter encode information from a much larger range in masses than that accessible to individually resolved structures. In other words, this halo model allows one to extract information on the growth of structures from the spatial clustering of matter, that is complementary with the information coming from the study of individual objects. We also find a number of directions for improvement of the present implementation of the model, depending on the specific application one has in mind. The most relevant one is the necessity for a scale dependence of the bias of the diffuse gas component, which will be interesting to test with future detections of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. This investigation confirms the possibility to gain information on the physics of galaxy and cluster formation by studying the clustering of mass, and our next work will consist of applying the halo model to use future high-precision cosmic shear surveys to this end.

  10. The accretion history of dark matter haloes - I. The physical origin of the universal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Camila A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the universal accretion history of dark matter haloes is the first step towards determining the origin of their structure. We use the extended Press-Schechter formalism to derive the halo mass accretion history from the growth rate of initial density perturbations. We show that the halo mass history is well described by an exponential function of redshift in the high-redshift regime. However, in the low-redshift regime the mass history follows a power law because the growth of density perturbations is halted in the dark energy dominated era due to the accelerated expansion of the Universe. We provide an analytic model that follows the expression {M(z)=M0(1+z)^{af(M0)}e^{-f(M0)z}}, where M0 = M(z = 0), a depends on cosmology and f(M0) depends only on the linear matter power spectrum. The analytic model does not rely on calibration against numerical simulations and is suitable for any cosmology. We compare our model with the latest empirical models for the mass accretion history in the literature and find very good agreement. We provide numerical routines for the model online (available at https://bitbucket.org/astroduff/commah).

  11. Structure of dark matter halos in warm dark matter models and in models with long-lived charged massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Ayuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Kohri, Kazunori; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: naoki.yoshida@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-03-01

    We study the formation of non-linear structures in warm dark matter (WDM) models and in a long-lived charged massive particle (CHAMP) model. CHAMPs with a decay lifetime of about 1 yr induce characteristic suppression in the matter power spectrum at subgalactic scales through acoustic oscillations in the thermal background. We explore structure formation in such a model. We also study three WDM models, where the dark matter particles are produced through the following mechanisms: i) WDM particles are produced in the thermal background and then kinematically decoupled; ii) WDM particles are fermions produced by the decay of thermal heavy bosons; and iii) WDM particles are produced by the decay of non-relativistic heavy particles. We show that the linear matter power spectra for the three models are all characterised by the comoving Jeans scale at the matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, we can also describe the linear matter power spectrum for the long-lived CHAMP model in terms of a suitably defined characteristic cut-off scale k{sub Ch}, similarly to the WDM models. We perform large cosmological N-body simulations to study the non-linear growth of structures in these four models. We compare the halo mass functions, the subhalo mass functions, and the radial distributions of subhalos in simulated Milky Way-size halos. For the characteristic cut-off scale k{sub cut} = 51 h Mpc{sup −1}, the subhalo abundance ( ∼ 10{sup 9}M{sub sun}) is suppressed by a factor of ∼ 10 compared with the standard ΛCDM model. We then study the models with k{sub cut} ≅ 51, 410, 820 h Mpc{sup −1}, and confirm that the halo and the subhalo abundances and the radial distributions of subhalos are indeed similar between the different WDM models and the long-lived CHAMP model. The result suggests that the cut-off scale k{sub cut} not only characterises the linear power spectra but also can be used to predict the non-linear clustering properties. The radial distribution of subhalos

  12. Angular momentum and vortex formation in Bose-Einstein-condensed cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2012-05-01

    Various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of very light bosons, with masses ranging from about 10-5 eV for the QCD axion down to 10-33 eV for ultra-light particles. These particles could be responsible for all or part of the cold dark matter (CDM) in the Universe. For such particles to serve as CDM, their phase-space density must be high enough to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The fluid-like nature of BEC-CDM dynamics differs from that of standard collisionless CDM, however, so different signature effects on galactic haloes may allow observations to distinguish them. Standard CDM has problems with galaxy observations on small scales; cuspy central density profiles of haloes and the overabundance of subhaloes seem to conflict with observations of dwarf galaxies. It has been suggested that BEC-CDM can overcome these shortcomings for a large range of particle mass m and self-interaction coupling strength g. For quantum coherence to influence structure on the scale of galactic haloes of radius R and mass M, either the de-Broglie wavelength λdeB≲R, which requires m≳mH≅ 10-25(R/100 kpc)-1/2(M/1012 M⊙)-1/2 eV, or else λdeB≪R but gravity is balanced by self-interaction, which requires m≫mHandg≫gH≅ 2 × 10-64(R/100 kpc)(M/1012 M⊙)-1 eV cm3. Here we study the largely neglected effects of angular momentum on BEC haloes. Dimensionless spin parameters λ≃ 0.05 are expected from tidal-torquing by large-scale structure formation, just as for standard CDM. Since laboratory BECs develop quantum vortices if rotated rapidly enough, we ask whether this amount of angular momentum is sufficient to form vortices in BEC haloes, which would affect their structure with potentially observable consequences. The minimum angular momentum required for a halo to sustain a vortex, LQM, corresponds to ℏ per particle, or ℏM/m. For λ= 0.05, this requires m≥ 9.5mH, close enough to the particle mass required to influence

  13. Dark-matter halo profiles of a general cusp/core with analytic velocity and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Ishai, Guy; Dutton, Aaron A.; Maccio, Andrea V.

    2017-06-01

    We present useful functions for the profiles of dark-matter (DM) haloes with a free inner slope, from cusps to cores, where the profiles of density, mass-velocity and potential are simple analytic expressions. Analytic velocity is obtained by expressing the mean density as a simple functional form, and deriving the local density by differentiation. The function involves four shape parameters, with only two or three free: a concentration parameter c, inner and outer asymptotic slopes α and \\bar{γ }, and a middle shape parameter β. Analytic expressions for the potential and velocity dispersion exist for \\bar{γ }=3 and for β a natural number. We match the models to the DM haloes in cosmological simulations, with and without baryons, ranging from steep cusps to flat cores. Excellent fits are obtained with three free parameters (c, α, \\bar{γ }) and β = 2. For an analytic potential, similar fits are obtained for \\bar{γ }=3 and β = 2 with only two free parameters (c, α); this is our favourite model. A linear combination of two such profiles, with an additional free concentration parameter, provides excellent fits also for β = 1, where the expressions are simpler. The fit quality is comparable to non-analytic popular models. An analytic potential is useful for modelling the inner-halo evolution due to gas inflows and outflows, studying environmental effects on the outer halo, and generating halo potentials or initial conditions for simulations. The analytic velocity can quantify simulated and observed rotation curves without numerical integrations.

  14. NIHAO IX: the role of gas inflows and outflows in driving the contraction and expansion of cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Dekel, Avishai; Wang, Liang; Stinson, Gregory; Obreja, Aura; Di Cintio, Arianna; Brook, Chris; Buck, Tobias; Kang, Xi

    2016-09-01

    We use ˜100 cosmological galaxy formation `zoom-in' simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GASOLINE to study the effect of baryonic processes on the mass profiles of cold dark matter haloes. The haloes in our study range from dwarf (M200 ˜ 1010 M⊙) to Milky Way (M200 ˜ 1012 M⊙) masses. Our simulations exhibit a wide range of halo responses, primarily varying with mass, from expansion to contraction, with up to factor ˜10 changes in the enclosed dark matter mass at 1 per cent of the virial radius. Confirming previous studies, the halo response is correlated with the integrated efficiency of star formation: ɛSF ≡ (Mstar/M200)/(Ωb/Ωm). In addition, we report a new correlation with the compactness of the stellar system: ɛR ≡ r1/2/R200. We provide an analytic formula depending on ɛSF and ɛR for the response of cold dark matter haloes to baryonic processes. An observationally testable prediction is that, at fixed mass, larger galaxies experience more halo expansion, while the smaller galaxies more halo contraction. This diversity of dark halo response is captured by a toy model consisting of cycles of adiabatic inflow (causing contraction) and impulsive gas outflow (causing expansion). For net outflow, or equal inflow and outflow fractions, f, the overall effect is expansion, with more expansion with larger f. For net inflow, contraction occurs for small f (large radii), while expansion occurs for large f (small radii), recovering the phenomenology seen in our simulations. These regularities in the galaxy formation process provide a step towards a fully predictive model for the structure of cold dark matter haloes.

  15. Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Diemand, J; Moore, B; Stadel, J

    2005-01-27

    The Universe was nearly smooth and homogeneous before a redshift of z = 100, about 20 million years after the Big Bang. After this epoch, the tiny fluctuations imprinted upon the matter distribution during the initial expansion began to collapse because of gravity. The properties of these fluctuations depend on the unknown nature of dark matter, the determination of which is one of the biggest challenges in present-day science. Here we report supercomputer simulations of the concordance cosmological model, which assumes neutralino dark matter (at present the preferred candidate), and find that the first objects to form are numerous Earth-mass dark-matter haloes about as large as the Solar System. They are stable against gravitational disruption, even within the central regions of the Milky Way. We expect over 10(15) to survive within the Galactic halo, with one passing through the Solar System every few thousand years. The nearest structures should be among the brightest sources of gamma-rays (from particle-particle annihilation).

  16. The clustering of baryonic matter. I: a halo-model approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fedeli, C.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper I generalize the halo model for the clustering of dark matter in order to produce the power spectra of the two main baryonic matter components in the Universe: stars and hot gas. As a natural extension, this can be also used to describe the clustering of all mass. According to the design of the halo model, the large-scale power spectra of the various matter components are physically connected with the distribution of each component within bound structures and thus, ultimately, with the complete set of physical processes that drive the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Besides being practical for cosmological and parametric studies, the semi-analytic model presented here has also other advantages. Most importantly, it allows one to understand on physical ground what is the relative contribution of each matter component to the total clustering of mass as a function of scale, and thus it opens an interesting new window to infer the distribution of baryons through high precision cosmic shear measurements. This is particularly relevant for future wide-field photometric surveys such as Euclid. In this work the concept of the model and its uncertainties are illustrated in detail, while in a companion paper we use a set of numerical hydrodynamic simulations to show a practical application and to investigate where the model itself needs to be improved.

  17. Environmental screening of dark matter haloes in f(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Difu; Li, Baojiu; Han, Jiaxin

    2017-07-01

    In certain theories of modified gravity, Solar system constraints on deviations from general relativity (GR) are satisfied by virtue of a so-called screening mechanism, which enables the theory to revert to GR in regions where the matter density is high or the gravitational potential is deep. In the case of chameleon theories, the screening has two contributions - self-screening, which is due to the mass of an object itself, and environmental screening, which is caused by the surrounding matter - which are often entangled, with the second contribution being more crucial for less massive objects. A quantitative understanding of the effect of the environment on the screening can prove critical in observational tests of such theories using systems such as the Local Group and dwarf galaxies, for which the environment may be inferred in various ways. We use the high-resolution liminality simulation of Shi et al. to test the fidelity of different definitions of environment. We find that, although the different ways to define environment in practice do not agree with one another perfectly, they can provide useful guidance, and cross checks about how well a dark matter halo is screened. In addition, the screening of subhaloes in dark matter haloes is primarily determined by the environment, with the subhalo mass playing a minor role, which means that lower resolution simulations where subhaloes are not well resolved can still be useful for understanding the modification of gravity inside subhaloes.

  18. Bounds on Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2010-03-30

    We review the present model independent bounds on neutrino non-standard interactions both at neutrino production and detection and in its interactions with matter. For matter non-standard interactions the direct bounds are rather weak. However, matter non-standard interactions are related by gauge invariance to the production and detection ones as well as to flavour changing processes involving charged leptons. Taking into account these relations much stronger bounds of at least O(10{sup -2}) can be derived unless significant fine tunings are implemented. Testing non-standard interactions at this level at future neutrino oscillation facilities is challenging but still feasible at very ambitious proposals such as the Neutrino Factory.

  19. THE INTERGALACTIC STELLAR POPULATION FROM MERGERS OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Garcia, A. Cesar; Stanghellini, Letizia; Manchado, Arturo

    2010-02-20

    We present simulations of dry-merger encounters between pairs of elliptical galaxies with dark matter halos. The aim of these simulations is to study the intergalactic (IG) stellar populations produced in both parabolic and hyperbolic encounters. We model progenitor galaxies with total-to-luminous mass ratios M{sub T} /M{sub L}= 3 and 11. The initial mass of the colliding galaxies are chosen so that M{sub 1}/M{sub 2} = 1 and 10. The model galaxies are populated by particles representing stars, as in Stanghellini et al., and dark matter. Merger remnants resulting from these encounters display a population of unbounded particles, both dark and luminous. The number of particles becoming unbounded depends on orbital configuration, with hyperbolic encounters producing a larger luminous intracluster population than parabolic encounters. Furthermore, in simulations with identical orbital parameters, a lower M{sub T} /M{sub L} of the colliding galaxies produces a larger fraction of unbounded luminous particles. For each modeled collision, the fraction of unbounded to initial stellar mass is the same in all mass bins considered, similarly to what we found previously by modeling encounters of galaxies without dark halos. The fraction of IG to total luminosity resulting from our simulations is {approx}4% and {approx}6% for dark-to-bright mass ratios of 10 and 2, respectively. These unbounded-to-total luminous fractions are down from the 17% that we had previously found in the case of no dark halos. Our results are in broad agreement with IG light observed in groups of galaxies, while the results of our previous models without dark halos better encompass observed intracluster populations. We suggest a possible formation scenario of IG stars.

  20. A new direction for dark matter research: intermediate-mass compact halo objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapline, George F.; Frampton, Paul H.

    2016-11-01

    The failure to find evidence for elementary particles that could serve as the constituents of dark matter brings to mind suggestions that dark matter might consist of massive compact objects (MACHOs). In particular, it has recently been argued that MACHOs with masses > 15Msolar may have been prolifically produced at the onset of the big bang. Although a variety of astrophysical signatures for primordial MACHOs with masses in this range have been discussed in the literature, we favor a strategy that uses the potential for magnification of stars outside our galaxy due to gravitational microlensing of these stars by MACHOs in the halo of our galaxy. We point out that the effect of the motion of the Earth on the shape of the micro-lensing brightening curves provides a promising approach to testing over the course of next several years the hypothesis that dark matter consists of massive compact objects.

  1. Halo-independent direct detection of momentum-dependent dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M. E-mail: frandsen@cp3-origins.net

    2014-10-01

    We show that the momentum dependence of dark matter interactions with nuclei can be probed in direct detection experiments without knowledge of the dark matter velocity distribution. This is one of the few properties of DM microphysics that can be determined with direct detection alone, given a signal of dark matter in multiple direct detection experiments with different targets. Long-range interactions arising from the exchange of a light mediator are one example of momentum-dependent DM. For data produced from the exchange of a massless mediator we find for example that the mediator mass can be constrained to be ∼< 10 MeV for DM in the 20-1000 GeV range in a halo-independent manner.

  2. Charge and matter form factors of two-neutron halo nuclei in halo effective field theory at next-to-leading order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanasse, Jared

    2017-02-01

    By using halo effective field theory (EFT), an expansion in Rcore/Rhalo , where Rcore is the radius of the core and Rhalo the radius of the halo nucleus, the charge and neutron form factors of the two-neutron halo nuclei 11Li, 14Be, and 22C are calculated to next-to-leading order (NLO) by treating them as an effective three-body system. From the form factors, the point-charge and point-matter radii, inter-neutron distances, and neutron opening angles are extracted. Agreement is found with existing experimental extractions. Results are given for the point-charge and point-matter radii for arbitrary neutron core scattering effective range ρc n, which can be used for predictions once ρc n is measured. Estimates for ρc n are also used to make NLO predictions. Finally, the point-charge radii of this work are compared with other halo-EFT predictions, and setting the core mass equal to the neutron mass the point-charge radius is found to agree with an analytical prediction in the unitary limit.

  3. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: THE MASS OF THE MILKY WAY'S DARK MATTER HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Besla, Gurtina

    2013-05-10

    We combine our Hubble Space Telescope measurement of the proper motion of the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (presented in a companion paper) with the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galaxy-size dark matter halos in existence to constrain the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo (M{sub vir,MW}). Despite Leo I's large Galactocentric space velocity (200 km s{sup -1}) and distance (261 kpc), we show that it is extremely unlikely to be unbound if Galactic satellites are associated with dark matter substructure, as 99.9% of subhalos in the simulations are bound to their host. The observed position and velocity of Leo I strongly disfavor a low-mass Milky Way: if we assume that Leo I is the least bound of the Milky Way's classical satellites, then we find that M{sub vir,MW} > 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence for a variety of Bayesian priors on M{sub vir,MW}. In lower mass halos, it is vanishingly rare to find subhalos at 261 kpc moving as fast as Leo I. Should an additional classical satellite be found to be less bound than Leo I, this lower limit on M{sub vir,MW} would increase by 30%. Imposing a mass-weighted {Lambda}CDM prior, we find a median Milky Way virial mass of M{sub vir,MW} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with a 90% confidence interval of [1.0-2.4] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. We also confirm a strong correlation between subhalo infall time and orbital energy in the simulations and show that proper motions can aid significantly in interpreting the infall times and orbital histories of satellites.

  4. HOW IMPORTANT IS THE DARK MATTER HALO FOR BLACK HOLE GROWTH?

    SciTech Connect

    Volonteri, Marta; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2011-08-20

    In this paper, we examine whether the properties of central black holes in galactic nuclei correlate with their host dark matter halos. We analyze the entire sample of galaxies where black hole mass, velocity dispersion {sigma}, and asymptotic circular velocity V{sub c} have all been measured. We fit M{sub BH}-{sigma} and M{sub BH}-V{sub c} to a power law, and find that in both relationships the scatter and slope are similar. This model-independent analysis suggests that although the black hole masses are not uniquely determined by dark matter halo mass, when considered for the current sample as a whole, the M{sub BH}-V{sub c} correlation may be as strong (or as weak) as M{sub BH}-{sigma}. Although the data are sparse, there appears to be more scatter in the correlation for both {sigma} and V{sub c} at the low-mass end. This is not unexpected given our current understanding of galaxy and black hole assembly. In fact, there are several compelling reasons that account for this: (1) supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation is likely less efficient in low-mass galaxies with large angular momentum content, (2) SMBH growth is less efficient in low-mass disk galaxies that have not experienced major mergers, and (3) dynamical effects, such as gravitational recoil, increase scatter preferentially at the low-mass end. Therefore, the recent observational claim of the absence of central SMBHs in bulgeless, low-mass galaxies, or deviations from the correlations defined by high-mass black holes in large galaxies today is, in fact, predicated by current models of black hole growth. We show how this arises as a direct consequence of the coupling between dark matter halos and central black holes at the earliest epochs.

  5. The Space Motion of Leo I: The Mass of the Milky Way's Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Besla, Gurtina; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2013-05-01

    We combine our Hubble Space Telescope measurement of the proper motion of the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (presented in a companion paper) with the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galaxy-size dark matter halos in existence to constrain the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo (M vir, MW). Despite Leo I's large Galactocentric space velocity (200 km s-1) and distance (261 kpc), we show that it is extremely unlikely to be unbound if Galactic satellites are associated with dark matter substructure, as 99.9% of subhalos in the simulations are bound to their host. The observed position and velocity of Leo I strongly disfavor a low-mass Milky Way: if we assume that Leo I is the least bound of the Milky Way's classical satellites, then we find that M vir, MW > 1012 M ⊙ at 95% confidence for a variety of Bayesian priors on M vir, MW. In lower mass halos, it is vanishingly rare to find subhalos at 261 kpc moving as fast as Leo I. Should an additional classical satellite be found to be less bound than Leo I, this lower limit on M vir, MW would increase by 30%. Imposing a mass-weighted ΛCDM prior, we find a median Milky Way virial mass of M vir, MW = 1.6 × 1012 M ⊙, with a 90% confidence interval of [1.0-2.4] × 1012 M ⊙. We also confirm a strong correlation between subhalo infall time and orbital energy in the simulations and show that proper motions can aid significantly in interpreting the infall times and orbital histories of satellites.

  6. Made-to-measure dark matter haloes, elliptical galaxies and dwarf galaxies in action coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. A.; Evans, N. W.

    2015-04-01

    We provide a family of action-based distribution functions (DFs) for the double power-law family of densities often used to model galaxies. The DF itself is a double power law in combinations of the actions, and reduces to the pure power-law case at small and large radii. Our method enables the velocity anisotropy of the model to be tuned, and so the anisotropy in the inner and outer parts can be specified for the application in hand. We provide self-consistent DFs for the Hernquist and Jaffe models - both with everywhere isotropic velocity dispersions, and with kinematics that gradually become more radially anisotropic on moving outwards. We also carry out this exercise for a cored dark matter model. These are tailored to represent dark haloes and elliptical galaxies, respectively, with kinematic properties inferred from simulations or observational data. Finally, we relax a cored luminous component within a dark matter halo to provide a self-consistent model of a dwarf spheroidal embedded in dark matter. The DFs provide us with non-rotating spherical stellar systems, but one of the virtues of working with actions is the relative ease with which such models can be converted into axisymmetry and triaxiality.

  7. Glow in the dark matter: observing galactic halos with scattered light.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan H; Silk, Joseph

    2015-02-06

    We consider the observation of diffuse halos of light around the discs of spiral galaxies, as a probe of the interaction cross section between dark matter (DM) and photons. Using the galaxy M101 as an example, we show that for a scattering cross section at the level of 10(-23)(m/GeV)  cm(2) or greater dark matter in the halo will scatter light out from the more luminous center of the disc to larger radii, contributing to an effective increased surface brightness at the edges of the observed area on the sky. This allows us to set an upper limit on the DM-photon cross section using data from the Dragonfly instrument. We then show how to improve this constraint, and the potential for discovery, by combining the radial profile of DM-photon scattering with measurements at multiple wavelengths. Observation of diffuse light presents a new and potentially powerful way to probe the interactions of dark matter with photons, a way that is complementary to existing searches.

  8. Core formation in dwarf haloes with self-interacting dark matter: no fine-tuning necessary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbert, Oliver D.; Bullock, James S.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Rocha, Miguel; Oñorbe, Jose; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the effect of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the density profiles of Vmax ≃ 40km s-1 isolated dwarf dark matter haloes - the scale of relevance for the too big to fail problem (TBTF) - using very high resolution cosmological zoom simulations. Each halo has millions of particles within its virial radius. We find that SIDM models with cross-sections per unit mass spanning the range σ/m = 0.5-50 cm2 g-1 alleviate TBTF and produce constant-density cores of size 300-1000 pc, comparable to the half-light radii of M⋆ ˜ 105 - 7 M⊙ dwarfs. The largest, lowest density cores develop for cross-sections in the middle of this range, σ/m ˜ 5-10 cm2 g-1. Our largest SIDM cross-section run (σ/m = 50 cm2 g-1) develops a slightly denser core owing to mild core-collapse behaviour, but it remains less dense than the cold dark matter case and retains a constant-density core profile. Our work suggests that SIDM cross-sections as large or larger than 50 cm2 g-1 remain viable on velocity scales of dwarf galaxies (vrms ˜ 40 km s-1). The range of SIDM cross-sections that alleviate TBTF and the cusp/core problem spans at least two orders of magnitude and therefore need not be particularly fine-tuned.

  9. Measuring the Shape and Orientation of the Galactic Dark-Matter Halo using Hypervelocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Oleg

    2009-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images of five hypervelocity stars in the Galactic halo in order to establish the first-epoch astrometric frame for them, as a part of a long-term program to measure precise proper motions. The origin of these recently discovered stars, all with positive radial velocities above 540 km/s, is consistent only with being ejected from the deep potential well of the massive black hole at the Galactic center. The deviations of their space motions from purely radial trajectories probe the departures from spherical symmetry of the Galactic potential, mainly due to the triaxiality of the dark-matter halo. Reconstructing the full three-dimensional space motion of the hypervelocity stars, through astrometric proper motions, provides a unique opportunity to measure the shape and orientation of the dark halo. The hypervelocity stars allow measurement of the potential up to 75 kpc from the center, independently of and at larger distances than are afforded by tidal streams of satellite galaxies such as the Sagittarius dSph galaxy. HVS3 may be associated with the LMC, rather then the Galactic center, and would therefore present a case for a supermassive black hole at the center of the LMC. We request one orbit with ACS/WFC for each of the five hypervelocity stars to establish their current positions relative to background galaxies. We will request a repeated observation of these stars in Cycle 17, which will conclusively measure the astrometric proper motions.

  10. Measuring the Shape and Orientation of the Galactic Dark-Matter Halo using Hypervelocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Oleg

    2006-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images of five hypervelocity stars in the Galactic halo in order to establish the first-epoch astrometric frame for them, as a part of a long-term program to measure precise proper motions. The origin of these recently discovered stars, all with positive radial velocities above 540 km/s, is consistent only with being ejected from the deep potential well of the massive black hole at the Galactic center. The deviations of their space motions from purely radial trajectories probe the departures from spherical symmetry of the Galactic potential, mainly due to the triaxiality of the dark-matter halo. Reconstructing the full three-dimensional space motion of the hypervelocity stars, through astrometric proper motions, provides a unique opportunity to measure the shape and orientation of the dark halo. The hypervelocity stars allow measurement of the potential up to 75 kpc from the center, independently of and at larger distances than are afforded by tidal streams of satellite galaxies such as the Sagittarius dSph galaxy. HVS3 may be associated with the LMC, rather then the Galactic center, and would therefore present a case for a supermassive black hole at the center of the LMC. We request one orbit with ACS/WFC for each of the five hypervelocity stars to establish their current positions relative to background galaxies. We will request a repeated observation of these stars in Cycle 17, which will conclusively measure the astrometric proper motions.

  11. Investigating the outer density profile of the dark matter halo of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu

    2015-08-01

    In the context of the hierarchical structure formation in the universe, cosmological N -body simulations predict that cold dark matter (CDM) halos have a universal mass-density profile(Navarro et al. 1996; Fukushige & Makino 1997; Moore et al. 1998).Especially, the density profile of CDM outer halos decreases with the cube of the radius from the galactic center. However, so far, not much effort has examined this hypothesis because it is extremely difficult to measure the mass distribution of the outer region of a galaxy.On the other hand, a recent observation discovered a giant stellar stream (GSS) and stellar shells in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). The GSS extends over 120 kpc further away along the line of sight from M31, and its spatial and velocity structure have been observed in detail. So far, N -body simulations of a galaxy merger between a satellite dwarf galaxy and M31 nicely reproduced these structures (Fardal et al. 2007; Mori & Rich 2008).We present the result of the N -body simulation of the galaxy merger to investigate the mass distribution of the DM halo in M31. We vary the power-law index of the outer-density profile and the total mass of the CDM halo of M31. To reproduce the observed structures, we find the sufficient condition for the power-law index x. The best-fit parameter is x=-3.7, which is steeper than the CDM prediction (x=-3).In addition, we also focus on the morphology of the progenitor galaxy. We perform large parameter surveys of the galaxy merger varying thickness and rotation velocity of a disk-like component of the progenitor. The result suggests that a rotating component of the progenitor is required to reproduce an asymmetric internal structure of the GSS. Using the parameter that reproduces the observed structures in detail, we discuss the evolution and relaxation of the dark matter component that initially associated with the progenitor.

  12. Stellar Mass Versus Stellar Velocity Dispersion: Which is Better for Linking Galaxies to Their Dark Matter Halos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin; Jing, Y. P.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently suggested that compared to its stellar mass (M *), the central stellar velocity dispersion (σ*) of a galaxy might be a better indicator for its host dark matter halo mass. Here we test this hypothesis by estimating the dark matter halo mass for central galaxies in groups as a function of M * and σ*. For this we have estimated the redshift-space cross-correlation function (CCF) between the central galaxies at given M * and σ* and a reference galaxy sample, from which we determine both the projected CCF, wp (rp ), and the velocity dispersion profile. A halo mass is then obtained from the average velocity dispersion within the virial radius. At fixed M *, we find very weak or no correlation between halo mass and σ*. In contrast, strong mass dependence is clearly seen even when σ* is limited to a narrow range. Our results thus firmly demonstrate that the stellar mass of central galaxies is still a good (if not the best) indicator for dark matter halo mass, better than the stellar velocity dispersion. The dependence of galaxy clustering on σ* at fixed M *, as recently discovered by Wake et al., may be attributed to satellite galaxies, for which the tidal stripping occurring within halos has stronger effect on stellar mass than on central stellar velocity dispersion.

  13. ANISOTROPIC LOCATIONS OF SATELLITE GALAXIES: CLUES TO THE ORIENTATIONS OF GALAXIES WITHIN THEIR DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Agustsson, Ingolfur; Brainerd, Tereasa G. E-mail: brainerd@bu.ed

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the locations of the satellites of relatively isolated host galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Millennium Run simulation. Provided we use two distinct prescriptions to embed luminous galaxies within the simulated dark matter halos (ellipticals share the shapes of their halos, while disks have angular momenta that are aligned with the net angular momenta of their halos), we find a fair agreement between observation and theory. Averaged over scales r{sub p} <= 500 kpc, the satellites of red, high-mass hosts with low star formation rates are found preferentially near the major axes of their hosts. In contrast, the satellites of blue, low-mass hosts with low star formation rates show little to no anisotropy when averaged over the same scale. The difference between the locations of the satellites of red and blue hosts cannot be explained by the effects of interlopers in the data. Instead, it is caused primarily by marked differences in the dependence of the mean satellite location, (phi), on the projected distance at which the satellites are found. We also find that the locations of red, high-mass satellites with low star formation rates show considerably more anisotropy than do the locations of blue, low-mass satellites with high star formation rates. There are two contributors to this result. First, the blue satellites have only recently arrived within their hosts' halos, while the red satellites arrived in the far distant past. Second, the sample of blue satellites is heavily contaminated by interlopers, which suppresses the measured anisotropy compared to the intrinsic anisotropy.

  14. Dark Matter annihilations in halos and high-redshift sources of reionization of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien E-mail: Pasquale.Serpico@lapth.cnrs.fr

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that annihilations in the homogeneous fluid of dark matter (DM) can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. However, the relevance of DM annihilations in halos for cosmological observables is still subject to debate, with previous works reaching different conclusions on this point. Also, all previous studies used a single type of parameterization for the astrophysical reionization, and included no astrophysical source for the heating of the intergalactic medium. In this work, we revisit these problems. When standard approaches are adopted, we find that the ionization fraction does exhibit a very particular (and potentially constraining) pattern, but the currently measurable τ{sub reio} is left almost unchanged: in agreement with most of the previous literature, for plausible halo models we find that the modification of the signal with respect to the one coming from annihilations in the smooth background is tiny, below cosmic variance within currently allowed parameter space. However, if different and probably more realistic treatments of the astrophysical sources of reionization and heating are adopted, a more pronounced effect of the DM annihilation in halos is possible. We thus conclude that within currently adopted baseline models the impact of the virialised DM structures cannot be uncovered by CMB power spectra measurements, but a larger impact is possible if peculiar models are invoked for the redshift evolution of the DM annihilation signal or different assumptions are made for the astrophysical contributions. A better understanding (both theoretical and observational) of the reionization and temperature history of the universe, notably via the 21 cm signal, seems the most promising way for using halo formation as a tool in DM searches, improving over the sensitivity of current cosmological probes.

  15. Hollow cores in warm dark matter halos from the Vlasov-Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destri, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of extended high-resolution numerical integrations of the Vlasov-Poisson equation for the collapse of spherically symmetric warm dark matter (WDM) halos. For thermal relics with mass m =1 keV /c2 , we find collapsed halos with cores of size 0.1 to 0.6 kpc. The typical core is hollow, with the mass density decreasing towards the core center by almost three orders of magnitude from its maximum near the core radius rc. The core is in equilibrium with the diffused part of the halo but far from virialization. These properties are rooted in the conservation of the squared angular momentum and in the original excess, proper of WDM initial conditions, of kinetic energy in the core region. In a sample of more than one hundred simulated collapses, the values of rc and of the core density ρc are in the range typical of dwarf spheroids, while the maximal circular velocities Vmax are proper of small disk galaxies. The product μc=ρcrc takes values between 116 M⊙/pc2 and 283 M⊙/pc2 , while the surface density μ0, as determined from a Burkert fit, is roughly three times larger. From these data and data obtained at smaller values of m , we extrapolate for one particular halo μc=263 (308 )M⊙/pc2 and μ0=754 (855 )M⊙/pc2 at m =2 (3.3 ) keV /c2 , to be compared with the observed value 14 0-52+83M⊙/pc2 . In view of the many improvements and enhancements available, we conclude that WDM is a viable solution for explaining the presence and the size of cores in low mass galaxies.

  16. Dark Matter annihilations in halos and high-redshift sources of reionization of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that annihilations in the homogeneous fluid of dark matter (DM) can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. However, the relevance of DM annihilations in halos for cosmological observables is still subject to debate, with previous works reaching different conclusions on this point. Also, all previous studies used a single type of parameterization for the astrophysical reionization, and included no astrophysical source for the heating of the intergalactic medium. In this work, we revisit these problems. When standard approaches are adopted, we find that the ionization fraction does exhibit a very particular (and potentially constraining) pattern, but the currently measurable τreio is left almost unchanged: in agreement with most of the previous literature, for plausible halo models we find that the modification of the signal with respect to the one coming from annihilations in the smooth background is tiny, below cosmic variance within currently allowed parameter space. However, if different and probably more realistic treatments of the astrophysical sources of reionization and heating are adopted, a more pronounced effect of the DM annihilation in halos is possible. We thus conclude that within currently adopted baseline models the impact of the virialised DM structures cannot be uncovered by CMB power spectra measurements, but a larger impact is possible if peculiar models are invoked for the redshift evolution of the DM annihilation signal or different assumptions are made for the astrophysical contributions. A better understanding (both theoretical and observational) of the reionization and temperature history of the universe, notably via the 21 cm signal, seems the most promising way for using halo formation as a tool in DM searches, improving over the sensitivity of current cosmological probes.

  17. Dark Matter Haloes: an Additional Criterion for the Choice of Fitting Density Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.; Marmo, C.

    2004-12-01

    Simulated dark matter haloes are fitted by self-similar, universal density profiles, where the scaled parameters depend only on a scaled (truncation) radius, Xi=R/r0, which, in turn, is supposed to be independent of the mass and the formation redshift. The further assumption of a lognormal distribution (for a selected mass bin) of the scaled radius, or concentration, in agreement with the data from a large statistical sample of simulated haloes (Bullock et al. 2001), allows (at least to a first approximation) a normal or lognormal distribution for other scaled parameters, via the same procedure which leads to the propagation of the errors. A criterion is proposed for the choice of the best fitting density profile, with regard to a set of high-resolution simulations, where some averaging procedure on scaled density profiles has been performed, in connection with a number of fitting density profiles. To this aim, a minimum value of the ratio, | x\\overline{η}|/ σs,\\overline{η}= |\\overline{η}- η*|/σs,\\overline{η}, is required to yield the best fit, where \\overline{η} is the arithmetic mean over the whole set; η* is its counterpart related to the fitting density profile; σs,\\overline{η} is the standard deviation from the mean; and η is a selected, scaled i.e. dimensionless parameter. The above criterion is applied to a pair of sets each made of a dozen of high-resolution simulations, FM01 (Fukushige and Makino 2001) and KLA01 (Klypin et al. 2001), in connection with two currently used fitting density profiles, NFW (e.g. Navarro et al. 1997) and MOA (e.g. Moore et al. 1999), where the dependence of the scaled radius on the mass and the formation redshift may be neglected to a first extent. With regard to FM01 and KLA01 samples, the best fits turn out to be MOA and NFW, respectively. In addition, the above results also hold in dealing with rms errors derived via the propagation of the errors, with regard to the distributions of scaled parameters. The

  18. WSRT HI imaging of candidate gas-bearing dark matter halos in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elizabeth A.; Oosterloo, Tom; Cannon, John M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2016-01-01

    A long standing problem in cosmology is the mismatch between the number of low mass dark matter halos predicted by simulations and the number of low mass galaxies observed in the Local Group. We recently presented a set of isolated ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) identified within the dataset of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) HI line survey that are consistent with representing low mass gas-bearing dark matter halos within the Local Group (Adams+ 2013). At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have HI masses of ~10^5 Msun and indicative dynamical masses of ~10^7 Msun. The HI diameters of the UCHVCs range from 4' to 20', or 1 to 6 kpc at a distance of 1 Mpc. We have selected the most compact and isolated UCHVCs with the highest average column densities as representing the best galaxy candidates. These systems have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) to enable higher spatial resolution studies of the HI distribution. From these data, the sources break into two clear categories. Two of the sources maintain a smooth HI morphology at higher resolution, show a velocity gradient and have the highest peak column densities of the sample, indicating they are good candidates to represent gas in dark matter halos. In fact, one of these sources, AGC 198606, has a tentative stellar counterpart detection (Janesh+ 2015). Nine of the sources break into clumps at higher angular resolution, show no ordered velocity motion, and have significantly lower peak column densities, indicating they are likely Galactic halo HI clouds. One source straddles the two categories with a relatively smooth HI morphology and some evidence for ordered velocity motion while having a lower peak column density. These observations show that higher resolution HI data is a good way to address the galaxy hypothesis for isolated HI clouds, and future HI surveys with phased-array feeds on interferometers, such as Apertif, will be able to directly detect and

  19. Evidence of turbulence-like universality in the formation of galaxy-sized dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Rosa, R. R.; de Campos Velho, H. F.; Ramos, F. M.; Makler, M.

    2008-08-01

    Context: Although the theoretical understanding of nonlinear gravitational clustering has greatly advanced in the last decades, in particular by improvements in numerical N-body simulations, the physics behind this process is not fully elucidated. Aims: The main goal of this work is the study of the possibility of a turbulent-like physical process in the formation of structures, galaxies and clusters of galaxies, by the action of gravity alone. Methods: We use simulation data from the Virgo Consortium, in ten redshift snapshots (from 0 to 10). From this we identify galaxy-sized and cluster-sized dark matter haloes, by using a FoF algorithm and applying a boundedness criterion, and study the gravitational potential energy spectra. Results: We find that the galaxy-sized halo energy spectrum follows closely a Kolmogorov power law, similar to the behaviour of dynamically turbulent processes in fluids. Conclusions: This means that the gravitational clustering of dark matter may admit a turbulent-like representation. Part of the calculations made use of the NEC SX4/8A supercomputer at the CeNaPAD Ambiental, CPTEC/INPE, Brasil.

  20. Modeling the Gravitational Potential of a Cosmological Dark Matter Halo with Stellar Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Robyn E.; Hartke, Johanna; Helmi, Amina

    2017-02-01

    Stellar streams result from the tidal disruption of satellites and star clusters as they orbit a host galaxy, and can be very sensitive probes of the gravitational potential of the host system. We select and study narrow stellar streams formed in a Milky-Way-like dark matter halo of the Aquarius suite of cosmological simulations, to determine if these streams can be used to constrain the present day characteristic parameters of the halo’s gravitational potential. We find that orbits integrated in both spherical and triaxial static Navarro–Frenk–White potentials reproduce the locations and kinematics of the various streams reasonably well. To quantify this further, we determine the best-fit potential parameters by maximizing the amount of clustering of the stream stars in the space of their actions. We show that using our set of Aquarius streams, we recover a mass profile that is consistent with the spherically averaged dark matter profile of the host halo, although we ignored both triaxiality and time evolution in the fit. This gives us confidence that such methods can be applied to the many streams that will be discovered by the Gaia mission to determine the gravitational potential of our Galaxy.

  1. TIDAL STREAM MORPHOLOGY AS AN INDICATOR OF DARK MATTER HALO GEOMETRY: THE CASE OF PALOMAR 5

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Sarah; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Küpper, Andreas H. W.

    2015-01-20

    This paper presents an example where the morphology of a single stellar stream can be used to rule out a specific galactic potential form without the need for velocity information. We investigate the globular cluster Palomar 5 (Pal 5), which is tidally disrupting into a cold, thin stream mapped over 22 deg on the sky with a typical width of 0.7 deg. We generate models of this stream by fixing Pal 5's present-day position, distance, and radial velocity via observations, while allowing its proper motion to vary. In a spherical dark matter halo we easily find models that fit the observed morphology. However, no plausible Pal 5 model could be found in the triaxial potential of Law and Majewski, which has been proposed to explain the properties of the Sagittarius stream. In this case, the long, thin, and curved morphology of the Pal 5 stream alone can be used to rule out such a potential configuration. Pal 5-like streams in this potential are either too straight, missing the curvature of the observations, or show an unusual morphology which we dub stream-fanning: a signature sensitive to the triaxiality of a potential. We conclude that the mere existence of other thin tidal streams must provide broad constraints on the orientation and shape of the dark matter halo they inhabit.

  2. Scaling relations of halo cores for self-interacting dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Henry W.; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2016-03-01

    Using a simple analytic formalism, we demonstrate that significant dark matter self-interactions produce halo cores that obey scaling relations nearly independent of the underlying particle physics parameters such as the annihilation cross section and the mass of the dark matter particle. For dwarf galaxies, we predict that the core density ρ{sub c} and the core radius r{sub c} should obey ρ{sub c} r{sub c} ≈ 41 M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} with a weak mass dependence ∼ M{sup 0.2}. Remarkably, such a scaling relation has recently been empirically inferred. Scaling relations involving core mass, core radius, and core velocity dispersion are predicted and agree well with observational data. By calibrating against numerical simulations, we predict the scatter in these relations and find them to be in excellent agreement with existing data. Future observations can test our predictions for different halo masses and redshifts.

  3. Enhanced tidal stripping of satellites in the galactic halo from dark matter self-interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Zavala, Jesús; Frebel, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the effects of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the tidal stripping and evaporation of satellite galaxies in a Milky Way-like host. We use a suite of five zoom-in, dark-matter-only simulations, two with velocity-independent SIDM cross-sections, two with velocity-dependent SIDM cross-sections, and one cold dark matter (CDM) simulation for comparison. After carefully assigning stellar mass to satellites at infall, we find that stars are stripped at a higher rate in SIDM than in CDM. In contrast, the total bound dark matter mass-loss rate is minimally affected, with subhalo evaporation having negligible effects on satellites for viable SIDM models. Centrally located stars in SIDM haloes disperse out to larger radii as cores grow. Consequently, the half-light radius of satellites increases, stars become more vulnerable to tidal stripping, and the stellar mass function is suppressed. We find that the ratio of core radius to tidal radius accurately predicts the relative strength of enhanced SIDM stellar stripping. Velocity-independent SIDM models show a modest increase in the stellar stripping effect with satellite mass, whereas velocity-dependent SIDM models show a large increase in this effect towards lower masses, making observations of ultrafaint dwarfs prime targets for distinguishing between and constraining SIDM models. Due to small cores in the largest satellites of velocity-dependent SIDM, no identifiable imprint is left on the all-sky properties of the stellar halo. While our results focus on SIDM, the main physical mechanism of enhanced tidal stripping of stars apply similarly to satellites with cores formed via other means.

  4. The Smith Cloud and its dark matter halo: survival of a Galactic disc passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Matthew; Mirabal, Nestor; Agertz, Oscar; Lockman, Felix J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2014-08-01

    Under conservative assumptions about the Galaxy, the derived velocity of the Smith Cloud indicates that it will have undergone at least one passage of the Galactic disc. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we examine the present-day structure of the Smith Cloud and find that a dark matter supported cloud is able to reproduce the observed present-day neutral hydrogen mass, column density distribution and morphology. In this case, the dark matter halo becomes elongated owing to the tidal interaction with the Galactic disc. Clouds in models neglecting dark matter confinement are destroyed upon disc passage, unless the initial cloud mass is well in excess of what is observed today. We then determine integrated flux upper limits to the gamma-ray emission around such a hypothesized dark matter core in the Smith Cloud. No statistically significant core or extended gamma-ray emission are detected down to a 95 per cent confidence level upper limit of 1.4 × 10-10 ph cm-2 s-1 in the 1-300 GeV energy range. For the derived distance of 12.4 kpc, the Fermi upper limits set the first tentative constraints on the dark matter cross-sections annihilating into τ+τ- and bbar{b} for a high-velocity cloud.

  5. Classifying orbits in galaxy models with a prolate or an oblate dark matter halo component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: The distinction between regular and chaotic motion in galaxies is undoubtedly an issue of paramount importance. We explore the nature of orbits of stars moving in the meridional plane (R,z) of an axially symmetric galactic model with a disk, a spherical nucleus, and a flat biaxial dark matter halo component. In particular, we study the influence of all the involved parameters of the dynamical system by computing both the percentage of chaotic orbits and the percentages of orbits of the main regular resonant families in each case. Methods: To distinguish between ordered and chaotic motion, we use the smaller alignment index (SALI) method to extensive samples of orbits by numerically integrating the equations of motion as well as the variational equations. Moreover, a method based on the concept of spectral dynamics that utilizes the Fourier transform of the time series of each coordinate is used to identify the various families of regular orbits and also to recognize the secondary resonances that bifurcate from them. Two cases are studied for every parameter: (i) the case where the halo component is prolate and (ii) the case where an oblate dark halo is present. Results: Our numerical investigation indicates that all the dynamical quantities affect, more or less, the overall orbital structure. It was observed that the mass of the nucleus, the halo flattening parameter, the scale length of the halo, the angular momentum, and the orbital energy are the most influential quantities, while the effect of all the other parameters is much weaker. It was also found that all the parameters corresponding to the disk only have a minor influence on the nature of orbits. Furthermore, some other quantities, such as the minimum distance to the origin, the horizontal, and the vertical force, were tested as potential chaos detectors. Our analysis revealed that only general information can be obtained from these quantities. We also compared our results with early related work

  6. Dark matter haloes in modified gravity and dark energy: interaction rate, small- and large-scale alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Winther, Hans A.; Mota, David F.; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2017-07-01

    We study the properties of dark matter haloes in a wide range of modified gravity models, namely, f(R), DGP and interacting dark energy models. We study the effects of modified gravity and dark energy on the internal properties of haloes, such as the spin and the structural parameters. We find that f(R) gravity enhances the median value of the Bullock spin parameter, but could not detect such effects for DGP and coupled dark energy. f(R) also yields a lower median sphericity and oblateness, while coupled dark energy has the opposite effect. However, these effects are very small. We then study the interaction rate of haloes in different gravity and find that only strongly coupled dark energy models enhance the interaction rate. We then quantify the enhancement of the alignment of the spins of interacting halo pairs by modified gravity. Finally, we study the alignment of the major axes of haloes with the large-scale structures. The alignment of the spins of interacting pairs of haloes in DGP and coupled dark energy models show no discrepancy with GR, while f(R) shows a weaker alignment. Strongly coupled dark energy shows a stronger alignment of the halo shape with the large-scale structures.

  7. Testing the self-consistency of the excursion set approach to predicting the dark matter halo mass function.

    PubMed

    Achitouv, I; Rasera, Y; Sheth, R K; Corasaniti, P S

    2013-12-06

    The excursion set approach provides a framework for predicting how the abundance of dark matter halos depends on the initial conditions. A key ingredient of this formalism is the specification of a critical overdensity threshold (barrier) which protohalos must exceed if they are to form virialized halos at a later time. However, to make its predictions, the excursion set approach explicitly averages over all positions in the initial field, rather than the special ones around which halos form, so it is not clear that the barrier has physical motivation or meaning. In this Letter we show that once the statistical assumptions which underlie the excursion set approach are considered a drifting diffusing barrier model does provide a good self-consistent description both of halo abundance as well as of the initial overdensities of the protohalo patches.

  8. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a major

  9. Dissipative self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates with arbitrary nonlinearity as a model of dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2017-06-01

    We develop a general formalism applying to Newtonian self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates. This formalism may find application in the context of dark matter halos. We introduce a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation including a source of dissipation (damping) and an arbitrary nonlinearity. Using the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of this generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation and obtain a damped quantum Euler equation involving a friction force proportional and opposite to the velocity and a pressure force associated with an equation of state determined by the nonlinearity present in the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In the strong friction limit, we obtain a quantum Smoluchowski equation. These equations satisfy an H-theorem for a free energy functional constructed with a generalized entropy. We specifically consider the Boltzmann and Tsallis entropies associated with isothermal and polytropic equations of state. We also consider the entropy associated with the logotropic equation of state. We derive the virial theorem corresponding to the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation, damped quantum Euler equation, and quantum Smoluchowski equation. Using a Gaussian ansatz, we obtain a simple equation governing the dynamical evolution of the size of the condensate. We develop a mechanical analogy associated with this gross dynamics. We highlight a specific model of dark matter halos corresponding to a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a logarithmic nonlinearity and a cubic nonlinearity. It corresponds to a damped quantum Euler equation associated with a mixed entropy combining the Boltzmann and Tsallis entropies. It leads to dark matter halos with an equation of state P=ρ kB T_eff/m+2π as\\hbar2ρ2/m3 presenting a condensed core (BEC/soliton) and an isothermal halo with an effective temperature T_eff. We propose that this model provides an effective coarse-grained parametrization of dark matter halos

  10. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - VIII. Suppressed growth of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Angel, Paul W.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate how the hydrostatic suppression of baryonic accretion affects the growth rate of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization. By comparing halo properties in a simplistic hydrodynamic simulation in which gas only cools adiabatically, with its collisionless equivalent, we find that halo growth is slowed as hydrostatic forces prevent gas from collapsing. In our simulations, at the high redshifts relevant for reionization (between ˜6 and ˜11), haloes that host dwarf galaxies (≲109 M⊙) can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 in mass due to the hydrostatic pressure of baryons. Consequently, the inclusion of baryonic effects reduces the amplitude of the low-mass tail of the halo mass function by factors of 2-4. In addition, we find that the fraction of baryons in dark matter haloes hosting dwarf galaxies at high redshift never exceeds ˜90 per cent of the cosmic baryon fraction. When implementing baryonic processes, including cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and reionization, the suppression effects become more significant with further reductions of 30-60 per cent. Although convergence tests suggest that the suppression may become weaker in higher resolution simulations, this suppressed growth will be important for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation, in which the halo mass inherited from an underlying N-body simulation directly determines galaxy properties. Based on the adiabatic simulation, we provide tables to account for these effects in N-body simulations and present a modification of the halo mass function along with explanatory analytic calculations.

  11. Elliptical Galaxy Kinematics and Dark Matter Halos with VIRUS-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Greene, J. E.; Graves, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter is now ubiquitous in galactic astronomy, yet our understanding of both its extent, shape, and influence on the evolution of galaxies remains poorly understood. In the case of giant elliptical galaxies, which typically reside in dense environments and accumulate their mass via a range of processes, yet maintain tight scaling relations between a wide variety of their parameters, our understanding of the dizzying variety of mechanisms involved is a work in progress. To this end I will discuss an ongoing project being carried out at McDonald Observatory using the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph to characterize the dark matter halos, stellar anisotropy and stellar abundance patterns of the most massive galaxies in the local universe from measurements of integrated stellar light. We have observed 23 giant elliptical galaxies over a range of environments. Seven of the 23 galaxies in our data set our Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG). I will present spectra and kinematics for a subsample of the survey. Three-integral axisymmetric dynamical modeling, based on Schwarzschild's method of orbit-superposition, will be presented for 3 BCGs in our sample (NGC 4472, M87 and NGC 2832). For the case of M87 we have data extending to 5 effective radii which allows for a direct comparison between stellar kinematics and other mass tracers typically used at large radial distances where the stellar light has historically been too faint to extract reliable kinematics. The mass distribution of all 3 of these galaxies is dominated by their dark matter halo at large radii. The degree of stellar radial and tangential anisotropy of the stars is returned from the modeling process. I will discuss how the stellar anisotropy, combined with stellar abundance patterns from measurements of the Lick indices, can be used to infer how the most massive galaxies accumulated their mass over time.

  12. SELF-SIMILAR DYNAMICAL RELAXATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS IN AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Cavaliere, A.

    2011-12-20

    We investigate the structure of cold dark matter halos using advanced models of spherical collapse and accretion in an expanding universe. These are based on solving time-dependent equations for the moments of the phase-space distribution function in the fluid approximation; our approach includes non-radial random motions and, most importantly, an advanced treatment of both dynamical relaxation effects that take place in the infalling matter: phase-mixing associated with shell crossing and collective collisions related to physical clumpiness. We find self-similar solutions for the spherically averaged profiles of mass density {rho}(r), pseudo phase-space density Q(r), and anisotropy parameter {beta}(r). These profiles agree with the outcomes of state-of-the-art N-body simulations in the radial range currently probed by the latter; at smaller radii, we provide specific predictions. In the perspective provided by our self-similar solutions, we link the halo structure to its two-stage growth history and propose the following picture. During the early fast collapse of the inner region dominated by a few merging clumps, efficient dynamical relaxation plays a key role in producing closely universal mass density and pseudo phase-space density profiles; in particular, these are found to depend only weakly on the detailed shape of the initial perturbation and the related collapse times. The subsequent inside-out growth of the outer regions feeds on the slow accretion of many small clumps and diffuse matter; thus the outskirts are only mildly affected by dynamical relaxation but are more sensitive to asymmetries and cosmological variance.

  13. A novel approach to derive halo-independent limits on dark matter properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Francesc; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian E-mail: ibarra@tum.de

    2015-09-01

    We propose a method that allows to place an upper limit on the dark matter elastic scattering cross section with nucleons which is independent of the velocity distribution. Our approach combines null results from direct detection experiments with indirect searches at neutrino telescopes, and goes beyond previous attempts to remove astrophysical uncertainties in that it directly constrains the particle physics properties of the dark matter. The resulting halo-independent upper limits on the scattering cross section of dark matter are remarkably strong and reach σ{sub SI}{sup p} ∼< 10{sup −43} (10{sup −42}) cm{sup 2} and σ{sub SD}{sup p} ∼< 10{sup −37} (3× 10{sup −37}) cm{sup 2}, for dark matter particles of m{sub DM} ∼ 1 TeV annihilating into W{sup +}W{sup −} (b b-bar ), assuming ρ{sub loc}=0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}.

  14. A novel approach to derive halo-independent limits on dark matter properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Francesc; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian

    2015-09-21

    We propose a method that allows to place an upper limit on the dark matter elastic scattering cross section with nucleons which is independent of the velocity distribution. Our approach combines null results from direct detection experiments with indirect searches at neutrino telescopes, and goes beyond previous attempts to remove astrophysical uncertainties in that it directly constrains the particle physics properties of the dark matter. The resulting halo-independent upper limits on the scattering cross section of dark matter are remarkably strong and reach σ{sub SI}{sup p}≲10{sup −43} (10{sup −42}) cm{sup 2} and σ{sub SD}{sup p}≲10{sup −37} (3×10{sup −37}) cm{sup 2}, for dark matter particles of m{sub DM}∼1 TeV annihilating into W{sup +}W{sup −} (bb-bar), assuming ρ{sub loc}=0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}.

  15. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2011-01-20

    Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges.

  16. Separating galaxies from the cluster dark matter halo in Abell 611

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, A.; Seitz, S.; Geller, M. J.; Zitrin, A.; Mercurio, A.; Suyu, S. H.; Postman, M.; Fabricant, D. G.; Hwang, H. S.; Koekemoer, A.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the mass content of galaxies in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 611. We perform a strong lensing analysis of the cluster core and use velocity dispersion measurements for individual cluster members as additional constraints. Despite the small number of multiply-imaged systems and cluster members with central velocity dispersions available in the core of A611, the addition of velocity dispersion measurements leads to tighter constraints on the mass associated with the galaxy component, and as a result, on the mass associated with the dark matter halo. Without the spectroscopic velocity dispersions, we would overestimate the mass of the galaxy component by a factor of ∼1.5, or, equivalently, we would underestimate the mass of the cluster dark halo by ∼5 per cent. We perform an additional lensing analysis using surface brightness (SB) reconstruction of the tangential giant arc. This approach improves the constraints on the mass parameters of the five galaxies close to the arc by a factor up to ∼10. The resulting parameters are in good agreement with the σ-rtr scaling relation derived in the pointlike analysis. The galaxy velocity dispersions resulting from the SB analysis are consistent at the 1σ confidence level with the spectroscopic measurements. In contrast, the truncation radii for 2-3 galaxies depart significantly from the galaxy scaling relation and suggest differences in the stripping history from galaxy to galaxy.

  17. The derivation of constraints on the msugra parameter space from the entropy of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Nellen, L.; Nunez, D.; Sussmann, R.; Zavala, J.

    2009-04-20

    We derive an expression for the entropy of a present dark matter halo described by a Navarro-Frenk-White modified model with a central core. We obtain an expression for the relic abundance of neutralinos by comparing this entropy of the halo with the value it had during the freeze-out era. Using WMAP observations, we constrain the parameter space for mSUGRA models. Combining our results with the usual abundance criteria, we are able to discriminate clearly among different validity regions for tan {beta} values. For this, we require both criteria to be consistent within a 2{sigma} bound of the WMAP observations for the relic density: 0.112<{omega}h{sup 2}<0.122. We find that for sgn {mu} = +1, small values of tan {beta} are not favored; only for tan {beta}{approx}50 are both criteria significantly consistent. Both criteria allow us to put a lower bound on the neutralino mass, m{sub {chi}}{>=}141 GeV.

  18. Observational evidence for a connection between supermassive black holes and dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, Maarten; Buyle, Pieter; Hau, George K. T.; Dejonghe, Herwig

    2003-06-01

    We present new velocity dispersion measurements of a sample of 12 spiral galaxies for which extended rotation curves are available. These data are used to refine a recently discovered correlation between the circular velocity and the central velocity dispersion of spiral galaxies. We find a slightly steeper slope for our larger sample, confirm the negligible intrinsic scatter on this correlation and find a striking agreement with the corresponding relation for elliptical galaxies. We combine this correlation with the well-known MBH-σ relation to obtain a tight correlation between the circular velocities of galaxies and the masses of the supermassive black holes they host. This correlation is the observational evidence for an intimate link between dark matter haloes and supermassive black holes. Apart from being an important ingredient for theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution, the relation between MBH and circular velocity can serve as a practical tool to estimate black hole masses in spiral galaxies.

  19. Particle Dark Matter in the galactic halo: results from DAMA/LIBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Nozzoli, F.; Montecchia, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Presperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, X. H.; Sheng, X. D.

    2010-02-10

    The DAMA/LIBRA experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the I.N.F.N. has confirmed with higher sensitivity the model independent evidence for Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo obtained by the former DAMA/NaI experiment by investigating the DM annual modulation signature. Considering the data collected by DAMA/LIBRA together with the data collected by the former DAMA/NaI (cumulative exposure of 0.82 tonxyr) a confidence level of 8.2 sigma has been achieved. The experiment is in data taking; a first upgrading of the set-up has been carried out in Spetember 2008 and a second one--aiming to decrease the experimental energy threshold--is foreseen in September 2010.

  20. The Lyman-alpha glow of gas falling into the dark matter halo of a z = 3 galaxy.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Michael; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall

    2004-08-26

    Quasars are the visible signatures of gas falling into the deep potential well of super-massive black holes in the centres of distant galaxies. It has been suggested that quasars are formed when two massive galaxies collide and merge, leading to the prediction that quasars should be found in the centres of regions of largest overdensity in the early Universe. In dark matter (DM)-dominated models of the early Universe, massive DM halos are predicted to attract the surrounding gas, which falls towards their centres. The neutral gas is not detectable in emission by itself, but gas falling into the ionizing cone of such a quasar will glow in the Lyman-alpha line of hydrogen, effectively imaging the DM halo. Here we present a Lyalpha image of a DM halo at redshift z = 3, along with a two-dimensional spectrum of the gaseous halo. Our observations are best understood in the context of the standard model for DM haloes; we infer a mass of (2 - 7) x 10(12) solar masses (M(\\circ)) for the halo.

  1. The density of dark matter haloes of early-type galaxies in low-density environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, E. M.; Wegner, G. A.; Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.

    2017-04-01

    New photometric and long-slit spectroscopic observations are presented for NGC 7113, PGC 1852, and PGC 67207 which are three bright galaxies residing in low-density environments. The surface-brightness distribution is analysed from the KS-band images taken with adaptive optics at the Gemini North Telescope and the ugriz-band images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey while the line-of-sight stellar velocity distribution and line-strength Lick indices inside the effective radius are measured along several position angles. The age, metallicity, and α-element abundance of the galaxies are estimated from single stellar-population models. In spite of the available morphological classification, images show that PGC 1852 is a barred spiral which we do not further consider for mass modelling. The structural parameters of the two early-type galaxies NGC 7113 and PGC 67207 are obtained from a two-dimensional photometric decomposition and the mass-to-light ratio of all the (luminous and dark) mass that follows the light is derived from orbit-based axisymmetric dynamical modelling together with the mass density of the dark matter halo. The dynamically derived mass that follows the light is about a factor of 2 larger than the stellar mass derived using stellar-population models with Kroupa initial mass function. Both galaxies have a lower content of halo dark matter with respect to early-type galaxies in high-density environments and in agreement with the predictions of semi-analytical models of galaxy formation.

  2. Extended maximum likelihood halo-independent analysis of dark matter direct detection data

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Georgescu, Andreea; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: a.georgescu@physics.ucla.edu E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu

    2015-11-01

    We extend and correct a recently proposed maximum-likelihood halo-independent method to analyze unbinned direct dark matter detection data. Instead of the recoil energy as independent variable we use the minimum speed a dark matter particle must have to impart a given recoil energy to a nucleus. This has the advantage of allowing us to apply the method to any type of target composition and interaction, e.g. with general momentum and velocity dependence, and with elastic or inelastic scattering. We prove the method and provide a rigorous statistical interpretation of the results. As first applications, we find that for dark matter particles with elastic spin-independent interactions and neutron to proton coupling ratio f{sub n}/f{sub p}=−0.7, the WIMP interpretation of the signal observed by CDMS-II-Si is compatible with the constraints imposed by all other experiments with null results. We also find a similar compatibility for exothermic inelastic spin-independent interactions with f{sub n}/f{sub p}=−0.8.

  3. Extended maximum likelihood halo-independent analysis of dark matter direct detection data

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Georgescu, Andreea; Gondolo, Paolo; Huh, Ji-Haeng

    2015-11-24

    We extend and correct a recently proposed maximum-likelihood halo-independent method to analyze unbinned direct dark matter detection data. Instead of the recoil energy as independent variable we use the minimum speed a dark matter particle must have to impart a given recoil energy to a nucleus. This has the advantage of allowing us to apply the method to any type of target composition and interaction, e.g. with general momentum and velocity dependence, and with elastic or inelastic scattering. We prove the method and provide a rigorous statistical interpretation of the results. As first applications, we find that for dark matter particles with elastic spin-independent interactions and neutron to proton coupling ratio f{sub n}/f{sub p}=−0.7, the WIMP interpretation of the signal observed by CDMS-II-Si is compatible with the constraints imposed by all other experiments with null results. We also find a similar compatibility for exothermic inelastic spin-independent interactions with f{sub n}/f{sub p}=−0.8.

  4. Constraining the mSUGRA (minimal supergravity) parameter space using the entropy of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, Dario; Zavala, Jesus; Nellen, Lukas; Sussman, Roberto A; Cabral-Rosetti, Luis G; Mondragon, Myriam E-mail: jzavala@nucleares.unam.mx E-mail: lukas@nucleares.unam.mx E-mail: lgcabral@ciidet.edu.mx; Collaboration: For the Instituto Avanzado de Cosmologia, IAC

    2008-05-15

    We derive an expression for the entropy of a dark matter halo described using a Navarro-Frenk-White model with a core. The comparison of this entropy with that of dark matter in the freeze-out era allows us to constrain the parameter space in mSUGRA models. Moreover, combining these constraints with the ones obtained from the usual abundance criterion and demanding that these criteria be consistent with the 2{sigma} bounds for the abundance of dark matter: 0.112{<=}{Omega}{sub DM}h{sup 2}{<=}0.122, we are able to clearly identify validity regions among the values of tan{beta}, which is one of the parameters of the mSUGRA model. We found that for the regions of the parameter space explored, small values of tan{beta} are not favored; only for tan {beta} Asymptotically-Equal-To 50 are the two criteria significantly consistent. In the region where the two criteria are consistent we also found a lower bound for the neutralino mass, m{sub {chi}}{>=}141 GeV.

  5. A Study of Non-Standard English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labov, William

    American education has always considered the non-standard or sub-standard form of speech used by children to be an imperfect copy of standard English. The defects of this approach have now become a matter of urgent concern in the face of the tremendous educational problems of the urban ghettos. This paper reverses the usual focus and looks…

  6. Cosmology with massive neutrinos I: towards a realistic modeling of the relation between matter, haloes and galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Marulli, Federico; Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Saito, Shun E-mail: federico.marulli3@unibo.it E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it E-mail: esefusat@ictp.it

    2014-03-01

    By using a suite of large box-size N-body simulations that incorporate massive neutrinos as an extra set of particles, with total masses of 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 eV, we investigate the impact of neutrino masses on the spatial distribution of dark matter haloes and on the distribution of galaxies within the haloes. We compute the bias between the spatial distribution of dark matter haloes and the overall matter and cold dark matter distributions using statistical tools such as the power spectrum and the two-point correlation function. Overall we find a scale-dependent bias on large scales for the cosmologies with massive neutrinos. In particular, we find that the bias decreases with the scale, being this effect more important for higher neutrino masses and at high redshift. However, our results indicate that the scale-dependence in the bias is reduced if the latter is computed with respect to the cold dark matter distribution only. We find that the value of the bias on large scales is reasonably well reproduced by the Tinker fitting formula once the linear cold dark matter power spectrum is used, instead of the total matter power spectrum. We also investigate whether scale-dependent bias really comes from purely neutrino's effect or from nonlinear gravitational collapse of haloes. For this purpose, we address the Ω{sub ν}-σ{sub 8} degeneracy and find that such degeneracy is not perfect, implying that neutrinos imprint a slight scale dependence on the large-scale bias. Finally, by using a simple halo occupation distribution (HOD) model, we investigate the impact of massive neutrinos on the distribution of galaxies within dark matter haloes. We use the main galaxy sample in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II Data Release 7 to investigate if the small-scale galaxy clustering alone can be used to discriminate among different cosmological models with different neutrino masses. Our results suggest that different choices of the HOD parameters can reproduce the

  7. Dark matter and halo bispectrum in redshift space: theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Percival, Will; Wagner, Christian; Noreña, Jorge; Verde, Licia E-mail: cwagner@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu

    2014-12-01

    We present a phenomenological modification of the standard perturbation theory prediction for the bispectrum in redshift space that allows us to extend the model to mildly non-linear scales over a wide range of redshifts, z≤1.5. Our model require 18 free parameters that are fitted to N-body simulations using the shapes k{sub 2}/k{sub 1}=1, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5. We find that we can describe the bispectrum of dark matter particles with ∼5% accuracy for k{sub i}∼<0.10 h/Mpc at z=0, for k{sub i}∼<0.15 h/Mpc at z=0.5, for k{sub i}∼<0.17 h/Mpc at z=1.0 and for k{sub i}∼<0.20 h/Mpc at z=1.5. For very squeezed triangles with k{sub 1}=k{sub 2}∼>0.1 hMpc{sup -1} and k{sub 3}≤0.02 hMpc{sup -1}, however, neither SPT nor the proposed fitting formula are able to describe the measured dark matter bispectrum with this accuracy. We show that the fitting formula is sufficiently general that can be applied to other intermediate shapes such as k{sub 2}/k{sub 1}=1.25, 1.75, and 2.25. We also test that the fitting formula is able to describe with similar accuracy the bispectrum of cosmologies with different Ω{sub m}, in the range 0.2∼< Ω{sub m} ∼< 0.4, and consequently with different values of the logarithmic grow rate f at z=0, 0.4∼< f(z=0) ∼< 0.6. We apply this new formula to recover the bias parameters, f and σ{sub 8}, by combining the redshift space power spectrum monopole and quadrupole with the bispectrum monopole for both dark matter particles and haloes. We find that the combination of these three statistics can break the degeneracy between b{sub 1}, f and σ{sub 8}. For dark matter particles the new model can be used to recover f and σ{sub 8} with ∼1% accuracy. For dark matter haloes we find that f and σ{sub 8} present larger systematic shifts, ∼10%. The systematic offsets arise because of limitations in the modelling of the interplay between bias and redshift space distortions, and represent a limitation as the statistical errors of

  8. Dark matter and halo bispectrum in redshift space: theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Wagner, Christian; Noreña, Jorge; Verde, Licia; Percival, Will

    2014-12-01

    We present a phenomenological modification of the standard perturbation theory prediction for the bispectrum in redshift space that allows us to extend the model to mildly non-linear scales over a wide range of redshifts, z<=1.5. Our model require 18 free parameters that are fitted to N-body simulations using the shapes k2/k1=1, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5. We find that we can describe the bispectrum of dark matter particles with ~5% accuracy for kilesssim0.10 h/Mpc at z=0, for kilesssim0.15 h/Mpc at z=0.5, for kilesssim0.17 h/Mpc at z=1.0 and for kilesssim0.20 h/Mpc at z=1.5. For very squeezed triangles with k1=k2gtrsim0.1 hMpc-1 and k3<=0.02 hMpc-1, however, neither SPT nor the proposed fitting formula are able to describe the measured dark matter bispectrum with this accuracy. We show that the fitting formula is sufficiently general that can be applied to other intermediate shapes such as k2/k1=1.25, 1.75, and 2.25. We also test that the fitting formula is able to describe with similar accuracy the bispectrum of cosmologies with different Ωm, in the range 0.2lesssim Ωm lesssim 0.4, and consequently with different values of the logarithmic grow rate f at z=0, 0.4lesssim f(z=0) lesssim 0.6. We apply this new formula to recover the bias parameters, f and σ8, by combining the redshift space power spectrum monopole and quadrupole with the bispectrum monopole for both dark matter particles and haloes. We find that the combination of these three statistics can break the degeneracy between b1, f and σ8. For dark matter particles the new model can be used to recover f and σ8 with ~1% accuracy. For dark matter haloes we find that f and σ8 present larger systematic shifts, ~10%. The systematic offsets arise because of limitations in the modelling of the interplay between bias and redshift space distortions, and represent a limitation as the statistical errors of forthcoming surveys reach this level. Conveniently, we find that these residual systematics are mitigated for

  9. ON THE OCCUPATION FRACTION OF SEED BLACK HOLES IN HIGH-REDSHIFT DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt E-mail: frei@alcyone.elte.hu

    2009-08-10

    It is well known that an initial population of seed black holes (BHs), formed in the nuclei of low-mass galaxies at high redshift, can simultaneously explain, through their subsequent growth by mergers and accretion, both the observed evolution of the quasar luminosity function (LF) and the distribution of remnant supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses measured in local galactic nuclei. Here we consider three very different initial conditions for this scenario: models in which initial seed BHs form in either all, or only a small fraction (f {sub bh} = 0.1 or 0.01) of high-redshift dark matter halos (with M {sub halo} = 5 x 10{sup 9} M {sub sun} at z = 6-10). We show that with a suitable and relatively minor adjustment of two global physical parameters (the radiative efficiency and mass accretion time-scale of quasar episodes), models with f {sub bh} {approx} 0.1 and 1 can accurately reproduce the observed quasar LF at redshifts 0 < z {approx}< 6, as well as the remnant SMBH mass function at z = 0. However, SMBHs remain rare, and the normalization of the high-z quasar LF and the local SMBH mass function are both significantly underpredicted, if f {sub bh} {approx}< 0.01. We also show that the merger history of SMBHs, in the mass range detectable by the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) instrument, generically looks different as f {sub bh} is varied; this should allow LISA to deliver useful constraints on otherwise degenerate models.

  10. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes using galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing in the SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    The mapping between the distributions of the observed galaxy stellar mass and the underlying dark matter haloes provides the crucial link from theories of large-scale structure formation to interpreting the complex phenomena of galaxy formation and evolution. We develop a novel statistical method, based on the halo occupation distribution (HOD) model, to solve for this mapping by jointly fitting the galaxy clustering and the galaxy-galaxy lensing from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The method, called the iHOD model, extracts maximum information from the survey by including ˜80 per cent more galaxies than the traditional HOD methods, accounting for the incompleteness of the stellar mass samples self-consistently. The derived stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) explains the clustering and lensing of SDSS galaxies over four decades in stellar mass, while successfully predicting the observed stellar mass functions (SMFs). By modelling significantly more galaxies, the iHOD breaks the degeneracy between the logarithmic scatter in the stellar mass at fixed halo mass and the slope of the mean SHMR at high masses, without assuming a strong prior on the scatter and/or using the SMF as an input. We detect a decline of the scatter with halo mass, from 0.22_{-0.01}^{+0.02} dex below 1012 h-1 M⊙ to 0.18 ± 0.01 dex at 1014 h-1 M⊙. The model predicts a departure of satellite SMFs from the Schechter form in massive haloes and a linear scaling of satellite number with halo mass. The iHOD model can be easily applied to other spectroscopic data sets, greatly improving statistical constraints on the SHMR compared to traditional HOD methods within the same survey.

  11. "Invisible" Galactic Halos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugt, Karel Vander

    1993-01-01

    Develops a simple core-halo model of a galaxy that exhibits the main features of observed rotation curves and quantitatively illustrates the need to postulate halos of dark matter. Uses only elementary mechanics. (Author/MVL)

  12. "Invisible" Galactic Halos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugt, Karel Vander

    1993-01-01

    Develops a simple core-halo model of a galaxy that exhibits the main features of observed rotation curves and quantitatively illustrates the need to postulate halos of dark matter. Uses only elementary mechanics. (Author/MVL)

  13. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM PROPERTIES OF GAS AND DARK MATTER IN GALACTIC HALOS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2012-05-10

    We perform a set of non-radiative hydrodynamical simulations of merging spherical halos in order to understand the angular momentum (AM) properties of the galactic halos seen in cosmological simulations. The universal shape of AM distributions seen in simulations is found to be generically produced as a result of mergers. The universal shape is such that it has an excess of low AM material and hence cannot explain the exponential structure of disk galaxies. A resolution to this is suggested by the spatial distribution of low AM material which is found to be in the center and a conical region close to the axis of rotation. A mechanism that preferentially discards the material in the center and prevents the material along the poles from falling onto the disk is proposed as a solution. We implement a simple geometric criterion for the selective removal of low AM material and show that in order for 90% of halos to host exponential disks one has to reject at least 40% of material. Next, we explore the physical mechanisms responsible for distributing the AM within the halo during a merger. For dark matter there is an inside-out transfer of AM, whereas for gas there is an outside-in transfer, which is due to differences between collisionless and gas dynamics. This is responsible for the spin parameter {lambda} and the shape parameter {alpha} of AM distributions being higher for gas compared to dark matter. We also explain the apparent high spin of dark matter halos undergoing mergers and show that a criterion stricter than what is currently used would be required to detect such unrelaxed halos. Finally, we demonstrate that the misalignment of AM between gas and dark matter only occurs when the intrinsic spins of the merging halos are not aligned with the orbital AM of the system. The self-misalignment (orientation of AM when measured in radial shells not being constant), which could be the cause of warps and anomalous rotation in disks galaxies, also occurs under similar

  14. Using Dark Matter Haloes to Learn about Cosmic Acceleration: A New Proposal for a Universal Mass Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2011-01-01

    Structure formation provides a strong test of any cosmic acceleration model because a successful dark energy model must not inhibit or overpredict the development of observed large-scale structures. Traditional approaches to studies of structure formation in the presence of dark energy or a modified gravity implement a modified Press-Schechter formalism, which relates the linear overdensities to the abundance of dark matter haloes at the same time. We critically examine the universality of the Press-Schechter formalism for different cosmologies, and show that the halo abundance is best correlated with spherical linear overdensity at 94% of collapse (or observation) time. We then extend this argument to ellipsoidal collapse (which decreases the fractional time of best correlation for small haloes), and show that our results agree with deviations from modified Press-Schechter formalism seen in simulated mass functions. This provides a novel universal prescription to measure linear density evolution, based on current and future observations of cluster (or dark matter) halo mass function. In particular, even observations of cluster abundance in a single epoch will constrain the entire history of linear growth of cosmological of perturbations.

  15. The role of Dark Matter sub-halos in the non-thermal emission of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchegiani, Paolo; Colafrancesco, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles has been recognized as one of the possible mechanisms for the production of non-thermal particles and radiation in galaxy clusters. Previous studies have shown that, while DM models can reproduce the spectral properties of the radio halo in the Coma cluster, they fail in reproducing the shape of the radio halo surface brightness because they produce a shape that is too concentrated towards the center of the cluster with respect to the observed one. However, in previous studies the DM distribution was modeled as a single spherically symmetric halo, while the DM distribution in Coma is found to have a complex and elongated shape. In this work we calculate a range of non-thermal emissions in the Coma cluster by using the observed distribution of DM sub-halos. We find that, by including the observed sub-halos in the DM model, we obtain a radio surface brightness with a shape similar to the observed one, and that the sub-halos boost the radio emission by a factor between 5 and 20%, thus allowing to reduce the gap between the annihilation cross section required to reproduce the radio halo flux and the upper limits derived from other observations, and that this gap can be explained by realistic values of the boosting factor due to smaller substructures. Models with neutralino mass of 9 GeV and composition τ+ τ-, and mass of 43 GeV and composition b bar b can fit the radio halo spectrum using the observed properties of the magnetic field in Coma, and do not predict a gamma-ray emission in excess compared to the recent Fermi-LAT upper limits. These findings make these DM models viable candidate to explain the origin of radio halos in galaxy clusters, avoiding the problems connected to the excessive gamma-ray emission expected from proton acceleration in most of the currently proposed models, where the acceleration of particles is directly or indirectly connected to events related to clusters merging. Therefore, DM models deserve

  16. Transition between order and chaos in a composite disk galaxy model with a massive nucleus and a dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caranicolas, Nicolaos D.; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the transition from regular to chaotic motion in a composite galaxy model with a disk-halo, a massive dense nucleus and a dark halo component. We obtain relationships connecting the critical value of the mass of the nucleus or the critical value of the angular momentum Lzc, with the mass Mh of the dark halo, where the transition from regular motion to chaos occurs. We also present 3D diagrams connecting the mass of nucleus the energy and the percentage of stars that can show chaotic motion. The fraction of the chaotic orbits observed in the (r,pr) phase plane, as a function of the mass of the dark halo is also computed. We use a semi-numerical method, that is a combination of theoretical and numerical procedure. The theoretical results obtained using the version 8.0 of the Mathematica package, while all the numerical calculations were made using a Bulirsch-Stöer FORTRAN routine in double precision. The results can be obtained in semi-numerical or numerical form and give good description for the connection of the physical quantities entering the model and the transition between regular and chaotic motion. We observe that the mass of the dark halo, the mass of the dense nucleus and the Lz component of the angular momentum, are important physical quantities, as they are linked to the regular or chaotic character of orbits in disk galaxies described by the model. Our numerical experiments suggest, that the amount of the dark matter plays an important role in disk galaxies represented by the model, as the mass of the halo affects, not only the regular or chaotic nature of motion but it is also connected with the existence of the different families of regular orbits. Comparison of the present results with earlier work is also presented.

  17. AN OFF-CENTER DENSITY PEAK IN THE MILKY WAY'S DARK MATTER HALO?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlen, Michael; Guedes, Javiera; Pillepich, Annalisa; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-03-01

    We show that the position of the central dark matter (DM) density peak may be expected to differ from the dynamical center of the Galaxy by several hundred parsecs. In Eris, a high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of a realistic Milky-Way-analog disk galaxy, this offset is 300-400 pc ({approx}3 gravitational softening lengths) after z = 1. In its dissipationless DM-only twin simulation ErisDark, as well as in the Via Lactea II and GHalo simulations, the offset remains below one softening length for most of its evolution. The growth of the DM offset coincides with a flattening of the central DM density profile in Eris inward of {approx}1 kpc, and the direction from the dynamical center to the point of maximum DM density is correlated with the orientation of the stellar bar, suggesting a bar-halo interaction as a possible explanation. A DM density offset of several hundred parsecs greatly affects expectations of the DM annihilation signals from the Galactic center. It may also support a DM annihilation interpretation of recent reports by Weniger and Su and Finkbeiner of highly significant 130 GeV gamma-ray line emission from a region 1. Degree-Sign 5 ({approx}200 pc projected) away from Sgr A* in the Galactic plane.

  18. An Off-center Density Peak in the Milky Way's Dark Matter Halo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlen, Michael; Guedes, Javiera; Pillepich, Annalisa; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-03-01

    We show that the position of the central dark matter (DM) density peak may be expected to differ from the dynamical center of the Galaxy by several hundred parsecs. In Eris, a high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of a realistic Milky-Way-analog disk galaxy, this offset is 300-400 pc (~3 gravitational softening lengths) after z = 1. In its dissipationless DM-only twin simulation ErisDark, as well as in the Via Lactea II and GHalo simulations, the offset remains below one softening length for most of its evolution. The growth of the DM offset coincides with a flattening of the central DM density profile in Eris inward of ~1 kpc, and the direction from the dynamical center to the point of maximum DM density is correlated with the orientation of the stellar bar, suggesting a bar-halo interaction as a possible explanation. A DM density offset of several hundred parsecs greatly affects expectations of the DM annihilation signals from the Galactic center. It may also support a DM annihilation interpretation of recent reports by Weniger and Su & Finkbeiner of highly significant 130 GeV gamma-ray line emission from a region 1.°5 (~200 pc projected) away from Sgr A* in the Galactic plane.

  19. Discussion on the energy content of the galactic dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate halo in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, J.C.C.; Pires, M.O.C. E-mail: marcelo.pires@ufabc.edu.br

    2014-03-01

    We show that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [6] trapped by a self-graviting potential [5], may be stable in the Thomas-Fermi approximation since appropriate choices for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length are made. The demonstration is performed by means of the calculation of the potential, kinetic and self-interaction energy terms of a galactic halo described by a Boehmer-Harko density profile. We discuss the validity of the Thomas-Fermi approximation for the halo system, and show that the kinetic energy contribution is indeed negligible.

  20. Cosmic rays in a dynamical halo. I - Age and matter traversal distributions and anisotropy for nuclei. II - Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, A. J.; Jokipii, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Recent measurements of the mean lifetime of galactic cosmic rays (at least 10 million yr) have suggested a dynamical halo model of cosmic-ray confinement to the Galaxy. A one-dimensional version of the model is analyzed to determine the ranges of parameters required to give self-consistent values of the mean lifetime, matter traversed, anisotropy, and interstellar gamma-ray flux. It is found that the ranges of the parameters are: disk scale height of 4000-10,000 pc, average convection velocity of no more than 60 km/s, and diffusion coefficient of (3-10) by 10 to the 28th power sq cm/sec for particles with charges of the order of 10 GV. Some consequences for this model of a much shorter lifetime are also discussed. The energy spectrum and spatial distribution of electrons in the dynamical halo model are considered. A gradual steepening of the electron energy spectrum beginning at several GeV energy is found, as indicated by observations. The decrease of electron density with height in the halo depends on the particle energy and may be much steeper than that for nuclei. The models give a halo with a scale height of the order of 3 kpc for several-GeV electrons, which is shown to be consistent with radio observations.

  1. Dark matter halo properties of GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, M.; Cacciato, M.; Brouwer, M.; Kuijken, K.; Hoekstra, H.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; van Uitert, E.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Choi, A.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Driver, S. P.; Erben, T.; Grado, A.; Graham, Alister W.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A. M.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Loveday, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Schneider, P.; Sifón, C.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

    2015-10-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey is an optical wide-field survey designed to map the matter distribution in the Universe using weak gravitational lensing. In this paper, we use these data to measure the density profiles and masses of a sample of ˜1400 spectroscopically identified galaxy groups and clusters from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We detect a highly significant signal (signal-to-noise-ratio ˜120), allowing us to study the properties of dark matter haloes over one and a half order of magnitude in mass, from M ˜ 1013-1014.5 h-1 M⊙. We interpret the results for various subsamples of groups using a halo model framework which accounts for the mis-centring of the brightest cluster galaxy (used as the tracer of the group centre) with respect to the centre of the group's dark matter halo. We find that the density profiles of the haloes are well described by an NFW profile with concentrations that agree with predictions from numerical simulations. In addition, we constrain scaling relations between the mass and a number of observable group properties. We find that the mass scales with the total r-band luminosity as a power law with slope 1.16 ± 0.13 (1σ) and with the group velocity dispersion as a power law with slope 1.89 ± 0.27 (1σ). Finally, we demonstrate the potential of weak lensing studies of groups to discriminate between models of baryonic feedback at group scales by comparing our results with the predictions from the Cosmo-OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project, ruling out models without AGN feedback.

  2. DARK MATTER CORES IN THE FORNAX AND SCULPTOR DWARF GALAXIES: JOINING HALO ASSEMBLY AND DETAILED STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Amorisco, N. C.; Zavala, J.; De Boer, T. J. L.

    2014-02-20

    We combine the detailed star formation histories of the Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals with the mass assembly history of their dark matter (DM) halo progenitors to estimate if the energy deposited by Type II supernovae (SNe II) is sufficient to create a substantial DM core. Assuming the efficiency of energy injection of the SNe II into DM particles is ε{sub gc} = 0.05, we find that a single early episode, z ≳ z {sub infall}, that combines the energy of all SNe II due to explode over 0.5 Gyr is sufficient to create a core of several hundred parsecs in both Sculptor and Fornax. Therefore, our results suggest that it is energetically plausible to form cores in cold dark matter (CDM) halos via early episodic gas outflows triggered by SNe II. Furthermore, based on CDM merger rates and phase-space density considerations, we argue that the probability of a subsequent complete regeneration of the cusp is small for a substantial fraction of dwarf-size halos.

  3. The Non-Standard Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    rotation, but issues concerning the selection of units for non-standard mission still exist five years later. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...preparing our soldiers has improved since the first rotation, but issues concerning the selection of units for non-standard mission still exist five...our brigade headquarters for a separate mission. I was the Operations NCO for the battalion and had already been selected to serve as the Rear

  4. Polytropic transonic galactic outflows in a dark matter halo with a central black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Asuka; Mori, Masao; Nitta, Shin-ya

    2017-09-01

    Polytropic transonic solutions of spherically symmetric and steady galactic winds in the gravitational potential of a dark matter halo (DMH) with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) are studied. The solutions are classified in terms of their topological features, and the gravitational potential of the SMBH adds a new branch to the transonic solutions generated by the gravity of the DMH. The topological types of the transonic solutions depend on the mass distribution, the amount of supplied energy, the polytropic index γ and the slope α of the DMH mass distribution. When α becomes larger than a critical value αc, the transonic solution types change dramatically. Further, our model predicts that it is possible for a slowly accelerating outflow to exist, even in quiescent galaxies with small γ. This slowly accelerating outflow differs from those considered in many of the previous studies focusing on supersonic outflows in active star-forming galaxies. In addition, our model indicates that outflows in active star-forming galaxies have only one transonic point in the inner region (∼0.01 kpc). The locus of this transonic point does not strongly depend on γ. We apply the polytropic model incorporating mass flux supplied by stellar components to the Sombrero galaxy, and conclude that it can reproduce the observed gas density and the temperature distribution well. This result differs significantly from the isothermal model, which requires an unrealistically large mass flux. Thus, we conclude that the polytropic model is more realistic than the isothermal model, and that the Sombrero galaxy can have a slowly accelerating outflow.

  5. Transonic galactic outflows in a dark matter halo with a central black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Asuka; Mori, Masao; Nitta, Shin-Ya

    We study fundamental properties of transonic galactic outflows in the gravitational potential of a cold dark matter halo (DMH) with a central super-massive black hole (SMBH) assuming an isothermal, steady and spherically symmetric state. Transonic solutions of galactic outflows are classified according to their topological features. As result, we find two types of transonic solutions distinguished by a magnitude relationship between the gravity of DMH and that of SMBH. The loci of transonic points for two types are different; one transonic point is formed at a central region (< 0.01kpc) and another is at a very distant region (> 100kpc). Also, mass fluxes and outflow velocities are different for two solutions. Thus, these solutions may differently influence the evolution of galaxies and the release of metals into the intergalactic space. Furthermore, we apply our model to the Sombrero galaxy. In this galaxy, the wide-spread hot gas is detected as the trace of galactic outflows while the star-formation rate is low, and the observed gas density distribution is similar to the hydrostatic state (Li et al. 2011). To solve this discrepancy, we propose a solution that this galaxy has a slowly accelerating outflow; the transonic point forms in a very distant region (~ 120 kpc) and the wide subsonic region spreads across the stellar distribution. Thus, the gas density distribution in the observed region is similar to the hydrostatic state. Such slowly accelerating outflows are different from high-velocity outflows conventionally studied (Igarashi et al. 2014). However, this isothermal model requires an unrealistically large mass flux. Then, we apply the polytropic model to this galaxy incorporating mass flux supplied by stellar components. We find that it can reproduce the observed gas density and the temperature distributions with the realistic mass flux. Thus, our polytropic model successfully demonstrates the existence of the slowly accelerating outflow in the Sombrero

  6. Dynamics of groups around interacting double ellipticals: Measuring dark matter haloes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, H.

    1990-01-01

    Binary galaxies, as binary stars, are important to measure masses, as suggested by Page (1952). Because three orbit parameters are measurable for galaxies at one instant of time, severe uncertainties remain in the orbit and mass determinations. These uncertainties can partly be overcome by statistical studies of selected samples and/or n-body simulations. Close double galaxies (and isolated galaxies) could also be useful to estimate dynamical masses if we can find test particles around them. Interacting elliptical pairs or dumb-bell galaxies are found with a large range, between 0-1200 km s(exp -1), of relative radial velocities. Standard 2-body orbit calculations, highly uncertain due to projection factors, suggest for the largest velocity differences very large galaxy masses, if the systems are bound and stationary. However, recent n-body simulations model these binaries as galaxies captured from hyperbolic orbits, requiring masses of order a few times 10(exp 11) solar maximum (Borne et al. 1988), but producing systems that are short lived. A different picture appears when we study observationally the dynamical mass of interacting double ellipticals using faint satellite galaxies. These satellites contribute little luminosity and, presumably, little mass to the system. The authors present results of two such groups, basically forming systems of test particles, around the dumb-bells NGC 4782/3 and IC 5049. They also briefly discuss the satellite group around the central dumb-bell in the cluster Sersic 40/6. Apparently, they detect large quantities of dark matter in the vicinity of these dumb-bell galaxies, because the system masses of approx. 4.5 times 10(exp 13) solar mass and 8 times 10(exp 13) solar mass for NGC 4782/3 and IC 5049, respectively, are quite high. Likewise, the mass of the Sersic 40/6 inner core is 7 times 10(exp 13) solar mass. The possibility that a common massive dark matter halo increases the merging times of these types of galaxies is

  7. A simple model to link the properties of quasars to the properties of dark matter haloes out to high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croton, Darren J.

    2009-04-01

    We present a simple model of how quasars occupy dark matter haloes from z = 0 to 5 using the observed mBH-σ relation and quasar luminosity functions. This provides a way for observers to statistically infer host halo masses for quasar observations using luminosity and redshift alone. Our model is deliberately simple and sidesteps any need to explicitly describe the physics. In spite of its simplicity, the model reproduces many key observations and has predictive power: (i) model quasars have the correct luminosity function (by construction) and spatial clustering (by consequence); (ii) we predict high-redshift quasars of a given luminosity live in less massive dark matter haloes than the same luminosity quasars at low redshifts; (iii) we predict a factor of ~5 more 108.5Msolar black holes at z ~ 2 than is currently observed; (iv) we predict a factor of ~20 evolution in the amplitude of the mBH-Mhalo relation between z = 5 and the present day; (v) we expect luminosity-dependent quasar lifetimes of between tQ ~ 107 and 108yr, but which may become as short as 105-6yr for quasars brighter than L* and (vi) while little luminosity-dependent clustering evolution is expected at z <~ 1, increasingly strong evolution is predicted for L > L* quasars at higher redshifts. These last two results arise from the narrowing distribution of halo masses that quasars occupy as the Universe ages. We also deconstruct both `downsizing' and `upsizing' trends predicted by the model at different redshifts and space densities. Importantly, this work illustrates how current observations cannot distinguish between more complicated physically motivated quasar models and our simple phenomenological approach. It highlights the opportunities such methodologies provide.

  8. Unveiling hidden black holes in the cosmic web: Dark matter halos of WISE quasars from Planck CMB lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickox, Ryan

    The WISE and Planck surveys have now produced groundbreaking data sets which, in concert, can be exploited to obtain revolutionary constraints on the evolution of structure in the Universe. One particularly powerful application of WISE has been to uncover millions of the previously "hidden" obscured quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes that are shrouded in gas and dust and so are not detectable using traditional ground-based optical and near-IR techniques. Recently, Planck has produced the most precise all-sky map to date of dark matter structures via the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose to combine these data sets to obtain a uniquely powerful measurement of the link between rapidly growing black holes and their host dark matter structures, by cross-correlating the density field of WISE-selected quasars with the CMB lensing convergence maps obtained from Planck. This proposal will build on our current ADAP program (NNX12AE38G), which studies the host dark matter halos of WISE-selected quasars via spatial clustering. NNX12AE38G involves a detailed characterization of the redshifts, luminosities, and spectral energy distributions of WISE-selected quasars and uses new techniques to measure how quasars cluster around themselves. NNX12AE38G has contributed to more than 10 journal articles and 5 conference proceedings. Building on our current work, an even more complete understanding of the link between black holes and their host dark matter structures is possible if we employ an independent method for measuring the clustering bias (and thus characteristic halo mass) of the quasar population. This has recently become possible using CMB lensing maps. In the past two years, our team has conducted an initial analysis covering 2500 square degrees using WISE-selected quasars and lensing maps from the South Pole Telescope (Geach, Hickox, Myers et al., 2013), and have implemented this technique with Planck over part of the SDSS region

  9. The link between the assembly of the inner dark matter halo and the angular momentum evolution of galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Jesús; Frenk, Carlos S.; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Trayford, James W.; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    We explore the co-evolution of the specific angular momentum of dark matter haloes and the cold baryons that comprise the galaxies within. We study over 2000 galaxies within the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) project. We employ a methodology within which the evolutionary history of a system is specified by the time-evolving properties of the Lagrangian particles that define it at z = 0. We find a strong correlation between the evolution of the specific angular momentum of today's stars (cold gas) and that of the inner (whole) dark matter halo they are associated with. This link is particularly strong for the stars formed before the epoch of maximum expansion and subsequent collapse of the central dark matter halo (turnaround). Spheroids are assembled primarily from stars formed prior to turnaround, and suffer a net loss of angular momentum associated with the strong merging activity during the assembly of the inner dark matter halo. Stellar discs retain their specific angular momentum since they are comprised of stars formed mainly after turnaround, from gas that mostly preserves the high specific angular momentum it acquired by tidal torques during the linear growth of the halo. Since the specific angular momentum loss of the stars is tied to the galaxy's morphology today, it may be possible to use our results to predict, statistically, the maximum loss of specific angular momentum of the inner part of a halo given the morphology of the galaxy it hosts.

  10. Testing baryon-induced core formation in ΛCDM: A comparison of the DC14 and coreNFW dark matter halo models on galaxy rotation curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaert, F.; Gentile, G.; Baes, M.

    2017-09-01

    Recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations suggest that baryonic processes, and in particular supernova feedback following bursts of star formation, can alter the structure of dark matter haloes and transform primordial cusps into shallower cores. To assess whether this mechanism offers a solution to the long-standing cusp-core controversy, simulated haloes must be compared to real dark matter haloes inferred from galaxy rotation curves. For this purpose, two new dark matter density profiles were recently derived from simulations of galaxies in complementary mass ranges: the DC14 halo (1010 < Mhalo/M⊙ < 8 × 1011) and the coreNFW halo (107 < Mhalo/M⊙ < 109). Both models have individually been found to give good fits to observed rotation curves. For the DC14 model, however, the agreement of the predicted halo properties with cosmological scaling relations was confirmed by one study, but strongly refuted by another. A next important question is whether, despite their different approaches, the two models converge to the same solution in the mass range where both should be appropriate. To investigate this, we tested the DC14 and coreNFW halo models on the rotation curves of a selection of galaxies with halo masses in the range 4 × 109M⊙ - 7 × 1010M⊙ and compared their predictions. We further applied the DC14 model to a set of rotation curves at higher halo masses, up to 9 × 1011M⊙, to verify the agreement with the cosmological scaling relations. Both models are generally able to reproduce the observed rotation curves, in line with earlier results, and the predicted dark matter haloes are consistent with the cosmological c-Mhalo and M∗-Mhalo relations. We find that the DC14 and coreNFW models are also in fairly good agreement with each other, even though DC14 tends to predict slightly less extended cores and somewhat more concentrated haloes than coreNFW. While the quality of the fits is generally similar for both halo models, DC14 does perform

  11. Taking Halo-independent dark matter methods out of the bin

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew E-mail: ykahn@mit.edu

    2014-10-01

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons between multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.

  12. Taking Halo-Independent Dark Matter Methods Out of the Bin

    DOE PAGES

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2014-10-30

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons betweenmore » multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.« less

  13. Taking Halo-Independent Dark Matter Methods Out of the Bin

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2014-10-30

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons between multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.

  14. Dark Matter Halos as Particle Colliders: Unified Solution to Small-Scale Structure Puzzles from Dwarfs to Clusters.

    PubMed

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-29

    Astrophysical observations spanning dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters indicate that dark matter (DM) halos are less dense in their central regions compared to expectations from collisionless DM N-body simulations. Using detailed fits to DM halos of galaxies and clusters, we show that self-interacting DM (SIDM) may provide a consistent solution to the DM deficit problem across all scales, even though individual systems exhibit a wide diversity in halo properties. Since the characteristic velocity of DM particles varies across these systems, we are able to measure the self-interaction cross section as a function of kinetic energy and thereby deduce the SIDM particle physics model parameters. Our results prefer a mildly velocity-dependent cross section, from σ/m≈2  cm^{2}/g on galaxy scales to σ/m≈0.1  cm^{2}/g on cluster scales, consistent with the upper limits from merging clusters. Our results dramatically improve the constraints on SIDM models and may allow the masses of both DM and dark mediator particles to be measured even if the dark sector is completely hidden from the standard model, which we illustrate for the dark photon model.

  15. The most luminous quasars do not live in the most massive dark matter haloes at any redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanidakis, N.; Macciò, A. V.; Baugh, C. M.; Lacey, C. G.; Frenk, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Quasars (QSOs) represent the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Universe and are thought to indicate the location of prodigiously growing black holes (BHs), with luminosities as high as 1048 erg s-1. It is often expected though that such an extremely energetic process takes place in the most massive bound structures in the dark matter (DM) distribution. We show that in contrast to this expectation, in a galaxy formation model which includes AGN feedback, QSOs are predicted to live in DM haloes with typical masses of a few times 1012 M⊙. Such an environment is considered to be average in the low-redshift universe (z ≲ 2-3) and almost comparable to a Milky Way halo. This fundamental prediction arises from the fact that QSO activity (i.e. BH accretion with luminosity greater than 1046 erg s-1) is inhibited in more massive DM haloes, where AGN feedback operates. The galactic hosts of QSOs in our simulations have typical stellar masses of 1010-1011 M⊙, and represent remnants of massive disc galaxies that have undergone a disc instability or galaxy merger. Interestingly, we find no dependence of QSO activity on environment; thus, the typical QSO halo mass remains constant over two orders of magnitude in luminosity. We further show that the z ˜ 6 QSOs do not inhabit the largest DM haloes at that time as these environments are already subject to feedback. Their descendants at z = 0 span a wide range of morphologies and galaxy masses, and their BHs typically grow only by a modest factor between z ˜ 6 and the present day. We predict that there should be an enhancement in the abundance of galaxies around QSOs at z ˜ 5. However, these enhancements are considerably weaker compared to the overdensities expected at the extreme peaks of the DM distribution. Given that high-z QSO descendants are typically found in rich clusters (˜1014 M⊙) and very seldom in the most massive haloes, we conclude that it is very unlikely that QSOs observed at z ≳ 5 trace the

  16. Universality of dark matter haloes shape over six decades in mass: insights from the Millennium XXL and SBARBINE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamigo, Mario; Despali, Giulia; Limousin, Marceau; Angulo, Raul; Giocoli, Carlo; Soucail, Geneviève

    2015-05-01

    For the last 30 yr many observational and theoretical evidences have shown that galaxy clusters are not spherical objects, and that their shape is much better described by a triaxial geometry. With the advent of multiwavelength data of increasing quality, triaxial investigations of galaxy clusters is gathering a growing interest from the community, especially in the time of `precision cosmology'. In this work, we aim to provide the first statistically significant predictions in the unexplored mass range above 3 × 1014 M⊙h-1, using haloes from two redshift snapshots (z = 0 and z = 1) of the Millennium XXL simulation. The size of this cosmological dark matter-only simulation (4.1 Gpc) allows the formation of a statistically significant number of massive cluster scale haloes (≈500 with M > 2× 1015 M⊙ h-1, and 780 000 with M > 1014 M⊙ h-1). Besides, we aim to extend this investigation to lower masses in order to look for universal predictions across nearly six orders of magnitude in mass, from 1010 to almost 1016 M⊙ h-1. For this purpose we use the SBARBINE simulations, allowing us to model haloes of masses starting from ≈1010 M⊙ h-1. We use an elliptical overdensity method to select haloes and compute the shapes of the unimodal ones (approximately 50 per cent), while we discard the more unrelaxed. The minor to major and intermediate to major axis ratio distributions are found to be well described by simple universal functional forms that do not depend on cosmology or redshift. Our results extend the findings of Jing & Suto to a higher precision and a wider range of mass. This `recipe' is made available to the community in this paper and in a dedicated web page.

  17. Dark matter constraints from the Fermi/LAT Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background and the role of halo substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Conde, Miguel Angel

    2012-05-01

    After almost four years of operation, Fermi/LAT has measured the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background (EGB) with unprecedented sensitivity, furthermore extending, for the first time, the EGB spectrum down to 100 MeV and up to several hundred GeV. Although a large variety of extragalactic objects are expected to contribute to the EGB, according to recent estimates the sum of their different contributions is not enough to explain the measured EGB. Gamma-rays from annihilation products of supersymmetric dark matter (DM) particles may account for this missing emission. In this talk, I will discuss on the parameter space allowed for DM annihilation in the most recent EGB spectrum by Fermi/LAT. At present, the key ingredient in the determination of the expected contribution of DM annihilation to the EGB is the so-called substructure boost factor, thus special attention will be given to this parameter. Substructure boosts are related to the amount of DM subhalos hosted by larger DM halos. Up to now, attempts to precisely calculate it both analytically and/or making use of N-body cosmological simulations have failed due to the difficulty of examining in detail the properties of the smallest DM halos. Indeed, the DM contribution to the EGB can vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the assumed DM substructure model. Here, I will present a DM substructure model which is based on our current knowledge of DM halo formation and evolution in the framework of the state-of-the-art ΛCDM cosmological model. This model makes possible to confidently calculate substructure boosts for halos of different masses. After applying it, the uncertainty bands that bracket the contribution of DM annihilation to the EGB will become not only substantially narrower but also better physically motivated. The use of such a more sophisticated DM substructure model makes possible to assess other crucial EGB aspects as well.

  18. Small scale anisotropies of UHECRs from super-heavy halo dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    P. Blasi; R. K. Sheth

    2001-10-23

    The decay of very heavy metastable relics of the Early Universe can produce ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) in the halo of our own Galaxy. In this model, no Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff is expected because of the short propagation distances. They show here that, as a consequence of the hierarchical build up of the halo, this scenario predicts the existence of small scale anisotropies in the arrival directions of UHECRs, in addition to a large scale anisotropy, known from previous studies. They also suggest some other observable consequences of this scenario which will be testable with upcoming experiments, as Auguer, EUSO and OWL.

  19. Populating dark matter haloes with galaxies: comparing the 2dFGRS with mock galaxy redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Jing, Y. P.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Chu, YaoQuan

    2004-06-01

    In two recent papers, we developed a powerful technique to link the distribution of galaxies to that of dark matter haloes by considering halo occupation numbers as a function of galaxy luminosity and type. In this paper we use these distribution functions to populate dark matter haloes in high-resolution N-body simulations of the standard ΛCDM cosmology with Ωm= 0.3, ΩΛ= 0.7 and σ8= 0.9. Stacking simulation boxes of 100 h-1 Mpc and 300 h-1 Mpc with 5123 particles each we construct mock galaxy redshift surveys out to a redshift of z= 0.2 with a numerical resolution that guarantees completeness down to 0.01L*. We use these mock surveys to investigate various clustering statistics. The predicted two-dimensional correlation function ξ(rp, π) reveals clear signatures of redshift space distortions. The projected correlation functions for galaxies with different luminosities and types, derived from ξ(rp, π), match the observations well on scales larger than ~3 h-1 Mpc. On smaller scales, however, the model overpredicts the clustering power by about a factor two. Modelling the `finger-of-God' effect on small scales reveals that the standard ΛCDM model predicts pairwise velocity dispersions (PVD) that are ~400 km s-1 too high at projected pair separations of ~1 h-1 Mpc. A strong velocity bias in massive haloes, with bvel≡σgal/σdm~ 0.6 (where σgal and σdm are the velocity dispersions of galaxies and dark matter particles, respectively) can reduce the predicted PVD to the observed level, but does not help to resolve the overprediction of clustering power on small scales. Consistent results can be obtained within the standard ΛCDM model only when the average mass-to-light ratio of clusters is of the order of 1000 (M/L)solar in the B-band. Alternatively, as we show by a simple approximation, a ΛCDM model with σ8~= 0.75 may also reproduce the observational results. We discuss our results in light of the recent WMAP results and the constraints on σ8 obtained

  20. The properties of the dark matter halo distribution in non-Gaussian scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, C.; Branchini, E.; Dolag, K.; Grossi, M.; Iannuzzi, F.; Matarrese, S.; Moscardini, L.; Verde, L.

    2009-10-01

    The description of halo abundance and clustering for non-Gaussian initial conditions has recently received renewed interest, motivated by the forthcoming large galaxy and cluster surveys, which can potentially detect primordial non-Gaussianity of the local form with a non-Gaussianity parameter |f| of order unity. This is particularly exciting because, while the simplest single-field slow-roll models of inflation predict a primordial |f|≪1, this signal sources extra contributions to the effective f of large-scale structures that are expected to be above the predicted detection threshold [C. Carbone, L. Verde, and S. Matarrese, ApJL 684 (2008) L1]. We present tests on N-body simulations of analytical formulae describing the halo abundance and clustering for non-Gaussian initial conditions. In particular, when we calibrate the analytic non-Gaussian mass function of [S. Matarrese, L. Verde, L. and R. Jimenez, ApJL 541 (2000) 10] and [M. LoVerde, A. Miller, S. Shandera and L. Verde, JCAP 04 (2008) 014] and the analytic description of halo clustering for non-Gaussian initial conditions on N-body simulations, we find excellent agreement between the simulations and the analytic predictions if we make the substitutions δ→δ×q and δ→δ×q where q≃0.75, in the density threshold for gravitational collapse and in the non-Gaussian fractional correction to the halo bias, respectively. We discuss the implications of these corrections on present and forecasted primordial non-Gaussianity constraints. We confirm that the non-Gaussian halo bias offers a robust and highly competitive test of primordial non-Gaussianity.

  1. The redshift evolution of the distribution of star formation among dark matter halos as seen in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Wang, Lingyu; Doré, Olivier; Lagache, Guilaine; Sargent, Mark; Daddi, Emanuele; Cousin, Morgane; Aussel, Hervé

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed a strong correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of the majority of star-forming galaxies, the so-called star-forming main sequence. An empirical modeling approach (the 2-SFM framework) that distinguishes between the main sequence and rarer starburst galaxies is capable of reproducing most statistical properties of infrared galaxies, such as number counts, luminosity functions, and redshift distributions. In this paper, we extend this approach by establishing a connection between stellar mass and halo mass with the technique of abundance matching. Based on a few simple assumptions and a physically motivated formalism, our model successfully predicts the (cross-)power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB), the cross-correlation between CIB and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing, and the correlation functions of bright, resolved infrared galaxies measured by Herschel, Planck, ACT, and SPT. We use this model to infer the redshift distribution of CIB-anisotropies and of the CIB × CMB lensing signal, as well as the level of correlation between CIB-anisotropies at different wavelengths. We study the link between dark matter halos and star-forming galaxies in the framework of our model. We predict that more than 90% of cosmic star formation activity occurs in halos with masses between 1011.5 and 1013.5 M⊙. If taking subsequent mass growth of halos into account, this implies that the majority of stars were initially (at z > 3) formed in the progenitors of clusters (Mh(z = 0) > 1013.5 M⊙), then in groups (1012.5 < Mh(z = 0) < 1013.5 M⊙) at 0.5 < z < 3, and finally in Milky-Way-like halos (1011.5 < Mh(z = 0) < 1012.5 M⊙) at z < 0.5. At all redshifts, the dominant contribution to the SFR density stems from halos of mass ~1012 M⊙, in which the instantaneous star formation efficiency - defined here as the ratio between SFR and baryonic accretion rate - is maximal (~70%). The strong redshift

  2. Perturbation theory approach for the power spectrum: from dark matter in real space to massive haloes in redshift space

    SciTech Connect

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Porciani, Cristiano E-mail: cwagner@icc.ub.edu E-mail: porciani@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the accuracy of Eulerian perturbation theory for describing the matter and galaxy power spectra in real and redshift space in light of future observational probes for precision cosmology. Comparing the analytical results with a large suite of N-body simulations (160 independent boxes of 13.8 (Gpc/h){sup 3} volume each, which are publicly available), we find that re-summing terms in the standard perturbative approach predicts the real-space matter power spectrum with an accuracy of ∼<2% for k ≤ 0.20 h/Mpc at redshifts z∼<1.5. This is obtained following the widespread technique of writing the resummed propagator in terms of 1-loop contributions. We show that the accuracy of this scheme increases by considering higher-order terms in the resummed propagator. By combining resummed perturbation theories with several models for the mappings from real to redshift space discussed in the literature, the multipoles of the dark-matter power spectrum can be described with sub-percent deviations from N-body results for k ≤ 0.15 h/Mpc at z∼<1. As a consequence, the logarithmic growth rate, f, can be recovered with sub-percent accuracy on these scales. Extending the models to massive dark-matter haloes in redshift space, our results describe the monopole term from N-body data within 2% accuracy for scales k ≤ 0.15 h/Mpc at z∼<0.5; here f can be recovered within < 5% when the halo bias is known. We conclude that these techniques are suitable to extract cosmological information from future galaxy surveys.

  3. On the origin of Sérsic profiles of galaxies and Einasto profiles of dark-matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipoti, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    The surface-brightness profiles of galaxies I(R) and the density profiles of dark-matter halos ρ(r) are well represented by the same analytic function, named after either Sérsic, I~e -(R/R *)1/m , or Einasto, ρ~e -(r/r *)α , where R * and r * are characteristic radii. Systems with high Sérsic index m (or low Einasto index α) have steep central profiles and shallow outer profiles, while systems with low m (or high α) have shallow central profiles and steep profiles in the outskirts. We present the results of idealized numerical experiments which suggest that the origin of these profiles can be traced back to the initial density fluctuation field: high-α (low-m) systems form in smooth regions via few mergers, while low-α (high-m) systems form in clumpy regions via several mergers.

  4. the Important Role of Dark Matter Halo in Retaining Hot Gas Content in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy; White, Raymond Edwin; Buote, David A.; Gu, Liyi

    2014-08-01

    It has been an ongoing puzzle as to why there is a large scatter in the amount of hot X-ray gas in optically-similar early-type galaxies. With Chandra observations, we investigated the hot gas content of a sample of early-type galaxies. We found their hot X-ray gas per stellar light (L_X/L_opt) is highly correlated with their total masses estimated through stellar kinematics. Furthermore, we found no difference in the scatter in L_X/L_opt between galaxies in the field and in groups and clusters. This suggests that a dark matter halo is the primary factor in determining the hot gas content, as smaller galaxies are more vulnerable to mechanisms that remove hot gas from galaxies such as galactic winds. Other factors such as flattening, environment, rotation, and star formation history may have played a relatively secondary role.

  5. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - II. Spin and concentration parameters for dark matter haloes during the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Poole, Gregory B.; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-06-01

    We use high-resolution N-body simulations to study the concentration and spin parameters of dark matter haloes in the mass range 108 M⊙ h-1 < M < 1011 M⊙ h-1 and redshifts 5 < z < 10, corresponding to the haloes of galaxies thought to be responsible for reionization. We build a subsample of equilibrium haloes and contrast their properties to the full population that also includes unrelaxed systems. Concentrations are calculated by fitting both NFW and Einasto profiles to the spherically averaged density profiles of individual haloes. After removing haloes that are out of equilibrium, we find a z > 5 concentration-mass (c(M)) relation that is almost flat and well described by a simple power law for both NFW and Einasto fits. The intrinsic scatter around the mean relation is Δcvir ˜ 1 (or 20 per cent) at z = 5. We also find that the analytic model proposed by Ludlow et al. reproduces the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. Our best-fitting Einasto shape parameter, α, depends on peak height, ν, in a manner that is accurately described by α = 0.0070ν2 + 0.1839. The distribution of the spin parameter, λ, has a weak dependence on equilibrium state; λ peaks at roughly ˜0.033 for our relaxed sample, and at ˜0.04 for the full population. The spin-virial mass relation has a mild negative correlation at high redshift.

  6. Probing the Truncation of Galaxy Dark Matter Halos in High-Density Environments from Hydrodynamical N-Body Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limousin, Marceau; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Milvang-Jensen, Bo

    2009-05-01

    We analyze high-resolution, N-body hydrodynamical simulations of fiducial galaxy clusters to probe tidal stripping of the dark matter subhalos. These simulations include a prescription for star formation allowing us to track the fate of the stellar component as well. We investigate the effect of tidal stripping on cluster galaxies hosted in these dark matter subhalos as a function of projected cluster-centric radius. To quantify the extent of the dark matter halos of cluster galaxies, we introduce the half-mass radius r 1/2 as a diagnostic, and study its evolution with projected cluster-centric distance R as a function of redshift. We find a well-defined trend for (r 1/2, R): the closer the galaxies are to the center of the cluster, the smaller the half-mass radius. Interestingly, this trend is inferred in all redshift frames examined in this work ranging from z = 0 to z = 0.7. At z = 0, galaxy halos in the central regions of clusters are found to be highly truncated, with the most compact half-mass radius of 10 kpc. We also find that r 1/2 depends on luminosity and we present scaling relations of r 1/2 with galaxy luminosity. The corresponding total mass of the cluster galaxies is also found to increase with projected cluster-centric distance and luminosity, but with more scatter than the (r 1/2, R) trend. Comparing the distribution of stellar mass to total mass for cluster galaxies, we find that the dark matter component is preferentially stripped, whereas the stellar component is much less affected by tidal forces. We compare these results with galaxy-galaxy lensing probes of r 1/2 and find qualitative agreement. Future surveys with space-based telescopes such as DUNE and SNAP, that combine wide-field and high-resolution imaging, will be able to probe the predicted (r 1/2, R) relation observationally.

  7. Neutrino Non-standard Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardelli, David; Guzzo, Marcelo

    The quantum neutrino oscillation phenomenon is not perfectly described by the actual standard physics models. Experimental results of different neutrino sources like reactors, accelerators and supernovae, indicate a non-negligible flux error if compared to the predicted theoretical models. This work aims to propose different non-standard neutrino in- teractions and predict LBNE potential in analyze it. That approach could give a better understanding of the quantum neutrino oscillation phenomenon. As an example, we can use the weak leptonic number violation that generate new interactions that is not possible using the Standard Model. This violation is directly related with a change in the Flavor neutrino Hamiltonian and consequently connected with the quantum neutrino oscillation.

  8. The rarity of Dark Matter Halos in medium-sized walls of the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Tze; Primack, Joel R.; Lee, Christoph; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Behroozi, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, Marshall McCall mapped out our Local Sheet, the cosmic wall containing the Milk Way and Andromeda galaxies. We use the large new Bolshoi-Planck cosmological simulation to investigate how rare our type of Local Sheet is, with 2 nearby halos like those of Milky Way and Andromeda. The conclusion of our investigation is that the occurrence of a pair of galaxies the size of Milky Way and Andromeda near the center of a wall 8 mpc in diameter, with the pair of galaxies within 0.7 mpc/h of each other, is very rare : it makes up only 0.05% of all walls in the simulation.

  9. Cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and gamma rays from halo dark matter annihilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudaz, S.; Stecker, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of cosmic ray antiproton production is reexamined by considering other choices for the nature of the Majorana fermion chi other than the photino considered in a previous article. The calculations are extended to include cosmic-ray positrons and cosmic gamma rays as annihilation products. Taking chi to be a generic higgsino or simply a heavy Majorana neutrino with standard couplings to the Z-zero boson allows the previous interpretation of the cosmic antiproton data to be maintained. In this case also, the annihilation cross section can be calculated independently of unknown particle physics parameters. Whereas the relic density of photinos with the choice of parameters in the previous paper turned out to be only a few percent of the closure density, the corresponding value for Omega in the generic higgsino or Majorana case is about 0.2, in excellent agreement with the value associated with galaxies and one which is sufficient to give the halo mass.

  10. WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AS A PROBE OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRUCTURES IN DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Shirasaki, Masato

    2015-02-01

    We propose a novel method to select satellite galaxies in outer regions of galaxy groups or clusters using weak gravitational lensing. The method is based on the theoretical expectation that the tangential shear pattern around satellite galaxies would appear with negative values at an offset distance from the center of the main halo. We can thus locate the satellite galaxies statistically with an offset distance of several lensing smoothing scales by using the standard reconstruction of surface mass density maps from weak lensing observation. We test the idea using high-resolution cosmological simulations. We show that subhalos separated from the center of the host halo are successfully located even without assuming the position of the center. For a number of such subhalos, the characteristic mass and offset length can be also estimated on a statistical basis. We perform a Fisher analysis to show how well upcoming weak lensing surveys can constrain the mass density profile of satellite galaxies. In the case of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope with a sky coverage of 20,000 deg{sup 2}, the mass of the member galaxies in the outer region of galaxy clusters can be constrained with an accuracy of ∼0.1 dex for galaxy clusters with mass 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉} at z = 0.15. Finally we explore the detectability of tidal stripping features for subhalos having a wide range of masses of 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}.

  11. Connecting massive galaxies to dark matter haloes in BOSS - I. Is galaxy colour a stochastic process in high-mass haloes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shun; Leauthaud, Alexie; Hearin, Andrew P.; Bundy, Kevin; Zentner, Andrew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Reid, Beth A.; Sinha, Manodeep; Coupon, Jean; Tinker, Jeremy L.; White, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    We use subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) to model the stellar mass function (SMF) and clustering of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) `CMASS' sample at z ˜ 0.5. We introduce a novel method which accounts for the stellar mass incompleteness of CMASS as a function of redshift, and produce CMASS mock catalogues which include selection effects, reproduce the overall SMF, the projected two-point correlation function wp, the CMASS dn/dz, and are made publicly available. We study the effects of assembly bias above collapse mass in the context of `age matching' and show that these effects are markedly different compared to the ones explored by Hearin et al. at lower stellar masses. We construct two models, one in which galaxy colour is stochastic (`AbM' model) as well as a model which contains assembly bias effects (`AgM' model). By confronting the redshift dependent clustering of CMASS with the predictions from our model, we argue that that galaxy colours are not a stochastic process in high-mass haloes. Our results suggest that the colours of galaxies in high-mass haloes are determined by other halo properties besides halo peak velocity and that assembly bias effects play an important role in determining the clustering properties of this sample.

  12. A 14.6 Arcsecond Quasar Lens Split by a Massive Dark Matter Halo

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, N; Oguri, M; Pindor, B; Hennawi, J; Chiu, K; Zheng, W; Ichikawa, S; Gregg, M; Becker, R; Suto, Y; Strauss, M; Turner, E; Keeton, C; Annis, J; Castander, F; Eisenstein, D; Frieman, J; Fukugita, M; Gunn, J; Johnston, D; Kent, S; Nichol, R; Richards, G; Rix, H; Sheldon, E; Bahcall, N; Brinkmann, J; Ivezic, Z; Lamb, D; Mckay, T; Schneider, D; York, D

    2003-12-04

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful tool to study the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The cold dark matter model of structure formation predicts the existence of quasars gravitationally lensed by concentrations of dark matter so massive that the quasar images would be split by over 7 inches. However, numerous searches for large-separation lensed quasars have been unsuccessful; all of the roughly 70 lensed quasars known to date, such as Q0957+561, have smaller splittings, and can be explained in terms of galaxy scale concentrations of baryonic matter that have undergone dissipative collapse. Here they report the discovery of the first large-separation lensed quasar, SDSS J1004+4112, with a maximum separation of 14.62 inches; at this separation, the lensing object must be dominated by dark matter. While gravitationally lensed galaxies of even large separation are known, large-separation quasars are more useful cosmological probes because of the simplicity of the resulting lens systems. The discovery in their current quasar sample is fully consistent with the theoretical expectations based on the cold dark matter model.

  13. Prospects for annihilating dark matter in the inner galactic halo by the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, Valentin; Moulin, Emmanuel; Panci, Paolo; Silk, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    We compute the sensitivity to dark matter annihilations for the forthcoming large Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) in several primary channels and over a range of dark matter masses from 50 GeV up to 80 TeV. For all channels, we include inverse Compton scattering of e± by dark matter annihilations on the ambient photon background, which yields substantial contributions to the overall γ -ray flux. We improve the analysis over previous work by: (i) implementing a spectral and morphological analysis of the γ -ray emission; (ii) taking into account the most up-to-date cosmic ray background obtained from a full CTA Monte Carlo simulation and a description of the diffuse astrophysical emission; and (iii) including the systematic uncertainties in the rich observational CTA data sets. We find that our spectral and morphological analysis improves the CTA sensitivity by roughly a factor 2. For the hadronic channels, CTA will be able to probe thermal dark matter candidates over a broad range of masses if the systematic uncertainties in the data sets will be controlled better than the percent level. For the leptonic modes, the CTA sensitivity will be well below the thermal value of the annihilation cross-section. In this case, even with larger systematics, thermal dark matter candidates up to masses of a few TeV will be easily studied.

  14. Analytical derivation of the radial distribution function in spherical dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilersen, Andreas; Hansen, Steen H.; Zhang, Xingyu

    2017-01-01

    The velocity distribution of dark matter near the Earth is important for an accurate analysis of the signals in terrestrial detectors. This distribution is typically extracted from numerical simulations. Here we address the possibility of deriving the velocity distribution function analytically. We derive a differential equation which is a function of radius and the radial component of the velocity. Under various assumptions this can be solved, and we compare the solution with the results from controlled numerical simulations. Our findings complement the previously derived tangential velocity distribution. We hereby demonstrate that the entire distribution function, below ˜0.7vesc, can be derived analytically for spherical and equilibrated dark matter structures.

  15. Analytical derivation of the radial distribution function in spherical dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilersen, Andreas; Hansen, Steen H.; Zhang, Xingyu

    2017-05-01

    The velocity distribution of dark matter near the Earth is important for an accurate analysis of the signals in terrestrial detectors. This distribution is typically extracted from numerical simulations. Here we address the possibility of deriving the velocity distribution function analytically. We derive a differential equation, which is a function of radius and the radial component of the velocity. Under various assumptions this can be solved, and we compare the solution with the results from controlled numerical simulations. Our findings complement the previously derived tangential velocity distribution. We hereby demonstrate that the entire distribution function, below ˜0.7vesc, can be derived analytically for spherical and equilibrated dark matter structures.

  16. Relations between the Sizes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos at Redshifts 0 < z < 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Fall, S. Michael; Ferguson, Henry C.; van der Wel, Arjen; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Lee, Seong-Kook; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2017-03-01

    We derive relations between the effective radii R eff of galaxies and the virial radii R 200c of their dark matter halos over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. For galaxies, we use the measured sizes from deep images taken with Hubble Space Telescope for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey; for halos, we use the inferred sizes from abundance matching to cosmological dark matter simulations via a stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. For this purpose, we derive a new SMHM relation based on the same selection criteria and other assumptions as for our sample of galaxies with size measurements. As a check on the robustness of our results, we also derive R eff–R 200c relations for three independent SMHM relations from the literature. We find that galaxy R eff is proportional on average to halo R 200c , confirming and extending to high redshifts the z = 0 results of Kravtsov. Late-type galaxies (with low Sérsic index and high specific star formation rate (sSFR)) follow a linear R eff–R 200c relation, with effective radii at 0.5 < z < 3 close to those predicted by simple models of disk formation; at z < 0.5, the sizes of late-type galaxies appear to be slightly below this prediction. Early-type galaxies (with high Sérsic index and low sSFR) follow a roughly parallel R eff–R 200c relation, ∼0.2–0.3 dex below the one for late-type galaxies. Our observational results, reinforced by recent hydrodynamical simulations, indicate that galaxies grow quasi-homologously with their dark matter halos.

  17. Constraining the Cosmic Ray Electron Distribution and the Halo Dark Matter from the High Energy Gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chary, R.; Wright, E. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present an independent estimate of the high latitude (|b|>20 deg) contribution to the E>30 MeV gamma-ray background from Galactic nucleon-nucleon, electron bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton processes. In particular, the inverse Compton contribution has been estimated for different cosmic ray electron distributions and after factoring in the anisotropy in the interstellar radiation field and the anisotropic Klein-Nishina scattering cross section. We find that the emission from the inverse Compton process when the anisotropy in the radiation field is included can be higher by up to 50% when compared to estimates that adopt an isotropic radiation field. Simulated inverse Compton maps with a cosmic ray electron distribution represented by a ``pill box'' extending up to a distance of 5 kpc above the Galactic plane provide better fits to the EGRET intensity maps suggesting that the cosmic ray halo may be larger than previously thought. Fitting for the Galactic components of gamma-ray emission confirms the existence of an isotropic component with an intensity that can be represented by the form 27.7*(E/MeV)-2.16 ph m-2 s-1 sr-1 MeV-1, in excellent agreement with previous estimates. The spectrum of the isotropic component further argues strongly in favor of unresolved gamma-ray blazars being the source of this emission. Introduction of an anisotropic component improves the quality of the fits. However, this component, which could potentially arise from the dark matter in the Galactic halo, is not well characterized by a single power law which might be associated with any single dark matter candidate. It has an intensity of about a third of the isotropic background above E > 100 MeV at the level of 3*10-2 ph m-2 s-1 sr-1. The best fit power law spectrum to this component has a photon index of -1.7. Based on the intensity and spectrum of the anisotropic component we derive upper limits of 109Msun for the mass of cold, baryonic gas within the solar circle and a primordial

  18. Halo Shape and its Relation to Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlöber, S.; Turchaninov, V.

    Using high resolution DM simulations we study the shape of dark matter halos. Halos become more spherical with decreasing mass. This trend is even more pronounced for the inner part of the halo. Angular momentum and shape are correlated. The angular momenta of neighboring halos are correlated.

  19. The FMOS-COSMOS Survey of Star-forming Galaxies at Z ˜ 1.6. V: Properties of Dark Matter Halos Containing Hα Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashino, Daichi; More, Surhud; Silverman, John D.; Daddi, Emanuele; Renzini, Alvio; Sanders, David B.; Rodighiero, Giulia; Puglisi, Annagrazia; Kajisawa, Masaru; Valentino, Francesco; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Nagao, Tohru; Arimoto, Nobuo; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2017-07-01

    We study the properties of dark matter halos that contain star-forming galaxies at 1.43 ≤ z ≤ 1.74, using the FMOS-COSMOS survey. The sample consists of 516 objects with a detection of the Hα emission line, which represent the star forming population at this epoch, having a stellar mass range of 109.57 ≤ M */M ⊙ ≲ 1011.4 and a star-formation rate range of 15 ≲ SFR/(M ⊙ yr-1) ≲ 600. We measure the projected two-point correlation function while carefully taking into account observational biases, and find a significant clustering amplitude at scales of 0.04-10 h -1 cMpc, with a correlation length {r}0={5.26}-0.62+0.75 {h}-1 {cMpc} and a bias b={2.44}-0.32+0.38. We interpret our clustering measurement using a halo occupation distribution model. The sample galaxies appear to reside in halos with mass {M}{{h}}={4.71}-1.62+1.19× {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ on average, which will likely become present-day halos of mass M h (z = 0) ˜ 2 × 1013 h -1 M ⊙, equivalent to the typical halo mass scale of galaxy groups. We then confirm the decline of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at M h < 1012 M ⊙, finding M */M h ≈ 5 × 10-3 at M h = 7. 5 × 1011 M ⊙, which is lower by a factor of 2-4 than those measured at higher masses (M h ˜ 1012-13 M ⊙). Finally, we use our results to illustrate the future capabilities of Subaru’s Prime-Focus Spectrograph, a next-generation instrument that will provide strong constraints on the galaxy-formation scenario by obtaining precise measurements of galaxy clustering at z > 1.

  20. A halo-independent lower bound on the dark matter capture rate in the Sun from a direct detection signal

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas

    2015-05-21

    We show that a positive signal in a dark matter (DM) direct detection experiment can be used to place a lower bound on the DM capture rate in the Sun, independent of the DM halo. For a given particle physics model and DM mass we obtain a lower bound on the capture rate independent of the local DM density, velocity distribution, galactic escape velocity, as well as the scattering cross section. We illustrate this lower bound on the capture rate by assuming that upcoming direct detection experiments will soon obtain a significant signal. When comparing the lower bound on the capture rate with limits on the high-energy neutrino flux from the Sun from neutrino telescopes, we can place upper limits on the branching fraction of DM annihilation channels leading to neutrinos. With current data from IceCube and Super-Kamiokande non-trivial limits can be obtained for spin-dependent interactions and direct annihilations into neutrinos. In some cases also annihilations into ττ or bb start getting constrained. For spin-independent interactions current constraints are weak, but they may become interesting for data from future neutrino telescopes.

  1. Non-standard structure formation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebe, Alexander; Little, Brett; Islam, Ranty; Devriendt, Julien; Mahmood, Asim; Silk, Joe

    2003-04-01

    Observations on galactic scales seem to be in contradiction with recent high resolution N-body simulations. This so-called cold dark matter (CDM) crisis has been addressed in several ways, ranging from a change in fundamental physics by introducing self-interacting cold dark matter particles to a tuning of complex astrophysical processes such as global and/or local feedback. All these efforts attempt to soften density profiles and reduce the abundance of satellites in simulated galaxy halos. In this contribution we are exploring the differences between a Warm Dark Matter model and a CDM model where the power on a certain scale is reduced by introducing a narrow negative feature (`dip'). This dip is placed in a way so as to mimic the loss of power in the WDM model: both models have the same integrated power out to the scale where the power of the Dip model rises to the level of the unperturbed CDM spectrum again. Using N-body simulations we show that that the new Dip model appears to be a viable alternative to WDM while being based on different physics: where WDM requires the introduction of a new particle species the Dip stems from anon-standard inflationary period. If we are looking for an alternative to the currently challenged standard ΛCDM structure formation scenario, neither the ΛWDM nor the new Dip model can be ruled out with respect to the analysis presented in this contribution. They both make very similar predictions and the degeneracy between them can only be broken with observations yet to come.

  2. Connecting stellar mass and star-formation rate to dark matter halo mass out to z ˜ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Amblard, A.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Halpern, M.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Marsden, G.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Schulz, B.; Smith, A. J.; Viero, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-05-01

    We have constructed an extended halo model (EHM) which relates the total stellar mass and star-formation rate (SFR) to halo mass (Mh). An empirical relation between the distribution functions of total stellar mass of galaxies and host halo mass, tuned to match the spatial density of galaxies over 0 < z < 2 and the clustering properties at z ˜ 0, is extended to include two different scenarios describing the variation of SFR on Mh. We also present new measurements of the redshift evolution of the average SFR for star-forming galaxies of different stellar masses up to z = 2, using data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey for infrared bright galaxies. Combining the EHM with the halo accretion histories from numerical simulations, we trace the stellar mass growth and star-formation history in haloes spanning a range of masses. We find that: (1) the intensity of the star-forming activity in haloes in the probed mass range has steadily decreased from z ˜ 2 to 0; (2) at a given epoch, haloes in the mass range between a few times 1011 M⊙ and a few times 1012 M⊙ are the most efficient at hosting star formation; (3) the peak of SFR density shifts to lower mass haloes over time; and (4) galaxies that are forming stars most actively at z ˜ 2 evolve into quiescent galaxies in today's group environments, strongly supporting previous claims that the most powerful starbursts at z ˜ 2 are progenitors of today's elliptical galaxies.

  3. A Numerical Fit of Analytical to Simulated Density Profiles in Dark Matter Haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.; Marmo, C.; Valentinuzzi, T.

    2005-06-01

    Analytical and geometrical properties of generalized power-law (GPL) density profiles are investigated in detail. In particular, a one-to-one correspondence is found between mathematical parameters (a scaling radius, r_0, a scaling density, rho_0, and three exponents, alpha, beta, gamma), and geometrical parameters (the coordinates of the intersection of the asymptotes, x_C, y_C, and three vertical intercepts, b, b_beta, b_gamma, related to the curve and the asymptotes, respectively): (r_0,rho_0,alpha,beta,gamma) <--> (x_C,y_C,b,b_beta,b_gamma). Then GPL density profiles are compared with simulated dark haloes (SDH) density profiles, and nonlinear least-absolute values and least-squares fits involving the above mentioned five parameters (RFSM5 method) are prescribed. More specifically, the sum of absolute values or squares of absolute logarithmic residuals, R_i= log rhoSDH(r_i)-log rhoGPL(r_i), is evaluated on 10^5 points making a 5- dimension hypergrid, through a few iterations. The size is progressively reduced around a fiducial minimum, and superpositions on nodes of earlier hypergrids are avoided. An application is made to a sample of 17 SDHs on the scale of cluster of galaxies, within a flat LambdaCDM cosmological model (Rasia et al. 2004). In dealing with the mean SDH density profile, a virial radius, rvir, averaged over the whole sample, is assigned, which allows the calculation of the remaining parameters. Using a RFSM5 method provides a better fit with respect to other methods. The geometrical parameters, averaged over the whole sample of best fitting GPL density profiles, yield (alpha,beta,gamma) approx(0.6,3.1,1.0), to be compared with (alpha,beta,gamma)=(1,3,1), i.e. the NFW density profile (Navarro et al. 1995, 1996, 1997), (alpha,beta,gamma)=(1.5,3,1.5) (Moore et al. 1998, 1999), (alpha,beta,gamma)=(1,2.5,1) (Rasia et al. 2004); and, in addition, gamma approx 1.5 (Hiotelis 2003), deduced from the application of a RFSM5 method, but using a different

  4. Mass-Discrepancy Acceleration Relation: A Natural Outcome of Galaxy Formation in Cold Dark Matter Halos.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Aaron D; Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A; Navarro, Julio F; Fattahi, Azadeh; Oman, Kyle A

    2017-04-21

    We analyze the total and baryonic acceleration profiles of a set of well-resolved galaxies identified in the eagle suite of hydrodynamic simulations. Our runs start from the same initial conditions but adopt different prescriptions for unresolved stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback, resulting in diverse populations of galaxies by the present day. Some of them reproduce observed galaxy scaling relations, while others do not. However, regardless of the feedback implementation, all of our galaxies follow closely a simple relationship between the total and baryonic acceleration profiles, consistent with recent observations of rotationally supported galaxies. The relation has small scatter: Different feedback implementations-which produce different galaxy populations-mainly shift galaxies along the relation rather than perpendicular to it. Furthermore, galaxies exhibit a characteristic acceleration g_{†}, above which baryons dominate the mass budget, as observed. These observations, consistent with simple modified Newtonian dynamics, can be accommodated within the standard cold dark matter paradigm.

  5. Caustics of 1/r{sup n} binary gravitational lenses: from galactic haloes to exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, V.; Melchiorre, C. E-mail: cmelchiorre@unisa.it

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the caustic topologies for binary gravitational lenses made up of two objects whose gravitational potential declines as 1/r{sup n}. With n<1 this corresponds to power-law dust distributions like the singular isothermal sphere. The n>1 regime can be obtained with some violations of the energy conditions, one famous example being the Ellis wormhole. Gravitational lensing provides a natural arena to distinguish and identify such exotic objects in our Universe. We find that there are still three topologies for caustics as in the standard Schwarzschild binary lens, with the main novelty coming from the secondary caustics of the close topology, which become huge at higher n. After drawing caustics by numerical methods, we derive a large amount of analytical formulae in all limits that are useful to provide deeper insight in the mathematics of the problem. Our study is useful to better understand the phenomenology of galaxy lensing in clusters as well as the distinct signatures of exotic matter in complex systems.

  6. Cosmic Questions: Galactic Halos, Cold Dark Matter and the End of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Richard

    1995-08-01

    Did the Big Bang really happen? Is space infinite? When did time begin? In this "superb new book" (San Francisco Chronicle), acclaimed science writer Richard Morris probes a host of far-reaching questions about the fundamental nature of the universe. The result is a masterful exploration of the newest discoveries and theories in the field of cosmology-the study of the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. With dramatic flair and enthusiasm, he introduces us to the intriguing world of cosmic strings and quark nuggets, shadow matter and imaginary time. He brings emerging theoretical concepts into clear focus, offering keen insight into science's most puzzling riddles, the very questions that have challenged and confounded humankind through the ages. Featuring a thorough explanation of the breakthrough voyage of NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and its effects on the Big Bang theory, this remarkable book is a fascinating journey along the cutting edge of cosmological discovery. Praise for Richard Morris... "Mr. Morris's genius is an ability to reveal the wonderful. --Kansas City Star "Morris does a clearer job explaining Hawking than Hawking did." --Library Journal

  7. Evolution and statistics of non-sphericity of dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi

    2016-12-01

    We revisit the non-sphericity of cluster-mass-scale halos from cosmological N-body simulation on the basis of triaxial modeling. In order to understand the difference between the simulation results and the conventional ellipsoidal collapse model (EC), we first consider the evolution of individual simulated halos. The major difference between EC and the simulation becomes appreciable after the turnaround epoch. Moreover, it is sensitive to the individual evolution history of each halo. Despite such strong dependence on individual halos, the resulting non-sphericity of halos exhibits weak but robust mass dependence in a statistical fashion; massive halos are more spherical up to the turnaround, but gradually become less spherical by z = 0. This is clearly inconsistent with the EC prediction: massive halos are usually more spherical. In addition, at z = 0, inner regions of the simulated halos are less spherical than outer regions; that is, the density distribution inside the halos is highly inhomogeneous and therefore not self-similar (concentric ellipsoids with the same axis ratio and orientation). This is also inconsistent with the homogeneous density distribution that is commonly assumed in EC. Since most of previous fitting formulae for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the axis ratio of triaxial ellipsoids have been constructed under the self-similarity assumption, they are not accurate. Indeed, we compute the PDF of the projected axis ratio a1/a2 directly from the simulation data without the self-similarity assumption, and find that it is very sensitive to the assumption. The latter needs to be carefully taken into account in direct comparison with observations, and therefore we provide an empirical fitting formula for the PDF of a1/a2. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the derived PDF of a1/a2 roughly agrees with the current weak-lensing observations. More importantly, the present results will be useful for future exploration of the non

  8. Submillimetre galaxies reside in dark matter haloes with masses greater than 3 × 10(11) solar masses.

    PubMed

    Amblard, Alexandre; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Khostovan, A A; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sánchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2011-02-24

    The extragalactic background light at far-infrared wavelengths comes from optically faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe with star formation rates of a few hundred solar masses per year. These faint, submillimetre galaxies are challenging to study individually because of the relatively poor spatial resolution of far-infrared telescopes. Instead, their average properties can be studied using statistics such as the angular power spectrum of the background intensity variations. A previous attempt at measuring this power spectrum resulted in the suggestion that the clustering amplitude is below the level computed with a simple ansatz based on a halo model. Here we report excess clustering over the linear prediction at arcminute angular scales in the power spectrum of brightness fluctuations at 250, 350 and 500 μm. From this excess, we find that submillimetre galaxies are located in dark matter haloes with a minimum mass, M(min), such that log(10)[M(min)/M(⊙)] = 11.5(+0.7)(-0.2) at 350 μm, where M(⊙) is the solar mass. This minimum dark matter halo mass corresponds to the most efficient mass scale for star formation in the Universe, and is lower than that predicted by semi-analytical models for galaxy formation.

  9. Matter bispectrum of large-scale structure with Gaussian and non-Gaussian initial conditions: Halo models, perturbation theory, and a three-shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazanu, Andrei; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Schmittfull, Marcel; Shellard, E. P. S.

    2017-04-01

    We study the matter bispectrum of large-scale structure by comparing the predictions of different perturbative and phenomenological models with the full three-dimensional bispectrum from N -body simulations estimated using modal methods. We show that among the perturbative approaches, effective field theory succeeds in extending the range of validity furthest on intermediate scales, at the cost of free additional parameters. By studying the halo model, we show that although it is satisfactory in the deeply nonlinear regime, it predicts a deficit of power on intermediate scales, worsening at redshifts z >0 . By comparison with the N -body bispectrum on those scales, we show that there is a significant squeezed component underestimated in the halo model. On the basis of these results, we propose a new "three-shape" model, based on the tree-level, squeezed and constant bispectrum shapes we identified in the halo model; after calibration this fits the simulations on all scales and redshifts of interest. We extend this model further to primordial non-Gaussianity of the local and equilateral types by showing that the same shapes can be used to describe the additional non-Gaussian component in the matter bispectrum. This method provides a halofit-like prototype of the bispectrum that could be used to describe and test parameter dependencies and should be relevant for the bispectrum of weak gravitational lensing and wider applications.

  10. Concentration, spin and shape of dark matter haloes as a function of the cosmological model: WMAP1, WMAP3 and WMAP5 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macciò, Andrea V.; Dutton, Aaron A.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the effects of changes in the cosmological parameters between the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 1st, 3rd and 5th year results on the structure of dark matter haloes. We use a set of simulations that cover five decades in halo mass ranging from the scales of dwarf galaxies (Vc ~ 30 km s-1) to clusters of galaxies (Vc ~ 1000 km s-1). We find that the concentration mass relation is a power law in all three cosmologies. However, the slope is shallower and the zero-point is lower moving from WMAP1 to WMAP5 to WMAP3. For haloes of mass logM200/[h-1Msolar] = 10, 12 and 14 the differences in the concentration parameter between WMAP1 and WMAP3 are a factor of 1.55, 1.41 and 1.29, respectively. As we show, this brings the central densities of dark matter haloes in good agreement with the central densities of dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies inferred from their rotation curves, for both the WMAP3 and WMAP5 cosmologies. We also show that none of the existing toy models for the concentration-mass relation can reproduce our simulation results over the entire range of masses probed. In particular, the model of Bullock et al. fails at the higher mass end (M >~ 1013h-1Msolar), while the NFW model of Navarro, Frenk and White fails dramatically at the low-mass end (M <~ 1012h-1Msolar). We present a new model, based on a simple modification of that of Bullock et al., which reproduces the concentration-mass relations in our simulations over the entire range of masses probed (1010 <~ M <~ 1015h-1Msolar). Haloes in the WMAP3 cosmology (at a fixed mass) are more flatted compared to the WMAP1 cosmology, with a medium to long axis ration reduced by ~10 per cent. Finally, we show that the distribution of halo spin parameters is the same for all three cosmologies.

  11. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  12. How to calculate dark matter direct detection exclusion limits that are consistent with gamma rays from annihilation in the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fornasa, Mattia; Green, Anne M.; Peiró, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    When comparing constraints on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) properties from direct and indirect detection experiments it is crucial that the assumptions made about the dark matter (DM) distribution are realistic and consistent. For instance, if the Fermi-LAT Galactic center GeV gamma-ray excess was due to WIMP annihilation, its morphology would be incompatible with the standard halo model that is usually used to interpret data from direct detection experiments. In this article, we calculate exclusion limits from direct detection experiments using self-consistent velocity distributions, derived from mass models of the Milky Way where the DM halo has a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We use two different methods to make the mass model compatible with a DM interpretation of the Galactic center gamma-ray excess. First, we fix the inner slope of the DM density profile to the value that best fits the morphology of the excess. Second, we allow the inner slope to vary and include the morphology of the excess in the data sets used to constrain the gravitational potential of the Milky Way. The resulting direct detection limits differ significantly from those derived using the standard halo model, in particular for light WIMPs, due to the differences in both the local DM density and velocity distribution.

  13. FORMATION HISTORY OF METAL-POOR HALO STARS WITH THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL AND THE EFFECT OF INTERSTELLAR MATTER ACCRETION ON THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Komiya, Yutaka; Habe, Asao; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate star formation and chemical evolution in the early universe by considering the merging history of the Galaxy in the {Lambda} cold dark matter scenario according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We give some possible constraints from comparisons with observation of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, made available by the recent large-scale surveys and by the follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy. We demonstrate that (1) the hierarchical structure formation can explain the characteristics of the observed metallicity distribution function including a break around [Fe/H] = -4; (2) a high-mass initial mass function (IMF) of peak mass {approx}10 M{sub sun} with the contribution of binaries, derived from the statistics of carbon-enhanced EMP stars, predicts the frequency of low-mass survivors consistent with the number of EMP stars observed for -4 {approx_lt} [Fe/H] {approx_lt} -2.5; (3) the stars formed from primordial gas before the first supernova (SN) explosions in their host mini-halos are assigned to the hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars with [Fe/H] {approx} -5; and (4) there is no indication of significant changes in the IMF and the binary contribution at metallicities -4 {approx_gt} [Fe/H] {approx_gt} -2.5, or even larger, as far as the field stars of the Galactic halo are concerned. We further study the effects of surface pollution through the accretion of interstellar matter (ISM) along the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy for low-mass Population III and EMP survivors. Because of the shallower potential of smaller halos, the accretion of ISM in the mini-halos in which these stars were born dominates the surface metal pollution. This can account for the surface iron abundances as observed for the HMP stars if the cooling and concentration of gas in their birth mini-halos are taken into account. We also study the feedback effect from the very massive Population III stars. The metal pre-pollution by pair-instability SNe is shown to be

  14. GALACTIC WARPS IN TRIAXIAL HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Myoungwon; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Ann, Hong Bae E-mail: sungsoo.kim@khu.ac.kr

    2009-05-10

    We study the behavior of galactic disks in triaxial halos both numerically and analytically to see if warps can be excited and sustained in triaxial potentials. We consider the following two scenarios: (1) galactic disks that are initially tilted relative to the equatorial plane of the halo (for a pedagogical purpose), and (2) tilted infall of dark matter relative to the equatorial plane of the disk and the halo. With numerical simulations of 100,000 disk particles in a fixed halo potential, we find that in triaxial halos, warps can be excited and sustained just as in spherical or axisymmetric halos but they show some oscillatory behavior and even can be transformed to a polar-ring system if the halo has a prolate-like triaxiality. The nonaxisymmetric component of the halo causes the disk to nutate, and the differential nutation between the inner and outer parts of the disk generally makes the magnitude of the warp slightly diminish and fluctuate. We also find that warps are relatively weaker in oblate and oblate-like triaxial halos, and since these halos are the halo configurations of disk galaxies inferred by cosmological simulations, our results are consistent with the fact that most of the observed warps are quite weak. We derive approximate formulae for the torques exerted on the disk by the triaxial halo and the dark matter torus, and with these formulae we successfully describe the behavior of the disks in our simulations. The techniques used in deriving these formulae could be applied for realistic halos with more complex structures.

  15. Weak Lensing with the Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey: Connecting the Mass Profiles of Massive Galaxies with their Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; HSC Survey Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The HSC survey is an ambitious multi-wavelength (g,r,i,z,y) weak-lensing program to map out 1400 square degrees of the sky with the 8.2m Subaru Telescope to a 5 sigma point-source depth of i~26 mag. This is a truly unique combination of deep imaging over a wide area which makes this a well suited data-set for studying the mass profiles and assembly histories of the most rare and massive galaxies in the universe. Furthermore, the lensing capabilities of HSC means that we can tie the luminous properties of massive galaxies to the properties of their dark matter halos. With 240 deg^2 of excellent quality imaging data already in hand, I will show that HSC can simultaneously map the light profiles of massive galaxies out to 100 kpc and characterize the profiles of their host dark matter halos to radii greater than 10 Mpc. By comparing with modern hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation, I will show that the combination of these two measurements provides strong observational constraints on the strength of feedback mechanisms in massive galaxies.

  16. The SL2S galaxy-scale lens sample. V. dark matter halos and stellar IMF of massive early-type galaxies out to redshift 0.8

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2015-02-17

    Here, we investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the universe. We also perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and Sloan ACS Lens Survey and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar initial mass function (IMF) across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. Furthermore, we found that the dark matter mass projected within the inner 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at log M * = 11.5 and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. The anti-correlation between dark matter mass and stellar mass density supports the idea of mergers being more frequent in more massive dark matter halos.

  17. The SL2S galaxy-scale lens sample. V. dark matter halos and stellar IMF of massive early-type galaxies out to redshift 0.8

    DOE PAGES

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.; ...

    2015-02-17

    Here, we investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the universe. We also perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and Sloan ACS Lens Survey and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar initial mass function (IMF) across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. Furthermore, we found that the dark matter mass projected within the innermore » 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at log M * = 11.5 and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. The anti-correlation between dark matter mass and stellar mass density supports the idea of mergers being more frequent in more massive dark matter halos.« less

  18. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. V. DARK MATTER HALOS AND STELLAR IMF OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OUT TO REDSHIFT 0.8

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2015-02-20

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the universe. We perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and Sloan ACS Lens Survey and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar initial mass function (IMF) across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. We find that the dark matter mass projected within the inner 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at log M {sub *} = 11.5 and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. The anti-correlation between dark matter mass and stellar mass density supports the idea of mergers being more frequent in more massive dark matter halos.

  19. The SL2S Galaxy-scale Lens Sample. V. Dark Matter Halos and Stellar IMF of Massive Early-type Galaxies Out to Redshift 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the universe. We perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and Sloan ACS Lens Survey and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar initial mass function (IMF) across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. We find that the dark matter mass projected within the inner 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at log M * = 11.5 and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. The anti-correlation between dark matter mass and stellar mass density supports the idea of mergers being more frequent in more massive dark matter halos.

  20. Fermi 130 GeV gamma-ray excess and dark matter annihilation in sub-haloes and in the Galactic centre

    SciTech Connect

    Tempel, Elmo; Hektor, Andi; Raidal, Martti E-mail: andi.hektor@cern.ch

    2012-09-01

    We analyze publicly available Fermi-LAT high-energy gamma-ray data and confirm the existence of clear spectral feature peaked at E{sub γ} = 130 GeV. Scanning over the Galaxy we identify several disconnected regions where the observed excess originates from. Our best optimized fit is obtained for the central region of Galaxy with a clear peak at 130 GeV with local statistical significance 4.5σ. The observed excess is not correlated with Fermi bubbles. We compute the photon spectra induced by dark matter annihilations into two and four standard model particles, the latter via two light intermediate states, and fit the spectra with data. Since our fits indicate sharper and higher signal peak than in the previous works, data favors dark matter direct two-body annihilation channels into photons or other channels giving only line-like spectra. If Einasto halo profile correctly predicts the central cusp of Galaxy, dark matter annihilation cross-section to two photons is of order ten percent of the standard thermal freeze-out cross-section. The large dark matter two-body annihilation cross-section to photons may signal a new resonance that should be searched for at the CERN LHC experiments.

  1. An Unusual Lunar Halo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

  2. An Unusual Lunar Halo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

  3. Renormalized halo bias

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a systematic study of renormalization in models of halo biasing. Building on work of McDonald, we show that Eulerian biasing is only consistent with renormalization if non-local terms and higher-derivative contributions are included in the biasing model. We explicitly determine the complete list of required bias parameters for Gaussian initial conditions, up to quartic order in the dark matter density contrast and at leading order in derivatives. At quadratic order, this means including the gravitational tidal tensor, while at cubic order the velocity potential appears as an independent degree of freedom. Our study naturally leads to an effective theory of biasing in which the halo density is written as a double expansion in fluctuations and spatial derivatives. We show that the bias expansion can be organized in terms of Galileon operators which aren't renormalized at leading order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss how the renormalized bias parameters impact the statistics of halos.

  4. Origins of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2016-08-01

    This contribution reviews ideas about the origins of stellar halos. It includes discussion of the theoretical understanding of and observational evidence for stellar populations formed ``in situ'' (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), ``kicked-out'' (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and ``accreted'' (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). At this point there is general agreement that a significant fraction of any stellar halo population is likely ``accreted''. There is modest evidence for the presence of a ``kicked-out'' population around both the Milky Way and M31. Our theoretical understanding of and the observational evidence for an ``in situ'' population are less clear.

  5. A model-independent analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray data from the Milky Way dwarf galaxies and halo to constrain dark matter scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Mazziotta, M. N.; Loparco, F.; de Palma, F.; Giglietto, N.

    2012-07-22

    Here, we implemented a novel technique to perform the collective spectral analysis of sets of multiple gamma-ray point sources using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite. The energy spectra of the sources are reconstructed starting from the photon counts and without assuming any spectral model for both the sources and the background. In case of faint sources, upper limits on their fluxes are evaluated with a Bayesian approach. Our analysis technique is very useful when several sources with similar spectral features are studied, such as sources of gamma rays from annihilation of dark matter particles. We also present the results obtained by applying this analysis to a sample of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and to the Milky Way dark matter halo. The analysis of dwarf spheroidal galaxies yields upper limits on the product of the dark matter pair annihilation cross section and the relative velocity of annihilating particles that are well below those predicted by the canonical thermal relic scenario in a mass range from a few GeV to a few tens of GeV for some annihilation channels.

  6. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  7. Status of non-standard neutrino interactions.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2013-04-01

    The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations has been established as the leading mechanism behind neutrino flavor transitions, providing solid experimental evidence that neutrinos are massive and lepton flavors are mixed. Here we review sub-leading effects in neutrino flavor transitions known as non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs), which is currently the most explored description for effects beyond the standard paradigm of neutrino oscillations. In particular, we report on the phenomenology of NSIs and their experimental and phenomenological bounds as well as an outlook for future sensitivity and discovery reach.

  8. Effects of center offset and noise on weak-lensing derived concentration-mass relation of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Wei; Fan, Zuhui

    2014-04-10

    With the halo catalog from the Millennium Simulation, we analyze the weak-lensing measured density profiles for clusters of galaxies, paying attention to the determination of the concentration-mass (c-M) relation, which can be biased by the center offset, selection effect, and shape noise from intrinsic ellipticities of background galaxies. Several different methods of locating the center of a cluster from weak-lensing effects alone are explored. We find that, for intermediate redshift clusters, the highest peak from our newly proposed two-scale smoothing method applied to the reconstructed convergence field, first with a smoothing scale of 2' and then 0.'5, corresponds best to the true center. Assuming the parameterized Navarro-Frenk-White profile, we fit the reduced tangential shear signals around different centers identified by different methods. It is shown that, for the ensemble median values, a center offset larger than one scale radius r{sub s} can bias the derived mass and concentration significantly lower than the true values, especially for low-mass halos. However, the existence of noise can compensate for the offset effect and reduce the systematic bias, although the scatter of mass and concentration becomes considerably larger. Statistically, the bias effect of center offset on the c-M relation is insignificant if an appropriate center finding method is adopted. On the other hand, noise from intrinsic ellipticities can bias the c-M relation derived from a sample of weak-lensing analyzed clusters if a simple χ{sup 2} fitting method is used. To properly account for the scatter and covariance between c and M, we apply a Bayesian method to improve the statistical analysis of the c-M relation. It is shown that this new method allows us to derive the c-M relation with significantly reduced biases.

  9. The surface density of haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.; Lee, Xi-Guo

    We study the correlation between the central surface density and the core radius of the dark matter haloes of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. We find that the surface density within the halo characteristic radius r* is not a universal quantity as claimed by some authors (e.g., Milgrom 2009), but it correlates with several physical quantities (e.g., the halo mass M200, and the magnitude MB). The slope of the surface density-mass relation is 0.18 ± 0.05, leaving small room to the possibility of a constant surface density. Finally, we compare the results with MOND predictions.

  10. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu

    2012-01-01

    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  11. Search for Halo Axions

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, E. J.,; van Bibber, K.

    1998-01-01

    A collaboration of MIT, LLNL, Univ. of Florida, FNAL, UC Berkeley and INR Moscow have built a large-scale RF cavity axion detector. The experiment has been taking production data since February of 1996 and is sensitive enough to detect plausible dark matter axions comprising a reasonable fraction of the mass in our galactic halo. After a brief introduction to axion physics, I discuss details of our instrumentation, our analysis methodology, our run plan and future goals of the experiments.

  12. A model-independent analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray data from the Milky Way dwarf galaxies and halo to constrain dark matter scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Mazziotta, M. N.; Loparco, F.; de Palma, F.; ...

    2012-07-22

    Here, we implemented a novel technique to perform the collective spectral analysis of sets of multiple gamma-ray point sources using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite. The energy spectra of the sources are reconstructed starting from the photon counts and without assuming any spectral model for both the sources and the background. In case of faint sources, upper limits on their fluxes are evaluated with a Bayesian approach. Our analysis technique is very useful when several sources with similar spectral features are studied, such as sources of gamma rays from annihilation of dark mattermore » particles. We also present the results obtained by applying this analysis to a sample of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and to the Milky Way dark matter halo. The analysis of dwarf spheroidal galaxies yields upper limits on the product of the dark matter pair annihilation cross section and the relative velocity of annihilating particles that are well below those predicted by the canonical thermal relic scenario in a mass range from a few GeV to a few tens of GeV for some annihilation channels.« less

  13. Massive Halos in Millennium Gas Simulations: Multivariate Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, R.; Rasia, E.; Evrard, A. E.; Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L.

    2010-06-01

    The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h -1 Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M 200 >= 5 × 1013 h -1 M sun and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and ~10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 1014 h -1 M sun halos at redshift z ~ 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass

  14. Non-Gaussian halo assembly bias

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Beth A.; Verde, Licia; Dolag, Klaus; Matarrese, Sabino; Moscardini, Lauro E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it

    2010-07-01

    The strong dependence of the large-scale dark matter halo bias on the (local) non-Gaussianity parameter, f{sub NL}, offers a promising avenue towards constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with large-scale structure surveys. In this paper, we present the first detection of the dependence of the non-Gaussian halo bias on halo formation history using N-body simulations. We also present an analytic derivation of the expected signal based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism. In excellent agreement with our analytic prediction, we find that the halo formation history-dependent contribution to the non-Gaussian halo bias (which we call non-Gaussian halo assembly bias) can be factorized in a form approximately independent of redshift and halo mass. The correction to the non-Gaussian halo bias due to the halo formation history can be as large as 100%, with a suppression of the signal for recently formed halos and enhancement for old halos. This could in principle be a problem for realistic galaxy surveys if observational selection effects were to pick galaxies occupying only recently formed halos. Current semi-analytic galaxy formation models, for example, imply an enhancement in the expected signal of ∼ 23% and ∼ 48% for galaxies at z = 1 selected by stellar mass and star formation rate, respectively.

  15. FROM GALAXY CLUSTERS TO ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDALS: A FUNDAMENTAL CURVE CONNECTING DISPERSION-SUPPORTED GALAXIES TO THEIR DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Bullock, James S.; Wolf, Joe; Graves, Genevieve J. E-mail: bullock@uci.edu E-mail: graves@astro.berkeley.edu

    2011-01-10

    We examine scaling relations of dispersion-supported galaxies over more than eight orders of magnitude in luminosity by transforming standard fundamental plane parameters into a space of mass, radius, and luminosity. The radius variable r{sub 1/2} is the deprojected (three-dimensional) half-light radius, the mass variable M{sub 1/2} is the total gravitating mass within this radius, and L{sub 1/2} is half the luminosity. We find that from ultra-faint dwarf spheroidals to giant cluster spheroids, dispersion-supported galaxies scatter about a one-dimensional 'fundamental curve' through this MRL space. The mass-radius-luminosity relation transitions from M{sub 1/2} {approx} r{sup 1.44}{sub 1/2} {approx} L{sup 0.30}{sub 1/2} for the faintest dwarf spheroidal galaxies to M{sub 1/2} {approx} r{sup 1.42}{sub 1/2} {approx} L{sup 3.2}{sub 1/2} for the most luminous galaxy cluster spheroids. The weakness of the M{sub 1/2} - L{sub 1/2} slope on the faint end may imply that potential well depth limits galaxy formation in small galaxies, while the stronger dependence on L{sub 1/2} on the bright end suggests that baryonic physics limits galaxy formation in massive galaxies. The mass-radius projection of this curve can be compared to median dark matter halo mass profiles of {Lambda}CDM halos in order to construct a virial mass-luminosity relationship (M{sub vir}-L) for galaxies that spans seven orders of magnitude in M{sub vir}. Independent of any global abundance or clustering information, we find that (spheroidal) galaxy formation needs to be most efficient in halos of M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} and to become inefficient above and below this scale. Moreover, this profile matching technique for deriving the M{sub vir}-L is most accurate at the high- and low-luminosity extremes (where dark matter fractions are highest) and is therefore quite complementary to statistical approaches that rely on having a well-sampled luminosity function. We also consider the

  16. Nuclear Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Erich

    2010-07-27

    We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

  17. Halo Density Reduction by Baryonic Settling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardel, J. R.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2009-02-01

    We test the proposal by El-Zant et al. that the dark matter density of halos could be reduced through dynamical friction acting on heavy baryonic clumps in the early stages of galaxy formation. Using N-body simulations, we confirm that the inner halo density cusp is flattened to 0.2 of the halo break radius by the settling of a single clump of mass gsim0.5% of the halo mass. We also find that an ensemble of 50 clumps, each having masses gsim0.2%, can flatten the cusp to almost the halo break radius on a timescale of ~9 Gyr, for a Navarro-Frenk-White profile halo of concentration 15. We summarize some of the difficulties that need to be overcome if this mechanism is to resolve the apparent conflict between the observed inner densities of galaxy halos and the predictions of ΛCDM.

  18. Non-standard analysis and embedded software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platek, Richard

    1995-01-01

    One model for computing in the future is ubiquitous, embedded computational devices analogous to embedded electrical motors. Many of these computers will control physical objects and processes. Such hidden computerized environments introduce new safety and correctness concerns whose treatment go beyond present Formal Methods. In particular, one has to begin to speak about Real Space software in analogy with Real Time software. By this we mean, computerized systems which have to meet requirements expressed in the real geometry of space. How to translate such requirements into ordinary software specifications and how to carry out proofs is a major challenge. In this talk we propose a research program based on the use of no-standard analysis. Much detail remains to be carried out. The purpose of the talk is to inform the Formal Methods community that Non-Standard Analysis provides a possible avenue to attack which we believe will be fruitful.

  19. Halo model and halo properties in Galileon gravity cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Lombriser, Lucas; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk E-mail: silvia.pascoli@durham.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the performance of semi-analytical modelling of large-scale structure in Galileon gravity cosmologies using results from N-body simulations. We focus on the Cubic and Quartic Galileon models that provide a reasonable fit to CMB, SNIa and BAO data. We demonstrate that the Sheth-Tormen mass function and linear halo bias can be calibrated to provide a very good fit to our simulation results. We also find that the halo concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law. The nonlinear matter power spectrum computed in the halo model approach is found to be inaccurate in the mildly nonlinear regime, but captures reasonably well the effects of the Vainshtein screening mechanism on small scales. In the Cubic model, the screening mechanism hides essentially all of the effects of the fifth force inside haloes. In the case of the Quartic model, the screening mechanism leaves behind residual modifications to gravity, which make the effective gravitational strength time-varying and smaller than the standard value. Compared to normal gravity, this causes a deficiency of massive haloes and leads to a weaker matter clustering on small scales. For both models, we show that there are realistic halo occupation distributions of Luminous Red Galaxies that can match both the observed large-scale clustering amplitude and the number density of these galaxies.

  20. Reionization histories of Milky Way mass halos

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Abel, Tom; Alvarez, Marcelo A. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu E-mail: malvarez@cita.utoronto.ca

    2014-04-20

    We investigate the connection between the reionization era and the present-day universe by examining the mass reionization histories of z = 0 dark matter halos. In a 600{sup 3} Mpc{sup 3} volume, we combine a dark matter N-body simulation with a three-dimensional seminumerical reionization model. This tags each particle with a reionization redshift, so that individual present-day halos can be connected to their reionization histories and environments. We find that the vast majority of present-day halos with masses larger than ∼ few × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} reionize earlier than the rest of the universe. We also find significant halo-to-halo diversity in mass reionization histories, and find that in realistic inhomogeneous models, the material within a given halo is not expected to reionize at the same time. In particular, the scatter in reionization times within individual halos is typically larger than the scatter among halos. From our fiducial reionization model, we find that the typical 68% scatter in reionization times within halos is ∼115 Myr for 10{sup 12±0.25} M {sub ☉} halos, decreasing slightly to ∼95 Myr for 10{sup 15±0.25} M {sub ☉} halos. We find a mild correlation between reionization history and environment: halos with shorter reionization histories are typically in more clustered environments, with the strongest trend on a scale of ∼20 Mpc. Material in Milky Way mass halos with short reionization histories is preferentially reionized in relatively large H II regions, implying reionization mostly by sources external to the progenitors of the present-day halo. We investigate the impact on our results of varying the reionization model parameters, which span a range of reionization scenarios with varying timing and morphology.

  1. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We describe the current status of HaloSat.

  2. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ``smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  3. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  4. Haloes gone MAD: The Halo-Finder Comparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebe, Alexander; Knollmann, Steffen R.; Muldrew, Stuart I.; Pearce, Frazer R.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel Angel; Ascasibar, Yago; Behroozi, Peter S.; Ceverino, Daniel; Colombi, Stephane; Diemand, Juerg; Dolag, Klaus; Falck, Bridget L.; Fasel, Patricia; Gardner, Jeff; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Iannuzzi, Francesca; Klypin, Anatoly; Lukić, Zarija; Maciejewski, Michal; McBride, Cameron; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Planelles, Susana; Potter, Doug; Quilis, Vicent; Rasera, Yann; Read, Justin I.; Ricker, Paul M.; Roy, Fabrice; Springel, Volker; Stadel, Joachim; Stinson, Greg; Sutter, P. M.; Turchaninov, Victor; Tweed, Dylan; Yepes, Gustavo; Zemp, Marcel

    2011-08-01

    We present a detailed comparison of fundamental dark matter halo properties retrieved by a substantial number of different halo finders. These codes span a wide range of techniques including friends-of-friends, spherical-overdensity and phase-space-based algorithms. We further introduce a robust (and publicly available) suite of test scenarios that allow halo finder developers to compare the performance of their codes against those presented here. This set includes mock haloes containing various levels and distributions of substructure at a range of resolutions as well as a cosmological simulation of the large-scale structure of the universe. All the halo-finding codes tested could successfully recover the spatial location of our mock haloes. They further returned lists of particles (potentially) belonging to the object that led to coinciding values for the maximum of the circular velocity profile and the radius where it is reached. All the finders based in configuration space struggled to recover substructure that was located close to the centre of the host halo, and the radial dependence of the mass recovered varies from finder to finder. Those finders based in phase space could resolve central substructure although they found difficulties in accurately recovering its properties. Through a resolution study we found that most of the finders could not reliably recover substructure containing fewer than 30-40 particles. However, also here the phase-space finders excelled by resolving substructure down to 10-20 particles. By comparing the halo finders using a high-resolution cosmological volume, we found that they agree remarkably well on fundamental properties of astrophysical significance (e.g. mass, position, velocity and peak of the rotation curve). We further suggest to utilize the peak of the rotation curve, vmax, as a proxy for mass, given the arbitrariness in defining a proper halo edge. Airport code for Madrid, Spain

  5. Non-standard neutrino interactions at DUNE

    DOE PAGES

    de Gouvea, Andre; Kelly, Kevin J.

    2016-03-15

    Here, we explore the effects of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) and how they modify neutrino propagation in the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). We find that NSI can significantly modify the data to be collected by the DUNE experiment as long as the new physics parameters are large enough. For example, if the DUNE data are consistent with the standard three-massive-neutrinos paradigm, order 0.1 (in units of the Fermi constant) NSI effects will be ruled out. On the other hand, if large NSI effects are present, DUNE will be able to not only rule out the standard paradigm but alsomore » measure the new physics parameters, sometimes with good precision. We find that, in some cases, DUNE is sensitive to new sources of CP-invariance violation. We also explored whether DUNE data can be used to distinguish different types of new physics beyond nonzero neutrino masses. In more detail, we asked whether NSI can be mimicked, as far as the DUNE setup is concerned, by the hypothesis that there is a new light neutrino state.« less

  6. The Influence of Dark Matter Halos on Dynamical Estimates of Black Hole Mass: 10 New Measurements for High-σ Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, S. P.; Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Fabricius, M.; Erwin, P.; Bender, R.; Nowak, N.; Lee, C. H.; Riffeser, A.; Sharp, R.

    2013-09-01

    Adaptive optics assisted SINFONI observations of the central regions of 10 early-type galaxies are presented. Based primarily on the SINFONI kinematics, 10 black hole (BH) masses occupying the high-mass regime of the M BH-σ relation are derived using three-integral Schwarzschild models. The effect of dark matter (DM) inclusion on the BH mass is explored. The omission of a DM halo in the model results in a higher stellar mass-to-light ratio, especially when extensive kinematic data are used in the model. However, when the diameter of the sphere of influence—computed using the BH mass derived without a dark halo—is at least 10 times the point-spread function FWHM during the observations, it is safe to exclude a DM component in the dynamical modeling, i.e., the change in BH mass is negligible. When the spatial resolution is marginal, restricting the mass-to-light ratio to the right value returns the correct M BH although a dark halo is not present in the model. Compared to the M BH-σ and M BH-L relations of McConnell et al., the 10 BHs are all more massive than expected from the luminosities and 7 BH masses are higher than expected from the stellar velocity dispersions of the host bulges. Using new fitted relations, which include the 10 galaxies, we find that the space density of the most massive BHs (M BH >~ 109 M ⊙) estimated from the M BH-L relation is higher than the estimate based on the M BH-σ relation and the latter is higher than model predictions based on quasar counts, each by about an order of magnitude. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (082.B-0037(A), 083.B-0126(A), 082.B-0037(B), and 086.B-0085(A)). This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  7. Halo-independent tests of dark matter direct detection signals: local DM density, LHC, and thermal freeze-out

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan E-mail: juhg@kth.se E-mail: stefan.vogl@fysik.su.se

    2015-08-01

    From an assumed signal in a Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiment a lower bound on the product of the DM-nucleon scattering cross section and the local DM density is derived, which is independent of the local DM velocity distribution. This can be combined with astrophysical determinations of the local DM density. Within a given particle physics model the bound also allows a robust comparison of a direct detection signal with limits from the LHC. Furthermore, the bound can be used to formulate a condition which has to be fulfilled if the particle responsible for the direct detection signal is a thermal relic, regardless of whether it constitutes all DM or only part of it. We illustrate the arguments by adopting a simplified DM model with a Z' mediator and assuming a signal in a future xenon direct detection experiment.

  8. Halo-independent tests of dark matter direct detection signals: local DM density, LHC, and thermal freeze-out

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2015-08-19

    From an assumed signal in a Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiment a lower bound on the product of the DM-nucleon scattering cross section and the local DM density is derived, which is independent of the local DM velocity distribution. This can be combined with astrophysical determinations of the local DM density. Within a given particle physics model the bound also allows a robust comparison of a direct detection signal with limits from the LHC. Furthermore, the bound can be used to formulate a condition which has to be fulfilled if the particle responsible for the direct detection signal is a thermal relic, regardless of whether it constitutes all DM or only part of it. We illustrate the arguments by adopting a simplified DM model with a Z{sup ′} mediator and assuming a signal in a future xenon direct detection experiment.

  9. On the first crossing distributions in fractional Brownian motion and the mass function of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiotelis, Nicos; Del Popolo, Antonino

    2017-03-01

    We construct an integral equation for the first crossing distributions for fractional Brownian motion in the case of a constant barrier and we present an exact analytical solution. Additionally we present first crossing distributions derived by simulating paths from fractional Brownian motion. We compare the results of the analytical solutions with both those of simulations and those of some approximated solutions which have been used in the literature. Finally, we present multiplicity functions for dark matter structures resulting from our analytical approach and we compare with those resulting from N-body simulations. We show that the results of analytical solutions are in good agreement with those of path simulations but differ significantly from those derived from approximated solutions. Additionally, multiplicity functions derived from fractional Brownian motion are poor fits of the those which result from N-body simulations. We also present comparisons with other models which are exist in the literature and we discuss different ways of improving the agreement between analytical results and N-body simulations.

  10. Search for a Dark Matter Annihilation Signal from the Galactic Center Halo with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schönwald, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2011-04-01

    A search for a very-high-energy (VHE; ≥100GeV) γ-ray signal from self-annihilating particle dark matter (DM) is performed towards a region of projected distance r˜45-150pc from the Galactic center. The background-subtracted γ-ray spectrum measured with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) γ-ray instrument in the energy range between 300 GeV and 30 TeV shows no hint of a residual γ-ray flux. Assuming conventional Navarro-Frenk-White and Einasto density profiles, limits are derived on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section ⟨σv⟩ as a function of the DM particle mass. These are among the best reported so far for this energy range and in particular differ only little between the chosen density profile parametrizations. In particular, for the DM particle mass of ˜1TeV, values for ⟨σv⟩ above 3×10-25cm3s-1 are excluded for the Einasto density profile.

  11. Search for a dark matter annihilation signal from the galactic center halo with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abramowski, A; Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barnacka, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Conrad, J; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füssling, M; Gallant, Y A; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hague, J D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Keogh, D; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C-C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; Maxted, N; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Ryde, F; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schönwald, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Wierzcholska, A; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H-S

    2011-04-22

    A search for a very-high-energy (VHE; ≥100  GeV) γ-ray signal from self-annihilating particle dark matter (DM) is performed towards a region of projected distance r∼45-150  pc from the Galactic center. The background-subtracted γ-ray spectrum measured with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) γ-ray instrument in the energy range between 300 GeV and 30 TeV shows no hint of a residual γ-ray flux. Assuming conventional Navarro-Frenk-White and Einasto density profiles, limits are derived on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section (σv) as a function of the DM particle mass. These are among the best reported so far for this energy range and in particular differ only little between the chosen density profile parametrizations. In particular, for the DM particle mass of ∼1  TeV, values for (σv) above 3×10(-25)  cm(3) s(-1) are excluded for the Einasto density profile.

  12. THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-03-20

    A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M{sub 200{rho}-bar} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.

  13. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    SciTech Connect

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  14. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations towards the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, H; Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J-P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J-P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Leser, E; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Lui, R; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Öttl, S; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spieß, F; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-09-09

    The inner region of the Milky Way halo harbors a large amount of dark matter (DM). Given its proximity, it is one of the most promising targets to look for DM. We report on a search for the annihilations of DM particles using γ-ray observations towards the inner 300 pc of the Milky Way, with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. The analysis is based on a 2D maximum likelihood method using Galactic Center (GC) data accumulated by H.E.S.S. over the last 10 years (2004-2014), and does not show any significant γ-ray signal above background. Assuming Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White DM density profiles at the GC, we derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section ⟨σv⟩. These constraints are the strongest obtained so far in the TeV DM mass range and improve upon previous limits by a factor 5. For the Einasto profile, the constraints reach ⟨σv⟩ values of 6×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1} in the W^{+}W^{-} channel for a DM particle mass of 1.5 TeV, and 2×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1} in the τ^{+}τ^{-} channel for a 1 TeV mass. For the first time, ground-based γ-ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to probe ⟨σv⟩ values expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles.

  15. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations towards the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Lui, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Öttl, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The inner region of the Milky Way halo harbors a large amount of dark matter (DM). Given its proximity, it is one of the most promising targets to look for DM. We report on a search for the annihilations of DM particles using γ -ray observations towards the inner 300 pc of the Milky Way, with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. The analysis is based on a 2D maximum likelihood method using Galactic Center (GC) data accumulated by H.E.S.S. over the last 10 years (2004-2014), and does not show any significant γ -ray signal above background. Assuming Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White DM density profiles at the GC, we derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section ⟨σ v ⟩. These constraints are the strongest obtained so far in the TeV DM mass range and improve upon previous limits by a factor 5. For the Einasto profile, the constraints reach ⟨σ v ⟩ values of 6 ×10-26 cm3 s-1 in the W+W- channel for a DM particle mass of 1.5 TeV, and 2 ×10-26 cm3 s-1 in the τ+τ- channel for a 1 TeV mass. For the first time, ground-based γ -ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to probe ⟨σ v ⟩ values expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles.

  16. The Spatial Clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. More Massive Black Holes Reside in More Massive Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumpe, Mirko; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Husemann, Bernd; Fanidakis, Nikos; Coil, Alison L.; Aceves, Hector

    2015-12-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this paper we investigate the cause of the X-ray luminosity dependence of the clustering of broad-line, luminous AGNs at 0.16\\lt z\\lt 0.36. We fit the Hα line profile in the SDSS spectra for all X-ray and optically selected broad-line AGNs, determine the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH), {M}{BH}, and infer the accretion rate relative to Eddington (L/{L}{EDD}). Since {M}{BH} and L/{L}{EDD} are correlated, we create AGN subsamples in one parameter while maintaining the same distribution in the other parameter. In both the X-ray and optically selected AGN samples, we detect a weak clustering dependence with {M}{BH} and no statistically significant dependence on L/{L}{EDD}. We find a difference of up to 2.7σ when comparing the objects that belong to the 30% least and 30% most massive {M}{BH} subsamples, in that luminous broad-line AGNs with more massive black holes reside in more massive parent dark matter halos at these redshifts. These results provide evidence that higher accretion rates in AGNs do not necessarily require dense galaxy environments, in which more galaxy mergers and interactions are expected to channel large amounts of gas onto the SMBH. We also present semianalytic models that predict a positive {M}{DMH} dependence on {M}{BH}, which is most prominent at {M}{BH}˜ {10}8-9 {M}⊙ .

  17. Halo Mergers in Phase-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. E.

    I consider a very simple model for the evolution of the real space and phase-space density profiles of a dark matter halo as it acquires its mass. I show that this model, which assumes slow growth through gradual accretion, predicts structures much more concentrated than those found in self-consistent simulations of halo formation. By implication, major mergers must act to reduce the concentration of dark matter haloes, adding the orbital energy of the infalling satellite to the internal energy of the pre-existing system and causing it to expand at intermediate radii. This effect should be easy to detect in numerical simulations.

  18. Anisotropic halo model: implementation and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgró, Mario A.; Paz, Dante J.; Merchán, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    In the present work, we extend the classic halo model for the large-scale matter distribution including a triaxial model for the halo profiles and their alignments. In particular, we derive general expressions for the halo-matter cross-correlation function. In addition, by numerical integration, we obtain instances of the cross-correlation function depending on the directions given by halo shape axes. These functions are called anisotropic cross-correlations. With the aim of comparing our theoretical results with the simulations, we compute averaged anisotropic correlations in cones with their symmetry axis along each shape direction of the centre halo. From these comparisons we characterize and quantify the alignment of dark matter haloes on the Λcold dark matter context by means of the presented anisotropic halo model. Since our model requires multidimensional integral computation we implement a Monte Carlo method on GPU hardware which allows us to increase the precision of the results and it improves the performance of the computation.

  19. Lepton flavor violating non-standard interactions via light mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Yasaman; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-07-01

    Non-Standard neutral current Interactions (NSIs) of neutrinos with matter can alter the pattern of neutrino oscillation due to the coherent forward scattering of neutrinos on the medium. This effect makes long-baseline neutrino experiments such as NO νA and DUNE a sensitive probe of beyond standard model (BSM) physics. We construct light mediator models that can give rise to both lepton flavor conserving as well as Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) neutral current NSI. We outline the present phenomenological viability of these models and future prospects to test them. We predict a lower bound on Br( H → μτ ) in terms of the parameters that can be measured by DUNE and NO νA, and show that the hint for H → μτ in current LHC data can be accommodated in our model. A large part of the parameter space of the model is already constrained by the bound on Br( τ → Z ' μ) and by the bounds on rare meson decays and can be in principle fully tested by improving these bounds.

  20. Search for Non-standard Interactions with the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Isvan, Zeynep

    2011-10-01

    MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos between two detectors, over a baseline of 735 km. We recently reported the most precise measurement of neutrino oscillations in the atmospheric sector and the first tagged measurement of antineutrino oscillations. The neutrino mass splitting and mixing angle are measured to be |{Delta}m{sup 2}| = 2.32{sub -0.08}{sup +0.12} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 (90% C.L.) for an exposure of 7.25 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target (PoT). Antineutrino oscillation parameters are measured as {Delta}{bar m}{sup 2} = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat.) {+-} 0.06(syst.)) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{bar {theta}}) = 0.86{sub -0.12}{sup +0.11}(stat.) {+-} 0.01(syst.) with an exposure of 1.7 x 10{sup 20} PoT in NuMI antineutrino running mode. We use the apparent difference in neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters to constrain non-standard matter interactions which could occur during propagation through the Earth's crust to the Far Detector.

  1. Borromean halo, Tango halo, and halo isomers in atomic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izosimov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Structure of the ground and excited states in halo-like nuclei is discussed. Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei.Structure of the halo may be different for the different levels and resonances in atomic nuclei. Isobar analog, double isobar analog, configuration, and double configuration states can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. When the halo structure of the excited state differs from that of the ground state, or the ground state has non-halo structure, the γ-transition from the excited state to the ground state can be essentially hindered, i.e. the formation of a specific type of isomers (halo isomers) becomes possible. B(Mγ) and B(Eγ) values for γ-transitions in 6,7,8Li, 8,9,10Be, 8,10,11B, 10,11,12,13,14C, 13,14,15,16,17N, 15,16,17,19O, and 17F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei which ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state (halo isomer) may have one.

  2. The Halo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-23

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft looks towards the dark side of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, capturing the blue halo caused by a haze layer that hovers high in the moon's atmosphere. The haze that permeates Titan's atmosphere scatters sunlight and produces the orange color seen here. More on Titan's orange and blue hazes can be found at PIA14913. This view looks towards the side of Titan (3,200 miles or 5,150 kilometers across) that leads in its orbit around Saturn. North on Titan is up and rotated 40 degrees to the left. Images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters were combined to create this natural-color view. The images were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Nov. 3, 2013. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 2.421 million miles (3.896 million kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is 14 miles (23 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA17180

  3. CARS: the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey. II. Weighing dark matter halos of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Pielorz, J.; Erben, T.; van Waerbeke, L.; Simon, P.; Capak, P.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: We measure the clustering properties for a large samples of u- (z˜3), g- (z˜4), and r- (z˜5) dropouts from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Deep fields. Methods: Photometric redshift distributions along with simulations allow us to de-project the angular correlation measurements and estimate physical quantities such as the correlation length, halo mass, galaxy bias, and halo occupation as a function of UV luminosity. Results: For the first time we detect a significant one-halo term in the correlation function at z˜5. The comoving correlation lengths and halo masses of LBGs are found to decrease with decreasing rest-frame UV-luminosity. No significant redshift evolution is found in either quantity. The typical halo mass hosting an LBG is M⪆1012~h-1~M_⊙ and the halos are typically occupied by less than one galaxy. Clustering segregation with UV luminosity is clearly observed in the dropout samples, however redshift evolution cannot clearly be disentangled from systematic uncertainties introduced by the redshift distributions. We study a range of possible redshift distributions to illustrate the effect of this choice. Spectroscopy of representative subsamples is required to make high-accuracy absolute measurements of high-z halo masses. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on zCOSMOS and VVDS observations carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory under Programme IDs: LP175.A

  4. Filling in the gaps with non-standard body fluids.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sheng-Ying; Saifee, Nabiha H; Mason, Brook O; Greene, Dina N

    2016-08-01

    Body fluid specimens other than serum, plasma or urine are generally not validated by manufacturers, but analysis of these non-standard fluids can be important for clinical diagnosis and management. Laboratories, therefore, rely on the published literature to better understand the validation and implementation of such tests. This study utilized a data-driven approach to determine the clinical reportable range for 11 analytes, evaluated a total bilirubin assay, and assessed interferences from hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia in non-standard fluids. Historical measurements in non-standard body fluids run on a Beckman Coulter DxC800 were used to optimize population-specific clinical reportable ranges for albumin, amylase, creatinine, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, lipase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, total protein, triglyceride and urea nitrogen run on the Beckman Coulter AU680. For these 11 analytes, interference studies were performed by spiking hemolysate, bilirubin, or Intralipid® into abnormal serous fluids. Precision, accuracy, linearity, and stability of total bilirubin in non-standard fluids was evaluated on the Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer. The historical non-standard fluid results indicated that in order to report a numeric result, 4 assays required no dilution, 5 assays required onboard dilutions and 2 assays required both onboard and manual dilutions. The AU680 total bilirubin assay is suitable for clinical testing of non-standard fluids. Interference studies revealed that of the 11 total AU680 analyte measurements on non-standard fluids, lipemia affected 1, icterus affected 3, and hemolysis affected 5. Chemistry analytes measured on the AU680 demonstrate acceptable analytical performance for non-standard fluids. Common endogenous interference from lipemia, icterus, and hemolysis (LIH) are observed and flagging rules based on LIH indices were developed to help improve the clinical interpretation of results.

  5. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos.

  6. The Dual Origin Of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, Adi

    In the dominant Lambda+Cold Dark Matter cosmological paradigm, galaxy stellar halos are thought to form hierarchically from multiple accretion events, starting from the first structures to collapse in the Universe. This dissertation aims to make the first detailed theoretical predictions for the origin of galactic stellar halos. We focus on understanding the physical processes involved in halo formation using high-resolution, N-body + Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of disk galaxies in a cosmological context. These self-consistent simulations are used to study the competing importance of dissipative processes and dissipationless mergers in the formation of stellar halos. The relative contribution of each mechanism, and its specific role in assembling the inner and outer regions of halos is explored, as a function of galaxy mass and merging history. We show that the presence of both accreted and in situ stars in halos is a generic feature of galaxy formation. For L* galaxies, the relative contribution of each stellar population to a halo is shown to be a function of a galaxy's accretion history. Galaxies with recent mergers, like M31, will host relatively few in situ stars, while galaxies with more quiescent recent histories, like the Milky Way, will likely have a larger relative contribution from an in situ population. We show that in situ halo stars are more [alpha/Fe]-rich than accreted stars at the high [Fe/H] end of a halo's metallicity distribution function. In lower mass galaxies, M ˜ 1010 M, in situ stars dominate the stellarmass of halos. In these galaxies, in situ halo stars are, on average, younger and more metal-rich than accreted halo stars. Because in situ stars are dominant, these trends result in halos that are more metal-rich than simple accretion models predict. The halos of low mass galaxies do not extend out to the virial radii of the primary, as they do in more massive galaxies. We find that the ratio of luminous-halo mass to total

  7. The Splashback Radius as a Physical Halo Boundary and the Growth of Halo Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Surhud; Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2015-09-01

    The boundaries of cold dark matter halos are commonly defined to enclose a density contrast Δ relative to a reference (mean or critical) density. We argue that a more physical halo boundary choice is the radius at which accreted matter reaches its first orbital apocenter after turnaround. This splashback radius, {R}{sp}, manifests itself as a sharp density drop in the halo outskirts, at a location that depends upon the mass accretion rate. We present calibrations of {R}{sp} and the enclosed mass, {M}{sp}, as a function of mass accretion rate and peak height. We find that {R}{sp} is in the range ≈ 0.8-1{R}200{{m}} for rapidly accreting halos and is ≈ 1.5{R}200{{m}} for slowly accreting halos. Thus, halos and their environmental effects can extend well beyond the conventionally defined “virial” radius. We show that {M}{sp} and {R}{sp} evolve relatively strongly compared to other commonly used definitions. In particular, {M}{sp} evolves significantly even for the smallest dwarf-sized halos at z = 0. We also contrast {M}{sp} with the mass enclosed within four scale radii of the halo density profile, {M}\\lt 4{r{{s}}}, which characterizes the inner halo. During the early stages of halo assembly, {M}{sp} and {M}\\lt 4{r{{s}}} evolve similarly, but in the late stages {M}\\lt 4{r{{s}}} stops increasing while {M}{sp} continues to grow significantly. This illustrates that halos at low z can have “quiet” interiors while continuing to accrete mass in their outskirts. We discuss potential observational estimates of the splashback radius and show that it may already have been detected in galaxy clusters.

  8. Can MACHOs probe the shape of the galaxy halo ?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua; Scoccimarro, Roman

    1994-01-01

    Microlensing searches in our galaxy have recently discovered several candidates in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We study the prospects for such searches to yield useful information about the flattening of the Galaxy dark matter halo, using a self-consistent oblate halo model and allowing for the possibility of misalignment between the disk and halo symmetry axes. The microlensing optical depth for the LMC, tau(LMC), depends sensitively on the disk-halo tilt angle in the Milky Way, as does the ratio tau(SMC)/tau(LMC). If the tilt angle is as large as 30 deg, a much larger spread in values for tau(LMC) is consistent with rotation curve constraints than previously thought. Disk-halo tilt and halo flattening do not significantly affect the massive compact halo object (MACHO) masses inferred from event durations.

  9. The global dark halo structure of the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We set new limits on the global shape of the dark halo in the Andromeda galaxy based on axisymmetric mass models constructed by Hayashi & Chiba (2012). This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Based on the application of our models to latest kinematical data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield not a spherical but a prolate shape for its dark halo. We also find that the prolate dark halo is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their galactic host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web.

  10. Orbital anisotropy in cosmological haloes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Gottlöber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly

    2013-09-01

    The velocity anisotropy of particles inside dark matter (DM) haloes is an important physical quantity, which is required for the accurate modelling of mass profiles of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It is typically measured using the ratio of the radial to tangential velocity dispersions at a given distance from the halo centre. However, this measure is insufficient to describe the dynamics of realistic haloes, which are not spherical and are typically quite elongated. Studying the velocity distribution in massive DM haloes in cosmological simulations, we find that in the inner parts of the haloes, the local velocity ellipsoids are strongly aligned with the major axis of the halo, the alignment being stronger for more relaxed haloes. In the outer regions of the haloes, the alignment becomes gradually weaker and the orientation is more random. These two distinct regions of different degree of the alignment coincide with two characteristic regimes of the DM density profile: a shallow inner cusp and a steep outer profile that are separated by a characteristic radius at which the density declines as ρ ∝ r-2. This alignment of the local velocity ellipsoids requires reinterpretation of features found in measurements based on the spherically averaged ratio of the radial to tangential velocity dispersions. In particular, we show that the velocity distribution in the central halo regions is highly anisotropic. For cluster-size haloes with mass 1014-1015 h-1 M⊙, the velocity anisotropy along the major axis is nearly independent of radius and is equal to β = 1 - σ ^2_perp/σ ^2_radial≈ 0.4, which is significantly larger than the previously estimated spherically averaged velocity anisotropy. The alignment of density and velocity anisotropies and the radial trends may also have some implications for the mass modelling based on kinematical data of objects such as galaxy clusters or dwarf spheroidals, where the orbital anisotropy is a key element in an unbiased mass

  11. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  12. Halo CME

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    A giant cloud appears to expand outward from the sun in all directions in this image from Sept. 28, 2012, which is called a halo CME. This kind of image occurs when a CME moves toward Earth – as here – or directly away from it. Credit: ESA/NASA/SOHO CME WEEK: What To See in CME Images Two main types of explosions occur on the sun: solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Unlike the energy and x-rays produced in a solar flare – which can reach Earth at the speed of light in eight minutes – coronal mass ejections are giant, expanding clouds of solar material that take one to three days to reach Earth. Once at Earth, these ejections, also called CMEs, can impact satellites in space or interfere with radio communications. During CME WEEK from Sept. 22 to 26, 2014, we explore different aspects of these giant eruptions that surge out from the star we live with. When a coronal mass ejection blasts off the sun, scientists rely on instruments called coronagraphs to track their progress. Coronagraphs block out the bright light of the sun, so that the much fainter material in the solar atmosphere -- including CMEs -- can be seen in the surrounding space. CMEs appear in these images as expanding shells of material from the sun's atmosphere -- sometimes a core of colder, solar material (called a filament) from near the sun's surface moves in the center. But mapping out such three-dimensional components from a two-dimensional image isn't easy. Watch the slideshow to find out how scientists interpret what they see in CME pictures. The images in the slideshow are from the three sets of coronagraphs NASA currently has in space. One is on the joint European Space Agency and NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, or SOHO. SOHO launched in 1995, and sits between Earth and the sun about a million miles away from Earth. The other two coronagraphs are on the two spacecraft of the NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, mission, which launched in 2006. The two

  13. Farside Halo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    There's no way to tell from this SOHO image whether the halo CME on March 5, 2013, originated from the front or far of the sun. But the STEREO spacecraft were watching the sun from the sides and showed it was from the far side. The bright planet is Venus. Credit: NASA/SOHO CME WEEK: What To See in CME Images Two main types of explosions occur on the sun: solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Unlike the energy and x-rays produced in a solar flare – which can reach Earth at the speed of light in eight minutes – coronal mass ejections are giant, expanding clouds of solar material that take one to three days to reach Earth. Once at Earth, these ejections, also called CMEs, can impact satellites in space or interfere with radio communications. During CME WEEK from Sept. 22 to 26, 2014, we explore different aspects of these giant eruptions that surge out from the star we live with. When a coronal mass ejection blasts off the sun, scientists rely on instruments called coronagraphs to track their progress. Coronagraphs block out the bright light of the sun, so that the much fainter material in the solar atmosphere -- including CMEs -- can be seen in the surrounding space. CMEs appear in these images as expanding shells of material from the sun's atmosphere -- sometimes a core of colder, solar material (called a filament) from near the sun's surface moves in the center. But mapping out such three-dimensional components from a two-dimensional image isn't easy. Watch the slideshow to find out how scientists interpret what they see in CME pictures. The images in the slideshow are from the three sets of coronagraphs NASA currently has in space. One is on the joint European Space Agency and NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, or SOHO. SOHO launched in 1995, and sits between Earth and the sun about a million miles away from Earth. The other two coronagraphs are on the two spacecraft of the NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, mission, which

  14. ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Bullock, James S.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Diemand, Juerg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2013-05-20

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with {approx}70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by {lambda} {approx} 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.

  15. The dark halo of the milky Way

    PubMed

    Alcock

    2000-01-07

    Most of the matter in the Milky Way is invisible to astronomers. Precise numbers are elusive, but it appears that the dark component is 20 times as massive as the visible disk of stars and gas. This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars. The composition of this dark halo is unknown, but it may comprise a mixture of ancient, degenerate dwarf stars and exotic, hypothetical elementary particles.

  16. The velocity shear tensor: tracer of halo alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Forero-Romero, Jaime; Gottlöber, Stefan; Knebe, Alexander; Steinmetz, Matthias; Klypin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The alignment of dark matter (DM) haloes and the surrounding large-scale structure (LSS) is examined in the context of the cosmic web. Halo spin, shape and the orbital angular momentum of subhaloes are investigated relative to the LSS using the eigenvectors of the velocity shear tensor evaluated on a grid with a scale of 1 Mpc h-1, deep within the non-linear regime. Knots, filaments, sheets and voids are associated with regions that are collapsing along 3, 2, 1 or 0 principal directions simultaneously. Each halo is tagged with a web classification (i.e. knot halo, filament halo, etc.) according to the nature of the collapse at the halo position. The full distribution of shear eigenvalues is found to be substantially different from that tagged to haloes, indicating that the observed velocity shear is significantly biased. We find that larger mass haloes live in regions where the shear is more isotropic, namely the expansion or collapse is more spherical. A correlation is found between the halo shape and the eigenvectors of the shear tensor, with the longest (shortest) axis of the halo shape being aligned with the slowest (fastest) collapsing eigenvector. This correlation is web independent, suggesting that the velocity shear is a fundamental tracer of the halo alignment. A similar result is found for the alignment of halo spin with the cosmic web. It has been shown that high-mass haloes exhibit a spin flip with respect to the LSS: we find that the mass at which this spin flip occurs is web dependent and not universal as suggested previously. Although weaker than haloes, subhalo orbits too exhibit an alignment with the LSS, providing a possible insight into the highly correlated corotation of the Milky Way's satellite system. The present study suggests that the velocity shear tensor constitutes the natural framework for studying the directional properties of the non-linear LSS and those of haloes and galaxies.

  17. Halo formation and evolution: unification of structure and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Allan D.; Collins, Matthew P.

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a wide variety of halo structures, often with enigmatic consequences. Giant spiral galaxies, for example, contain both dark matter and hot gas, while dwarf spheroidal galaxies, with weaker gravity, contain much larger fractions of dark matter, but little gas. Globular clusters, superficially resembling these dwarf spheroidals, have little or no dark matter. Halo temperatures are also puzzling: hot cluster halos contain cooler galaxy halos; dwarf galaxies have no hot gas at all despite their similar internal processes. Another mystery is the origin of the gas that galaxies require to maintain their measured star formation rates (SFRs). We outline how gravitational quantum theory solves these problems, and enables baryons to function as weakly-interacting-massive-particles (WIMPs) in Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. Significantly, these dark-baryon ensembles may also be consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies.

  18. Large Halos of Missing Baryons Around Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, Joel

    2009-10-01

    If galaxies had the cosmological baryon-to-dark matter ratio, they would have 3-30 times their observed baryon mass. These missing baryons are undetected, but some fraction may surround a galaxy with a hot diffuse halo extending to R_virial (250 kpc). A loosely bound gaseous halo could be stripped in a cluster or group environment, but should be relatively undisturbed around isolated late-type spirals. Existing observations of spirals are mainly of nearby systems, where only the inner parts fit in a field of view so a halo on the scale of R_virial would pass unnoticed. To detect or place limits on a large halo of missing baryons, we propose to observe isolated L* spirals sufficiently distant that we can detect emission to at least R_virial.

  19. Halo mass distribution reconstruction across the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cheng; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Tao, Charling

    2015-08-01

    We study the relation between halo mass and its environment from a probabilistic perspective. We find that halo mass depends not only on local dark matter density, but also on non-local quantities such as the cosmic web environment and the halo-exclusion effect. Given these accurate relations, we have developed the HADRON-code (Halo mAss Distribution ReconstructiON), a technique which permits us to assign halo masses to a distribution of haloes in three-dimensional space. This can be applied to the fast production of mock galaxy catalogues, by assigning halo masses, and reproducing accurately the bias for different mass cuts. The resulting clustering of the halo populations agree well with that drawn from the BigMultiDark N-body simulation: the power spectra are within 1σ up to scales of k = 0.2 h Mpc-1, when using augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory based mock catalogues. Only the most massive haloes show a larger deviation. For these, we find evidence of the halo-exclusion effect. A clear improvement is achieved when assigning the highest masses to haloes with a minimum distance separation. We also compute the two- and three-point correlation functions, and find an excellent agreement with N-body results. Our work represents a quantitative application of the cosmic web classification. It can have further interesting applications in the multitracer analysis of the large-scale structure for future galaxy surveys.

  20. Halo Microlensing and Dark Baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, A. P. S.

    1993-12-01

    (While Pierce lectures review past accomplishments, customarily, this talk concerns efforts which we have pursued for some years and which are now reaching fruition. We present elsewhere at this meeting results from research cited for the Prize.) Dark matter exists in the halos of spiral galaxies, and the least radical alternative for its identity is normal matter produced by primordial nucleosynthesis. This matter could easily be hidden in large, condensed objects. Paczynski pointed out in 1986 that if condensations of Galactic halo matter are sufficiently massive, they will produce detectable amplification of background starlight by gravitational lensing. Several groups recently reported possible detections of this effect after surveying large numbers of stars in the Galactic Bulge and LMC. The connection between these events and massive, dark halos is unclear and likely to remain so for some time, given the rate at which they are detected. Following Paczynski's realization, we stressed that a much higher event rate, a statistical control sample, sensitivity to a much broader mass range, and modulation of the predicted lensing rate with galactocentric distance can all be realized by a different experiment: observing the halo of M31 (and the Galaxy) using stars in M31. In some ways, M31 is a more difficult target than the LMC or the Bulge, given the faintness of its stars, but our observations in 1991 and 1993 indicate that these problems have been surmounted. We can detect stellar variability even under extremely crowded conditions like those in M31's inner disk, and can monitor a sufficient number of stars to study halo lensing. We present results from our initial survey which indicates that the required sensitivity can be reached to confirm or reject the hypothesis that sub-solar masses like those detected in our Galaxy make up the missing spiral galaxy mass. It is possible that we may use the data already obtained (and still being analyzed) to place

  1. The Local Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Helfer, H.L.

    2005-10-21

    The observations of the extended rotation curves of some galaxies provide important constraints upon the nature of the local dark matter present in the halos of these galaxies. Using these constraints, one can show that the halo dark matter cannot be some population of conventional astronomical objects and (most probably) cannot be a population of exotic non-interacting particles. We suggest that the halos can be regarded as large spatial fluctuations in a classic scalar field.

  2. Teaching Non-Standard Varieties of Bahasa Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukmana, Iwa

    1997-01-01

    Considers the question of which variety of Indonesian to teach in Australia. Issues related to standardization, formality, and diglossia in Bahasa, Indonesia, the use of its many varieties across Indonesia, differences between the Jakarta dialect and the standard form, and pedagogical considerations in teaching non-standard varieties are…

  3. Higher Education in Non-Standard Wage Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to verify whether higher education increases the likelihood of young Italian workers moving from non-standard to standard wage contracts. Design/methodology/approach: The authors exploit a data set on labour market flows, produced by the Italian National Statistical Office, by interviewing about 85,000…

  4. Higher Education in Non-Standard Wage Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to verify whether higher education increases the likelihood of young Italian workers moving from non-standard to standard wage contracts. Design/methodology/approach: The authors exploit a data set on labour market flows, produced by the Italian National Statistical Office, by interviewing about 85,000…

  5. CP-violation and non-standard interactions at the MOMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhti, Pouya; Farzan, Yasaman

    2016-07-01

    To measure the last unknown 3 ν oscillation parameter ( δ), several long baseline neutrino experiments have been designed or proposed. Recently it has been shown that turning on neutral current Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter can induce degeneracies that may even hinder the proposed state-of-the-art DUNE long baseline experiment from measuring the value of δ. We study how the result of the proposed MOMENT experiment with a baseline of 150 km and 200 MeV < E ν < 600 MeV can help to solve the degeneracy induced by NSI and determine the true value of δ.

  6. Systematic Problems With Stellar Halo Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    Stellar halos contain a small fraction of the stellar mass of a galaxy. The dynamic range required to model the substructure within this small component while simultaneously modeling the main galaxy is currently unobtainable, which has lead to the prevalence of stellar halo models that tag stellar content onto dark matter particles in pure dark matter simulations, making it computationally feasible (e.g. Bullock & Johnston 2005; Cooper et al. 2010). Using paired simulations with identical initial conditions, we estimate the magnitude of the systematic effects these simplifications have on the structure of the halos. We find that (1) "painting" and (2) neglecting baryonic processes each introduce factor-of-several changes to the amount of substructure predicted. We therefore urge caution when interpreting differences between models and observations that are at this level.

  7. Squeezing the halo bispectrum: a test of bias models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradinezhad Dizgah, Azadeh; Chan, Kwan Chuen; Noreña, Jorge; Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    We study the halo-matter cross bispectrum in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type. We restrict ourselves to the squeezed limit, for which the calculation are straightforward, and perform the measurements in the initial conditions of N-body simulations, to mitigate the contamination induced by nonlinear gravitational evolution. Interestingly, the halo-matter cross bispectrum is not trivial even in this simple limit as it is strongly sensitive to the scale-dependence of the quadratic and third-order halo bias. Therefore, it can be used to test biasing prescriptions. We consider three different prescription for halo clustering: excursion set peaks (ESP), local bias and a model in which the halo bias parameters are explicitly derived from a peak-background split. In all cases, the model parameters are fully constrained with statistics other than the cross bispectrum. We measure the cross bispectrum involving one halo fluctuation field and two mass overdensity fields for various halo masses and collapse redshifts. We find that the ESP is in reasonably good agreement with the numerical data, while the other alternatives we consider fail in various cases. This suggests that the scale-dependence of halo bias also is a crucial ingredient to the squeezed limit of the halo bispectrum.

  8. The statistics of Λ CDM halo concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Angelo F.; Gao, Liang; Bett, Philip; Cole, Shaun; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the statistics of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) halo concentrations at z = 0. Our results confirm that the average halo concentration declines monotonically with mass; the concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law over three decades in mass, up to the most massive objects that form in a ΛCDM universe (~ 1015h-1Msolar). This is in clear disagreement with the predictions of the model proposed by Bullock et al. for these rare objects, and agrees better with the original predictions of Navarro, Frenk & White. The large volume surveyed, together with the unprecedented numerical resolution of the MS, allows us to estimate with confidence the distribution of concentrations and, consequently, the abundance of systems with unusual properties. About one in a hundred cluster haloes (M200 >~ 3 × 1014h-1Msolar) have concentrations exceeding c200 = 7.5, a result that may be useful in interpreting the likelihood of unusually strong massive gravitational lenses, such as Abell 1689, in the ΛCDM cosmogony. A similar fraction of about 1 per cent of galaxy-sized haloes (M200 ~ 1012h-1Msolar) have c200 < 4.5 and this could be relevant to models that attempt to reconcile the ΛCDM cosmology with rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies by appealing to haloes of unexpectedly low concentration. We find that halo concentrations are independent of spin once haloes manifestly out of equilibrium have been removed from the sample. Compared to their relaxed brethren, the concentrations of out-of-equilibrium haloes tend to be lower and have more scatter, while their spins tend to be higher. A number of previously noted trends within the halo population are induced primarily by these properties of unrelaxed systems. Finally, we compare the result of predicting halo concentrations using the mass assembly history of the main progenitor with predictions based on simple arguments regarding the assembly time of all progenitors

  9. New views of the distant stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Robyn E.; Secunda, Amy; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bochanski, John J.

    2017-10-01

    Currently, only a small number of Milky Way (MW) stars are known to exist beyond 100 kpc from the Galactic Centre. Though the distribution of these stars in the outer halo is believed to be sparse, they can provide evidence of more recent accretion events than in the inner halo and help map out the MW's dark matter halo to its virial radius. We have re-examined the outermost regions of 11 existing stellar halo models with two synthetic surveys: one mimicking present-day searches for distant M giants and another mimicking RR Lyra (RRL) projections for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Our models suggest that colour and proper motion cuts currently used to select M giant candidates for follow-up successfully remove nearly all self-contamination from foreground halo dwarf stars and are useful for focusing observations on distant M giants, of which there are thousands to tens of thousands beyond 100 kpc in our models. We likewise expect that LSST will identify comparable numbers of RRLe at these distances. We demonstrate that several observable properties of both tracers, such as proximity of neighbouring stars, proper motions and distances (for RRLe), could help us separate different accreted dwarf galaxies from one another in the distant MW halo. We also discuss prospects for using ratios of M giants to RRLe as a proxy for accretion time, which in the future could provide new constraints on the recent accretion history of our Galaxy.

  10. Stellar dynamics in the strong-lensing central galaxy of Abell 1201: a low stellar mass-to-light ratio, a large central compact mass and a standard dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Edge, Alastair C.

    2017-10-01

    We analyse the stellar kinematics of the z = 0.169 brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 1201, using integral field observations acquired with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope. This galaxy has a gravitationally lensed arc located at unusually small radius (∼5 kpc), allowing us to constrain the mass distribution using lensing and stellar dynamical information over the same radial range. We measure a velocity dispersion profile which is nearly flat at σ ≈ 285 km s-1 in the inner ∼5 kpc, and then rises steadily to σ ≈ 360 km s-1 at ∼30 kpc. We analyse the kinematics using axisymmetric Jeans models, finding that the data require both a significant dark matter halo (to fit the rising outer profile) and a compact central component, with mass Mcen ≈ 2.5 × 1010 M⊙ (to fit the flat σ in the inner regions). The latter component could represent a supermassive black hole, in which case it would be among the largest known to date. Alternatively Mcen could describe excess mass associated with a gradient in the stellar mass-to-light ratio. Imposing a standard Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile, we recover a stellar mass-to-light ratio ϒ, which is consistent with a Milky Way-like initial mass function (IMF). By anchoring the models using the lensing mass constraint, we break the degeneracy between ϒ and the inner slope γ of the dark matter profile, finding γ = 1.0 ± 0.1, consistent with the NFW form. We show that our results are quite sensitive to the treatment of the central mass in the models. Neglecting Mcen biases the results towards both a heavier-than-Salpeter IMF and a shallower-than-NFW dark matter slope (γ ≈ 0.5).

  11. A ''LIGHT'', CENTRALLY CONCENTRATED MILKY WAY HALO?

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkov, Valery; Pillepich, Annalisa; Deason, Alis J.; Madau, Piero; Rockosi, Constance M.; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-08-20

    We discuss a novel approach to ''weighing'' the Milky Way (MW) dark matter halo, one that combines the latest samples of halo stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with state of the art numerical simulations of MW analogs. The fully cosmological runs employed in the present study include ''Eris'', one of the highest resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of a M{sub vir} = 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} late-type spiral, and the dark-matter-only M{sub vir} = 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} ''Via Lactea II'' (VLII) simulation. Eris provides an excellent laboratory for creating mock SDSS samples of tracer halo stars, and we successfully compare their density, velocity anisotropy, and radial velocity dispersion profiles with the observational data. Most mock SDSS realizations show the same ''cold veil'' recently observed in the distant stellar halo of the MW, with tracers as cold as {sigma}{sub los} Almost-Equal-To 50 km s{sup -1} between 100 and 150 kpc. Controlled experiments based on the integration of the spherical Jeans equation as well as a particle tagging technique applied to VLII show that a ''heavy'' M{sub vir} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} realistic host produces a poor fit to the kinematic SDSS data. We argue that these results offer added evidence for a ''light'', centrally concentrated MW halo.

  12. The angular momentum distribution in galactic halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. J.; Zurek, W. H.

    1988-08-01

    N-body simulations are used to model the formation of individual galactic halos from scale-free density perturbations in universes dominated by cold, nondissipative dark matter. In well-mixed halos, the angular momentum distribution is shown to have a systematic behavior with power law index n corresponding to that found for circular rotation curves. For a given n, the distribution of angular momentum has the same trend with radius and energy as that implied for a halo in which all the matter has its maximum possible angular momentum. Dynamical mixing during the relaxation of the halo redistributes both angular momentum and binding energy in an orderly manner. The organized nature of the collapse means that relaxation is not completely violent and that the secondary infall paradigm, in its simplest form, needs to be modified to include the organizing effects of dynamical friction. It is shown that the Mestel hypothesis is not consistent with the final collapsed state of halos, but may be applicable to the collapse of the disks of spirals.

  13. A UNIVERSAL MODEL FOR HALO CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2015-01-20

    We present a numerical study of dark matter halo concentrations in ΛCDM and self-similar cosmologies. We show that the relation between concentration, c, and peak height, ν, exhibits the smallest deviations from universality if halo masses are defined with respect to the critical density of the universe. These deviations can be explained by the residual dependence of concentration on the local slope of the matter power spectrum, n, which affects both the normalization and shape of the c-ν relation. In particular, there is no well-defined floor in the concentration values. Instead, the minimum concentration depends on redshift: at fixed ν, halos at higher z experience steeper slopes n, and thus have lower minimum concentrations. We show that the concentrations in our simulations can be accurately described by a universal seven-parameter function of only ν and n. This model matches our ΛCDM results to ≲ 5% accuracy up to z = 6, and matches scale-free Ω{sub m} = 1 models to ≲ 15%. The model also reproduces the low concentration values of Earth-mass halos at z ≈ 30, and thus correctly extrapolates over 16 orders of magnitude in halo mass. The predictions of our model differ significantly from all models previously proposed in the literature at high masses and redshifts. Our model is in excellent agreement with recent lensing measurements of cluster concentrations.

  14. A "Light," Centrally Concentrated Milky Way Halo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkov, Valery; Pillepich, Annalisa; Deason, Alis J.; Madau, Piero; Rockosi, Constance M.; Guedes, Javiera; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-08-01

    We discuss a novel approach to "weighing" the Milky Way (MW) dark matter halo, one that combines the latest samples of halo stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with state of the art numerical simulations of MW analogs. The fully cosmological runs employed in the present study include "Eris," one of the highest resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of a M vir = 8 × 1011 M ⊙ late-type spiral, and the dark-matter-only M vir = 1.7 × 1012 M ⊙ "Via Lactea II" (VLII) simulation. Eris provides an excellent laboratory for creating mock SDSS samples of tracer halo stars, and we successfully compare their density, velocity anisotropy, and radial velocity dispersion profiles with the observational data. Most mock SDSS realizations show the same "cold veil" recently observed in the distant stellar halo of the MW, with tracers as cold as σlos ≈ 50 km s-1 between 100 and 150 kpc. Controlled experiments based on the integration of the spherical Jeans equation as well as a particle tagging technique applied to VLII show that a "heavy" M vir ≈ 2 × 1012 M ⊙ realistic host produces a poor fit to the kinematic SDSS data. We argue that these results offer added evidence for a "light," centrally concentrated MW halo.

  15. A Universal Model for Halo Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study of dark matter halo concentrations in ΛCDM and self-similar cosmologies. We show that the relation between concentration, c, and peak height, ν, exhibits the smallest deviations from universality if halo masses are defined with respect to the critical density of the universe. These deviations can be explained by the residual dependence of concentration on the local slope of the matter power spectrum, n, which affects both the normalization and shape of the c-ν relation. In particular, there is no well-defined floor in the concentration values. Instead, the minimum concentration depends on redshift: at fixed ν, halos at higher z experience steeper slopes n, and thus have lower minimum concentrations. We show that the concentrations in our simulations can be accurately described by a universal seven-parameter function of only ν and n. This model matches our ΛCDM results to <~ 5% accuracy up to z = 6, and matches scale-free Ωm = 1 models to <~ 15%. The model also reproduces the low concentration values of Earth-mass halos at z ≈ 30, and thus correctly extrapolates over 16 orders of magnitude in halo mass. The predictions of our model differ significantly from all models previously proposed in the literature at high masses and redshifts. Our model is in excellent agreement with recent lensing measurements of cluster concentrations.

  16. Detection of non-standard atmospheric effects in FSO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilfert, Otakar; Poliak, Juraj; Barcík, Peter; Arce-Diego, José L.; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Ortega Quijano, Noé

    2013-09-01

    Modern free-space optical (FSO) communication systems in many aspects overcome wire or radio communications. They offer a license-free operation and a large bandwidth. Operation of outdoor FSO links struggles with many atmospheric phenomena that deteriorate phase and amplitude of the transmitted optical beam. Thanks to the recent advancing development, these effects are more or less well understood and described. Goal driven research increased the link availability. Besides increasing the availability of data links it is necessary to focus on the accuracy and reliability of testing optical links. Research of the data optical links is focused on the transmission of a large amount of data whereas the testing FSO link is designed to achieve maximal resolution and sensitivity thus improving accuracy and repeatability of the atmospheric effects measurement. Given the fact that testing links are located in the measured media, they are themselves influenced by it. Phenomena such as the condensation on transceiver windows (rain, frost) and the deviation of the optical beam path caused by the wind are referred to as non-standard effects. Non-standard effects never occur independently; therefore we must always verify the cross-sensitivity of the testing link. In the paper we respond to an increasing number of articles dealing with influence of the atmosphere on the link but ignoring the cross-sensitivity of the testing link on other variables than tested. In conclusion, we carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis of self-identified non-standard effects.

  17. Stellar halos: a rosetta stone for galaxy formation and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis Read, Justin

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos make up about a percent of the total stellar mass in galaxies. Yet their old age and long phase mixing times make them living fossil records of galactic history. In this talk, I review the latest simulations of structure formation in our standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmology. I discuss the latest predictions for stellar halos and the relationship between the stellar halo light and the underlying dark matter. Finally, I discuss how these simulations compare to observations of the Milky Way and Andromeda and, ultimately, what this means for our cosmological model and the formation history of the Galaxy.

  18. Halo occupation numbers and galaxy bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J. A.; Smith, R. E.

    2000-11-01

    We propose a heuristic model that displays the main features of realistic theories for galaxy bias. We first show that the low-order clustering statistics of the dark-matter distribution depend almost entirely on the locations and density profiles of dark-matter haloes. The quasi-linear mass correlations are in fact reproduced well by a model of independent randomly-placed haloes. The distribution of galaxies within the halo density field depends on: (i) the efficiency of galaxy formation, as manifested by the halo occupation number - the number of galaxies brighter than some sample limit contained in a halo of a given mass; (ii) the location of these galaxies within their halo. The first factor is constrained by the empirical luminosity function of groups. For the second factor, we assume that one galaxy marks the halo centre, with any remaining galaxies acting as satellites that trace the halo mass. This second assumption is essential if small-scale galaxy correlations are to remain close to a single power law, rather than flattening in the same way as the correlations of the overall density field. These simple assumptions amount to a recipe for non-local bias, in which the probability of finding a galaxy is not a simple function of its local mass density. We have applied this prescription to some CDM models of current interest, and find that the predictions are close to the observed galaxy correlations for a flat Ω=0.3 model (ΛCDM), but not for an Ω=1 model with the same power spectrum (τCDM). This is an inevitable consequence of cluster normalization for the power spectra: cluster-scale haloes of given mass have smaller core radii for high Ω, and hence display enhanced small-scale clustering. Finally, the pairwise velocity dispersion of galaxies in the ΛCDM model is lower than that of the mass, allowing cluster-normalized models to yield a realistic Mach number for the peculiar velocity field. This is largely due to the strong variation of galaxy

  19. Is the Milky Way's hot halo convectively unstable?

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the convective stability of two popular types of model of the gas distribution in the hot Galactic halo. We first consider models in which the halo density and temperature decrease exponentially with height above the disk. These halo models were created to account for the fact that, on some sight lines, the halo's X-ray emission lines and absorption lines yield different temperatures, implying that the halo is non-isothermal. We show that the hot gas in these exponential models is convectively unstable if γ < 3/2, where γ is the ratio of the temperature and density scale heights. Using published measurements of γ and its uncertainty, we use Bayes' theorem to infer posterior probability distributions for γ, and hence the probability that the halo is convectively unstable for different sight lines. We find that, if these exponential models are good descriptions of the hot halo gas, at least in the first few kiloparsecs from the plane, the hot halo is reasonably likely to be convectively unstable on two of the three sight lines for which scale height information is available. We also consider more extended models of the halo. While isothermal halo models are convectively stable if the density decreases with distance from the Galaxy, a model of an extended adiabatic halo in hydrostatic equilibrium with the Galaxy's dark matter is on the boundary between stability and instability. However, we find that radiative cooling may perturb this model in the direction of convective instability. If the Galactic halo is indeed convectively unstable, this would argue in favor of supernova activity in the Galactic disk contributing to the heating of the hot halo gas.

  20. The halo model in a massive neutrino cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Massara, Elena; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it

    2014-12-01

    We provide a quantitative analysis of the halo model in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies. We discuss all the ingredients necessary to model the non-linear matter and cold dark matter power spectra and compare with the results of N-body simulations that incorporate massive neutrinos. Our neutrino halo model is able to capture the non-linear behavior of matter clustering with a ∼20% accuracy up to very non-linear scales of k = 10 h/Mpc (which would be affected by baryon physics). The largest discrepancies arise in the range k = 0.5 – 1 h/Mpc where the 1-halo and 2-halo terms are comparable and are present also in a massless neutrino cosmology. However, at scales k < 0.2 h/Mpc our neutrino halo model agrees with the results of N-body simulations at the level of 8% for total neutrino masses of < 0.3 eV. We also model the neutrino non-linear density field as a sum of a linear and clustered component and predict the neutrino power spectrum and the cold dark matter-neutrino cross-power spectrum up to k = 1 h/Mpc with ∼30% accuracy. For masses below 0.15 eV the neutrino halo model captures the neutrino induced suppression, casted in terms of matter power ratios between massive and massless scenarios, with a 2% agreement with the results of N-body/neutrino simulations. Finally, we provide a simple application of the halo model: the computation of the clustering of galaxies, in massless and massive neutrinos cosmologies, using a simple Halo Occupation Distribution scheme and our halo model extension.

  1. Halos around planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Kupferman, P. N.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results of a CCD survey designed to detect and investigate faint halos around planetary nebulae are reported. A TI 800 x 800 pixel CCD was used to take deep exposures of 44 planetary nebulae. The exposures were obtained through an H-alpha filter at the Cassegrain focus of the Palomar 1.5 m telescope. Spatial resolutions of 1 to 2 arcsec were obtained across 400 arcsec wide fields. The images, which are in many cases considerably deeper than any previously taken, reveal numerous planetary nebula halos. About two-thirds of the studied nebulae possess extensive outer halos, here defined as any extended emission beyond the 10 percent isophote. Ionized sulphur electron density measurements show that in some nebulae, the mass in the halo is comparable to the mass contained in the primary H II region. The data have been used to place constraints on the mode of origin of the halos. It is likely that the halos originate either by dynamical separation of a single ejected shell of gas or by the ejection of two or more such shells from the central star. It is possible but less likely that the halos are caused by excitation of the preplanetary stellar wind and improbable that the halos represent reflection nebulae.

  2. Rockstar: Phase-space halo finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2012-10-01

    Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.

  3. Simulating Halos with the Caterpillar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The Caterpillar Project is a beautiful series of high-resolution cosmological simulations. The goal of this project is to examine the evolution of dark-matter halos like the Milky Ways, to learn about how galaxies like ours formed. This immense computational project is still in progress, but the Caterpillar team is already providing a look at some of its first results.Lessons from Dark-Matter HalosWhy simulate the dark-matter halos of galaxies? Observationally, the formation history of our galaxy is encoded in galactic fossil record clues, like the tidal debris from disrupted satellite galaxies in the outer reaches of our galaxy, or chemical abundance patterns throughout our galactic disk and stellar halo.But to interpret this information in a way that lets us learn about our galaxys history, we need to first test galaxy formation and evolution scenarios via cosmological simulations. Then we can compare the end result of these simulations to what we observe today.This figure illustrates the difference that mass resolution makes. In the left panel, the mass resolution is 1.5*10^7 solar masses per particle. In the right panel, the mass resolution is 3*10^4 solar masses per particle [Griffen et al. 2016]A Computational ChallengeDue to how computationally expensive such simulations are, previous N-body simulations of the growth of Milky-Way-like halos have consisted of only one or a few halos each. But in order to establish a statistical understanding of how galaxy halos form and find out whether the Milky Ways halo is typical or unusual! it is necessary to simulate a larger number of halos.In addition, in order to accurately follow the formation and evolution of substructure within the dark-matter halos, these simulations must be able to resolve the smallest dwarf galaxies, which are around a million solar masses. This requires an extremely high mass resolution, which adds to the computational expense of the simulation.First OutcomesThese are the challenges faced by

  4. Parametrisation D'effets Non-Standard EN Phenomenologie Electrofaible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymyk, Ivan

    Cette these pat articles porte sur la parametrisation d'effets non standard en physique electrofaible. Dans chaque analyse, nous avons ajoute plusieurs operateurs non standard au lagrangien du modele standard electrofaible. Les operateurs non standard decrivent les nouveaux effets decoulant d'un modele sous-jacent non-specefie. D'emblee, le nombre d'operateurs non standard que l'on peut inclure dans une telle analyse est illimite. Mais pour une classe specifique de modeles sous-jacents, les effets non standard peuvent etre decrits par un nombre raisonnable d'operateurs. Dans chaque analyse nous avons developpe des expressions pour des observables electrofaibles, en fonction des coefficients des operateurs nouveaux. En effectuant un "fit" statistique sur un ensemble de donnees experimentales precises, nous avons obtenu des contraintes phenomenologiques sur ces coefficients. Dans "Model-Independent Global Constraints on New Physics", nous avons adopte des hypotheses tres peu contraignantes relatives aux modeles sous-jacents. Nous avons tronque le lagrangien effectif a la dimension cinq (inclusivement). Visant la plus grande generalite possible, nous avons admis des interactions qui ne respectent pas les symetries discretes (soit C, P et CP) ainsi que des interactions qui ne conservent pas la saveur. Le lagrangien effectif contient une quarantaine d'operateurs nouveaux. Nous avons determine que, pour la plupart des coefficients des nouveaux operateurs, les contraintes sont assez serrees (2 ou 3%), mais il y a des exceptions interessantes. Dans "Bounding Anomalous Three-Gauge-Boson Couplings", nous avons determine des contraintes phenomenologiques sur les deviations des couplages a trois bosons de jauge par rapport aux interactions prescrites par le modele standard. Pour ce faire, nous avons calcule les contributions indirectes des CTBJ non standard aux observables de basse energie. Puisque le lagrangien effectif est non-renormalisable, certaines difficultes techniques

  5. Asymmetries in the inner regions of ΛCDM haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; White, Simon D. M.

    2006-11-01

    Many galaxies display warps, lopsided images, asymmetric rotation curves or other features which suggest that their immediate dynamical environment is neither static nor in equilibrium. In cold dark matter (CDM) theories, such non-equilibrium features are expected in the inner regions of many dark haloes as a result of recent hierarchical growth. We used the excellent statistics provided by the very large Millennium Simulation to study (i) how the distribution of position and velocity asymmetries predicted for halo cores by the concordance ΛCDM cosmogony depends on halo mass and (ii) how much of the dark matter in the inner core has been added at relatively recent times. Asymmetries are typically larger in more massive haloes. Thus 20 per cent of cluster haloes have density centre separated from barycentre by more than 20 per cent of the virial radius, while only 7 per cent of Milky Way haloes have such large asymmetries. About 40 per cent of all cluster haloes have a mean core velocity which differs from the barycentre velocity by more than a quarter of the characteristic halo circular velocity, whereas only 10 per cent of Milky Way haloes have such large velocity offsets. About 25 per cent of all cluster haloes have acquired more than a quarter of the mass currently in their inner 10 kpc through mergers since z = 1. The corresponding percentage of Milky Way haloes is 15 per cent. These numbers seem quite compatible with the levels of asymmetry seen in the observable regions of galaxies, but quantitative comparison requires more detailed modelling of the observable components.

  6. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew E-mail: pjfox@fnal.gov E-mail: matthew.mccullough@cern.ch

    2015-10-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}− g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-tilde (p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde (v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde (p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde (p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde (v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  7. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ-σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin-tilde g plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tilde h(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g(vmin) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  8. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  9. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}−g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  10. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; ...

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR),more » the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.« less

  11. The Implication of MOND for Dark Haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Cheng; Kosowsky, A.

    2006-12-01

    It is always interesting that how much implication that Milgrom's relation could provide, even phenomenologically. With just one assumption that the gravitational acceleration goes like 1/r instead of Newton's law, 1/r2, when the acceleration is smaller than the value $10-10m/sec2, it is well known that MOND can give a better description of the rotational curves in spiral galaxies. In this research, we explore the configuration of the parameter space for the dark haloes by fitting the rotation curves of halo profiles with the exponential disk for stellar mass to that of MOND. In addition, we find that the baryon mass to the halo mass ratio is lower than the primordial ratio which gives that the total baryon mass is about 15% of the dark matter, and which is consistent with what we generally expect today.

  12. Curtailing the dark side in non-standard neutrino interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Coloma, Pilar; Denton, Peter B.; Gonzalez-Garcia, Maria C.; ...

    2017-04-20

    In presence of non-standard neutrino interactions the neutrino flavor evolution equation is affected by a degeneracy which leads to the so-called LMA-Dark solution. It requires a solar mixing angle in the second octant and implies an ambiguity in the neutrino mass ordering. Non-oscillation experiments are required to break this degeneracy. We perform a combined analysis of data from oscillation experiments with the neutrino scattering experiments CHARM and NuTeV. We find that the degeneracy can be lifted if the non-standard neutrino interactions take place with down quarks, but it remains for up quarks. However, CHARM and NuTeV constraints apply only ifmore » the new interactions take place through mediators not much lighter than the electroweak scale. For light mediators we consider the possibility to resolve the degeneracy by using data from future coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. Here we find that, for an experiment using a stopped-pion neutrino source, the LMA-Dark degeneracy will either be resolved, or the presence of new interactions in the neutrino sector will be established with high significance.« less

  13. Yoga versus non-standard care for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Julie; Crumlish, Niall; Waugh, Alice; Vancampfort, Davy

    2017-09-28

    Yoga is an ancient spiritual practice that originated in India and is currently accepted in the Western world as a form of relaxation and exercise. It has been of interest for people with schizophrenia as an alternative or adjunctive treatment. To systematically assess the effects of yoga versus non-standard care for people with schizophrenia. The Information Specialist of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group searched their specialised Trials Register (latest 30 March 2017), which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We searched the references of all included studies. There are no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including people with schizophrenia and comparing yoga with non-standard care. We included trials that met our selection criteria and reported useable data. The review team independently selected studies, assessed quality, and extracted data. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a fixed-effect models for analyses. We examined data for heterogeneity (I(2) technique), assessed risk of bias for included studies, and created a 'Summary of findings' table for seven main outcomes of interest using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). We were able to include six studies (586 participants). Non-standard care consisted solely of another type of exercise programme. All o