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Sample records for maturing pinus radiata

  1. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height

    PubMed Central

    Waghorn, Matthew J.; Watt, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Methods Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Key Results Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. Conclusions The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. PMID:23388878

  2. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  3. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium study of nitrogen species onto radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Harmayani, Kadek D; Faisal Anwar, A H M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen species (NH3-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N) are found as one of the major dissolved constituents in wastewater or stormwater runoff. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to remove these pollutants from the water environment using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust. A series of batch tests was conducted by varying initial concentration, dosage, particle size, pH, and contact time to check the removal performance. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of radiata pine sawdust for removing these contaminants from the aqueous phase (100% removal of NO3-N, and NO2-N; 55% removal of NH3-N). The adsorbent dosage and initial concentration showed a significantly greater effect on the removal process over pH or particle sizes. The optimum dosage for contaminant removal on a laboratory scale was found to be 12 g. Next, the adsorption kinetics were studied using intraparticle diffusion, liquid-film diffusion, and a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of all species followed a pseudo-second order model but NO2-N adsorption followed both models. In addition, the kinetics of NO2-N adsorption showed two-step adsorption following intraparticle diffusion and liquid-film diffusion. The isotherm study showed that NO3-N and NO2-N adsorption fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model but that NH3-N adsorption followed both Freundlich and Langmuir models. PMID:27438245

  4. Endogenous cytokinin and auxin profiles during in vitro organogenesis from vegetative buds of Pinus radiata adult trees.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Itziar Aurora; Novák, Ondrej; Rolčik, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Moncaleán, Paloma

    2013-06-01

    In Pinus radiata D. Don, the transition from the juvenile to the mature phase is characterized by a reduction in the tree's organogenic potential, which is usually reverted in breeding programs by reinvigoration procedures to enable vegetative propagation. In this work, we have determined the best culture conditions for in vitro reinvigoration of radiata pine buds, tested different cytokinin (CK) types [N⁶-benzyladenine (BA), meta-topolin (mT) and trans-zeatin] and concentrations (25 and 50 µM), and studied the effect of culture conditions on endogenous CK and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels at different stages of the organogenic process. To this end, the levels of 43 CKs and IAA were determined in P. radiata buds before and during the reinvigoration process. When BA or mT was applied to the induction medium, we did not observe any significant increase or decrease in endogenous isoprenoid CK content. We also report for the first time the presence of O-glucosides in non-treated P. radiata explants from the field and remark the importance of O-glucosides as storage forms.

  5. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  6. Characterization and expression of a Pinus radiata putative ortholog to the Arabidopsis SHORT-ROOT gene.

    PubMed

    Solé, Alicia; Sánchez, Conchi; Vielba, Jesús M; Valladares, Silvia; Abarca, Dolores; Díaz-Sala, Carmen

    2008-11-01

    We characterized a Pinus radiata D. Don putative ortholog to the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. SHORT--ROOT gene (AtSHR) and analyzed its expression in different organs during vegetative development and in response to exogenous auxin during adventitious rooting. The predicted protein sequence contained domains characteristic of the GRAS protein family and showed a strong similarity to the SHORT--ROOT (SHR) proteins. Quantitative reverse transcriptase--polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization showed that the gene is predominantly expressed in roots, root primordia and in the cambial region of hypocotyl cuttings. Increased mRNA levels were observed, independently of the presence or absence of exogenous auxin, in the cambial region and rooting competent cells of hypocotyl cuttings within the first 24 h of adventitious rooting, before the activation of cell divisions and the organization of the adventitious root meristem. The expression pattern in organs and during adventitious rooting was similar to that of a Pinus radiata SCARECROW-LIKE (PrSCL1) gene, except that PrSCL1 is induced in response to exogenous auxin. Results suggest that the Pinus radiata SHORT-ROOT (PrSHR) gene has a role in root meristem formation and maintenance and in the cambial region of hypocotyl cuttings.

  7. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic

  8. Ecological studies of the bio-inoculant Trichoderma hamatum LU592 in the root system of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, Elisabeth Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2012-06-01

    The plant health- and growth-promoting biological inoculant (bio-inoculant) Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was transformed with the constitutively expressed green fluorescent protein (gfp) and hygromycin B resistance (hph) genes to specifically monitor the isolate in the root system of Pinus radiata within a strong indigenous Trichoderma population. A modified dilution plating technique was developed to allow the determination of the mycelia proportion of total propagule levels. LU592 was shown to colonize the rhizosphere most effectively when 10(5)  spores per pot were applied compared with inoculum concentrations of 10(3) and 10(7)  spores per pot. LU592 extended its zone of activity beyond the rhizosphere to at least 1 cm away from the root surface. A positive relationship was shown between P. radiata root maturation and the spatial and temporal proliferation of LU592 in the root system. A steep increase in mycelia levels and proportion of penetrated root segments was observed after 12 weeks. This study reinforces the value of genetic markers for use in ecological studies of filamentous fungi. However, despite isolate-specific recovery of the introduced isolate, it was shown that total propagule counts do not always correlate with the amount of viable mycelium present in the root system. Therefore, it is proposed that the differentiation of mycelia from spores and root penetration is used as more accurate measures of fungal activity.

  9. Price sensitivity of bioethanol produced in New Zealand from Pinus radiata wood

    SciTech Connect

    Manderson, G.J.; Spencer, K.; Paterson, A.H.J. . Dept. of Biotechnology); Qureshi, N. ); Jansen, D.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis conducted of designs for industry-scale ethanol production facilities that use both hexoses and pentoses to produce 97 to 107 tonnes of anhydrous ethanol per day from 960 tonnes of Pinus radiata wood of 50% moisture content (480 oven-dried tonnes). Various process options and available technologies were considered for cost comparisons. The base case plant design was used to assess the probable importance of not fermenting thee wood pentose fraction. When pentose sugars were not fermented, the ethanol price increased from $0.71/L to $0.75/L. The influence of various economic factors on selling price is assessed.

  10. 90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and perlite and, except in the controls, the fungal inoculum. After 3 months, 5978 Bq of Sr90 in 1 ml of sterile, distilled, deionized water was added. Seedlings were grown for an additional month and then harvested. P. ponderosa seedlings that were inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated 3.0-6.0% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 98-162. Inoculated P. radiata seedlings accumulated 6.0-6.9% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 88-133. Noninoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings accumulated only 0.6 and 0.7% of the Sr90 and had bioconcentration ratios of 28 and 27, respectively.

  11. Elastic constants of Pinus radiata D. Don by means of ultrasound transmission techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradit, Erik; Fuentealba, Cecillia

    2001-08-01

    This work consists in applying the crystals theory and mechanical waves propagation in wood. The wood when is considered as a body of orthotropic symmetry satisfies Hooke's law in its tensor form. Therefore, from the dynamical point of view the elastic constant are expressed by means of Christoffel's equation and can be determined using the ultrasound wave propagation of different polarization through wood. To obtain the constants is necessary the measurement of longitudinal and shear waves in different directions. The experiment results show that in some cases the exact shear wave velocities are very difficult to measure due to waves superposition . In this work the elastic constants (three moduli of elasticity and three shear moduli) Pinus radiata D. Don growing in Chile by ultrasound trasmission techniques are estimated.

  12. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  13. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones.

  14. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  15. Integrated physiological and hormonal profile of heat-induced thermotolerance in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Pinto, Glória; Correia, Barbara; Amaral, Joana; Meijón, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Despite great interest, not only from the economic point of view but also in terms of basic science, research on heat stress tolerance in conifers remains scarce. To fill this gap, a time-course experiment using expected temperature increase was performed aiming to identify physiological and biochemical traits that allow the characterization of heat-induced thermotolerance and recovery in Pinus radiata D. Don plants. Several physiological parameters were assessed during heat exposure and after recovery, and multiple phytohormones-abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), gibberellins, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and brassinosteroids-were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry from unique sample. Furthermore, tissue specific stress-signaling was monitored by IAA and ABA immunolocalization. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data enabled clustering of the shorter- and longer-term effects of heat stress exposure. Two sequential physiological responses were identified: an immediate and a delayed response, essentially determined by specific phytohormones, proline, malondialdehyde and total soluble sugar patterns. Results showed that ABA and SA play a crucial role in the first stage of response to heat stress, probably due to the plant's urgent need to regulate stomatal closure and counteract the increase in oxidative membrane damage demonstrated in shorter-term exposures. However, in longer exposures and recovery, proline, total sugars, IAA and CKs seem to be more relevant. This integrated approach pinpointed some basic mechanisms of P. radiata physiological responses underlying thermotolerance processes and after recovery.

  16. Lactarius deliciosus and Pinus radiata in New Zealand: towards the development of innovative gourmet mushroom orchards.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Cummings, Nicholas; Butler, Ruth Catherine; Willows, Anna; Hesom-Williams, Nina; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    The cultivation of Lactarius deliciosus (saffron milk cap) in New Zealand began in 2002 when fruiting bodies were produced in an Otago plantation of Pinus radiata seedlings artificially mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. In 2007, 42 P. radiata seedlings mycorrhized by L. deliciosus under controlled conditions were planted in a grass field at Plant and Food Research (Lincoln, Canterbury). The effects of pine bark mulch application and initial degree of mycorrhization of seedlings were examined to determine their influence on tree growth, development of mycorrhizae (i.e. their multiplication on the root system and their degree of branching) and fruiting body production. Mulch application increased tree growth significantly over 4 years. High initial mycorrhization slightly stimulated tree growth over 2 years. The initial degree of mycorrhization was positively, but not strongly, related to the persistence and development of L. deliciosus mycorrhizae and rhizomorphs based on root sample analyses 2 years after planting. However, mulching strongly reduced the proportion of highly branched L. deliciosus mycorrhizae compared with poorly ramified ones. A positive correlation was observed between the fruiting of L. deliciosus and the development of mycorrhizae. Mulching delayed the onset of fruiting body production. In 2010, fruiting bodies were produced only from non-mulched trees with eight of these (38 %) producing a total of 12 fruiting bodies. In 2011, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 9 mulched trees (45 %) produced 143 and 47 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 190 fruiting bodies. By 2012, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 13 mulched trees (65 %) produced 333 and 236 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 569 fruiting bodies (c. 30 kg). This study presents new information on factors influencing the onset of fruiting and the development of yields in a plantation of P. radiata mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. Projected yields as high as c. 300 kg/ha from the

  17. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  18. Transpiration rates and canopy conductance of Pinus radiata growing with different pasture understories in agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Miller, Blair J.; Clinton, Peter W.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Robson, A. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We measured tree transpiration and canopy conductance in Pinus radiata D. Don at two low rainfall sites of differing soil fertility in Canterbury, New Zealand. At the more fertile Lincoln site, we also assessed the effects of two common pasture grasses on tree transpiration and canopy conductance. At the less fertile Eyrewell Forest site, the effect of no understory, and the effects of irrigation in combination with mixtures of grass or legume species were determined. Tree xylem sap flux (F(d)') was measured by the heat pulse method. Total canopy conductance to diffusion of water vapor (G(t)) was calculated by inverting a simplified Penman-Monteith model. The different treatment effects were modeled by the simple decaying exponential relationship G(t) = G(tmax)e((-bD)), where D = air saturation deficit. At the Lincoln site, trees with an understory of cocksfoot had lower F(d)' and G(tmax) than trees with an understory of ryegrass, although the sensitivity of G(t) to increasing D (i.e., the value of b) did not differ between treatments. At the Eyrewell site, irrigation only increased F(d)' in the absence of an understory, whereas the presence of understory vegetation, or lack of irrigation, or both, significantly reduced G(tmax) and increased b. We conclude that the selection of understory species is critical in designing successful agroforestry systems for low rainfall areas.

  19. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard B; Vitetta, Luis; Rooy, Cindy Van; Harris, Elizabeth V; Young, Joanna M; Frampton, Christopher M; Sali, Avni; Nastasi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Dietary interventions may have the potential to counter age-related cognitive decline. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in age-related cognitive impairment in animals after supplementation with plant extracts containing flavonoids but there are few human studies. This double-blind, controlled study examined the effects on cognitive performance of a 5 week supplementation with Enzogenol Pinus radiata bark extract containing flavonoids, in 42 males aged 50-65 years, with a body mass index >25. Participants were supplemented for 5 weeks either with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, or with vitamin C only. A battery of computerized cognitive tests was administered, and cardiovascular and haematological parameters were assessed prior to and following supplementation. The speed of response for the spatial working memory and immediate recognition tasks improved after supplementation with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, whereas vitamin C alone showed no improvements. A trend in a reduction of systolic blood pressure was observed with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, but not with vitamin C alone. The blood safety parameters were unchanged. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of supplementation with Enzogenol on cognition in older individuals. Larger studies are needed to ascertain its potential as a preventive treatment for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:18683195

  20. Realized gain and prediction of yield with genetically improved Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Hayes, J.D. ); Garcia, O. . Centro de Investigacions Forestais de Lourizan)

    1999-05-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don seedlots of varying genetic quality were compared in block-plot genetic-gain trials at 10 locations representing most of the site types in New Zealand. Permanent sample plots were measured annually for growth from age 6--8 yr from planting to ages 15--17 (midrotation). Seedlots from first-generation open-pollinated seed orchards and a mix of crosses that all involved the top-performing parent were, respectively, on average 4.5 % and 5.3% taller and had 6% and 11% larger mean diameter, 12% and 30% more basal area, and 15% and 34% more stem volume than seedlots originating from mild mass selection in harvested stands (climbing select). The observed growth increases were quantified as changes in the rate of growth from that predicted by pre-existing growth models in order to account for tree size and stocking differences. Seedlots from first-generation seed orchards and crosses of the top clone, respectively, grew 5.1% and 4.5% faster in height, and functions for basal area and stocking changed 13% and 26.4% faster, respectively, than the baseline growth models, which were based on climbing select. This implies that increased basal area growth must be taken into account in order to obtain accurate prediction of gain in stem volume. The incorporation of these observed increases in growth rates into stand growth models as genetic-gain multipliers in order to extrapolate predictions of growth of genetically improved seedlots beyond the sites, silvicultures, and seedlots represented in the genetic gain trials is discussed.

  1. Nitrogen allocation and the fate of absorbed light in 21-year-old Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Posch, Sabine; Warren, Charles R; Kruse, Jörg; Guttenberger, Helmut; Adams, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    We investigated effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and canopy position on the allocation of N to Rubisco and chlorophyll as well as the distribution of absorbed light among thermal energy dissipation, photochemistry, net CO2 assimilation and alternative electron sinks such as the Mehler reaction and photorespiration. The relative reduction state of the primary quinone receptor of photosystem II (QA) was used as a surrogate for photosystem II (PSII) vulnerability to photoinactivation. Measurements were made on needles from the lower, mid and upper canopy of 21-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don trees grown with (N+) and without (N0) added N fertilizer. Rubisco was 45 to 60% higher in needles of N+ trees than in needles of N0 trees at all canopy positions. Chlorophyll was approximately 80% higher in lower- and mid-canopy needles of N+ trees than of N0 trees, but only approximately 20% higher in upper-canopy needles. Physiological differences between N+ and N0 trees were found only in the lower- and mid- canopy positions. Needles of N+ trees dissipated up to 30% less light energy as heat than needles of N0 trees and had correspondingly more reduced QA. Net CO2 assimilation and the proportions of electrons used by alternative electron sinks such as the Mehler reaction and photorespiration were unaffected by N treatment regardless of canopy position. We conclude that the application of N fertilizer mainly affected the biochemistry and light-use physiology in lower- and mid-canopy needles by increasing the amount of chlorophyll and hence the amount of light harvested. This, however, did not improve photochemistry or safe dissipation, but increased PSII vulnerability to photoinactivation, an effect with likely significant consequences during sunflecks or sudden gap formation. PMID:18171661

  2. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates.

  3. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates. PMID:21802056

  4. Seasonal development of leaf area in a young, widely spaced Pinus radiata D. Don stand.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, David; Kelliher, Francis M.; Frampton, Chris M.; Godfrey, Martin J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of needle elongation and needle death were made at two-week intervals during a year on 250 branch units spread throughout the crowns of six trees (three high-pruned, three low-pruned) in a widely spaced, 6- to 7-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in New Zealand. The trees were well supplied with nutrients and water. During the year, mean tree height increased by 1.2 m and the cross-sectional area of stem below the green crown (used to predict leaf area) for the average tree increased from 8.7 x 10(3) to 13.9 x 10(3) mm(2). The increase in stem cross-sectional area occurred throughout the year except for two months in early winter (May and June). Elongation of Age 0 needles began in Spring (October), continued through summer, and the mean date for 95% completion of elongation was in autumn (early May), approximately 200 days after elongation began. Mean maximum needle length in the canopy decreased with increasing branch order and was 136 and 94 mm for Order 1 and Order 3 units, respectively. Needle elongation was related to thermal time, using growing degree days with a base temperature of 6 degrees C. The mean maximum rate of needle elongation in the canopy was 0.11 m ( degrees C day)(-1) and this occurred in early summer (mid-December), 47 days after elogation started. Maximum needle length and the rate of elongation increased, and the time taken to reach 95% elongation decreased with increasing height in the canopy. A smaller autumn flush of needles started in summer (January) and the needles elongated linearly at a mean rate of 0.07 mm ( degrees C day)(-1) until the end of the growing season when temperatures fell below the base value. At the end of the year, the mean length of needles from the autumn flush was 66 mm. The density of needles did not change with height in the canopy and there were no significant changes seasonally. The mean density values for Age 1 and Age 0 needles were 336 and 286 kg m(-3), respectively. Dry weight per unit

  5. Decomposition of litter in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, R. H.; Richardson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    This study of litter decomposition was part of an extensive project examining the partitioning of rainfall, the associated chemistry, and litterfall in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia. The eucalypt species studied were Eucalyptus rossii, E. mannifera and E. dives. The components tested were Pinus radiata needles, leaves of the three eucalypt species, and the bark of E. rossii and E. mannifera.During the first 16 weeks of the decomposition experiment there was a rapid decrease in the concentrations of potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus; this was attributed to leaching. During this period, concentrations of nitrogen and calcium increased for most components. After this period, decomposition became the dominant process, during which the concentrations of most elements increased. By the end of the experiment there was, compared with the initial values, a marked reduction in concentrations of sodium, magnesium and potassium for all eucalypt and pine litter. Calcium concentrations increased through time, with eucalypt bark showing a mid-period decline. Phosphorus concentrations decreased for the eucalypt leaves but increased substantially for the pine needles and the eucalypt bark. For all components of both the eucalypts and pines, total nitrogen concentrations rose consistently throughout the decomposition period. This was attributed to the formation of nitrogen-substituted lignin, which was more resistant to decomposition than the other nitrogen-containing compounds, as well as some nitrogen being stored in the micro-organisms responsible for decomposition. Because of loss of fragmented litter from the litter bags after 16 weeks, the weight changes could not be confidently measured after this period.

  6. Genome‐wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D.; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K.; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J.; Cox, Murray P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present genome‐wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal‐specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up‐regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall‐modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up‐regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in‐depth through‐time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host. PMID:25919703

  7. Aerobic moving bed bioreactor performance: a comparative study of removal efficiencies of kraft mill effluents from Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus as raw material.

    PubMed

    Villamar, C A; Jarpa, M; Decap, J; Vidal, G

    2009-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated during 333 days. Two different effluents were fed in six different phases. Phases I and II were fed with effluent where Pinus radiata was used as raw material, while phases III to VI were fed with effluent where Eucalyptus globulus was used as raw material. The HRT was reduced from 85 to 4 h, and the BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1, 100:3:1 and 100:1:1) was also simultaneously evaluated as an operation strategy. When MBBR was operated with Pinus radiata influent, the performance presents a high BOD(5) removal level (above 95%), although COD removal is below 60%. Most of the recalcitrant COD contained in the effluent has a molecular weight higher than 10,000 Da. When MBBR was operated with Eucalyptus globulus influent, the performance is around 97.9-97.6% and 68.6-65.1% for BOD(5) and COD, respectively (with HRT up to 17 h). In the Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globus effluents, the color was mainly found in the molecular weight fraction up to 10,000 Daltons. PMID:19214005

  8. Modelling Environmental Variation in Young's Modulus for Pinus radiata and Implications for Determination of Critical Buckling Height

    PubMed Central

    WATT, MICHAEL S.; MOORE, JOHN R.; FAÇON, JEAN-PHILIPPE; DOWNES, GEOFF M.; CLINTON, PETER W.; COKER, GRAHAM; DAVIS, MURRAY R.; SIMCOCK, ROBYN; PARFITT, ROGER L.; DANDO, JOHN; MASON, EUAN G.; BOWN, HORACIO E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Although density-specific stiffness, E/ρ, (where E is Young's modulus and ρ is wood density) is often assumed constant by the elastic similarity model, and in determination of critical buckling height (Hcrit), few studies have tested this assumption within species. Here this assumption is tested for Pinus radiata growing across an environmental gradient, and theory is combined with data to develop a model of Young's modulus. • Methods Analyses use an extensive series of environmental plots covering the range of climatic and edaphic conditions over which P. radiata is grown in New Zealand. Reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between log–log plots of Hcrit vs. groundline diameter (D), and E/ρ vs. D. Path analysis was used to identify significant direct and indirect (through stem slenderness) edaphic and climatic influences on E. • Key Results Density-specific stiffness exhibited 3-fold variation. As E/ρ scaled positively with D, the exponent of 0·95 between Hcrit and D exceeded the assumed value of 0·67 under constant E/ρ. The final path analysis model included mean air temperature in early autumn (Taut) and slenderness as significant (P < 0·05) positive direct influences on E. Tree leaf area index and Taut were indirectly associated with E through their significant (P < 0·05) positive direct relationship with stem slenderness. Young's modulus was most sensitive to Taut, followed by stem slenderness then leaf area index, and the final model explained 76 % of the variance in E. • Conclusions The findings suggest that within species E/ρ variation may influence Hcrit and the scaling exponent between D and Hcrit so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. The model presented may provide a useful means of determining variation in E, E/ρ and Hcrit across environmental gradients. PMID:16868003

  9. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosario del P; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required.

  10. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow.

  11. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  12. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rúa, Megan A.; Wilson, Emily C.; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R.; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Frank, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic

  13. Evidence that creation of a Pinus radiata plantation in south-eastern Australia has reduced habitat for frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, Kirsten M.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2004-03-01

    Loss and fragmentation of habitat resulting from the clearing of forests for agriculture and urban development threaten the persistence of thousands of species worldwide. The clearing of native forest to plant a monoculture of exotic trees may also reduce and fragment the habitat available for indigenous plants and animals. Metacommunity theory suggests that the species richness of a community in a patch of habitat will increase with patch size but decrease with patch isolation. We investigated whether replacement of native Eucalyptus forest with a plantation of Pinus radiata has reduced and fragmented habitat for frogs, leading to a lower species richness of frog communities in the pine plantation and in small and/or isolated remnant patches of native forest. We surveyed frogs at 60 sites at streams and wetlands in the pine plantation, remnant patches of native forest surrounded by pines, and adjacent areas of contiguous native forest near Tumut in New South Wales, Australia. Only two of eight species of frogs were recorded in the pine plantation, and regression modelling indicated that streams and wetlands in the pines supported fewer frog species than those in remnant patches or the intact native forest. In addition, species richness tended to be higher at wide, shallow swamps and marshes near the headwaters of streams, with herbs, grasses, shrubs, reeds, sedges and rushes in the emergent and fringing vegetation. There was little evidence to suggest that larger eucalypt remnants supported more species of frogs, or that remnants isolated by greater expanses of pines supported fewer species, but we had low power to detect these effects with our data set. Our results support the preservation of all remnants of native forest along drainage lines and around swamps, soaks and bogs, regardless of size. Where new pine plantations are established, for example, on cleared agricultural land, care should be taken to maintain the structural and vegetative characteristics of

  14. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rúa, Megan A; Wilson, Emily C; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R; Hoeksema, Jason D; Frank, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors - biotic or abiotic - in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic species

  15. Early induced protein 1 (PrELIP1) and other photosynthetic, stress and epigenetic regulation genes are involved in Pinus radiata D. don UV-B radiation response.

    PubMed

    Valledor, Luis; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto; Meijón, Mónica

    2012-11-01

    The continuous atmospheric and environmental deterioration is likely to increase, among others, the influx of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. The plants have photoprotective responses, which are complex mechanisms involving different physiological responses, to avoid the damages caused by this radiation that may lead to plant death. We have studied the adaptive responses to UV-B in Pinus radiata, given the importance of this species in conifer forests and reforestation programs. We analyzed the photosynthetic activity, pigments content, and gene expression of candidate genes related to photosynthesis, stress and gene regulation in needles exposed to UV-B during a 96 h time course. The results reveal a clear increase of pigments under UV-B stress while photosynthetic activity decreased. The expression levels of the studied genes drastically changed after UV-B exposure, were stress related genes were upregulated while photosynthesis (RBCA and RBCS) and epigenetic regulation were downregulated (MSI1, CSDP2, SHM4). The novel gene PrELIP1, fully sequenced for this work, was upregulated and expressed mainly in the palisade parenchyma of needles. This gene has conserved domains related to the dissipation of the UV-B radiation that give to this protein a key role during photoprotection response of the needles in Pinus radiata.

  16. Transcriptome profiling of Pinus radiata juvenile wood with contrasting stiffness identifies putative candidate genes involved in microfibril orientation and cell wall mechanics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mechanical properties of wood are largely determined by the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in secondary cell walls. Several genes and their allelic variants have previously been found to affect microfibril angle (MFA) and wood stiffness; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling microfibril orientation and mechanical strength are largely uncharacterised. In the present study, cDNA microarrays were used to compare gene expression in developing xylem with contrasting stiffness and MFA in juvenile Pinus radiata trees in order to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying microfibril orientation and cell wall mechanics. Results Juvenile radiata pine trees with higher stiffness (HS) had lower MFA in the earlywood and latewood of each ring compared to low stiffness (LS) trees. Approximately 3.4 to 14.5% out of 3, 320 xylem unigenes on cDNA microarrays were differentially regulated in juvenile wood with contrasting stiffness and MFA. Greater variation in MFA and stiffness was observed in earlywood compared to latewood, suggesting earlywood contributes most to differences in stiffness; however, 3-4 times more genes were differentially regulated in latewood than in earlywood. A total of 108 xylem unigenes were differentially regulated in juvenile wood with HS and LS in at least two seasons, including 43 unigenes with unknown functions. Many genes involved in cytoskeleton development and secondary wall formation (cellulose and lignin biosynthesis) were preferentially transcribed in wood with HS and low MFA. In contrast, several genes involved in cell division and primary wall synthesis were more abundantly transcribed in LS wood with high MFA. Conclusions Microarray expression profiles in Pinus radiata juvenile wood with contrasting stiffness has shed more light on the transcriptional control of microfibril orientation and the mechanical properties of wood. The identified candidate genes provide an invaluable resource for further

  17. Selecting ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculating plantations in south China: effect of Scleroderma on colonization and growth of exotic Eucalyptus globulus, E. urophylla, Pinus elliottii, and P. radiata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying Long; Kang, Li Hua; Malajczuk, Nicholas; Dell, Bernard

    2006-06-01

    Plantation forestry with exotic trees in south China needs compatible symbionts to improve the growth of seedlings in nurseries and to enhance establishment and growth in the field. Scleroderma, a potentially suitable symbiont for inoculation, is not being used in containerized nurseries in the region due to poor knowledge of its host range. The ability of 15 collections of Scleroderma, nine from Australia and six from Asia, to colonize and promote growth of four important exotic plantation trees (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, Pinus elliottii Engl., and Pinus radiata D. Don) was examined in a nursery potting mix. There was generally low host specificity of Scleroderma between tree genera. At 12 weeks after inoculation, 13 to 14 of the 15 spore collections formed ectomycorrhizas on seedlings of eucalypts or pines. The extent of colonization differed between spore treatments with two or four collections forming abundant mycorrhizas (>50% fine roots colonized) on E. globulus or E. urophylla, respectively, and three or five on P. radiata or P. elliottii, respectively. Three collections from Australia strongly colonized all hosts resulting in 26 to 100% of short roots being colonized. Chinese Scleroderma collections resulted in fewer mycorrhizas on eucalypts than on pines. Inoculation stimulated the growth (shoot height and dry weight) of eucalypt and pine seedlings by up to 105% where Scleroderma mycorrhizas developed. The results suggest that there is a need to source Scleroderma from outside China for inoculating eucalypts in Chinese nurseries whereas Chinese collections of Scleroderma could be used in pine nurseries. Further screening of Australian and Chinese Scleroderma should be performed in Chinese nurseries and in the field before final commercial decisions are made. PMID:16534620

  18. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 μm) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses.

  19. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 μm) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

  20. Consistent and stable expression of the nptII, uidA and bar genes in transgenic Pinus radiata after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using nurse cultures.

    PubMed

    Charity, J A; Holland, L; Grace, L J; Walter, C

    2005-02-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol has been developed for embryogenic cell cultures of Pinus radiata. Transgenic lines were only produced when embryogenic tissue was placed on nurse tissue during the Agrobacterium co-cultivation and recovery stages of the procedure. Plantlets were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from ten of the 11 transgenic lines tested and at least 20 of each line were planted in a GMO glasshouse. Expression of the nptII, uidA and bar genes in up to ten plants of each individual transgenic line was evaluated by molecular, biochemical and functional analysis. As expected, expression of the nptII gene varied among the ten lines, while within ten replicates of the same line, nptII expression appeared to be consistent, with the exception of one line, K3. Likewise, the level of GUS activity varied among transgenic lines, but was relatively consistent in plants derived from the same tissue, except for two lines, G4 and G5. Moreover, similar absolute values and pattern of gene expression of uidA was observed in the transgenic plants, for two consecutive years. Plantlets from eight lines survived a spray treatment with the equivalent of 2 kg/ha and 4 kg/ha of the commercial formulation Buster, whereas non-transformed controls died. Southern hybridisation analysis of embryogenic tissue and green needle tissue from putative transgenic lines demonstrated a relatively low number of gene insertions (from one to nine) of both the bar and nptII genes in the nine transgenic lines tested.

  1. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled “The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata” (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  2. Seasonal differences in needle gas exchange between mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D. )

    1991-05-01

    In 1990, an interactive study was initiated to understand the differing physiological and morphological response of mature tissue and seedling tissue to stress. The study was conducted at the Air Pollution and Climate Change Exposure Facility in a Pinus ponderosa seed production orchard at the US Forest Service Tree Improvement Center in Chico, CA. The orchard consists of clonal trees and the authors have planted half-sibling seedlings which correspond to the mature clones which were measured. Both the mature trees and seedlings were regularly irrigated and fertilized. The result is that they have minimized the genetic and environmental differences that might otherwise influence the physiological differences between mature and seedling tissue. One of the physiological parameters which was measured was seasonal and diurnal gas exchange using a LICOR 6200. They measured gas exchange in November 1989, March, July, and October 1990. They found that throughout the year, all gas exchange components (eg. photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance) were significantly greater for seedling tissue. Photosynthetic differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 1.1 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and 0.5 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Transpiration differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 2.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}2{sup {minus}1} and 1.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Finally, gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue were greater for current needles than one-year old needles. The results of this study demonstrate that gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue observed in the field may be the result of inherent physiological differences, and not merely genetic and environmental differences.

  3. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the tree foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata, Pinus radiata and Populus hybridus in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. H.; Wannaz, E. D.; Salazar, M. J.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-08-01

    A pollution gradient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, Populus hybridus and one-year-old needles of Pinus radiata were collected, and concentrations of 12 PAHs including the so-called EPA priority pollutants as well as heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were analysed. The PAH concentrations indicated a steep pollution gradient in the study area associated with the Al-industry, while the heavy metal content was unrelated to this activity. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in the deposition of PAH in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account the potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  4. Maturation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings after exposure to a period of continuous light.

    PubMed

    Lascoux, D M; Notivol Paino, E; Sierra De Grado, R; Kremer, A; Dormling, I

    1993-06-01

    Nine half-sib families of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) of known adult performance were grown in continuous light at either 25 degrees C or 25/20 degrees C for 18 weeks. They were then exposed to a dormancy induction period followed by a dormancy release period and then grown for a further 9 weeks in a 16-h photoperiod at a day/night temperature of 25/20 degrees C. Seedlings exhibited great diversity in morphology at the end of the first growth period. The number of morphogenetic cycles varied between one and three and the form of the apical meristem ranged from a typical rosette to an adult-like bud. The type of seedling obtained at the end of the first growth period strongly influenced later growth, independently of the temperature regime. Maturity was proportional to the number of morphogenetic cycles achieved during the first growth period and was characterized by short growth duration, small primary needles and a high degree of fixed growth. The state of the apical meristem that underwent the dormancy period had less influence on the rate of maturation than the number of morphogenetic cycles. The time course of maturation was endogenously controlled and varied among traits. Conspicuous morphological differences were not associated with changes in the relationship between growth components at the phenotypic level. However, there seemed to be a shift in the genetic correlations between growth components after first budset.

  5. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment.

  6. The effects of nutrient limitation (nitrogen and phosphorus) on BOD removal from post-coagulated Pinus radiata sulfite pulp and paper mill wastewater in a baffled aerated stabilisation basin-laboratory pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Dewi, R; Van Leeuwen, J A; Everson, A; Nothrop, S C; Chow, C W K

    2011-01-01

    The use of coagulation and flocculation for tertiary treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent was investigated, where the evaluation was based on the removal of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and BOD from post-coagulated wastewater. The study was undertaken on laboratory scale aerobic stabilisation basins (ASB). Two post coagulated (alum) wastewaters were studied, where the BOD:N:P ratios were 100:1.3:0.06 and 100:1.3:0.3. These wastewaters were treated in two identical concurrent simulations (A & B). The influent ratio for 'A' was selected representing the composition of actual coagulated Pinus radiata sulfite pulp effluent mixed with paper mill effluent. The input composition for 'B' represented a typical P concentration found in existing pulp and paper mill effluents. Unmodified sludge collected from a mill-pond was added at 4% v/v to each simulation replicating the treatment conditions at full-scale. Similar high percentage removals of BOD and COD occurred after 28 days (two HRTs) which were 94 and 67% respectively for 'A', and 98 and 70% respectively for 'B', where both remained at steady state during the third HRT. A statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the sample variance of the BOD and COD results.

  7. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Meijón, Mónica; Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species. PMID:25965766

  8. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Valledor, Luis; Pascual, Jesús; Meijón, Mónica; Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  9. Progress report for the project: Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Benes, S.E.; Phelps, S.P.; Loeffler, A.T.

    1990-09-01

    This progress report details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) performance regarding the projects Comparison of the Response of Mature Branches and Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to Atmospheric Pollution'' and Effects of Ozone, acid Precipitation, and Their Interactions on Mature Branches and Seedlings of Ponderosa Pine'' for the months of November 1989 to June 1990. During the last eight months, we have initiated ozone and acid precipitation exposures, and we began intensive growth, morphological, and physiological measurements. During these major physiological measurement periods, we measured photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, respiration, antioxidant activity, pigmentation, and foliar nutrient concentration. We have also concluded the analysis of our branch autonomy experiment, which we conducted in the fall. We determined that virtually no carbon is exported among branches in close proximity to one another. This conclusion assists in validating the approach of using branches and branch exposure chambers as a means of assessing the effects of air pollution on mature trees of Ponderosa pine. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Modeling the physiological and growth responses of mature Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Laurence, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Using the TREGRO model we simulated the effects of altered CO{sub 2} (+200 {mu}L/L), temperature (+4{degrees}C) and O{sub 3} (0.5x, 1x and 2x ambient) on the physiology and growth of Pinus ponderosa. Photosynthesis (Pn) increased at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature, enhancing total tree growth 29% and 13%, respectively. In both scenarios the greatest increase in dry matter was in fine root biomass. Ozone at all exposures reduced Pn, total tree growth was unaffected at 0.5x O{sub 3}, however, at higher O{sub 3} total growth was reduced 19% (1x) and 39% (2x). Reductions in fine root biomass and total non-structural carbohydrate dominated at all O{sub 3} exposures. Increased Pn at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature reduced, but did not eliminate, O{sub 3}-induced growth reductions. In the model changes in Pn and stomatal conductance largely determined the growth response to multiple climatic alterations, however, changes in fine root biomass may control growth response in the field.

  11. Modeling the response of mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. to tropospheric ozone: Effects of genotypic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. ); Weinstein, D.A.; Laurence, J.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Regionally distributed pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone and CO[sub 2]) can influence the growth of terrestrial plants. The mosaic of genotypes in natural populations makes it difficult to predict the ecological consequences of pollutants throughout a species' distribution. We simulated the response of Pinus ponderosa Laws to ambient, sub-ambient and above-ambient troposopheric O[sub 3] for 3 years using TREGRO, a physiologically based three growth model. Parameters controlling growth and carbon allocation were obtained from the literature and were varied to simulate intravarietal and intervarietal genotypes (western var. Ponderosa and eastern var. Scopulorum) of Ponderosa Pine. Parameter differences between the varieties include physiology, carbon allocation and phenoloy. Ozone altered 3 year biomass gain (+6% to 61%) and fine root to leaf mass ratio ([minus]8% to [minus]14%) in spite of a small effect on photosynthesis ([<=] 10%). Overall, O[sub 3] caused growth differences between varieties to be reduced. The reduction in growth differences between genotypes due to ozone has consequences for regional identification of populations sensitive to the effects of tropospheric ozone.

  12. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  13. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  14. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

  15. Effects of simulated acid rain and ozone on foliar chemistry of field-grown Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature trees.

    PubMed

    Momen, B; Helms, J A

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the additive and interactive effects of simulated acid rain and elevated ozone on C and N contents, and the C:N ratio of one-year-old and current-year foliage of field-grown mature trees and their half-sib seedlings of a stress tolerant genotype of ponderosa pine. Acid rain levels (pH 5.1 and 3.0) were applied weekly to foliage only (no soil acidification or N addition), from January to April, 1992. Plants were exposed to two ozone levels (ambient and twice-ambient) during the day from September 1991 to November 1992. The sequential application of acid rain and elevated ozone mimicked the natural conditions. Twice-ambient ozone significantly decreased foliar N content (by 12-14%) and increased the C:N ratio of both one-year-old and current-year foliage of seedlings. Although similar ozone effects were also observed on one-year-old foliage of mature trees, the only statistically significant effect was an increased C:N ratio when twice-ambient ozone combined with pH 3.0 rain (acid rain by ozone interaction). Enhancing the effect of twice-ambient ozone in increasing the C:N ratio of one-year-old foliage of mature trees in June was the only significant effect of acid rain.

  16. Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Surano, K.A.; Cowles, S.; Costella, M.P.; Benes, S.E.; Anderson, P.D.

    1989-03-01

    Our first objective, the development and construction of a branch exposure chamber is near completion. We have conducted numerous tests on the BEC environment. Further characterization of the BEC internal environment will continue up until the time of field deployment. Continued BEC testing will enable us to improve the basic BEC design, and evaluate the effects of modifications made for delivery of acid precipitation. We have also made significant progress in the actual construction of the 90 BEC chambers that will be needed in the ozone and acid precipitation studies. To date, we have assembled BEC frames and fan housing components for all 90 BEC chambers to be used in the ozone and acid precipitation studies. Our second experimental objective, testing for branch autonomy, is in progress. We have completed the first of two pulse-studies, with final results of the first pulse-chase study expected in January 1989. The third major objective of our study is the actual exposure of the mature and seeding tissue. This aspect of our study is scheduled to begin in early 1989, and we expect to be on schedule. We are continually preparing for the establishment of our remote field site. Preparation has included the selection and finalization of our field site (USFS Tree Improvement Center, Chico, California). We have also serviced all analyzers that will be used at the field site and we have renovated the instrument trailers that will house all analytical equipment. We have also begun writing the necessary data acquisition and control program using a recently acquired Hewlett-Packard 9816 computer. 32 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Monoterpene alkaloids from Argylia radiata.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bonadies, Francesco; Cianciolo, Valeria; Melchioni, Cristiana; Ramunno, Alessia; Dezzi, Sandro; Nicoletti, Marcello; Serafini, Mauro; Ballero, Mauro

    2002-04-01

    Argylia radiata (L.) D. Don (Bignoniaceae) represents an important source of secondary metabolites, largely unexplored. The paper presents the isolation from the plant root of two new monoterpene alkaloids, 10-acetoxy-actinidine and 4-nor-7,8-dehydro-10-hydroxy-skytanthine, whose structures were elucidated by Mass spectrometry and 1H-NMR data.

  18. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp.

  19. An investigation of the effects of simulated acid rain and elevated ozone on the physiology of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings and mature trees

    SciTech Connect

    Momen, B.

    1993-12-31

    This study investigated the combined effects of simulated acid rain and ozone on foliar water relations, carbon and nitrogen contents, gas exchange, and respiration of ponderosa pine seedlings and mature trees grown in the field at the USDA Forest Service Tree Improvement Center in Chico, California. Acid rain levels (pH 5.1 and 3) were applied weekly on foliage only, from January to April, 1992. Plants were exposed to ozone levels (ambient and twice ambient) during the day only, from August to December, 1990, and from September to November, 1992. Results suggested that elevated ozone, particularly in combination with strong acid, caused osmotic adjustment that may benefit plants during drought. The observed effects of pollutants are similar to the reported effects of drought on plant water relations. Elevated ozone decreased foliar nitrogen content and thus increased the C:N ratio, particularly in seedlings. Stomatal conductance was not affected by pollutants but net photosynthesis was decreased by elevated ozone, especially in mature trees. The greater sensitivity of net photosynthesis of mature trees to elevated ozone was contrary to all other plant characteristics investigated. Elevated ozone increased seedling respiration. Under controlled, temperature, light, and vapor pressure deficit conditions, net photosynthesis responded positively to increases in plant age, light intensity, and rain pH, but negatively to increases in tissue age, heat, and ozone concentration. Overall results indicated that acid rain and elevated ozone declined the carbon pool of ponderosa pine due to increased respiration and decreased net photosynthesis. Pollutant effects were more profound in mid-summer when ozone concentrations were highest. On many occasions the effects of acid rain and ozone levels interacted. Seedlings were more sensitive to pollutants than mature trees.

  20. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Anne C S; Macdonald, S Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  1. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure and Soil Characteristics of Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta) and Adjacent Stands of Old Growth Mixed Conifer in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Robert B.; Parker, V. Thomas; Cullings, Kenneth W.; Sun, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Forest development patterns following disturbance are known to influence the physical and chemical attributes of soils at different points in time. Changes in soil resources are thought to have a corresponding effect on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure. We used molecular methods to compare below-ground ECM species richness, composition, and abundance between adjacent stands of homogenous lodgepole pine and old growth mixed conifer in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). In each stand-type we collected soil cores to both identify mycorrhizae and assess soil chemistry. Although no statistical difference was observed in the mean number of ECM root tips per core between stand types, the total number of species identified (85 versus 35) and the mean number of species per core (8.8 +/- 0.6 versus 2.5 +/- 0.3) were significantly higher in lodgepole pine. Differences between the actual and estimated species richness levels indicated that these forest types support a high number of ECM species and that undersampling was severe. Species compositions were widely disparate between stands where only four species were shared out of a total of 116. Soil analysis also revealed that mixed conifer was significantly lower in pH, but higher in organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, and ammonium when compared to lodgepole pine stands. Species richness per core was correlated with these chemical data, however, analysis of covariance indicated that stand type was the only statistically significant factor in the observed difference in species richness. Our data suggest that ECM fungal richness increases as homogenous lodgepole pine stands grow and mature, but declines after Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir colonize. Despite difficulties linking species composition with soil chemistry, there are a variety of physical and chemical factors that could be influencing ECM community structure. Future field experiments are necessary to test some of the mechanisms potentially operating

  2. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Anne C. S.; Macdonald, S. Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A.

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  3. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Anne C S; Macdonald, S Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  4. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    PubMed

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  5. Metabolites and hormones are involved in the intraspecific variability of drought hardening in radiata pine.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Saiz-Fernández, I; Rodríguez, J L; Pérez-Alfocea, P; Sampedro, M C; Barrio, R J; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies of metabolic and physiological bases of plant tolerance and hardening against drought are essential to improve genetic breeding programs, especially in productive species such as Pinus radiata. The exposure to different drought cycles is a highly effective tool that improves plant conditioning, but limited information is available about the mechanisms that modulate this process. To clarify this issue, six P. radiata breeds with well-known differences in drought tolerance were analyzed after two consecutive drought cycles. Survival rate, concentration of several metabolites such as free soluble amino acids and polyamines, and main plant hormones varied between them after drought hardening, while relative growth ratio and water potential at both predawn and dawn did not. Hardening induced a strong increase in total soluble amino acids in all breeds, accumulating mainly those implicated in the glutamate metabolism (GM), especially L-proline, in the most tolerant breeds. Other amino acids from GM such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-arginine (Arg) were also strongly increased. GABA pathway could improve the response against drought, whereas Arg acts as precursor for the synthesis of spermidine. This polyamine showed a positive relationship with the survival capacity, probably due to its role as antioxidant under stress conditions. Finally, drought hardening also induced changes in phytohormone content, showing each breed a different profile. Although all of them accumulated indole-3-acetic acid and jasmonic acid and reduced zeatin content in needles, significant differences were observed regarding abscisic acid, salicylic acid and mainly zeatin riboside. These results confirm that hardening is not only species-dependent but also an intraspecific processes controlled through metabolite changes.

  6. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment.

  7. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment

  8. Investigation into the lignin decomposition mechanism by analysis of the pyrolysis product of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Jae, Jungho; Myung, Soyoung; Sung, Bong Hyun; Dong, Jong-In; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-11-01

    Lignin pyrolysis chemistry was investigated via the analysis of the products obtained from the fast pyrolysis of a pine wood at different temperatures. Methoxy phenols, such as guaiacols and eugenols, were produced mainly at 375 and 475°C, while non-methoxy phenols, such as alkyl phenols and pyrocatechols were dominant at 525 and 575°C. At 575°C, aromatic hydrocarbons were formed together with larger amounts of light hydrocarbon gases. When the temperature was increased from 375 and 475°C, the yield of pyrolytic lignin was increased, whereas its average molecular weight was decreased. At 525°C, smaller molecular pyrolytic lignin with a maximum concentration of phenolic hydroxyl groups was produced due to the increased secondary cracking of the reaction intermediates. On the other hand, at 575°C, larger molecular pyrolytic lignin with smaller amounts of phenolic hydroxyl groups was produced due to the increased condensation activity of the pyrolysis reaction intermediates. PMID:27501034

  9. SILENCING OF 4-COUMARATE-CoA LIGASE IN PINUS RADIATA, A CONIFEROUS GYMNOSPERM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) is involved in the general phenylpropanoid pathway and provides monolignol precursors such as p-coumaroyl-CoA, ultimately for the biosynthesis of lignin. Recombinant studies designed to assess the role of 4CL in the lignification process have focused on angios...

  10. Chemistry of throughfall, stemfall and litterfall in fertilized and irrigated Pinus radiata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, R. H.; Khanna, P. K.

    1997-09-01

    The chemical inputs by rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were studied in a pine plantation located in Pierces Creek Forest, Canberra, Australia. Three treatments were included in the study: a control (C) and two fertilizer treatments. The first fertilizer treatment (F) involved two applications of mixed fertilizers at high rates, the second (IL) involved application of a complete liquid fertilizer with irrigation, so as to remove nutrient and water restrictions to growth. The application rates of nutrients were higher for IL than F. Net inputs of elements in throughfall and stemflow, obtained by subtracting the amounts in the rainfall, were compared for different treatments.For cations (the sum of Ca, Mg, Na and K), the treatment effect on leaching by throughfall and stemflow was IL > F > C; but the F to C differences were greater for throughfall than stemflow. The effects were almost entirely due to increases in concentration, rather than the amount of rainfall becoming throughfall or stemflow.The concentration of nitrogen (as NH4 or NO3) in throughfall or stemflow could be lower or higher than in rainfall, indicating net removal or leaching, respectively. Net removal occurred for most rainfall events for the control treatment, for a substantial number of events for treatment F, but for few events for treatment IL. The ammonium ion was preferentially removed from throughfall, and nitrate from stemflow.Transfers of potassium and total nitrogen by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow were also studied. The proportions of potassium and nitrogen being transferred by these processes showed little difference between treatments; the overall values for potassium being 60% by throughfall, 4% by stemflow and 36% by litterfall. In contrast the transfer of nitrogen was dominated by litterfall (81%), with 18% by throughfall and 1% by stemflow.

  11. Bioassay conditions for infection of Pinus radiata seedlings with Phytophthora pinifolia zoospores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora pinifolia is known to cause a devastating disease on Monterey pines in Chile. Although this pathogen is not yet present in the U.S., there is reason for concern. The main source of Monterey pine genetic material is found in California and there is potential for other important tree sp...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of mungbean Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 and a phylogenetic analysis of crops in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The entire mitogenome of the Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 was identified as a circular molecule of 401 262 bp length (DDBJ accession number: AP014716). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the NM92 mitogenome were found to be 27.48%, 27.41%, 22.63%, and 22.48%, respectively. The NM92 mitogenome encoded 3 rRNAs, 16 tRNAs and 33 proteins. Eight protein-coding genes (nad1, nad2, nad4, nad5, nad7, rps3, and rps10) centain introns. Among them, three (nad1, nad2, and nad5) are trans-spliced genes. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the 21 protein-coding genes of 16 crops. A species of gymnosperms, Cycas, was selected as the outgroup. This complete mitogenome sequence provides useful information to understand the cultivation of Vigna radiata and other crops.

  14. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  15. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Ko, Chia-Yun; Kuo, Ching-I; Liu, Mao-Sen; Schafleitner, Roland; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911). In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum), two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays), two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba) and one moss (Physcomitrella patens). Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants.

  16. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ching-I; Liu, Mao-Sen; Schafleitner, Roland; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911). In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum), two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays), two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba) and one moss (Physcomitrella patens). Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants. PMID:26076132

  17. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Ko, Chia-Yun; Kuo, Ching-I; Liu, Mao-Sen; Schafleitner, Roland; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911). In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum), two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays), two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba) and one moss (Physcomitrella patens). Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants. PMID:26076132

  18. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  19. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively.

  20. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. PMID:26041181

  1. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2012-05-01

    A seventy percent ethanol from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guided fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 6.3 and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first study on the active compositions of azuki beans against mushroom tyrosinase.

  2. Psychosis post corona radiata and lentiform nucleus infarction.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Khadijah Hasanah Abang; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Sharip, Shalisah; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul

    2015-04-02

    Complications of stroke can include neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, post-stroke psychosis is rare. We report a case where an acute presentation of psychosis, depression and fluctuating cognitive impairment in a middle-aged man turned out to be related to a silent brain infarction. The patient had a background of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with glycated haemoglobin level of 9.0-11.0%, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. His CT brain results showed multifocal infarct with hypodensities at bilateral lentiform nucleus and bilateral corona radiata. His strong genetic predisposition of psychosis and a history of brief psychotic disorder with complete remission 3 years prior to the current presentation might possibly contribute to his post-stroke atypical neuropsychiatric presentation, and posed diagnostic challenges. He showed marked improvement with risperidone 6 mg nocte, chlorpromazine 50 mg nocte and fluvoxamine of 200 mg nocte. The need of comprehensive treatments to modify his stroke risk factors was addressed.

  3. [Acceleration of Embryonic Development of Pinus sibirica Trees with a One-Year Reproductive Cycle].

    PubMed

    Tret'yakova, I N; Lukina, N V

    2016-01-01

    The study of the formation of embryonic structures in Pinus sibirica forms with a one-year reproductive cycle showed that the acceleration of the embryonic process manifested itself as a reduction of the coenocytic stage of the female gametophyte development (1.5 months instead of 1 year). The egg was not fertilized because of the asynchronous maturation of male and female gametophytes. Seeds without embryos were formed. We assumed that the acceleration of the reproductive process in Pinus sibirica was caused by a mutation in the female generative organs.

  4. [Acceleration of Embryonic Development of Pinus sibirica Trees with a One-Year Reproductive Cycle].

    PubMed

    Tret'yakova, I N; Lukina, N V

    2016-01-01

    The study of the formation of embryonic structures in Pinus sibirica forms with a one-year reproductive cycle showed that the acceleration of the embryonic process manifested itself as a reduction of the coenocytic stage of the female gametophyte development (1.5 months instead of 1 year). The egg was not fertilized because of the asynchronous maturation of male and female gametophytes. Seeds without embryos were formed. We assumed that the acceleration of the reproductive process in Pinus sibirica was caused by a mutation in the female generative organs. PMID:27149748

  5. Life table of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Torres, Mariuxi Lorena; Nava, Dori Edson; Parra, José Roberto Postali

    2012-04-01

    Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922) is the main parasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama, 1907), and has been used in classical biological control programs in several countries. The current study investigated the biology and determined the fertility life table of T. radiata in different temperatures, to obtain information to support the establishment of a biological control program for D. citri in Brazil. Fifth-instar nymphs of D. citri were offered to females of T. radiata for parasitism, for 24 h. Then, the parasitoid was removed and the nymphs were placed in incubators at 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14-h photophase. The percentages of parasitism and emergence, the sex ratio, and the preimaginal period of T. radiata were determined. The fertility life table was developed from the biological data. The highest parasitism rate (77.24%) was obtained at a temperature of 26.3 degrees C, and the lowest parasitism rates occurred at 15 and 35 degrees C (23.1 and 40.2%, respectively). The highest percentages of emergence of the parasitoid occurred at 25, 30, and 35 degrees C (86.7, 88.3, and 78.8%, respectively), with the calculated peak at 30.8 degrees C (89.90%). The duration of the preimaginal developmental period for both females and males of T. radiata was inversely proportional to temperature in the thermal range of 15-35 degrees C. The development of T. radiata occurred at all temperatures studied, and the highest viability of the preimaginal period occurred at 25 degrees C. The highest values of net reproductive rate and finite growth ratio (lambda) were observed at 25 degrees C, so that in each generation the population of T. radiata increased 126.79 times, higher than the values obtained at the other temperatures.

  6. Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, John O.

    1973-01-01

    Research in the field of Career Maturity is reviewed and summarized, with particular attention to Super's Career Pattern Study, Gribbons and Lohnes' Career Development Study, and Crites' Vocational Development Project. Crites' organization and revision into a hierarchical structure of the five dimensions of vocational maturity proposed in Supers'…

  7. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  8. Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function. PMID:22404678

  9. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  10. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  11. Early Water Yield Effects of Conversion of Slopes of a Eucalypt Forest Catchment to Radiata Pine Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren, L. J.; Papworth, M.

    1991-09-01

    Between 1975 and 1987 the water yield from three small, contiguous, forested catchments carrying similar vegetation in southeastern Australia was measured. These were located in humid, steep foothill areas subject to a major plantation program. At the project start all catchments carried mature, natural eucalypt forest. In their natural state the catchments exhibited similar annual hydrologic variation and water yields, with a pronounced low-flow period in summer and autumn, and high flows in winter and spring. One catchment was converted from native eucalypt forest to radiata pine by clearing, burning, and planting in December 1979. A 30-m buffer was retained along the stream. The treatment increased the water yield of the catchment by up to 3.5 ML ha-1, a 47% increase on average. The actual yield increase varied from year to year, and appeared to decline slowly with time from the conversion. Most of the increase was as increased storm flow in the early part of winter. The relation between the storm flow, causal rainfall, and antecedent flow did not appear to be changed by the treatment, suggesting that most of the storm flow response is attributable to increased catchment wetness at the end of the dry summer period.

  12. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  13. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes. PMID:26155963

  14. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  15. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species. PMID:23760570

  16. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  17. Effect of habitat and age on variations in volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, R. A.; Owen, S.; Duckham, S. C.; Boissard, C.; Hewitt, C. N.

    A dynamic branch enclosure was used to measure emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under field conditions from two common native Mediterranean species, Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea. In addition to α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, limonene and cineole, a suite of lesser known compounds were tentatively identified including cis- and trans-ocimene, cis- and trans-linalool oxide and sabinaketone. Emissions of isoprene from Quercus ilex were insignificant in comparison to those of the monoterpenes and were not detected from Pinus pinea. Variability in emission rates between two habitats, the forest and the dunes, were assessed for Quercus ilex. Temperature sensitivities of emissions and total summed emission rates from Quercus ilex were clearly related to environmental conditions. Emission rates from Pinus pinea showed great variability, but differences between normalised mean emission rates from mature forest and young plantation trees may be significant. Existing emission rate models were found to inadequately describe the observed data.

  18. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on germination, metabolism and early growth of green gram, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Yuan, Haiyan; Liu, Haijun; Yu, Chan; Cai, Minmin

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the leguminous plant, Vigna radiata L. Seed germination, metabolism and early growth performance of V. radiata L. were studied as parameters by applying a combined approach. The employed combined method which included microcalorimetry and analysis of the root cross section revealed dose dependent effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on V. radiata L. for most parameters. Although significant reductions in measured parameters were observed even at low total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels such as 1 % and 1.5 %, calculated inhibitions, IC50 values and metabolic heat emission-time curves inferred that substantial negative effects can be expected on V. radiata L. in soils with comparatively high contamination levels, such as 2.5 % TPH and higher.

  19. [Effect of precursor on growth and accumulation of alkaloids of Lycoris radiata suspension cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqiong; Li, Yong; Zhou, Jianhui; Chen, Na; Wang, Meifang; Dong, Zhaorong; Gao, Cuiyun; Zhong, Yanlong

    2014-02-01

    In order to investigate the effects of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tyramine on the growth of Lycoris radiata suspension cells and the accumulation of alkaloids, the growth quantity of the cells as well as the content of alkaloids in cells were determined, which were treated with above three kinds of precursors alone and phenylalanine combined with tyrosine respectively. The results indicate that the addition of phenylalanine alone and addition of phenylalanine on the basis of tyrosine at high concentration (200 micromol/L) had no significant effect on the growth of Lycoris radiata suspension cells and the content of alkaloids in cells; whereas tyrosine and tyramine promoted the growth of the cells and alkaloids accumulation. Treated with tyrosine at high concentration (200 micromol/L), the content of alkaloids of the cells was 2.56-fold higher than that of the control group, the amounts of lycoramine (3.77 mg/g) and galanthamine (4.46 mg/g) were 6.61-fold and 6.97-fold higher than that of the control group, respectively. When treated with tyramine (200 micromol/L), the amount of alkaloids in Lycoris radiata suspension cells was 2.63-fold higher than that of the control group, and the amounts of lycoramine (4.45 mg/g) and galanthamine (5.14 mg/g) were 9.08-fold and 9.18-fold higher than that of the control group, respectively. The above results demonstrate that adding tyrosine and tyramine in the media significantly promoted the growth of the Lycoris radiata suspension cells and alkaloids accumulation in the cells. PMID:24945053

  20. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling of Shoot-Derived Calli from Adult Radiata Pine and Zygotic Embryo-Derived Embryonal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mendiguren, O.; Montalbán, I. A.; Stewart, D.; Moncaleán, P.; Klimaszewska, K.; Rutledge, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although somatic embryogenesis has an unprecedented potential for large-scale clonal propagation of conifers, the ability to efficiently induce the embryonal cultures required for somatic embryo production has long been a challenge. Furthermore, because early stage zygotic embryos remain the only responsive explants for pines, it is not possible to clone individual trees from vegetative explants at a commercial scale. This is of particular interest for adult trees because many elite characteristics only become apparent following sexual maturation. Findings Shoot explants collected from adult radiata pine trees were cultured on four induction media differing in plant growth regulator composition, either directly after collection or from in vitro-generated axillary shoots. Six callus lines were selected for microscopic examination, which failed to reveal any embryonal masses (EM). qPCR expression profiling of five of these lines indicated that explant type influenced the absolute level of gene expression, but not the type of genes that were expressed. The analysis, which also included three EM lines induced from immature zygotic embryos, encompassed five categories of genes reflective of metabolic, mitotic and meristematic activity, along with putative markers of embryogenicity. Culture medium was found to have no significant impact on gene expression, although differences specific to the explant’s origin were apparent. Expression of transcriptional factors associated with vegetative meristems further suggested that all of the callus lines possessed a substantive vegetative character. Most notable, however, was that they all also expressed a putative embryogenic marker (LEC1). Conclusions While limited in scope, these results illustrate the utility of expression profiling for characterizing tissues in culture. For example, although the biological significance of LEC1 expression is unclear, it does present the possibility that these callus lines possess

  2. Lethal and Sublethal Impacts of Acaricides on Tamarixia radiata (Hemiptera: Eulophidae), an Important Ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Lira, A C S; Zanardi, O Z; Beloti, V H; Bordini, G P; Yamamoto, P T; Parra, J R P; Carvalho, G A

    2015-10-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) in biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus orchards. We evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to T. radiata. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (mortality >77%) to T. radiata. Abamectin, diflubenzuron, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, propargite, spirodiclofen, and sulfur caused low acute toxicity and affected the parasitism rate and emergence rate of adults (F1 generation), and were considered slightly harmful to T. radiata. Dicofol and pyridaben did not affect the survival and action of the ectoparasitoid, and were considered harmless. In addition to its acute toxicity, carbosulfan caused mortality higher than 25% for >30 d after application, and was considered persistent. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, and sulfur caused mortalities over 25% until 24 d after application and were considered moderately persistent; abamectin was slightly persistent, and fenbutatin oxide was short lived. Our results suggest that most acaricides used to control pest mites in citrus affect the density and efficacy of T. radiata in the biological control of D. citri. However, further evaluations are needed in order to determine the effect of these products on this ectoparasitoid under field conditions.

  3. Lethal and Sublethal Impacts of Acaricides on Tamarixia radiata (Hemiptera: Eulophidae), an Important Ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Lira, A C S; Zanardi, O Z; Beloti, V H; Bordini, G P; Yamamoto, P T; Parra, J R P; Carvalho, G A

    2015-10-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) in biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus orchards. We evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to T. radiata. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (mortality >77%) to T. radiata. Abamectin, diflubenzuron, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, propargite, spirodiclofen, and sulfur caused low acute toxicity and affected the parasitism rate and emergence rate of adults (F1 generation), and were considered slightly harmful to T. radiata. Dicofol and pyridaben did not affect the survival and action of the ectoparasitoid, and were considered harmless. In addition to its acute toxicity, carbosulfan caused mortality higher than 25% for >30 d after application, and was considered persistent. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, and sulfur caused mortalities over 25% until 24 d after application and were considered moderately persistent; abamectin was slightly persistent, and fenbutatin oxide was short lived. Our results suggest that most acaricides used to control pest mites in citrus affect the density and efficacy of T. radiata in the biological control of D. citri. However, further evaluations are needed in order to determine the effect of these products on this ectoparasitoid under field conditions. PMID:26453716

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata (L.).

    PubMed

    Charchafchi, Fawzia Al; Al-Nabhani, Iman; Al-Kharousi, Hanan; Al-Quraini, Fatma; Al-Hanai, Amal

    2007-11-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic effect of leaves aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Different methods were used to preparing leaves aqueous extract. Germination percentage and seedling growth of V. radiata significantly decreased gradually as the concentration of the aqueous leaves extracts of A. indica increased in comparison with water control. Severe toxicity was observed at high concentrations and moderate toxicity at low concentrations in comparison with water control. Aqueous leaves extract significantly inhibited root length more than shoot. These results indicated that some kind of inhibitor(s) was the responsible agent for the phytotoxic effect of A. indica on germination and seedling growth of V. radiata. PMID:19090247

  5. Identification of sex pheromone components of jack pine budworm,Choristoneura pinus pinus freeman.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Kuenen, L P; Tan, S H; Roelofs, W L; Sanders, C J; Alford, A R

    1985-02-01

    Chemical identification and field-trapping experiments have shown that a blend of 85∶15 (E,Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetates and 85∶15 (E,Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ols (in a 9∶1 ratio) are female sex pheromone components for jack pine budworm,Choristoneura pinus pinus. This blend of chemicals, formulated in PVC (0.1 %, w/w) sources is as effective a trap bait as virgin females. Preliminary wind tunnel observations have indicated that this blend, effective as a trap bait, is not equivalent to females.

  6. Biofortification of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a whole food to enhance human health.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Yang, Ray-Yu; Easdown, Warwick J; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A; Keatinge, J D H Dyno

    2013-06-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in South, East and Southeast Asia. It provides significant amounts of protein (240 g kg(-1)) and carbohydrate (630 g kg(-1)) and a range of micronutrients in diets. Mungbean protein and carbohydrate are easily digestible and create less flatulence than proteins derived from other legumes. In addition, mungbean is lower in phytic acid (72% of total phosphorus content) than pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and cereals; phytic acid is commonly found in cereal and legume crops and has a negative impact on iron and zinc bioavailability in plant-based diets. Owing to its palatable taste and nutritional quality, mungbean has been used as an iron-rich whole food source for baby food. The wide genetic variability of mineral concentrations (e.g. 0.03-0.06 g Fe kg(-1), 0.02-0.04 g Zn kg(-1)) in mungbean indicates possibilities to improve its micronutrient content through biofortification. Therefore biofortification of existing mungbean varieties has great potential for enhancing the nutritional quality of diets in South and Southeast Asia, where protein and micronutrient malnutrition are among the highest in the world. This review paper discusses the importance of mungbean in agricultural production and traditional diets and the potential of enhancing the nutritional quality of mungbean through breeding and other means, including agronomic practices. PMID:23426879

  7. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  8. Correlative light and scanning electron microscopy of the same sections gives new insights into the effects of pectin lyase on bordered pit membranes in Pinus radiata wood.

    PubMed

    West, Mark; Vaidya, Alankar; Singh, Adya P

    2012-08-01

    Bordered pits are structures in the cell walls of softwood tracheids which permit the movement of water between adjacent cells. These structures contain a central pit membrane composed of an outer porous ring (margo) and an inner dense and pectin-rich disc (torus). The membrane is overarched on each side by pit borders. Pits may be aspirated, a condition where the torus seals against the pit border, effectively blocking the pathway between cells. In living trees this maintains overall continuity of water conduction in xylem by sealing off tracheids containing air. Drying of timber results in further pit aspiration, which reduces wood permeability to liquid treatment agents such as antifungal chemicals. One possible way to increase permeability is by treating wood with pectin lyase to modify or remove the torus. The effectiveness of this treatment was initially evaluated using light microscopy (LM) of toluidine blue stained wood. Pectic material is coloured pink-magenta with this stain, and loss of this colour after treatment has been interpreted as indicating destruction of the torus. However, correlative light (LM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopic observations of identical areas of toluidine blue stained sections revealed that many unstained pits had intact but modified tori when viewed with SEM. These observations indicate that LM alone is not sufficient to evaluate the effects of pectin lyase on pit membranes in wood. Combining LM and SEM gives more complete information. PMID:22464884

  9. SITE SITE DISTURBANCE EFFECTS ON A CLAY SOIL UNDER PINUS RADIATA - ROOT BIOMASS, MYCORRHIZAL COLONISATION, 15AMMONIUM UPTAKE, AND FOLIAR NUTRIENT LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Timber harvesting can result in adverse physical, chemical and biological alterations to soil. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of site disturbance to determine the extent and duration of possible harvesting impacts on soil chemical and biological propertie...

  10. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  11. Immature oocyte quality and maturational competence of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gabriel Martin; Dalvit, Gabriel Carlos; Achi, María Verónica; Miguez, Marcelo Sergio; Cetica, Pablo Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Porcine immature oocyte quality (i.e., that of live oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage) was evaluated according to features of the surrounding cumulus, aiming to establish maturational competence of different subpopulations of such cumulus-oocyte complexes. Six subpopulations were identified: A1 (with a dense cumulus), A2 (with a translucent cumulus), B1 (with the corona radiata), B2 (partly naked oocytes), C (naked oocytes), D (with a dark cumulus). The percent incidence of live oocyte in these subpopulations changed significantly as related to cumulus features, however the occurrence of oocytes in the germinal vesicle stage was lower in class D only. Similar metaphase II rates achieved in A1, A2, B1 and B2 classes after in vitro maturation suggest that the nucleus may in fact mature in vitro, in spite of the different accompanying cumulus features which are typical of these classes. In contrast, a higher cytoplasmic maturation rate obtained in class A may indicate a stronger dependence of this variable upon cumulus features than that shown by nuclear maturation. When different types of cumulus expansion after in vitro maturation were considered (i.e., fully expanded cumulus, partly expanded cumulus, and partly naked oocyte), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes reaching metaphase II or cytoplasmic maturation. It is concluded that morphological features of the collected porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (rather than cumulus behavior during culture) may be useful for selection of potentially competent oocytes for in vitro fertilization and embryo production. PMID:20067032

  12. Oviposition behavior and survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, on hosts exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina ...

  13. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  14. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  15. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  16. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  17. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter spp.” and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  18. Conversion of Milled Pine Wood by Manganese Peroxidase from Phlebia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Hofrichter, Martin; Lundell, Taina; Hatakka, Annele

    2001-01-01

    Purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phlebia radiata was found to convert in vitro milled pine wood (MPW) suspended in an aqueous reaction solution containing Tween 20, Mn2+, Mn-chelating organic acid (malonate), and a hydrogen peroxide-generating system (glucose-glucose oxidase). The enzymatic attack resulted in the polymerization of lower-molecular-mass, soluble wood components and in the partial depolymerization of the insoluble bulk of pine wood, as demonstrated by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The surfactant Tween 80 containing unsaturated fatty acid redsidues promoted the disintegration of bulk MPW. HPSEC showed that the depolymerization yielded preferentially lignocellulose fragments with a predominant molecular mass of ca. 0.5 kDa. MnP from P. radiata (MnP3) turned out to be a stable enzyme remaining active for 2 days even at 37°C with vigorous stirring, and 65 and 35% of the activity applied was retained in Tween 20 and Tween 80 reaction mixtures, respectively. In the course of reactions, major part of the Mn-chelator malonate was decomposed (85 to 87%), resulting in an increase of pH from 4.4 to >6.5. An aromatic nonphenolic lignin structure (β-O-4 dimer), which is normally not attacked by MnP, was oxidizible in the presence of pine wood meal. This finding indicates that certain wood components may promote the degradative activities of MnP in a way similar to that promoted by Tween 80, unsaturated fatty acids, or thiols. PMID:11571160

  19. Macrofauna associated with an introduced oyster, Pinctada radiata: Spatial scale implications of community differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Cosentino, Andrea; Irathni, Ikram; Ghrairi, Hafedh; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben

    2011-01-01

    The macrozoobenthos associated with the introduced pearl oyster Pinctada radiata has been sampled at two different spatial scales of three sectors (order of hundreds of kilometres) and of eight localities (order of tens of kilometres). Moreover, the NW sector was selected to compare three localities with the presence of P. radiata (low density) and one locality where it was totally absent. The first design was hierarchical, with random localities nested within sectors; the second one was an asymmetrical factorial design, in which the presence/absence of Pinctada and hydrodynamism were considered. Similarity relationships were investigated by means of multivariate clustering, similarity percentage analysis and nm-MDS ordination; the two experimental designs have been tested by permutational MANOVA and analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP). Most of the variability of the associated zoobenthic community appeared to be mainly captured by local environmental factors; the meso-scale variability was more discriminating than differences at larger spatial scale. Large scale NW-SE biogeographic gradient may also have some effects in the assemblage composition. Although the whole arrangement of samples in the MDS plane showed a clear Bray-Curtis distance between the locality without Pinctada and all the remaining sites, pair-wise contrasts were not all significant. The factor "presence/absence" was not significant in this design, whereas the exposure was more indicative of differences in the local assemblage composition. These results may not confirm that the community structure variability is due to the impact of Pincata invasion because the potential and subtle community shift may be masked by the overwhelming influence of just the local environmental gradients. In spite of this, the introduced oyster may play the role of an engineer species at high densities, contributing to the complexity of the benthic habitat and influencing the trophic pattern of its fauna.

  20. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (< 5%). These results suggest that the likelihood of significant nontarget impacts is low, and the establishment of T. radiata in southern California for the classical biological control of D. citri poses negligible environmental risk.

  1. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (< 5%). These results suggest that the likelihood of significant nontarget impacts is low, and the establishment of T. radiata in southern California for the classical biological control of D. citri poses negligible environmental risk. PMID:24665694

  2. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  3. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  4. [Temporal variations of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities during the secondary succession of primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountains of Northeast].

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Hui; Xu, Hui

    2013-02-01

    By the method of space-for-time Substitution, and taking the matured (>200 years old) and over-matured (>200 years old) primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests and, their secondary forests at different succession stages (20-, 30-, 50-, 80-, and 100 years old Betula platphylla forests) in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China as test objects, this paper studied the temporal variations of soil organic carbon, soil microbial biomass, and soil enzyme activities during the secondary succession of primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests in the Mountains. Under the 20- and 80 years old B. platphylla forests, the soil organic carbon content in humus layer was the highest (154.8 and 154.3 g.kg-1, respectively); while under the matured and over-matured primary broad-leaved-Pinus koraiensis forests, this organic carbon content was relatively low, being 141. 8 and 133. 4 g.kg , respectively. The soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient and the activities of soil cellulase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and cellobiase under the 50- and 80 years old B. platphylla forests were the highest, but the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase was the lowest, which revealed that under middle-aged and matured B. platphylla forests, soil organic carbon had a faster turnover rate, and was probably in a stronger accumulation phase. Statistical analysis showed that the soil microbial biomass carbon had significant positive correlations with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus (r = 0.943, 0. 963, and 0.953, respectively;

  5. Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedenberg, N.A.; Whited, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; Martinson, S.J.; Ayres, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

  6. Connectivity of the Habitat-Forming Kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among Estuaries and Open Coast

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats. PMID:23717648

  7. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zain; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Adnan, Muhammad; Tariq, Akash

    2014-01-01

    Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29%) was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26%) was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that is, aspartic and glutamic acids, were in considerable amount ranged from 13 to 23% followed by leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, lysine, phenyl alanine, serine, and arginine which fell in the range of 3–8% of total protein. The maximum amount (13.00 and 22.80%) of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in NM-98. Similarly arginine (6.83%) and serine (5.45%) were also in highest amount in this variety. Leucine (7.46%) was maximum in NM-92 variety. NM-06 contained almost all the amino acids in lesser quantity except for few like threonine, proline, glycine, and alanine. It was concluded from the present study that varieties were of different nutritional value and HPLC was a sensitive method for amino acids determination. Antioxidant activities of all three varieties were also assayed and showed significant results. PMID:25401158

  8. Case report of systemic coccidiosis in a radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Dyachenko, Viktor; Aupperle, Heike; Pees, Michael; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Daugschies, Arwid

    2008-02-01

    More than 30 species of coccidian parasites have been described in Chelonidae (tortoises and turtles). Eimeria spp. are apparently the most common coccidia in chelonians. Findings of Caryospora cheloniae, Isospora sp., and Mantonella sp. have also been published, but reports about systemic coccidiosis are rare. We describe a case of a coccidiosis diagnosed cytologically in a radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata) which was captive-bred in Germany. Infection was systemic and involved the lymphoid system. Intracytoplasmatic stages of parasite development were identified cytologically, histologically, and ultrastructurally. The systemic coccidiosis was associated with variable degrees of inflammation in the different organs and contributed substantially to the cause of death in this tortoise. Fragments of coccidian 18S- and 28S-rRNA from the tortoise liver were sequenced; the 18S-rRNA sequence had the highest identity to intranuclear coccidia described previously in a travancore tortoise (Intestudo forstenii) and a leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis). The analysis of maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed relation to species of the order Sarcocystidae. The biology of these coccidia and the route of infection in this case remained unclear.

  9. Centrifugal partition chromatography elution gradient for isolation of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids from Anvillea radiata.

    PubMed

    Destandau, Emilie; Boukhris, Meryem Alaoui; Zubrzycki, Sandrine; Akssira, Mohamed; Rhaffari, Lhoucine El; Elfakir, Claire

    2015-03-15

    An innovative procedure coupling pressurized solvent extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) used in linear gradient elution mode was developed to isolate two pure germacranolides (9α-hydroxyparthenolide and 9β-hydroxyparthenolide) and to separate flavonoids (nepetin, isorhamnetin and jaceosidin) and chlorophyll pigments from aerial parts of Anvillea radiata (Coss.&Durieu). The two main germacranolides recovered using this method represent 2 and 5% of the dried plant material respectively. These molecules were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction with chloroform. After optimization of the CPC method, a two-phase solvent system composed of heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:5:1:5 v/v/v/v) was employed in descending mode to isolate the germacranolides. Then the lower phase of a heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (6:5:6:5 v/v/v/v) system was pumped in descending mode to generate a linear elution gradient, progressively decreasing the mobile phase polarity, that enabled the flavonoid compounds to be separated in the same run. The efficiency of the preparative separation was controlled through RP-HPLC analysis of the obtained fractions using UV, evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometry detection. The structural identification of the two germacranolides purified over 99% was established by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The least abundant flavonoids were identified by mass spectrometry. PMID:25647341

  10. Antioxidant and Myocardial Preservation Activities of Natural Phytochemicals from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Chang, Jiawei; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Liu, Hongxin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-06-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds (MBS) contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This study was aimed to isolate key bioactive components from MBS with antioxidant and myocardial preservation activities. A new flavonoid C-glycoside, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and 14 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were identified by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and FT-ICR-MS spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1-5 and 7-10 displayed 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, but only 5 and 7 exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity. The myocardial preservation effect of 2, 3, and MBS were investigated by measuring the serum levels of LDH, CK, and AST as well as the tissue level of MDA and SOD. The results demonstrated that 2, 3, and MBS had a significant protective effect against ISO-induced myocardial ischemia. MBS can be regarded as a potential new source of antioxidants and myocardial preservation agents.

  11. [Effects of litterfall and root input on soil physical and chemical properties in Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was made on the soil physical and chemical properties in different-aged Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area under effects of litterfall and roots. The annual litter production in mature stand was 19.4% and 65.7% higher than that in nearly mature and middle-aged stands, respectively. The litter standing amount was in the sequence of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, while the litter turnover coefficient was in the order of nearly mature stand (0.51) > mature stand (0.40) > middle-aged stand (0.36). The total root biomass, live root biomass, and dead root biomass were the highest in middle-aged stand, and the lowest in nearly mature stand. In middle-aged stand, soil total porosity was the highest, and soil bulk density was the lowest. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were in the order of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, soil nitrate nitrogen occupied a larger proportion of soil mineral N in nearly mature stand, while ammonium nitrogen accounted more in middle-aged and mature stands. In nearly mature stand, litter production was moderate but turnover coefficient was the highest, and soil nutrient contents were the lowest. In middle-aged stand, root biomass and soil total porosity were the highest, and soil bulk density were the lowest. In mature stand, root biomass was lower while soil nutrient contents were the highest. The increase of root biomass could improve soil physical properties. PMID:23479870

  12. Partial cambial mortality in high-elevation Pinus aristata (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Schauer, A J; Schoettle, A W; Boyce, R L

    2001-04-01

    Partial cambial mortality is a growth form that is characteristic of Pinus aristata trees. To better elucidate their cambial death pattern, tree size and aspect of cambial death data were gathered from three Pinus aristata forests in central Colorado, USA. Stripping frequency tended to be higher for larger diameter classes. Partial cambial mortality exhibits significant directionality within each stand. Furthermore, cambial death was measured to be most frequent on the wind-exposed side of stripped trees in two of the three study sites and appeared to be at the third. Data presented here support the hypothesis that wind plays a role in the occurrence of partial cambial mortality in Pinus aristata. The mechanisms by which wind causes cambial mortality remain unclear. PMID:11302850

  13. Incidence of invasive Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Rogers, Michael E; Hall, David G; Stansly, Philip A

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease "huanglongbing" or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was imported from Asia and released in Florida in 1999-2001 to improve biological control of D. citri before citrus greening was detected in Florida in 2005. Florida citrus groves were surveyed during 2006-2007 for D. citri and T. radiata. Results showed that D. citri was established in all 28 citrus groves surveyed across 16 counties. Adult populations averaged 3.52, 1.27, and 1.66 individuals per "tap" sample at locations in the central, southwest, and eastern coastal regions, respectively. A tap sample consisted of 22- by 28-cm white paper sheet (on a clipboard) held under branches selected at random that were tapped three times. Averages of 67, 44, and 45% citrus shoots infested with psyllid eggs or nymphs were obtained in the central, southwest, and eastern coastal regions, respectively. T. radiata was recovered from fourth- and fifth-instar psyllid nymphs at 26 of the 28 locations. However, apparent parasitism rates were variable and averaged < 20% during spring and summer over all locations. Incidence of parasitism increased during fall at some locations, averaging 39% in September and 56% in November in the central and southwest regions, respectively. Further efforts are warranted to enhance the biological control of D. citri and thereby reduce psyllid populations and spread of citrus greening disease.

  14. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  15. Data Product Maturity

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-25

    ... document, maturity levels are provided separately for each scientific data set (SDS) included with the data files. The data product ... indiscriminate use of these data products as the basis for research findings, journal publications, and/or presentations.   ...

  16. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2(•)- and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2(•)- and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2(•)- was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to (•)OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on (•)OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2(•)- while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening.

  17. Flexibility in Food Extraction Techniques in Urban Free-Ranging Bonnet Macaques, Macaca radiata

    PubMed Central

    Mangalam, Madhur; Singh, Mewa

    2013-01-01

    Non-human primate populations, other than responding appropriately to naturally occurring challenges, also need to cope with anthropogenic factors such as environmental pollution, resource depletion, and habitat destruction. Populations and individuals are likely to show considerable variations in food extraction abilities, with some populations and individuals more efficient than others at exploiting a set of resources. In this study, we examined among urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata (a) local differences in food extraction abilities, (b) between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in problem-solving success and the underlying problem-solving characteristics, and (c) behavioral patterns associated with higher efficiency in food extraction. When presented with novel food extraction tasks, the urban macaques having more frequent exposure to novel physical objects in their surroundings, extracted food material from PET bottles and also solved another food extraction task (i.e., extracting an orange from a wire mesh box), more often than those living under more natural conditions. Adults solved the tasks more frequently than juveniles, and females more frequently than males. Both solution-technique and problem-solving characteristics varied across individuals but remained consistent within each individual across the successive presentations of PET bottles. The macaques that solved the tasks showed lesser within-individual variation in their food extraction behavior as compared to those that failed to solve the tasks. A few macaques appropriately modified their problem-solving behavior in accordance with the task requirements and solved the modified versions of the tasks without trial-and-error learning. These observations are ecologically relevant – they demonstrate considerable local differences in food extraction abilities, between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in food extraction techniques among

  18. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Behavioural assessment of functional recovery after spinal cord hemisection in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Suresh Babu, R; Muthusamy, R; Namasivayam, A

    2000-09-15

    In spinal cord research, current approaches to behavioural assessment often fail in defining the exact nature of motor deficits or in evaluating the return of motor behaviour from lost functions following spinal cord injury. In addition to the assessment of gross motor behaviour, it is often appropriate to use complex tests for locomotion to evaluate the masked deficits in the evaluation of functional recovery after spinal cord injury. We designed a series of sensitive quantitative tests for reflex responses and complex locomotor behaviour in the form of a combined behavioural score (CBS) to assess the recovery of function in the Bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Monkeys were tested for various motor/reflex components, trained to cross different complex runways, and to walk on a treadmill bipedally. The overall performance of animal's motor behaviour and the functional status of individual limb movement during bipedal locomotion was graded and scored by the CBS. Surgical hemisection was then performed on the right side of the spinal cord at the T12-L1 level. Spinal cord hemisected animals showed a significant alteration in certain reflex responses such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through 1 year of follow-up. The spinal cord hemisected animals traversed the complex locomotor runways (Narrow beam and Grid runway) with more steps and few errors, at similar levels to control animals. These observations indicate that the various motor/reflex components and bipedal locomotor behaviour of spinal cord hemisected monkeys return to control levels gradually. These results are similar to those obtained in rat models by other investigators. These results demonstrate that the basic motor strategy and the spinal pattern generator for locomotion (SPGL) in adult monkeys for the accomplishment of complex motor tasks is similar, but not identical, to that in adult rats. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying recovery are probably

  20. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  1. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  2. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  3. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed. PMID:17356853

  4. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed.

  5. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments. PMID:25801369

  6. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments.

  7. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E.; Revill, Andrew T.; Hurd, Catriona L.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world’s oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  8. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  9. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-05-27

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata.

  10. Mechanics of bacteriophage maturation.

    PubMed

    Roos, Wouter H; Gertsman, Ilya; May, Eric R; Brooks, Charles L; Johnson, John E; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2012-02-14

    Capsid maturation with large-scale subunit reorganization occurs in virtually all viruses that use a motor to package nucleic acid into preformed particles. A variety of ensemble studies indicate that the particles gain greater stability during this process, however, it is unknown which material properties of the fragile procapsids change. Using Atomic Force Microscopy-based nano-indentation, we study the development of the mechanical properties during maturation of bacteriophage HK97, a λ-like phage of which the maturation-induced morphological changes are well described. We show that mechanical stabilization and strengthening occurs in three independent ways: (i) an increase of the Young's modulus, (ii) a strong rise of the capsid's ultimate strength, and (iii) a growth of the resistance against material fatigue. The Young's modulus of immature and mature capsids, as determined from thin shell theory, fit with the values calculated using a new multiscale simulation approach. This multiscale calculation shows that the increase in Young's modulus isn't dependent on the crosslinking between capsomers. In contrast, the ultimate strength of the capsids does increase even when a limited number of cross-links are formed while full crosslinking appears to protect the shell against material fatigue. Compared to phage λ, the covalent crosslinking at the icosahedral and quasi threefold axes of HK97 yields a mechanically more robust particle than the addition of the gpD protein during maturation of phage λ. These results corroborate the expected increase in capsid stability and strength during maturation, however in an unexpected intricate way, underlining the complex structure of these self-assembling nanocontainers.

  11. Phagosome maturation: aging gracefully.

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Otilia V; Botelho, Roberto J; Grinstein, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Foreign particles and apoptotic bodies are eliminated from the body by phagocytic leucocytes. The initial stage of the elimination process is the internalization of the particles into a plasma membrane-derived vacuole known as the phagosome. Such nascent phagosomes, however, lack the ability to kill pathogens or to degrade the ingested targets. These properties are acquired during the course of phagosomal maturation, a complex sequence of reactions that result in drastic remodelling of the phagosomal membrane and contents. The determinants and consequences of the fusion and fission reactions that underlie phagosomal maturation are the topic of this review. PMID:12061891

  12. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  13. Characterization of the volatile fraction emitted by Pinus spp. by one- and two-dimensional chromatographic techniques with mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Mateus, E; Barata, R C; Zrostlíková, Jitka; Gomes da Silva, M D R; Paiva, M R

    2010-03-12

    The chemical composition of the needles of P. pinea, P. pinaster, P. halepensis, P. nigra, P. brutia, P. patula, P. radiata, P. taeda, P. elliotti, P. kesiya, P. sylvestris and P. eldarica was investigated. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and steam distillation extraction were used to collect the volatile fractions. Samples were analyzed using one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D-GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) associated with a quadrupole and a time-of-flight mass detectors. Results showed that the analytical capabilities of 1D-GC are partially limited by the separation power of the columns. The higher sensibility and the absence of peak skewing of the time-of-flight mass analyzer, with the use of automated peak finding and deconvolution algorithms, allowed for the detection of trace components with qualitative full spectra and the extraction of true mass spectra from coeluting compounds, promoting their reliable identification and thus significantly improving results obtained by 1D-GC/MS, when using a quadrupole mass analyzer. The use of GC x GC resulted in enhanced separation efficiency and increased signal to noise ratio (sensitivity) of the analytes, maximizing mass spectra quality and improving compound detection and identification. This work shows the use of 1D-GC/ToFMS for the analysis of pine needles volatiles, achieving the detection of 177 compounds, that is more than twice the number previously identified by standard 1D-GC/MS. The analysis by GC x GC for the same sample allowed the detection of 212 compounds. The enantioselective GC x GC analysis performed for all the Pinus spp. under study achieved the detection of 422 different compounds. Cross-over phenomena according to operational conditions are highlighted and discussed.

  14. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  15. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  17. Ionizing radiation induced changes in phenotype, photosynthetic pigments and free polyamine levels in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mandar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2013-05-01

    Effects of gamma rays on the free polyamine (PA) levels were studied in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Seeds exposed to different doses of gamma rays were checked for damage on phenotype, germination frequency and alteration in photosynthetic pigments. Free polyamine levels were estimated from seeds irradiated in dry and water imbibed conditions. Polyamine levels of seedlings grown from irradiated seeds, and irradiated seedlings from unexposed seeds were also measured. Damage caused by gamma irradiation resulted in decrease in final germination percentage and seedling height. Photosynthetic pigments decreased in a dose dependent manner as marker of stress. Polyamines decreased in irradiated dry seeds and in seedlings grown from irradiated seeds. Radiation stress induced increase in free polyamines was seen in irradiated imbibed seeds and irradiated seedlings. Response of polyamines towards gamma rays is dependent on the stage of the life cycle of the plant.

  18. Studies on phytotoxic effect of aluminium on growth and some morphological parameters of Vigna radiata L. Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Neogy, Mala; Datta, Jayanta; Roy, Amit Kumar; Mukherji, Subendhu

    2002-10-01

    Aluminium toxicity is a major deterrent for plant growth in acid soils below pH 5.0. This study deals with effect of aluminium toxicity on growth of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings. Seed germination (in %) declined with increased content of Al2(SO4)3, while promotive effect was observed at very low dosage. Different concentrations of aluminum sulphate salt were applied to mungbean seeds. Measurement of aluminium content in mungbean leaves was done through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Root length (root and hypocotyl length) and shoot length (shoot and epicotyl length) was measured at seven days old seedling stage. Different concentrations of Al2(SO4)3 were found to have significant effect both on shoot and root length. Leaf area, fresh and dry weight was significantly reduced. Increased stomatal frequency and trichome density with an increase in concentrations of Al2(S04)3 was observed through scanning electron microscope.

  19. Simultaneous determination of galanthamine and lycorine in Lycoris radiata by a capillary electrophoresis with an electrochemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanchao; Zhu, Guimei; Li, Xia; Hao, Zaibin

    2014-10-01

    A novel capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence determination method was developed for the determination of two alkaloids based on the electrochemiluminescence signal enhancement effect of the tertiary amine group on tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II). A linear relationship between the electrochemiluminescence peak area and concentrations of galanthamine and lycorine in the range of 0.07 ∼ 17 μg/mL and 0.07 ∼ 18 μg/mL was obtained and the detection limit was 0.008 and 0.002 μg/mL, respectively. The method is selective, simple, and convenient. It had been successfully applied to the analysis of galanthamine and lycorine in Lycoris radiata samples purchased from a local market. PMID:25082559

  20. Halopriming of seeds imparts tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2014-07-01

    The investigation was carried out to study the effect of halopriming on NaCl and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) induced stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties, with varied abiotic stress tolerance potential. Halopriming is a seed priming technique in which the seeds were soaked in various salt solutions (in this study NaCl was used). The results of the study indicated that the application of stresses (both NaCl and PEG) induced retardation of growth attributes (measured in terms of shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight) and decrease in physiological attributes like total chlorophyll content, metabolites, photosynthetic and mitochondrial activity of the seedlings in all three V. radiata (L.) varieties. However, halopriming of the seeds could reduce the extent of decrease in these biological attributes. NaCl and PEG stress also caused increase in MDA content (a product of membrane lipid peroxidation) in all the varieties studied and this increase was significantly minimized under halopriming. From the present investigation it was evident that among the green gram varieties studied, Pusa Vishal, a NaCl tolerant variety showed enhanced tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress, when the seeds were subjected to halopriming followed by Pusa Ratna (stress sensitive variety). Pusa 9531 (drought tolerant variety) also showed positive halopriming effects but it was less significant when compared to other two varieties. It could be concluded that halopriming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all varieties and it was significantly higher in the Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa 9531 and Pusa Ratna.

  1. Microsatellite analyses provide evidence of male-biased dispersal in the radiated tortoise Astrochelys radiata (Chelonia: Testudinidae).

    PubMed

    Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Louis, Edward E; Lapointe, François-Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Dispersal is a major force in shaping the genetic structure and dynamics of species; thus, its understanding is critical in formulating appropriate conservation strategies. In many species, sexes do not face the same evolutionary pressures, and consequently dispersal is often asymmetrical between males and females. This is well documented in birds and mammals but has seldom been investigated in other taxa, including reptiles and, more specifically, nonmarine chelonians. In these species, nest-site fidelity observations are frequent but still remain to be associated with natal homing. Here, we tested for sex-biased dispersal in the radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) from southern Madagascar. Using data from 13 microsatellite markers, we investigated patterns of relatedness between sexes in 2 populations. All Mantel tests indicated significant isolation by distance at the individual level in females but not in males. Furthermore, spatial autocorrelation analyses and 2 analytical approaches designed to assess general trends in sex-specific dispersal also supported male-biased dispersal. On the other hand, comparisons of overall genetic structure among sampling sites did not provide conclusive support for greater philopatry in females, but these tests may have low statistical power because of methodological and biological constraints. Radiated tortoises appear to be both polyandrous and polygynous, and evolutionary processes that may lead to a sex bias in dispersal are discussed with respect to tortoise breeding biology. Female natal homing is hypothesized as a key trait explaining greater female philopatry in A. radiata. These findings highlight the necessity of additional research on natal homing in tortoises, a behavioral trait with direct implications for conservation.

  2. Frequency and direction of hybridization in sympatric populations of Pinus taeda and P. echinata (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards-Burke, M; Hamrick, J; Price, R

    1997-07-01

    Two naturally occurring, sympatric, northern Georgia populations of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) and P. echinata Mill. (shortleaf pine) were examined with respect to genetic diversity within populations and the frequency, spatial distribution, and morphology of putative hybrids. Shortleaf pine predominated at the "road" site while loblolly pine predominated at the "granite outcrop" site. Hybrid individuals were identified by their IDH allozyme genotype, the only such locus known to be fixed for different alleles in the two species. All allozymatically detectable hybrids (34 at the road site and two at the granite outcrop site) were juveniles that were distributed in open, sunny patches. A similar pattern of recruitment was seen for juveniles of the parental species. Hybrids were spatially distant from mature shortleaf pine, suggesting that shortleaf pine was not the seed parent. Discriminant analysis on needle characteristics indicated that loblolly pine was easily distinguished from shortleaf pine and the hybrids, but that shortleaf pine and the hybrids were barely distinguishable from each other. A diagnostic cpDNA restriction site marker indicated that shortleaf pine sired all the hybrids at both sites. No evidence of later generation hybridization was found.

  3. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. )

    1991-05-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution.

  4. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  5. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  6. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  7. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  8. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii.

  9. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  10. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  11. Analytical Modelling of Canopy Interception Loss from a Juvenile Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Lishman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the central interior of British Columbia (BC), Canada, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has severely affected the majority of pine species in the region, especially lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson). The loss of mature lodgepole pine stands, including those lost to salvage logging, has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile pine stands in the interior of BC through planting and natural regrowth. With this change from mature forests to juvenile forests at such a large spatial scale, the water balance of impacted areas may be altered, although the magnitude of such change is uncertain. Previous studies of rainfall partitioning by lodgepole pine and lodgepole pine dominated canopies have focused on mature stands. Thus, rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured and canopy interception loss was derived during the growing season of 2010 in a juvenile lodgepole pine dominated stand located approximately 60 km NNW of Kamloops, BC at 51°12'49" N 120°23'43" W, 1290 m above mean sea level. Scaling up from measurements for nine trees, throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception loss accounted for 87.7, 1.8 and 10.5 percent of the 252.9 mm of rain that fell over 38 events during the study period, respectively. The reformulated versions of the Gash and Liu analytical interception loss models estimated cumulative canopy interception loss at 24.7 and 24.6 mm, respectively, compared with the observed 26.5 mm; an underestimate of 1.8 and 1.9 mm or 6.8 and 7.2% of the observed value, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy interception loss is reduced in juvenile stands compared to their mature counterparts and that this reduction is due to the decreased storage capacity offered by these younger canopies. Evaporation during rainfall from juvenile canopies is still appreciable and may be a consequence of the increased proportion of the canopy exposed to wind during events.

  12. A Socioanalytic Model of Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; Roberts, Brent W.

    2004-01-01

    K0 describes a point of view on maturity that departs from earlier treatments in two ways. First, it rejects the popular assumption from humanistic psychology that maturity is a function of self-actualization and stipulates that maturity is related to certain performance capacities--namely, the ability to form lasting relationships and to achieve…

  13. VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH VOCATIONAL MATURITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REICHMAN, WALTER

    EVIDENCE ABOUT THE CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF PRESUMED VOCATIONAL MATURITY FACTOR SCORES WAS OBTAINED BY STUDYING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FACTORS OF VOCATIONAL MATURITY AND A GROUP OF CONCURRENT VARIABLES DEEMED RELEVANT TO VOCATIONAL MATURITY. THESE VARIABLES WERE CLASSIFIED INTO FIVE GROUPS--FAMILY SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, ABILITY AND ACHIEVEMENT,…

  14. Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    GRUBER, ANDREAS; STROBL, STEFAN; VEIT, BARBARA; OBERHUBER, WALTER

    2011-01-01

    Summary We determined the temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), where radial growth is strongly limited by drought in spring. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees was carried out during 2 contrasting years at two study plots that differ in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded the long-term mean by 6.4 °C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 wk was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, indicating that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature-controlled. Cambial cell division consistently ended about the end of June/early July in both study years. Radial enlargement of tracheids started almost 3 wk earlier in 2007 compared with 2008 at both study plots. At the xeric site, the maximum rate of tracheid production in 2007 and 2008 was reached in early and mid-May, respectively, and c. 2 wk later, at the dry-mesic site. Since in both study years, more favorable growing conditions (i.e., an increase in soil water content) were recorded during summer, we suggest a strong sink competition for carbohydrates to mycorrhizal root and shoot growth. Wood formation stopped c. 4 wk earlier at the xeric compared with the dry-mesic site in both years, indicating a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric than at the dry-mesic site (P < 0.05). Repeated cellular analyses during the two growing seasons revealed that, although spatial variability in the dynamics and duration of cell differentiation processes in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought is strongly

  15. Propolis inhibits osteoclast maturation.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, Roberta; Antony, Kathryn; Johnson, Kristie; Zuo, Jian; Shannon Holliday, L

    2009-12-01

    Propolis, a natural product produced by the honey bee, has been successfully used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. Traumatic injuries to the teeth, especially avulsion injuries, present a challenging situation for the clinician because of post-treatment complications, such as inflammatory and/or replacement resorption. Agents that reduce osteoclast numbers and activity may be useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries to the teeth. In this study, we evaluated propolis as an anti-resorptive agent. Calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures, which contain both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were exposed to the ethanol extracts of propolis or vehicle control and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-activity to identify osteoclasts. A significant, dose-dependent reduction in multinuclear TRAP+ cells was demonstrated, although the propolis treatment accommodated cell growth and survival (P < 0.05). Propolis also reduced the formation of actin rings in pure cultures of RAW 264.7 osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that it exerts direct actions on osteoclast maturation. In summary, our data suggest that propolis inhibits late stages of osteoclast maturation including fusion of osteoclasts precursors to form giant cells and formation of actin rings. This supports the hypothesis that it may prove useful as a medicament to reduce resorption associated with traumatic injuries to the teeth. PMID:19843135

  16. Bionomics of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Associated with Orange Jasmine Hedges in Southeast Central Florida, with Special Reference to Biological Control by Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Rohrig, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it transmits bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya exotica L.) is one of Asian citrus psyllid's preferred host plants and is widely grown as an ornamental hedge. We report on Asian citrus psyllid bionomics over three years at five urban plantings of orange jasmine and on biological control of Asian citrus psyllid by a parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). T. radiata had been released in Florida shortly after Asian citrus psyllid was first found, and the parasitoid was known to be established at each planting. Additionally, three new T. radiata haplotypes were released every 3 wk at three plantings during the first study year (one haplotype per planting, over all releases an average of 17 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge); all three haplotypes were released at a fourth planting beginning midway through the study (over all releases, an average combined total of 202 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge). Asian citrus psyllid populations were present year-round at each planting, often at large levels. Such plantings may pose risk to commercial citrus as Asian citrus psyllid reservoirs. Releases of the new haplotypes did not cause any measurable reduction in Asian citrus psyllid population levels during the study, and ironically percentage parasitism was generally highest at a planting where no releases were made. Higher release rates might have been more effective. The probability is discussed that repetitive pruning of orange jasmine reduced the full potential of T. radiata against Asian citrus psyllid in this study. PMID:26470246

  17. Detoxification potential and expression analysis of eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase (VrALR) during progressive drought and recovery in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debashree; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2012-10-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants is an inevitable consequence of adverse environmental cues and the ability to detoxify deleterious by-products of ROS-mediated oxidation reactions reflect an important defence strategy to combat abiotic stress. Here, we have cloned the eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase gene (VrALR) from Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots. We have expressed and purified the VrALR protein and analyzed its enzyme kinetic parameters and catalytic efficiency with three different substrates to confirm its identity. The functional characterization of this enzyme was unravelled through heterologous expression of the gene in Escherichia coli BL21 and an oxidative stress-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain, W3O3-1-A. Finally, the endogenous VrALR enzyme activity and the mRNA expression patterns of the VrALR gene in the roots of V. radiata in response to progressive drought stress in vivo was studied to correlate the ROS-detoxifying role of this important enzyme under the influence of progressive drought stress. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate that eutypine reducing VrALR provides varying degree of stress tolerance in bacteria, yeast systems and also plays a promising protective role against oxidative stress in V. radiata roots during gradual water deprivation. The present study provides an unequivocal evidence to understand the crucial role of aldehyde reductase ROS-detoxifying system which is highly essential for developing stress tolerance in economically important crop plants.

  18. Composition and Structure of Pinus koraiensis Mixed Forest Respond to Spatial Climatic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Background Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Methodology/principal findings Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. Conclusions/significance These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased

  19. CFD - Mature Technology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, numerical methods and simulation tools for fluid dynamic problems have advanced as a new discipline, namely, computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Although a wide spectrum of flow regimes are encountered in many areas of science and engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to a large demand for predicting the aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, such as commercial, military, and space vehicles. As flow analysis is required to be more accurate and computationally efficient for both commercial and mission-oriented applications (such as those encountered in meteorology, aerospace vehicle development, general fluid engineering and biofluid analysis) CFD tools for engineering become increasingly important for predicting safety, performance and cost. This paper presents the author's perspective on the maturity of CFD, especially from an aerospace engineering point of view.

  20. Seasonal Course of Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Distribution of 14C in Young Pinus resinosa Trees as Related to Wood Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, John C.; Larson, Philip R.

    1968-01-01

    Rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and distribution of 14C were determined for new (current season's) and old (previous season's) needles at 10 times during the seasonal development of young Pinus resinosa Ait. trees. The seasonal changes in these factors associated with the development of the new shoot were related to known seasonal patterns of wood formation. Net photosynthesis per gram of needle dry weight (photosynthetic efficiency) was maximum in the old needles at the time of first new needle elongation; at the same time translocation of 14C from old to new needles was greatest. Photosynthetic efficiency of new needles was maximum at the end of the period of rapid new needle elongation, when the new needles also began exporting much greater quantities of 14C to other plant parts. In particular, the amount translocated from the new needles to the stem was greatly increased. At this time thick-walled xylem cells were first observed in the stem. These results, together with those of previous studies, indicate that the production of thick-walled xylem tracheids normally associated with latewood is physiologically correlated with maturation of the current season's needles. Because there is a lesser demand for photosynthate in the new shoot and a high rate of photosynthesis in the whole plant at the time of new needle maturity, a sharply increased amount of photosynthate becomes available for wall synthesis by cambial derivatives. PMID:16656946

  1. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  2. [Community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest on Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexiang; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Lei, Ruide; Lan, Guoyu

    2004-03-01

    The community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest distributed on the mid-west zone of Qinling Mountains' south slope were investigated. The results showed that there were 166 seed plants belonging to 51 families, 111 generas. Among them, 65 genera, 66.7% of the total, belonged to temperate biome. There was a closely relationship between Pinus armandi forest and the temperate biome. As regards to the physiognomy of the community, phanerophyte made up 75.9% of the total, dominating the community. In the community, 96 species with middle-sized leaves made up 57.8%, and there were 139 single leaf species, accounted for 83.7% of the total. There was a complicated vertical structure in the community, which could be divided into three layers:arbor layer, shrub layer and herb layer. In addition, there were also a lot of inter-stratum plants in the community. It is also found that the lack of seedlings, saplings and small trees was due to both the self-thinning caused by intra-specific competition and the alien-thinning by inter-specific competition for the light resource in the stand. The population of P. armandi was characterized with the patch size about 100 m2. The dynamics of the community showed that the community was stable and in a process of development.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    PubMed

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  4. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age.

  5. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age. PMID:23705375

  6. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. PMID:25791643

  7. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  8. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  9. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  10. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm. PMID:16678873

  11. A deep sequencing analysis of transcriptomes and the development of EST-SSR markers in mungbean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Liu, Changyou; Fan, Baojie; Cao, Zhimin; Su, Qiuzhu; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhixiao; Wu, Jing; Tian, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is one of the most important leguminous food crops in Asia. We employed Illumina paired-end sequencing to analyse transcriptomes of three different mungbean genotypes. A total of 38.3-39.8 million pairedend reads with 73 bp lengths were generated. The pooled reads from the three libraries were assembled into 56,471 transcripts. Following a cluster analysis, 43,293 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 739 bp and N50 length of 1176 bp. Of the unigenes, 34,903 (80.6%) had significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nonredundant protein database (Nr), while 21,450 (58.4%) had BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database (E-value<10⁻⁵). Further, 1245 differential expression genes were detected among three mungbean genotypes. In addition, we identified 3788 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 320 tested loci, 310 (96.5%) yielded amplification products, and 151 (47.0%) exhibited polymorphisms among six mungbean accessions. These transcriptome data and mungbean EST-SSRs could serve as a valuable resource for novel gene discovery and the marker-assisted selective breeding of this species. PMID:27659323

  12. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Legume Vigna radiata and the Analysis of Recombination across Short Mitochondrial Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Alverson, Andrew J.; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W.; Sloan, Daniel B.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38–297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  13. Work Maturity Skills Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina; And Others

    This teaching guide is a part of those materials developed for the Work Maturity Skills Training Program. (The Work Maturity Skills Training Program is a set of individualized competency-based units that are designed to help participants develop the competencies they need to find and retain jobs.) Following a brief description of the purpose and…

  14. Career Education and Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebilco, Geoffrey R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between career maturity and career curriculum in 38 Melbourne metropolitan secondary schools (N=2280 students) using an Australian adaption of the Career Development Inventory. Results confirmed that schools with career education programs achieved higher gains in student career maturity. (JAC)

  15. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    OBERHUBER, Walter; GRUBER, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  16. Invasion of Pinus halepensis Mill. following a wildfire in an Argentine grassland nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Zalba, Sergio M; Cuevas, Yannina A; Boó, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The Ernesto Tornquist nature reserve is a relict of native Pampas vegetation in Argentina. Alien trees were introduced to the reserve in the 1950s, mainly to "improve" the natural landscape, resulting in the arrival of a totally new life form. In 1987, a fire affected an area planted with Pinus halepensis resulting in its massive expansion. In 1999, we removed trees from 17 circular plots of 10 m diameter placed systematically within the area that was colonized after the fire. Trunks were cut 20 cm from the ground and growth rings were counted. We studied the age structure of the population in order to reconstruct the colonizing events after the fire. We found that recruitment occurred throughout this period, except in the three years after the disturbance. We suggest that this delay in recruitment might be caused by low seedling survival under water stress conditions due to low rainfall, combined with scarce vegetation cover after fire. This could have been associated with an initial reduction in propagule pressure due to the scarcity of surviving trees in the vicinity and with the fact that fire occurred after the peak of seed release, during an extremely dry summer, probably killing a great number of seeds that were already in the soil. In the following years, recruitment was probably aided by pioneer trees and later by seeds shed from established pines. Alien trees had been allowed to reach maturity due to wildfire prevention and control in the years preceding the fire and the accumulated dry matter resulted in increased fire intensity that reduced the ability of grasses to re-sprout. As a consequence, the invasion window that allowed the expansion of pines remained open for at least 12 years. PMID:17467146

  17. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-06-25

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  18. Coarse woody debris manipulations and the response of soricid and herpetofaunal communities in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Audrey, K.

    2006-04-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) may increase abundance of forest-floor dwelling fauna. Understanding the role of CWD in ecosystem function is necessary to manage species that rely on it, however, the extent to which soricids and herpetofauna use CWD is not understood. This research took a large- and small-scale approach to investigate the response of soricids and herpetofauna to CWD manipulations in the southeastern Coastal Plain. The results suggest that the addition of CWD can increase abundance and activity of the southeastern shrew. However, herpetofauna exhibited little response to CWD manipulations. Many Coastal Plain species may be adapted to burrowing in soil or under leaf litter because of naturally low levels of CWD, although these species may use and benefit from CWD. Overall the results suggest that CWD, at least of early to moderate decay, is not a critical habitat component for most soricids and herpetofauna in the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  19. Needles of Pinus halepensis as Biomonitors of Bioaerosol Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped. PMID:25379901

  20. Early Holocene pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) in the northeastern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, David B.; Rhode, David

    1990-01-01

    Fine-grained excavation and analysis of a stratigraphic column from Danger Cave, northeastern Great Basin, suggests prehistoric hunter-gatherers were collecting and using singleleaf pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) near the site for at least the last 7500 yr. Human use of the cave began after the retreat of Lake Bonneville from the Gilbert level, shortly before 10,000 yr B.P. In stratum 9, culturally deposited pine nut hulls appear in the sequence by about 7900 yr B.P. and are continuously present thereafter. A hull fragment in stratum 10 is directly dated to 7410 ± 120 yr B.P. These dates are at least 2000 yr earlier than expected by extrapolation to macrofossil records from the east-central and central Great Basin, and necessitate some revision of current biogeographical models of late Quaternary pinyon migration.

  1. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forests.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinlong; Kang, Fengfeng; Wang, Luoxin; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Weihong; Song, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Yanlei; Chen, Feng; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei; Han, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biomass and carbon (C) storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb), and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH) were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm) were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale. PMID:24736660

  2. Mitochondrial Genome of Phlebia radiata Is the Second Largest (156 kbp) among Fungi and Features Signs of Genome Flexibility and Recent Recombination Events

    PubMed Central

    Salavirta, Heikki; Oksanen, Ilona; Kuuskeri, Jaana; Mäkelä, Miia; Laine, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Lundell, Taina

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles supporting individual life-style via generation of proton motive force and cellular energy, and indispensable metabolic pathways. As part of genome sequencing of the white rot Basidiomycota species Phlebia radiata, we first assembled its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). So far, the 156 348 bp mtDNA is the second largest described for fungi, and of considerable size among eukaryotes. The P. radiata mtDNA assembled as single circular dsDNA molecule containing genes for the large and small ribosomal RNAs, 28 transfer RNAs, and over 100 open reading frames encoding the 14 fungal conserved protein subunits of the mitochondrial complexes I, III, IV, and V. Two genes (atp6 and tRNA-IleGAU) were duplicated within 6.1 kbp inverted region, which is a unique feature of the genome. The large mtDNA size, however, is explained by the dominance of intronic and intergenic regions (sum 80% of mtDNA sequence). The intergenic DNA stretches harness short (≤200 nt) repetitive, dispersed and overlapping sequence elements in abundance. Long self-splicing introns of types I and II interrupt eleven of the conserved genes (cox1,2,3; cob; nad1,2,4,4L,5; rnl; rns). The introns embrace a total of 57 homing endonucleases with LAGLIDADGD and GYI-YIG core motifs, which makes P. radiata mtDNA to one of the largest known reservoirs of intron-homing endonucleases. The inverted duplication, intergenic stretches, and intronic features are indications of dynamics and genetic flexibility of the mtDNA, not fully recognized to this extent in fungal mitochondrial genomes previously, thus giving new insights for the evolution of organelle genomes in eukaryotes. PMID:24824642

  3. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito. PMID:25399814

  4. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  5. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, Ian A.; St John, Mark G.; Yeates, Gregor W.; Morse, Chris W.; Bonner, Karen I.; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  6. A novel Ca2+-activated protease from germinating Vigna radiata seeds and its role in storage protein mobilization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaf; Verma, Giti; Sharma, Samir

    2010-07-15

    Calcium (Ca(2+))-dependent/activated proteases make decisive cleavages in proteins, affecting their further degradation/activation. Few such Ca(2+)-dependent proteases have been reported from plants, and none during germination-related events. Seeds are woken up from their quiescent state upon imbibition of water. The subsequent process of germination is strongly influenced by hormones (mainly gibberellins) and light, with both resulting in change in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated the effect of Ca(2+) on protease activity in extracts prepared from dry Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczec seeds and cotyledons 4, 24, 48 and 72h post-imbibition. Ca(2+)-activated protease activity is present at a very low level in dry seeds, rises with imbibition and peaks 24h post-imbibition. Subsequently, the activity rapidly declines, even as total protease activity continues to rise. Calcium activation of proteolysis was reversed by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol-bis (2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), 1,10, phenanthroline, chlorpromazine and by beta-mercaptoethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Protease activity was also inhibited by para chloro mercuribenzoate (pCMB) and l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (E 64), while phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and pepstatin did not effect Ca(2+) activation. The protease could be separated from the calmodulin fraction by size-exclusion chromatography, while retaining its ability for Ca(2+) activation, excluding the possibility of activation through calmodulin-based pathways. The presence of a Ca(2+)-activated protease in the cotyledons suggests its role in a predetermined program of germination involving elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels during germination. This protease could be an important enzyme interfacing cytoplasmic signaling events and initiation of storage protein mobilization during seed germination.

  7. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will...

  10. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will...

  11. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the...

  12. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Cooper, Tamara; Howley, Paul M.; Hayball, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV) to mature virus (MV), and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions. PMID:25296112

  13. Molecular modelling of urease accessory interaction proteins of Helicobacter Pylori J 99 and predicting an interruption in interaction by Vigna radiata Defensins

    PubMed Central

    Paramasivan, Manivannan; Sankaran, Ganesan; Sethuraman, Naveenkumar; Devadoss, Daniel Selvakumar; Thangavelu, Sathiamoorthi; Gangatharan, Muralitharan

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major causative agent of Gastric carcinoma. Significance of the urease accessory interaction proteins are emphasized in colonization of human gastric mucosa and efficient infection of H. pylori. Here an attempt is made to explore the structure and properties of urease accessory interaction proteins from Helicobacter pylori J 99. The proteins chosen for the study are ureH, ureI, nikR, groL and flgS based on the interaction map available from STRING database. The above mentioned proteins do not have a comprehensive three dimensional structure. Hence the models were generated using PSI-BLAST (Position Specific Iterative-Blast) and MODELLER 9V8. Physicochemical characterization encompasses pI, EC, AI, II and GRAVY. Secondary structure was predicted using PSI-PRED. Functional characterization was done by SOSUI and DISULFIND Servers and refinement of structure was done using Ramachandran plot analysis. RMS-Z values were calculated using Q-MEAN Server and CHIMERA was used for molecular simulation studies. Plant defensins from Vigna radiata are successfully docked to the modeled structures and thus interaction could be possibly prevented. These results will pave way for further selective inhibition of H. pylori colonization and in vivo survival by employing plant defensins from Vigna radiata (VrD1 & VrD2). The work will prove that plant defensins provides anticancer relief too. PMID:21423886

  14. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  15. Molecular modelling of urease accessory interaction proteins of Helicobacter Pylori J 99 and predicting an interruption in interaction by Vigna radiata Defensins.

    PubMed

    Paramasivan, Manivannan; Sankaran, Ganesan; Sethuraman, Naveenkumar; Devadoss, Daniel Selvakumar; Thangavelu, Sathiamoorthi; Gangatharan, Muralitharan

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major causative agent of Gastric carcinoma. Significance of the urease accessory interaction proteins are emphasized in colonization of human gastric mucosa and efficient infection of H. pylori. Here an attempt is made to explore the structure and properties of urease accessory interaction proteins from Helicobacter pylori J 99. The proteins chosen for the study are ureH, ureI, nikR, groL and flgS based on the interaction map available from STRING database. The above mentioned proteins do not have a comprehensive three dimensional structure. Hence the models were generated using PSI-BLAST (Position Specific Iterative-Blast) and MODELLER 9V8. Physicochemical characterization encompasses pI, EC, AI, II and GRAVY. Secondary structure was predicted using PSI-PRED. Functional characterization was done by SOSUI and DISULFIND Servers and refinement of structure was done using Ramachandran plot analysis. RMS-Z values were calculated using Q-MEAN Server and CHIMERA was used for molecular simulation studies. Plant defensins from Vigna radiata are successfully docked to the modeled structures and thus interaction could be possibly prevented. These results will pave way for further selective inhibition of H. pylori colonization and in vivo survival by employing plant defensins from Vigna radiata (VrD1 & VrD2). The work will prove that plant defensins provides anticancer relief too.

  16. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) by the marine bivalves M. galloprovincialis, P. radiata, V. verrucosa and C. chione in Mediterranean coastal microenvironments: association with metal bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in both the whole soft tissue and separate organs (gills, mantle, muscle and digestive gland) of wild bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pinctada radiata, Venus verrucosa and Callista chione) from three different coastal microenvironments of Greece were monitored from 2003 to 2004. In parallel, by employing appropriate analytical protocols for metal partitioning, the labile fraction of the metals was determined in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter and sediments. Differences in the metal levels were detected both among the study areas as well as among the bivalves examined. Significant bioaccumulation was demonstrated regarding Zn in M. galloprovincialis specimens from the highly industrialized Gulf of Elefsis and Cd in P. radiata and V. verrucosa from the Maliakos Gulf, which is influenced by extended agricultural activity occurring at the neighbouring area and a river outflow. Data of the metal levels in the various environmental phases were correlated with their concentrations in bivalves' tissues. The clear relationships obtained in many cases among the labile metal concentrations and the bioaccumulated concentrations in bivalves point out that the labile fraction of a metal is the most bioavailable. The lack of positive correlation for C. chione confirms the occurrence of effective mechanisms of internal regulation of metal concentrations.

  17. Germinating seeds of the mung bean, Vigna radiata (Fabaceae), as a model for the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic effects of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Singhal, Abhishek

    2009-04-01

    Cytotoxic properties of plant extracts and drugs being developed for cancer treatment are usually evaluated by a variety of in vivo and in vitro tests carried out in animal or plant based models. In the present study we have evaluated the possibility of using the germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata), for rapid and inexpensive screening of drugs exhibiting cytotoxic properties. Mung beans were allowed to germinate either in tap water or in different drug solutions, and parameters like percent germination, increase in radicle length, change in seedling weight and mitotic index of apical root meristems were determined at two time intervals coinciding with the time at which the radicle length in control group was 1.0 to 1.5 cm (time 0, T0) and 48 h later (T48). Methanol extract of Calotropis procera latex as well as drugs like podophyllotoxin, cyclophosphamide, cyproheptadine and aspirin produced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on seed germination, seed weight gain, radicle growth and mitotic index in the radicle meristems. The inhibitory effect of some of the drugs tested was associated with reduction in water imbibition. Some of the drugs at higher concentrations allowed seed germination to take place but produced radicle decay and seedling weight loss. Our study shows that germinating V radiata beans could be used as a convenient model for the preliminary screening of drugs exhibiting cytotoxic properties.

  18. The mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during the succession in subtropical forest ecosystems: light competition or stoichiometric homoeostasis?

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Peng, Xingju; Huang, Zhongliang; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei

    2015-06-05

    Competition for light has traditionally been considered as the main mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during succession in subtropical forest ecosystems. However, both long-term inventories and a seedling cultivation experiment showed that growth of mature individuals and young seedlings of P. massoniana was not limited by available light, but was strongly influenced by stoichiometric homoeostasis. This is supported by the results of homoeostatic regulation coefficients for nitrogen (HN) and phosphorus (HP) estimated using the measured data from six transitional forests across subtropical China. Among three dominant tree species in subtropical forests, P. massoniana and Castanopsis chinensis had the lowest values of HP and HN, respectively. Therefore P. massoniana cannot survive in the advanced stage due to soil phosphorus limitation and C. chinensis cannot successfully grow in the pioneer stage due to soil nitrogen limitation. Our results support that stoichiometric homeostasis is the main reason for gradual exclusion of P. massoniana from the transitional forest and the eventual elimination from the advanced forest during the subtropical forest succession. Therefore greater attention should be paid to stoichiometric homeostasis as one of the key mechanisms for species exclusion during forest succession.

  19. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  20. Structure and species composition of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities colonizing seedlings and adult trees of Pinus montezumae in Mexican neotropical forests.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Mexico is a center of diversity for pines, but few studies have examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with pines in this country. We investigated the ECM communities associated with Pinus montezumae seedlings and mature trees in neotropical forests of central Mexico and compared their structure and species composition. Root tips were sampled on both planted seedlings and naturally occurring adult trees. A total of 42 ECM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found on P. montezumae. Diversity and similarity indices showed that community structure was similar for both plant growth stages, but phylogenetic diversity and Chao-estimated richness were higher for seedlings. Species composition differed between communities. The dominant OTUs belonged to the families Atheliaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Sebacinaceae, although different taxa appeared to colonize seedlings and adults. Only 12 OTUs were shared between seedlings and adults, which suggests that ECM fungi which colonize seedlings are still not fully incorporated into mycelial networks and that ECM taxa colonizing young individuals of P. montezumae are likely to come from fungal propagules. Intra-generic diversity could be an insurance mechanism to maintain forest productivity under stressed conditions. This is the first report describing the abundance of Atheliaceae in tree roots in neotropical ecosystems.

  1. The mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during the succession in subtropical forest ecosystems: light competition or stoichiometric homoeostasis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Peng, Xingju; Huang, Zhongliang; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei

    2015-06-01

    Competition for light has traditionally been considered as the main mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during succession in subtropical forest ecosystems. However, both long-term inventories and a seedling cultivation experiment showed that growth of mature individuals and young seedlings of P. massoniana was not limited by available light, but was strongly influenced by stoichiometric homoeostasis. This is supported by the results of homoeostatic regulation coefficients for nitrogen (HN) and phosphorus (HP) estimated using the measured data from six transitional forests across subtropical China. Among three dominant tree species in subtropical forests, P. massoniana and Castanopsis chinensis had the lowest values of HP and HN, respectively. Therefore P. massoniana cannot survive in the advanced stage due to soil phosphorus limitation and C. chinensis cannot successfully grow in the pioneer stage due to soil nitrogen limitation. Our results support that stoichiometric homeostasis is the main reason for gradual exclusion of P. massoniana from the transitional forest and the eventual elimination from the advanced forest during the subtropical forest succession. Therefore greater attention should be paid to stoichiometric homeostasis as one of the key mechanisms for species exclusion during forest succession.

  2. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda)

    PubMed Central

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS–LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  3. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  4. A single ectomycorrhizal fungal species can enable a Pinus invasion.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñnez, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Like all obligately ectomycorrhizal plants, pines require ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts to complete their life cycle. Pines introduced into regions far from their native range are typically incompatible with local ectomycorrhizal fungi, and, when they invade, coinvade with fungi from their native range. While the identities and distributions of coinvasive fungal symbionts of pine invasions are poorly known, communities that have been studied are notably depauperate. However, it is not yet clear whether any number of fungal coinvaders is able to support a Pinaceae invasion, or whether very depauperate communities are unable to invade. Here, we ask whether there is evidence for a minimum species richness of fungal symbionts necessary to support a pine/ectomycorrhizal fungus coinvasion. We sampled a Pinus contorta invasion front near Coyhaique, Chile, using molecular barcoding to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. We report that the site has a total richness of four species, and that many invasive trees appear to be supported by only a single ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus luteus. We conclude that a single ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus can suffice to enable a pine invasion. PMID:26236856

  5. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  6. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  7. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-24

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  8. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity. PMID:27112001

  9. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention. PMID:17474862

  10. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  11. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  12. Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of Pinus nigra and Pinus resinosa: evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, M L; Palta, J P; Reich, P B

    1992-10-01

    Seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance of needles of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees were measured by an electrolyte leakage method and by visual observation. During most of the year, freezing stress resistance determined by the two methods gave similar results. The electrolyte leakage method provided a good estimate of seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance except for red pine needles in their most winter-hardy state. To obtain a reliable estimate of freezing stress resistance in winter-hardy red pine needles it was necessary to combine the electrolyte leakage method with visual observations. When red pine needles survived exposure to -80 degrees C or lower, electrolyte leakage was never more than 30% even when the needles were exposed to a slow freeze-thaw stress of -196 degrees C. However, rapid freezing of red pine needles to -196 degrees C resulted in electrolyte leakage of over 80%. Red pine needles attained a much higher freezing stress resistance during the winter than Austrian pine. Red pine needles also acclimated and deacclimated faster than Austrian pine needles. An index of injury was developed based on the electrolyte leakage method ((R(2) + R(1))/2, where R(1) is the minimum % electrolyte leakage from noninjured tissue and R(2) is the maximum % electrolyte leakage at the highest injury) that reliably predicted freezing stress resistance of pine needles for most of the year. Important aspects for developing a successful index of injury for pine needles are: use of cut needles, vacuum infiltration and shaking during incubation in water.We conclude that: (1) during cold acclimation the cell wall properties of the pine needles changed and these changes, which appeared to differ in the two species, might explain the very low leakage of electrolytes from winter-hardy needles of red pine; (2) pine needles survive winter by developing the ability to tolerate extracellular ice formation, because

  13. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  14. [Comparative sequence analysis of the LEA gene fragment in Pinus sibirica du tour and Pinus pumila (Pallas) regel].

    PubMed

    Mglinets, A V; Sokolov, V A; Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N

    2014-02-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA)-like gene) intron fragment was performed in Pinus sibirica and P. pumila differing in geographic origin. It was demonstrated that in P. sibirica this fragment was represented by two types of PCR products, 224 and 202 bp in size. Similarly, in accessions of P. pumila, two PCR products of 224 and 159 bp in size were identified. Comparison of 224 bp fragments in P. sibirica and P. pumila showed that they differed in single nucleotide substitutions. Analysis of the intron fragment in a plant, which was characterized as an interspecific hybrid based on morphological characters, showed that it had fragments of 224 and 159 bp in size. The sequence of 224 bp fragment was similar to that of the corresponding fragment in P. sibirica. The structure of the short fragment was the same as the structure of the corresponding fragment in P. pumila. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the use of the sequences examined for species taxonomic classification and of an analysis of species hybridization. PMID:25711024

  15. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  16. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  17. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  18. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  19. Steps to Maturity Program. Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanaimo School District #68 (British Columbia).

    In fall 1989, the Nanaimo (British Columbia) School District No. 68 asked five people, selected from the school system and community, to evaluate the "Steps to Maturity" Program (STMP), a district-wide family life education and affective development program that has developed gradually since 1972. The evaluation team interviewed a large number of…

  20. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  1. Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

    This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…

  2. College Freshmen: Turmoil or Maturity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Personal Orientation Inventory, Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, a group Rorschach, and a biographical questionnaire to 24 randomly selected freshmen from a small Northwest liberal arts college. Results indicated that the young adults responded differently from either children or mature adults. Findings support contention that…

  3. The People Capability Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wademan, Mark R.; Spuches, Charles M.; Doughty, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The People Capability Maturity Model[R] (People CMM[R]) advocates a staged approach to organizational change. Developed by the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, this model seeks to bring discipline to the people side of management by promoting a structured, repeatable, and predictable approach for improving an…

  4. Rhetorical Maturity: Definition and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan

    Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development, when applied to theories of teaching composition, support any method or material that refers to the age and prior experience of the writer and the newness of the task the writer is attempting. Rhetorical development and maturation in the ability to write and argue persuasively are partly conceptual…

  5. Intraspecific variation buffers projected climate change impacts on Pinus contorta.

    PubMed

    Oney, Brian; Reineking, Björn; O'Neill, Gregory; Kreyling, Juergen

    2013-02-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM) is an important tool to assess the impact of global environmental change. Many species exhibit ecologically relevant intraspecific variation, and few studies have analyzed its relevance for SDM. Here, we compared three SDM techniques for the highly variable species Pinus contorta. First, applying a conventional SDM approach, we used MaxEnt to model the subject as a single species (species model), based on presence-absence observations. Second, we used MaxEnt to model each of the three most prevalent subspecies independently and combined their projected distributions (subspecies model). Finally, we used a universal growth transfer function (UTF), an approach to incorporate intraspecific variation utilizing provenance trial tree growth data. Different model approaches performed similarly when predicting current distributions. MaxEnt model discrimination was greater (AUC - species model: 0.94, subspecies model: 0.95, UTF: 0.89), but the UTF was better calibrated (slope and bias - species model: 1.31 and -0.58, subspecies model: 1.44 and -0.43, UTF: 1.01 and 0.04, respectively). Contrastingly, for future climatic conditions, projections of lodgepole pine habitat suitability diverged. In particular, when the species' intraspecific variability was acknowledged, the species was projected to better tolerate climatic change as related to suitable habitat without migration (subspecies model: 26% habitat loss or UTF: 24% habitat loss vs. species model: 60% habitat loss), and given unlimited migration may increase amount of suitable habitat (subspecies model: 8% habitat gain or UTF: 12% habitat gain vs. species model: 51% habitat loss) in the climatic period 2070-2100 (SRES A2 scenario, HADCM3). We conclude that models derived from within-species data produce different and better projections, and coincide with ecological theory. Furthermore, we conclude that intraspecific variation may buffer against adverse effects of climate change. A key

  6. [Stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Ji, Lanzhu; Li, Qiurong; Xiao, Dongmei; Liu, Hailiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, soil respiration chamber, a simple and precise method, was used to measure the stem respiration of trees. LI-6400-09 respiration chamber serving as a system is usually used in soil respiration, but we made polyvinyl chloride (PVC) collar and fixed it on the stem surface to measure the stem respiration. From May to October 2003, the stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis, the dominant tree species in Changbai Mountain, was measured in different time and different places using this technique. Meanwhile, the temperatures in the stems and in the forests were measured. The results showed that the stem respiration rate had a remarkably seasonal tendency with a single peak, the maximum was in August and the minimum was in February. The stem respiration rate had an exponential relationship with stem temperature, and the curve exponential regressions for stem respiration rate and temperature factor of trees with big DBH were better than those with small DBH. The stem respiration in different DBH trees was higher in the south stem face than that in the north stem face, and the variance of respiration rate between south and north decreased with a decrease of DBH trees. During the growing season from May to October, the average maintenance respiration accounted for 63.63% in different DBH trees, and the maintenance respiration contribution to total respiratory consumption increased with increasing DBH, which was 66.76, 73.29% and 50.84%, respectively. The stem respiration Q10 values ranged from 2.56-3.32 in different DBH of trees, and the seasonal tendency for stem R, and Rm in different DBH of trees was obtained by using respiration Q10. Therefore, the differences between different parts of stem and different DBH of trees should be considered in estimating the respiration model in ecosystem. PMID:15852948

  7. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  8. Maturation of Oocytes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Patrick; Fair, Trudee

    2016-01-01

    Only a fraction of oocytes present in the ovaries at birth are ever ovulated during the lifetime of a female mammal. In vitro maturation (IVM) offers the possibility to exploit what is a largely untapped biological resource. Although IVM is used routinely for the in vitro production of embryos in domestic species, especially cattle, its clinical use in human-assisted reproduction is still evolving. The successful recapitulation in vitro of the events associated with successful oocyte maturation is not always achieved, with the majority of immature oocytes typically failing to develop to the blastocyst stage. Evidence suggests that although culture conditions throughout in vitro embryo production may have a modest influence on the developmental potential of the early embryo, the quality of the oocyte at the start of the process is the key factor determining the proportion of oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage.

  9. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

  10. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  11. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Mariam; Haque, Maliha; Johal, Lina; Mathur, Puja; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Sharma, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain’s region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex

  12. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  13. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

  14. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2014-10-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonize soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments five years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Thus, the long-term consequences and post-fire silvicultural management in the form of thinning have a significant effect on the site recovery after fire. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation restoration normalises microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors of soil properties after 17 years.

  15. Vigna mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants sampled in different agronomical-ecological-climatic regions of India are nodulated by Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense.

    PubMed

    Appunu, Chinnaswamy; N'Zoue, Angèle; Moulin, Lionel; Depret, Géraldine; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2009-10-01

    Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata are important legume crops cultivated in India, but little is known about the genetic resources in native rhizobia that nodulate these species. To identify these bacteria, a core collection of 76 slow-growing isolates was built from root nodules of V. mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants grown at different sites within three agro-ecological-climatic regions of India. The genetic diversity of the bacterial collection was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. One rDNA IGS type grouped 91% of isolates, but more diversity was found at the symbiotic loci (17 symbiotic genotypes). Overall, no host plant specificity was shown, the three host plant species sharing common bradyrhizobial genotypes that represented 62% of the collection. Similarly, the predominant genotypes were found at most sampling sites and in all agro-ecological-climatic regions. Phylogenies inferred from IGS sequencing and multi-locus sequence analysis of the dnaK, glnII and recA genes indicated that all isolates but one were clustered with the Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense species. The nifH phylogeny also grouped the different nif haplotypes within a cluster including B. yuanmingense, except for one infrequent nif haplotype which formed a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus. These results may reflect a long history of co-evolution between B. yuanmingense and Vigna spp. in India, while intra-species polymorphism detected in the symbiotic loci may be linked with the long history of diversification of B. yuanmingense coinciding with that of its host legumes.

  16. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Vanitharani, R; Karthikeyan, A S; Anbalagan, S; Veluthambi, K

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5'-TGTATCGGTGT-3') iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5'-ATCGGTGT-3') had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMVVig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  17. Intra-annual nutrient flux in Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Stape, Jose L; Fox, Thomas R; Rubilar, Rafael A; Price, James W

    2012-10-01

    Intra-annual nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) flux was quantified for Pinus taeda L. at a nutrient-poor, well-drained sandy site in Scotland County, NC, USA where a 2 × 2 factorial of irrigation and nutrition was applied in four replications in a 10-year-old stand with 1200 stems ha(-1). Treatments were applied with the goal of providing optimum nutrition (no nutritional deficiencies) and water availability. Component (foliage, branch, stem and root) nutrient content was estimated monthly for 2 years using nutrient concentration and phenology assessments combined with destructive harvests. Positive flux values indicated nutrient accumulation in the trees while negative values indicated nutrient loss from the trees. Fertilization significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium flux 140%, on average, over non-fertilized. Irrigation significantly increased calcium flux 28% while there was no significant irrigation effect on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or magnesium. Maximum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were 0.36 and 1.05 for nitrogen, 0.042 and 0.095 for phosphorus, 0.13 and 0.51 for potassium, 0.27 and 0.42 for calcium, and 0.04 and 0.12 for magnesium, respectively. Maximum flux was coincident with ephemeral tissue (foliage and fine root) development and likely would be higher in stands with more foliage than those observed in this study (projected leaf area indices were 1.5 and 3.0 for the non-fertilized and fertilized stands). Minimum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were -0.18 and -0.42 for nitrogen, -0.029 and -0.070 for phosphorus, -0.05 and -0.18 for potassium, -0.04 and -0.05 for calcium, and -0.02 and -0.03 for magnesium, respectively. Minimum fluxes were typically observed in the dormant season and were linked to foliage senescence and branch death. Foliage and branch component nutrient contents

  18. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2651 Mature. Mature means that the cherries have reached the stage of growth which will insure the...

  19. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  20. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  1. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  2. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  3. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  4. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  5. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  6. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi CF-295141, Isolated from Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni-Mann, Michele; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; González-Menéndez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a new strain of Fusarium fujikuroi, isolated from Pinus sylvestris, which was also found to produce the mycotoxin beauvericin. The Illumina-based sequence analysis revealed an approximate genome size of 44.2 Mbp, containing 164 secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. PMID:27795279

  8. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or...

  11. Career Maturity in High School Age Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Joan Daniels

    1982-01-01

    Examined career maturity in high school females by using a set of general career-maturity and gender-specific, career-related measures, and an alternate career-maturity criterion measure, career-planning involvement. Results indicated significant relationships between achievement orientation and occupational information and knowledge of women's…

  12. Toward a Concept of Psychosocial Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen; Sorensen, Aage B.

    The first in a series of related reports (see TM 000 775), this paper attempts to define a concept of psychosocial maturity which would be appropriate as a comprehensive educational goal. Biological, sociological, psychological and temporal formulations of maturity are discussed and compared. Am interdisciplinary model of maturity is evolved which…

  13. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or...

  14. Measured differences in snow accumulation and melt among clearcut, juvenile, and mature forests in southern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, R. D.; Spittlehouse, D. L.; Golding, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Quantification of the relationships between snow and forest cover, including its removal through logging, insects or disease and its regrowth, is a prerequisite to assessing the effects of forestry practices on streamflow from montane and boreal forest watersheds. Over a 3 year period, a juvenile and a juvenile-thinned lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) stand, a mature mixed Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt) and lodgepole pine stand, and a clearcut were intensively surveyed to quantify differences in snow water equivalent (SWE). Daily snowmelt, weather conditions, and the energy balance were measured during the first year of this study. The 1 April SWE was 32% and 14% less under the mature and juvenile forests respectively than in the clearcut. No significant differences in peak SWE were measured between the juvenile and juvenile-thinned stands. Continuous snowmelt lysimeter measurements showed that snowmelt began earlier, accumulated more rapidly, and disappeared 2 to 4 days earlier in the juvenile-thinned stand than in either the unthinned juvenile stand or the clearcut. When the snowpack had disappeared from the clearcut and juvenile stands, 30% of the SWE on 1 April remained in the mature forest. The results not only show that snow accumulation and melt differ significantly between clearcut, juvenile, and mature stands, but also that snowmelt patterns vary among juvenile stands with distinct structural differences. This is due to the difference in the energy balances, dominated by radiant heat fluxes, of the four sites. Copyright

  15. The bi-directional exchange of oxygenated VOCs between a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Rasmussen, R.; Baker, B.; Jardine, K.; Nemitz, E.

    2005-11-01

    Using new in-situ field observations of the most abundant oxygenated VOCs (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3/C4 carbonyls, MVK+MAC and acetic acid) we were able to constrain emission and deposition patterns above and within a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation with a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) understory. During the day canopy scale measurements showed significant emission of methanol and acetone, while methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were mainly deposited during the day. All oxygenated compounds exhibited strong losses during the night that could not be explained by conventional dry deposition parameterizations. Accompanying leaf level measurements indicated substantial methanol and acetone emissions from loblolly pine. The exchange of acetaldehyde was more complex. Laboratory measurements made on loblolly pine needles indicated that acetaldehyde may be either emitted or taken up depending on ambient concentrations, with the compensation point increasing exponentially with temperature, and that mature needles tended to emit more acetaldehyde than younger needles. Canopy scale measurements suggested mostly deposition. Short-term (approx. 2 h) ozone fumigation in the laboratory had no detectable impact on post-exposure emissions of methanol and acetone, but decreased the exchange rates of acetaldehyde. The emission of a variety of oxygenated compounds (e.g. carbonyls and alcohols) was triggered or significantly enhanced during laboratory ozone fumigation experiments. These results suggest that higher ambient ozone levels in the future might enhance the biogenic contribution of some oxygenated compounds. Those with sufficiently low vapor pressures may potentially influence secondary organic aerosol growth. Compounds recently hypothesized to be primarily produced in the canopy atmosphere via ozone plus terpenoid-type reactions can also originate from the oxidation reaction of ozone with leaf surfaces and inside the leaf

  16. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A.; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris. PMID:27047534

  17. The Relationship Between Cognitive Career Maturity and Self-Reported Career Maturity of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated relationship between scores on measures of cognitive career maturity and self-reported career maturity in high school sophomores (N=391) and juniors (N=283). Results suggest that there is no relationship between measured career maturity competencies and self-reported career maturity competencies of high school students. (Author/NB)

  18. Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus

    SciTech Connect

    Tardif, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

  19. Membrane remodeling during reticulocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Guo, Xinhua; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    The transition of reticulocytes into erythrocytes is accompanied by extensive changes in the structure and properties of the plasma membrane. These changes include an increase in shear resistance, loss of surface area, and acquisition of a biconcave shape. The processes by which these changes are effected have remained largely undefined. Here we examine how the expression of 30 distinct membrane proteins and their interactions change during murine reticulocyte maturation. We show that tubulin and cytosolic actin are lost, whereas the membrane content of myosin, tropomyosin, intercellular adhesion molecule-4, glucose transporter-4, Na-K-ATPase, sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1, glycophorin A, CD47, Duffy, and Kell is reduced. The degradation of tubulin and actin is, at least in part, through the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. In regard to the protein-protein interactions, the formation of membrane-associated spectrin tetramers from dimers is unperturbed, whereas the interactions responsible for the formation of the membrane-skeletal junctions are weaker in reticulocytes, as is the attachment of transmembrane proteins to these structures. This weakness, in part, results from the elevated phosphorylation of 4.1R in reticulocytes, which leads to a decrease in shear resistance by reducing its interaction with spectrin and actin. These observations begin to unravel the mechanistic basis of crucial changes accompanying reticulocyte maturation. PMID:20038785

  20. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in homologous and heterologous gap junction contacts during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolamba, D.; Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    Homologous (granulosa cell-granulosa cell) gap junction (GJ) contacts increase in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) during the early (first) stage of maturation, but their profile during the second stage [i.e., during maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-mediated meiotic resumption] is unknown. The profile of homologous GJ contacts during the second stage of maturation in croaker follicles was examined in this study and compared to that of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) GJ, for which changes have been previously documented. Follicles were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin to induce maturational competence (first stage), and then with MIH to induce meiotic resumption. The follicles were collected for examination immediately before and after different durations of MIH exposure until the oocyte had reached the stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; index of meiotic resumption). Ultrathin sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and homologous and heterologous GJ contacts were quantified along a 100-??m segment of granulosa cell-zona radiata complex per follicle (three follicles/time/fish, n=3 fish). Relatively high numbers of both types of GJ were observed before and after the first few hours of MIH exposure (up to the stage of oil droplet coalescence). GJ numbers declined during partial yolk globule coalescence (at or near GVBD) and were just under 50% of starting values after the completion of GVBD (P<0.05). These results confirm earlier observations that GVBD temporally correlates with declining heterologous GJ contacts, and for the first time in teleosts show that there is a parallel decline in homologous GJ. The significance of the changes in homologous and heterologous GJ is uncertain and deserves further study. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  2. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun, H.; Howland, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.

  3. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  4. Retrovirus maturation-an extraordinary structural transformation.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Simone; Schur, Florian Km; Briggs, John Ag

    2016-06-01

    Retroviruses such as HIV-1 assemble and bud from infected cells in an immature, non-infectious form. Subsequently, a series of proteolytic cleavages catalysed by the viral protease leads to a spectacular structural rearrangement of the viral particle into a mature form that is competent to fuse with and infect a new cell. Maturation involves changes in the structures of protein domains, in the interactions between protein domains, and in the architecture of the viral components that are assembled by the proteins. Tight control of proteolytic cleavages at different sites is required for successful maturation, and the process is a major target of antiretroviral drugs. Here we will describe what is known about the structures of immature and mature retrovirus particles, and about the maturation process by which one transitions into the other. Despite a wealth of available data, fundamental questions about retroviral maturation remain unanswered. PMID:27010119

  5. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  6. Photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} concentrations in Pinus Ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    By the middle of the 21st century earth`s ambient CO{sub 2} level is expected to increase two-fold ({approximately}350 umol/L). Higher levels of CO{sub 2} are expected to cause major changes in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the world`s vegetation. Therefore, we constructed an experiment designed to measure the long-term acclimation processes of Pinus Ponderosa. As a prominent forest conifer, Pinus Ponderosa is useful when assessing a large scale global carbon budget. Eighteen genetically variable families were exposed to 3 different levels of CO{sub 2} (350 umol/L, 525 umol/L, 700 umol/L), for three years. Acclimation responses were quantified by assays of photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll pigment concentrations.

  7. Voltammetric analysis of Pinus needles with physiological, phylogenetic, and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Miranda, Annette S; König, Peter; Kahlert, Heike; Scholz, Fritz; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are electrochemically active components of vegetal matter which were targeted under simple experimental conditions to produce voltammetric profiles characterizing the metabolite composition. Application to bivariate and multivariate chemometric techniques permits to discriminate the species and age of plant leaves, illustrated here for the case of six Pinus species from two different subgenera. Such responses, associated with the electrochemical oxidation of polyphenolic compounds (quercetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, among others), define a voltammetric profile which varies systematically with the age of the leaves for the different species. The application of this methodology for phylogenetic studies, plant physiology, forensic science, and chemoecology is discussed. Graphical Abstract Image of Pinus in a typical Mediterranean forest; Courtesy of the Botanic Garden of the University of Valencia. PMID:27173392

  8. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pinus armandii (Pinaceae), an endemic conifer species to China1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Yan, Xiao-Hao; Niu, Chuan; Gong, Lin-Lin; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pinus armandii (Pinaceae) is an important conifer tree species in central and southwestern China, and it plays a key role in the local forest ecosystems. To investigate its population genetics and design effective conservation strategies, we characterized 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for this species. Methods and Results: Eighteen novel polymorphic and 16 monomorphic microsatellite loci of P. armandii were isolated using Illumina MiSeq technology. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.609 with an average of 0.384, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.063 to 0.947 with an average of 0.436. Seventeen loci could be successfully transferred to five related Pinus species (P. koraiensis, P. griffithii, P. sibirica, P. pumila, and P. bungeana). Conclusions: These novel microsatellites could potentially be used to investigate the population genetics of P. armandii and related species. PMID:27785387

  9. Rhizodeposition of nitrogen and carbon by mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and its contribution to intercropped oats (Avena nuda L.).

    PubMed

    Zang, Huadong; Yang, Xuechao; Feng, Xiaomin; Qian, Xin; Hu, Yuegao; Ren, Changzhong; Zeng, Zhaohai

    2015-01-01

    Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR) of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S) or intercropped (I) with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp) and at maturity (Im and Sm). More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp), 9.2% (Ip), 20.1% (Sm), and 21.2% (Im) of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp), 42.0% (Ip), 15.4% (Sm), and 22.6% (Im) of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4-83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N) and 58.4-85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops.

  10. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro. PMID:23214264

  11. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro.

  12. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  13. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

  14. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico. PMID:11005290

  15. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; El Kayal, Walid; Copeland, Charles C J; Zaharia, L Irina; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that responses to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera will differ between the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and the naïve host jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and that these responses will be influenced by water availability. G. clavigera inoculation resulted in more rapid stem lesion development in lodgepole than in jack pine; water deficit delayed lesion development in both species. Decreased hydraulic conductivity was observed in inoculated lodgepole pine seedlings, likely because of tracheid occlusion by fungal hyphae and/or metabolite accumulation. Drought but not inoculation significantly impacted bark abscisic acid levels. Jasmonic and salicylic acid were implicated in local and systemic responses of both species to G. clavigera, with salicylic acid appearing to play a greater role in jack pine response to G. clavigera than lodgepole pine. Water deficit increased constitutive levels and/or attenuated induced responses to G. clavigera for several monoterpenes in lodgepole but not jack pine. Instead, inoculation of well-watered but not water deficit jack pine resulted in a greater number of xylem resin ducts. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying differences in G. clavigera-induced responses between lodgepole and jack pine hosts, and how water availability modulates these responses. PMID:26205849

  16. A facile biomimetic preparation of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles derived from seed extract of Vigna radiata and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Singh, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    The significant antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles draws the major attention toward the present nanobiotechnology. Also, the use of plant material for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a green technology. In this context, a non-toxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of mung beans ( Vigna radiata). The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at around 440 nm. The different types of phytochemicals present in the seed extract synergistically reduce the Ag metal ions, as each phytochemical is unique in terms of its structure and antioxidant function. The colloidal silver nanoparticles were observed to be highly stable, even after 5 months. XRD analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry and the TEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 18 nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by well-diffusion method and it was observed that the biogenic silver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The outcome of this study could be useful for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  17. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H₂O₂ content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  18. Alleviation of fungicide-induced phytotoxicity in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] using fungicide-tolerant and plant growth promoting Pseudomonas strain.

    PubMed

    Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to explore beneficial plant-associated rhizobacteria exhibiting substantial tolerance against fungicide tebuconazole vis-à-vis synthesizing plant growth regulators under fungicide stressed soils and to evaluate further these multifaceted rhizobacteria for protection and growth promotion of greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] plants against phytotoxicity of tebuconazole. Tebuconazole-tolerant and plant growth promoting bacterial strain PS1 was isolated from mustard (Brassica compestris) rhizosphere and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa following 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The P. aeruginosa strain PS1 solubilized phosphate significantly and produced indole acetic acid, siderophores, exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia even under tebuconazole stress. Generally, tebuconazole at the recommended, two and three times the recommended field rate adversely affected the growth, symbiosis, grain yield and nutrient uptake in greengram in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, the P. aeruginosa strain PS1 along with tebuconazole significantly, increased the growth parameters of the greengram plants. The inoculant strain PS1 increased appreciably root nitrogen, shoot nitrogen, root phosphorus, shoot phosphorus, and seed yield of greengram plants at all tested concentrations of tebuconazole when compared to the uninoculated plants treated with tebuconazole. The results suggested that the P. aeruginosa strain PS1, exhibiting novel plant growth regulating physiological features, can be applied as an eco-friendly and plant growth catalyzing bio-inoculant to ameliorate the performance of greengram in fungicide stressed soils. PMID:23961206

  19. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture. PMID:24799184

  20. Role of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing impact of ozone on Vigna radiata L. plants in a suburban area of Allahabad (India).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S B; Singh, Anoop; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2005-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ethylene diurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea; EDU) in assessing the impact of O3 on mung bean plants (Vigna radiata L. var. Malviya Jyoti) grown in suburban area of Allahabad city situated in a dry tropical region of India. EDU is a synthetic chemical having anti-ozonant property. Mean monthly O3 concentration varied between 64 and 69 microg m(-3) during the experimental period. In comparison to EDU-treated plants, non-EDU-treated plants showed significant reductions in plant growth and yield under ambient conditions. Significant favourable effects of EDU-application were observed with respect to photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, ascorbic acid and phenol contents. EDU-treated plants maintained higher levels of pigments, protein and ascorbic acid in foliage as compared to non-EDU-treated ones. The study clearly demonstrated that EDU alleviates the unfavourable effects of O3 on mung bean plants, and therefore can be used as a tool to assess the growth and yield losses in areas having higher O3 concentrations.

  1. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, [Formula: see text] generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  2. Biogenic green synthesis of monodispersed gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) iron nanocomposite material and its application in germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as a plant model.

    PubMed

    Raju, Dugyala; Mehta, Urmil J; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    An eco-friendly green and one-pot synthesis of highly monodispersed iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) by using a natural biopolymer, gum kondagogu (GK) as reducing and capping agent is proposed. The NPs synthesised were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As the concentration of gum and time increases, the intensity of NPs formation increased. The NPs were highly monodispersed with uniform circular shapes of 2-6 nm in size. The formed NPs were crystalline in nature which was confirmed by diffraction analysis. The conversion ratio of Fe ionic form to NPs was 21% which was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Fe is essential for plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the effect of these NPs on the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). The radical length and biomass was increased in seeds exposed to Fe NPs than the ions. The uptake of Fe NPs by the sprouts was also quantified by ICP-MS, in which Fe was more in mung bean seeds exposed to NPs. The α-amylase activity was increased in the seeds exposed to NPs. The observed increase in the biomass by Fe NPs and seed germination may facilitate its application in the agriculture as an important cost-effective method for plant growth. PMID:27256894

  3. Gene Mapping of a Mutant Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Using New Molecular Markers Suggests a Gene Encoding a YUC4-like Protein Regulates the Chasmogamous Flower Trait

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingbin; Somta, Prakit; Chen, Xin; Cui, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xingxing; Srinives, Peerasak

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is a cleistogamous plant in which flowers are pollinated before they open, which prevents yield improvements through heterosis. We previously generated a chasmogamous mutant (CM) mungbean in which open flowers are pollinated. In this study, we developed insertion/deletion (indel) markers based on the transcriptome differences between CM and Sulu-1 (i.e., normal flowering) plants. An F2 population derived from a cross between CM and Sulu-1 was used for gene mapping. Segregation analyses revealed that a single recessive gene regulates the production of chasmogamous flowers. Using newly developed indel and simple sequence repeat markers, the cha gene responsible for the chasmogamous flower trait was mapped to a 277.1-kb segment on chromosome 6. Twelve candidate genes were detected in this segment, including Vradi06g12650, which encodes a YUCCA family protein associated with floral development. A single base pair deletion producing a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon in Vradi06g12650 was detected only in CM plants. This suggested that Vradi06g12650 is a cha candidate gene. Our results provide important information for the molecular breeding of chasmogamous mungbean lines, which may serve as new genetic resources for hybrid cultivar development. PMID:27375671

  4. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  5. Effect of gamma and e-beam radiation on the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum, Eucalyptus radiata, and Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mohamed; Herent, Marie-France; Tilquin, Bernard; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2007-07-25

    The microbiological contamination of raw plant materials is common and may be adequately reduced by radiation processing. This study evaluated the effects of gamma- and e-beam ionizing radiations (25 kGy) on three plants used as food or as medicinal products (Thymus vulgaris L., Eucalyptus radiata D.C., and Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) as well as their effects on extracted or commercial essential oils and pure standard samples. Comparison between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was performed by GC/FID and GC/MS. At the studied doses, gamma and e-beam ionizing radiation did not induce any detectable qualitative or quantitative significant changes in the contents and yields of essential oils immediately after ionizing radiation of plants or commercial essential oils and standards. As the maximum dose tested (25 kGy) is a sterilizing dose (much higher than doses used for decontamination of vegetable drugs), it is likely that even decontamination with lower doses will not modify yields or composition of essential oils of these three plants.

  6. Alleviation of salt-induced photosynthesis and growth inhibition by salicylic acid involves glycinebetaine and ethylene in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Asgher, M; Khan, Nafees A

    2014-07-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviation of salt stress in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) through modulation of glycinebetaine (GB) and ethylene was studied. SA application at 0.5 mM increased methionine (Met) and GB accumulation in plants concomitant with the suppression of ethylene formation by inhibiting 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) activity more conspicuously under salt stress than no stress. The increased GB accumulation together with reduced ethylene under salt stress by SA application was associated with increased glutathione (GSH) content and lower oxidative stress. These positive effects on plant metabolism induced by SA application led to improved photosynthesis and growth under salt stress. These results suggest that SA induces GB accumulation through increased Met and suppresses ethylene formation under salt stress and enhances antioxidant system resulting in alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress on photosynthesis and growth. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analogue, 2, 6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) resulted in similar effects on Met, GB, ethylene production, photosynthesis and growth under salt stress. Future studies on the interaction between SA, GB and ethylene could be exploited for adaptive responses of plants under salt stress.

  7. Planum temporale grey matter asymmetries in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet (Macaca radiata) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Heidi; Pierre, Peter; Bennett, Allyson J; Fears, Scott; Woods, Roger; Hopkins, William D

    2011-06-01

    Brain asymmetries, particularly asymmetries within regions associated with language, have been suggested as a key difference between humans and our nearest ancestors. These regions include the planum temporale (PT) - the bank of tissue that lies posterior to Heschl's gyrus and encompasses Wernicke's area, an important brain region involved in language and speech in the human brain. In the human brain, both the surface area and the grey matter volume of the PT are larger in the left compared to right hemisphere, particularly among right-handed individuals. Here we compared the grey matter volume and asymmetry of the PT in chimpanzees and three other species of nonhuman primate in two Genera including vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). We show that the three monkey species do not show population-level asymmetries in this region whereas the chimpanzees do, suggesting that the evolutionary brain development that gave rise to PT asymmetry occurred after our split with the monkey species, but before our split with the chimpanzees.

  8. Detection of quantitative trait loci for mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in India and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kitsanachandee, Ratanakorn; Somta, Prakit; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Akhtar, Khalid P.; Shah, Tariq Mahmud; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Bains, Tejinderjit S.; Sirari, Asmita; Kaur, Livinder; Srinives, Peerasak

    2013-01-01

    Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is one of the major diseases affecting mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). In this study, we report the mapping of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) resistance in mungbean. An F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was generated in Thailand from a cross between NM10-12-1 (MYMIV resistance) and KPS2 (MYMIV susceptible). One hundred and twenty-two RILs and their parents were evaluated for MYMIV resistance in infested fields in India and Pakistan. A genetic linkage map was developed for the RIL population using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Composite interval mapping identified five QTLs for MYMIV resistance: three QTLs for India (qYMIV1, qYMIV2 and qYMIV3) and two QTLs for Pakistan (qYMIV4 and qYMIV5). qYMIV1, qYMIV2, qYMIV3, qYMIV4 and qYMIV5 explained 9.33%, 10.61%, 12.55%, 21.93% and 6.24% of variation in disease responses, respectively. qYMIV1 and qYMIV4 appeared to be the same locus and were common to a major QTL for MYMIV resistance in India identified previously using a different resistant mungbean. PMID:24399908

  9. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  10. Alleviation of fungicide-induced phytotoxicity in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] using fungicide-tolerant and plant growth promoting Pseudomonas strain

    PubMed Central

    Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to explore beneficial plant-associated rhizobacteria exhibiting substantial tolerance against fungicide tebuconazole vis-à-vis synthesizing plant growth regulators under fungicide stressed soils and to evaluate further these multifaceted rhizobacteria for protection and growth promotion of greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] plants against phytotoxicity of tebuconazole. Tebuconazole-tolerant and plant growth promoting bacterial strain PS1 was isolated from mustard (Brassica compestris) rhizosphere and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa following 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The P. aeruginosa strain PS1 solubilized phosphate significantly and produced indole acetic acid, siderophores, exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia even under tebuconazole stress. Generally, tebuconazole at the recommended, two and three times the recommended field rate adversely affected the growth, symbiosis, grain yield and nutrient uptake in greengram in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, the P. aeruginosa strain PS1 along with tebuconazole significantly, increased the growth parameters of the greengram plants. The inoculant strain PS1 increased appreciably root nitrogen, shoot nitrogen, root phosphorus, shoot phosphorus, and seed yield of greengram plants at all tested concentrations of tebuconazole when compared to the uninoculated plants treated with tebuconazole. The results suggested that the P. aeruginosa strain PS1, exhibiting novel plant growth regulating physiological features, can be applied as an eco-friendly and plant growth catalyzing bio-inoculant to ameliorate the performance of greengram in fungicide stressed soils. PMID:23961206

  11. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  12. Biogenic green synthesis of monodispersed gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) iron nanocomposite material and its application in germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as a plant model.

    PubMed

    Raju, Dugyala; Mehta, Urmil J; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    An eco-friendly green and one-pot synthesis of highly monodispersed iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) by using a natural biopolymer, gum kondagogu (GK) as reducing and capping agent is proposed. The NPs synthesised were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As the concentration of gum and time increases, the intensity of NPs formation increased. The NPs were highly monodispersed with uniform circular shapes of 2-6 nm in size. The formed NPs were crystalline in nature which was confirmed by diffraction analysis. The conversion ratio of Fe ionic form to NPs was 21% which was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Fe is essential for plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the effect of these NPs on the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). The radical length and biomass was increased in seeds exposed to Fe NPs than the ions. The uptake of Fe NPs by the sprouts was also quantified by ICP-MS, in which Fe was more in mung bean seeds exposed to NPs. The α-amylase activity was increased in the seeds exposed to NPs. The observed increase in the biomass by Fe NPs and seed germination may facilitate its application in the agriculture as an important cost-effective method for plant growth.

  13. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    SciTech Connect

    Erguen, H.; Howland, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecting demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.

  14. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun, H.; Howland, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecing demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.

  15. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  16. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    PubMed

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  17. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  18. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  19. 7 CFR 29.6026 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity. 29.6026 Section 29.6026 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6026 Maturity. The degree of ripeness. (See chart.)...

  20. 13 CFR 120.933 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity. 120.933 Section 120.933 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.933 Maturity. From time to time, SBA will publish in...

  1. New definitions for cotton fiber maturity ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber maturity affects fiber physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, as well as the processability and qualities of yarn and fabrics. New definitions of cotton fiber maturity ratio are introduced. The influences of sampling, sample preparation, measurement method, and correlations am...

  2. The FMI: Dimensions of Follower Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Loren I.

    1976-01-01

    The Follower Maturity Index (FMI) is an instrument derived from leadership theory and based on observations of verbal and nonverbal behavior of followers in task groups. Dimensions of follower maturity--achievement, responsibility, experience, activity, dependence, variety, interests, perspective, position, and awareness--are discussed. For…

  3. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the stage of development which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. Before a mature apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of...

  4. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the stage of development which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. Before a mature apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of...

  5. Quantifying Semantic Linguistic Maturity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to quantify "semantic linguistic maturity" (SELMA) based on a high dimensional semantic representation of words created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0-12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human…

  6. Vocational Maturity among Inner-City Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Peter E.; Hansen, James C.

    1970-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of the Vocational Development Inventory in measuring the vocational maturity of inner city boys. Intelligence test results were converted to standardized T scores. Mean vocational maturity scores indicate large differences which disappear when intelligence is controlled by analysis of convariance. A variety of…

  7. Career Maturity and College Student Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Stephen R.; Cabrera, Alberto F.; Vogt, W. Paul

    1999-01-01

    A study examined the role of career maturity in the college persistence of 307 freshmen at a public, residential, four-year college. Results indicate that the My Vocational Situation instrument is reliable and valid, although theoretical formulations should be reexamined. Career maturity was positively associated with several variables important…

  8. 7 CFR 51.1865 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1865 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process, and that...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process....

  10. Canopy temperature and maturity in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat units are a widely used indicator of maturity in cotton. It is generally assumed that it takes approximately 2200°F (1222°C) heat units for a cotton plant on the South High Plains of Texas to mature. This value is based on a typical planting date of May 15 with ample irrigation. As water for c...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before a mature... process. Therefore, a statement of firmness should be given in order to indicate the stage of the ripening process. A description of the ground color should also be given. (1) The following terms should be...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before a mature... process. Therefore, a statement of firmness should be given in order to indicate the stage of the ripening process. A description of the ground color should also be given. (1) The following terms should be...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus, Post Office Box 148... § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as...

  14. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February...

  15. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus, Post Office Box 148... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus, Post Office Box 148... § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus, Post Office Box 148... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February...

  19. [Population structure and understory species diversity of different aged Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations in Nenjiang Sandy Land of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Nan; Zhao, Yu-Sen; Zheng, Lei; Xin, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Taking the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica sand-fixing plantations at different development stages (24-, 29-, 39-, and 43 years old) in Nenjiang Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied their population structure, understory species composition, and species diversity. No regenerated seedlings were found in all the four P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations. The mean individual height and DBH of the populations differed significantly with development stage. With the increasing age of the plantations, the proportion of small-sized individuals decreased obviously, while that of large-sized individuals increased, population tended to mature, and the diameter structure except 43 years old plantation was in normal distribution. A total of 33 understory plant species were recorded, belonging to 28 genera and 15 families. Setaria viridis was the dominant species, but its dominance decreased gradually with increasing age of the plantations. With the increase of plantation age, the proportion of annual plants decreased, while that of perennial plants increased. The Simpson index and Pielou index had no significant differences among the different aged plantations, but the richness index, Shannon index, and Alatalo index of 39 years old plantation were significantly higher than those of 24 years old stands, suggesting that the species diversity of the community improved with time.

  20. [Population structure and understory species diversity of different aged Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations in Nenjiang Sandy Land of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Nan; Zhao, Yu-Sen; Zheng, Lei; Xin, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Taking the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica sand-fixing plantations at different development stages (24-, 29-, 39-, and 43 years old) in Nenjiang Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied their population structure, understory species composition, and species diversity. No regenerated seedlings were found in all the four P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations. The mean individual height and DBH of the populations differed significantly with development stage. With the increasing age of the plantations, the proportion of small-sized individuals decreased obviously, while that of large-sized individuals increased, population tended to mature, and the diameter structure except 43 years old plantation was in normal distribution. A total of 33 understory plant species were recorded, belonging to 28 genera and 15 families. Setaria viridis was the dominant species, but its dominance decreased gradually with increasing age of the plantations. With the increase of plantation age, the proportion of annual plants decreased, while that of perennial plants increased. The Simpson index and Pielou index had no significant differences among the different aged plantations, but the richness index, Shannon index, and Alatalo index of 39 years old plantation were significantly higher than those of 24 years old stands, suggesting that the species diversity of the community improved with time. PMID:23285985

  1. Rhizodeposition of Nitrogen and Carbon by Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and Its Contribution to Intercropped Oats (Avena nuda L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Huadong; Yang, Xuechao; Feng, Xiaomin; Qian, Xin; Hu, Yuegao; Ren, Changzhong; Zeng, Zhaohai

    2015-01-01

    Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR) of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S) or intercropped (I) with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp) and at maturity (Im and Sm). More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp), 9.2% (Ip), 20.1% (Sm), and 21.2% (Im) of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp), 42.0% (Ip), 15.4% (Sm), and 22.6% (Im) of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4–83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N) and 58.4–85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops. PMID:25821975

  2. Late maturers at a performance disadvantage to their more mature peers in junior Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Bennett, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents mature at different rates such that individuals competing in the same competition may differ in physical and biological maturity despite being of similar chronological age. Whether or not differences translate into on-field performance in competition is relatively unknown. This study investigated the influence of biological maturity on fitness and match running performance in junior Australian football. Eighty-seven under-15 years players were categorised into early (n = 20), average (n = 45) and late (n = 22) maturity groups based on self-reported and anthropometric assessment of biological maturity. Running movements during competition were collected using GPS (5 Hz) technology. Early maturers were heavier and taller than all other boys (P < 0.05), while biological maturity was significantly correlated to 20 m sprint (r = 0.53, P < 0.01). Total distance, high-intensity (>14.4 km · h(-1)) running distance and number of high-intensity efforts were significantly greater (20.8%, 53.6%, 31.7%, respectively; P < 0.01) in early compared to late maturers. Number of sprints and peak speed in competition were not different. Pubertal development and maturity status partially explained the differences between players in physical size, functional running fitness and match running performance. Late maturing players in this Australian football under-15 age group were at a physical and performance disadvantage to their earlier maturing peers.

  3. Mycobacterium avium subspecies impair dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Basler, Tina; Brumshagen, Christina; Beineke, Andreas; Goethe, Ralph; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic, granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. Dendritic cells (DC) of the gut are ideally placed to combat invading mycobacteria; however, little is known about their interaction with MAP. Here, we investigated the interaction of MAP and the closely related M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) with murine DC and the effect of infected macrophages on DC maturation. The infection of DC with MAP or MAA induced DC maturation, which differed to that of LPS as maturation was accompanied by higher production of IL-10 and lower production of IL-12. Treatment of maturing DC with supernatants from mycobacteria-infected macrophages resulted in impaired DC maturation, leading to a semi-mature, tolerogenic DC phenotype expressing low levels of MHCII, CD86 and TNF-α after LPS stimulation. Though the cells were not completely differentiated they responded with an increased IL-10 and a decreased IL-12 production. Using recombinant cytokines we provide evidence that the semi-mature DC phenotype results from a combination of secreted cytokines and released antigenic mycobacterial components of the infected macrophage. Our results indicate that MAP and MAA are able to subvert DC function directly by infecting and indirectly via the milieu created by infected macrophages.

  4. Protein syntehsis during soybean seed maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L.A.; Rinne, R.W.

    1987-04-01

    The authors previous work has demonstrated that physiological and biochemical changes specifically associated with soybean seed maturation can be separated from events associated with seed development. The objective of this study was to determine if soybean seed metabolism is altered during maturation drying at the level of protein synthesis. Seed harvested 35 days after flowering (0% seedling growth) were induced to mature (100% seedling growth) through controlled dehydration. Proteins labeled with (/sup 35/S)-methionine were extracted and analyzed by 1-D PAGE coupled with autoradiography and densitometry. Results show a 31 kD and 128 kD polypeptide synthesized de novo during dehydration and precocious maturation. The same two polypeptides are synthesized during natural dehydration and maturation (>60 days after flowering). Furthermore, these polypeptides persist during rehydration and germination of both precociously and naturally matured seed, but specifically disappear during early seedling growth. The authors are currently investigating the role of protein synthesis during soybean seed maturation and if it is required for establishment of a soybean seedling.

  5. Paraoxonase 1 and HDL maturation.

    PubMed

    Gugliucci, Alejandro; Menini, Teresita

    2015-01-15

    Understanding the kinetics and function of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is becoming an important issue in atherosclerosis. Low PON1 activity has been consistently linked with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events in the setting of secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have shown that there is a specific interaction of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-apoAI-PON1 on HDL surface that seems to be germane to atherogenesis. MPO specifically inhibits PON1 and PON1 mitigates MPO effects. Surprisingly, very little is known about the routes by which PON1 gets integrated into HDL or its fate during HDL remodeling in the intravascular space. We have developed a method that assesses PON1 activity in the individual HDL subclasses with the aid of which we have shown that PON1 is present across the HDL particle range and preferentially in HDL3, confirming data from ultracentrifugation (UC) studies. Upon HDL maturation ex vivo PON1 is activated and it shows a flux to both smaller and larger HDL particles as well as to VLDL and sdLDL. At the same time apoE, AI and AII are shifted across particle sizes. PON1 activation and flux across HDL particles are blocked by CETP and LCAT inhibitors. In a group of particles with such a complex biology as HDL, knowledge of the interaction between apo-lipoproteins, lipids and enzymes is key for an increased understanding of the yet multiple unknown features of its function. Solving the HDL paradox will necessitate the development of techniques to explore HDL function that are practical and well adapted to clinical studies and eventually become useful in patient monitoring. The confluence of proteomic, functional studies, HDL subclasses, PON1 assays and zymogram will yield data to draw a more elaborate and comprehensive picture of the function of HDL. It must be noted that all these studies are static and conducted in the fasting state. The crucial phase will be achieved when human kinetic studies (both in the fasting and post

  6. Variation in Gross Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Communities Along a Chronosequence of Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Stands, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, E. A.; Turner, M. G.; Metzger, K. M.; Balser, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    Soils and vegetation were analyzed in 20 forest stands in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA that varied in age from 50 to 350 years and had initiated following stand-replacing fire. Our goal was to determine how nitrogen (N) availability (NH4+) varied among post-fire, mature lodgpole pine (Pinus contorta) stands and to determine whether that variability was related to stand age, stand tree density, microbial community composition and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). Gross N mineralization was measured using a laboratory isotopic dilution technique, and microbial community composition was measured using a hybrid Fatty-Acid-Methyl-Esther/ Phospho-Lipid Fatty Acid procedure. Gross nitrogen mineralization rates ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 μ gN g soil-1 d-1 (average=1.44+/-0.24 μ gN g soil-1 d-1). Gross N mineralization rates declined with increasing stand age: 2.11 +/- 0.41 (50-100 yr), 1.83 +/- 0.75 (125-175 yr), 0.99 +/- 0.24 (200-250 yr), 0.82 +/- 0.21 (300-350 yr). Gross mineralization rates in the 50-100 age class were significantly higher than in the 200-250 and 300-350 age classes. Gross mineralization was positively related to stand ANPP (p=0.0186, R2=0.96), negatively related to stand foliar N averaged by age-class (p=0.0219, R2=0.96), and was not significantly related to tree density. The first principal component (PC1), which explained 53% of the variation in microbial community composition, was correlated with age class. PC1 was strongly controlled by a fungal lipid (18:2 ω 6c). The proportion of microbial lipids in specified functional guilds differed among age classes but did not differ with stand density. These results are consistent with other studies reporting declines in N availability with increasing time-since-fire, which we attribute to changes in ANPP and changes in microbial community composition.

  7. Ca2+ signaling differentiation during oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Machaca, Khaled

    2007-11-01

    Oocyte maturation is an essential cellular differentiation pathway that prepares the egg for activation at fertilization leading to the initiation of embryogenesis. An integral attribute of oocyte maturation is the remodeling of Ca2+ signaling pathways endowing the egg with the capacity to produce a specialized Ca2+ transient at fertilization that is necessary and sufficient for egg activation. Consequently, mechanistic elucidation of Ca2+ signaling differentiation during oocyte maturation is fundamental to our understanding of egg activation, and offers a glimpse into Ca2+ signaling regulation during the cell cycle.

  8. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Summary It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account. PMID:24273354

  9. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  10. Changes in the level of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid and ( sup 14 C)indoleacetylaspartic acid during root formation in mung bean cuttings. [Vigna radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Norcini, J.G.; Heuser, C.W. )

    1988-04-01

    Changes in the levels of ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ({sup 14}C)indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAAsp) were examined during adventitious root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz. Berken) stem cuttings. IAAsp was identified by GC-MS as the primary conjugate in IAA-treated cuttings. During root formation in IAA-treated cuttings, the level of ({sup 14}C)IAAsp increased rapidly the first day and then declined; ({sup 14}C)IAA was rapidly metabolized and not detected after 12 hours.

  11. Reduced white matter integrity in the cingulum and anterior corona radiata in posttraumatic stress disorder in male combat veterans: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuan, Pilar Margaret; Thoma, Robert; Claus, Eric Daniel; Mays, Nicci; Caprihan, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and alcohol use (AUD) disorders are associated with abnormal anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and amygdala function, yet microstructural white matter (WM) differences in executive-limbic tracts are likely also involved. Investigating WM in limbic-thalamo-cortical tracts, this study hypothesized (1) fractional anisotropy (FA) in dorsal cingulum, parahippocampal cingulum, and anterior corona radiata (ACR) would be lower in individuals with comorbid PTSD/AUD compared to in individuals with AUD-only and (2) that FA would be related to both AUD and PTSD severity. 22 combat veterans with comorbid PTSD/AUD or AUD-only completed DTI scans. ANCOVAs indicated lower FA in right (F(df= 1,19)=9.091, P=0.0071) and left (F(df= 1,19) = 10.375, P=0.0045) dorsal cingulum and right ACR (F(df= 1,19) = 18.914, P= 0.0003) for individuals with comorbid PTSD/AUD vs. individuals with AUD-only, even controlling for alcohol use. Multiple linear regressions revealed that FA in the right ACR was inversely related to PTSD severity (r= −0.683, P=0.004). FA was not significantly related to alcohol severity. Reduced WM integrity in limbic-thalamo-cortical tracts is implicated in PTSD, even in the presence of comorbid AUD. These findings suggest that diminished WM integrity in tracts important for top-down control may be an important anomaly in PTSD and/or comorbid PTSD/AUD. PMID:24074963

  12. Biochemical and physiological characteristics of tropical mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars against chronic ozone stress: an insight to cultivar-specific response.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Agrawal, S B

    2015-05-01

    Surface-level ozone (O3) has been regarded as one of the most significant phytotoxic pollutants worldwide. Investigations addressing adverse impacts of elevated O3 on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), an important leguminous crop of the Indian subcontinent, are still limited. The present study analyzed the differences on the foliar injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidative defense system, physiology, and foliar protein profile of two tropical mung bean cultivars (HUM-2 and HUM-6) exposed to elevated O3 under near-natural conditions. Both cultivars were negatively affected by the pollutant, but the response was cultivar-specific. Results revealed that elevated O3 induced higher levels of ROS (O2 (·-) and H2O2) and lipid peroxidation leading to greater foliar injury in HUM-2 compared to HUM-6. Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency reduced under elevated O3 exposure and the extent of reduction was higher in HUM-2. Principal component analysis revealed that photosynthetic performance and quantum yield were drastically affected in HUM-2 as compared to HUM-6. Activities of antioxidative enzymes were also stimulated, suggesting generation of oxidative stress under elevated O3. HUM-6 showed higher induction of antioxidative enzymes than HUM-2. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed drastic reductions in the abundantly present ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large and small subunits and the decrease was higher in HUM-2. Altogether, results suggested that higher accumulation of ROS and limited induction of antioxidant defense system led to more leaf injury and impairment of photosynthesis in HUM-2 than HUM-6 depicting its higher sensitivity towards elevated O3.

  13. Research Resources: Comparative MicroRNA Profiles in Human Corona Radiata Cells and Cumulus Oophorus Cells Detected by Next-Generation Small RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Ma, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    During folliculogenesis, cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte differentiate into corona radiata cells (CRCs) and cumulus oophorus cells (COCs), which are involved in gonadal steroidogenesis and the development of germ cells. Several studies suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important regulatory role at the post-transcriptional level in cumulus cells. However, comparative miRNA profiles and associated processes in human CRCs and COCs have not been reported before. In this study, miRNA profiles were obtained from CRCs and COCs using next generation sequencing in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF. A total of 785 and 799 annotated miRNAs were identified in CRCs and COCs, while high expression levels of six novel miRNAs were detected both in CRCs and in COCs. In addition, different expression patterns in CRCs and COCs were detected in 72 annotated miRNAs. To confirm the miRNA profile in COCs and CRCs, quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression of annotated miRNAs, differentially expressed miRNAs, and novel miRNAs. The miRNAs in the let-7 family were found to be involved in the regulation of a broad range of biological processes in both cumulus cell populations, which was accompanied by a large amount of miRNA editing. Bioinformatics analysis showed that amino acid and energy metabolism were targeted significantly by miRNAs that were differentially expressed between CRCs and COCs. Our work extends the current knowledge of the regulatory role of miRNAs and their targeted pathways in folliculogenesis, and provides novel candidates for molecular biomarkers in the research of female infertility. PMID:25188034

  14. Influence of sodium chloride on the regulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and enzymes of respiratory chain in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saha, Papiya; Kunda, Pranamita; Biswas, Asok K

    2012-11-01

    The effect of common salt (NaCl) on ion contents, Krebs cycle intermediates and its regulatory enzymes was investigated in growing mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek, B 105) seedlings. Sodium and chloride ion contents increased in both root and shoot whereas potassium ion content decreased in shoot of test seedlings with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Organic acids like pyruvate and citrate levels increased whereas malate level decreased under stress in both roots and shoots. Salt stress also variedly affected the activities of different enzymes of respiratory chain. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.4.1) decreased in 50 mM NaCl but increased in 100 mM and 150 mM concentrations, in both root and shoot samples. Succinate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.3.5.1) activity was reduced in root whereas stimulated in shoot under increasing concentrations of salt. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.41) and malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37) decreased in both root and shoot samples under salt stress. On the contrary, pretreatment of mungbean seeds with sublethal dose of NaCl was able to overcome the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl to variable extents with significant alterations of all the tested parameters, resulting in better growth and efficient respiration in mungbean seedlings. Thus, plants can acclimate to lethal level of salinity by pretreatment of seeds with sublethal level of NaCl, which serves to improve their health and production under saline condition, but the sublethal concentration of NaCl should be carefully chosen.

  15. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions. PMID:25328209

  16. Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

    2013-11-15

    A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers.

  17. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-induced leaf senescence in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) and senescence inhibition by co-treatment with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Karuppanapandian, Thirupathi; Wang, Hong Wei; Prabakaran, Natarajan; Jeyalakshmi, Kandhavelu; Kwon, Mi; Manoharan, Kumariah; Kim, Wook

    2011-02-01

    Leaf senescence induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and senescence inhibition caused by supplementation with silver (Ag(+)) ions in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated in 8-day-old mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings. Inhibition of root and shoot elongation were observed in mung bean seedlings treated with 500μM 2,4-D. Concomitantly, the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase was significantly induced in leaf tissue. Leaf senescence induced by 2,4-D was closely associated with lipid peroxidation as well as increased levels of cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radicals (O(2)(·-)). Despite decreased catalase activity, the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase were increased during 2,4-D-induced leaf senescence. Further, the levels of reduced ascorbate, oxidized ascorbate, and reduced glutathione were markedly decreased, whereas the level of oxidized glutathione increased. 2,4-D-induced leaf senescence in mung bean was accompanied by an increase in positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and the activity of a 15-kDa Ca(2+)-dependent DNase. Supplementation with 100μM AgNO(3) or AgNPs inhibited 2,4-D-induced leaf senescence. The present results suggest that increased oxidative stress (O(2)(·-) and H(2)O(2)) led to senescence in mung bean leaves. Furthermore, significantly induced antioxidative enzymes are not sufficient to protect mung bean cells from 2,4-D-induced harmful ROS.

  18. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume.

  19. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  20. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the stage of growth which will ensure a proper completion of...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the stage of growth which will ensure a proper completion of...

  2. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  3. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed

    Herron, D A; Wingfield, M J; Wingfield, B D; Rodas, C A; Marincowitz, S; Steenkamp, E T

    2015-03-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  4. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ(13)C and δ(18)O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain.

  5. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  6. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.

  7. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core ismore » more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.« less

  8. Effect of hemiplegia on skeletal maturation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C D; Vogtle, L; Stevenson, R D

    1994-11-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have been reported to have poor growth and delayed skeletal maturation, but it is unclear whether these effects are related to the underlying brain injury or to concomitant malnutrition. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hemiplegic cerebral palsy on skeletal maturation and growth, with the unaffected side used as each subject's control. Bilateral hand-wrist radiographs were obtained for 19 children with spastic hemiplegia. Skeletal maturation was determined in a blinded fashion with the Fels method. The skeletal age of the affected (hemiplegic) side was less than that of the unaffected (control) side in all 19 subjects; the mean difference in skeletal age was 7.3 months (p < 0.001). The delay in skeletal maturation of the affected side correlated linearly with age and upper extremity function. These findings show that brain injury results in delayed skeletal maturation independent of malnutrition. This effect on skeletal maturation may explain, in part, the reason that some children with cerebral palsy grow poorly. PMID:7965443

  9. Review of Sexual Maturity in the Minipig.

    PubMed

    Howroyd, Paul C; Peter, Birgit; de Rijk, Eveline

    2016-06-01

    It is important to know whether the animals used in toxicology studies are sexually mature. As minipigs are being used increasingly in toxicity studies, we reviewed published data on the age of sexual maturity in the minipig. Maturity in females was assessed on the basis either of normal cycles of progesterone secretion or of the histological presence of corpora lutea and, in males, was assessed on the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules and epididymides. In female Göttingen minipigs, the first progesterone peak was at 3.7 to 4.2 or 6.1 to 6.5 months of age. These animals were in the presence of a boar. In female Göttingen minipigs in toxicology studies, which were not in the presence of a boar, at least 1 corpus luteum in the ovaries was present in only 50% of the females by 6.5 months of age, while all were mature by 7.7 months of age. Histological maturity in the male Yucatan minipig is reported to be attained at about 4.4 months old, but in male Göttingen minipigs at about 2 months old, although the definition of maturity may have been different in the 2 studies.

  10. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  12. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  13. On the specific pattern of long chain polyprenols in green needles of Pinus mugo Turra.

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, B; Hertel, J; Swiezewska, E; Chojnacki, T; Marczewski, A

    1997-01-01

    In green needles of Pinus mugo the most abundant polyprenols occur as a mixture of prenologues in which the dominant alcohol is built of 16 isoprene units. The characteristic spectrum of polyprenols (prenol-15, -16 and -17) was the same irrespective of the location of plant and of distinct morphological differences observed in the various selected forms of this species. The constant pattern of the polyprenols spectrum was preserved throughout the 2-year life span of needles, although the level of polyprenols was increased 2-3-fold. The polyprenol pattern in Pinaceae family differs from species to species, thus it may serve as chemotaxonomic criterion within this systematic group.

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  15. Effects of drought and irrigation on ecosystem functioning in a mature Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Brunner, Ivano; Egli, Simon; Eilmann, Britta; Graf Pannatier, Eisabeth; Schleppi, Patrick; Zingg, Andreas; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperature and reduce summer precipitation in Switzerland. To study the expected effects of increased drought in mature forests two different approaches are in general possible: water can be partially or completely removed from the ecosystems via above- or below-canopy roofs or water can be added to already drought-prone ecosystems. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. In our study water was added to a mature 90-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest with a few singe pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.), located in the valley bottom of the driest region of Switzerland (Valais). In Valais, Scots pines are declining, usually with increased mortality rates following drought years. It was therefore of special interest to study here how water addition is changing forest ecosystem functioning. The irrigation experiment started in the summer of 2003. Out of eight 0.1 ha experimental plots, four were randomly selected for irrigation, the other four left as a control. Irrigation occurred during rainless nights between April and October, doubling the annual rainfall amount from 650 to 1300 mm. Irrigation water, taken from a near-by irrigation channel, added some nutrients to the plots, but nutrients which were deficient on the site, e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus, were not altered. Tree diameter, tree height and crown width were assessed before the start of the irrigation in winter 2002/2003 and after 7 years of the experiment in 2009/2010. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Additionally, tree mortality was annually evaluated. Mycorrhizal fruit bodies were identified and counted at weekly intervals from 2003 until 2007. Root samples were taken in 2004 and 2005. In 2004 and 2005 wood formation of thirteen trees was analysed in weekly or biweekly intervals using the pinning method. These trees were felled in 2006 for stem, shoot and needle growth analysis

  16. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  17. Comparison of maturity based on steroid and vanadyl porphyrin parameters: A new vanadyl porphyrin maturity parameter for higher maturities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, Padmanabhan; Moldowan, J. Michael

    1993-03-01

    Correlations are demonstrated between steroid maturity parameters and the porphyrin maturity parameter (PMP) which is based on the ratio of specific vanadyl porphyrins C 28E /(C 28E + C 32D) measured by HPLC. Measurements from a global selection of > 100 rock extracts and oils show that PMP parallels changes in the C 29-sterane 20S/(20S + 20R) and tri/(tri + mono) aromatic steroid ratios, and that all three parameters appear to attain their maximum values at similar maturity levels. The triaromatic steroid side chain cracking parameter, TA I/(I + II), reaches approximately 20% of its maximum value when PMP has reached 100%. These results suggest that PMP is effective in the early to peak portion of the oil window. A new parameter, PMP-2, based on changes in the relative concentrations of two peaks in the HPLC fingerprint (vanadyl "etio" porphyrins), appears effective in assessing the maturity of source rocks beyond peak oil generation. In combination with PMP this parameter extends the effective range of vanadyl porphyrins parameters to higher maturities as demonstrated by a suite of oils from the Oriente Basin, Ecuador, South America.

  18. Growth responses of mature loblolly pine to dead wood.manipulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale manipulations of dead wood in mature Pinus taeda L. stands in the southeastern United States included a major one-time input of logs (fivefold increase in log volume) created by felling trees onsite, annual removals of all dead wood above >10 cm in diameter and >60 cm in length, and a reference in which no manipulations took place. We returned over a decade later to determine how these treatments affected tree growth using increment cores. There were no significant differences in tree density, basal area or tree diameters among treatments at the time of sampling. Although tree growth was consistently higher in the log-input plots and lower in the removal plots, this was true even during the 5 year period before the experiment began. When growth data from this initial period were included in the model as a covariate, no differences in post-treatment tree growth were detected. It is possible that treatment effects will become apparent after more time has passed, however.

  19. AmeriFlux CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous

    SciTech Connect

    Arain, M. Altaf

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous. Site Description - The forest is approximately 90 years old. Naturally regenerated on sandy terrain and abandoned agricultural land. Predominantly hardwood species with a few scattered conifers. Site has been managed (thinned) in the past. It has a high biodiversity with 573 tree and plant species, 102 bird species, 23 mamal species and 22 reptile and amphibian species (SWALSREP Report, 1999). The dominant tree species is white oak (Quercus alba), with other scattered broadleaf Carolinian species including sugar and red maple (Acer saccharum, A. rubrum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black and red oak (Q. velutina, Q. rubra) and white ash (Fraxinus americana) . There are also scattered conifers, mostly white and red pine (Pinus strobes, P. resinosa), comprising about 5% of the trees. Average tree height is 25.7 m with a stand density of 504 ± 18 trees per hectare. Average tree diameter at breast height is 22.3 cm and basal area is 0.06 m2 or approximately 29 square meters per hectare.

  20. An LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of lycorine and galanthamine in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study of Lycoris radiata extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Yue-bin; Huang, Shan; Liu, Ying

    2014-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of lycorine and galanthamine, two major constituents in Lycoris radiata extract, in rat plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl ether was carried out using diphenhydramine as the internal standard. The two bioactive alkaloids were separated on a Zorbax SB-C18 reserved-phase column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm) by gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of methanol with 0.1% formic acid (A) and water with 0.1% formic acid (B) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. All analytes showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r (2)>0.99) and the lower limit of quantification was 3.00 ng/mL for each analyte. The average extraction recovery of the analytes from rat plasma was more than 82.15%, and the intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision of the assay were less than 12.6%. The validated method was successfully applied to monitoring the concentrations and pharmacokinetic studies of two Amaryllidaceous alkaloids in rat plasma after an oral administration of Lycoris radiata extract.

  1. An LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of lycorine and galanthamine in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study of Lycoris radiata extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Yue-bin; Huang, Shan; Liu, Ying

    2014-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of lycorine and galanthamine, two major constituents in Lycoris radiata extract, in rat plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl ether was carried out using diphenhydramine as the internal standard. The two bioactive alkaloids were separated on a Zorbax SB-C18 reserved-phase column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm) by gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of methanol with 0.1% formic acid (A) and water with 0.1% formic acid (B) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. All analytes showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r (2)>0.99) and the lower limit of quantification was 3.00 ng/mL for each analyte. The average extraction recovery of the analytes from rat plasma was more than 82.15%, and the intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision of the assay were less than 12.6%. The validated method was successfully applied to monitoring the concentrations and pharmacokinetic studies of two Amaryllidaceous alkaloids in rat plasma after an oral administration of Lycoris radiata extract. PMID:25480582

  2. Unique Features of the Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Megagenome Revealed Through Sequence Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Liechty, John D.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Wu, Le-Shin; Loopstra, Carol A.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Dougherty, William M.; Lin, Brian Y.; Zieve, Jacob J.; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Yorke, James A.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Main, Doreen; Langley, Charles H.; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (∼20–40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%. PMID:24653211

  3. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on stem maintenance and construction respiration in Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, E.V.; Delucia, E.H.; Ball, J.T. |

    1995-06-01

    We measured woody tissue respiration on stems of 4-year-old Pinus ponderosa growing under ambient (350 ppm) and twice ambient (700 ppm) atmospheric CO{sub 2} in open top chambers located at the Institute of Forest Genetics in Placerville, CA. Mean daily respiration rate per unit volume of wood was greater in trees growing under the elevated (700 ppm) treatment (46.75 vs 40.45 mol m{sup -3} d{sup -1}). This difference was due to a higher Q{sub 10} of respiration in the elevated (Q{sub 10}=2.20) versus the ambient (Q{sub 10}=1.67) treatment. The higher Q{sub 10} and CO{sub 2} efflux rate were not due to differences in phenology but may reflect a difference in demand for metabolic energy. In contrast to results seen in leaves growing under elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} analysis of tissue construction costs suggests no difference in wood composition between treatments. Estimates of growth respiration calculated from construction costs also did not differ. Under future predicted atmospheric conditions, changes in the maintenance respiration of woody tissue may lead to an increase in the respiration component of whole plant carbon budgets of Pinus ponderosa.

  4. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Pausas, Juli G; Belcher, Claire M; Schwilk, Dylan W; Lamont, Byron B

    2012-05-01

    • The mapping of functional traits onto chronograms is an emerging approach for the identification of how agents of natural selection have shaped the evolution of organisms. Recent research has reported fire-dependent traits appearing among flowering plants from 60 million yr ago (Ma). Although there are many records of fossil charcoal in the Cretaceous (65-145 Ma), evidence of fire-dependent traits evolving in that period is lacking. • We link the evolutionary trajectories for five fire-adapted traits in Pinaceae with paleoatmospheric conditions over the last 250 million yr to determine the time at which fire originated as a selective force in trait evolution among seed plants. • Fire-protective thick bark originated in Pinus c. 126 Ma in association with low-intensity surface fires. More intense crown fires emerged c. 89 Ma coincident with thicker bark and branch shedding, or serotiny with branch retention as an alternative strategy. These innovations appeared at the same time as the Earth's paleoatmosphere experienced elevated oxygen levels that led to high burn probabilities during the mid-Cretaceous. • The fiery environments of the Cretaceous strongly influenced trait evolution in Pinus. Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants.

  5. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  6. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora. PMID:27433632

  8. [Canopy interception of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation on Longzhong Loess Plateau, Northwest China: characteristics and simulation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Min; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Jian, Sheng-Qi; Yu, Kai

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in the Anjiagou catchment on Longzhong Loess Plateau as test object, an observation was made on the characteristics of throughfall, stemflow, interception, and canopy structure of P. tabulaeformi during its growth season (from May to September) in 2011. Based on the observed data, the revised Gash analytical model was adopted to simulate the canopy interception, aimed to understand the ecological hydrological processes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation and related mechanisms. In the observation period, a total of 19 precipitation events were observed, with a total precipitation of 215.80 mm. The throughfall, stemflow, and canopy interception were 165.24 mm, 2.29 mm, and 48.27 mm, occupying 76.7%, 1.1%, and 22.4% of the total precipitation, respectively. The simulated canopy interception was 41.24 mm, being 7.13 mm lower than the observed value and with a relative error of 14.7%. There were 33.8% and 60.0% of interception were evaporated from the canopy during and after precipitation, respectively. The revised Gash analytical model was highly sensitive to the canopy storage capacity, forest coverage, rainfall intensity, and evaporation, but less sensitive to the stemflow rate and stem water holding capacity.

  9. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Pausas, Juli G; Belcher, Claire M; Schwilk, Dylan W; Lamont, Byron B

    2012-05-01

    • The mapping of functional traits onto chronograms is an emerging approach for the identification of how agents of natural selection have shaped the evolution of organisms. Recent research has reported fire-dependent traits appearing among flowering plants from 60 million yr ago (Ma). Although there are many records of fossil charcoal in the Cretaceous (65-145 Ma), evidence of fire-dependent traits evolving in that period is lacking. • We link the evolutionary trajectories for five fire-adapted traits in Pinaceae with paleoatmospheric conditions over the last 250 million yr to determine the time at which fire originated as a selective force in trait evolution among seed plants. • Fire-protective thick bark originated in Pinus c. 126 Ma in association with low-intensity surface fires. More intense crown fires emerged c. 89 Ma coincident with thicker bark and branch shedding, or serotiny with branch retention as an alternative strategy. These innovations appeared at the same time as the Earth's paleoatmosphere experienced elevated oxygen levels that led to high burn probabilities during the mid-Cretaceous. • The fiery environments of the Cretaceous strongly influenced trait evolution in Pinus. Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants. PMID:22348443

  10. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of a vicilin-type seed storage protein from Pinus koraiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method in hanging drops. The cupin superfamily of proteins includes the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins. Many members of this family of proteins are known allergens. In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method in hanging drops. The crystals belong to the primitive cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.174 Å. Two vicilin molecules were present in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient was determined to be 2.90 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with a corresponding solvent content of ∼58%. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained using the program Phaser. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  11. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  12. Intracellular Na+ regulates epithelial Na+ channel maturation.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Elisa; Carattino, Marcelo D; Hughey, Rebecca P; Pilewski, Joseph M; Kleyman, Thomas R; Myerburg, Mike M

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) function is regulated by the intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]i) through a process known as Na(+) feedback inhibition. Although this process is known to decrease the expression of proteolytically processed active channels on the cell surface, it is unknown how [Na(+)]i alters ENaC cleavage. We show here that [Na(+)]i regulates the posttranslational processing of ENaC subunits during channel biogenesis. At times when [Na(+)]i is low, ENaC subunits develop mature N-glycans and are processed by proteases. Conversely, glycan maturation and sensitivity to proteolysis are reduced when [Na(+)]i is relatively high. Surface channels with immature N-glycans were not processed by endogenous channel activating proteases, nor were they sensitive to cleavage by exogenous trypsin. Biotin chase experiments revealed that the immature surface channels were not converted into mature cleaved channels following a reduction in [Na(+)]i. The hypothesis that [Na(+)]i regulates ENaC maturation within the biosynthetic pathways is further supported by the finding that Brefeldin A prevented the accumulation of processed surface channels following a reduction in [Na(+)]i. Therefore, increased [Na(+)]i interferes with ENaC N-glycan maturation and prevents the channel from entering a state that allows proteolytic processing. PMID:25767115

  13. Calcium signaling differentiation during Xenopus oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    El-Jouni, Wassim; Jang, Byungwoo; Haun, Shirley; Machaca, Khaled

    2005-12-15

    Ca(2+) is the universal signal for egg activation at fertilization in all sexually reproducing species. The Ca(2+) signal at fertilization is necessary for egg activation and exhibits specialized spatial and temporal dynamics. Eggs acquire the ability to produce the fertilization-specific Ca(2+) signal during oocyte maturation. However, the mechanisms regulating Ca(2+) signaling differentiation during oocyte maturation remain largely unknown. At fertilization, Xenopus eggs produce a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(cyt)) rise that lasts for several minutes, and is required for egg activation. Here, we show that during oocyte maturation Ca(2+) transport effectors are tightly modulated. The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) is completely internalized during maturation, and is therefore unable to extrude Ca(2+) out of the cell. Furthermore, IP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release is required for the sustained Ca(2+)(cyt) rise in eggs, showing that Ca(2+) that is pumped into the ER leaks back out through IP(3) receptors. This apparent futile cycle allows eggs to maintain elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) despite the limited available Ca(2+) in intracellular stores. Therefore, Ca(2+) signaling differentiates in a highly orchestrated fashion during Xenopus oocyte maturation endowing the egg with the capacity to produce a sustained Ca(2+)(cyt) transient at fertilization, which defines the egg's competence to activate and initiate embryonic development.

  14. Need for speed: Sexual maturation precedes social maturation in gray mouse lemurs.

    PubMed

    Hohenbrink, Sarah; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2015-10-01

    The life history of mammals underlies a fast-slow continuum, ranging from "slow" species with large body size, delayed sexual maturation, low fertility, and long lifespan, to "fast" species showing the opposite traits. Primates fall into the "slow" category, considering their relatively low offspring numbers and delayed juvenile development. However, social and sexual maturation processes do not necessarily have to be completed simultaneously. The comparison of the timeframes for sexual and social maturation is largely lacking for primates, with the prominent exception of humans. Here, we compare both maturation processes in a basal primate, the gray mouse lemur, which ranges in many aspects at the fast end of the slow-fast life history continuum among primates. We compared the patterns and frequencies of various social and solitary behaviors in young adults (YA, 12-13 months old) and older individuals (A, ≥2 years) of both sexes outside estrus. Observations were conducted during mix-sexed dyadic encounter experiments under controlled captive conditions (eight dyads per age class). Results indicate that although all young adults were sexually mature, social maturation was not yet completed in all behavioral domains: Age-dependent differences were found in the number of playing dyads, female marking behavior, female aggression, and social tolerance. Thus, this study provides a first indication that social maturation lags behind sexual maturation in an ancestral nocturnal primate model, indicating that these two developmental schemes may have been decoupled early and throughout the primate lineage. PMID:26119105

  15. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation.

    PubMed

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo.

  16. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16231.001 PMID:27542195

  17. [Relationship between sexual maturation and subcutaneous fat].

    PubMed

    García Llop, L A; Ramada Benedito, A; Rodríguez-Estecha, P

    1990-10-01

    Due to the great variability at the beginnings and the period of the puberty, authors have studied the modifications of the subcutaneous-fat and their relation with the sexual maturating. They have measured the skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac in 358 boys from 10 to 15 years old and 424 girls from 8 to 14 years old inrelation to sexual maturating through the stages described by Tanner. It has been found more subcutaneous fat in girls than in boys (p less than 0.05). The boys increase their subcutaneous fat until the stage 3 (except the skinfold triceps) and decrease later (except the skinfold subscapular). In boys, the analysis of varianza, show that the variations are related with the sexual maturating and not with chronologic age. PMID:2278437

  18. Macrophage-induced thymic lymphocyte maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Van den Tweel, J G; Walker, W S

    1977-01-01

    Guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages were found to influence the functional maturation of thymic lymphocytes. Autologous thymic lymphocytes obtained from macrophage co-cultures responded to three different mitogens and were reduced in their ability to reassociate spontaneously with macrophages. Neither of these properties were found in thymic lymphocytes that had not been cultured with macrophages. These functional changes appeared to be specific for macrophages since thymic lymphocytes incubated with skin fibroblasts failed to respond to the test mitogens. Furthermore, they were not the result of either the inactivation, by macrophages, of a putative suppressor thymocyte or a soluble macrophage product. In addition to influencing the functional maturation of thymic lymphocytes, macrophages also appeared to play a direct role in inducing the mitogen response of functionally mature cells. PMID:304037

  19. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation.

    PubMed

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. PMID:27542195

  20. An unexpected twist in viral capsid maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Duda, Robert L.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.

    2009-04-14

    Lambda-like double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm of pressure during genome packaging. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids requires the formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Although various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage. Here we present a procapsid X-ray structure at 3.65 {angstrom} resolution, termed prohead II, of the lambda-like bacteriophage HK97, the mature capsid structure of which was previously solved to 3.44 {angstrom}. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and hydrogen/deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrate that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and -sheet regions. We also identified subunit interactions at each three-fold axis of the capsid that are maintained throughout maturation. The interactions sustain capsid integrity during subunit refolding and provide a fixed hinge from which subunits undergo rotational and translational motions during maturation. Previously published calorimetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90 kJ mol{sup -1} of energy. We propose that the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an exothermic

  1. CANOPY CONDUCTANCE OF PINUS TAEDA, LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA AND QUERCUS PHELLOS UNDER VARYING ATMOSPHERIC AND SOIL WATER CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sap flow, and atmospheric and soil water data were collected in closed-top chambers under conditions of high soil water potential for saplings of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus phellos L., and Pinus taeda L., three co-occurring species in the southeastern USA. Responses of c...

  2. Canopy Level Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes from a Pinus taeda Experimental Plantation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) observed during 2007 from a Pinus taeda experimental plantation in Central North Carolina are compared with model estimates from MEGAN 2.1. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) estimates of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) fluxes are ...

  3. [Effects of elevated O3 on the volatile organic compounds emit from Ginkgo biloba and Pinus tabulaeformis].

    PubMed

    Li, De-wen; Shi, Yi; He, Xing-yuan

    2008-02-01

    To study the impact of elevated tropospheric O3 concentrations on BVOCs emissions by Pinus tabulaeformis and Ginkgo biloba in urban area, the trees were exposed in open-top chambers. Two ozone treatments were established: ambient air (approximately 30 nmol x mol(-1) ) (CK) and elevated O3 concentrations (80 nmol x mol(-1) ) (O3 ). Elevated O3 concentrations significantly induced isoprene to emit for Pinus tabulaeformis and Ginkgo biloba (p < 0.05), and delta3-carene for Ginkgo biloba (p < 0.05). The emission rates were increased to 1.96, 9.71 and 0.09 microg/(g x h) (-1), respectively. There were no significant differences between ozone fumigation treatments for the other monoterpenes. At the same time, the relative abundances of the monoterpenes and isoprene were to be different between tree species and effect by O3 exposure. In CK chambers, the dominate BVOCs emitted by Ginkgo biloba was isoprene, and a-pinene for Pinus tabulaeformis. In the elevated O3 chambers, the isoprene accounted for 64.73% of Pinus tabulaeformis BVOCs. To sum up, the BVOCs emitting patterns were influenced by elevated O3 significantly.

  4. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). On December 9, 2008, we received a petition dated December 8, 2008, from... published in the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 42033). In that finding we determined that the... Pinus albicaulis (75 FR 42033), and received 20 letters from the public. This 12-month finding is...

  5. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  6. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea.

  7. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... soil erosion by physically stabilizing soils, initiating succession as a hardy pioneer or as an early... published in the Federal Register on January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). Species Information Pinus albicaulis is... listing actions (e.g., 75 FR 13910, March 23, 2010). The petitioner also cites several other models...

  8. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  9. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea. PMID:18758977

  10. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  11. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  12. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Marjorie; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Levy, Rachel; Drevet, Joël R; Saez, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia) affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa. PMID:26067871

  13. The maturation of ovulatory potential in man.

    PubMed

    Kulin, H E

    1980-01-01

    The maturation of the potential for ovulation in man is reviewed in the light of recent data quantitating gonadotropins and gonadal steroids in the prepubertal child. The primary limitations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are seen as related to feedback control mechanisms. Based on preliminary data obtained in patients with gonadal dysgenesis, a hypothesis which links positive and negative feedback maturation is proposed. The development of full reproductive potential in man is clearly a process which extends over a decade or more.

  14. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  15. Maturation of rat proximal tubule chloride permeability.

    PubMed

    Baum, Michel; Quigley, Raymond

    2005-12-01

    We have previously shown that neonate rabbit tubules have a lower chloride permeability but comparable mannitol permeability compared with adult proximal tubules. The surprising finding of lower chloride permeability in neonate proximals compared with adults impacts net chloride transport in this segment, which reabsorbs 60% of the filtered chloride in adults. However, this maturational difference in chloride permeability may not be applicable to other species. The present in vitro microperfusion study directly examined the chloride and mannitol permeability using in vitro perfused rat proximal tubules during postnatal maturation. Whereas there was no maturational change in mannitol permeability, chloride permeability was 6.3 +/- 1.3 x 10(-5) cm/s in neonate rat proximal convoluted tubule and 16.1 +/- 2.3 x 10(-5) cm/s in adult rat proximal convoluted tubule (P < 0.01). There was also a maturational increase in chloride permeability in the rat proximal straight tubule (5.1 +/- 0.6 x 10(-5) cm/s vs. 9.3 +/- 0.6 x 10(-5) cm/s, P < 0.01). There was no maturational change in bicarbonate-to-chloride permeabilities (P(HCO3)/P(Cl)) in the rat proximal straight tubules (PST) and proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) or in the sodium-to-chloride permeability (P(Na)/P(Cl)) in the proximal straight tubule; however, there was a significant maturational decrease in proximal convoluted tubule P(Na)/P(Cl) with postnatal development (1.31 +/- 0.12 in neonates vs. 0.75 +/- 0.06 in adults, P < 0.001). There was no difference in the transepithelial resistance measured by current injection and cable analysis in the PCT, but there was a maturational decrease in the PST (7.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 4.6 +/- 0.1 ohms x cm2, P < 0.05). These studies demonstrate there are maturational changes in the rat paracellular pathway that impact net NaCl transport during development. PMID:16051720

  16. Comparison of Career Maturity among Graduate Students and Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Sue Saunders; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared the career maturity of graduate and undergraduate students (N=249) and investigated the relationship of gender to career maturity. Results indicated that achievement of career maturity tasks was similar for seniors and graduate students and that similar levels of career maturity were found between males and females. (LLL)

  17. Career Maturity in College Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Denise L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compared levels of career maturity between college students (n=76) with and without learning disabilities and investigated factors associated with career maturity. Few differences in career maturity were found. However, different predictors of career maturity for the two groups emerged. Students with learning disabilities who received more…

  18. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    PubMed

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance. PMID:23705379

  19. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah; Ogée, Jérôme; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rayment, Mark; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus pinaster (L.) Aït.) stand exposed to seasonal droughts. Intra-annual variations in tracheid anatomy and wood density were identified through image analysis and X-ray densitometry on stem cores covering the growth period 1999-2010. A cambial growth model was integrated with modelled plant water status and sugar availability from the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA to generate estimates of cell number, cell volume, cell mass and wood density on a weekly time step. The model successfully predicted inter-annual variations in cell number, ring width and maximum wood density. The model was also able to predict the occurrence of special anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in growth rings. Since cell wall thickness remained surprisingly constant within and between growth rings, variations in wood density were primarily the result of variations in lumen diameter, both in the model and anatomical data. In the model, changes in plant water status were identified as the main driver of the IADFs through a direct effect on cell volume. The anatomy data also revealed that a trade-off existed between hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency. Although a simplified description of cambial physiology is presented, this integrated modelling approach shows potential value for identifying universal patterns of tree-ring growth and anatomical features over a broad climatic gradient.

  20. MicroRNAs, polyamines, and the activities antioxidant enzymes are associated with in vitro rooting in white pine (Pinus strobus L.).

    PubMed

    Fei, Yunjun; Xiao, Bo; Yang, Man; Ding, Qiong; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanism of in vitro rooting in conifer is not fully understood. After establishment of a regeneration procedure in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) using mature embryos as explants to induce shoot formation on medium containing 3 μM IAA, 6 μM BA and 6 μM TDZ and induce root formation on medium containing 0.001-0.05 μM IAA, 0.001-0.05 μM IBA, 0.001-0.05 μM TDZ, we have investigated the changes of polyamine content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes during in vitro rooting in P. strobus. Our results demonstrated that putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) did not increase in P. strobus during the first week of rooting on medium supplemented with 0.01 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas the levels of Put, Spd, and Spm increased during the 1st-3rd week of culture on medium with IAA, and then decreased on medium with IAA. No such a change in Put, Spd, and Spm was observed on medium without IAA. Measurement of antioxidant enzyme activity demonstrated that the activities of polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and peroxidase slightly increased in the first week of culture and reached to the highest peak in the 3rd-5th week of culture. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that miR160 was increased on the 7th day, miR162, miR397, and miR408 was increased from the 21th to 35th day, miR857 was increased on the 35th day, and miR827 was increased on the 49th day. These results demonstrated that enhanced polyamine biosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and microRNAs are correlated with the root induction and formation in P. strobus. PMID:27069836

  1. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah; Ogée, Jérôme; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rayment, Mark; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus pinaster (L.) Aït.) stand exposed to seasonal droughts. Intra-annual variations in tracheid anatomy and wood density were identified through image analysis and X-ray densitometry on stem cores covering the growth period 1999-2010. A cambial growth model was integrated with modelled plant water status and sugar availability from the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA to generate estimates of cell number, cell volume, cell mass and wood density on a weekly time step. The model successfully predicted inter-annual variations in cell number, ring width and maximum wood density. The model was also able to predict the occurrence of special anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in growth rings. Since cell wall thickness remained surprisingly constant within and between growth rings, variations in wood density were primarily the result of variations in lumen diameter, both in the model and anatomical data. In the model, changes in plant water status were identified as the main driver of the IADFs through a direct effect on cell volume. The anatomy data also revealed that a trade-off existed between hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency. Although a simplified description of cambial physiology is presented, this integrated modelling approach shows potential value for identifying universal patterns of tree-ring growth and anatomical features over a broad climatic gradient. PMID:25769337

  2. Two Noninvasive Methods to Measure Female Maturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozinetz, Claudia A.

    1986-01-01

    Data from a sample of 278 females, aged 7 to 13, were used to compare two methods of measuring maturation. The methods were self-assessment of secondary sex characteristics and prediction of adult height. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  3. Career Maturity: A Priority for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Manuel Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews the current state of career maturity in secondary education--a period of education which is critical for development of this construct, when students are faced with ongoing academic and occupational decisions over the course of their studies. This paper is organized in three parts: first we focus on the concept, models,…

  4. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  5. Sperm Proteome Maturation in the Mouse Epididymis

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew A.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Karr, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, transit through the epididymis, which involves the acquisition, loss and modification of proteins, is required to confer motility and fertilization competency to sperm. The overall dynamics of maturation is poorly understood, and a systems level understanding of the complex maturation process will provide valuable new information about changes occurring during epididymal transport. We report the proteomes of sperm collected from the caput, corpus and cauda segments of the mouse epididymis, identifying 1536, 1720 and 1234 proteins respectively. This study identified 765 proteins that are present in sperm obtained from all three segments. We identified 1766 proteins that are potentially added (732) or removed (1034) from sperm during epididymal transit. Phenotypic analyses of the caput, corpus and cauda sperm proteomes identified 60 proteins that have known sperm phenotypes when mutated, or absent from sperm. Our analysis indicates that as much as one-third of proteins with known sperm phenotypes are added to sperm during epididymal transit. GO analyses revealed that cauda sperm are enriched for specific functions including sperm-egg recognition and motility, consistent with the observation that sperm acquire motility and fertilization competency during transit through the epididymis. In addition, GO analyses revealed that the immunity protein profile of sperm changes during sperm maturation. Finally, we identified components of the 26S proteasome, the immunoproteasome, and a proteasome activator in mature sperm. PMID:26556802

  6. Bluetongue virus capsid assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Mohl, Bjorn-Patrick; Roy, Polly

    2014-08-01

    Maturation is an intrinsic phase of the viral life cycle and is often intertwined with egress. In this review we focus on orbivirus maturation by using Bluetongue virus (BTV) as a representative. BTV, a member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae, has over the last three decades been subjected to intense molecular study and is thus one of the best understood viruses. BTV is a non-enveloped virus comprised of two concentric protein shells that encapsidate 10 double-stranded RNA genome segments. Upon cell entry, the outer capsid is shed, releasing the core which does not disassemble into the cytoplasm. The polymerase complex within the core then synthesizes transcripts from each genome segment and extrudes these into the cytoplasm where they act as templates for protein synthesis. Newly synthesized ssRNA then associates with the replicase complex prior to encapsidation by inner and outer protein layers of core within virus-triggered inclusion bodies. Maturation of core occurs outside these inclusion bodies (IBs) via the addition of the outer capsid proteins, which appears to be coupled to a non-lytic, exocytic pathway during early infection. Similar to the enveloped viruses, BTV hijacks the exocytosis and endosomal sorting complex required for trafficking (ESCRT) pathway via a non-structural glycoprotein. This exquisitely detailed understanding is assembled from a broad array of assays, spanning numerous and diverse in vitro and in vivo studies. Presented here are the detailed insights of BTV maturation and egress. PMID:25196482

  7. Thermal maturity of carboniferous strata, Ouachita Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Matthews, S.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Ouachita Mountains, a relatively untested, potential hydrocarbon province, contain a thick Paleozoic section of apparently favorable source beds, reservoir beds, and trap configurations. To estimate the thermal maturity of these strata, vitrinite reflectance was measured on 89 samples collected mostly from Carboniferous rocks from throughout the Ouachita outcrop area.

  8. Job Search Manual for Mature Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Fred L.

    This document is designed to help mature persons find the "right" professional, managerial, or technical jobs. Section 1 introduces the materials. Section 2 shows job seekers how to write a general statement that defines the nature of the position desired and how to assess their skills, abilities, interests, work values, and personal qualities…

  9. Evaluating Hass Avocado Maturity Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maturity of avocado fruit is usually assessed by measuring its dry matter content(DM), which is a destructive and time consuming process. The aim of this study is tointroduce a non-destructive and quick technique that can estimate the DM content of an avocado fruit. 'Hass' avocado fruits at diff...

  10. 24 CFR 242.27 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maturity. 242.27 Section 242.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN......

  11. 24 CFR 242.27 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maturity. 242.27 Section 242.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN......

  12. 24 CFR 242.27 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maturity. 242.27 Section 242.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN......

  13. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples:...

  14. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples:...

  15. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples:...

  16. Prenatal Antecedents of Newborn Neurological Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Rubin, Suzanne E.; Shiffler, Dorothy E.; Henderson, Janice L.; Pillion, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal neurobehavioral development was modeled longitudinally using data collected at weekly intervals from 24 to 38 weeks gestation in a sample of 112 healthy pregnancies. Predictive associations between 3 measures of fetal neurobehavioral functioning and their developmental trajectories to neurological maturation in the first weeks after birth…

  17. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  18. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1313 Mature. (a... also be given. (1) The following terms should be used for describing the ground color: Green, Light Green, Yellowish Green, and Yellow. (2) The following terms should be used for describing the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1272 Mature... also be given. (1) The following terms should be used for describing the ground color: Green, Light Green, Yellowish Green, and Yellow. (2) The following terms should be used for describing the...

  20. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  1. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  2. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  3. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  4. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  5. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  6. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial practice at a stage which will not...

  7. 7 CFR 51.888 - Maturity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, in the case of Arizona maturity..., Standardization Section, Room 2065-S, 14th and Independence Avenue, Washington, DC 20250 or at the National....5 Cardinal, Emperor, Perlette, Ribier, Olivette Blanche, Rish Baba, Red Malaga, and...

  8. 7 CFR 51.888 - Maturity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, in the case of Arizona maturity..., Standardization Section, Room 2065-S, 14th and Independence Avenue, Washington, DC 20250 or at the National....5 Cardinal, Emperor, Perlette, Ribier, Olivette Blanche, Rish Baba, Red Malaga, and...

  9. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  10. Neuropsychological and Early Maturational Correlates of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denno, Deborah J.

    A study designed to examine biological, sociological, and early maturational correlates of intelligence collected data prospectively, from birth to 15 years of age, on a sample of 987 black children. Multiple indicators of eight independent and three dependent variables were tested in a structural equation model. Altogether, clear sex differences…

  11. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before... the ripening process. Therefore, a statement of firmness should be given in order to indicate the stage of the ripening process. A description of the ground color should also be given. (1) The...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before... the ripening process. Therefore, a statement of firmness should be given in order to indicate the stage of the ripening process. A description of the ground color should also be given. (1) The...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These tangerine maturity...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These tangerine maturity...

  15. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These grapefruit maturity...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies may be... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These tangerine maturity...

  17. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These grapefruit maturity...

  18. Relative dental maturity and associated skeletal maturity in prehistoric native Americans of the Ohio valley area.

    PubMed

    Sciulli, Paul W

    2007-04-01

    Estimation of age-at-death of subadults in prehistoric skeletal samples based on modern reference standards rests on a number of assumptions of which many are untestable. If these assumptions are not met error of unknown magnitude and direction will be introduced to the subadult age estimates. This situation suggests that an independent estimate or estimates of age-related features, free of most of the assumptions made when using modern reference standards may be useful supplements in evaluating the age of subadults in prehistoric samples. The present study provides an internally consistent, population-specific measure of maturity for prehistoric Ohio valley Native Americans based on the seriation of dental development that may be used as a supplement to age-estimation. The developing dentition of 581 subadults from eight Ohio valley prehistoric-protohistoric groups was seriated within and among individuals resulting in a sequence of tooth development and a sequence of individuals from least to most mature. Dental maturity stages or sorting categories were then defined based on exclusive, easily observable, and highly repeatable tooth-formation stages. Tooth eruption (into occlusion), bone lengths, and fusion of skeletal elements are summarized by dental maturity stage. This procedure provides maturity estimates for skeletal features ordered by dental maturity stages derived from the same sample thus making explicit the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity.

  19. A Drosophila model to image phagosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Shandala, Tetyana; Lim, Chiaoxin; Sorvina, Alexandra; Brooks, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24709696

  20. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao )

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  1. Effect of drought and osmotic stress on gene expression in Jack Pine. [Pinus banksiana

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.; Mayne, M.; Coleman, J.R.; Blumwald, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought and osmotic stress was studied in Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings and cultured cell suspensions, respectively. The pattern of protein syntheses during stress was studied. Seedlings and cells were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine and membrane-bound proteins were isolated. proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by staining and autoradiography. Several changes in protein profiles were induced by stress. Messenger RNAs were isolated, translated in vitro, and complementary DNA libraries from control and stressed plants and cells were constructed in E. coli strain JM109. Antibodies, raised against electroeluted membrane-bound proteins that were significantly induced and/or enhanced during stress, were used to isolate stress-related genes from cDNA libraries.

  2. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI).

  3. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

  4. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI). PMID:24483064

  5. [CYTOGENETIC RESPONSE OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) TO CADMIUM AND NICKEL].

    PubMed

    Belousov, M V; Mashkina, O S

    2015-01-01

    We studied cytogenetic polymorphism of the seeds of Pinus sylvestris L. in response to heavy metals exposure in laboratory settings over 2 years' time. We compared results obtained from the seedlings of different years: 2012 and 2013. With an increase in Ni2+ and Cd2+ concentration we observed a decrease in mitotic activity with concurrent rise in the percentage of cells in the prophase. This fact demonstrates the heavy metals act similar to both fixatives and substances that block cleavage spindle formation. In terms of pathological mitosis and the frequency of micronuclei cells, Cd2+ shows higher mutagenity compared to Ni2+. In addition, in the experimental samples, we have distinguished abnormalities such as fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes and especially C mitosis occurrence, which are not observed in the control. PMID:26495713

  6. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo; Marcó, Lué M.

    2015-03-01

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bío-Bío, 37°15″ South-73°19″ West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 µg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg.

  7. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2012-05-16

    Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L. (n = 7) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl oximes. Besides previously reported components, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose, several soluble carbohydrates have been identified for the first time in this product, including saccharides (galactose, maltose, and planteose) and cyclitols (pinitol, galactinol, galactopinitol A1, fagopyritol B1, and other glycosyl-inositols). Most abundant cyclitols were chiro-inositol, fagopyritol B1, and pinitol, with concentrations ranging from 126.7 to 222.1 mg (100 g)(-1), 94.2 to 177.1 mg (100 g)(-1), and 51.2 to 282.8 mg (100 g)(-1), respectively.

  8. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. PMID:17482811

  9. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal specificity patterns in a mixed Pinus contorta and Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.; Parker, V. T.; Finley, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to test two hypotheses, (i) that host plant specificity among ectomycorrhizal fungi would be common in a closed-canopy, mixed Pinus contorta-Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park and (ii) that specificity would be more common in the early successional tree species, P. contorta, than in the invader, P. engelmannii. We identified 28 ectomycorrhizal fungal species collected from 27 soil cores. The proportion of P. engelmannii to P. contorta ectomycorrhizae was nearly equal (52 and 48%, respectively). Of the 28 fungal species, 18 composed greater than 95% of the fungal community. No species was associated exclusively with P. contorta, but four species, each found in only one core, and one species found in two cores were associated exclusively with P. engelmannii. These fungi composed less than 5% of the total ectomycorrhizae. Thus, neither hypothesis was supported, and hypothesized benefits of ectomycorrhizal specificity to both trees and fungi probably do not exist in this system.

  11. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity. PMID:27155099

  12. Growth-Form Characteristics of Ancient Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pines (Pinus aristata), Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F. Craig

    2006-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates growth-form characteristics of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) at several sites in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. Most of this study concentrates on 1,000- to 2,500-year-old bristlecone pines; however, the report also describes some of the growth-form characteristics of younger trees (about 20 to less than 1,000 years old) in order to show the continuous changes in tree form from youth to old age. To better describe the trees in this study, some tree-structure nomenclature is introduced and a growth-form classification system is provided. Other topics include the relationship of the trees to their substrate and the potential changes in the growth forms of some bristlecone pines due to damage caused by fire, porcupines, impacts from tumbling boulders, and lightning strikes.

  13. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. PMID:26746823

  14. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact.

  15. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region.

  16. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  17. Assessment of banana fruit maturity by image processing technique.

    PubMed

    Surya Prabha, D; Satheesh Kumar, J

    2015-03-01

    Maturity stage of fresh banana fruit is an important factor that affects the fruit quality during ripening and marketability after ripening. The ability to identify maturity of fresh banana fruit will be a great support for farmers to optimize harvesting phase which helps to avoid harvesting either under-matured or over-matured banana. This study attempted to use image processing technique to detect the maturity stage of fresh banana fruit by its color and size value of their images precisely. A total of 120 images comprising 40 images from each stage such as under-mature, mature and over-mature were used for developing algorithm and accuracy prediction. The mean color intensity from histogram; area, perimeter, major axis length and minor axis length from the size values, were extracted from the calibration images. Analysis of variance between each maturity stage on these features indicated that the mean color intensity and area features were more significant in predicting the maturity of banana fruit. Hence, two classifier algorithms namely, mean color intensity algorithm and area algorithm were developed and their accuracy on maturity detection was assessed. The mean color intensity algorithm showed 99.1 % accuracy in classifying the banana fruit maturity. The area algorithm classified the under-mature fruit at 85 % accuracy. Hence the maturity assessment technique proposed in this paper could be used commercially to develop a field based complete automatic detection system to take decision on the right time of harvest by the banana growers. PMID:25745200

  18. On the maturation rate of the neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, G; Shohat, M; Polliack, A

    1984-05-01

    Fifty-three maturing bone marrow cells of the granulocyte cell series stained with Giemsa stain and magnified 1,000 times were scanned by a "computerized microscope" consisting of a LSI-11/23 microprocessor and a black-and-white video camera attached to a "frame grabber ." Each sampled cell was digitized into 70 X 70 pixels, each pixel representing 0.04 micron of the real image. The pixel gray values ranged between 0 and 255. Zero stood for white, 255 represented black, while the numbers in between stood for the various shades of gray. The cells represented six different stages of granulocytic maturation: myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte , band form, and polymorphonuclear granulocyte. A discriminant analysis program selected 19 features best distinguishing between the six different cell types and computed five canonical discriminant functions defining a Space in which maturation was studied. In the Space, distance between two cells serves as a measure of similarity. The closer two cells are, the more similar they are and vice versa. This measure was applied here to express the degree of similarity between the neutrophil maturation classes, and since they represent states in the neutrophil life history, it is applicable also as a yardstick for the quantitation of differentiation. In the Space, the life history of a cell is represented by a trajectory originating in the myeloblast and terminating in the granulocyte state. Displacement along the trajectory represents cell maturation that is expressed relatively to the least differentiated state of the myeloblast. The further a cell from this state the more mature it is. The same yardstick also serves for differentiation rate estimates represented in the Space by displacement velocities that are derived from the known "transit times" of a cell in each state. The methodology is also applied for cell production estimates. Unlike other "computerized microscopes" serving for cell classification, the

  19. Digestive capacity in weanling and mature horses.

    PubMed

    Earing, J E; Lawrence, L M; Hayes, S H; Brummer, M; Vanzant, E

    2013-05-01

    The ability of young and mature horses to digest DM, OM, and NDF was compared using 6 weanling colts and 6 mature (13.2 ± 3.0 yr) geldings. Each colt was paired with a gelding, and the pair was adapted to a diet containing 67% alfalfa cubes and 33% concentrate for 21 d. During the adaptation period, horses were accustomed to housing and all handling procedures. The adaptation period was also used to adjust the amount of feed offered to minimize orts and to maintain similar rates of intake within a pair. After the adaptation period, a 5-d fecal collection period using fecal collection harnesses ensued. The average age of the weanling colts at the start of the 5-d collection period was 181.8 ± 2.9 d. On the morning of the first collection day, Co-EDTA (9 mg Co/kg BW(0.75)) and ytterbium-labeled hay fiber (9 mg Yb/kg BW(0.75)) were added to the concentrate portion of the diet, and horses were closely observed for complete consumption of the markers before additional feed was offered. The fecal collection bags were emptied every 1 to 2 h, and each collection was weighed and subsampled for later measurement of Co and Yb concentrations, which were used to determine the mean retention time (MRT) of the fluid and particulate phases of digesta, respectively. The remaining feces for each horse were composited each day and then subsampled for measurement of DM digestibility (DMD), NDF digestibility (NDFD), and OM digestibility (OMD). During the fecal collection period, DMI was similar between colts and geldings (91.4 and 91.2 g/kg BW(0.75), respectively). There were no differences between colts and mature geldings for DMD, OMD, or NDFD. Across both ages, the MRT of the particulate phase was 24.9 h compared with 21.8 h for the fluid phase (P = 0.002). However, MRT for the particulate phase was not different between colts and mature geldings (24.7 and 25.2 h, respectively). There was no difference in the MRT for the fluid phase between colts and mature geldings (21.5 and 22

  20. Remotely sensing wheat maturation with radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering properties of wheat were studied in the 8-18 GHz band as a function of frequency, polarization, incidence angle, and crop maturity. Supporting ground truth was collected at the time of measurement. The data indicate that the radar backscattering coefficient is sensitive to both radar system parameters and crop characteristics particularly at incidence angles near nadir. Linear regression analyses of the radar backscattering coefficient on both time and plant moisture content result in rather good correlation. Furthermore, by calculating the average time rate of change of the radar backscattering coefficient it is found that it undergoes rapid variations shortly before and after the wheat is harvested. Both of these analyses suggest methods for estimating wheat maturity and for monitoring the progress of harvest.

  1. Miniature Neurotransmission Regulates Drosophila Synaptic Structural Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ben Jiwon; Imlach, Wendy L.; Jiao, Wei; Wolfram, Verena; Wu, Ying; Grbic, Mark; Cela, Carolina; Baines, Richard A.; Nitabach, Michael N.; McCabe, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Miniature neurotransmission is the transsynaptic process where single synaptic vesicles spontaneously released from presynaptic neurons induce miniature postsynaptic potentials. Since their discovery over 60 years ago, miniature events have been found at every chemical synapse studied. However, the in vivo necessity for these small-amplitude events has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that miniature neurotransmission is required for the normal structural maturation of Drosophila glutamatergic synapses in a developmental role that is not shared by evoked neurotransmission. Conversely, we find that increasing miniature events is sufficient to induce synaptic terminal growth. We show that miniature neurotransmission acts locally at terminals to regulate synapse maturation via a Trio guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and Rac1 GTPase molecular signaling pathway. Our results establish that miniature neurotransmission, a universal but often-overlooked feature of synapses, has unique and essential functions in vivo. PMID:24811381

  2. Visualizing Antibody Affinity Maturation in Germinal Centers

    PubMed Central

    Tas, Jeroen M.J.; Mesin, Luka; Pasqual, Giulia; Targ, Sasha; Jacobsen, Johanne T.; Mano, Yasuko M.; Chen, Casie S.; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Browne, Edward P.; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Victora, Gabriel D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies somatically mutate to attain high affinity in germinal centers (GCs). There, competition between B cell clones and among somatic mutants of each clone drives an increase in average affinity across the population. The extent to which higher-affinity cells eliminating competitors restricts clonal diversity is unknown. By combining multiphoton microscopy and sequencing, we show that tens to hundreds of distinct B cell clones seed each GC, and that GCs lose clonal diversity at widely disparate rates. Furthermore, efficient affinity maturation can occur in the absence of homogenizing selection, ensuring that many clones can mature in parallel within the same GC. Our findings have implications for development of vaccines in which antibodies with non-immunodominant specificities must be elicited, as is the case for HIV-1 and influenza. PMID:26912368

  3. Dimethoate modifies enhanced UV-B effects on growth, photosynthesis and oxidative stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings: implication of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Samiksha; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-11-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate implication of salicylic acid (SA) in regulation of dimethoate (30 and 150 ppm designated as D1 and D2, respectively) and enhanced UV-B radiation (ambient + supplemental; ambient + 4.0 kJ m(-2) and ambient + 8.0 kJ m(-2), designated as UV-B1 and UV-B2, respectively) induced responses in mung bean seedlings. Seeds of Vigna radiata L. cv. Narendra 1 were surface sterilized, washed thoroughly and soaked for 24 h in sterilized distilled water. Soaked seeds were sown in acid washed sterilized sand filled in plastic trays, and incubated in dark at 26 ± 2 °C for 2 days. The seedlings were grown in growth chamber at 26 ± 2 °C with 12 h photoperiod (350 µmol photons m(-2 )s(-1), PAR) and watered regularly. Six day old seedlings of equal size were gently transferred in 0.2 strength Rorison nutrient medium (pH 6.8) for acclimatization. Thereafter, dimethoate (30 and 150 ppm designated as D1 and D2, respectively) and enhanced UV-B radiation treatments were given. On the 12th day, seedlings of each set were harvested and various parameters related to growth, pigments, photosynthesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant system were analyzed. The D2 dose of dimethoate and UV-B1 and UV-B2 alone and together significantly (P < 0.05) declined growth, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthesis (Fv/Fm and qP except NPQ) which were accompanied by significant decrease in SA level. Similarly, D2 and UV-B also enhanced (P < 0.05) accumulation of reactive oxygen species and concomitantly damaging effects on lipids, proteins and membrane stability were observed. In contrast, in SA-pretreated seedlings damaging impacts of D2, UV-B1 and UV-B2 alone and together were significantly (P < 0.05) alleviated. Besides this, interestingly D1 dose of dimethoate alone had stimulatory effect on growth and it also ameliorated damaging effects of both the doses of UV-B. The activity of superoxide dismutase was

  4. Maturation of the Human Papillomavirus 16 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Cardone, Giovanni; Moyer, Adam L.; Cheng, Naiqian; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Dvoretzky, Israel; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Buck, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Papillomaviruses are a family of nonenveloped DNA viruses that infect the skin or mucosa of their vertebrate hosts. The viral life cycle is closely tied to the differentiation of infected keratinocytes. Papillomavirus virions are released into the environment through a process known as desquamation, in which keratinocytes lose structural integrity prior to being shed from the surface of the skin. During this process, virions are exposed to an increasingly oxidative environment, leading to their stabilization through the formation of disulfide cross-links between neighboring molecules of the major capsid protein, L1. We used time-lapse cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis to study the maturation of HPV16 capsids assembled in mammalian cells and exposed to an oxidizing environment after cell lysis. Initially, the virion is a loosely connected procapsid that, under in vitro conditions, condenses over several hours into the more familiar 60-nm-diameter papillomavirus capsid. In this process, the procapsid shrinks by ~5% in diameter, its pentameric capsomers change in structure (most markedly in the axial region), and the interaction surfaces between adjacent capsomers are consolidated. A C175S mutant that cannot achieve normal inter-L1 disulfide cross-links shows maturation-related shrinkage but does not achieve the fully condensed 60-nm form. Pseudoatomic modeling based on a 9-Å resolution reconstruction of fully mature capsids revealed C-terminal disulfide-stabilized “suspended bridges” that form intercapsomeric cross-links. The data suggest a model in which procapsids exist in a range of dynamic intermediates that can be locked into increasingly mature configurations by disulfide cross-linking, possibly through a Brownian ratchet mechanism. PMID:25096873

  5. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  6. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  7. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  8. Epigenetic mechanisms in pubertal brain maturation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Rodgers, Ali B.; Morgan, Christopher P.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which the reemergence of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion from the hypothalamus triggers a cascade of hormone-dependent processes. Maturation of specific brain regions including the prefrontal cortex occurs during this window, but the complex mechanisms underlying these dynamic changes are not well understood. Particularly, the potential involvement of epigenetics in this programming has been under-examined. The epigenome is known to guide earlier stages of development, and it is similarly poised to regulate vital pubertal-driven brain maturation. Further, as epigenetic machinery is highly environmentally responsive, its involvement may also lend this period of growth to greater vulnerability to external insults, resulting in reprogramming and increased disease risk. Importantly, neuropsychiatric diseases commonly present in individuals during or immediately following puberty, and environmental perturbations including stress may precipitate disease onset by disrupting the normal trajectory of pubertal brain development via epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we discuss epigenetic processes involved in pubertal brain maturation, the potential points of derailment, and the importance of future studies for understanding this dynamic developmental window and gaining a better understanding of neuropsychiatric disease risk. PMID:24239720

  9. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  10. Maturation modeling in Otway Basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Falvey, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Otway basin is a Jurassic to Pliocene sedimentary basin formed on the southern Australian continental margin. Its formation is associated with rifting and breakup of the Australian and Antarctic plates. Lithospheric cooling and contraction have probably produced post-breakup subsidence. Either lithospheric stretching or deep crustal metamorphism may have produced pre-breakup subsidence. These mechanisms have identifiable thermal histories. Organic diagenesis (specifically the reflectance of vitrinite in oil) is empirically determined by the thermal and depositional history of an organic sediment. Thus, the stages of hydrocarbon maturity of Otway basin sediments can be modeled. Depositional history is determined from ''geohistory analysis'' and thermal history depends on the subsidence mechanism applied to the basin. A paleo-heat-flow history derived from the deep crustal metamorphism model of subsidence produces a maturation profile with depth that is consistent with observed vitrinite reflectance data, although organic diagenesis modeling is relatively insensitive to precise details of thermal history. Depositional and maturation history modeling for the present day, 20 Ma ago, 40 Ma ago, and 60 Ma ago is applied to a seismic profile across the southern Australian continental shelf in the Otway basin as a demonstration of the projection backward in time of sedimentation and organic diagenesis.

  11. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimir; Sakakibara, Yogo; Brzakova, Adela; Ferencova, Ivana; Motlik, Jan; Kitajima, Tomoya S; Schultz, Richard M; Solc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Because low levels of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) appear not to activate the ATM-mediated prophase I checkpoint in full-grown oocytes, there may exist mechanisms to protect chromosome integrity during meiotic maturation. Using live imaging we demonstrate that low levels of DSBs induced by the radiomimetic drug Neocarzinostatin (NCS) increase the incidence of chromosome fragments and lagging chromosomes but do not lead to APC/C activation and anaphase onset delay. The number of DSBs, represented by γH2AX foci, significantly decreases between prophase I and metaphase II in both control and NCS-treated oocytes. Transient treatment with NCS increases >2-fold the number of DSBs in prophase I oocytes, but less than 30% of these oocytes enter anaphase with segregation errors. MRE11, but not ATM, is essential to detect DSBs in prophase I and is involved in H2AX phosphorylation during metaphase I. Inhibiting MRE11 by mirin during meiotic maturation results in anaphase bridges and also increases the number of γH2AX foci in metaphase II.  Compromised DNA integrity in mirin-treated oocytes indicates a role for MRE11 in chromosome integrity during meiotic maturation. PMID:26745237

  12. Decelerating Mature Adipocyte Dedifferentiation by Media Composition.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Kluger, Petra J

    2015-12-01

    The establishment of adipose tissue test systems is still a major challenge in the investigation of cellular and molecular interactions responsible for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases involving adipose tissue. Mature adipocytes are mainly involved in these pathologies, but rarely used in vitro, due to the lack of an appropriate culture medium which inhibits dedifferentiation and maintains adipocyte functionality. In our study, we showed that Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium/Ham's F-12 with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) reported for the culture of mature adipocytes favors dedifferentiation, which was accompanied by a high glycerol release, a decreasing release of leptin, and a low expression of the adipocyte marker perilipin A, but high expression of CD73 after 21 days. Optimized media containing FCS, biotin, pantothenate, insulin, and dexamethasone decelerated the dedifferentiation process. These cells showed a lower lipolysis rate, a high level of leptin release, as well as a high expression of perilipin A. CD73-positive dedifferentiated fat cells were only found in low quantity. In this work, we showed that mature adipocytes when cultured under optimized conditions could be highly valuable for adipose tissue engineering in vitro. PMID:26228997

  13. Conformational maturation of measles virus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gombart, A F; Hirano, A; Wong, T C

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained a polyclonal antiserum, N-BE, against the denatured, amino-terminal half of the measles virus (MV) nucleocapsid (N) protein and a monoclonal antibody (MAb), N46, which recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope in the same region. Amino acid residues 23 to 239 were required and sufficient for the formation of the conformational epitope. Using these antibodies, we show that the N protein of MV is synthesized as a relatively unfolded protein which first appears in the free-protein pool. This nascent N protein undergoes a conformational change into a more folded mature form. This change does not require the participation of other viral proteins or genomic RNA. The mature N protein does not accumulate in the free-protein pool but is quickly and selectively incorporated into the viral nucleocapsids. The mature N protein is a target for interaction with the phosphoprotein (P protein) of MV. This interaction interferes with the recognition of the N protein by the N46 MAb. This suggests that the association with the P protein may mask the binding site for the N46 MAb or that it induces a conformational change in the N protein. Images PMID:7685410

  14. Technology Maturation of Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Uckun, Serdar; Hicks, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite two decades of significant investments in R&D of Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), mission-critical applications of it in aerospace are few and far between. ISHM is subject to the general difficulty of transitioning technologies out of R&D labs and into practical applications. New and unproven methods such as ISHM introduce multiple mission risks (technology, schedule, cost), and may require a transition to unconventional and as-yet-unproven operations concepts in order to be effective. Laboratory and flight demonstrations are necessary but insufficient to adequately reduce those risks. What is needed is a solid business case before a new technology can be considered for fleetwide deployment. To address these problems, we recently applied a technology maturation assessment process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study the challenges of ISHM technology maturation. This application resulted in identification of the technologies (and technology maturation activities) that would result in the greatest risk reduction per investment dollar. Our approach and its results are described herein.

  15. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  16. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains.

    PubMed

    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  17. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed.

  18. Diurnal patterns of photosynthetic response to elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply in Pinus taeda seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Griffin, K.L.; Thomas, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    We examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply on diurnal patterns of photosynthesis in 22-week old Pinus taeda seedlings. Seedlings were grown at either 35 Pa or 70 Pa CO{sub 2} and with an adequate or limiting supply of nitrogen. Photosynthetic capacity (assimilation versus internal CO{sub 2} curves) was measured at 1030, 1200, 1330, 1500 and 1630 h. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly increased photosynthesis, but significantly reduced rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity. Limiting nitrogen supply significantly reduced photosynthesis, rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity. Photosynthetic capacity declined significantly between 1030 and 1630. There were no interactions between CO{sub 2} supply, nitrogen supply and time of measurement. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces photosynthetic capacity in Pinus taeda, but does not affect diurnal patterns of photosynthesis.

  19. 7 CFR 51.1555 - Fairly well matured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1555 Fairly well matured. Fairly well matured means that the skins of the potatoes are generally fairly firmly set and not more than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1555 - Fairly well matured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1555 Fairly well matured. Fairly well matured means that the skins of the potatoes are generally fairly firmly set and not more than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the...